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1

In vitro shoot culture and antimicrobial activity of Berberis buxifolia Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberis buxifolia Lam., known as “Calafate”, is a plant native to Argentina that exhibits antimicrobial activity. This biological activity\\u000a is attributed to the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine. The aim of this research was to test the antimicrobial properties of\\u000a different extracts of this species, taking berberine as the reference molecule, and to examine if the expression of bacterial\\u000a multidrug resistance (MDR)

Sandra I. Pitta-Alvarez; Fabricio Medina-Bolivar; María A. Alvarez; Agustina A. Scambatto; Patricia L. Marconi

2008-01-01

2

Cyclopeptide alkaloids of Scutia buxifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new peptide alkaloids, scutianines-K and -L were isolated from Scutia buxifolia, a plant growing in Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Their structures have been determined on the basis of spectroscopic studies. The stereochemistry of the N,N-dimethyl amino acid side-chain and the ring amino acid residues in both alkaloids have been assigned by gas chromatography employing modified cyclodextrins as chiral stationary

Ademir F. Morel; Emilia C. S. Machado; Jane J. Moreira; Antonio S. Menezes; Marco A. Mostardeiro; Nilo Zanatta; Ludger A. Wessjohann

1998-01-01

3

The berberis story: Berberis vulgaris in therapeutics.  

PubMed

Barberry has played a prominent role in herbal healing for more than 2,500 years. Berberis vulgaris is a common garden bush, native to Europe and the British Isles, naturalized in North America, seems to have history as old as human race. Anthropologists believe in a ritual practice or sacred object, especially by Native Americans that it works as a supernatural power or as preventive or remedy of illness. It is a deciduous shrub having yellow flowers and scarlet colored fruit in the form of berries. Twenty two alkaloids have been reported so far from root, stem leaves and fruit of this plant, which are of medicinal importance. As a herbal remedy it has no match in serving human race since ancient times. It is the most widely used drug in Homeopathic system of medicine for kidney pain and for removal of kidney stones. In this article, we present countless blessings of nature encountered through this herb which are worthy of recording. PMID:17337435

Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Bahadur, Saima Sher

2007-01-01

4

Cyclopeptide alkaloids from Scutia buxifolia Reiss.  

PubMed

Scutianene E (1), 3,4,28-tris-epi-scutiaene E (2), 28-epi-scutianene E (3) and scutianene L (4), four neutral cyclopeptide alkaloids, were isolated from Scutia buxifolia Reiss, together with four known cyclopeptide alkaloids, scutianines B, C, D and E. Scutianenes 1-3 are diastereoisomeric compounds, with 3-hydroxyleucine as a ?-hydroxy amino acid unit, which is connected to the styryl fragment via an ether bridge, ?-phenylserine, as a common ring-bonded amino acid residue. Attached to the amino group of ?-hydroxyamino acid is a side chain [trans-CH=CH-Ph]. The structures of the peptides were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis, including extensive 2D NMR studies. The stereochemistry for the diastereomeric 3,4,28-tris-epi-scutiaene E and 28-epi-scutianene E was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis of their O-acetyl derivatives. PMID:21420695

Maldaner, Graciela; Marangon, Patricia; Ilha, Vinicius; Caro, Miguel S Balparda; Burrow, Robert A; Dalcol, Ionara Irion; Morel, Ademir F

2011-06-01

5

LAM Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... in the article. LAM Cells Are Addicted to Glutamine May 9, 2013 LAM Foundation-funded scientists Alfredo ... LAM, directly stimulates the uptake and metabolism of glutamine, the most abundant amino acid in the body. ...

6

Antibacterial cyclopeptide alkaloids from the bark of Condalia buxifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclopeptide alkaloid, named condaline-A, was isolated from the root bark of Condalia buxifolia Reissek (Rhamnaceae), along with the known compounds adouetine-Y?, scutianine-B, and scutianine-C. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses, with their antibacterial activities being evaluated by use of a direct bioautography method.

Ademir F Morel; Carla A Araujo; Ubiratan F da Silva; Solange C. S. M Hoelzel; Renato Záchia; Nelci R Bastos

2002-01-01

7

Cyclopeptide alkaloids from Scutia buxifolia Reiss and their antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports a cyclopeptide alkaloid, scutianine M, isolated from the methanolic root bark extract of Scutia buxifolia Reiss (Rhamnaceae) along with six known compounds, scutianines-B, -C, -D, -E, -F, and scutianene D. Its structure was established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including application of 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. As part of a study of the bioactive compounds

Ademir F. Morel; Graciela Maldaner; Vinicius Ilha; Fabiana Missau; Ubiratan F. Silva; Ionara I. Dalcol

2005-01-01

8

Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species  

PubMed Central

The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species), there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation.

Mokhber-Dezfuli, Najmeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh

2014-01-01

9

Phytochemistry and pharmacology of berberis species.  

PubMed

The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species), there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation. PMID:24600191

Mokhber-Dezfuli, Najmeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh

2014-01-01

10

LAM/MPI  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

LAM/MPI is a high quality implementation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) Standard. LAM/MPI provides high performance on a variety of platforms, from small off-the-shelf single CPU clusters to large SMP machines with high speed networks, even in heterogenous environments. In addition to high performance, LAM provides a number of usability features key to developing large scale MPI applications.

Llamas, The

11

Phytochemical analysis and toxicity investigation of stem bark of Scutia buxifolia Reissek.  

PubMed

Phytochemical analysis of lyophilised aqueous extract of the stem bark of Scutia buxifolia (SBSB) was carried out by determining total phenolics (0.280 ± 0.02 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of extract), flavonoids (17.42 ± 2.95 mg of quercetin equivalents/g of extract) and tannins (1.28 ± 0.15 mg of catechin equivalents/g of extract) contents followed by a high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (HPLC/DAD) analysis. The HPLC profile showed caffeic acid, being the major constituent of SBSB (247.21 ± 2.17 mg g?¹ of extract). The antioxidant scavenging capacity of SBSB was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The antioxidant power of SBSB was comparable with that of the antioxidant ascorbic acid. Acute toxicity was assayed in rats whereas catalase activity and malondialdehyde production were determined in rats' liver. The SBSB showed safety in the dose tested. This report is the first realised in animals for S. buxifolia. PMID:23163481

de Freitas, Robson Borba; da Costa Araldi, Isabel Cristina; Boligon, Aline Augusti; de Brum, Thiele Faccin; Rovani, Bruno Tomazele; Piana, Mariana; Zadra, Marina; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane

2013-01-01

12

Some physical properties of sun-dried Berberis fruit (Berberis crataegina).  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to evaluate some physical properties of sun dried Berberis fruit as a function of moisture content, varying from 9.59% to 27.90% (w.b.). Dried fruit length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter and sphericity, increased nonlinearly from 7.19 to 7.53 mm; 3.42 to 4.03 mm; 2.78 to 3.02 mm; 4.05 to 4.51 mm and 0.56 to 0.62, respectively with increased moisture content. When we tested 1000-dried fruits, their mass increased linearly from 3.10 to 4.89 g, the true and bulk density increased nonlinearly from 769 to 845 kg m(-3) and 389 to 395 kg m(-3), respectively; with increased moisture content. Also, porosity values of dried fruits increased nonlinearly from 49.40% to 53.30%. The lowest static coefficient of friction was found on the steel surface. The angle of repose increased nonlinearly from 20.14° to 23.20° with the increasing in the moisture content. PMID:24426054

I??kl?, Nursel Develi; Y?lmaz, Ilkay

2014-01-01

13

Structure, diversity, and regeneration potential of Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) A. DC. dominated forests of Lower Dir District, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the multivariate analysis of the vegetation of Hindukush Range in Pakistan, concentrating on the structure\\u000a and regeneration potential of Monotheca buxifolia and associated tree species. Twenty stands at different locations in the Dir District of the Hindukush Range in Pakistan\\u000a were chosen for the study. A point centered quarter method for trees and 5m × 5m

Nasrullah Khan; Moinuddin Ahmed; Syed Shahid Shaukat; Muhammad Wahab; Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui

2011-01-01

14

Estimation of berberine in ayurvedic formulations containing Berberis aristata.  

PubMed

A sensitive, simple, rapid, and efficient high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed and validated for the analysis of berberine in marketed Ayurvedic formulations containing Berberis aristata DC for regulatory purposes. Chromatography of methanolic extracts of these formulations was performed on silica gel 60 F254 aluminum-backed TLC plates of 0.2 mm layer thickness. The plate was developed up to 66 mm with the ternary-mobile phase butanol-acetic acid-water (8 + 1 + 1, v/v/v) at 33 +/- 5 degrees C with 5 min of tank saturation. The marker, berberine, was quantified at its maximum absorbance of 350 nm. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation values were found to be 5 and 10 ng/spot. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed a good linear relationship with correlation coefficient = 0.9994 in the concentration range of 10 to 50 ng/spot for berberine with respect to peak area. The instrumental precision was found to be 0.49% coefficient of variation (CV), and repeatability of the method was 0.73% CV. Recovery values from 98.27 to 99.11% indicate excellent accuracy of the method. The developed HPTLC method is very accurate, precise, and cost-effective, and it has been successfully applied to the assay of marketed formulations containing B. aristata for determination of berberine. PMID:18980133

Rout, Kedar Kumar; Pradhan, Subhalaxmi; Mishra, Sagar Kumar

2008-01-01

15

Detailed pharmacognostical studies on Berberis aristata DC plant  

PubMed Central

Background: Berberis aristata DC (Berberidaceae) commonly known in Hindi as “D?ruhaldi” and “Citra,” is an important medicinal herb native to Northern Himalaya region. The plant is used traditionally in Indian system of medicine as an antibacterial, antiperiodic, antidiarrheal and anticancer and it is also used in the treatment of ophthalmic infections. Its root, stem and leaves also find their use in treatment of various ailments and hence is used extensively in Ayurveda. Materials and Methods: Samples of the whole plants of B. aristata were collected and identified. Hand and microtome sections were taken, stained and mounted and the cell content and cell wall structure were studied according to the method described by Kay and Johansen. Representative sketches were made with the help of camera Lucida. Methods for determining the quantitative values were the same as described elsewhere. For fluorescence analysis, the powder of the root, stem and leaf were examined under ultraviolet light. Total ash, acid insoluble ash and water-soluble ash values and water- and alcohol-soluble extractives were determined. Results: The detailed investigations carried on the pharmacognosy of the root; stem and leaf of B. aristata have brought out some salient diagnostic features, which allow one to differentiate it from other substitutes and or adulterants. The determination of quantitative values, fluorescence analysis and the use of lycopodium spore analysis has specifically contributed to this differentiation. Conclusion: From the foregoing observation on the pharmacognosy of root, stem and leaf of B. aristata DC, the salient diagnostic characters of three parts have been presented, which can allow one to differentiate it from other substitutes and or adulterants.

Rathi, Bhawana; Sahu, Juhi; Koul, Sameksha; Kosha, R. L.

2013-01-01

16

Blue sensitizers for solar cells: Natural dyes from Calafate and Jaboticaba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue-violet anthocyanins from Jaboticaba (Myrtus cauliflora Mart) and Calafate (Berberies buxifolia Lam) were employed as TiO2 dye-sensitizers. Solar cells sensitized by Jaboticaba extracts achieved up to Jsc=9.0mAcm?2, Voc=0.59V, Pmax=1.9mWcm?2 and ff=0.54, while for Calafate sensitized cells the values determined were up to Jsc=6.2mAcm?2, Voc=0.47V, Pmax=1.1mWcm?2 and ff=0.36. Other natural dyes were evaluated without significant photocurrent, demonstrating that only selected extracts

André Sarto Polo; Neyde Yukie Murakami Iha

2006-01-01

17

Croatian barberry ( Berberis croatica Horvat): a new source of berberine—analysis and antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using HPLC\\/UV–VIS, Croatian barberry (Berberis croatica Horvat) was found to be a new source of the bioactive alkaloid berberine. Comparison of berberine content in roots, leaves,\\u000a and twigs between wild specimens of B. croatica and B. vulgaris collected in Croatia showed that the roots of both species contained the highest berberine content (B. croatica 1.120–1.217%; B. vulgaris 0.805–1.424%), followed by twigs (B. croatica

Ivan Kosalec; Barbara Gregurek; Dario Kremer; Marijana Zovko; Krešimir Sankovi?; Ksenija Karlovi?

2009-01-01

18

Berberis Fruit Extract and Biochemical Parameters in Patients With Type II Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common medical problem. There is in fact a growing body of literature on plants used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant materials attracted considerable interest of scientists. In this respect, in the past few years, attempts were made to use natural plant products for the treatment of patients with diabetes. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Berberis fruit extract to achieve glycemic control in patients with Type II diabetes. Materials and Methods: This study was performed between July 2010 and April 2013. Thirty patients of type II diabetes admitted to Ayatollah Rohhani hospital were recruited. Patients’ sera were collected for the assessment of glucose and HbA1c values. Biochemical analyses were performed before and after treatment by Berberis fruit extract. Biochemical parameters were measured by spectrophotometric method (Jenway uv/vis, 6505 model, Dunmow, UK). Glucose level was measured by glucose oxidase method kit (Pars Azmoon, Tehran, IR Iran). Serum total cholesterol and triglycerides were measured using standard biochemical kits (Pars Azmoon, Tehran, Iran). Blood glycated hemoglobin level was measured by using Elisa kit (Bioassay technology laboratory, Elisa kit). Experiments were performed in triplicate in at least three separate experiments. Results: Our findings demonstrated that patients with type 2 diabetes who received barberry fruit had significant reduction in serum glucose to 136.15 ± 32.8 mg/dL and decreased HbA1c levels to 7.07 ± 1.21 mg/dL, during the 8 weeks of study. Conclusions: This investigation revealed that Berberis fruit extract has beneficial metabolic effects in patients with type II diabetes. Barberry may improve glucose catabolism via glycolysis pathway, stimulate insulin secretion or improve insulin function and finally decrease glucose uptake. Our results indicated that Berberis fruit regulates glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Moazezi, Zolikha; Qujeq, Durdi

2014-01-01

19

Universal Plant DNA Barcode Loci May Not Work in Complex Groups: A Case Study with Indian Berberis Species  

PubMed Central

Background The concept of DNA barcoding for species identification has gained considerable momentum in animals because of fairly successful species identification using cytochrome oxidase I (COI). In plants, matK and rbcL have been proposed as standard barcodes. However, barcoding in complex genera is a challenging task. Methodology and Principal Findings We investigated the species discriminatory power of four reportedly most promising plant DNA barcoding loci (one from nuclear genome- ITS, and three from plastid genome- trnH-psbA, rbcL and matK) in species of Indian Berberis L. (Berberidaceae) and two other genera, Ficus L. (Moraceae) and Gossypium L. (Malvaceae). Berberis species were delineated using morphological characters. These characters resulted in a well resolved species tree. Applying both nucleotide distance and nucleotide character-based approaches, we found that none of the loci, either singly or in combinations, could discriminate the species of Berberis. ITS resolved all the tested species of Ficus and Gossypium and trnH-psbA resolved 82% of the tested species in Ficus. The highly regarded matK and rbcL could not resolve all the species. Finally, we employed amplified fragment length polymorphism test in species of Berberis to determine their relationships. Using ten primer pair combinations in AFLP, the data demonstrated incomplete species resolution. Further, AFLP analysis showed that there was a tendency of the Berberis accessions to cluster according to their geographic origin rather than species affiliation. Conclusions/Significance We reconfirm the earlier reports that the concept of universal barcode in plants may not work in a number of genera. Our results also suggest that the matK and rbcL, recommended as universal barcode loci for plants, may not work in all the genera of land plants. Morphological, geographical and molecular data analyses of Indian species of Berberis suggest probable reticulate evolution and thus barcode markers may not work in this case.

Roy, Sribash; Tyagi, Antariksh; Shukla, Virendra; Kumar, Anil; Singh, Uma M.; Chaudhary, Lal Babu; Datt, Bhaskar; Bag, Sumit K.; Singh, Pradhyumna K.; Nair, Narayanan K.; Husain, Tariq; Tuli, Rakesh

2010-01-01

20

Lessons from LAMS for IMS Learning Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

LAMS (the Learning Activity Management System) is a Learning Design system with a particular focus on sequencing of collaborative learning activities. This paper reviews a number of lessons learned from the development of LAMS, and their implications for both the existing IMS Learning Design specification, and its future scope and purpose. It proposes a number of areas for further development.

James Roland Dalziel

2006-01-01

21

Aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root improves renal dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: Barberry root extract contains various alkaloids that are considered as antioxidants. Beneficial effect of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root (AEBIR) was evaluated for renal function in diabetic rats induced by STZ. Material and Methods: Diabetes was induced by i.p. injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg bw) to rats, after 15 h of fasting. Diabetic rats were randomly grouped and treated daily with AEBIR and glibenclamide by gavage for 42 days. After 6 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and some biochemical parameters of serum and urine were measured and their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy. Results: Streptozotocin induced a significant rise in fasting blood glucose, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urine glucose, urine protein, urine albumin, and water intake and a significant decrease in body weight, serum protein, urine urea, and urine creatinine. There was a significant restoration of these parameters to near normal after administration of the AEBIR and also by glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg bw). The activity of the extract at dose of 500 mg/kg in all parameters except blood glucose and urine glucose was more than that of the standard drug, glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg, p.o.). Histopathological changes of kidney samples were comparable with respective control. Conclusion: These results suggested that aqueous extract of Berberis Integerrima root improves renal dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through controlling blood glucose and renal protective effects.

Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid; Ilkhanipoor, Minoo

2013-01-01

22

Effects of Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Root on Some Physiological Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder. Anti-diabetic agents from natural and synthetic sources are available for the treatment of this disease. Berberis integerrima is a medicinal shrub used in conventional therapy for a number of diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root (AEBI) on some physiological parameters in normal and streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced) diabetic male Wistar rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), creatinine (Cr), urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin while body weight, high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein levels were significantly decreased compared to normal rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with different doses of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root (250 and 500 mg/Kg bw) resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, creatinine and urea while HDL-cholesterol and total protein levels were markedly increased after six weeks compared to untreated diabetic rats. The effects of the AEBI at dose of 500 mg/Kg in all parameters except blood glucose (similar) is more than to the standard drug, glibenclamide (0.6 mg/Kg, p.o.). The results of this study indicate that the tested aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root possesses hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid; Ilkhanipoor, Minoo

2013-01-01

23

Targeting Estrogen-Induced COX-2 Activity in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive neoplastic disorder that leads to lung destruction and respiratory failure primarily in women. LAM is typically due to TSC2 mutations resulting in mTORC1 activation in proliferative smooth muscle-like cells ...

J. Yu

2013-01-01

24

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of LAM?  

MedlinePLUS

... Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders How the Lungs Work Lung Function Tests Chest ... breathe). Other signs and symptoms of LAM include: Pneumothorax , or collapsed lung. In LAM, a pneumothorax can ...

25

Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) fruits and other native berries from Southern Chile.  

PubMed

Calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) is a native berry grown in the Patagonian area of Chile and Argentina. In the present study the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied and also compared with data obtained for other berry fruits from southern Chile including maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murtilla ( Ugni molinae ). Polyphenolic compounds in calafate fruit were essentially present in glycosylated form, 3-glucoside conjugates being the most abundant anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content in calafate berries (17.81 +/- 0.98 micromol g(-1)) and flavonol level (0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1)) are comparable with those found in maqui (17.88 +/- 1.15 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1), respectively); however, maqui shows lower flavan-3-ol concentration than calafate (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1), respectively). Maqui and calafate show high antioxidant activity, which correlates highly with total polyphenol content and with anthocyanin concentration. PMID:20438111

Ruiz, Antonieta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Herlitz, Erika; Vega, Mario; Dorau, Carolin; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

2010-05-26

26

Antihistaminic and anticholinergic activity of barberry fruit (Berberis vulgaris) in the guinea-pig ileum.  

PubMed

Barberry (Berberis vulgaris) is a well known medicinal plant in Iran and has also been used as food. The antihistaminic and anticholinergic activity of aqueous extract of barberry fruits were investigated on isolated guinea-pig ileum, and dose response curves of histamine and acetylcholine with and without extract were plotted. The pA2 values for antihistaminic activity of extract and dexchlorpheniramine were calculated (extract; pA2 +/- S.E.M. = 4.50 +/- 0.01[-log C (g/l)]; dexchlorpheniramine; pA2 +/- S.E.M. = 9.36 +/- 0.14[-log C (M)]) and compared with each other. The pA2 values for anticholinergic activity of extract and atropine were also calculated (extract, pA2 +/- S.E.M. = 4.37 +/- 0.03[-log C (g/l)]; atropine, pA2 +/- S.E.M. = 8.99 +/- 0.13[-log C (M)]) and compared. The results indicated antihistaminic and anticholinergic activity of extract that seems to be of the competitive type. PMID:10197751

Shamsa, F; Ahmadiani, A; Khosrokhavar, R

1999-02-01

27

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. — An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our world harbours a rich source of medicinal plants which are used in treatment of wide range of diseases. The present review highlights the traditional uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. syn. K. pinnata (Jacq.) DC. This plant has great potential to be developed as drug by pharmaceutical industries but before recommending its use in

Sangita Saini; Harmeet Kaur; Bharat Verma; S K Singh

2009-01-01

28

Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension (LAMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spherical LAMS is magnetic syspension that provides dual functions of magnetic bearing and rotorgimbal system. Provides two degrees of angular freedom within single magnetic suspension system. Approach employs spherically-shaped magnetic-gap surfaces to achieve much-larger angular freedom than available from previous suspensions.

Oglevie, Ronald E.; Eisenhaure, David B.; Downer, James R.

1988-01-01

29

"Getting stuck with LAM": patients perspectives on living with Lymphangioleiomyomatosis  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, progressive lung disease that affects almost exclusively women and is most often diagnosed before menopause. The main symptom of LAM is shortness of breath. LAM patients’ perceptions of how the disease impacts their lives is largely unknown, but such information could be useful to generate patient reported outcome measures for use in drug trials (or other research studies) and to formulate interventions aimed at easing the burdens LAM imposes on patients. Objective To capture patients’ perceptions of how LAM affects their lives. Methods We used reflexive team analysis to analyze transcripts from semi-structured focus groups conducted with LAM patients at LAMposium 2013. We sought to determine what patients perceive as the primary symptoms of LAM and how the disease affects them in their daily lives. Results The 37 participants described seven primary symptoms of LAM and five common psychological experiences from living with the disease. Shortness of breath and low energy (or fatigue) dominated the symptomatic picture; cough, sensations in the chest, difficulty sleeping, gastrointestinal issues, and mild cognitive difficulties were less common. The common psychological experiences participants reported included frustration, worry, loss of identity, embarrassment, and in some participants, a healthy defiance against the disease. Conclusions Patients perceive the physical symptoms from LAM to be intrusive and limiting. Women living with LAM are frustrated by their physical limitations, and they worry about what the future will be like if the disease progresses. Therapeutic interventions should take aim at improving these perceptions.

2014-01-01

30

Hypoglycaemic effect of Berberis vulgaris L. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To achieve a primary pharmacological screening contained in the aqueous extract of Berberis vulgaris (B. vulgaris) and to examine the hypoglycaemic effect and biochemical parameters of aqueous and saponins extract on groups of rats rendered diabetic by injection of streptozotocin. Methods The phytochemical tests to detect the presence of different compounds were based on the visual observation of color change or formation of precipitate after the addition of specific reagents. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 65 mg/kg bw. The fasting blood glucose levels were estimated by glucose oxidase-peroxidase reactive strips (Dextrostix, Bayer Diagnostics). Blood samples were taken by cutting the tip of the tail. Serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides were estimated by enzymatic DHBS colorimetric method. Results Administration of 62.5 and 25.0 mg/kg of saponins and aqueous extract respectively in normal rats group shows a significant hypoglycemic activity (32.33% and 40.17% respectively) during the first week. However, diabetic group treated with saponin extract produced a maximum fall of 73.1% and 76.03% at day 1 and day 21 compared to the diabetics control. Also, blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract showed decrease of 78.79% on the first day and the effect remains roughly constant during 3 week. Both extracts also declined significantly biochemical parameters (20.77%-49.00%). The control in the loss of body weight was observed in treated diabetic rats as compared to diabetic controls. Conclusions These results demonstrated significant antidiabetic effects and showed that serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were decreased, significantly, consequently this plant might be of value in diabetes treatment.

Meliani, Nawel; Dib, Mohamed El Amine; Allali, Hocine; Tabti, Boufeldja

2011-01-01

31

75 FR 76952 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer Fabrication Equipment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer Fabrication...manufacturing and distribution facilities of Lam Research Corporation, located in Fremont...fabrication equipment at the facilities of Lam Research Corporation, located in...

2010-12-10

32

Hepatoprotective Effects of Berberis vulgaris L. Extract/? Cyclodextrin on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Toxicity in Mice  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the capacity of formulated Berberis vulgaris extract/?-cyclodextrin to protect liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Formulated and non-formulated extracts were given orally (50 mg/kg/day) to mice for 7 days and were then intra-peritoneally injected with 1.0 mL/kg CCl4 on the 8th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration, an increase in the levels of apartate-amino-transferase (AST), alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was found and a significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) levels could be detected. This was accompanied by extended centrilobular necrosis, steatosis, fibrosis and an altered ultrastructure of hepatocytes. Pre-treatment with formulated or non-formulated extract suppressed the increase in ALT, AST and MDA levels and restored the level of antioxidant enzymes at normal values. Histopathological and electron-microscopic examination showed milder liver damage in both pre-treated groups and the protective effect was more pronounced after the formulated extract was administered. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation induced by CCl4 was reduced in the group which received non-formulated extract and absent in the group which received formulated extract. Taken together, our results suggest that Berberis vulgaris/?-cyclodextrin treatment prevents hepatic injury induced by CCl4 and can be considered for further nutraceutical studies.

Hermenean, Anca; Popescu, Cristina; Ardelean, Aurel; Stan, Miruna; Hadaruga, Nicoleta; Mihali, Ciprian-Valentin; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

2012-01-01

33

ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLIEFERA. LAM  

PubMed Central

The aqueous and ethanolic (90%) extract of the leaves of M.Oliera Lam (Fam: Moringaceae) were studied for their anti inflammatory action in ale albino rats. Two extracts exhibited maximum action within two hours of challenge. The aqueous extract sowed significant (P<0.01) odema suppression similar to that of Ibuprofen at the first hour of carrageenan injection. The results confirms the folkers claim of the plant.

Rao, K.N. Venkataswera; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Loganathan, V.; Nathan, S. Shanmuganathan

1999-01-01

34

Anti inflammatory activity of moringa oliefera. Lam.  

PubMed

The aqueous and ethanolic (90%) extract of the leaves of M.Oliera Lam (Fam: Moringaceae) were studied for their anti inflammatory action in ale albino rats. Two extracts exhibited maximum action within two hours of challenge. The aqueous extract sowed significant (P<0.01) odema suppression similar to that of Ibuprofen at the first hour of carrageenan injection. The results confirms the folkers claim of the plant. PMID:22556890

Rao, K N; Gopalakrishnan, V; Loganathan, V; Nathan, S S

1999-01-01

35

Effects of Zataria multiflora and Carum carvi essential oils and hydroalcoholic extracts of Passiflora incarnata, Berberis integerrima and Crocus sativus on rat isolated uterus contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous abortion can be a problem in pregnancy. Consumption of some plant material might be a cause, while other plant materials are being used in folk medicine for treatment of this condition. The aim of this study was to look for effects of essential oils of Zataria multiflora and Carum carvi and hydroalcoholic extracts of Passiflora incarnata, Berberies integerrima and

Hassan Sadraei; Alireza Ghannadi; Maryam Takei-bavani

2003-01-01

36

Progress Report of Laser Advanced Material (LAM) group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of LAM group's research is the development of laser and spectroscopic systems by using advanced materials and coherent quantum beams; extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and terahertz (THz) waves. In this report, we present a summary of recent progress in our LAM researches. One of our projects is the investigation of light emission properties of advanced materials proved by EUV

Nobuhiko Sarukura

37

An antitumor promoter from Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of studies on the isolation of bioactive compounds from Philippine plants, the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. were examined and from the ethanol extract were isolated the new O-ethyl-4-(?-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl carbamate (1) together with seven known compounds, 4(?-l-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2), niazimicin (3), niazirin (4), ?-sitosterol (5), glycerol-1-(9-octadecanoate) (6), 3-O-(6?-O-oleoyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)-?-sitosterol (7), and ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (8). Four of the isolates (2,

Amelia P. Guevara; Carolyn Vargas; Hiromu Sakurai; Yasuhiro Fujiwara; Keiji Hashimoto; Takashi Maoka; Mutzuo Kozuka; Yoshohiro Ito; Harukuni Tokuda; Hoyoku Nishino

1999-01-01

38

Lymphangiogenesis-Mediated Shedding of LAM Cell Clusters as a Mechanism for Dissemination in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) affects exclusively women of reproductive age, involves the lungs and axial lymphatic system, and is frequently complicated with renal angiomyolipomas. LAM lesions are generated by the proliferation of LAM cells with mutations of one of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes. Recent studies indicate that LAM cells can migrate or metastasize to form new lesions in multiple organs,

Toshio Kumasaka; Kuniaki Seyama; Keiko Mitani; Sanae Souma; Satoko Kashiwagi; Akira Hebisawa; Teruhiko Sato; Hajime Kubo; Kiyoshi Gomi; Kazutoshi Shibuya; Yoshinosuke Fukuchi; Koichi Suda

2005-01-01

39

Antileishmanial compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam.  

PubMed

The antileishmanial activity of extracts and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera Lam. was investigated in vitro against promastigotes of Leishmania donavani. The 70% ethanolic extract of roots and the methanolic extract of leaves showed moderate inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 83.0 microg/ml and 47.5 microg/ml, respectively. Antileishmanial activity of the methanolic extract of leaves increased upon fractionation, as its ethyl acetate fraction was found to be more active with an IC50 value of 27.5 microg/ml. The most active antileishmanial compound niazinin, a thiocarbamate glycoside isolated from this fraction, showed an IC50 value of 5.25 microM. Results presented in this study indicate that extracts from M. oleifera may be developed as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:24873031

Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Preet Kamal; Singh, Sushma; Singh, Inder Pal

2014-01-01

40

Modeling a Team-Based Astronomy task Using LAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation discusses modeling of a team-based astronomy task for school students using LAMS (the learning activity management system) including consideration of modeling and run-time issues, and facilities for observation, traces and adaptation

James Roland Dalziel

2006-01-01

41

Modeling a Team-Based Astronomy task Using LAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation discusses modeling of a team- based astronomy task for school students using LAMS (the Learning Activity Management System) including consideration of modeling and run-time issues, and facilities for observation, traces and adaptation.

James Roland Dalziel

2006-01-01

42

UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS SISTERED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS SISTERED TO OLDER BEAMS, NEW STRINGERS AND COMPONENTS MAKE UP A NEARLY NEW SUPPORT SYSTEM - Short Bridge, Spanning South Santiam River at High Deck Road, Cascadia, Linn County, OR

43

Classical closure theory and Lam's interpretation of epsilon-RNG  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lam's phenomenological epsilon-renormalization group (RNG) model is quite different from the other members of that group. It does not make use of the correspondence principle and the epsilon-expansion procedure. We demonstrate that Lam's epsilon-RNG model is essentially the physical space version of the classical closure theory in spectral space and consider the corresponding treatment of the eddy viscosity and energy backscatter.

Zhou, YE

1995-01-01

44

Arsenic Removal from Water Using Lignocellulose Adsorption Medium (LAM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenate in water is readily adsorbed on lignocellulose adsorption medium (LAM) which is cotton-based and has been coated with iron(III) by soaking cotton pellets in ferric chloride solution. Capacities achieved with LAM average 32.8 mg As\\/g of medium at influent arsenic concentrations ranging from 20–30 mg As\\/L. Adsorption follows (R = 0.993) a Freundlich isotherm, (x\\/M) = 22.845 Ce ,

Juyoung Kim; Justin D. Mann; Jesse G. Spencer

2006-01-01

45

LASO, LAMS and learning designs: Reflections on strategic change in digitally-enhanced learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LAMS system and learning designs can be seen as disruptive technologies or learning strategies to change pedagogical practices in Higher Education. These can also, however, operate to sustain conventional pedagogical practices. What are the critical issues when implementing institution wide learning strategies like using learning designs and LAMS to support a digitally enhanced pedagogical environment? LAMS and learning designs

Philip Uys

46

Rock Tunnelling at Lam Ta Khong Pumped Storage Project, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS The Lam Ta Khong Pumped Storage project involved construction of tunnels and shafts of various sizes (3-8 m) and depths (up to 360 m) for a total length of almost 12 km. They were excavated in siltstone, sandstone and claystone. The former was the predominant rock type which had fair to poor quality and possessed slaking behavior and was

Noppadol Phienwej; Rewat Suwannakitti; Kittisak Prapphal; Chanin Areepitak; Amarit Nitamorn

47

SOME PHARMACOGNOSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. LEAVES  

PubMed Central

The macroscopic character of the leaflets ash values extractive values by different solvent extractive behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents fluorescence characters by treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Maoringa oleifera lam (fam moringaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters, chemical group test of different extracts of the leaves were also performed.

Pal, Saroj K.; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Saha, Kakali; Pal, M.; Saha, B.P

1996-01-01

48

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.  

PubMed Central

The ethnolic extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Fam. Moringaceae) was tested for antimicrobial activities against Gram Positive – Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea: Gram negative – Escherichia coli and Acid fast Mycobacterium phlei. Significant antimicrobial activity of the extract was found in this study.

Pal, Saroj K.; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Saha, Kakali; Pal, M.; Saha, B.P.

1995-01-01

49

The Software Development Infrastructure at CeSAM-LAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pipeline and software development in Astronomy are dependent on project developments, astronomers' and engineers' skills, versatile astronomical instrument configurations and astronomers' wills. While development of projects led by international agencies are mostly well driven, other software suffer from an overall organisation in science computing development. This poster will focus on the infrastructure of the software development that has been set up at LAM.

Surace, C.; Fenouillet, T.; Apostolakos, N.; Meunier, J. C.; CeSAM Team

2012-09-01

50

Light transmission measurements with LAMS in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long optical base transmissometer (LAMS—Long Arm Marine Spectrophotometer) constructed in 2008 by NESTOR group is described. The data of the recent water transparency measurements in the NESTOR site and in the Capo Passero site in the wavelength range 378-522 nm are presented

Anassontzis, E. G.; Ball, A. E.; Belias, A.; Fotiou, A.; Grammatikakis, G.; Kontoyiannis, H.; Koske, P.; Koutsoukos, S.; Lykoussis, V.; Markopoulos, E.; Psallidas, A.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Stavrakakis, S.; Stavropoulos, G.; Zhukov, V. A.; KM3NeT Consortium

2011-01-01

51

Sulphadimethoxine and Azolla filiculoides Lam.: a model for drug remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants can be an interesting tool for in situ remediation of drug contaminated waters. In a laboratory model Azolla filiculoides Lam., an aquatic fern known to absorb pollutants, has been exposed to an environmental persistent antibiotic commonly used in intensive farming, sulphadimethoxine (S), to test its bioremediation capability. In a 5 week experiment, plants were cultivated outdoor at four drug

Cinzia Forni; Antonella Cascone; Maurizio Fiori; Luciana Migliore

2002-01-01

52

Composition of the Essential Oil of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oil of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. was investigated by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Of the 44 compounds detected, 35 were identified representing 96.62% of the oil; 24 of these components were detected for the first time. The major components of the oil were 1, 8 cineole (14.05%) and pulegone (21.92%).

K. H. C. Baser; E. Sezik; G. Tümen

1991-01-01

53

In vitro biological assessment of berberis vulgaris and its active constituent, berberine: antioxidants, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-diabetic and anticancer effects  

PubMed Central

Background Berberis vulgaris is a well known plant with traditional herbal medical history. The aims of this study was to bioscreen and compare the in vitro biological activity (antioxidant, cholinergic, antidaibetic and the anticancer) of barberry crude extract and berberine active compound. Methods The effect of B. vulgaris extract and berberine chloride on cellular thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) formation, diphenyle–?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) oxidation, cellular nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capability, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ?-gulcosidase activities were spectrophotometrically determined. On the other hand, the effect of extract and berberine as anticancer was estimated on three different cell lines which were MCF-7, HepG-2, and Caco-2 cells by using neutral red uptake assay which compared with control normal cells (PBMC). Results Our results showed that barberry crude extract contains 0.6 mg berberine/mg crude extract. Barberry extract showed potent antioxidative capacity through decreasing TBARS, NO and the oxidation of DPPH that associated with GPx and SOD hyperactivation. Inhibitory effect of berberis crude extract on ?-glucosidase was more potent than that of berberine chloride, while both had the same AChE inhibitory effect. Besides, different concentrations of both berberine chloride and barberry ethanolic extract showed to have no growth inhibitory effect on normal blood cells (PBMC). Otherwise, both berberine chloride and barberry ethanolic extract showed to have inhibitory effect on the growth of breast, liver and colon cancer cell lines (MCF7, HepG2 and CACO-2, respectively) at different incubation times starting from 24 hrs up to 72 hrs and the inhibitory effect increased with time in a dose dependant manner. Conclusion This work demonstrates the potential of the barberry crude extract and its active alkaloid, berberine, on suppressing lipid peroxidation, suggesting a promising use in the treatment of hepatic oxidative stress, Alzheimer and idiopathic male factor infertility. Beside, berberis vulgaris ethanolic extract is safe non-toxic extract as it was not inhibit the growth of PBMC that can induce cancer cell death that could return to its powerful antioxidant activity.

2013-01-01

54

Leaf phenology and seasonal variation of photosynthesis of invasive Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry) and two co-occurring native understory shrubs in a northeastern United States deciduous forest.  

PubMed

Early leafing and extended leaf longevity can be important mechanisms for the invasion of the forest understory. We compared the leaf phenology and photosynthetic characteristics of Berberis thunbergii, an early leafing invasive shrub, and two co-occurring native species, evergreen Kalmia latifolia and late leafing Vaccinium corymbosum, throughout the 2004 growing season. Berberis thunbergii leafed out 1 month earlier than V. corymbosum and approximately 2 weeks prior to the overstory trees. The photosynthetic capacity [characterized by the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (V (cmax)) and the RuBP regeneration capacity mediated by the maximum electron transport rate (J (max))] of B. thunbergii was highest in the spring open canopy, and declined with canopy closure. The 2003 overwintering leaves of K. latifolia displayed high V (cmax) and J (max) in spring 2004. In new leaves of K. latifolia produced in 2004, the photosynthetic capacity gradually increased to a peak in mid-September, and reduced in late November. V. corymbosum, by contrast, maintained low V (cmax) and J (max) throughout the growing season. In B. thunbergii, light acclimation was mediated by adjustment in both leaf mass per unit area and leaf N on a mass basis, but this adjustment was weaker or absent in K. latifolia and V. corymbosum. These results indicated that B. thunbergii utilized high irradiance in the spring while K. latifolia took advantage of high irradiance in the fall and the following spring. By contrast, V. corymbosum generally did not experience a high irradiance environment and was adapted to the low irradiance understory. The apparent success of B. thunbergii therefore, appeared related to a high spring C subsidy and subsequent acclimation to varying irradiance through active N reallocation and leaf morphological modifications. PMID:17647021

Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Griffin, Kevin L; Schuster, W S F

2007-11-01

55

TSC2 epigenetic defect in primary LAM cells. Evidence of an anchorage-independent survival.  

PubMed

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) can be sporadic or associated with TSC and is characterized by widespread pulmonary proliferation of abnormal ?-smooth muscle (ASM)-like cells. We investigated the features of ASM cells isolated from chylous thorax of a patient affected by LAM associated with TSC, named LAM/TSC cells, bearing a germline TSC2 mutation and an epigenetic defect causing the absence of tuberin. Proliferation of LAM/TSC cells is epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent and blockade of EGF receptor causes cell death as we previously showed in cells lacking tuberin. LAM/TSC cells spontaneously detach probably for the inactivation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Akt/mTOR pathway and display the ability to survive independently from adhesion. Non-adherent LAM/TSC cells show an extremely low proliferation rate consistent with tumour stem-cell characteristics. Moreover, LAM/TSC cells bear characteristics of stemness and secrete high amount of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Anti-EGF receptor antibodies and rapamycin affect proliferation and viability of non-adherent cells. In conclusion, the understanding of LAM/TSC cell features is important in the assessment of cell invasiveness in LAM and TSC and should provide a useful model to test therapeutic approaches aimed at controlling their migratory ability. PMID:24606538

Lesma, Elena; Ancona, Silvia; Sirchia, Silvia M; Orpianesi, Emanuela; Grande, Vera; Colapietro, Patrizia; Chiaramonte, Eloisa; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo

2014-05-01

56

Stiochiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB, an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

The authors have directly measured the stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB. Scatchard plots and computer fitting of flow dialysis (rate-of-dialysis) experiments clearly establish three independent binding sites per LamB trimer, with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 {mu}M for maltoheptaose. The current model for LamB's function as a specific pore is discussed with respect to the symmetry in LamB's kinetic properties and the implications of their results.

Gehring, K.; Cheng, Chaohsiung; Jap, B.K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Nikaido, H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

1991-03-01

57

Study of Load Alleviation and Mode Suppression (Lams) on the YF-12A Airplane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potentials and capability for implementing a LAMS (load alleviation and mode suppression) system on the YF-12A for the purpose of flight research were evaluated. The nature of the research is to minimize the design risk in application of LAMS to futur...

L. D. Edinger F. L. Chenk A. R. Curtis

1972-01-01

58

Retention Rates, Graduates, and LAM-Series Completers for the Legal Assistant Management Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In February 1996, Gainesville College, in Georgia, conducted a study of students in its Legal Assistant Management (LAM) Program to determine retention rates, numbers of graduates, and course pass rates. Retention and graduation rates were calculated for 175 students who enrolled in at least one LAM course from spring 1991 to fall 1995. In…

Hamilton, John

59

Study of Load Alleviation and Mode Suppression (LAMS) on the YF-12A airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potentials and capability for implementing a LAMS (load alleviation and mode suppression) system on the YF-12A for the purpose of flight research were evaluated. The nature of the research is to minimize the design risk in application of LAMS to future aircraft. The results of the study show that the YF-12A would be a suitable test bed for continuing development of LAMS technology. This was demonstrated by defining five candidate LAMS systems and analytically evaluating them with regard to performance and mechanization. Each of the five systems used a different combination of force producers. A small canard vane or a mass-reaction device mounted near the cockpit was considered as a possible LAMS force producer, together with the existing inboard and outboard elevons. It was concluded that a combination of canard vane and outboard elevons would provide the most effective system for the YF-12A.

Edinger, L. D.; Chenk, F. L.; Curtis, A. R.

1972-01-01

60

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oil from Lam Bank  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss the crude oil from a new offshore field called the Lam Bank in the Caspian Sea. A segregated commercial crude was distilled and the distillation data is shown. In order to determine the content of n-paraffins, the naphthenic-paraffinic part of the narrow cuts was subjected to adsorptive separation on CaA zeolite. Owing to the high contents of naphthenic and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons and the low content of aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate part, this crude can be used to produce high-quality fuels and oils by the use of the dewaxing processes.

Samedova, F.I.; Agaeva, R.M.; Alieva, F.Z.; Valiev, M.A.

1987-07-01

61

Policy considerations for the introduction and promotion of the lactational amenorrhea method: advantages and disadvantages of LAM.  

PubMed

Some attributes of LAM are unquestionably positive, such as the fact that it is effective. Clinical trials of LAM have upheld the Bellagio Consensus that the chance of pregnancy is less than 2% in the first 6 months postpartum in amenorrheic women who are fully or nearly fully breastfeeding. Secondary data analyses in numerous settings have drawn the same conclusion. Whether as a strategy or a method, used correctly or even if used imperfectly, LAM is a reliable way to avoid pregnancy. To the extent that LAM represents an additional contraceptive option, this is also clearly positive since a broad array of contraceptive options maximizes the likelihood of finding a good fit between user and method, and increases contraceptive use. Other characteristics of LAM represent potentially positive impacts. If LAM is shown to be an effective conduit to other modern methods, the implications are profoundly positive. If LAM is cost effective, for households and/or for programs, this will also make the method extraordinarily attractive. Conversely, some aspects of LAM are negative, such as the fact that it affords no protection against STDs, it requires counseling from a well-informed provider, and intensive breastfeeding can make heavy demands on the woman's time. Many of the remaining attributes of LAM may not be important to a policy decision about LAM promotion. For example, whether LAM is actualized as a strategy or a method may not be important to a decision to promote LAM, although it has a huge impact on how services are delivered. Some factors may be profound on a local or individual level. For example, one simple factor, such as the absence of full/nearly full breastfeeding, can rule out the method as an option, while another, such as the fact that it provides the needed waiting period during vasectomy counseling, can make LAM the method of choice. Although LAM seems unlikely to have widespread popularity in societies like the United States, within such settings are breastfeeding women for whom other contraceptive choices are not satisfactory and to whom LAM is attractive. Although clinicians cannot be expected to directly provide LAM education in every setting, women should be informed about LAM as an effective contraceptive choice, and clinicians should be prepared to make referrals to competent sources. The future of LAM, especially in terms of formal, programmatic initiatives, may continue to be focussed in transitional and less developed settings. Comparative cost/benefit analyses for both the family planning program and the household will contribute meaningfully to decisions about whether to use LAM and whether to include LAM in national and local family planning policies and programs. The most important call to action is to implement operations research designed to determine what factors, if any, will maximize the uptake of a second modern contraceptive method after LAM protection expires among never-users of family planning, to compare this with other contraceptive strategies, and to evaluate the cost aspects. If the potential of LAM to be a conduit to other modern contraceptive methods is effectively realized, the method can be profoundly important in the development of communities and in family formation. Because LAM is effective in preventing pregnancies, and because it extends the range of contraceptive choices, considering LAM on the policy level is always appropriate. Despite the array of drawbacks to LAM, as with any other family planning method, the potential assets of LAM, especially the promise to introduce nonusers to contraception, are sufficiently important to warrant the introduction of LAM within an operations research framework to both capitalize on its intrinsic strengths and determine its programmatic robustness. In the 10 years since the concept of LAM was pronounced as the Bellagio Consensus, claims have been made both for and against its use. During this time, program and policy leaders have been giv PMID:10205427

Kennedy, K I; Kotelchuck, M

1998-09-01

62

Analysis of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) patent tomograms: Stereology and modeling  

SciTech Connect

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an insidious disease of young women which attacks the lungs and if untreated results in death. Treatment is radical. Currently a woman diagnosed as having LAM (usually by computed tomography (CT) of the lung) is run through an exhausting set of tests and exercises to determine the extent of the disease. Image processing techniques have been able to quantify the tomograms by providing a histogram of the number of cyst intercepts of a given area. The images are digital, so the data are discrete, and the areas are in terms of square pixels. It is hoped that by analyzing the data and by recovering the probability density of the cysts themselves one can provide a set of parameters that will aid in the early diagnosis of the disease and that will correlate well with the physiology. The desire to invert the data, that is to determine the probability density of the cysts from the probability density of the circular intersections of the cysts with the tomographic plane, led to a re-examination of the Wicksell equation. In Section 2, the authors transform Wicksell`s equation in diameter (a generalized Abel equation) into an equation in areas (the original Abel equation). In Section 3 they present the adjoint equation in several equivalent forms. Analytic solutions of the adjoint equation necessary for later use are developed in Section 4. Outside of the framework of integral equations they have done some modeling of the data. They find that, to a very high degree of reliability, the data follows a simple power law. The distribution of spheres likewise follows a simple power law. These considerations are given in Section 5. Then in Section 6 they explore the exponential model as an alternative. Section 7 solves the Wicksell equation and uses the Golberg device, via the adjoint, to solve a related problem. They finally get to the number of cysts and their average size in Section 8. Their conclusions are in Section 9.

Faber, V.; Wing, G.M.; Winter, L.; Zahrt, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computing, Information, and Communications Div.

1995-02-01

63

Mycobacterium tuberculosis ManLAM inhibits T-cell-receptor signaling by interference with ZAP-70, Lck and LAT phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Immune evasion is required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to survive in the face of robust CD4(+) T cell responses. We have shown previously that M. tuberculosis cell wall glycolipids, including mannose capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), directly inhibit polyclonal murine CD4(+) T cell activation by blocking ZAP-70 phosphorylation. We extended these studies to antigen-specific murine CD4(+) T cells and primary human T cells and found that ManLAM inhibited them as well. Lck and LAT phosphorylation also were inhibited by ManLAM without affecting their localization to lipid rafts. Inhibition of proximal TCR signaling was temperature sensitive, suggesting that ManLAM insertion into T cell membranes was required. Thus, M. tuberculosis ManLAM inhibits antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell activation by interfering with very early events in TCR signaling through ManLAM's insertion in T cell membranes. PMID:22507872

Mahon, Robert N; Sande, Obondo J; Rojas, Roxana E; Levine, Alan D; Harding, Clifford V; Boom, W Henry

2012-01-01

64

Mycobacterium tuberculosis ManLAM inhibits T-cell-receptor signaling by interference with ZAP-70, Lck and LAT phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Immune evasion is required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to survive in the face of robust CD4+ T cell responses. We have shown previously that M. tuberculosis cell wall glycolipids, including mannose capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), directly inhibit polyclonal murine CD4+ T cell activation by blocking ZAP-70 phosphorylation. We extended these studies to antigen-specific murine CD4+ T cells and primary human T cells and found that ManLAM inhibited them as well. Lck and LAT phosphorylation also were inhibited by ManLAM without affecting their localization to lipid rafts. Inhibition of proximal TCR signaling was temperature sensitive, suggesting that ManLAM insertion into T cell membranes was required. Thus, M. tuberculosis ManLAM inhibits antigen-specific CD4+ T cell activation by interfering with very early events in TCR signaling through ManLAM's insertion in T cell membranes.

Mahon, Robert N.; Sande, Obondo J.; Rojas, Roxana E.; Levine, Alan D.; Harding, Clifford V.; Boom, W. Henry

2012-01-01

65

Evaluation of the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Berberis vulgaris root on the activity of liver enzymes in male hypercholesterolemic rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Hyperlipidemia can cause a variety of diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and fatty liver which is followed by increased liver enzymes. Since Berberis vulgaris (B. vulgaris) root possesses antioxidant properties, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of its extract on the activity of liver enzymes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sixty Wistar rats were selected and allocated to six groups of ten each. The control group received a normal diet and the sham group received a fatty diet while the other groups including experimental groups received a fatty diet and the alcoholic extract of B. vulgaris at minimum (75 mg/kg), moderate (150 mg/kg), and maximum (300 mg/kg) doses by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) or oral atorvastatin (10 mg /kg) with a fatty diet. At the end of this 21-day period, blood samples were drawn and the levels of the intended factors were measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.5. Results: The comparison of the obtained results showed that the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes in the sham group that only received fatty food increased (p?0.05), whereas in the treatment groups receiving B. vulgaris extract as well as in the group receiving Atorvastatin, these enzymes significantly decreased; however, no significant changes were observed in aspartate transaminase (AST) levels. Conclusion: Noticing the antioxidant properties of B. vulgaris root extract and its effects on reducing the activity of liver enzymes, the extract of this plant can be a good choice for improving the function of liver.

Taheri, Soheila; Zarei, Ali; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Rezaei, Azam; Zaheiri, Saeed

2012-01-01

66

Seasonal variation of temperature response of respiration in invasive Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry) and two co-occurring native understory shrubs in a northeastern US deciduous forest.  

PubMed

In the understory of a closed forest, plant growth is limited by light availability, and early leafing is proposed to be an important mechanism of plant invasion by providing a spring C "subsidy" when high light is available. However, studies on respiration, another important process determining plant net C gain, are rare in understory invasive plants. In this study, leaf properties and the temperature response of leaf respiration were compared between invasive Berberis thunbergii, an early leafing understory shrub, and two native shrubs, Kalmia latifolia, a broadleaf evergreen and Vaccinium corymbosum, a late-leafing deciduous species, in an oak-dominated deciduous forest. The seasonal trend of the basal respiration rates (R(0)) and the temperature response coefficient (E(0)), were different among the three shrubs and species-specific negative correlations were observed between R(0) and E(0). All three shrubs showed significant correlation between respiration rate on an area basis (20 degrees C) and leaf N on an area basis. The relationship was attributed to the variation of both leaf N on a mass basis and leaf mass per area (LMA) in B. thunbergii, but to LMA only in K. latifolia and V. corymbosum. After modeling leaf respiration throughout 2004, B. thunbergii displayed much higher annual leaf respiration (mass based) than the two native shrubs, indicating a higher cost per unit of biomass investment. Thus, respiratory properties alone were not likely to lead to C balance advantage of B. thunbergii. Future studies on whole plant C budgets and leaf construction cost are needed to address the C balance advantage in early leafing understory shrubs like B. thunbergii. PMID:17609983

Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Schuster, W S F; Griffin, Kevin L

2007-10-01

67

New phytoconstituents from the aerial parts of Fumaria parviflora Lam.  

PubMed

Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae) is an annual herb found throughout the world. Traditionally it has great significance in various disorders. In folk medicine of Turkey it is used against hepato-biliary dysfunction and imported from Iran. In Charaka and Sushruta, it is recommended for treatment of fevers, blood disorders, chronic skin diseases, urinary diseases and cough. The compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel (60-120 mesh) as stationary phase and structure of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of its aerial parts led to the isolation of five new compounds characterized as (5?H,11?H)-8-oxo-homoiridolide (1), n-docosanyl-2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl salicylate (2), 2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylenedodecan-10-oyl-12, 15-olide14-O-?-D-xylopyranoside (3), 4-oxo-stigmast-5-en-3?-ol-D-glucopyranoside (4) and salicylic acid-O-?-D-xylopyranoside (5) along with the known compounds ?-D-glucopyranosyl hexadecanoate (6) and ?-D-glucopyranosyl- (2 ? 1')-?-D-glucopyranoside (7). The isolated compounds are useful as they will provide essential data and information for the further researchers and development of effective analytical marker for identity, purity and quality control of this traditional plant in future. PMID:24959414

Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohammed

2014-04-01

68

Sulphadimethoxine and Azolla filiculoides Lam.: a model for drug remediation.  

PubMed

Plants can be an interesting tool for in situ remediation of drug contaminated waters. In a laboratory model Azolla filiculoides Lam., an aquatic fern known to absorb pollutants, has been exposed to an environmental persistent antibiotic commonly used in intensive farming, sulphadimethoxine (S), to test its bioremediation capability. In a 5 week experiment, plants were cultivated outdoor at four drug concentrations (50, 150, 300 and 450 mg l(-1)) in N-free mineral medium. Drug affects growth rate (as biomass yield per week), N2-fixation, heterocyst frequency, but plants are able to survive. Notwithstanding, at all concentrations tested drug was actively removed from the medium and the accumulation in the biomass is in order of magnitude up to mg g(-1) plant dry weight (1000 ppm). Drug uptake and degradation rates increase with S concentrations in the culture medium. The efficacy of the model was very high. These results demonstrated that Azolla can be taken into consideration as a tool for sulphonamides environmental monitoring and decontamination. PMID:12188140

Forni, Cinzia; Cascone, Antonella; Fiori, Maurizio; Migliore, Luciana

2002-07-01

69

New phytoconstituents from the aerial parts of Fumaria parviflora Lam  

PubMed Central

Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae) is an annual herb found throughout the world. Traditionally it has great significance in various disorders. In folk medicine of Turkey it is used against hepato-biliary dysfunction and imported from Iran. In Charaka and Sushruta, it is recommended for treatment of fevers, blood disorders, chronic skin diseases, urinary diseases and cough. The compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel (60-120 mesh) as stationary phase and structure of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of its aerial parts led to the isolation of five new compounds characterized as (5?H,11?H)-8-oxo-homoiridolide (1), n-docosanyl-2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl salicylate (2), 2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylenedodecan-10-oyl-12, 15-olide14-O-?-D-xylopyranoside (3), 4-oxo-stigmast-5-en-3?-ol-D-glucopyranoside (4) and salicylic acid-O-?-D-xylopyranoside (5) along with the known compounds ?-D-glucopyranosyl hexadecanoate (6) and ?-D-glucopyranosyl- (2 ? 1?)-?-D-glucopyranoside (7). The isolated compounds are useful as they will provide essential data and information for the further researchers and development of effective analytical marker for identity, purity and quality control of this traditional plant in future.

Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohammed

2014-01-01

70

Estradiol and mTORC2 cooperate to enhance prostaglandin biosynthesis and tumorigenesis in TSC2-deficient LAM cells.  

PubMed

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive neoplastic disorder that leads to lung destruction and respiratory failure primarily in women. LAM is typically caused by tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) mutations resulting in mTORC1 activation in proliferative smooth muscle-like cells in the lung. The female predominance of LAM suggests that estradiol contributes to disease development. Metabolomic profiling identified an estradiol-enhanced prostaglandin biosynthesis signature in Tsc2-deficient (TSC(-)) cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Estradiol increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, which was also increased at baseline in TSC-deficient cells and was not affected by rapamycin treatment. However, both Torin 1 treatment and Rictor knockdown led to reduced COX-2 expression and phospho-Akt-S473. Prostaglandin production was also increased in TSC-deficient cells. In preclinical models, both Celecoxib and aspirin reduced tumor development. LAM patients had significantly higher serum prostaglandin levels than healthy women. 15-epi-lipoxin-A4 was identified in exhaled breath condensate from LAM subjects and was increased by aspirin treatment, indicative of functional COX-2 expression in the LAM airway. In vitro, 15-epi-lipoxin-A4 reduced the proliferation of LAM patient-derived cells in a dose-dependent manner. Targeting COX-2 and prostaglandin pathways may have therapeutic value in LAM and TSC-related diseases, and possibly in other conditions associated with mTOR hyperactivation. PMID:24395886

Li, Chenggang; Lee, Po-Shun; Sun, Yang; Gu, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Erik; Guo, Yanan; Wu, Chin-Lee; Auricchio, Neil; Priolo, Carmen; Li, Jing; Csibi, Alfredo; Parkhitko, Andrey; Morrison, Tasha; Planaguma, Anna; Kazani, Shamsah; Israel, Elliot; Xu, Kai-Feng; Henske, Elizabeth Petri; Blenis, John; Levy, Bruce D; Kwiatkowski, David; Yu, Jane J

2014-01-13

71

A Sacrificial Lam: A Divided School Board, a Beleaguered Superintendent, and an Urgent Need to Improve Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case describes the confrontational relationship between four trustees on the San Antonio School Board and the San Antonio School District's superintendent Diana Lam, a nationally recognized school reformer, who came to San Antonio in 1994. The case includes a dramatic board meeting where a closely divided board meets to buy out Lam's…

Fossey, Richard

2011-01-01

72

Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer (LAMS) as a Standoff Analyzer in Space Missions for Airless Bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) based on a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer with adjustable drift length is proposed as a standoff elemental composition sensor for space missions to airless bodies. It is found that the use of a retarding potential analyzer in combination with a two-stage reflectron enables LAMS to be operated at variable drift length. For field-free drift lengths between 33 cm to 100 cm, at least unit mass resolution can be maintained solely by adjustment of internal voltages, and without resorting to drastic reductions in sensitivity. Therefore, LAMS should be able to be mounted on a robotic arm and analyze samples at standoff distances of up to several tens of cm, permitting high operational flexibility and wide area coverage of heterogeneous regolith on airless bodies.

Li, X.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; Pugel, D. E.; Corrigan, C. M.; Doty, J. H.

2012-01-01

73

Bioassay-guided isolation of vasorelaxant compounds from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Lamiaceae) is traditionally used in Uighur's medicine for the treatment of hypertension. Our study determined and evaluated the bioactive compounds by performing an activity-guided fractionation of a hydroalcoholic extract of the whole plant, using an in vitro model of rat isolated thoracic aortic rings. Seven compounds were identified as active principles: acacetin, apigenin, chrysin, thymonin, acetovanillone, 4-hydroxyacetophenone and ethyl 4-coumarate. Apigenin, chrysin and ethyl 4-coumarate were found to be the most effective. Our results provide the first evidence that the vasodilation induced by Z. clinopodioides Lam. is mediated, at least in part, by phenolic components. PMID:22155596

Senejoux, François; Demougeot, Céline; Kerram, Parhat; Aisa, Haji Akber; Berthelot, Alain; Bévalot, Françoise; Girard-Thernier, Corine

2012-03-01

74

[Determination of ten metal elements in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam by microwave digestion-FAAS].  

PubMed

Comprehensive utilization of traditional Uighur medicine has been increasingly emphasized, and the relationship between metal elements and traditional Uighur medicine has attracted great attention, so it is quite important to determine the contents of traditional Uighur medicine. The Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam powder was digested with HNO3 by microwave digestion before determination. Ten metal elements in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam were determined by FAAS. The work conditions, accuracy and precision of the method were studied. The linear correlations of standard curves are good (r = 0.999 0-0.999 8). The recovery (n = 6) is 95%-108%, and the RSD(n = 6) is 0.45%-1.53%. The results showed that there were comparatively rich metal elements, among which are comparatively high calcium, magnesium and potassium in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. The method offers traits of low detection limit, high sensitivity, speediness and exactness, and wasapplied to the determination of metal elements in samples with satisfactory results. It provided useful data for discussing the relationship between the content of the metal elements in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam and clinical application of the Uighur medicine. PMID:19798990

Tian, Shu-Ge; Zhou, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Tun-Hai; Ding, Jian-Bing; Shan, Li-Juan; Shi, Yang

2009-07-01

75

Chemical characterization, antioxidant properties, and volatile constituents of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) cultivated in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is a native fruit of the Andes, cultivated and consumed mainly in Ecuador, Colombia, and Central America. Because of its pleasant aroma and attractive color, it has high potential as an ingredient of products such as juices, nectars, and jams. The main characteristics of mature naranjilla fruits cultivated in Costa Rica were assessed, including sugar

Óscar Acosta; Ana M. Pérez; Fabrice Vaillant

2009-01-01

76

Mechanisms of vasorelaxation induced by Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Lamiaceae) extract in rat thoracic aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyZiziphora clinopodioides Lam. (ZC) is widely used in Uyghur folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension diseases in Xinjiang, an autonomous region of China. To provide pharmacological basis for this traditional use, we explored the vasodilating effects of ZC and investigated the underlying mechanisms.

François Senejoux; Corinne Girard; Parhat Kerram; Haji Akber Aisa; Alain Berthelot; Françoise Bévalot; Céline Demougeot

2010-01-01

77

78 FR 3319 - Amendments to Existing Validated End User Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Validated End User Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam Research Corporation...part 748 of the EAR to update VEU Advanced Micro Devices China Inc.'s (AMD China) current...List of Eligible Destinations for Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc. In this rule,...

2013-01-16

78

Removal of cadmium from aqueous system by shelled Moringa oleifera Lam. seed powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores the unexploited sorption properties of the plant Moringa oleifera Lam. for decontamination of Cd at laboratory scale. Sorption studies using standard practices were carried out in batch experiments as functions of biomass dosage, contact time, metal concentrations, particle size and pH. Percentage sorption in each case was computed on the basis of Cd estimation using a

Parul Sharma; Pushpa Kumari; M. M. Srivastava; Shalini Srivastava

2006-01-01

79

Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. root-wood on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae)) is commonly used as a phytotherapeutic agent. The effect of oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood on calcium oxalate urolithiasis has been studied in male Wistar albino rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. Supplementation with aqueous and

Ravindra V. Karadi; Navneet B. Gadge; K. R. Alagawadi; Rudraprabhu V. Savadi

2006-01-01

80

Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated

Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen

2007-01-01

81

Nitric oxide producing effect of six extracts from Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex Poiret (Guttiferae) stem bark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary pharmacological screening of the aqueous extract from the leaves, stem and root of Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex Poiret (Guttiferae) are reported to have effect on some cardiovascular diseases like bleeding, cadiopathy, hematuria, and other complications. However, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect is not known. The effects of six extracts from the stem bark of H. madagascariensis on equine

E. O. Iwalewa; V. Naidoo; V. Bagla; J. N. Eloff

82

Interlacing and non-orthogonality of spectral polynomials for the Lam\\\\'e operator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polynomial solutions to the generalized Lam\\\\'e equation, the Stieltjes polynomials, and the associated Van Vleck polynomials have been studied since the 1830's in various contexts including the solution of Laplace equations on an ellipsoid. Recently there has been renewed interest in the distribution of the zeros of Van Vleck polynomials as the degree of the corresponding Stieltjes polynomials increases. In

A. Bourget; T. McMillen; A. Vargas

2008-01-01

83

Evaluation of a LAM ELISA for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A milk and serum ELISA containing lipoarabinomanan (LAM) antigen was evaluated in sheep and goats versus agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using milk and lymph nodes. Milk and serum samples were obtained from six, two, and four flocks with unknown, negative and positive status of infection, respectively. By comparison of serum ELISA activity and PCR

S. K. Munjal; J. Boehmer; M. Beyerbach; K. Strutzberg-Minder; M. Homuth

2004-01-01

84

Low sensitivity of a urine LAM-ELISA in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The development and evaluation of rapid and accurate new diagnostic tools is essential to improve tuberculosis (TB) control in developing countries. In a previous study, the first release of a urine LAM-ELISA by Chemogen (Portland, USA) has been evaluated with a promising sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. In the present study, the now commercially available

Klaus Reither; Elmar Saathoff; Jutta Jung; Lilian T Minja; Inge Kroidl; Eiman Saad; Jim F Huggett; Elias N Ntinginya; Lucas Maganga; Leonard Maboko; Michael Hoelscher

2009-01-01

85

Influence of growth phase on the essential oil composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ziziphora clinopodioides belongs to the Lamiaceae family, that are widespread all over Iran. The leaves, flowers and stems of the plant are frequently used as wild vegetables or additives in food to offer aroma and flavour. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of Z. clinopodioides Lam. in different growth stages were analysed by GC

Hamzeh Amiri

2009-01-01

86

Acumulação de nutrientes em mudas de moringa ( Moringa oleifera Lam) sob omissão de macronutrientes1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - A Moringa oleifera Lam. é uma espécie arbórea pertencente à família Moringaceae, adaptada às condi- ções áridas e semi-áridas e de uso diversificado com especial destaque na ornamentação de parques e jardins, na alimentação animal, na complementação alimentar humana e na medicina. Uma vez que são poucas as informações sobre essa planta, o trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar

Hugo Vieira; Lucia Helena; Garófalo Chaves; Ricardo Almeida Viégas

2008-01-01

87

Bionic lightweight design by laser additive manufacturing (LAM) for aircraft industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today many challenges lie ahead of the aircraft industry. The increasing competition and shortage of resources raise a challenge for future manufacturing technologies and lightweight design. A possibility to cope with these circumstances is the manufacturing technology of Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM). However there are still challenges to cope with due to the processes novelty, such as the development of

Claus Emmelmann; Maren Petersen; Jannis Kranz; Eric Wycisk

2011-01-01

88

Prevention of Alveolar Destruction and Airspace Enlargement in a Mouse Model of Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare genetic disease characterized by neoplastic growth of atypical smooth muscle–like LAM cells, destruction of lung parenchyma, obstruction of lymphatics, and formation of lung cysts, leading to spontaneous pneumothoraces (lung rupture and collapse) and progressive loss of pulmonary function. The disease is caused by mutational inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) or TSC2. By injecting TSC2-null cells into nude mice, we have developed a mouse model of LAM that is characterized by multiple random TSC2-null lung lesions, vascular endothelial growth factor–D expression, lymphangiogenesis, destruction of lung parenchyma, and decreased survival, similar to human LAM. The mice show enlargement of alveolar airspaces that is associated with progressive growth of TSC2-null lesions in the lung, up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade extracellular matrix, and destruction of elastic fibers. TSC2-null lesions and alveolar destruction were differentially inhibited by the macrolide antibiotic rapamycin (which inhibits TSC2-null lesion growth by a cytostatic mechanism) and a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, simvastatin (which inhibits growth of TSC2-null lesions by a predominantly proapoptotic mechanism). Treatment with simvastatin markedly inhibited MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 levels in lung and prevented alveolar destruction. The combination of rapamycin and simvastatin prevented both growth of TSC2-null lesions and lung destruction by inhibiting MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9. Our findings demonstrate a mechanistic link between loss of TSC2 and alveolar destruction and suggest that treatment with rapamycin and simvastatin together could benefit patients with LAM by targeting cells with TSC2 dysfunction and preventing airspace enlargement.

Goncharova, Elena A.; Goncharov, Dmitry A.; Fehrenbach, Melane; Khavin, Irene; Ducka, Blerina; Hino, Okio; Colby, Thomas V.; Merrilees, Mervyn J.; Haczku, Angela; Albelda, Steven M.; Krymskaya, Vera P.

2013-01-01

89

mTOR Activation, Lymphangiogenesis, and Estrogen-Mediated Cell Survival: The "Perfect Storm" of Pro-Metastatic Factors in LAM Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Research interest in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) has grown dramatically in the past decade, particularly among cancer biologists. There are at least two reasons for this: first, the discovery in the year 2000 that LAM cells carry TSC2 gene mutations, linking LAM with cellular pathways including the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis, and allowing the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)-regulated pathways that are believed to underlie LAM pathogenesis to be studied in cells, yeast, Drosophila, and mice. A second reason for the rising interest in LAM is the discovery that LAM cells can travel to the lung, including repopulating a donor lung after lung transplantation, despite the fact that LAM cells are histologically benign. This “benign metastasis” underpinning suggests that elucidating LAM pathogenesis will unlock a set of fundamental mechanisms that underlie metastatic potential in the context of a cell that has not yet undergone malignant transformation. Here, we will outline the data supporting the metastatic model of LAM, consider the biochemical and cellular mechanisms that may enable LAM cells to metastasize, including both cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous factors, and highlight a mouse model in which estrogen promotes the metastasis and survival of TSC2-deficient cells in a MEK-dependent manner. We propose a multistep model of LAM cell metastasis that highlights multiple opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Taken together, the metastatic behavior of LAM cells and the involvement of tumor-related signaling pathways lead to optimism that cancer-related paradigms for diagnosis, staging, and therapy will lead to therapeutic breakthroughs for women living with LAM.

Yu, Jane

2010-01-01

90

Draft Genome Sequence of Kurthia huakuii LAM0618T, an Organic-Pollutant-Degrading Strain Isolated from Biogas Slurry  

PubMed Central

Kurthia huakuii LAM0618T is a facultative anaerobic pollutant-degrading bacterium isolated from biogas slurry. An analysis of the draft genome sequence of LAM0618T reveals a genome size of 3,585,165 bp, with a mean G+C content of 39.1%. The genome contains 3,560 coding sequences and 112 tRNA and 33 rRNA genes.

Ruan, Zhiyong; Wang, Yanwei; Song, Jinlong; Zhai, Yi; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Chao; Li, Yanting; Zhao, Bingqiang

2014-01-01

91

Economic evaluation of micafungin vs. liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) for the treatment of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis (IC).  

PubMed

Micafungin was non-inferior to liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) for the treatment of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis (IC) in a major clinical trial. The present study investigated the economic impact of micafungin vs. LAmB in treating candidaemia and IC. A decision analytical model was constructed to capture downstream consequences of using micafungin or LAmB as primary definitive therapy. The main outcomes were treatment success and treatment failure due to mycological persistence, or death. Outcome probabilities were derived from key published sources. Resource used was estimated by an expert panel and cost inputs were from the latest Australian resources. The analysis was from an Australian hospital perspective. Sensitivity analyses using Monte Carlo simulation were conducted. Micafungin (AU$61 426) had a lower total cost than LAmB (AU$72 382), with a total net cost-saving of AU$10 957 per patient. This was primarily due to the lower cost associated with initial antifungal treatment and shorter length of stay for patients in the micafungin arm. Hospitalisation was the main cost driver for both arms. Results were robust over a wide range of variables. The uncertainty analysis demonstrated that micafungin had a 99.9% chance of being cost-saving compared with LAmB. Micafungin was associated with cost-saving relative to LAmB in the treatment of candidaemia and IC in Australia. PMID:23496163

Neoh, Chin Fen; Liew, Danny; Slavin, Monica A; Marriott, Debbie; Chen, Sharon C-A; Morrissey, Orla; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

2013-09-01

92

Metalloadsorption by Escherichia coli Cells Displaying Yeast and Mammalian Metallothioneins Anchored to the Outer Membrane Protein LamB  

PubMed Central

Yeast (CUP1) and mammalian (HMT-1A) metallothioneins (MTs) have been efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions to the outer membrane protein LamB. A 65-amino-acid sequence from the CUP1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast [Y] MT) was genetically inserted in permissive site 153 of the LamB sequence, which faces the outer medium. A second LamB fusion at position 153 was created with 66 amino acids recruited from the form of human (H) MT that is predominant in the adipose tissue, HMT-1A. Both LamB153-YMT and LamB153-HMT hybrids were produced in vivo as full-length proteins, without any indication of instability or proteolytic degradation. Each of the two fusion proteins was functional as the port of entry of lambda phage variants, suggesting maintenance of the overall topology of the wild-type LamB. Expression of the hybrid proteins in vivo multiplied the natural ability of E. coli cells to bind Cd2+ 15- to 20-fold, in good correlation with the number of metal-binding centers contributed by the MT moiety of the fusions.

Sousa, Carolina; Kotrba, Pavel; Ruml, Tomas; Cebolla, Angel; De Lorenzo, Victor

1998-01-01

93

Clinical Utility of a Commercial LAM-ELISA Assay for TB Diagnosis in HIV-Infected Patients Using Urine and Sputum Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe accurate diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected patients, particularly with advanced immunosuppression, is difficult. Recent studies indicate that a lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assay (Clearview-TB®-ELISA) may have some utility for the diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected patients; however, the precise subgroup that may benefit from this technology requires clarification. The utility of LAM in sputum samples has, hitherto, not been evaluated.MethodsLAM was

Keertan Dheda; Virginia Davids; Laura Lenders; Teri Roberts; Richard Meldau; Daphne Ling; Laurence Brunet; Richard van Zyl Smit; Jonathan Peter; Clare Green; Motasim Badri; Leonardo Sechi; Surendra Sharma; Michael Hoelscher; Rodney Dawson; Andrew Whitelaw; Jonathan Blackburn; Madhukar Pai; Alimuddin Zumla; Ben Marais

2010-01-01

94

Isolation and characterization of a flocculating protein from Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flocculating protein from the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. was isolated by extraction with phosphate buffer followed by cation exchange chromatography. The molecular mass of the protein determined by SDS-PAGE was about 6.5 kDa, the isoelectric point was above pH 10. Amino acid analysis and sequencing showed high contents of glutamine, arginine and proline, and a total of 60

Ursula Gassenschmidt; Klaus D. Jany; Tauscher Bernhard; Heinz Niebergall

1995-01-01

95

AntiArthritic Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Flowers of Moringa oleifera Lam. in Wistar Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae), commonly known as moringa, drumstick, and horseradish, is a small, fast-growing ornamental tree that originates from India. In the present study, the anti-arthritic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Moringa flowers (MOFE, an herbal remedy) was investigated in adjuvant induced arthritis in Wistar rats. Decreases in body weight, paw edema volume (primary lesion), inflammation at non-injected

Shailaja G. Mahajan; Anita A. Mehta

2009-01-01

96

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso ssp. valentina (Lam.) Marcl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the oil, steam-distilled from aerial parts of Artemisia herha-alba Asso ssp. valentina (Lam.) Marcl. (Asteraceae) collected from the south of Spain, has been analyzed by GC\\/MS. Among the 65 constituents investigated (representing 93.6 % of the oil composition), 61 were identified (90.3% of the oil composition). The major constituents detected were the sesquiterpene davanone (18.1%) and monoterpenes

Sofía Salido; Joaquín Altarejos; Manuel Nogueras; Adolfo Sánchez

2001-01-01

97

Localization of iron-superoxide dismutase in the cyanobiont of Azolla filiculoides Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy were used to localize iron-superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) in the different cells of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial symbiont present within different leaf cavity groups ofAzolla filiculoides Lam. As evidenced by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation, Fe-SOD antibody fromAnabaena cylindrica recognized Fe-SOD in extracts of the cyanobiont and showed the same electrophoretic mobility and pattern as purifiedA. cylindrica

A. Canini; B. Bergman; P. Civitareale; G. Rotilio; M. Grilli Caiola

1992-01-01

98

On the ecology of Azolla filiculoides Lam. in Damietta district, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azolla filiculoidesLam. is a tiny aquatic fern growing as free floating mats covering the stagnant water of the irrigation and drainage canals of Damietta district, Egypt. Ecological characteristics and distribution of the fern were investigated and results were discussed.Vegetation analysis of Azolla indicate that the most common associated species with Azolla are: Phragmites australis [presence (P) = 93.3%], Echinochloa stagnina

Mamdouh S. Serag; Adel El-Hakeem; M. Badway; Mohamed A. Mousa

2000-01-01

99

Biochemical properties of metalloproteinases from the hemolymph of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) with gelatinase activity was found in the whole hemolymph of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. Cleavage activity was specific for gelatin; very little activity towards human type-IV collagen, and no activity for cold fish gelatin, casein or bovine serum albumin were detected. EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline were inhibitory, suggesting that mussel MMPs require divalent

Ferdinando Mannello; Laura Canesi; Giancarlo Gazzanelli; Gabriella Gallo

2001-01-01

100

LPS and LAM activation of the U373 astrocytoma cell line: Differential requirement for CD14  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD14 is a membrane protein (mCD14) found on monocytes and neutrophils that is required for the innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM). CD14 can also be found in serum as soluble CD14 (sCD14) that when bound to bacterial products, enables many non-CD14 bearing cells to be activated. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) is a plasma protein that disaggregates

Sally L. Orr; Peter Tobias

2000-01-01

101

Low sensitivity of a urine LAM-ELISA in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background The development and evaluation of rapid and accurate new diagnostic tools is essential to improve tuberculosis (TB) control in developing countries. In a previous study, the first release of a urine LAM-ELISA by Chemogen (Portland, USA) has been evaluated with a promising sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. In the present study, the now commercially available assay has been clinically assessed regarding its diagnostic value alone and in combination with clinical co-factors. Methods The test was applied to two urine samples from 291 consecutively enrolled Tanzanian patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The participants were subsequently assigned to classification groups according to microbiological, clinical and radiological findings at recruitment and during a maximum follow up period of 56 days. Results Only 35 out of 69 pulmonary TB cases -confirmed by smear microscopy and/or solid culture and/or liquid culture- showed at least one positive LAM-ELISA result (sensitivity 50.7%). The sensitivity was noticeably higher in females (66.7%) and in HIV positive participants (62.0%). The specificity amounted to 87.8% and was determined in participants with negative results in all microbiological tests and with sustained recovery under antibiotic treatment at day 56. Correlation with urinalysis revealed that proteinuria was significantly and positively associated with LAM-positivity (P = 0.026). Conclusion This commercially available generation of LAM-ELISA does not appear to be useful as an independent diagnostic test for pulmonary tuberculosis. The question whether the assay is suitable as a supplemental device in the diagnosis of HIV-associated TB, requires further investigations.

2009-01-01

102

Biodeterioration of brazilwood Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae—Caesalpinioideae) by rot fungi and termites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heartwood of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae) (commonly called brazilwood) is used for violin bow manufacture due to the unique vibrational and physical properties found in the wood. In the present work, the effects of Pycnoporus sanguineus (white-rot fungus), Gloeophyllum trabeum (brown-rot fungus), Chaetomium globosum (soft-rot fungus), and Cryptotermes brevis (dry-wood termite) on weight losses and chemical composition of extractives

Cláudia Alves da Silva; Maria Beatriz Bacellar Monteiro; Sérgio Brazolin; Gonzalo Antonio Carballeira Lopez; Andreas Richter; Márcia Regina Braga

2007-01-01

103

Simulation of in-cloud icing events on Mount Washington with the GEM-LAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-cloud icing on structures such as transmission lines and wind turbines is an important consideration both for design and operations. It often occurs in coastal areas and over high terrain, where there are virtually no systematic observations. The regional mesoscale model GEM-LAM of the Canadian Meteorological Center (CMC) was used to model three historical icing events on Mount Washington, where observational data were available. These three events are representative of the most frequent low level wind directions for seven available observation periods. A newly developed sophisticated two-moment microphysics scheme (Milbrandt-Yau) is used in GEM-LAM. The simulated cloud properties and other meteorological data are compared with near surface observational data. Simulation results from the 1-km resolution run agree best with the observations, with an average RMSE (root mean square error) of 1.6°C for near surface temperature, 4.6 m s-1 for wind speed, 0.23 g m-3 for liquid water content, and 5.8 ?m for the median volume droplet diameter. These simulated meteorological fields and cloud properties were used as inputs to a cylindrical sleeve icing model. The modeled icing rate from the GEM-LAM simulated fields follows the temporal evolution of the observed one with average RMSE of 1.53 g m-1 min-1 compared to an average measured icing rate of 1.98 g m-1 min-1 for all the three cases.

Yang, Jing; Jones, Kathleen F.; Yu, Wei; Morris, Robert

2012-09-01

104

A Job Pause Service under LAM/MPI+BLCR for Transparent Fault Tolerance  

SciTech Connect

Checkpoint/restart (C/R) has become a requirement for long-running jobs in large-scale clusters due to a meantime- to-failure (MTTF) in the order of hours. After a failure, C/R mechanisms generally require a complete restart of an MPI job from the last checkpoint. A complete restart, however, is unnecessary since all but one node are typically still alive. Furthermore, a restart may result in lengthy job requeuing even though the original job had not exceeded its time quantum. In this paper, we overcome these shortcomings. Instead of job restart, we have developed a transparent mechanism for job pause within LAM/MPI+BLCR. This mechanism allows live nodes to remain active and roll back to the last checkpoint while failed nodes are dynamically replaced by spares before resuming from the last checkpoint. Our methodology includes LAM/MPI enhancements in support of scalable group communicationwith fluctuating number of nodes, reuse of network connections, transparent coordinated checkpoint scheduling and a BLCR enhancement for job pause. Experiments in a cluster with the NAS Parallel Benchmark suite show that our overhead for job pause is comparable to that of a complete job restart. A minimal overhead of 5.6% is only incurred in case migration takes place while the regular checkpoint overhead remains unchanged. Yet, our approach alleviates the need to reboot the LAM run-time environment, which accounts for considerable overhead resulting in net savings of our scheme in the experiments. Our solution further provides full transparency and automation with the additional benefit of reusing existing resources. Executing continues after failures within the scheduled job, i.e., the application staging overhead is not incurred again in contrast to a restart. Our scheme offers additional potential for savings through incremental checkpointing and proactive diskless live migration, which we are currently working on.

Wang, Chao [North Carolina State University; Mueller, Frank [North Carolina State University; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Scott, Steven L [ORNL

2007-01-01

105

Topology of the membrane protein LamB by epitope tagging and a comparison with the X-ray model.  

PubMed Central

We previously developed a genetic approach to study, with a single antibody, the topology of the outer membrane protein LamB, an Escherichia coli porin with specificity towards maltodextrins and a receptor for bacteriophage lambda. Our initial procedure consisted of inserting at random the same reporter epitope (the C3 neutralization epitope from poliovirus) into permissive sites of LamB (i.e., sites which tolerate insertions without deleterious effects on the protein activities or the cell). A specific monoclonal antibody was then used to examine the position of the inserted epitope with respect to the protein and the membrane. In the present work, we set up a site-directed procedure to insert the C3 epitope at new sites in order to distinguish between two-dimensional folding models. This allowed us to identify two new surface loops of LamB and to predict another periplasmic exposed region. The results obtained by random and directed epitope tagging are analyzed in light of the recently published X-ray structure of the LamB protein. Study of 23 hybrid LamB-C3 proteins led to the direct identification of five of the nine external loops (L4, L5, L6, L7, and L9) and led to the prediction of four periplasmic loops (I1, I4, I5, and I8) of LamB. Nine of the hybrid proteins did not lead to topological conclusions, and none led to the wrong predictions or conclusions. The comparison indicates that parts of models based on secondary structure predictions alone are not reliable and points to the importance of experimental data in the establishment of outer membrane protein topological models. The advantages and limitations of genetic foreign epitope insertion for the study of integral membrane proteins are discussed.

Newton, S M; Klebba, P E; Michel, V; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

1996-01-01

106

Tenofovir (TDF) has stronger antiviral effect than adefovir (ADV) against lamivudine (LAM) - resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  We retrospectively compared the antiviral effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) with that of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV)\\u000a for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who developed resistance to lamivudine (LAM).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  One hundred nine patients (86 males), all Asian-American except 1 Caucasian male, with LAM resistance received TDF or ADV.\\u000a HBV DNA levels were measured every 3 months. The HBeAg

Hie-Won Hann; Hee Bok Chae; Stephen R. Dunn

2008-01-01

107

Total polyphenolic (flavonoids) content and antioxidant capacity of different Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts  

PubMed Central

Objective: This paper investigates the total polyphenolic and flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts of different polarity. Materials and Methods: The total polyphenolic content was analysed using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content analysis was performed using the colorimetric method. Results: The total polyphenolic content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (19.27%), chloroform (4.99%) and n-butanol extracts (3.94%) containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The petroleum ether (0.23%) and ethanol extracts (1.64%) contain almost no polyphenolic content. The total flavonoid content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (65.61%), chloroform (14.36%) and n-butanol extracts (10.76%) containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The Z. clinopodioides Lam. ethyl acetate extract exhibits a good antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate extracts contain a large number of polyphenolic compounds (19.27%) and flavonoids (65.61%) owing to good antioxidant capacity.

Tian, Shuge; Shi, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ge, Liang; Upur, Halmuart

2011-01-01

108

Effect of different growth stages of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. on its chemical composition  

PubMed Central

Aims: The aim of this study is to monitor the changes in the chemical composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. throughout nine different growth stages. Materials and Methods: Volatile components such as essential oils were analyzed using the gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry, and the contents of non-volatile components were determined by a visible spectrophotometer. Results: Hydro-distilled essential oil content ranged from a minimum of 1.1% (in the post-flowering stage) to a maximum of 1.8% (in the flowering stage). The essential oils included pulegone, which was the most abundant component (77.48-87.3%), p-menthanone (2.79-12.39%), trans-isopulegone (1.04-2.06%), d-limonene (0.51-3.03%) and eucarvone (1.5-4.48%). The contents of non-volatile components, such as that of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC), total triterpenoids content (TTC) and total free amino acids content (TFAAC) were measured using visible spectrophotometry. In the growing stage, TPC, TFC, TTC and TFAAC were 9.91-12.80 mg/g, 29.84-50.63 mg/g, 0.57-1.41 mg/g and 13.33-28.56 mg/g, respectively. Conclusion: These data can be used as a basis to determine the optimal harvest time of Z. clinopodioide Lam.

Ding, Wenhuan; Yang, Tao; Liu, Feng; Tian, Shuge

2014-01-01

109

Stress polishing of E-ELT segment at LAM: full-scale demonstrator status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) is involved in the prototyping of a full scale demonstrator for stress polishing of segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). Stress polishing method is developed at LAM since more than 40 years, and this mature technology has recently been used with success for VLT instruments. Stress polishing is now considered as a promising manufacturing method for mass production of large off axis mirrors, specifically for ELT segments. This powerful method, based on elasticity theory, allows the generation of super-smooth off-axis aspherics with a minimal amount of high spatial frequency ripples by spherically polishing a warped blank with a full-sized tool. Thanks to the simple spherical polishing, the operation time can be strongly reduced compared to the time-consuming sub-aperture tool methods of grinding and polishing. The goal is to rapidly converge to less than 1 micron RMS of optical quality on a circular blank which will be finally cut hexagonally and finished using Ion Beam Finishing. In this paper we will present the status of the demonstrator and the design of the warping harness prototype that must be able to precisely warp the circular blank.

Laslandes, Marie; Rousselet, Nicolas; Ferrari, Marc; Hugot, Emmanuel; Floriot, Johan; Vivès, Sébastien; Lemaitre, Gérard; Carré, Jean François; Cayrel, Marc

2011-09-01

110

Antineoplastic potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum lam. on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. used in folk medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China and Australia contains a wide range of active compounds, well known for their haemostatic and wound-healing properties. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. on N-diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced hepatic injury in rats. Material and Methods: The aerial part of B. pinnatum aqueous and ethanolic extract was prepared in doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Hepatic injury was induced by DENA. Acute toxicity was also carried out. Result: Treatment with different doses of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum (250 mg/kg, p.o.) was not significantly able to treat the liver injury induced by DENA, but 500 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum protects the liver slightly. Treatment with different doses of aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P*<0.05; P**<0.01 and P***<0.001) treated the liver injury induced by DENA. Conclusion: It may be inferred from the present study that the hepatoprotective activities of the aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum leaves in DENA-induced hepatotoxicity may involve its antioxidant or oxidative free radical scavenging activities by alleviating lipid peroxidation through scavenging of free radicals, or by enhancing the activity of antioxidants.

Afzal, Muhammad; Kazmi, Imran; Anwar, Firoz

2013-01-01

111

In vivo anticoccidial activity of berberine [18, 5,6-dihydro-9,10-dimethoxybenzo(g)-1,3-benzodioxolo(5,6-a) quinolizinium]--an isoquinoline alkaloid present in the root bark of Berberis lycium.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis, caused by various Eimeria species, is a major parasitic disease in chicken. However the increasing resistance of these parasites to currently used anticoccidial drugs has stimulated the search for new methods of control. As part of this effort we investigated the root bark of Berberis lycium (barberry) as a potential source of compounds with anticoccidial activity. In the present study anticoccidial activity of different solvent extracts of the root bark of B. lycium and berberine was evaluated in vivo using broiler chicken. Results of the study demonstrated equipotent efficacy of pure berberine in comparison to that of standard drug amprolium on the basis of reduction in coccidian oocyst output, body weight gain of chicken and feed conversion ratio. Among the extracts crude methanolic extract showed highest anticoccidial activity tested at 300 mg/kg body weight which could be due to the presence of alcohol-soluble active ingredients in root bark of B. lycium. Toxicological studies revealed that B. lycium extracts as well as berberine were not lethal up to dosage of 2000 mg/kg body weight. LD(50) was not determined as mortalities were not recorded in any of the five groups of chicken. From the present study it can be concluded that root bark of B. lycium has the immense potential to contribute to the control of coccidian parasites of chicken. Our results corroborate the use of berberine for treatment of severe diarrhoea, amoebiasis and intestinal infections and could justify its use in folk medicine for treatment of haemorrhagic dysentery. PMID:24411651

Malik, Tauseef Ahmad; Kamili, Azra N; Chishti, M Z; Tanveer, Syed; Ahad, Shazia; Johri, R K

2014-04-15

112

Susceptibility of Italian ryegrasses (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) to Argentine stem weevil (Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel)) feeding and oviposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of Italian ryegrasses (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) to Argentine stem weevil (Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel)) was investigated in laboratory feeding and oviposition experiments, and in a field trial. Some Italian ryegrasses (for example, ‘Concord’, ‘Corvette’, ‘Progrow’) are infected with an Acremonium-like endophytic fungus. The presence of Acremonium-like endophyte did not deter or reduce adult Argentine stem weevil feeding or oviposition.

R. A. Prestidge

1991-01-01

113

The effects of floating mats of Azolla filiculoides Lam. and Lemna minuta Kunth on the growth of submerged macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory experiments, the growth characteristics of the submerged species Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) St. John and Potamogeton crispus L. were assessed in the presence and absence of floating mats of Azolla filiculoides Lam. and Lemna minuta Kunth. Light penetration and the development of pH and dissolved oxygen differences were monitored. The growth of P. crispus was suppressed much more than

Rachel A. Janes; John W. Eaton; Keith Hardwick

1996-01-01

114

The Inhibitory Effect of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. on Gastric Acid Output at Basal, Vagotomized and Vagal Stimulated Conditions in Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective(s) Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. is a plant widely used in Iranian traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. Several reports have demonstrated antibacterial (Helicobacteria pylori), antioxidant and anti- inflammatory properties of Z. clinopodioides. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous- ethanol extract of Z. clinopodioides on rat's gastric acid output in basal, vagotomized (VX) and vagal stimulated

Saeed Niazmand; Mohammad Derakhshan; Khadijeh Hosaeni

2010-01-01

115

A Demonstration of Broadband RF Sensing: Empirical Polysilicon Etch Rate Estimation in a Lam 9400 Etch Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of a novel broad frequency band ( to ) RF sensing system to plasma etching process conditions is demonstrated. This is accomplished by using the sensing system to estimate polysilicon etch rate in a Lam 9400 etch tool. A designed experiment varying physical and chemical reactive ion etching regimes was performed with five repetitions at each experimental point.

Craig Garvin; J. W. Grizzle

116

Advanced Distributed Simulation Technology II (ADST-II) LAM Task Force DO Number 14 CDRL AB03 After Action Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army Experiment III (AE3), sponsored by the Louisiana Maneuvers Task Force (LAM-TF) for the Association of the United States Army (AUSA) demonstration held 14-16 October, 1996 was comprised of: (1) An Immersive Theater, (2) Stand Alone Interactive Dis...

1997-01-01

117

MicroRNA-21 is induced by rapamycin in a model of tuberous sclerosis (TSC) and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).  

PubMed

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a multisystem disease of women, is manifest by the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells in the lung resulting in cystic lung destruction. Women with LAM can also develop renal angiomyolipomas. LAM is caused by mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex genes (TSC1 or TSC2), resulting in hyperactive mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. The mTOR inhibitor, Rapamycin, stabilizes lung function in LAM and decreases the volume of renal angiomyolipomas, but lung function declines and angiomyolipomas regrow when treatment is discontinued, suggesting that factors induced by mTORC1 inhibition may promote the survival of TSC2-deficient cells. Whether microRNA (miRNA, miR) signaling is involved in the response of LAM to mTORC1 inhibition is unknown. We identified Rapamycin-dependent miRNA in LAM patient angiomyolipoma-derived cells using two separate screens. First, we assayed 132 miRNA of known significance to tumor biology. Using a cut-off of >1.5-fold change, 48 microRNA were Rapamycin-induced, while 4 miRs were downregulated. In a second screen encompassing 946 miRNA, 18 miRs were upregulated by Rapamycin, while eight were downregulated. Dysregulation of miRs 29b, 21, 24, 221, 106a and 199a were common to both platforms and were classified as candidate "RapamiRs." Validation by qRT-PCR confirmed that these microRNA were increased. miR-21, a pro-survival miR, was the most significantly increased by mTOR-inhibition (p<0.01). The regulation of miR-21 by Rapamycin is cell type independent. mTOR inhibition promotes the processing of the miR-21 transcript (pri-miR-21) to a premature form (pre-miR-21). In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that Rapamycin upregulates multiple miRs, including pro-survival miRs, in TSC2-deficient patient-derived cells. The induction of miRs may contribute to the response of LAM and TSC patients to Rapamycin therapy. PMID:23555865

Trindade, Anil J; Medvetz, Douglas A; Neuman, Nicole A; Myachina, Faina; Yu, Jane; Priolo, Carmen; Henske, Elizabeth P

2013-01-01

118

Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats  

PubMed Central

Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity.

Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B. K.; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.

2013-01-01

119

Dynamics of Polyethylene Studied by High Resolution Neutron Spectrometer LAM-80ET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently developed a high resolution quasielastic neutron scattering spectrometer LAM-80ET by applying mica crystals as analyzers and achieved a resolution of \\varDelta\\varepsilon{=}1.3 ?eV using the 002 reflection. Single chain dynamics of polyethylene has been investigated below and above the melting temperature Tm ({=}135°C) to show the feasibility of the mica 002 reflection as the analyzer. It was found that elastic scattering intensity from polyethylene decreases very steeply around the Tm. Quasielastic broadening in the spectrum at Q{=}0.082 Å-1 is observed only above 210°C, which is 75°C higher than the Tm. From the analysis of the spectra by a curve-fitting method, the width of the quasielastic component was evaluated to be 1.8 ?eV at 250°C and the activation energy of the width to be 34 kJ/mol.

Kanaya, Toshiji; Kaji, Keisuke; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Ikeda, Susumu; Shibata, Kaoru; Izumi, Yoshinobu; Kamiyama, Takashi; Furusaka, Michihiro

1992-06-01

120

Preliminary Assessment of the Chemical Stability of Dried Extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae).  

PubMed

We report the results of a preliminary estimation of the stability of the dried extract from bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. ("Mutamba"), with and without added colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD). The physical and chemical properties and the compatibility of CSD in the extract were evaluated for 21 days of storage under stress conditions of temperature (45 ± 2°C) and humidity (75 ± 5%). Thermogravimetry (TG) was supplemented using selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of stability of the characteristic constituents (chemical markers), namely, procyanidin B2 (PB2) and epicatechin (EP). The results showed that PB2 is an appropriate compound to be used as a chemical marker in the quality control of dried extracts of G. ulmifolia. The stress study showed that there was no significant difference between the two formulations. However, considering the TG data and the high temperatures involved, the results suggest that CSD increases the stability of the dried extract of G. ulmifolia. PMID:22291706

Lopes, Gisely C; Longhini, Renata; Dos Santos, Paulo Victor P; Araújo, Adriano A S; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano; de Mello, João Carlos P

2012-01-01

121

Preliminary Assessment of the Chemical Stability of Dried Extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)  

PubMed Central

We report the results of a preliminary estimation of the stability of the dried extract from bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (“Mutamba”), with and without added colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD). The physical and chemical properties and the compatibility of CSD in the extract were evaluated for 21 days of storage under stress conditions of temperature (45 ± 2°C) and humidity (75 ± 5%). Thermogravimetry (TG) was supplemented using selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of stability of the characteristic constituents (chemical markers), namely, procyanidin B2 (PB2) and epicatechin (EP). The results showed that PB2 is an appropriate compound to be used as a chemical marker in the quality control of dried extracts of G. ulmifolia. The stress study showed that there was no significant difference between the two formulations. However, considering the TG data and the high temperatures involved, the results suggest that CSD increases the stability of the dried extract of G. ulmifolia.

Lopes, Gisely C.; Longhini, Renata; dos Santos, Paulo Victor P.; Araujo, Adriano A. S.; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano; de Mello, Joao Carlos P.

2012-01-01

122

Pharmacognostical evaluation of leaf of Bada Rasna [Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.; Acanthaceae].  

PubMed

Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng. (Acanthaceae), a well-known plant in traditional systems of medicine, known as "Bada Rasna" by the traditional practitioners of Odisha, is being used as Rasna for managing pain and inflammation. The detailed macroscopic and microscopic characters of the plant, except its root, are lacking. Hence, it was thought worth to study the leaves of the plant for its detailed morphological and microscopical characters, by following the standard pharmacognostical procedures. The study shows the presence of diacytic stomata in the lower epidermis of lamina, microsphenoidal and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in the mesophyll cells, simple and glandular trichomes. The observed major diagnostic characters of the leaf may find useful for its standardization. PMID:23661868

Acharya, Rabinarayan; Padiya, Riddhish H; Patel, Eisha D; Rudrapa, Harisha C; Shukla, Vinaya J; Chauhan, Malati G

2012-04-01

123

Predicting weed migration from soil and climate maps. [Centaurea maculosa Lam  

SciTech Connect

Soil characteristics, elevation, annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, length of frost-free season, and mean maximum July temperature were estimated for 116 established infestations of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam. number/sup 3/ CENMA) in Montana using basic land resource maps. Areas potentially vulnerable to invasion by the plant were delineated on the basis of representative edaphic and climatic characteristics. No single environmental variable was an effective predictor of sites vulnerable to invasion by spotted knapweed. Only a combination of variables was effective, indicating that the factors that regulate adaptability of this plant are complex. This technique provides a first approximation map of the regions most similar environmentally to infested sites and; therefore, most vulnerable to further invasion. This weed migration prediction technique shows promise for predicting suitable habitats of other invader species. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Chicoine, T.K.; Fay, P.K.; Nielsen, G.A.

1985-01-01

124

Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) - A Valuable Medicinal Food: A Review.  

PubMed

Abstract Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam, also known as sweet potato, is an extremely versatile and delicious vegetable that possesses high nutritional value. It is also a valuable medicinal plant having anti-cancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Sweet potato is now considered a valuable source of unique natural products, including some that can be used in the development of medicines against various diseases and in making industrial products. The overall objective of this review is to give a bird's-eye view of the nutritional value, health benefits, phytochemical composition, and medicinal properties of sweet potato. Specifically, this review outlines the biological activities of some of the sweet potato compounds that have been isolated, the pharmacological action of the sweet potato extract, clinical studies, and plausible medicinal applications of sweet potato (along with a safety evaluation), and demonstrates the potential of sweet potato as a medicinal food. PMID:24921903

Mohanraj, Remya; Sivasankar, Subha

2014-07-01

125

Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats.  

PubMed

Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity. PMID:24250136

Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B K; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V J

2013-04-01

126

Diversity of mollusks in the Lam Ta Khong reservoir, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.  

PubMed

Sampling surveys to study the diversity of mollusks in the Lam Ta Khong reservoir, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, northeast Thailand, were carried out in the hot, rainy and cold seasons. The study area was divided into: Area I--the upper part where the Lam Ta Khong river drains; Area II--the mid-section of the reservoir; Area III--behind the dam. Mollusks were collected from four locations on each bank (to the right and left) of each area. Each location was sampled to include 6 cross-sectional stations; in total, 144 stations were sampled. In the deep water, an Ekman dredge was used to collect samples; the scoop or manual method was used at the water's edge. Ten species of snails and four species of clams were found. The dominant species of snails were: Clea helena, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos and Melanoides tuberculata; clams were dominated by Corbicula sp. The intermediate host of the human blood fluke was not found. The population of most mollusk species increased during the cold season while that of clams and that of some species of snails increased during the rainy season. Clams and operculate snails predominated in Areas II and III. Pulmonate snails were mostly found close to the bank and on aquatic plants especially in Areas I and II. Operculate snails and clams mainly inhabited water 1 to 10 m deep. Two species of edible mollusks were found: Filopaludina martensi martensi and large numbers of Corbicula. Neither shedding light nor digestion with pepsin A revealed any human parasites in the mollusks sampled. PMID:12757219

Tesana, Smarn

2002-12-01

127

Can Point-of-Care Urine LAM Strip Testing for Tuberculosis Add Value to Clinical Decision Making in Hospitalised HIV-Infected Persons?  

PubMed Central

Background The urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) strip-test (Determine®-TB) can rapidly rule-in TB in HIV-infected persons with advanced immunosuppression. However, given high rates of empiric treatment amongst hospitalised patients in high-burden settings (?50%) it is unclear whether LAM can add any value to clinical decision making, or identify a subset of patients with unfavourable outcomes that would otherwise have been missed by empiric treatment. Methods 281 HIV-infected hospitalised patients with suspected TB received urine LAM strip testing, and were categorised as definite (culture-positive), probable-, or non-TB. Both the proportion and morbidity of TB cases identified by LAM testing, early empiric treatment (initiated prior to test result availability) and a set of clinical predictors were compared across groups. Results 187/281 patients had either definite- (n?=?116) or probable-TB (n?=?71). As a rule-in test for definite and probable-TB, LAM identified a similar proportion of TB cases compared to early empiric treatment (85/187 vs. 93/187, p?=?0.4), but a greater proportion than classified by a set of clinical predictors alone (19/187; p<0.001). Thirty-nine of the 187 (21%) LAM-positive patients who had either definite- or probable-TB were missed by early empiric treatment, and of these 25/39 (64%) would also have been missed by smear microscopy. Thus, 25/187 (8%) of definite- or probable-TB patients with otherwise delayed initiation of TB treatment could be detected by the LAM strip test. LAM-positive patients missed by early empiric treatment had a lower median CD4 count (p?=?0.008), a higher median illness severity score (p?=?0.001) and increased urea levels (p?=?0.002) compared to LAM-negative patients given early empiric treatment. Conclusions LAM strip testing outperformed TB diagnosis based on clinical criteria but in day-to-day practice identified a similar proportion of patients compared to early empiric treatment. However, compared to empiric treatment, LAM identified a different subset of patients with more advanced immunosuppression and greater disease severity.

Peter, Jonathan G.; Theron, Grant; Dheda, Keertan

2013-01-01

128

THE APPLICATION OF LASER.ABLATION MICROPROBE - INDUCTIVELY COU PLED PLASMA - MASS SPECTROMETRY (LAM-ICP-MS) TO IN SITU TRACE.ELEMENT DETERMINATIONS IN MINERALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laser ablation microprobe (LAM) sample-introduction system, designed for in sira microsampling of minerals in petrographic sections, has been interfacedto anlnductively CoupledPlasma-Mass Spectrometer(ICP-MS). TheLAM consists of aQ-switched Nd:YAG laser with power attenuation and steering optics to guide the laser beam through the phototube of a petrographic microscope, where it is focused onto the petrographic section contained in a sample cell.

SMON E. JACKSON; HENRY P. LONGERICH; GREG R. DUNNING; BRIAN J. FRYER

129

PRE AND POST-IMPLANTATION CHANGES IN THE UTEUS OF RATS: RESPONSE TO MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. EXTRACT  

PubMed Central

Aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (root) has been studies on pre and post-implementation stages of the uterus of rats so as to elucidate its antifertility mode of action. Results on the biochemical estimation in the uterus of control pregnant rats at different stages of pregnancy revealed a successive increase in the total proteins, glycogen content and the activity or acid and alkaline phosphatase from day 2 to 5 post-coitum. When aqueous extract of M. oleifera Lam. Was administered, there was a significant reduction in all these biochemical constituents when compared to their respective control groups. The role of these biochemical transformations has been discussed in relation to anti-implantation action of the extract.

Prakash, Anand O.; Pathak, Sandhya; Shukla, Sangeeta; Mathur, R.

1988-01-01

130

Hypocholesterolemic effects of crude extract of leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam in high-fat diet fed wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypocholesterolemic agent in obese patients. The scientific basis for their use in hypercholesterolemia was therefore examined. It was found that administration of the crude leaf extract of Moringa oleifera along with high-fat diet decreased the high-fat diet-induced increases in serum, liver, and

S Ghasi; E Nwobodo; J. O Ofili

2000-01-01

131

Chemomodulatory Effect of Moringa Oleifera, Lam, on Hepatic Carcinogen Metabolising Enzymes, Antioxidant Parameters and Skin Papillomagenesis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulatory effects of a hydro-alchoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg\\/ kg bodyweight and 250 mg\\/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b 5 and Cytochrome P 450 ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and

Rupjyoti Bharali; Jawahira Tabassum; Mohammed Rekibul; Haque Azad

2003-01-01

132

Optimization of somatic embryogenesis in suspension cultures of horsegram [ Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.]—A hardy grain legume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell suspension cultures were established from immature cotyledon derived calli from drought tolerant legume horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.]. Embryogenic callus could be originated from cut slices of the immature cotyledons on MS solid medium [Murashige, T. Skoog, K., 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473–497] augmented with 1.0?M zeatin

Shamsudeen Varisai Mohamed; Jih-Min Sung; Toong-Long Jeng; Chang-Sheng Wang

2005-01-01

133

Natural and experimentally altered hydraulic architecture of branch junctions in Acer saccharum Marsh. and Quercus velutina Lam. trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional xylem anatomy and the hydraulic conductivity of intact and treated branch junctions of the diffuse-porous\\u000a sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were compared to those of the ring-porous black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.). Maple shoots possessed greater growth intensity than those of oak. The extensive growth of the maple trees resulted\\u000a in about a two-fold increase in xylem production

R. Aloni; John D. Alexander; Melvin T. Tyree

1997-01-01

134

Trace element partition coefficients for clinopyroxene and phlogopite in an alkaline lamprophyre from Newfoundland by LAM-ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral\\/rock matrix partition coefficients have been determined for clinopyroxene (Cpx) and phlogopite from a Mesozoic alkaline lamprophyre from Newfoundland, Canada, by Laser Ablation Microprobe (LAM-ICP-MS). Values for twenty-one elements were obtained for Cpx, whereas only eleven were possible for phlogopite due to REE abundances below detection limits ( 1 ppm). Ablation pits of 40–50 ?m diameter enabled investigation of zonation

Stephen F. Foley; Simon E. Jackson; Brian J. Fryer; John D. Greenouch; George A. Jenner

1996-01-01

135

Elisa de captura com IgY para quantificação de acetato de lupeol em Vernonia scorpioides lam. Pers (asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, a yolk immunoglobulins-based immunenzymatic assay (capture IgY-ELISA) was carried out to detect Lupeol acetate (LAc) from Vernonia scorpioides Lam. Pers (Asteraceae). Antibodies (IgY) against lupeol acetate (anti- LAc antibodies) were raised in White Leghorn hens immunized with LAc conjugated to the bovine serum albumin (LAc-BSA). The anti-LAc antibodies were recovered by cleanup columns containing LAc-BSA coupled

Ronald Bastos Freire; Márcia de Fátima Inácio Freire; Ricardo Louro Berbara

2004-01-01

136

Virus resistance in transgenic sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)] expressing the coat protein gene of sweet potato feathery mottle virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most-serious diseases of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] is russet crack disease caused by sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV). We constructed an expression vector carrying the coat protein (CP) and hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) genes\\u000a driven by cauliflower mosaic virus 35 S promoters. Accordingly, we introduced the expression vector into sweet potato variety\\u000a Chikei 682-11 by

Y. Okada; A. Saito; M. Nishiguchi; T. Kimura; M. Mori; K. Hanada; J. Sakai; C. Miyazaki; Y. Matsuda; T. Murata

2001-01-01

137

A valued Indian medicinal plant - Begonia malabarica Lam. : Successful plant regeneration through various explants and field performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cost-effective and efficient protocol has been described in the present work for large- scale and rapid in vitro propagation of a valuable medicinal herb Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae) by shoot auxillary-bud proliferation and organogenesis on MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA; 0.0-8.8 mg\\/l) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.0-2.88 mg\\/l) at different concentrations, either alone or in combinations. Initiation of

Mathan C. Nisha; Sevanan Rajeshkumar; Thangavel Selvaraj

138

Determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid contents in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. by HPLC method  

PubMed Central

A simple, precise, rapid and accurate, binary-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid contents in the Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. with short run time. Chromatographic separation is achieved by using HPLC system consisting of a Shimadzu LC-6AD and Kromasil C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 10 ?m, with pre-column), the mobile phase consists of methanol and 0.03 M phosphate buffer (pH = 3, 90:10). Detection wavelength is 214 nm. The speed of flow is 0.5 ml/min. The specimen handing quantity is 10 ?l. The oleanolic acid's linearity range is 0.4 ~ 1.2 mg/ml (r = 0.9996). The ursolic acid's linearity range is 0.6 ~ 1.8 mg/ml (r = 0.9996), and the linear relationship is accurate. The average recovery (n = 6) of oleanolic acid is 99.5% (RSD = 1.19%) and ursolic acid is 102.3% (RSD = 1.25%). The content of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in Ziziphora clinopodioides are 0.76 mg/g and 1.176 mg/g, respectively. The developed HPLC method can therefore be applied to both in vitro studies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid formulations as well as drug estimation in biological samples.

Tian, Shuge; Shi, Yang; Yu, Qian; Upur, Halmurat

2010-01-01

139

Influence of growth phase on the essential oil composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.  

PubMed

Ziziphora clinopodioides belongs to the Lamiaceae family, that are widespread all over Iran. The leaves, flowers and stems of the plant are frequently used as wild vegetables or additives in food to offer aroma and flavour. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of Z. clinopodioides Lam. in different growth stages were analysed by GC and GC-MS, and 29 components were identified. Pulegone (30.1%), thymol (21.3%), p-mentha-3-en-8-ol (12.9%) and piperitenone (9.3%) were the main components in the pre-flowering stage. In the flowering stage, pulegone (44.6%), p-mentha-3-en-8-ol (10.5%), 1,8-cineoil (10.4%), piperitenone (8.7%) and thymol (6.7%) were identified as the main constituents and in the post-flowering stage, pulegone (41.3%), isomenthone (11.6%), p-mentha-3-en-8-ol (11%), p-mentha-3,8-diene (7.2%) and thymol (5.8%) were identified as the major components. PMID:19401912

Amiri, Hamzeh

2009-01-01

140

Determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid contents in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. by HPLC method.  

PubMed

A simple, precise, rapid and accurate, binary-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid contents in the Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. with short run time. Chromatographic separation is achieved by using HPLC system consisting of a Shimadzu LC-6AD and Kromasil C(18) column (150 x 4.6 mm, 10 mum, with pre-column), the mobile phase consists of methanol and 0.03 M phosphate buffer (pH = 3, 90:10). Detection wavelength is 214 nm. The speed of flow is 0.5 ml/min. The specimen handing quantity is 10 mul. The oleanolic acid's linearity range is 0.4 ~ 1.2 mg/ml (r = 0.9996). The ursolic acid's linearity range is 0.6 ~ 1.8 mg/ml (r = 0.9996), and the linear relationship is accurate. The average recovery (n = 6) of oleanolic acid is 99.5% (RSD = 1.19%) and ursolic acid is 102.3% (RSD = 1.25%). The content of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in Ziziphora clinopodioides are 0.76 mg/g and 1.176 mg/g, respectively. The developed HPLC method can therefore be applied to both in vitro studies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid formulations as well as drug estimation in biological samples. PMID:20668577

Tian, Shuge; Shi, Yang; Yu, Qian; Upur, Halmurat

2010-04-01

141

In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam  

PubMed Central

Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro.

Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Pauzi, Nur Aimi Syarina; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

2013-01-01

142

Comparative Study of Erythrina indica Lam. (Febaceae) Leaves Extracts for Antioxidant Activity  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Erythrina indica Lam leaves by in vitro methods viz. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method on isolated rat liver tissues. Quantitative analysis of antioxidative components like total amount of phenolics, flavonoids, and flavonols were estimated using the spectrophotometric method. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate the IC50 value. Results showed that the aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited significant DPPH radicals scavenging activity with an IC50 value 342.59 ± 19.59, 283.24 ± 12.28 µg/mL respectively. Nitric oxide radicals were significantly scavenged by the aqueous and methanol extracts (IC50 = 250.12 ± 10.66; 328.29 ± 3.74 µg/mL). Lipid peroxidation induced by the Fe2+ was inhibited by the aqueous extract with low IC50 value (97.29 ± 2.05 µg/mL) as compared to methanol extract (IC50 = 283.74 ± 5.70 µg/mL). Both the extracts were exhibited similar quantities of total phenolics. Total flavonoids were found to be in higher quantities than total flavonols in aqueous extract as compared to methanol extract. From the results, it is concluded that the aqueous and methanol extracts of E. indica leaves possesses significant antioxidant activity that may be due to the presence of flavonoids and related polyphenolic compounds.

Sakat, SS; Juvekar, AR

2010-01-01

143

Simultaneous HPLC Quantitative Analysis of Active Compounds in Leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.  

PubMed

Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. A simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of the contents of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, the primary antioxidative compounds, in M. oleifera leaves. HPLC analysis was successfully conducted by using a Hypersil BDS C18 column, eluted with a gradient of methanol-1% acetic acid with a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and detected at 334 nm. Parameters for the validation included linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation. The developed HPLC method was precise, with relative standard deviation < 2%. The recovery values of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in M. oleifera leaf extracts were 98.50, 98.47 and 98.59%, respectively. The average contents of these compounds in the dried ethanolic extracts of the leaves of M. oleifera collected from different regions of Thailand were 0.081, 0.120 and 0.153% (w/w), respectively. The developed HPLC method was appropriate and practical for the simultaneous analysis of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in the leaf extract of M. oleifera. This work is valuable as guidance for the standardization of the leaf extracts and pharmaceutical products of M. oleifera. PMID:23828911

Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

2014-08-01

144

Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense  

PubMed Central

Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA-) stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, ?2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity.

Barioni, Eric Diego; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes de Paula; Ferraz-de-Paula, Viviane; Wagner, Theodoro Marcel; Cogliati, Bruno; Correa dos Santos, Matheus; Machado, Marina da Silva; de Andrade, Sergio Faloni; Niero, Rivaldo; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli

2013-01-01

145

Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves' extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam  

PubMed Central

Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed.

Pochapski, Marcia Thais; Fosquiera, Eliana Cristina; Esmerino, Luis Antonio; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fabio Andre; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

2011-01-01

146

Antifilarial activity of Mallotus philippensis Lam. on Setaria cervie (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in vitro.  

PubMed

The effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. was studied on the spontaneous movements of the whole worm and nerve-muscle (n.m.) preparation of Setaria cervi and on the survival of microfilariae in vitro. Both the extracts caused inhibition of spontaneous motility of whole worm and the n.m. preparation of S. Cervi characterized by initial stimulation followed by depression in amplitude. The tone and rate of contractions remained visibly unaffected. Aqueous extract at higher concentration showed immediate reduction in tone. The concentration required to inhibit the movements of n.m. preparation was 1/5th for aqueous and 1/11th for alcoholic extract compared to that for the whole worm, suggesting a cuticular permeability barrier. The stimulatory response of acetylcholine was blocked by aqueous extract on whole worm movements. On the microfilariae the LC50 and LC90 were 18 and 20 ng/ml for aqueous and 12 and 15 ng/ml for alcoholic extracts respectively. PMID:10235663

Singh, R; Singhal, K C; Khan, N U

1997-10-01

147

Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells  

PubMed Central

Context: Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD). About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, pharmacological and pharmacognostical applications of Moringa oleifera have been reported. Objective: This study investigated the antisickling potential of polar and non-polar extracts of the seed, flower and leaf of Moringa oleifera for the first time. Materials and Methods: Using crude methanol extract, aqueous extract, ethyl acetate and butanol, the in vitro antisickling activities of Moringa oleifera fractions, were evaluated using erythrocyte cells deoxygenated with 2% sodium metabisulphite. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, free anthraquinones, and alkaloids. Extracts of the seed and flower demonstrated a higher (P<0.05) antisickling activity in comparison to the leaf extract. The leaf extract, as well as those of the seed and flower, equally demonstrated a (P<0.05) reversal of sickled erythrocytes. Discussions and Conclusions: These findings suggest that Moringa oleifera may play a role in the management of SCD, by incorporation of its fractions into recipes. More extensive biological evaluations and further studies will be necessary for the chemical characterization of the antisickling principles.

Adejumo, Olufunmilayo E.; Kolapo, Adelodun L.; Folarin, Akintomiwa O.

2012-01-01

148

Biochemical properties of metalloproteinases from the hemolymph of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.  

PubMed

The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) with gelatinase activity was found in the whole hemolymph of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. Cleavage activity was specific for gelatin; very little activity towards human type-IV collagen, and no activity for cold fish gelatin, casein or bovine serum albumin were detected. EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline were inhibitory, suggesting that mussel MMPs require divalent cations for their proteolytic activity; in fact, the presence of exogenously added divalent ions significantly protected the MMPs from inhibition. No inhibition was detected with serine or cysteine proteinase inhibitors. The specific vertebrate inhibitors as well as the classical vertebrate activator of MMPs were without effect, whereas sulphydryl reducing agents had a strong inhibitory effect. Mussel MMPs showed an exponential curve of thermal-dependent decay that was not protected by the presence of metal ions. Overall the results indicate both similarities and differences between invertebrate and vertebrate gelatinases, providing information for understanding the biological role of these ancient proteinases. PMID:11250546

Mannello, F; Canesi, L; Gazzanelli, G; Gallo, G

2001-03-01

149

Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and liver protective effects of friedelin isolated from Azima tetracantha Lam. leaves.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant, free radical scavenging and liver protective effects of friedelin isolated from Azima tetracantha Lam. leaves. In in vitro antioxidant study, the free radical scavenging effect of friedelin on 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radicals were evaluated. Friedelin showed very good scavenging effect on DPPH (IC50 21.1 mM), hydroxyl (IC50 19.8 mM), nitric oxide (IC50 22.1 mM) and superoxide (IC50 21.9 mM) radicals. Friedelin also showed strong suppressive effect on lipid peroxidation. In in vivo antioxidant study, CCl4 induced oxidative stress on rats produced significant increase in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels along with reduction in liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. Pre-treatment of rats with friedelin at 40 mg/kg for 7 days restored these levels to normality and showed liver protection, comparable to the standard, silymarin (25 mg/kg). These results clearly demonstrated that friedelin possessed marked antioxidant and liver protective effects. PMID:23561182

Sunil, Christudas; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

2013-08-15

150

Drell-Yan production and Lam-Tung relation in the color glass condensate formalism  

SciTech Connect

We study the Drell-Yan production cross section and structure functions in proton (deuteron)-nucleus collisions using the color glass condensate formalism. The nucleus is treated in the color glass condensate framework which includes both higher twist effects due to the inclusion of multiple scatterings and leading twist pQCD shadowing due to the small x resummation, while the proton (or deuteron) is treated within the DGLAP improved parton model. In particular, the Drell-Yan structure functions are used in order to investigate the Lam-Tung relation at small x, which is known to be identically zero at leading twist up to next-to-leading order, and is thus a good playground for studying higher twist effects. In agreement with this, we find that violations of this relation are more important for low momentum and invariant mass of the Drell-Yan pair, and also in the region of rapidity that corresponds to smaller values of x in the nucleus.

Gelis, Francois [Service de Physique Theorique (URA 2306 du CNRS), CEA/DSM/Saclay, Bat. 774 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Jalilian-Marian, Jamal [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1550 (United States); Department of Natural Sciences, Baruch College, New York, New York 10010 (United States)

2007-10-01

151

The use of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) in traditional medicine practice in East Africa.  

PubMed

Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) has been used by traditional health practitioners in East Africa for management of diseases, however, the extent of its usefulness has not been established to date. Fieldwork for this study was carried out in the Lake Victoria Basin between March and September 2006. The purpose was to collect ethnomedical information that will serve as a basis for further studies to establish current and potential medicinal uses. The ethnomedical information was obtained through interviews using semi-structured questionnaires. Consultative meetings were also conducted with traditional health practitioners and other members of the communities in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Results of this study show that Toddalia asiatica is collected in the wild, prepared mostly as decoctions or concoctions and administered orally. It is used for the management of a number of disease conditions. The most frequently cited diseases were stomach problems (78%) followed by malaria (25%). Cough (22%), chest pain (13%), food poisoning (8%), sore throat (7%), were also mentioned among other disease conditions treated. Validation studies of therapeutic claims will be carried out at a later date. PMID:17996412

Orwa, J A; Jondiko, I J O; Minja, R J A; Bekunda, M

2008-01-17

152

Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Methods Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. Results It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity.

Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

2014-01-01

153

In vitro antioxidant activity of Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. aerial parts.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract of the aerial part of Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (Rubiaceae) was screened for antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH) quenching assay, 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) cation decolorization test, ferric reducing power (FRP), scavenging capacity towards hydroxyl ion (OH*) radicals and nitric oxide (NO) radical inhibition activity using established assay procedures. Total phenolics and total flavonoid contents were, also determined. The plant yielded 210 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g phenolic content and 55 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g flavonoid content. The extract exhibited high antiradical activity against DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radicals with EC50 value of 82, 150, 130, and 170 microg/ml, respectively. The FRP increased with increasing concentration of the sample. The antioxidant activity of the extract was comparable with that of the standard butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). High correlation between total phenolic/flavonoid contents and scavenging potential of different reactive oxygen species (R2 = 0.785-0.998) indicated the polyphenols as the main antioxidants. PMID:21086755

Sasikumar, J M; Maheshu, V; Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Darsini, D Teepica Priya

2010-02-01

154

First chemical constituents from Cordia exaltata Lam and antimicrobial activity of two neolignans.  

PubMed

The phytochemical study of Cordia exaltata Lam. (Boraginaceae) led to the isolation, through chromatographic techniques, of nineteen secondary metabolites: 8,8'dimethyl-3,4,3',4'-dimethylenedioxy-7-oxo-2,7'cyclolignan (1), 8,8'-dimethyl-4,5-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenodioxy-7-oxo-2,7'cyclolignan (2), sitosterol (3a), stigmasterol (3b), sitosterol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (4a), stigmasterol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (4b), phaeophytin A (5), 13²-hydroxyphaeophytin A (6), 17³-ethoxypheophorbide A (7), 13²-hydroxy-17³-ethoxypheophorbide A (8), m-methoxy-p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (9), (E)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-propenoic acid (10), 1-benzopyran-2-one (11), 7-hydroxy-1-benzopyran-2-one (12), 2,5-bis-(3',4'-methylenedioxiphenyl)-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrofuran (13), 3,4,5,3',5'-pentamethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan (14), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavonol (15), 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (16), 5,8-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (17), kaempherol 3-O-?-D-glucosyl-6''-?-L-ramnopyranoside (18) and kaempherol 3,7-di-O-?-L-ramnopyranoside (19). Their structures were identified by ¹H and ¹³C-NMR using one and two-dimensional techniques. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of compounds 1, 2, 13 and 14 against bacteria and fungi are reported here for the first time. PMID:24025457

de Sá de Sousa Nogueira, Tiago Bezerra; de Sá de Sousa Nogueira, Raquel Bezerra; E Silva, Davi Antas; Tavares, Josean Fechine; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; da Silva Maciel, Jéssica Karina; de Souza Fernandes, Milen Maria Magalhães; de Medeiros, Fernando Antônio; do Socorro Ferreira Rodrigues Sarquis, Rosangela; Filho, Raimundo Braz; de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza, Maria

2013-01-01

155

Development of a rapid resolution liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the determination of three compounds in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam from different origins of Xinjiang  

PubMed Central

Context: As a traditional Uygur medicinal plant, Z. clinopodioides Lam has various uses in Xinjiang. Aims: A reversed-phase rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RP-RRLC) method with diode array detector (DAD) was developed for simultaneous determination of diosmin, linarin, and pulegone from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam, a widely used in traditional Uygur medicine for treating heart disease, high blood pressure, and other diseases. Settings and Design: Compounds were separated on a XDB-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 1.8 ?m) with gradient elution using methanol and 1% aqueous acetic acid (v/v) at 0.9 mL/min. he detection wavelength was set at 270 nm. Materials and Methods: Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. were collected from ten different origins in Xinjiang, including the Ban fang ditch, Tuoli, the Altay mountains, Terks, Xiata Road, Zhaosu Highway, Guozigou, Fukang, Jimsar, Wulabo. Statistical Analysis Used: The intra-day and inter-day precisions of all three compounds were less than 0.89% and the average recoveries ranged from 97.4 to 104.1%. There were highly significant linear correlations between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of three active components in Z. clinopodioides Lam. samples from different locations in Xinjiang. Conclusions: The proposed method is simple, consistent, accurate, and could be utilized as a quality control method for Z. clinopodioides Lam.

Tian, Shuge; Yu, Qian; Wang, Dongdong; Upur, Halmuart

2012-01-01

156

Investigation on the influence of foreign metal ions in crystal growth and characterization of L-Alaninium Maleate (LAM) single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Nonlinear Optical, good quality, single crystals of doped and undoped L-Alaninium Maleate (LAM) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. The lattice parameters were analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The identification of Cadmium ion in the doped crystals was done using the EDAX spectrum. The presence of functional group of the dopant with LAM molecule was studied using FTIR spectra. The results of UV-Vis study is used to compare the transparencies of the doped and undoped LAM crystals. The optical band gap energy of the grown crystal was also calculated. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurement with KDP reference is used to find the incorporation of metal to L-Alaninium Maleate crystals and the parent material. Also the thermal stability of the grown crystals was studied by TGA/DTA spectrum. The mechanical stability of the grown crystals was confirmed through Vickers micro hardness study. By parallel plate capacitor technique, the dielectric response was studied over a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures. The various studies showed the incorporation of the impurity Cd2+ into LAM crystals and the investigations indicated that the impurity played an important role in the changes of the spectral and structural properties of LAM crystals.

Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

2013-11-01

157

Anti-nutritional factors in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera (Lam).  

PubMed

The evergreen plant, Moringa oleifera (Lam) has been known to have both medicinal and nutritional properties, thus its wide use in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia. The roots, in particular, have been reported to possess antibiotic, anti-tumour and anti-oxidative activities. This study therefore seeks to determine the levels of the anti-nutritional factors and other proximate analyses in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera which might be responsible for such activities. The concentrations of oxalates and phytates in the roots were determined using the methods of Munro and Bassir and Griffith and Thomas, respectively. The methods of Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were used to estimate the amount of tannins, saponins and cyanogenic glycosides while the Technicon sequential Multi-sample amino acid analyzer (TSM) was used determine the amino acid concentration in the roots. Tannins (45 mg 100 g(-1)) and oxalates (17.08 mg 100 g(-1)) were present in the roots at higher levels while saponins (4.20mg 100 g(-1)), cyanogenic glycosides (2.72 mg 100 g(-1)) and phytates (0.07 mg 100 g(-1)) occurred at much lower levels. The roots contained (Mean +/- Standard Error of mean) %crude lipid (6.33 +/- 1.64), %crude proteins (5.02 +/- 1.52), %carbohydrates (76.75), %ash (4.97 +/- 0.53) and %moisture (6.93 +/- 0.58). The roots lacked the water-soluble vitamins pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamine but contained ascorbic acid (48.13 mg 100 g(-1)) and niacin (5.83 mg 100 g(-1)). This study has shown that Moringa oleifera roots are rich in anti-nutritional factors and that is why they are widely used in traditional medicine in Africa, Asia and Americas for its medicinal importance. PMID:24783788

Igwilo, I O; Ezeonu, F C; Ezekwesili-Ofili, J O; Igwilo, S N; Nsofor, C I; Abdulsalami, M S; Obi, E

2014-01-01

158

In vitro antibacterial potency of Butea monosperma Lam. against 12 clinically isolated multidrug resistant bacteria  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity, using cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water to validate medicinal uses of Butea monosperma Lam (B. monosperma) in controlling infections; and to qualitatively estimate phytochemical constituents of leaf-extracts of the plant. Methods The antibacterial activity of leaf-extracts was evaluated by the agar-well diffusion method against clinically isolated 12 Gram-positive and -negative multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria in vitro. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of leaf-extracts against each bacterium were obtained in a 96-well micro-titre plate, by broth dilution micro-titre plate technique. Results The presence of tannins, flavonoids, starch, glycosides and carbohydrates in different leaf extracts was established. Pathogenic bacteria used were, Acinetobacter sp., Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sp., Enterococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), methicillin resistant S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus, along with standard bacterial strains. These MDR bacteria had been recorded to have significant inhibitions by leaf extracts, obtained by cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents. In addition, the hot aqueous extract against Enterococcus sp. had the highest inhibition zone-size (21 mm). Ciprofloxacin 30 µg/disc was the positive/reference control and the diluting solvent, 10% dimethyl sulphoxide was the negative control. Recorded MIC values of different extracts ranged between 0.23 and 13.30 mg/mL, and MBC values were 0.52 to 30.00 mg/mL, for these bacteria. Conclusions Leaf-extracts with hot water and ethanol had shown significant antibacterial activity against all bacteria. B. monosperma leaf-extract could be used in treating infectious diseases, caused by the range of tested bacteria, as complementary and alternate medicine.

Sahu, Mahesh Chandra; Padhy, Rabindra Nath

2013-01-01

159

Comparison of two sampling methods when studying periphyton colonization in Lam Tsuen River, Hong Kong, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used standard periphyton samplers to examine the colonization pattern of periphytic algae on artificial substrates (glass slides) in Lam Tsuen River, Hong Kong, in dry (winter) and wet (summer) seasons. In each season, six replicated slides were retrieved randomly and replaced by new slides at weekly intervals over a period of 6 weeks. We thus obtained two batches of slides, both with a series of different exposure times (1 to 6 weeks): one batch was set up at the same time (start of the sampling) and the other was harvested at the same time (end of the sampling). Changes in taxonomic composition, species diversity (Shannon-Wiener diversity index), standing crop (in terms of cell density and cell biovolume), and abundance of the abundant algal species were monitored and compared between the two batches of slides. The succession patterns of the periphytic algae were similar between the two batches in each season, while more remarkable differences were observed between the two seasons, suggesting that either batch would be suitable for a colonization study of periphytic algae. The cell density was dominated by diatoms in both seasons, while the cell biovolume was dominated by diatoms in winter and by green algae in summer. The cell density and biovolume attributed to blue green algae was relatively small. Most of the diatom species exhibited similar colonization patterns throughout the experiment, while green algae showed different succession patterns in different seasons or sampling methods, indicating that diatoms are better bio-indicators than green algae for a periphyton colonization study. In general, the diversity indices and the standing crops reached their maximums at around week 4, and they were higher in summer than in winter.

Lei, Anping; Lam, Kwan-Sing Paul; Hu, Zhangli

2011-01-01

160

The aerial parts of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. protect against NSAID-induced gastric lesions.  

PubMed

Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., a member of the Sterculiaceae family, is used in folk medicine because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial and antihypertensive properties. Most of the research work carried out on this plant has focused on the bark because of its high concentration of antioxidant proanthocyanidins. The flowers and leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia, though less studied, are also used as a remedy for different conditions, such as kidney and gastrointestinal diseases, fever and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the gastroprotective effects of an aqueous suspension of the ethanolic extract from leaves and flowers of Guazuma ulmifolia in a model of acute gastric ulcer induced by diclofenac as ulcerogenic agent, using the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole as a protection reference. Therefore, the extract was administered two times orally to three groups of Wistar rats at doses of 500, 250 and 125mg/kg, with a 24-h interval between doses. Diclofenac (100mg/kg) was given 1h after the last administration of the extract. Pretreatment with Guazuma ulmifolia or omeprazole decreased the ulcerated area in a dose-dependent way. Myeloperoxidase activity as a marker of neutrophil infiltration was slightly reduced in vivo, whereas in vitro, anti-inflammatory activity was clearly inhibited in a dose-dependent way. The lowest doses of the extract significantly decreased the levels of lipoperoxides, and superoxide dismuthase activity increased to a similar extent as with omeprazole (P<0.001). Examination of glutathione metabolism reflected a significant rise in glutathione peroxidase activity at the highest dose of Guazuma ulmifolia. Finally, there was a faint elevation in prostaglandin E(2) levels with all doses, though the depletion induced by diclofenac could not be reverted. We conclude that the aerial parts of Guazuma ulmifolia protect gastric mucosa against the injurious effect of NSAIDs mainly by anti-inflammatory and radical-scavenging mechanisms. PMID:17884315

Berenguer, B; Trabadela, C; Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Quílez, A; Miño, P; De la Puerta, R; Martín-Calero, M J

2007-11-01

161

Analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the extract of Solanum sisymbriifolium (Lam.) leaves  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the ethanol extract of leaves of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Family: Solanaceae). Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was measured by acetic acid-induced writhing inhibition test. The neuropharmacological activities were evaluated using hole cross, hole board, and elevated plus-maze test and the anti-diarrheal activity was assessed using castor oil-induced diarrhea inhibition method. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay was carried out for assessing the cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract of the leaves. Except cytotoxic activity, all the tests were conducted on mice. Results: The extract at oral doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight showed highly significant (p<0.001) decrease in number of writhing, 52.1±0.66 and 4.4±0.64 compared with the control (78.6±0.29) with the percentage of inhibitions of writhing response were found to be 33.72% and 94.40%, respectively. Compare with the control, the extract at both doses showed significant sedative effect in hole cross test. In hole board test, the extract exhibited highly significant (p<0.001) anxiolytic activity at dose of (200 mg/kg), while the same activity was observed at dose of 400 mg/kg in elevated plus-maze test. The extract showed highly significant (p<0.001) anti-diarrheal activity in a dose-dependent manner. With the extract, significant lethality to brine shrimp was found with LC50 value of 61.66±0.9 ?g/ml, which was comparable with the positive control (LC50: 11.89±0.8 µg/ml). Conclusion: The results from the present studies support the traditional uses of this plant part and could form the basis of further investigation including compound isolation.

Apu, Apurba Sarker; Bhuyan, Shakhawat Hossan; Matin, Maima; Hossain, Faruq; Khatun, Farjana; Taiab, Abu; Jamaluddin

2013-01-01

162

Chemical characterization, antioxidant properties, and volatile constituents of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) cultivated in Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is a native fruit of the Andes, cultivated and consumed mainly in Ecuador, Colombia, and Central America. Because of its pleasant aroma and attractive color, it has high potential as an ingredient of products such as juices, nectars, and jams. The main characteristics of mature naranjilla fruits cultivated in Costa Rica were assessed, including sugar content, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC), and total polyphenolic and ascorbic acid content. Carotenoid and volatile compound identification was also done. The samples showed sucrose, glucose, and fructose content of 1.6 +/- 0.3, 0.68 +/- 0.05, and 0.7 +/- 0.1 g/100 g, respectively. Total titratable acidity was 2.63 +/- 0.07 g citric acid equivalent / 100 g and total soluble solids amounted to 9.1 +/- 0.5 degrees Brix. H-ORAC value was 17 +/- 1 micromol Trolox equivalent /g, total polyphenolic content was 48 +/- 3 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g and ascorbic acid content was 12.5 +/- 0.0 mg/100 g. Carotenoid content of the whole fruit and pulp was 33.3 +/- 0.6 and 7.2 +/- 0.3 microg/g, respectively. The predominant carotenoid among the compounds identified in the whole fruit was beta-carotene. Ten volatile compounds were identified in naranjillapulp, the predominant being methyl butanoate. The chemical composition of naranjilla cultivated in Costa Rica does not seem to differ from that previously reported in studies at different locations. PMID:19480350

Acosta, Oscar; Pérez, Ana M; Vaillant, Fabrice

2009-03-01

163

Volatile Constituents of Nepeta heliotropifolia Lam., Mentha mozaffarianii Jamzad and Ziziphora persica Bunge. Three Labiatae Herbs Growing Wild in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oils from three Labiatae species from Iran—Nepeta heliotropifolia Lam. and Mentha mozaffariani Jamzad, which are endemic to Iran, and Ziziphora persica Bunge.—were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS.1,8-Cineole (16.8%), 4a?,7?,7a? nepetalactone (16.3%), cis-sabinene hydrate (16.1%) and linalool (11.9%) were the main components among the 23 constituents characterized in the oil of Nepeta

Abdolhossein Rustaiyan; Mina Jamzad; Shiva Masoudi; Nazak Ameri

2006-01-01

164

Constitutive Expression of the Maltoporin LamB in the Absence of OmpR Damages the Cell Envelope? †  

PubMed Central

Cells experience multiple environmental stimuli simultaneously. To survive, they must respond accordingly. Unfortunately, the proper response to one stress easily could make the cell more susceptible to a second coexistent stress. To deal with such a problem, a cell must possess a mechanism that balances the need to respond simultaneously to both stresses. Our recent studies of ompR malT(Con) double mutants show that elevated expression of LamB, the outer membrane porin responsible for maltose uptake, causes cell death when the osmoregulator OmpR is disabled. To obtain insight into the nature of the death experienced by ompR malT(Con) mutants, we described the death process. On the basis of microscopic and biochemical approaches, we conclude that death results from a loss of membrane integrity. On the basis of an unbiased genome-wide search for suppressor mutations, we conclude that this loss of membrane integrity results from a LamB-induced envelope stress that the cells do not sufficiently perceive and thus do not adequately accommodate. Finally, we conclude that this envelope stress involves an imbalance in the lipopolysaccharide/porin composition of the outer membrane and an increased requirement for inorganic phosphate.

Reimann, Sylvia A.; Wolfe, Alan J.

2011-01-01

165

Mycobacterium tuberculosis belonging to family LAM and sublineage RD(Rio): common strains in Southern Brazil for over 10 years.  

PubMed

A sublineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis called RD(Rio) was described in 2007. Although only recently described, this strain may have been present previously in the population, and its identification in clinical isolates will elucidate bacterial transmission dynamics and host-pathogen interactions. This study evaluated the clonal diversity of the RD(Rio) sublineage in clinical isolates from Rio Grande-RS obtained between 1998 and 2001. Among the 45 samples analyzed by the MIRU-VNTR method, there were six clusters with two samples each and 33 orphan strains with unique pattern. The strains were distributed across several different lineages including LAM (34.04%), × (14.89%), Haarlem (12.77%), UgandaI (10.64%), S (4.26%), NEW-1 (2.13%) and Cameroon (2.13%); 14.89% of the strains matched to multiple lineages. RD(Rio) strains were present in 28.9% of the samples and 81.25% of the identified strains belonged to the LAM family. The high clonal diversity observed in this study is a constant feature in this region. The RD(Rio) sublineage has been in Rio Grande-RS since 1998. The continued monitoring of RD(Rio) in clinical isolates will enhance the understanding of its epidemiological significance. PMID:24688519

Soares, Renata Oliveira; de Macedo, Maíra Bidart; von Groll, Andrea; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida

2013-12-01

166

Essential oil composition of two endemic Tanacetum ( T. nitens (Boiss.&Noe) Grierson and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum) (Asteraceae) taxa, growing wild in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Tanacetum includes some popular endemic species of the flora of Turkey, with important medicinal properties. Some members of this genus have traditionally been used in balsams, cosmetics, dyes, insecticides, medicines and preservatives as herbal remedy. Information about the essential oil compositions of Tanacetum nitens (Boiss.&Noe) Grierson and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum Turkish medicinal plants has not

Eyup Bagci; Alpaslan Kocak

2010-01-01

167

Flavonoids, benzoic acids and cinnamic acids isolated from shoots and roots of Italian rye grass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) with and without endophyte association and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds present in Lolium multiflorum Lam. were isolated and characterized. Significant differences in their distribution were found, in shoots and roots of plants with (Lm+) and without (Lm?) endophyte association, grown with (Mic+) and without (Mic?) mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices, indicating a systemic effect of these microorganisms on the phenolics metabolism of L. multiflorum.We report the isolation of eight

María A. Ponce; María J. Bompadre; José M. Scervino; Juan A. Ocampo; Enrique J. Chaneton; Alicia M. Godeas

2009-01-01

168

Evaluation of the Performance of a Press-Lam Timber Bridge. Interim Report Number 2. Bridge Performance and Load Test After One Year.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the installation of the wearing surface, the results of the second load test, and the status of the collection of data on the dimensional changes and moisture content of the press-lam members and the number and types of vehicles using...

M. M. Sprinkel

1978-01-01

169

Composition of the essential oils in various organs at different developmental stages of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. from Tunisia.  

PubMed

The composition of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from various organs at different development stages of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. growing in Tunisia was determined by GC/MS analysis. In particular, the oil profiles of the leaves, stems, flower buds, roots, umbels, and fruits have been examined during the whole life cycle. The oil from the flowering aerial parts was characterized by a high content of isoamyl 2-methylbutanoate. After flowering and during desiccation and fructification, the umbels and fruits expressed a high content of linalool. The oils, extracted from the roots collected in the vegetatif, buds floral, and floral stages, were rich in monoterpene aldehydes, oxygenated monoterpenes, and monoterpene hydrocarbons. The highest level of non-terpene hydrocarbons was found at the flower-bud stage, represented by 61.3% of nonane. Among the monoterpenes, sabinene (12.5%) and ?-pinene (8.5%) were identified in the flower buds. PMID:22083912

Sellami, Hela Kallel; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Smiti, Samira

2011-11-01

170

What role for law in achieving transboundary drainage basin security?--the development and testing of the Legal Assessment Model (LAM) for transboundary watercourse states.  

PubMed

The beneficial use of the world's transboundary waters raises difficult issues for drainage basin security on most parts of the globe. International law provides that each transboundary watercourse State is entitled to, and obliged to ensure, an "equitable and reasonable use" of these shared waters. The IWLRI developed and tested a Legal Assessment Model (LAM) through the work of interdisciplinary teams working in three different transboundary situations--China (upstream), Mozambique (downstream) and Palestine (shared groundwater). The LAM provides a tool for transboundary watercourse States to use in the preparation of their national water strategy for use at the national and international levels. The model should now be tested at the basin level, with a view to assisting to accomplish the peaceful and rational use of transboundary waters in line with the governing rule of international law and thereby to facilitate the overall policy objective of drainage basin security. PMID:15195422

Wouters, P K

2004-01-01

171

In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts and compounds from the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth (Bignoniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the potential of the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth as source of new anti-malarial leads, n-hexane and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts and four compounds isolated\\u000a from the stem bark were screened in vitro against the chloroquine-resistant W-2 and two field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum using lactate dehydrogenase assay. The products were also tested for

Denis Zofou; Archile Bernabe Ouambo Kengne; Mathieu Tene; Moses N. Ngemenya; Pierre Tane; Vincent P. K. Titanji

2011-01-01

172

A new MADS-box gene ( IbMADS10) from sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) is involved in the accumulation of anthocyanin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new MADS-box gene designated as IbMADS10 was cloned and its expression was characterized from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Beniazuma. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene indicated high homology with members of the MADS-box\\u000a family of transcription factors. IbMADS10 shares high amino acid sequence similarity with the DEFH28 of Antirrhinum majus (64%) and with BpMADS4

Antonio G. Lalusin; Koichi Nishita; Sung-Hyung Kim; Masaru Ohta; Tatsuhito Fujimura

2006-01-01

173

In situ trace-element analysis of individual silicate melt inclusions by laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the successful application of laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS) to the in situ analysis of a diverse suite of twenty trace elements including Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y, and REEs, in individual silicate melt inclusions in phenocrysts from Fantale volcano, Ethiopia. The UV laser, a frequency quadrupled Nd: YAG operating at 266 nm, significantly improves

R. P. Taylor; S. E. Jackson; H. P. Longerich; J. D. Webster

1997-01-01

174

Differential sensitivity of stomatal and non-stomatal components to NaCl or Na2SO4 salinity in horsegram, Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

14CO2 assimilation rate (P), leaf diffusive conductance (gs), photosynthetic electron flow, and activities of enzymes of Calvin cycle were studied in a horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.)] in response to salinity induced by NaCl or Na2SO4. A significant reduction in P and gs by both salt treatments was registered. Na2SO4 caused a greater reduction in gs than the NaCl salinity. Studies

P. Sreenivasulu Reddy; S. Ramanjulu; C. Sudhakar; K. Veeranjaneyulu

1998-01-01

175

Comparison of a Clinical Prediction Rule and a LAM Antigen-Detection Assay for the Rapid Diagnosis of TBM in a High HIV Prevalence Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/ObjectiveThe diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in resource poor TB endemic environments is challenging. The accuracy of current tools for the rapid diagnosis of TBM is suboptimal. We sought to develop a clinical-prediction rule for the diagnosis of TBM in a high HIV prevalence setting, and to compare performance outcomes to conventional diagnostic modalities and a novel lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen

Vinod B. Patel; Ravesh Singh; Cathy Connolly; Victoria Kasprowicz; Allimudin Zumla; Thumbi Ndungu; Keertan Dheda; Ben J. Marais

2010-01-01

176

Effects of Elevated CO2 and N Addition on Growth and N2 Fixation of a Legume Subshrub (Caragana microphylla Lam.) in Temperate Grassland in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well demonstrated that the responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration are species-specific and dependent on environmental conditions. We investigated the responses of a subshrub legume species, Caragana microphylla Lam., to elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition using open-top chambers in a semiarid temperate grassland in northern China for three years. Measured variables include leaf photosynthetic rate,

Lin Zhang; Dongxiu Wu; Huiqiu Shi; Canjuan Zhang; Xiaoyun Zhan; Shuangxi Zhou

2011-01-01

177

Effect of the Essential Oil Composition and Biological Activity of Ziziphora clinopodiodes Lam. on the Against Anopheles Stephensi and Culex pipiens Parva from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. growing in Iran was analysed by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-six components accounting to 97.62% of the total oil were identified. The major components were pulegone (36.45%), piperitenone (19.12%), Menth-2-en-1-ol (5.31%), carvacrol (5.10%) neomenthol (4.78) and menthone (4.46%). The essential oil was tested

Mohammadreza Verdian-Rivi

178

In vitro reduction of trypsin inhibitor by purified NADPH\\/thioredoxin system from sprouts of sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam.) storage roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) storage roots were sprouted in the dark for two months, and the sprouts were used as source materials for purification of thioredoxin reductase successively via the DE-52, Sephadex G-75, and 2?,5?-ADP Sepharose 4B column chromatography. Thioredoxin reductases with a molecular mass of ca 33kDa were obtained. The purification was 813-fold and the yield was

Dong-Jiann Huang; Hsien-Jung Chen; Wen-chi Hou; Tzeng-Err Chen; Yaw-Huei Lin

2004-01-01

179

Phosphorus status and microbial community of paddy soil with the growth of annual ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) under different phosphorus fertilizer treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was grown in paddy soil in pots under different phosphorus (P) fertilizer treatments to investigate changes of P fractions\\u000a and microbial community of the soil. The treatments included Kunyang phosphate rock (KPR) applications at 50 mg P\\/kg (KPR50) and 250 mg P\\/kg (KPR250), mono-calcium phosphate (MCP) application at 50 mg P\\/kg (MCP50), and the control

Hai-chao Guo; Guang-huo Wang

2009-01-01

180

Epitope mapping by cysteine mutagenesis: identification of residues involved in recognition by three monoclonal antibodies directed against LamB glycoporin in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Site-directed mutagenesis of the lamB gene was used to introduce individual cysteine substitutions at 20 sites in two regions (surface loops L7 and L8) of LamB protein significant in antibody recognition. Characterisation of cysteine mutants involved immunoblotting with three surface-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb72, mAb302, mAb347) before and after incubation with thiol-specific reagents. In contrast to an earlier study that showed no amino acid changes affecting recognition by all three antibodies, changes at six amino acids were found to influence a common core epitope. These core sites included one residue (T336) in the predicted loop L7 containing amino acids 329-342 and four (Y379, N387, N389, K392, F398) in the large surface loop involving residues 370-412. Individual antibodies made additional but distinct contacts within the two studied regions, with mAb347 binding the most different and affected by seven substitutions in the 328-338 regions. The lamB mutants were also tested for phage lambda receptor activity and starch binding before and after thiol modification and were useful in extending previous maps of these ligand binding sites. PMID:7521310

Notley, L; Hillier, C; Ferenci, T

1994-07-15

181

Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. Against Inflammation Associated with Development of Arthritis in Rats.  

PubMed

The present investigation was carried out to study the anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. (MOEE) in adjuvant-induced arthritis in adult female Wistar rats. During the experimental period, body weight, paw edema volume (primary lesion) and arthritic index (secondary lesion) was observed. On the 21st day, serum from each animal was used for estimation of Rheumatoid Factor (RF) value and levels of selected cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-1, and IL-6). Whole blood was used for measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Liver homogenate was utilized for assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology was performed to measure degree of inflammation in synovial joint. Our results suggest that, percentage reduction in body weight was less, paw edema volume and arthritic index score was decreased significantly as compared to diseased control animals. Serum levels of RF, TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6 also showed decreased levels as compared to those in the diseased control group. Treatment with MOEE also altered oxidative stress in relation to its anti-inflammatory activity. Histopathological observations showed mild or less infiltration of lymphocytes, angiogenesis and synovial lining thickening. From all above results and observations, it can be concluded that Moringa oleifera possesses promising antiarthritic property. PMID:18958711

Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mali, Ravindra G; Mehta, Anita A

2007-01-01

182

Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200?mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50?mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

2013-01-01

183

In vitro screening and evaluation of antivenom phytochemicals from Azima tetracantha Lam. leaves against Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli  

PubMed Central

Background Snakebites are considered a neglected tropical disease that affects thousands of people worldwide. Although antivenom is the only treatment available, it is associated with several side effects. As an alternative, plants have been extensively studied in order to obtain an alternative treatment. In folk medicine, Azima tetracantha Lam. is usually used to treat snakebites. The present study aims to provide a scientific explanation for the use of this plant against snakebite. The extracts of shade dried leaves of A. tetracantha were tested for in vitro inhibitory activity on toxic venom enzymes like phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, acetylcholinesterase, hyaluronidase etc. from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venoms. Results The ethylacetate extract rendered a significant inhibitory effect on the phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, phospholipase A2 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes. Conclusions The present study suggests that ethylacetate extract of A. tetracantha leaves possesses compounds that inhibit the activity of toxic enzymes from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venom. Further pharmacological and in vivo studies would provide evidence that this substance may lead to a potential treatment against these venoms.

2014-01-01

184

Validation of turbulence and convective schemes on western Africa; comparison of LAM and CRM simulations on an AMMA case study.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to analyse the behaviour of turbulence and convective parameterizations included in the Météo-France ALADIN-CLIMAT Limited Area Model in the frame of a 48 hour simulation of an AMMA case study, in comparison to observations and to a CRM (Méso-NH, with a 5 km horizontal grid-mesh) simulation carried out under the same boundary forcings. This framework provides an intermediate step of parameterization validation between the Single Column Model and Global Climate Model simulation studies. The chosen case study is the 26-27th July 2006 over a 43° x 40° region centred over Burkina Faso, in continuation to a previous work done with a HAPEX-Sahel case-study. During this 2 day period, two successive mesoscale convective systems are located ahead and in phase with the trough of an African easterly Wave (AEW). Both LAM and CRM simulations have been performed over the same considered domain, using the same ECMWF boundary forcings. Sensitivity tests to resolution (both horizontal and vertical) have been first carried out with ALADIN-CLIMAT. Second, the two different convection schemes used in ALADIN-CLIMAT show two kinds of response mainly due to their different formulations of triggering (no constraints in the dry layer under the convective cloud versus continuous treatment of convection including this dry layer) and closure (moisture convergence versus CAPE). Third, the impact of convective downdrafts will be shown. Fourth, the impact of different boundary forcing fields will also be presented.

Pollack, David; Gueremy, Jean-Francois; Beau, Isabelle

2010-05-01

185

An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke  

PubMed Central

Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)—induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-?B p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage.

Kooltheat, Nateelak; Pankla Sranujit, Rungnapa; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

2014-01-01

186

Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4%) and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg) and normal saline (1 ml/kg) were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6) and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm) as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg) were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg) was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive.

Minaiyan, Mohsen; Asghari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Diana; Saeidi, Mozhgan; Nasr-Esfahani, Salar

2014-01-01

187

Digital Gene Expression Analysis Based on Integrated De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.  

PubMed Central

Background Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.]) ranks among the top six most important food crops in the world. It is widely grown throughout the world with high and stable yield, strong adaptability, rich nutrient content, and multiple uses. However, little is known about the molecular biology of this important non-model organism due to lack of genomic resources. Hence, studies based on high-throughput sequencing technologies are needed to get a comprehensive and integrated genomic resource and better understanding of gene expression patterns in different tissues and at various developmental stages. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina paired-end (PE) RNA-Sequencing was performed, and generated 48.7 million of 75 bp PE reads. These reads were de novo assembled into 128,052 transcripts (?100 bp), which correspond to 41.1 million base pairs, by using a combined assembly strategy. Transcripts were annotated by Blast2GO and 51,763 transcripts got BLASTX hits, in which 39,677 transcripts have GO terms and 14,117 have ECs that are associated with 147 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, transcriptome differences of seven tissues were analyzed by using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiling and numerous differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were identified. Moreover, the expression characteristics of genes involved in viral genomes, starch metabolism and potential stress tolerance and insect resistance were also identified. Conclusions/Significance The combined de novo transcriptome assembly strategy can be applied to other organisms whose reference genomes are not available. The data provided here represent the most comprehensive and integrated genomic resources for cloning and identifying genes of interest in sweet potato. Characterization of sweet potato transcriptome provides an effective tool for better understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular processes including development of leaves and storage roots, tissue-specific gene expression, potential biotic and abiotic stress response in sweet potato.

Wang, Hai-Yan; Zheng, Wen; Li, Xiao; Zhao, Chuan-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Zheng

2012-01-01

188

Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine.  

PubMed

Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

Sahoo, S; Raghavendra, K M; Biswas, S

2014-01-01

189

Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial evaluation of a novel compound N-octacosan 7? ol, from Fumaria parviflora Lam  

PubMed Central

Background Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumaraceae) is widely used in traditional as well as folkloric system of medicine from ancient. It is commonly known as ‘Pitpapra’ or ‘Shahtrah’ in Indian traditional system of medicine and used for treating numerous ailments like diarrhea, fever, influenza, blood purifier and other complications. The object of the present study was to evaluate the Antileishmanial, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic potential of isolated compound. Methods Methanolic extract of whole plant of Fumaria parviflora was dried under reduced pressure to obtain a dark brown residue which was adsorbed on silica gel column grade (60–120 mesh) to obtain a slurry and chromatographed over silica gel loaded column in petroleum ether – chloroform (3:1, 1:1 and 1:3?v/v). The in vitro antileishmanial evaluation of isolated compound against Leishmania donovani promastigotes was investigated by growth kinetics assay, reversibility assay, analysis of cellular morphology, adverse toxicity and determination of 50% growth inhibitory concentration (GI50). Disc diffusion and broth micro dilution methods were used to study the antibacterial (Gram?+?Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis; Gram - Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) and antifungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) potential in vitro. Results Structure elucidation by spectral data analysis revealed a novel compound, n-octacosan-7?-ol (OC), yield (0.471%), having significant antimicrobial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger in vitro with GI50?=?5.35, MIC 250, MIC 250 and MFC 500 and MIC 250 ?g ml-1 respectively. The isolated compound did not show adverse effect against mammalian macrophages. Conclusions The available evidence of compound suggested that it may be used as antimicrobial agent in future and may provide new platform for drug discovery programmes for leishmaniasis.

2014-01-01

190

Ontogenetic Variation of Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity in Roots, Leaves and Flowers of Astragalus compactus Lam. (Fabaceae)  

PubMed Central

Introduction The potential health risks and toxicity of synthetic antioxidants resulted in an upsurge of interest in phytochemicals as new sources of natural antioxidants. Phenolics of Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) possess antioxidant properties and have been shown to have a protective effect against several degenerative diseases. The objective of this study was to determine total phenolics and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from different parts of A. compactus Lam. at different phenological phases and to investigate the correlations between antioxidation and the contents of the total phenolics. Methods Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Results Generally, the TPC in leaves was higher than that of the roots and flowers. TPC in leaves, roots and flowers of the species varied from 5.01-8.25, 4.29-7.89 and 4.19 ?g GAE/mg DW, respectively. In addition, roots and leaves at fructification stage possessed higher TPC than vegetative and flowering stages. Therefore, the leaf extracts at fructification phase showed the highest TPC that accompanied with best antioxidant activity. In the root extracts, fructification stage was also characterized by the highest antioxidant activity. Conclusion A positive relationship between antioxidant activity and TPC showed that phenolics were the dominant antioxidant components in the species. The results obtained suggest that A. compactus methanolic extracts may serve as potential sources of natural phenolic antioxidants and that the fructification phase could be considered as the best stage for the harvesting of this plant.

Naghiloo, Somayeh; Movafeghi, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Dadpour, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

191

Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine  

PubMed Central

Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one.

Sahoo, S.; Raghavendra, K. M.; Biswas, S.

2014-01-01

192

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects in extracts of the medicinal herb Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. ("marcela").  

PubMed

Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. (Compositae) is a medicinal herb used in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Paraguay for its choleretic, antispasmodic and hepatoprotective properties. The presence of the flavonoid quercetin and its derivatives, and of different phenolic acids such as caffeic, chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids in the aerial parts of this plant has led us to study the antioxidant activity of its extracts using different bioassays. The inhibition of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence by the aqueous and methanolic extracts was used to show that their total reactive antioxidant potential index (TRAP; in microM Trolox equivalents) was 91.0 +/- 15.4 and 128.1 +/- 20.1 microM, respectively, while the total antioxidant reactivity index (TAR) was calculated to be 1537 +/- 148 and 1910 +/- 171 microM. Only the methanolic extract was capable of reducing iron (II)-dependent DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by two different methods. The aqueous extract reduced hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence in rat liver homogenates at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, with a calculated IC50 = 225 micrograms/ml, while the methanolic extract was only effective at higher concentrations (100 and 1000 micrograms/ml). Both aqueous and methanolic extracts were capable of reducing the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in rat liver homogenates, with an IC50 > 1000 micrograms/ml. The results obtained suggest that the extracts of A. satureioides possess significant free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity in vitro, a fact that should encourage future in vivo studies. PMID:9876284

Desmarchelier, C; Coussio, J; Ciccia, G

1998-09-01

193

Triazine-based mesoporous covalent imine polymers as solid supports for copper-mediated chan-lam cross-coupling N-arylation reactions.  

PubMed

The synthesis of a novel mesoporous covalent imine polymeric (MCIPs) material, involving simple Schiff-base chemistry, is reported. This highly functionalised nitrogen-rich material acts as a good support for immobilising Cu(II) ions, exhibiting excellent catalytic activity in promoting the Chan-Lam cross-coupling reaction between biologically active amines and arylboronic acids. The performance of this catalyst is also evident from its broad substrate scope, high stability, real heterogeneity, mild reaction conditions and reusability without loss of activity. The observed results will provide additional scope on the design and catalytic applications of this emerging class of materials. PMID:24938420

Puthiaraj, Pillaiyar; Pitchumani, Kasi

2014-07-01

194

Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.  

PubMed

The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the activities of hepatic cytochrome b(5), cytochrome p(450), catalase, glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ), glutathione reductase (GR), acid soluble sulfhydryl content (-SH ) and a significant decrease ( p<0.01 ) in the hepatic MDA level were observed at both dose levels of treatment when compared with the control values. Glutathione-S- transferase ( GST )activity was found to be significantly increased (p<0.01 ) only at the higher dose level. Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA ) fed at a dose of 0.75% in the diet for 7 and 14 days (positive control ) caused a significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the levels of hepatic phase I and phase II enzymes, anti- oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and a decrease in lipid peroxidation. The skin papillomagenesis studies demonstrated a significant decrease (p<0.05 ) in the percentage of mice with papillomas, average number of papillomas per mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse when the animals received a topical application of the extract at a dose of 5mg/ kg body weight in the peri-initiation phase 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application, Group II ), promotional phase (from the day of croton oil application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group III ) and both peri and post initiation stages (from 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group IV) compared to the control group (Group I ). The percentage inhibition of tumor multiplicity has been recorded to be 27, 72, and 81 in Groups II, III, and IV, respectively. These findings are suggestive of a possible chemopreventive potential of Moringa oliefera drumstick extract against chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:12875626

Bharali, Rupjyoti; Tabassum, Jawahira; Azad, Mohammed Rekibul Haque

2003-01-01

195

Correlations among attributes of senescence and antioxidative status of leaf discs during epiphyllous bud differentiation in Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. (Pers.).  

PubMed

Leaf detachment is a common signal that triggers both the differentiation of dormant epiphyllous buds as well as the onset of foliar senescence in Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. (Pers.). The present study looked for any probable correlations among selected attributes of foliar senescence, e.g. soluble proteins, chlorophylls a and b (Chl(a+b)), and membrane stability index (MSI), and the antioxidative status, e.g. phenolics, ferric reducing ability in plasma equivalence (FRAP(eq)), and membrane protection index (MPI), during epiphyllous bud differentiation. The experimental system comprised 0.75-cm leaf discs, with or without a dormant epiphyllous bud, cultured in vitro and exposed for ten days to continuous light or dark. A steady depletion of soluble proteins and Chl(a+b), and lowering of MSI in the leaf discs were observed, the decline being relatively faster and of higher magnitude in discs exposed to dark rather than to light. The pigment loss in discs with differentiating epiphyllous buds was greater and faster than in those lacking buds, a somewhat reverse situation was observed in case of soluble proteins. Simultaneously, a time-dependent decrease in the level of phenolics was also observed. Their content was found to be lower in discs exposed to dark as compared to light, pointing to a relationship with a higher rate of senescence-related degradative processes in the dark. The change in the content of Chl(a+b) was found to be significantly correlated with the variation in the level of phenolics. The average FRAP(eq) after ten days was one half that of the initial level, which could be correlated with the decreasing levels of phenolics (intra-correlation) and maximally correlated with variations in Chl(a+b) and protein contents (inter-correlation). Aqueous alcohol foliar extracts significantly (p < 0.05) protected membranes against peroxidative stress, although the pattern was not found to be in line with that of the phenolics content or FRAP(eq). The diminishing Chl(a+b) content was found to be maximally correlated with alterations in the membrane protection. PMID:23016282

Jaiswal, Sarita; Chawla, Raman; Sawhney, Sudhir

2012-01-01

196

Suppression of seed bruchid ( Callosobruchus maculatus F.) development and damage on cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) with Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Waterm. (Rutaceae) root bark powder when compared to neem seed powder and pirimiphos-methyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproduction suppression properties in Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Waterm. (Rutaceae) root bark powder (ZRBP) against the cowpea seed bruchid (CSB), Callosobruchus maculatus F., were evaluated against neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) seed powder (NSP) and pirimiphos-methyl (PM) (Actellic 2% Dust, ICI). At application rates ranging from 0.125 to 3 g per 20 g seed, ZRBP was as effective an oviposition suppressant

E. O. Ogunwolu; A. T. Odunlami

1996-01-01

197

Spatial variability of soil nutrients and microbiological properties after the establishment of leguminous shrub Caragana microphylla Lam. plantation on sand dune in the Horqin Sandy Land of Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to determine the spatial variability of nutrients, microbial biomass, and enzyme activities of soil due to the establishment of shrub plantation on moving sandy dunes, as part of an effort to understand the microenvironmental factors that control the soil microbiological properties. Caragana microphylla Lam., an indigenous leguminous shrub, is the dominant plant species used

Chengyou Cao; Shaoyan Jiang; Zhang Ying; Faxing Zhang; Xiaoshu Han

2011-01-01

198

How Is LAM Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders How the Lungs Work Lung Function Tests Chest ... of breath and chest pain caused by a collapsed lung. Your doctor usually can remove the air with ...

199

Compositions, products, therapeutic uses and procedures for the production and/or crystallization of extracts of Encelia canescens LAM (coronilla de fraile)  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a composition containing extracts of Encelia canescens Lam and to aqueous or ethanolic extracts obtained therefrom, the procedure for the obtainment and crystallization thereof, and the uses thereof for the prevention and treatment of cancer, for example cancer of the pancreas, gastric tract, prostate, breast, kidney, colon, lung, vesicle, uterus, oral cavity, colorectal region, bladder, liver, brain tumors, and chronic and acute leukemia, in addition to metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus types I and II, viral and bacterial diseases, in particular related to E. coli, Kiebsiella, M. flavus, S. aureus and B. subtilis. Furthermore the use thereof is claimed in diseases related to oxidative stress and as a useful agent in the preparation of analgesics.

2014-03-04

200

Point-of-care detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine for diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis: a state of the art review  

PubMed Central

Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in urine is attractive as a potential means of diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) regardless of the anatomical site of disease. The most promising candidate antigen is the cell wall lipopolysaccharide antigen lipoarabinomannan (LAM), which has been used to develop commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Although highly variable diagnostic accuracy has been observed in different clinical populations, it is now clear that this assay has useful sensitivity for diagnosis of HIV-associated TB in patients with advanced immunodeficiency and low CD4 cell counts. Thus, this assay is particularly useful when selectively used among patients enrolling in antiretroviral treatment services or in HIV-infected patients requiring admission to hospital medical wards. These are the very patients who have the highest mortality risk and who stand to gain the most from rapid diagnosis, permitting immediate initiation of TB treatment. A recently developed low-cost, lateral-flow (urine ‘dip-stick’) format of the assay provides a result within 30 minutes and is potentially a major step forward as it can be used at the point-of-care, making the possibility of immediate diagnosis and treatment a reality. This paper discusses the likely utility of this point-of-care assay and how it might best be used in combination with other diagnostic assays for TB. The many further research studies that are needed on this assay are described. Consideration is particularly given to potential reasons for the variable specificity observed in existing field evaluations of LAM ELISAs. Whether this might be related to the assay itself or to the challenges associated with study design is discussed.

2012-01-01

201

Point-of-care detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine for diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis: a state of the art review.  

PubMed

Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in urine is attractive as a potential means of diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) regardless of the anatomical site of disease. The most promising candidate antigen is the cell wall lipopolysaccharide antigen lipoarabinomannan (LAM), which has been used to develop commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Although highly variable diagnostic accuracy has been observed in different clinical populations, it is now clear that this assay has useful sensitivity for diagnosis of HIV-associated TB in patients with advanced immunodeficiency and low CD4 cell counts. Thus, this assay is particularly useful when selectively used among patients enrolling in antiretroviral treatment services or in HIV-infected patients requiring admission to hospital medical wards. These are the very patients who have the highest mortality risk and who stand to gain the most from rapid diagnosis, permitting immediate initiation of TB treatment. A recently developed low-cost, lateral-flow (urine 'dip-stick') format of the assay provides a result within 30 minutes and is potentially a major step forward as it can be used at the point-of-care, making the possibility of immediate diagnosis and treatment a reality. This paper discusses the likely utility of this point-of-care assay and how it might best be used in combination with other diagnostic assays for TB. The many further research studies that are needed on this assay are described. Consideration is particularly given to potential reasons for the variable specificity observed in existing field evaluations of LAM ELISAs. Whether this might be related to the assay itself or to the challenges associated with study design is discussed. PMID:22536883

Lawn, Stephen D

2012-01-01

202

Determine TB-LAM lateral flow urine antigen assay for HIV-associated tuberculosis: recommendations on the design and reporting of clinical studies  

PubMed Central

Detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall antigen lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine permits diagnoses of tuberculosis (TB) to be made in HIV-infected patients with advanced immunodeficiency. This can be achieved at the point-of-care within just 30 minutes using the Determine TB-LAM, which is a commercially available, lateral-flow urine ‘strip test’ assay. The assay has been shown to have useful diagnostic accuracy in patients enrolling in antiretroviral treatment services or in HIV-infected patients requiring admission to hospital medical wards in sub-Saharan Africa. Such patients have high mortality risk and have most to gain from rapid diagnosis of TB and immediate initiation of treatment. However, few studies using this assay have yet been reported and many questions remain concerning the correct use of the assay, interpretation of results, the role of the assay as an add-on test within existing diagnostic algorithms and the types of further studies needed. In this paper we address a series of questions with the aim of informing the design, conduct and interpretation of future studies. Specifically, we clarify which clinical populations are most likely to derive benefit from use of this assay and how patients enrolled in such studies might best be characterised. We describe the importance of employing a rigorous microbiological diagnostic reference standard in studies of diagnostic accuracy and discuss issues surrounding the specificity of the assay in different geographical areas and potential cross-reactivity with non-tuberculous mycobacteria and other organisms. We highlight the importance of careful procedures for urine collection and storage and the critical issue of how to read and interpret the test strips. Finally, we consider how the assay could be used in combination with other assays and outline the types of studies that are required to build the evidence base concerning its use.

2013-01-01

203

Determine TB-LAM lateral flow urine antigen assay for HIV-associated tuberculosis: recommendations on the design and reporting of clinical studies.  

PubMed

Detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall antigen lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine permits diagnoses of tuberculosis (TB) to be made in HIV-infected patients with advanced immunodeficiency. This can be achieved at the point-of-care within just 30 minutes using the Determine TB-LAM, which is a commercially available, lateral-flow urine 'strip test' assay. The assay has been shown to have useful diagnostic accuracy in patients enrolling in antiretroviral treatment services or in HIV-infected patients requiring admission to hospital medical wards in sub-Saharan Africa. Such patients have high mortality risk and have most to gain from rapid diagnosis of TB and immediate initiation of treatment. However, few studies using this assay have yet been reported and many questions remain concerning the correct use of the assay, interpretation of results, the role of the assay as an add-on test within existing diagnostic algorithms and the types of further studies needed. In this paper we address a series of questions with the aim of informing the design, conduct and interpretation of future studies. Specifically, we clarify which clinical populations are most likely to derive benefit from use of this assay and how patients enrolled in such studies might best be characterised. We describe the importance of employing a rigorous microbiological diagnostic reference standard in studies of diagnostic accuracy and discuss issues surrounding the specificity of the assay in different geographical areas and potential cross-reactivity with non-tuberculous mycobacteria and other organisms. We highlight the importance of careful procedures for urine collection and storage and the critical issue of how to read and interpret the test strips. Finally, we consider how the assay could be used in combination with other assays and outline the types of studies that are required to build the evidence base concerning its use. PMID:24004840

Lawn, Stephen D; Dheda, Keertan; Kerkhoff, Andrew D; Peter, Jonathan G; Dorman, Susan; Boehme, Catharina C; Nicol, Mark P

2013-01-01

204

Determination of partition coefficients for trace elements in high pressure-temperature experimental run products by laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS)  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the first trace element partition coefficients measured on experimentally produced products (clinopyroxene, garnet, rutile, and glass) by laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS). A 266 nm (UV) laser microprobe was used to improve ablation characteristics and to achieve a fourfold reduction in ablation pit diameter compared to the previously used 1064 nm beam. Results are compared with PIXE analyses on the same experimental products, and literature values, where available, for similar systems, and include the first simultaneously measured partition coefficients for Zr, Nb, and Ta between rutile and glass. Advantages of the LAM technique include rapid results and simultaneous determination of a wide range of major and trace elements, thus ensuring sampling integrity through time-resolved analysis of the sampled material.

Jenner, G.A.; Jackson, S.E.; Fryer, B.J.; Longerich, H.P. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's (Canada)); Foley, S.F. (Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)); Green, T.H. (Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, New South Wales (Australia))

1993-12-01

205

Determination of partition coefficients for trace elements in high pressure-temperature experimental run products by laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the first trace element partition coefficients measured on experimentally produced products (clinopyroxene, garnet, rutile, and glass) by laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS). A 266 nm (UV) laser microprobe was used to improve ablation characteristics and to achieve a fourfold reduction in ablation pit diameter compared to the previously used 1064 nm beam. Results are compared

G. A. Jenner; S. E. Jackson; B. J. Fryer; H. P. Longerich; S. F. Foley; T. H. Green

1993-01-01

206

Kinetic Analysis of the Assembly of the Outer Membrane Protein LamB in Escherichia coli Mutants Each Lacking a Secretion or Targeting Factor in a Different Cellular Compartment?  

PubMed Central

Outer membrane ?-barrel proteins in gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, must be translocated from their site of synthesis in the cytoplasm to the periplasm and finally delivered to the outer membrane. At least a dozen proteins located in the cytoplasm, the periplasm, and both the inner and outer membranes are required to catalyze this complex assembly process. At normal growth temperatures and conditions the transport and assembly processes are so fast that assembly intermediates cannot be detected. Using cells grown at a low temperature to slow the assembly process and pulse-chase analysis with immunodetection methods, we followed newly synthesized LamB molecules during their transit through the cell envelope. The quality and reproducibility of the data allowed us to calculate rate constants for three different subassembly reactions. This kinetic analysis revealed that secB and secD mutants exhibit nearly identical defects in precursor translocation from the cytoplasm. However, subsequent subassembly reaction rates provided no clear evidence for an additional role for SecD in LamB assembly. Moreover, we found that surA mutants are qualitatively indistinguishable from yfgL mutants, suggesting that the products of both of these genes share a common function in the assembly process, most likely the delivery of LamB to the YaeT assembly complex in the outer membrane.

Ureta, Alejandro R.; Endres, Robert G.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Silhavy, Thomas J.

2007-01-01

207

Evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity in the early successional Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. compared to the late successional Hymenaea courbaril L. grown in contrasting light environments.  

PubMed

The present study investigated changes in photosynthetic characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (early successional species) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (late successional species) grown in contrasting light conditions as a way of assessing photosynthetic plasticity. Early successional species typically inhabit gap environments being exposed to variability in multiple resources, hence it is expected that these species would show higher photosynthetic plasticity than late successional ones. In order to test this hypothesis, light and CO2 response curves and chlorophyll content (Chl) were measured in plants grown in high and low light environments. G. ulmifolia presented the highest amounts of both Chl a and b, especially in the low light, and both species presented higher Chl a than b in both light conditions. The Chl a/b ratio was higher in high light leaves of both species and greater in G. ulmifolia. Taken together, these results evidence the acclimation potential of both species, reflecting the capacity to modulate light harvesting complexes according to the light environment. However, G. ulmifolia showed evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity, as indicated by the greater amplitude of variation on photosynthetic characteristics between environments shown by more significant shade adjusted parameters (SAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Thus, the results obtained were coherent with the hypothesis that the early successional species G. ulmifolia exhibits higher photosynthetic plasticity than the late successional species H. courbaril. PMID:20231962

Portes, M T; Damineli, D S C; Ribeiro, R V; Monteiro, J A F; Souza, G M

2010-02-01

208

Effect of charged residue substitutions on the membrane-interactive properties of signal sequences of the Escherichia coli LamB protein.  

PubMed Central

Although the central role of the signal sequence in protein export is well established, the molecular details underlying signal sequence in vivo function remain unclear. As part of our continuing effort to relate signal sequence phenotypes to specific biophysical properties, we have carried out an extensive characterization of the secondary structure and lipid interactions for a family of peptides corresponding to the wild-type E. coli LamB signal sequence, and mutants that harbor charged residue point mutations in the hydrophobic core region. We used membrane-resident fluorescence quenching according to the parallax method to determine the relative depth of insertion of tryptophan-labeled analogs of these peptides into the acyl chain region of bilayer vesicles composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol. Also, restriction of acyl chain motion upon peptide binding was evaluated using steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. Each of these peptides showed evidence of insertion into the acyl chain region, although most likely not in a transmembrane orientation. The mutant peptides were shown to have a reduced insertion potential relative to the wild-type peptide. Furthermore, tryptophan spectral properties indicated that insertion of the wild-type and mutant peptides enhances bilayer hydration. This effect was particularly pronounced with peptides harboring negatively charged aspartate point substitutions. The results are discussed in relation to the potential roles of signal sequences in mediating protein translocation.

Jones, J D; Gierasch, L M

1994-01-01

209

Effect of charged residue substitutions on the thermodynamics of signal peptide-lipid interactions for the Escherichia coli LamB signal sequence.  

PubMed Central

We have used tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize the binding affinities of an Escherichia coli LamB signal peptide family for lipid vesicles. These peptides harbor charged residue substitutions in the hydrophobic core region. Titrations of peptides with vesicles composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-3-phosphoglycerol (65:35 mol%), in conjunction with evaluation of peptide dissociation rates from these vesicles, were used to determine binding parameters quantitatively. We find that under low ionic strength conditions, point mutations introducing negatively charged aspartate residues substantially reduce peptide affinity relative to the wild-type peptide. However, the difference between wild-type and mutant peptide affinities was much lower under approximately physiological ionic strength. In addition, the lipid affinities of model surface-binding and transmembrane peptides were determined. These comparative studies with signal and model peptides permitted semi-quantitative deconvolution of signal peptide binding into electrostatic and hydrophobic components. We find that both interactions contribute significantly to binding, although the theoretically available hydrophobic free energy is largely offset by unfavorable polar-group effects. The implications of these results for understanding the potential roles of the signal sequence in protein translocation are discussed.

Jones, J D; Gierasch, L M

1994-01-01

210

In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. leaves in Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. leaves in Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. In in vitro studies T. asiatica leaves ethyl acetate extract showed very good scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC?? 605.34±2.62 ?g/ml), hydroxyl (IC?? 694.37±2.12 ?g/ml) and nitric oxide (IC?? 897.83±1.48 ?g/ml) radicals, as well as high reducing power. In Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats, oral treatment with T. asiatica leaves ethyl acetate extract produced a significant (P?0.005) decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in comparison with hexane and methanol extracts. In high fat diet-fed hyperlipidemic rats, the ethyl acetate extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly altered the plasma and liver lipids levels to near normal. PMID:23891761

Irudayaraj, Santiagu Stephen; Sunil, Christudas; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2013-10-01

211

Evaluation of in vitro antimalarial activity of different extracts of Artemisia aucheri Boiss. and A. armeniaca Lam. and fractions of the most potent extracts.  

PubMed

Ten extracts with different polarity from two Iranian Artemisia species, A. armeniaca Lam. and A. aucheri Boiss, were screened for their antimalarial properties by in vitro?? ? -hematin formation assay. Dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of both plants showed significant antimalarial activities with IC50 values of 1.36±0.01 and 1.83±0.03?mg/mL and IC90 values of 2.12±0.04 and 2.62±0.09?mg/mL for A. armeniaca and A. aucheri, respectively. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of DCM extracts of both plants by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) over silica gel with solvent mixtures of increasing polarities afforded seven fractions. Two fractions from DCM extract of A. armeniaca and four fractions from DCM extract of A. aucheri showed potent antimalarial activity with reducing IC50 and IC90 values compared to extracts. The most potent fraction belonged to DCM extract of A. armeniaca with IC50 and IC90 values of 0.47±0.006 and 0.71±0.006?mg/mL, respectively. PMID:24558335

Mojarrab, Mahdi; Shiravand, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Heshmati Afshar, Fariba

2014-01-01

212

Validation of turbulence and convective schemes on western Africa; comparison of LAM and CRM simulations on a HAPEX-Sahel case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to analyse the behaviour of turbulence and convective parameterizations included in the Météo-France ALADIN-CLIMAT Limited Area Model in the frame of a 24 hour simulation of a HAPEX-Sahel case study, in comparison to observations and to a CRM (Méso-NH, with a 5 km horizontal grid-mesh) simulation carried out under the same boundary forcings. This framework provides an intermediate step of parameterization validation between the Single Column Model and Global Climate Model simulation studies. The chosen case study is the 21st August 1992 over a 12° x 12° region centred over SW Niger. It is characterised by the life cycle of a westward propagating convective system associated to an African Easterly Wave. Both LAM and CRM simulations have been performed over the same considered domain, using the same ERA40 boundary forcings. Sensitivity tests to resolution (both horizontal and vertical) have been first carried out with ALADIN-CLIMAT. Second, the two different convection schemes used in ALADIN-CLIMAT show two kinds of response mainly due to their different formulations of triggering (no constraints in the dry layer under the convective cloud versus continuous treatment of convection including this dry layer) and closure (moisture convergence versus CAPE). Third, the impact of entrainment at the top of the PBL (included in the turbulence scheme) and of convective downdrafts will be shown. Fourth, the impact of different boundary forcing fields will also be presented.

Pollack, D.; Gueremy, J. F.; Beau, I.

2009-04-01

213

Antifeedant activity of aqueous extract of Gnidia glauca Gilg. and Toddalia asiatica Lam. on the gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hbn).  

PubMed

Aqueous leaf extracts of two plants namely Gnidia glauca Gilg. and Toddalia asiatica Lam., have been screened for their antifeedant activity against the sixth instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hbn) by applying the aqueous leaf extracts at various concentrations viz., 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 percent on young tomato leaves. The larval mortality of more than 50 percent at higher concentrations (0.8 and 1.0 percent) was observed in the aqueous extracts. Among the two aqueous leaf extracts tested, T. asiatica was found to show higher rate of mortality (86.1%) at 1.0 percent concentration. A reduction in the rate of food consumption and growth was observed in the larvae of H. armigera after 48 hours of treatments in both the aqueous extracts. Since this insect pest species have developed resistance and resurgence to synthetic insecticides, the only alternate is the usage of bio-pesticides for they are eco-friendly, pollution free and easily degradable. PMID:11480344

Sundararajan, G; Kumuthakalavalli, R

2001-01-01

214

Development of a validated HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of flavonoids in Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by ultra-violet detection  

PubMed Central

Background Cuscuta species known as dodder, have been used in traditional medicine of eastern and southern Asian countries as liver and kidney tonic. Flavonoids are considered as the main biologically active constituents in Cuscuta plants especially in C. chinensis Lam. Objective In the present study, a fast, simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination and quantization of C. chinensis flavonols including hyperoside, rutin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol has been developed. Materials and methods The chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase ACE 5 C18 with eluting at a flow rate of 1 ml/min using a gradient with O-phosphoric acid 0.25% : acetonitrile for 42 min. UV spectra were collected across the range of 200–900 nm, extracting 360 nm for the chromatograms. The method was validated according to linearity, selectivity, precision, recovery, LOD and LOQ. Results The method was selective for determination of rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin and kampferol. The calibration graphs of flavonols were linear with r2?>?0.999. RSDs% of intra- and inter-day precisions were found 1.3&3.4 for rutin, 1.5&2.8 for hyperoside, 1.3&3.3 for isorhamnetin and 1.7 & 2.9 for kaempferol which were satisfactory. LODs and LOQs were calculated as 1.73 & 8.19 for rutin, 0.09 & 4.19 for hyperoside, 2.09 & 6.3 for isorhamnetin and 0.18 & 0.56 for kaempferol. The recovery averages of above-mentioned flavonols were 90.3%, 97.4%, 98.7% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusion The simplicity of the method makes it highly valuable for quality control of C. chinensis according to quantization of flavonols.

2012-01-01

215

Phosphorus status and microbial community of paddy soil with the growth of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) under different phosphorus fertilizer treatments*  

PubMed Central

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was grown in paddy soil in pots under different phosphorus (P) fertilizer treatments to investigate changes of P fractions and microbial community of the soil. The treatments included Kunyang phosphate rock (KPR) applications at 50 mg P/kg (KPR50) and 250 mg P/kg (KPR250), mono-calcium phosphate (MCP) application at 50 mg P/kg (MCP50), and the control without P application. The results showed that KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications significantly increased the dry weight of the ryegrass by 13%, 38%, and 55%, and increased P uptake by 19%, 135%, and 324%, respectively. Compared with MCP50, the relative effectiveness of KPR50 and KPR250 treatments in ryegrass production was about 23% and 68%, respectively. After one season of ryegrass growth, the KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications increased soil-available P by 13.4%, 26.8%, and 55.2%, respectively. More than 80% of the applied KPR-P remained as HCl-P fraction in the soil. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis showed that the total and bacterial PLFAs were significantly higher in the soils with KPR250 and MCP50 treatments compared with KPR50 and control. The latter had no significant difference in the total or bacterial PLFAs. The KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 treatments increased fungal PLFA by 69%, 103%, and 69%, respectively. Both the principal component analysis and the cluster analysis of the PLFA data suggest that P treatments altered the microbial community composition of the soils, and that P availability might be an important contributor to the changes in the microbial community structure during the ryegrass growth in the paddy soils.

Guo, Hai-chao; Wang, Guang-huo

2009-01-01

216

Effects of Elevated CO2 and N Addition on Growth and N2 Fixation of a Legume Subshrub (Caragana microphylla Lam.) in Temperate Grassland in China  

PubMed Central

It is well demonstrated that the responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration are species-specific and dependent on environmental conditions. We investigated the responses of a subshrub legume species, Caragana microphylla Lam., to elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition using open-top chambers in a semiarid temperate grassland in northern China for three years. Measured variables include leaf photosynthetic rate, shoot biomass, root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity, and leaf N content. Symbiotic nitrogenase activity was determined by the C2H2 reduction method. Elevated CO2 enhanced photosynthesis and shoot biomass by 83% and 25%, respectively, and the enhancement of shoot biomass was significant only at a high N concentration. In addition, the photosynthetic capacity of C. microphylla did not show down-regulation under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 had no significant effect on root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity and leaf N content. Under elevated CO2, N addition stimulated photosynthesis and shoot biomass. By contrast, N addition strongly inhibited symbiotic nitrogenase activity and slightly increased leaf N content of C. microphylla under both CO2 levels, and had no significant effect on root biomass. The effect of elevated CO2 and N addition on C. microphylla did not show interannual variation, except for the effect of N addition on leaf N content. These results indicate that shoot growth of C. microphylla is more sensitive to elevated CO2 than is root growth. The stimulation of shoot growth of C. microphylla under elevated CO2 or N addition is not associated with changes in N2-fixation. Additionally, elevated CO2 and N addition interacted to affect shoot growth of C. microphylla with a stimulatory effect occurring only under combination of these two factors.

Zhang, Lin; Wu, Dongxiu; Shi, Huiqiu; Zhang, Canjuan; Zhan, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Shuangxi

2011-01-01

217

In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts and compounds from the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth (Bignoniaceae).  

PubMed

In order to assess the potential of the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth as source of new anti-malarial leads, n-hexane and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts and four compounds isolated from the stem bark were screened in vitro against the chloroquine-resistant W-2 and two field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum using lactate dehydrogenase assay. The products were also tested for their cytotoxicity on LLC/MK2 monkey kidney cells. The EtOAc extract exhibited a significant antiplasmodial activity (IC(50)?= 11.15 ?g/mL on W-2; 3.91 and 4.74 ?g/mL on field CAM10 and SHF4 isolates, respectively), whereas the n-hexane fraction showed a weak activity (IC(50)?= 73.78 ?g/mL on W-2 and 21.85 ?g/mL on SHF4). Three out of the four compounds showed good activity against all the three different parasite strains (IC(50)?<5 ?M). Specicoside exhibited the highest activity on W-2 (IC(50)?= 1.54 ?M) followed by 2?, 3?, 19?-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (IC(50)?= 1.60 ?M) and atranorin (IC(50)?= 4.41 ?M), while p-hydroxycinnamic acid was the least active (IC(50)?=53.84 ?M). The EtOAc extract and its isolated compounds (specicoside and p-hydroxycinnamic acid) were non-cytotoxic (CC(50)?> 30 ?g/mL), whereas the n-hexane extract and two of its products, atranorin and 2?, 3?, 19?-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid showed cytotoxicity at high concentrations, with the last one being the most toxic (CC(50)?= 9.37 ?g/mL). These findings justify the use of K. africana stem bark as antimalaria by traditional healers of Western Cameroon, and could constitute a good basis for further studies towards development of new leads or natural drugs for malaria. PMID:21487780

Zofou, Denis; Kengne, Archile Bernabe Ouambo; Tene, Mathieu; Ngemenya, Moses N; Tane, Pierre; Titanji, Vincent P K

2011-06-01

218

In vitro analysis on bactericidal screening and antioxidant potentiality of leaf and root extracts of Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. An ethnobotanical plant  

PubMed Central

Objective Natural products of plant origin are potential source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidative agents. Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. (T. siliquosa). A medicinal herb used by local tribals for treating various ailments. The present study aims at the phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis, in vitro antibacterial activity and antioxidant potentiality of root and leaf extracts of T. siliquosa. Methods Hot continuous Soxhlet extraction, GC-MS analysis, antibacterial analysis by disc diffusion, microdilution assay and antioxidant potentialities by hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical scavenging. The data was statistically analyzed. Results Phytochemical screening of the ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of leaf and root revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins and saponin. The extract revealed a pool of phytochemicals by comparison with authentic standards from spectral library. Both the extracts has shown their broad spectrum of inhibition against the selected bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia compared with standard antibiotic drug streptomycin. The extracts showed antioxidant activity by scavenging of free radicals such as hydroxyl and nitric oxide. The IC50 values of the ethyl acetate extracts leaf and root and standard in this assay were 167.5±0.67, 99.4±1.2, 192±2.5 µg/mL respectively. Similarly those methanolic extracts of leaf and root were 269.5±0.89 and 289.1±2.66 µg/mL respectively. Similarly, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts also caused a moderate dose-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide with an IC50 range 65.5±1.55 to 148 ±3.09 µg/mL. The inhibitory activities were found to be dose dependent. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that ethyl acetate and methanol extract of leaf and root of T. siliquosa are potential source of natural antioxidants and bactericidal nature. It is essential that research should continue to isolate and purify the bio active components of this natural plant and use in drug discovery and development.

Nusaiba, Saiba Abdul Wahab; Murugan, Kumaraswamy

2013-01-01

219

[Studies on the chemical constituents of rutaceous plants. LXVII. The chemical constituents of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. aculeata Pers). Examination of coumarins using supercritical fluid and soxhlet extraction. Is toddalolactone a genuine natural coumarin?].  

PubMed

It is well known that toddalolactone (1) is a main component of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. aculeata Pers.) (Rutaceae). However, supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction of the plant by using CO2 showed that a main component of the extract was not 1, but aculeatin (2), a coumarin having an epoxy ring on the side chain. The same result was obtained from Soxhlet extraction by using aprotic solvents. On the other hand, Soxhlet extraction by using methanol yielded 13, corresponding to a methanol adduct of 2, as an additional component, which was able to be also produced in 50.2% yield only by heating pure 2 in methanol, indicating that the epoxy ring in 2 can be easily attacked by a weak nucleophile like methanol. These facts strongly suggested that 1, corresponding to the hydrate of 2, was an artefact derived from 2 during extraction. SCF extraction under various conditions was examined in detail by quantitative analyses of 1 and 2 by high performance liquid chromatography and the optimum condition extracting the both components was found to be at 40 degrees C and at 300 kg/cm2. The condition was applied to the plant treated with aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate in order to remove any acidic substances and 1 was still detected in the extract. Thus, it is conclude that 1 should be a genuine natural coumarin but that previous isolation of 1 as a main component resulted in an isolation of an artefact derived from 2. SCF extraction was suggested to be a useful extraction method. PMID:1783986

Ishii, H; Tan, S; Wang, J P; Chen, I S; Ishikawa, T

1991-07-01

220

Combined U-Pb geochronology and Lu-Hf isotope systematics by LAM-ICPMS of zircons from granites and metasedimentary rocks of Carrazeda de Ansiães and Sabugal areas, Portugal, to constrain granite sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carrazeda de Ansiães and Sabugal areas in the Central Iberian Zone of the Iberian Variscan Belt contain abundant S-type granites formed during the post-thickening stage of the Variscan orogeny (syn- to post-D 3, i.e. the last ductile deformation phase). Magmatic zircons and inherited zircon cores from two granites (G and G5), magmatic zircons from three other granites (G1, G4 and G6) and detrital zircons from a chlorite phyllite and a metagraywacke were dated by LAM-ICPMS. Hf isotope data were obtained by the same method to constrain the sources for granites. Some granites have zircons with negative ?Hf t values (G: from - 8 to - 4; G1: from - 8 to - 1; G4: from - 6 to - 3), suggesting an origin from heterogeneous crustal anatectic melts or, from mantle-derived magmas contaminated in the crust. Magmatic zircons from granites G5 and G6 show a larger variation, yielding also some positive ?Hft values (G5: from - 8 to + 6; G6: from - 4 to + 4) indicating crystallization from mildly contaminated mantle-derived magmas or from a lower crustal source. U-Pb isotope data of inherited zircon cores from granites G and G5 show that Neoproterozoic ages dominate, but only the inherited zircon cores from granite G have similar initial 176Hf/ 177Hf ratios to those from a chlorite phyllite of the Formation of Ervedosa do Douro (Carrazeda de Ansiães area), suggesting that this metasedimentary unit could have been involved in the genesis of the granite G. On the other hand, the Lu-Hf data suggest that the metagraywacke from Sabugal area should not be considered a component involved in the partial melting process that formed the granite G5. The occurrence of Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons in both metasediments suggests that these rocks are likely to have evolved from a peri-Amazonian realm, close to West Avalonian terranes, during the Neoproterozoic/Early Palaeozoic. However, a West African Craton provenance could also be considered, if a long distance river transportation of Mesoproterozoic zircons, from the southwest Baltica or Arabian-Nubian Shield, is admitted. The U-Pb isotope data obtained in detrital zircons from both metasedimentary rocks suggest that their maximum depositional ages are ca. 578 Ma for the chlorite phyllite and ca. 577 Ma for the metagraywacke.

Teixeira, R. J. S.; Neiva, A. M. R.; Silva, P. B.; Gomes, M. E. P.; Andersen, T.; Ramos, J. M. F.

2011-07-01

221

The COSMOS Information Systems at LAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decades have witnessed a strong increase in the amount of data coming from astronomical surveys. These data are exploited by large international collaborations of scientists working around the same scientific goals. The regular request of high data-quality control, fast data access via easy-to-use graphic interfaces, as well as the possibility to cross correlate information coming from different observations motivate the use of scientific information systems. The CeSAM (Centre de donneéS Astronomiques de Marseille) data center answers to the aforementioned needs offering a specialized database service to the contemporary large astrophysical surveys (VVDS, GALEX, HST-COSMOS, Hershel, CoRoT, etc.). We here focus our attention on the HST-COSMOS and zCOSMOS information systems, recently opened to the scientific community. We are dealing with data coming from the largest ever-undertaken cosmological survey. The associated database has the specificity to archive, visualize and correlate multi-wavelength and spectroscopic datasets.

Moreau, C.; Gimenez, S.; Kneib, J.-P.; Tasca, L.

2011-07-01

222

Hepatoprotective studies on Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.  

PubMed

Hedyotis corymbosa is used in traditional medicine of India and China to treat various hepatic disorders. In the present study, the hepatoprotective effect of the methanolic extract of the whole plant of Hedyotis corymbosa against paracetamol overdose-induced liver damage in Wistar rats was studied. The methanolic extract of the plant produced significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities, SGPT, SGOT, SAKP and serum bilirubin and an almost normal histological architecture of the liver, in treated groups, compared to the controls. Hedyotis corymbosa shortened hexobarbitone-induced sleeping time in mice, besides showing significant antilipid peroxidant effect in vitro. The results thus support the use of Hedyotis corymbosa as a hepatoprotective agent. PMID:16495024

Sadasivan, Sini; Latha, P G; Sasikumar, J M; Rajashekaran, S; Shyamal, S; Shine, V J

2006-06-30

223

Antifungal, Antileishmanial, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Various Extracts of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and Its Active Principle Berberine  

PubMed Central

In this study, in vitro antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum was studied by disk diffusion test and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using CLSI broth macrodilution method (M38-A2). Moreover, antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of B. vulgaris and berberine against promastigotes of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were evaluated by colorimetric MTT assay. The findings indicated that the various extracts of B. vulgaris particularly berberine showed high potential antidermatophytic against pathogenic dermatophytes tested with MIC values varying from 0.125 to >4?mg/mL. The results revealed that B. vulgaris extracts as well as berberine were effective in inhibiting L. major and L. tropica promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values varying from 2.1 to 26.6??g/mL. Moreover, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50% of cells) values varying from 27.3 to 362.6??g/mL. Results of this investigation were the first step in the search for new antidermatophytic and antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in animal models as well as volunteer human subjects.

Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Sepahvand, Asghar; Sharififar, Fariba; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Gorohi, Fatemeh; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh

2014-01-01

224

Universal Plant DNA Barcode Loci May Not Work in Complex Groups: A Case Study with Indian Berberis Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe concept of DNA barcoding for species identification has gained considerable momentum in animals because of fairly successful species identification using cytochrome oxidase I (COI). In plants, matK and rbcL have been proposed as standard barcodes. However, barcoding in complex genera is a challenging task.Methodology and Principal FindingsWe investigated the species discriminatory power of four reportedly most promising plant DNA

Sribash Roy; Antariksh Tyagi; Virendra Shukla; Anil Kumar; Uma M. Singh; Lal Babu Chaudhary; Bhaskar Datt; Sumit K. Bag; Pradhyumna K. Singh; Narayanan K. Nair; Tariq Husain; Rakesh Tuli; Simon Joly

2010-01-01

225

Antimicrobial isothiocyanates from the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam.  

PubMed

4-(alpha-L-Rhamnosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (1) and 4-(4'-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2) isolated from Moringa oleifera seeds were screened for their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for their antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum using the disk diffusion method. Isothiocyanates 1 and 2 were found active at the lowest inhibitory concentration of 1 mg/ml against all Gram-positive bacteria tested (S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis) and against the dermatophytic fungi E. floccosum and T. rubrum. Statistically significant differences were found between the mean inhibition zones (IZ) of 1 and 2 and the standard drugs, ofloxacin and clotrimazole. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values confirmed the good antimicrobial activity of 1 and 2 against S. aureus, good to moderate activity against S. epidermidis, moderate activity against B. subtilis, and weak activity against E. floccosum and T. rubrum. The in vitro bactericidal effect of 1 and 2 against the Gram-positive bacterial strains tested is suggested by MBC:MIC ratios of 2:1. PMID:23413749

Padla, Eleanor P; Solis, Ludivina T; Levida, Ruel M; Shen, Chien-Chang; Ragasa, Consolacion Y

2012-01-01

226

Spore morphology of New Zealand Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Salviniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sporocarps, megaspores, and micro-spores of Azolla filiculoides are described from fresh fertile material from the South Island of New Zealand. Size estimates are given along with light and scanning electron microscope photographs. A brief discussion of spore morphology, perine substructure, and leaf trichomes is given with regard to the taxonomy of A. filiculoides and A. rubra. Differences between these taxa

M. F. Large; J. E. Braggins

1993-01-01

227

Ecology and Management of Oxeye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxeye daisy is a European perennial forb that spreads by seed and creeping rhizomes. Its distinctive flowerhead with yellow disc and white ray flowers and its spatula-shaped, lobed rosette leaves help identify this Montana Category I noxious weed. First recorded from Lewis and Clark County in 1890, it spread to 24 counties by 2007. Oxeye daisy is a prolific seed

Jim Jacobs

228

Phytotoxic compounds from roots of Centaurea diffusa Lam.  

PubMed Central

An extract of roots of Centaurea diffusa (diffuse knapweed) yielded caryophyllene oxide and linoleic acid which were shown to be phytotoxic. Also isolated were germacrene B, a previously-known phytotoxin as well as the inactive polyene aplotaxene. A combination of these compounds, if transferred to the soil, could be one factor in the invasive behavior of this weed. Contrary to a literature report, 8-hydroxyquinoline was not detected in root exudates of in vitro grown C. diffusa nor could it be identified in the root extract. However, a recent report from a different group maintains that 8-hydroxyquinoline can be released from roots of C. diffusa following a diurnal rhythm.

Quintana, Naira; El Kassis, Elie G; Stermitz, Frank R

2009-01-01

229

The tumor specific cytotoxicity of dihydronitidine from Toddalia asiatica Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: In recent years, a number of reports have shown the anticancer activity of plant extracts and phytoalkaloid. Methods: We have evaluated the cytotoxicity profiles of 157 extracts prepared from dietary or medical plants growing in the Okinawa island, using 10 different cell lines. In vitro cytotoxicity screening indicated the presence of a highly selective cytotoxic compound in the extract

Hironori Iwasaki; Hirosuke Oku; Ryo Takara; Hanako Miyahira; Kaoru Hanashiro; Yasuhiko Yoshida; Yasuhiro Kamada; Tetsuya Toyokawa; Kensaku Takara; Masashi Inafuku

2006-01-01

230

Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Materials and Methods: Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Results: Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ? 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ? 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ? 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing A? and B? subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. Conclusions: These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing.

Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

2012-01-01

231

Radical scavenging potential of phenolics from Bryophyllum pinnatum (LAM.) OKEN.  

PubMed

Optimization of the extraction process of phenolics from Bryophyllum pinnatum was carried out using response-surface methodology (RSM). The effect of different variables such as ratio of solvents, plant material/solvent ratio, extraction time, and temperature were investigated. An optimal phenolics yield of 7.952 mg/g gallic acid equivalence (GAE) was achieved at reduced levels of methanol/water ratio (1:1, v/v). During optimization, the product yield was enhanced by ?2-fold at reduced extraction solvent (methanol/water) up to 37%. Validation of the RSM model for extraction of total phenolic content (TPC) was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The obtained experimental values were in good agreement with the predicted values, thereby indicating the appropriateness of the model generated. Phenolic extracts from B. pinnatum were further examined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods for determining the radical scavenging activities. EC(50) values of B. pinnatum extracts (BPEs) obtained by these methods were in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in the extract. Significant correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). PMID:21660869

Gupta, Suneel; Banerjee, Rintu

2011-01-01

232

Heterologous expression of two FAD-dependent oxidases with ( S )-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase activity from Arge mone mexicana and Berberis wilsoniae in insect cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberine, palmatine and dehydrocoreximine are end products of protoberberine biosynthesis. These quaternary protoberberines\\u000a are elicitor inducible and, like other phytoalexins, are highly oxidized. The oxidative potential of these compounds is derived\\u000a from a diverse array of biosynthetic steps involving hydroxylation, intra-molecular C–C coupling, methylenedioxy bridge formation\\u000a and a dehydrogenation reaction as the final step in the biosynthesis. For the berberine

Andreas Gesell; Maria Luisa Díaz Chávez; Robert Kramell; Markus Piotrowski; Peter Macheroux; Toni M. Kutchan

2011-01-01

233

Flocculent activity of a recombinant protein from Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of the tropical tree Moringa oleifera contain small storage proteins able to flocculate particles in suspension in water. The cDNA encoding one of these flocculent proteins, MO2.1, was cloned and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The flocculent activity of the purified recombinant MO2.1 was assayed on clays and bacteria using light and confocal microscopy and GFP-overexpressing

M. Broin; C. Santaella; S. Cuine; K. Kokou; G. Peltier; T. Joët

2002-01-01

234

Establishment of an in vitro micropropagation protocol for Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. ex Poir  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes in vitro micropropagation of Boscia senegalensis, so-called famine foods, that helped the people in Darfur and Kordofan, Sudan survive during the 1984–1985 famine. Four types\\u000a of explants prepared from green mature zygotic embryos were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with 1–5\\u000a mg\\/L 6-benzyladenine (BA). The highest number of shoots per explant (14.3±0.9) was achieved

Mutasim M. Khalafalla; Hussien M. Daffalla; Eltayb Abdellatef; Elsadig Agabna; Hany A. El-Shemy

2011-01-01

235

DEVELOPMENT OF VASCULAR CAMBIUM IN THE LEAF RACHIS OF KIGELIA AFRICANA (LAM.) BENTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural changes during the vascular cambium development from procambium in the leaf rachis of Kigelia africana bearing leaflets of different developmental stages (young, mature and old rachis) were investigated. The different regions from the internodes of rachis bearing young, copper brown coloured leaves revealed the sequential stages of cambial development. Terminal region of the rachis showed developing procambium along

Vinay R. Patel; Rekha B. Rohit; Pramod Sivan; Sushil S. Kajal; K. S. Rao; B. R. Doshi

2010-01-01

236

Group Theory Approach to Band Structure: Scarf and Lam{acute e} Hamiltonians  

SciTech Connect

The group theoretical treatment of bound and scattering state problems is extended to include band structure. We show that one can realize Hamiltonians with periodic potentials as dynamical symmetries, where representation theory provides analytic solutions, or which can be treated with more general spectrum generating algebraic methods. We find dynamical symmetries for which we derive the transfer matrices and dispersion relations. Both compact and noncompact groups are found to play a role. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Li, H.; Kusnezov, D. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8120 (United States)] [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8120 (United States)

1999-08-01

237

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of genetic variation in Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moringa oleifera is an important multipurpose tree introduced to Africa from India at the turn of this century. Despite limited knowledge of the levels of genetic diversity and relatedness of introduced populations, their utilization as a source of seed for planting is widespread. In order to facilitate reasoned scientific decisions on its management and conservation and prepare for a selective

G. M. MULUVI; J. I. SPRENT; N. SORANZO; J. PROVAN; D. ODEE; G. FOLKARD; J. W. McNICOL; W. POWELL

1999-01-01

238

Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. extract on cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract (50%) of M. oleifera leaves (MOE) has been studied in normal and immunosuppressed mice models. Different doses of MOE i.e. 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of mice were administered orally for 15 days. Cyclophosphamide at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight was administered orally for the next 3 days. On day 16 and 19, hematological parameters like white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin level (Hb), percent neutrophils and organ weight were recorded. Effect of MOE on phagocytic activity of mice macrophages was determined by carbon clearance test. MOE showed significant dose dependent increase in WBC, percent neutrophils, weight of thymus and spleen along with phagocytic index in normal and immunosuppressed mice. The results indicate that MOE significantly reduced cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression by stimulating both cellular and humoral immunity. PMID:21117458

Gupta, Anamika; Gautam, Manish K; Singh, Rahul K; Kumar, M Vijay; Rao, Ch V; Goel, R K; Anupurba, Shampa

2010-11-01

239

Dem Extraction from CHANG'E-1 Lam Data by Surface Skinning Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DEM is a digital model or 3-D representation of a terrain's surface and it is created from terrain elevation data. The main models for DEM extraction based on Lidar data or Laser Altimeter data currently use the idea that point cloud is scattered, such as regular grid model, TIN model and contour model. Essentially, in these above methods, the discrete points are interpolated into regular grid data and irregular grid data. In fact, point cloud generated by Laser Altimeter is not totally scattered, but have some regularity. In this paper, to utilize this regularity, the proposed method adopts surface skinning technology to generate DEM from Chang'E-1 Laser Altimeter data. The surface skinning technology is widely used in the field of mechanical engineering. Surface skinning is the process of passing a smooth surface through a set of curves called sectional curves, which, in general, may not be compatible. In the process of generating section line, a need for attention is that it needs to use curvature method to get a set of characteristic points, and these feature points were used to subdivide segment; the next step is generating several curves on some key places. These curves describe the shape of the curved surface. The last step is to generate a curved surface that through these curves. The result shows that, this idea is feasible, useful and it provides a novel way to generate accurate DEM.

Zhang, X.-B.; Zhang, W.-M.

2011-08-01

240

Integrating LMSs in the Educational Process: Greek Teachers' Initial Perceptions about LAMS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

E-learning with the use of Learning Management Systems, has been increasingly adopted in Primary, Secondary and Higher Education with the expectation to increase students' motivation and infuse activity-centred learning strategies with various educational benefits. This study has investigated the initial perceptions of Greek teachers about the…

Papadakis, Spyros; Dovros, Nikos; Paschalis, Giorgos; Rossiou, Eleni

2012-01-01

241

The effects of phosphate on the biomineralization of the green alga, Halimeda incrassata (Ellis) Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field surveys indicated that individuals of Halimeda incrassata (Ellis) Lamouroux, a rhizophytic alga, were significantly more mineralized when collected from phosphate-limited carbonate sediments of the Florida Keys than those collected from siliciclastic sediments at Tarpon Springs on the west coast of Florida. Results from field experiments in Tarpon Springs, which compared growth of H. incrassata in enriched conditions to unmanipulated

Kyle W. Demes; Susan S. Bell; Clinton J. Dawes

2009-01-01

242

Grazing by the sea urchins Arbacia lixula L. and Paracentrotus lividus Lam. in the Northwest Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sea urchins Arbacia lixula and Paracentrotus lividus are common on shallow subtidal reefs in the Mediterranean. Previous studies on the ecology of these species reported that P. lividus is generally more abundant on horizontal or gently sloping substrata, where it forages mainly on erect algae. In contrast, A. lixula is more common on vertical substrata and it is considered

Fabio Bulleri; Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi; Francesco Cinelli

1999-01-01

243

Efficacy of Strychnos spinosa (Lam.) and Solanum incanum L. aqueous fruit extracts against cattle ticks.  

PubMed

The efficacy of Solanum incanum and Strychnos spinosa aqueous fruit extracts was evaluated against cattle ticks in on-station experiments and laboratory tick bioassays. In the on-station experiment using cattle, fruit extracts were applied at three concentrations 5, 10, and 20 % (w/v) and compared with a commercial acaricide, Tickbuster (amitraz) spray (positive control) and no treatment (negative control). The treatments were applied at weekly intervals for 6 weeks as surface sprays on 32 Mashona cattle in a completely randomized design experiment. Ticks on individual cattle were identified, counted, and recorded daily. Peripheral blood samples were collected for parasite screening. In the laboratory, tick bioassays were conducted at four concentrations, 5, 10, 20, and 40% (w/v) fruit extracts compared to Tickbuster (amitraz) spray (positive control) and distilled water (negative control). The extracts were incubated with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus tick larvae and mortalities for each treatment level recorded after 24 and 48 h. The 5% Solanum incanum treatment had higher efficacy ratio (P < 0.05) than the other fruit extract concentrations of the same plant species. Efficacy ratio was higher (P < 0.05) in the 5% S. spinosa-treated cattle than in the untreated control but lower (P < 0.05) than that for the amitraz treatment. The bioassays indicated that there was a high efficacy ratio for the lowest fruit extract concentrations when ticks were exposed to acaricidal treatments for 48 h compared to 24 h. Overall, the results indicate that Solanum incanum and Strychnos spinosa individually have some acaricidal effect. PMID:23456785

Madzimure, James; Nyahangare, Emmanuel T; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Hove, Thokozani; Belmain, Steve R; Stevenson, Philip C; Mvumi, Brighton M

2013-08-01

244

Phylogenetic relationships among morphotypes of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpinioideae: Leguminosae) evidenced by trn L intron sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood or Pernambuco wood) comprises a complex of three morphological leaf variants, characterized by differences in\\u000a the number and size of the pinnae and leaflets, and occurring in allopatric and sympatric populations. The present study evaluates\\u000a the utility of the chloroplast DNA trnL intron in a phylogenetic analysis of the three leaf variants along with other species of

Fabrício Sacramento Juchum; Marco Antônio Costa; André Márcio Amorim; Ronan Xavier Corrêa

2008-01-01

245

Quantitative and qualitative DNA variations in Anabaena azollae Strasb. living in Azolla filiculoides lam.  

PubMed

Heterocysts and vegetative cells of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing Anabaena azollae isolated from the apex to the basal leaf cavities of Azolla filiculoides were examined by epifluorescent microscope after fluorochrome staining. Acridine orange (AO), DAPI, and chromomycin fluorochromes were used in order to evidence total DNA content and respectively, A + T and G + C bases. Measurements of fluorescence intensities were made on photographic prints by the automatic image analysis system Quantimet 970. Heterocysts contained higher amounts of DNA than did vegetative cells, and their content strongly increased in the basal leaf cavities. The heterocyst DAPI brightness was quite uniform, whereas in vegetative cells DAPI brightness increased from the apex to the basal groups. In vegetative cells from the apex to the median group, the percentage of DAPI brightness was 60-85% with respect to AO brightness, whereas in heterocysts of the same groups DAPI brightness was 40-50% with respect to AO brightness. In the basal group, brightness due to DAPI staining was comparable with those of previous group both in heterocysts and in vegetative cells, whereas chromomycin brightness increased strongly in heterocysts. These data show that heterocyst changes its DNA content and composition in the basal leaf cavities, suggesting that its lifetime is not completely over. PMID:1374307

Canini, A; Grilli Caiola, M; Ferrucci, L

1992-01-01

246

Nutritional value of aquatic ferns ( Azolla filiculoides Lam. and Salvinia molesta Mitchell) in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic ferns (AFs) such as Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia molesta are grown on swine lagoons in the tropics and used to feed pigs. The present work aimed to determine their nutritional value. Azolla samples collected in Colombian pig farms contained from 184 to 317g crude protein\\/kg DM, 469–620g NDF and 98–145g ash. Those of Salvinia contained from 112 to 169g

Pascal Leterme; Angela M. Londoño; Jaime E. Muñoz; Jeimmy Súarez; Carlos A. Bedoya; Wolfgang B. Souffrant; André Buldgen

2009-01-01

247

Differential response of Azolla microphylla kaulf. and Azolla filiculoides Lam. to sodium fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the differential response ofAzolla microphylla andAzolla filiculoides to fluoride stress by growing them in culture media containing 1 to 50 ppm sodium fluoride (NaF).A microphylla had a higher total chlorophyll content thanA. filiculoides. Both species showed gradual decreases in protein content as the concentration of NaF increased.A. microphylla accumulated less proline thanA. filiculoides when more NaF was added

M. Eyini; K. Sujanandini; C. Pothiraj; M. Jayakumar; Bong-Seop Kil

1999-01-01

248

Nutritional value and intake of aquatic ferns ( Azolla filiculoides Lam. and Salvinia molesta Mitchell.) in sows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic ferns (AFs) such as Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia molesta are grown on swine lagoons in the tropics and used in diets for pigs. The present work is aimed at evaluating their potential as feed ingredients for sows. When presented with ad libitum AFs, gilts weighing 110±14kg (mean±SD), were able to ingest 9.1–9.7kg fresh AF per day (from 597 to

Pascal Leterme; Angela M. Londoño; Diana C. Ordoñez; Alejandra Rosales; Fernando Estrada; Jérôme Bindelle; André Buldgen

2010-01-01

249

Differential responses of Azolla microphylla Kaulf and Azolla filiculoides Lam. to lead nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic fernAzolla is used as a green manure for rice production systems in warm temperate and tropical regions throughout the world. We used\\u000a lead nitrate in nutrient media to assess the tolerance\\/response of twoAzolla microphylla andAzolla filiculoides to heavy metals. While both species showed negative responses in growth with an increase in lead concentrations, They were\\u000a distinctly different in

Wamy Eyini Muthukumaras; Natesan Anjana Devi; Chinnathambi Pothiraj; Muthukrishnan Jayakumar; Bong-Seop Kil

2000-01-01

250

Alternative herbicides to manage Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum lam) resistant to glyphosate at different phenological stages.  

PubMed

During the growing season of 2002--2003, field and greenhouse experiments were conducted with the objective of evaluating the influence of Italian ryegrass phenological stages and management alternatives on the control of resistant biotypes to glyphosate. Three field experiments were conducted in Lagoa Vermelha, RS, Brazil and glyphosate was applied alone and in combinations with alternative herbicides. Two greenhouse experiments were also conducted at the Department of Crop Science, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. The Italian ryegrass resistant population was collected from Lagoa Vermelha, RS, Brazil. From the results it was possible to conclude that: (i) the more advanced the phenological stage of application, the more difficult the control of resistant Italian ryegrass by glyphosate, mainly by the rate of 960 g a.i. ha(-1); however, this rate applied at earlier phenological stage (five tillers), the control was higher than 90%; (ii) with the increment of glyphosate rate, it significant response was observed on the control at all stages of application; (iii) the mixture of glyphosate + clethodim (1440 + 72 g a.i. ha(-1)), paraquat + diuron (500 + 250 g a.i. ha(-1)), at all stages of application and clethodim (96 g a.i. ha(-1)) and paraquat + diuron (300 + 150 g a.i. ha(-1)) at the initial stages until pre-flowering were excellent alternatives for management of these populations; and (iv) the response of control was much faster for the mixture of glyphosate + clethodim, independently of growth stage. PMID:15656163

Christoffoleti, Pedro Jacob; Trentin, Renato; Tocchetto, Saulo; Marochi, Aroldo; Galli, Antonio João Batista; López-Ovejero, Ramiro Fernando; Nicolai, Marcelo

2005-01-01

251

Anti-plasmodial activity of some constituents of the root bark of Harungana madagascariensis LAM. (Hypericaceae).  

PubMed

Bazouanthrone (1), a new anthrone derivative, has been isolated from the root bark of Harungana madagascariensis, together with known compounds, feruginin A (2), harunganin (3), harunganol A (4), harunganol B (5), friedelan-3-one (6) and betulinic acid (7). The structure of the compound (1) was assigned as 3,5,8,9-tetrahydroxy-2,4,4-tri-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-6-methyl-1-(4H)-anthracenone, by means of spectroscopic analysis. The anti-plasmodial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in culture against W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. All the compounds were found to be active against the Plasmodium parasites with bazouanthrone (1) showing particular potency (IC50=1.80 microM). PMID:17329893

Ndjakou Lenta, Bruno; Ngouela, Silvère; Fekam Boyom, Fabrice; Tantangmo, Ferdinand; Feuya Tchouya, Guy Raymond; Tsamo, Etienne; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip Jon; Donald Connolly, Joseph

2007-03-01

252

Wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. leaf--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The extract of K. pinnata was evaluated for its wound healing activity by using excision wound model in rats. On day 11, animals treated with the ethanolic leaf extract exhibited 86.33% reduction in the wound area, compared to petroleum jelly treated control (69.36%) and the mupirocin treated standard (85.49%). The hydroxyproline content of extract treated animals was higher, as compared to control and the standard groups. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that K. pinnata leaf extract exhibits significant wound healing potential. The increased rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content in the extract treated animals supports the claims made by traditional healers of the benefits obtained from the medicinal use of K. pinnata. PMID:20882759

Nayak, B Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin

2010-06-01

253

Physio-anatomic aspects on the initial growth of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seedlings.  

PubMed

This paper aimed to evaluate the initial growth of "mutambo" seedlings in different conditions of light intensity and treatments with gibberellic acid (GA). The seedlings were kept under full sun and 50% of shading. Sixty days after the emergence, seedlings were sprayed with: 1) 100 mg L(-1) GA(3); 2) 200 mg L(-1) GA(3); 3) control. At the end of the appraisals, seedlings height under 50% of shading was compared to the height that were growing under full sun with 200 mg L(-1) GA. Stem diameter was lower under shading. Leaf area did not vary among the treatments, but the root system growth was higher under full sun and did not vary among GA levels. The number of stomata, trichomes and epidermal cells on adaxial and abaxial sides was higher under full sun. Total dry masses of leaf and root were highe runder full sun and with 200 mg L(-1) GA application. "Mutambo" seedlings presented a higher initial growth under full sun, although with a lower height, diameter, and lenght of the largest root and total dry masses of leaf and root were higher. A concentration with 200 mg L(-1) promoted a higher growth. PMID:21670888

Scalon, Silvana P Q; Pereira, Heloisa H G; Glaeser, Daniele F; Silva, Jocemar J; Betoni, Roseli; Mussury, Rosilda M

2011-06-01

254

Leucanthemum vulgare lam. germination, growth and mycorrhizal symbiosis under crude oil contamination.  

PubMed

Oil contamination of soil limits plants' access to water and nutrients. Leucanthemum vulgare colonized by mycorrhizae could provide an effective tool in remedying oil contamination. Seeds of L. vulgare were planted in pots containing soil mixed with petroleum at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% w/w and propagules of mycorrhizal fungi. Plants were grown under ambient conditions for 16 weeks. Seed germination data were collected weekly for three weeks. Mycorrhizal percentage, spore counts, length and weight of roots and shoots were determined after harvesting. Results showed significant differences in seed germination rates between oil-treated, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. The overall germination rate was greater at 7.5% w/w crude oil contamination (p = 0.05) in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal pots with significant differences between their respective Root:Shoot ratios (both length and weight). Results of this research showed L. vulgare could be germinated and grown in crude oil contaminated soils and could be used to augment plant establishment as part of phytoremediation practices. PMID:24933896

Noori, Azam Sadat; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Alaie, Ebrahim

2014-01-01

255

ASYMPTOTICS OF POLYNOMIAL SOLUTIONS OF A CLASS OF GENERALIZED LAM ´ E DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the asymptotic behavior of sequences of Heine-Stieltjes and Van Vleck poly- nomials for a class of generalized Lame differential equations connected with certain equilibrium problems on the unit circle.

A. MART ´ iNEZ-FINKELSHTEINy

256

INTERLACING AND NONORTHOGONALITY OF SPECTRAL POLYNOMIALS FOR THE LAM´ EO PERATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polynomial solutions to the Heine-Stieltjes equation, the Stieltjes polynomials, and the associated Van Vleck polynomials have been studied since the 1830's in various contexts including the solution of the Laplace equation on an ellipsoid. Recently there has been renewed interest in the distribution of the zeros of Van Vleck polynomials as the degree of the corresponding Stieltjes polynomials increases. In

A. BOURGET; T. MCMILLEN; A. VARGAS

257

Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit Leucaena, tantan Leguminosae (Mimosoideae) Legume Family.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leucaena leucocephala commonly known as leucaena, tantan, guaje (Mexico), huaxin (Central America), zarcilla (Puerto Rico), and by many other names, is one of the most extensively cultivated leguminous trees in the world. Adapted to a wide range of lowlan...

1992-01-01

258

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.  

PubMed

Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5-7.5?mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25-7.5?mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5-7.5?mg/mL and 2.5-10?mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7? ? g/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1? ? g/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w) showed significant (P < 0.05) wound contraction at day 7 with 72% of wound closure whiles significant (P < 0.05) wound contractions were observed on day 11 for stem bark of K. africana, leaf and root extracts of S. hispidus. Wound tissues treated with the extracts showed improved collagenation, re-epitheliazition and rapid granulation formation compared with untreated wound tissues. The extracts were found to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these may justify the medicinal uses of the plants for treatment of microbial infections and wounds. PMID:23662099

Agyare, Christian; Dwobeng, Anita Serwaa; Agyepong, Nicholas; Boakye, Yaw Duah; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Ayande, Patrick George; Adarkwa-Yiadom, Martin

2013-01-01

259

Anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga Wall. and Azima tetracantha Lam.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga rootbark powder and Azima tetracantha leaf powder was assayed in male albino rats using carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema (acute inflammation) and cotton pellet granuloma (chronic inflammation) methods. Both the crude drugs were maximally active at a dose of 1000 mg/kg. In the cotton pellet granuloma assay, these drugs were able to suppress the transudative, exudative and proliferative components of chronic inflammation. Furthermore, these drugs were able to lower the lipid peroxide content of exudate and liver, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in the exudate of cotton pellet granuloma. The increased acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and decreased serum albumin in cotton pellet granulomatous rats were normalised after treatment with these drugs. It is likely that these drugs may exert their activity by antiproliferative, antioxidative and lysosomal membrane stabilization. PMID:9174976

Ismail, T S; Gopalakrishnan, S; Begum, V H; Elango, V

1997-04-01

260

Anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga Wall. and Azima tetracantha Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga rootbark powder and Azima tetracantha leaf powder was assayed in male albino rats using carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema (acute inflammation) and cotton pellet granuloma (chronic inflammation) methods. Both the crude drugs were maximally active at a dose of 1000 mg\\/kg. In the cotton pellet granuloma assay, these drugs were able to suppress the transudative,

T. Syed Ismail; S. Gopalakrishnan; V. Hazeena Begum; V. Elango

1997-01-01

261

Effectiveness of lifesaving skills training and improving institutional emergency obstetric care readiness in Lam Dong, Vietnam.  

PubMed

Essential obstetric care is promoted as the prime strategy to save women's lives in developing countries. We measured the effect of improving lifesaving skills (LSS) capacity in Vietnam, a country in which most women deliver in health facilities. A quasi-experimental study was implemented to assess the impact of LSS training and readiness (availability of essential obstetric equipment, supplies, and medication) on the diagnosis of life-threatening obstetric conditions and appropriate management of labor and birth. The intervention (LSS training and readiness) was provided to all clinics and hospitals from 1 of 3 demographically similar districts in southcentral Vietnam, to hospitals only in another district, with the third district serving as the comparison group. Detection of life-threatening obstetric conditions increased in both experimental clinics and hospitals, but the intervention only improved the management of these conditions in hospitals. Management of life-threatening obstetric conditions is most effective in hospitals. The intervention did not clearly benefit women delivering in clinics. PMID:15973269

Sloan, Nancy L; Nguyen, Thi Nhu Ngoc; Do, Trong Hieu; Quimby, Charlotte; Winikoff, Beverly; Fassihian, Goli

2005-01-01

262

Fire effects on the population structure of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae) in a Brazilian savanna.  

PubMed

Since cerrado fires may impede the growth of seedlings into trees, they may shape the population of woody species. In this study, we assessed the effects of a severe fire on the population structure and spatial distribution of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a widespread cerrado tree. We were interested to know the importance of the resprouting and sexual reproduction in regenerating the population. The study area had been for about six years protected from fire, before a severe fire at the end of the dry season in 2006. We sampled and measured all individuals of Z. rhoifolium found in 80 plots of 25 m(2). We found 149 individuals before the fire and 112 after the fire, of which 77 were resprouts from burned seedlings and saplings. We did not find significant differences between the population structure before and after the fire. The spatial distribution of the population remained clumped after the fire. Thus, the Z. rhoifolium population was very resilient to a severe fire. We did not find any new seedlings. As a consequence, resprouting seems to be more important than sexual reproduction in promptly regenerating the Z. rhoifolium populations. PMID:19802440

Silva, I A; Valenti, M W; Silva-Matos, D M

2009-08-01

263

Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of ethanol extract of stem barks from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. in rats.  

PubMed

Administration of ethanol extract of stem bark from Z. rhoifolium (EEtOH-ZR) induced hypotension associated with a dual effect in heart rate in normotensive rats. This response was highlighted in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In rat superior mesenteric artery rings, the cumulative addition of EEtOH-ZR (0.1-750 microg/mL) on a phenylephrine-induced pre-contraction (10(-5) M) promoted a vasorelaxant effect by a concentration-dependent manner and independent of vascular endothelium. A similar effect was obtained on KCl-induced pre-contractions (80 mM). EEtOH-ZR attenuated contractions induced by cumulative addition of CaCl2 (10(-6)-3 x 10(-2) M) in depolarizing medium without Ca2+ only at 500 or 750 microg/mL. Likewise, on S-(-)-Bay K 8644-induced pre-contractions (10(-7) M), the EEtOH-ZR-induced vasorelaxant effect was attenuated. EEtOH-ZR (27, 81, 243 or 500 microg/mL) inhibited contractions induced by cumulative addition of phenylephrine (10(-9) - 10(-5) M) in endothelium-denuded preparations or by a single concentration (10(-5) M) in a Ca(2+)-free medium. The involvement of K+ channels was evaluated by tetraethylammonium (3 mM); the EEtOH-ZR-induced vasorelaxation was not attenuated. Thus, calcium influx blockade through voltage-operated calcium channels (CavL) and inhibition of calcium release from intracellular stores are probably underlying EEtOH-ZR-induced cardiovascular effects. PMID:24228390

Ferreira-Filho, Edson Santos; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Moura, Lucas Henrique Porfírio; da Silva-Filho, José Couras; Paulino, Emanuel Tenório; Ribeiro, Eurica Adélia Nogueira; Chaves, Mariana Helena; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; de Oliveira, Aldeídia Pereira

2013-08-01

264

[Anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves (Rutaceae)].  

PubMed

The study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium leaves in two experiments. In vitro test, cultures of goat fecal samples were treated with different concentrations of extract (134.5 to 335.0 mg.mL(-1)). In vivo test was composed of 20 sheep: G1: treated with 0.63 g.kg(-1), during four days; G2: same dose, for eight days; G3: ivermectin (200 microg.kg(-1)) and G4 untreated group. In vitro results showed a reduction of Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae greater than 95% in the concentrations between 335.0 and 193.7 mg.mL(-1). Faecal egg counting reduction was 51, 56 and 90% in G1, G2 and G3, respectively, while immature stages and adults ranged from 0 to 91% in G1 and from 26 to 94% in G2. Ivermectin effectiveness was 99% for L4 and L5 of H. contortus and 100% for other nematodes species. Clinical and biochemical parameters have remained in the normality and histophatologic analyses did not show alteration suggesting absence of toxicity. Although the great effectiveness of Z. rhoifolium leaves extract in vitro test, it displayed poor efficiency in vivo regarding gastrointestinal nematodes reduction. PMID:20040190

Peneluc, Taíse; Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; de Almeida, Gisele Nunes; Ayres, Maria Consuelo Caribé; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Trindade; da Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira; dos Santos Calmon de Bittencourt, Thereza Cristina Bório; de Almeida, Maria Angela Ornelas; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

2009-12-01

265

Machinability improvement of titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) via LAM and hybrid machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) is one of the materials extensively used in the aerospace industry due to its excellent properties of high specific strength and corrosion resistance, but it also presents problems wherein it is an extremely difficult material to machine. The cost associated with titanium machining is also high due to lower cutting speeds (<60m\\/min) and shorter tool life. Laser-assisted

Chinmaya R. Dandekar; Yung C. Shin; John Barnes

2010-01-01

266

Characteristics of children with elevated symptoms of mania: the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine differences in psychiatric symptomatology, diagnoses, demographics, functioning, and psychotropic medication exposure in children with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) compared to youth without ESM (ESM?). Method Guardians of consecutively ascertained new outpatients 6 to 12 years of age were asked to complete the Parent General Behavior Inventory-10 Item Mania Scale (PGBI-10M). Patients with scores ? 12 on the PGBI-10M (ESM+) and a matched sample of screen negatives (ESM?) were invited to participate. Results 707 children [621 ESM+, 86 ESM?; mean age 9.4 (2.0) years] were evaluated. The ESM+ group, compared to the ESM? group, more frequently met DSM-IV criteria for a mood disorder (p< 0.001), bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD, p< 0.001), and disruptive behavior disorders (p<0.01). Furthermore, they showed poorer overall functioning and more severe manic, depressive, attention deficit/hyperactivity, disruptive behavioral, and anxiety symptoms. Nevertheless, rates of BPSD were relatively low in the ESM+ group (25%), with almost half of these BPSD patients (12.1% of ESM+) meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS). ESM+ children with BPSD had significantly more: current prescriptions for antipsychotics, mood stabilizers and anticonvulsants; psychiatric hospitalizations, and biological parents with elevated mood; and were lower functioning compared to ESM+ children without BPSD. Conclusion Although ESM+ was associated with higher rates of BPSD than ESM?, 75% of ESM+ children did not meet criteria for BSPD. Results suggest longitudinal assessment is needed to examine which factors are associated with diagnostic evolution to BPSD in children with ESM+.

Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Fristad, Mary A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kowatch, Robert A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Frazier, Thomas W.; Axelson, David; Ryan, Neal; Demeter, Christine; Gill, Mary Kay; Fields, Benjamin; Depew, Judith; Kennedy, Shawn M.; Marsh, Linda; Rowles, Brieana M.; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

2011-01-01

267

Studies of sugar composition and starch morphology of baked sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).  

PubMed

Sugar composition of seven sweet potato cultivars was successfully analyzed. Fresh CYY95-26 sweet potatoes had the highest (8.41%) total sugar content while TNG73 had the lowest (4.5%). For these fresh sweet potatoes, maltose content was very low (0?~?0.39%). Because 49.92?~?92.43% of total sugars were sucrose, sucrose was the major sugar composition of fresh sweet potatoes. After the baking treatment, the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes was dramatically increased due to the formation of maltose. The maltose content significantly increased from 0?~?0.39% to 8.81?~?13.97% on dry weight basis. Therefore, maltose should be included in calculating the total sugar content. Electronic micrographs of fresh sweet potato samples showed that the size of starch granules was generally less than 20 ?m. After the baking treatment, starch granules completely gelatinized. PMID:24426034

Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lien, Ching-Yi; Liao, Wayne C

2013-12-01

268

The Behaviour of Octopus Vulgaris Lam. In Its Natural Habitat: A Pilot Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was shown that useful results on octopus behavior can be produced by a sampling type programme of diving. In an area of approximately 70,000 sq. ft., of average depth 10-15 ft. and with varied ecology, animals were observed in 37 different positions, s...

J. S. Altman

1967-01-01

269

Genome Sequence of the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfotomaculum hydrothermale Lam5T  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Desulfotomaculum hydrothermale, a sulfate-reducing, spore-forming bacterium isolated from a Tunisian hot spring. The genome is composed of 2.7 Mb, with a G+C content of 49.48%, and it contains 2,643 protein-coding sequences.

Amin, Oulfat; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Valette, Odile; Hirschler-Rea, Agnes; Barbe, Valerie; Medigue, Claudine; Vacherie, Benoit; Ollivier, Bernard; Bertin, Philippe N.

2013-01-01

270

Genetic diversity and population structure of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub.- a potential medicinal legume tree.  

PubMed

Three molecular marker systems, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) and Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) were employed to investigate the genetic structure and diversity among the 14 natural populations of Butea monosperma collected from different geographical regions of India. Detected by 17 RAPD, 15 ISSR and 11 SRAP primer combinations, the proportions of polymorphic bands were 84.2 %, 77.2 % and 91.9 %, respectively, and the mean Nei's genetic distances among the populations were 0.13, 0.10 and 0.13, respectively. Partitioning of genetic variability by Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the high genetic diversity was distributed within the populations. AMOVA also revealed that the coefficient of gene differentiation among populations based on FST was very high irrespective of markers used. The overall gene flow among populations (Nm) was very low. Cophenetic correlation coefficients of Nei's distance values and clustering pattern by Mental test were statistically significant for all three marker systems used but poor fit for ISSR data than for RAPD, SRAP and combined data set of all three markers. For all markers, a high similarity in dendrogram topologies was obtained, although some differences were observed with ISSR. The dendrogram obtained by RAPD, SRAP and combined data set of all three markers reflect relationship of most of the populations according to their geographic distribution. PMID:24431507

Vashishtha, Amit; Jehan, Tabassum; Lakhanpaul, Suman

2013-07-01

271

LAMS AS A COGNITIVE TOOL FOR TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS' REFLECTIVE THINKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design based research is one exemplary way to help educators, educational designers, and institutions rethink their pedagogical approaches w ithin the learning environment. It is envisaged that unique uses of synchronous chat, pol ling, student feedback, e-portfolios and online questions and answers will help engage the n ew generation of learners. This paper provides a preliminary formative evaluation of the

Christine Dennis

272

Anticancer property of Bryophyllum pinnata (Lam.) Oken. leaf on human cervical cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Bryophyllum pinnata (B. pinnata) is a common medicinal plant used in traditional medicine of India and of other countries for curing various infections, bowel diseases, healing wounds and other ailments. However, its anticancer properties are poorly defined. In view of broad spectrum therapeutic potential of B. pinnata we designed a study to examine anti-cancer and anti-Human Papillomavirus (HPV) activities in its leaf extracts and tried to isolate its active principle. Methods A chloroform extract derived from a bulk of botanically well-characterized pulverized B. pinnata leaves was separated using column chromatography with step- gradient of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate. Fractions were characterized for phyto-chemical compounds by TLC, HPTLC and NMR and Biological activity of the fractions were examined by MTT-based cell viability assay, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, Northern blotting and assay of apoptosis related proteins by immunoblotting in human cervical cancer cells. Results Results showed presence of growth inhibitory activity in the crude leaf extracts with IC50 at 552 ?g/ml which resolved to fraction F4 (Petroleum Ether: Ethyl Acetate:: 50:50) and showed IC50 at 91 ?g/ml. Investigations of anti-viral activity of the extract and its fraction revealed a specific anti-HPV activity on cervical cancer cells as evidenced by downregulation of constitutively active AP1 specific DNA binding activity and suppression of oncogenic c-Fos and c-Jun expression which was accompanied by inhibition of HPV18 transcription. In addition to inhibiting growth, fraction F4 strongly induced apoptosis as evidenced by an increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, suppression of the anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, and activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP-1. Phytochemical analysis of fraction F4 by HPTLC and NMR indicated presence of activity that resembled Bryophyllin A. Conclusions Our study therefore demonstrates presence of anticancer and anti-HPV an activity in B. pinnata leaves that can be further exploited as a potential anticancer, anti-HPV therapeutic for treatment of HPV infection and cervical cancer.

2012-01-01

273

Bioremediation of turbid surface water using seed extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) tree.  

PubMed

An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for simplified, point-of-use, low-risk water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. PMID:20131221

Lea, Michael

2010-02-01

274

Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from the Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree.  

PubMed

An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a crude water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 33:1G.1-1G.8. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24789599

Lea, Michael

2014-01-01

275

Genetic diversity in Brazilian sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Solanales, Convolvulaceae) landraces assessed with microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to investigate the genetic diversity of 78 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) accessions (58 landraces and 20 putative clones) from traditional agricultural households from 19 local communities in the Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brazil. Eight SSR loci were assessed using 6% (w\\/v) polyacrylamide gels stained with silver nitrate and the accessions genotyped considering

Elizabeth Ann Veasey; Aline Borges; Mariana Silva Rosa; Jurema R. Queiroz-Silva; Eduardo de Andrade Bressan; Nivaldo Peroni

2008-01-01

276

ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF THE ALKALI PREPARATION OF THE ROOT AND FRESH LEAF JUICE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM  

PubMed Central

The alkali preparation of the root and fresh leaf juice of Moringa oleifera possessed significant dose –depen-dent anti-ulcer activity in experimentally induced acute gastric ulcers with aspirin, the anti-ulcer effect of the alkali preparation of the root seems to be more pronounced than that of the fresh leaf juice. Te anti-ulcer activity of the alkali preparation of the root could be due to its content of alkaloids or its anticholinergic and antihistaminic activities, or a combination of these factors.

Ruckmani, K.; Kavimani, S.; Jayakar, B.; Anandan, R.

1998-01-01

277

Comparative analysis of nutritional quality of five different cultivars of sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas (L) Lam) in Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Nutritional attributes of flours obtained from five different cultivars of sweet potato roots commonly available in Sri Lanka showed significant differences in the tested parameters. The starch level ranged between 33% and 64% on the dry basis and the extractability from fresh tubers was governed by the quantity of starch. The crude fiber level ranged between 2.1% and 13.6% on dry basis and the highest level was observed in swp7 (CARI 273) and resistant starch ranged from 14.2% to 17.2%. Higher percentage of resistant starch from total starch was found in Wariyapola red (swp1) cultivar resulting in lower digestion level while higher levels of digestion was evident in cultivars with lower levels of resistant starch with high level of total starch. Low levels of calcium and significant levels of iron were found in the five cultivars studied. Crude protein level was in the range of 1.2–3.3% on dry basis and trypsin inhibitor activity level (TIA) was significantly different (P > 0.05) in the cultivars studied while heating resulted in a significantly high reduction in the TIA level than in unheated condition. Polygonal or round shaped starch granules were in the range of 16.8–23.5 ?m and low level of starch digestion was shown in cultivars containing larger granules. Total amylose content lies in the range 15.4–19.6% and cultivars having higher percentage of amylose showed higher level of in vitro pancreatic digestion (Pallepola [swp4] and swp7). The starch digestibility of sweet potato flour was in the range of 36–55% and the highest digestion was observed in swp7. Orange fleshed cultivars (swp4 and swp7) were comparatively rich in nutrients and digestibility than the other three studied cultivars.

Senanayake, Suraji A; Ranaweera, K K D S; Gunaratne, Anil; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

2013-01-01

278

Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. cultivated in Mozambique.  

PubMed

The antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) grown in Mozambique was investigated. The chemical composition was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. Hexacosane (13.9%), pentacosane (13.3%) and heptacosane (11.4%) were the main components. Ultra High Performance Chromatography-DAD analysis detected the flavonoids quercetin (126 ?g/g) and luteolin (6.2 ?g/g). The essential oil exhibited a relatively low free radical scavenging capacity. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against two Gram-positive strains (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and five fungal strains of agro-food interest (Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium digitatum, and Aspergillus niger spp.). B. cereus and P. aeruginosa, as well as the fungal strains were sensitive to the essential oil. PMID:24022760

Marrufo, Tatiana; Nazzaro, Filomena; Mancini, Emilia; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele; De Martino, Laura; Agostinho, Adelaide Bela; De Feo, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

279

Inhibition of testicular and Vipera russelli snake venom hyaluronidase activity by Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze stem bark.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to investigate the anti-fertility and anti-venom activities of the extract of the stem bark of Butea monosperma by inhibiting hyaluronidase, which is a spreading factor and plays a role in fertilisation. Among ethanol, methanol and water extracts, the ethanol extract dose-dependently inhibited the ovine, mouse testicular and Vipera russelli snake venom hyaluronidase enzyme activities, with IC?? values 12.00?±?0.45, 49.40?±?1.58?µg and 125.42?±?2.82?µg?mL?¹, respectively. In a zymogram assay, the extract showed differential inhibition towards hyaluronidase isoform preferentially with low-molecular weight isoforms. The V. russelli snake venom-induced hemorrhage was significantly reduced at 1:05 ratio of venom-to-extract in mouse. The high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in the ethanolic extract strongly correlated with the hyaluronidase inhibition. The above results justify the traditional use of the stem bark of B. monosperma as a contraceptive and a strong antidote to snake venom. PMID:22007959

Tarannum, Shaista; Mohamed, Riyaz; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe S

2012-01-01

280

Anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities and HPLC-MS analysis of polyphenol from extracts of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities and to evaluate the major polyphenolic compounds of Nelsonia canescens extracts. Methods The anti-acetylcholinesterase activity was assessed using a kinetic inhibition standard method. Two methods, ABTS and lipid peroxidation, were used to estimate the antioxidant capacity. Polyphenols profile of the plant extract has been determined with a HPLC-MS method. Results The results showed that butanol extract exhibited the best anti-acetylcholinesterase activity with inhibition percentage of (55.62±1.49)%. The best 3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate radical cation scavenging capacity was found for ethyl acetate extract with a value of (56.20±0.77) mg equivalent trolox/g while the crude extract showed the highest inhibition of the rat liver lipid peroxidation (52.57±1.20)%. Polyphenols profile revealed the presence of five phenol acids (p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and gentisic acid) and three flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, quercetin). Conclusions All the extracts of Nelsonia canescens exhibited antioxidant and AChE inhibition capacities. The active compounds identified and quantified in this species are mainly responsible for these in vitro biological activities and allow to justify its widely use in Burkina Faso traditional medicine.

Ouattara, Nabere; Meda, Roland Nag-Tiero; Hilou, Adama; Guenne, Samson; Konate, Kiessoum; Coulibaly, Ahmed Y; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

2013-01-01

281

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the extracts and compounds from the leaves of Psorospermum aurantiacum Engl. and Hypericum lanceolatum Lam.  

PubMed Central

Background Psorospermun aurantiacum and Hypericum lanceolatum are plants locally used in Cameroon and other parts of Africa for the treatment of gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections, skin infections, venereal diseases, gastrointestinal disorder, infertility, epilepsy as well as microbial infections. The present study was designed in order to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and radical scavenging activities of the extracts and isolated compounds from the leaves of these plants. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate and methanol and fractionated by column chromatography. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses in conjunction with literature data. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. The antioxidant potentials of the extracts and their isolated compounds were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Results Five known compounds: physcion (1), 1,8-dihydroxy-3-geranyloxy-6-methylanthraquinone (2), kenganthranol B (3), vismiaquinone (4), and octacosanol (5) were isolated from the leaves of P. aurantiacum while six compounds including friedelin (6), betulinic acid (7), 2,2’,5,6’-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (8), allanxanthone A (9), 1,3,6- trihydroxyxanthone (10) and isogarcinol (11) were isolated from H. lanceolatum. Compound 8 and 4 exhibited the highest antibacterial and antifungal activities with MIC ranges of 2–8??g/ml and 4–32??g/ml respectively. P. aurantiacum crude extract (Rsa50?=?6.359?±?0.101) showed greater radical scavenging activity compared with H. lanceolatum extract (Rsa50?=?30.996?±?0.879). Compound 11 showed the highest radical scavenging activity (RSa50?=?1.012?±?0.247) among the isolated compounds, comparable to that of L-arscobic acid (RSa50?=?0.0809?±?0.045). Conclusions The experimental findings show that the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and isolated compounds from P. aurantiacum and H. lanceolatum stem bark possess significant antimicrobial and antioxidant activities justifying the use of these plants in traditional medicine, which may be developed as phytomedicines.

2012-01-01

282

75 FR 29722 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...seals, valves, taps, bearings, stainless steel screws, pulleys, shaft couplings, gears, machinery parts, motors, quartz fittings and parts, electrical transformers, electromagnetic couplings, batteries, induction equipment,...

2010-05-27

283

Antiviral activity of crude extracts of Eugenia jambolana Lam. against highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus.  

PubMed

Crude extracts of leaves and bark of E. jambolana were tested for antiviral activity against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) by CPE reduction assay in three different layouts to elucidate virucidal, post-exposure and preexposure antiviral activity of the extracts. The cold and hot aqueous extracts of bark and hot aqueous extract of leaves of E. jambolana showed significant virucidal activity (100% inhibition) which was further confirmed in virus yield reduction assay (-98 to 99% reduction) and by egg based in ovo assay. The selective index (CC50/EC50) of hot aqueous extract (248) and cold aqueous extract (43.5) of bark of E. jambolana showed their antiviral potential against H5N1 virus. The significant virucidal activity of leaves and bark of E. jambolana merits further investigation as it may provide alternative antiviral agent for managing avian influenza infections in poultry farms and potential avian-human transmission. PMID:22439432

Sood, Richa; Swarup, D; Bhatia, S; Kulkarni, D D; Dey, S; Saini, M; Dubey, S C

2012-03-01

284

Effect of different pre-sowing seed treatments on the germination of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) and Acacia farnesiana (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia farnesiana are tree species used for several agricultural purposes in the Mediterranean region. The seeds of these species exhibit dormancy,\\u000a causing delayed germination. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of pre-sowing treatments (scarification,\\u000a hot water, or soaking) on seed germination of L. leucocephala and A. farnesiana. In one experiment, seeds were exposed to three

Maher J. TadrosNezar; Nezar H. Samarah; Ahmad M. Alqudah

285

Effect of Growth Regulators on In Vitro Morphogenic Response of Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. Poir. Using Mature Zygotic Embryos Explants  

PubMed Central

The percent study describes the in vitro responses of mature zygotic embryos of Boscia senegalensis to different concentrations (0.0–5.0?mg/L) of 6-benzyladnine (BA), Thidiazuron (TDZ), ?-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) supplemented on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS). The plant growth regulators (PGRs) were considerably affected the morphogenetic responses. BA produced adventitious shoots through two ways: direct organogenesis and auxiliary shoot formation. Both 2, 4-D and TDZ tend to produce callus, whereas NAA improve the development of embryos to seedlings. Maximum number of shoots/explant (14.8 ± 0.6) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 3.0?mg/L BA. 67.0% of excised shoots were rooted either on 1/2 MS medium augmented with or without 0.25?mg/L IBA. The highest number of roots (1.2 ± 0.4) and root length (0.5 ± 0.2?cm) was produced on 0.25?mg/L IBA-containing medium. Regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized and transferred to the green house with 70% survival rate. All the plants appeared morphologically uniform with normal growth pattern. A rapid (30 days), efficient and without subculturing protocol for in vitro regeneration of B. senegalensis was developed.

Daffalla, Hussien H.; Abdellatef, Eltayb; Elhadi, Elsadig A.; Khalafalla, Mutasim M.

2011-01-01

286

In vivo anti-malarial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Asparagus africanus Lam. in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Malaria is a major public health problem in the world in general and developing countries in particular, causing an estimated 1-2 million deaths per year, an annual incidence of 300-500 million clinical cases and more than 2 billion people are at risk of infection from it. But it is also becoming more difficult to treat malaria due to the

Dawit Dikasso; Eyassu Makonnen; Asfaw Debella; Dawit Abebe; Kelbessa Urga; Wallelign Makonnen; Ashenafi Assefa; Yared Makonnen

287

Genome-wide high-throughput integrome analyses by nrLAM-PCR and next-generation sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-throughput integration site profiling has become a feasible tool to assess vector biosafety and to monitor the cell fate of the gene-corrected cell population in clinical gene therapy studies. Here we report a step-by-step protocol for universal genome-wide and comprehensive integrome analysis that can be performed on >102–103 samples of interest in parallel. This assay is composed of fast and

Anna Paruzynski; Anne Arens; Richard Gabriel; Cynthia C Bartholomae; Simone Scholz; Wei Wang; Stephan Wolf; Hanno Glimm; Christof von Kalle; Manfred Schmidt

2010-01-01

288

On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity  

PubMed Central

New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change.

Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

2013-01-01

289

Effect of genotype, gelling agent, and auxin on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.).  

PubMed

Lateral buds of six cultivars of sweet potato were induced to form embryogenic callus in a culture medium solidified with two types of gelling agents, Agar or Gelrite, and supplemented with various concentrations of auxins, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and Picloram. Of the six cultivars screened, only three gave an embryogenic response. Best results with an average of 3.53% embryogenic response were obtained with the medium solidified with Agar, while in Gelrite only 0.45% of lateral buds gave rise to embryogenic callus. The interaction between the genotype and auxins was highly significant; particularly the optimal response was obtained with cv. Zho and 865 yielding 10.7 and 14.7% somatic embryogenesis, respectively, in the medium containing 2,4,5-T or Picloram. The plant conversion was dramatically improved by subculture of the embryogenic callus on the medium with the combination of 1 microM 2,4-D and 1 microM Kinetin or 5 microM ABA alone before transfer of mature embryos onto hormone-free medium. The embryogenic callus of sweet potato and its sustained ability to further regenerate plants have regularly been maintained for several years by frequent subculture in 5 microM 2,4,5-T or the combination of 10 microM 2,4-D and 1 microM BAP or kinetin. The embryo-derived plants seemed apparently genetically stable and similar to the hexaploid parental plants, based on morphological analysis and their ploidy level determined by using flow cytometry. PMID:18280985

El Abidine Triqui, Zine; Guédira, Abdelkarim; Chlyah, Averil; Chlyah, Hassane; Souvannavong, Vongthip; Haïcour, Robert; Sihachakr, Darasinh

2008-03-01

290

Antinocieptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) root extract in Swiss albino mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Toddalia asiatica is a commonly used medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. The present study investigated the antinociceptive and the anti-inflammatory effects of T. asiatica in Swiss albino mice. Methods The antinociceptive and the anti-inflammatory effects of T. asiatica were investigated using formalin-induced pain test and the carrageenin-induced oedema paw. The extract solvent (vehicle), aspirin and indomethacin were employed as negative and positive controls respectively. Eight mice were used in each experiment. Results In the early phase of the formalin test, the 100mg/kg dose showed no significant antinociceptive activity while the 200mg/kg showed significant (p < 0.01) antinociceptive activity. The 100 mg/kg dose showed highly significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.001) in the late phase of the formalin test while the 200mg/kg dose showed no significant antinociceptive activity. A reduction in carragenin induced acute inflammation paw oedema was significant (p < 0.01) following administration of 100mg/kg dose but not with the 200mg/kg dose. Conclusion The present study therefore lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of T. asiatica in the management of painful and inflammatory conditions.

Kariuki, Hellen Nyambura; Kanui, Titus Ikusya; Yenesew, Abiy; Patel, Nilesh; Mbugua, Paul Mungai

2013-01-01

291

Apoptosis and mutagenicity induction by a characterized aqueous extract of Baccharis articulata (Lam.) Pers. (Asteraceae) on normal cells.  

PubMed

In a previous study we have demonstrated that cold aqueous extract of Baccharis articulata (Ba-CAE) induced the death of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and exerted low mutagenic effects on mice at 6h after administration. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the PBMCs death induced by Ba-CAE is due to apoptosis, and whether this extract exerts mutagenic effects on mice at 24 and 48h after administration. In addition, Ba-CAE was chemically characterized. PBMCs from healthy volunteers were exposed to extract (10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640 and 1280?g/mL) for 18-24h. Cell viability was determined by staining of trypan blue dye exclusion method. Apoptosis was determined by Hoechst 33258 staining, TUNEL, and DNA fragmentation analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis. BALB/c mice were injected with extract (1800, 900 and 450mg/kg) and sacrificed at 24 and 48h postinjection. Bone marrow samples were used to assess chromosome mutations by the micronucleus test. The extract induced PBMCs death by apoptosis and increased the frequency of micronuclei in bone marrow. The phytochemical study of Ba-CAE showed the presence of flavones as luteolin and acacetin, caffeoylquinic acids as chlorogenic acid, and tannins. PMID:22107990

Cariddi, Laura; Escobar, Franco; Sabini, Carola; Torres, Cristina; Reinoso, Elina; Cristofolini, Andrea; Comini, Laura; Núñez Montoya, Susana; Sabini, Liliana

2012-02-01

292

Anatomy and ultrastructure alterations of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi in response to arsenic-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Many studies demonstrate the potential application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for remediation purposes, but little is known on AMF potential to enhance plant tolerance to arsenic (As) and the mechanisms involved in this process. We carried anatomical and ultrastructural studies to examine this symbiotic association and the characteristics of shoots and roots of Leucaena leucocephala in As-amended soils (35 and 75 mg As dm(-3)). The experiment used 3 AMF isolates from uncontaminated soils: Acaulospora morrowiae, Glomus clarum, and Gigaspora albida; a mixed inoculum derived from combining these 3 isolates (named Mix AMF); and, 3 AMF isolates from As-contaminated areas: A. morrowiae, G. clarum and Paraglomus occultum. Phytotoxicity symptoms due to arsenic contamination appeared during plant growth, especially in treatments without AMF application. Inoculation with G. clarum and the mixture of species (A. morrowiae, G. albida, and G. clarum) resulted in better growth of L. leucocephala in soils with high As concentrations, as well as significant As removal from the soil, showing a potential for using AMF in phytoextraction. Light microscopy (LS), transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) studies showed the colonization of the AMF in plant tissues and damage in all treatments, with ultrastructural changes being observed in leaves and roots of L. leucocephala, especially with the addition of 75 mg dm(-3) of As. PMID:22704769

Schneider, Jerusa; Labory, Claudia Regina Gontijo; Rangel, Wesley Melo; Alves, Eduardo; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto Guimarães

2013-11-15

293

Evaluation of the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and apoptotic induction of an aqueous extract of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC.  

PubMed

Achyrocline satureioides is widely consumed as infusion or aperitif and shows important therapeutic properties. Previously, we reported absence of genotoxicity of cold aqueous extract (CAE) of A. satureioides by Allium test. However, one test cannot predict the genotoxic effects of a substance. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and apoptotic ability of CAE of A. satureioides. In addition, CAE was chemically characterized. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by Trypan blue and MTT assays. The apoptotic capacity was evaluated by Hoechst staining and DNA fragmentation-analysis. The genotoxicity was studied by comet assay (CA) and micronucleus test. The identification and quantification of flavonoids were performed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The cytotoxicity studies indicated low toxicity of CAE. In addition, CAE did not induce apoptotic effects on human PBMCs. CAE did not show genotoxicity in vitro against Vero cells, at 10-50 ?g/mL. CAE did not induce in vivo genotoxic effects, but it showed at high concentrations cytotoxicity by micronucleus assay. CAE presented flavonoids such as quercetin, 3-O-methylquercetin and luteolin. In conclusion, A. satureioides at popularly concentrations used, in aperitif or infusion, can be consumed safely because did not show any cytotoxic or genotoxic effects. PMID:23948353

Sabini, M C; Cariddi, L N; Escobar, F M; Mañas, F; Comini, L; Reinoso, E; Sutil, S B; Acosta, A C; Núñez Montoya, S; Contigiani, M S; Zanon, S M; Sabini, L I

2013-10-01

294

Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Leaf extracts against chronic ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat liver.  

PubMed

Chronic alcohol ingestion is known to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby leading to liver damage. Antioxidant enzymes act individually or in combination to reduce or counter the effect of these ROS. Chronic administration of alcohol at (40% v/v, 1 ml/100 g), for 6 weeks showed a significant (p<0.05) elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TB). There was also a significant (p<0.05) decreased levels of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase compared to control rats. Pre-treatment of rats with 200, 400 mg/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana or 100 mg/kg silymarin resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decreased levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and TB with levels of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase showing a significant (p<0.05) increase compared to group administered alcohol only. Histopathology of rat liver administered with alcohol only resulted in severe necrosis, mononuclear cell aggregation and fatty degeneration in the central and mid zonal areas which was a characteristic of a damaged liver. Pre-treatment with the aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana or silymarin reduced the morphological changes that are associated with chronic alcohol administration. The presence of tannins, saponins and phenolic compounds observed in the plant extract could be responsible for the observed effects of decreasing the levels of injured tissue marker and lipid peroxidation. PMID:20162053

Dahiru, D; Obidoa, O

2007-01-01

295

Leaf development in Xylopia aromatica (Lam) Mart. (Annonaceae): implications for palatability to Stenoma scitiorella Walker 1864 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae).  

PubMed

Variations in specific foliar mass and water content, nitrogen, soluble carbohydrates and tannins were studied during the growth and maturation processes of the Xylopia aromatica leaves, to determine the effects of such alterations on the herbivory of Stenoma scitiorella caterpillars. This work was carried out in the physiognomy of the typical cerrado of the Parque Estadual de Vassununga, Gleba Pé-de Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, Brazil. While nutritional quality (water and nitrogen) decreases during expansion and maturation of Xylopia aromatica leaves, the chemical (tannins) and physical (sclerophylly) defenses are raised. In agreement with the observations on herbivory, the results support the hypothesis that the reduction in palatability and increase in chemical defenses of Xylopia aromatica leaves account for the caterpillars' preference for young expanding leaves. PMID:19197502

Varanda, E M; Costa, A A; Barosela, J R

2008-11-01

296

LC\\/MS\\/NMR analysis of isomeric divanilloylquinic acids from the root bark of Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gradient HPLC coupled to DAD\\/UV, MS\\/MS and NMR has been applied to the rapid structure determination of three new isomeric divanilloylquinic acids from Fagara zanthoxyloides collected in Burkina Faso: 3,4-O-divanilloylquinic acid, 3,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid and 4,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid. Furthermore these new compounds named burkinabins A-C could play a useful role in sickle cell disease, as the active agents of Fagara zanthoxylo??des are

Badioré Ouattara; Luc Angenot; Pierre Guissou; Pierre Fondu; Jacques Dubois; Michel Frédérich; Olivia Jansen; Jean-Claude van Heugen; Jean-Noël Wauters

2004-01-01

297

Geochronology of a polymetamorphic and anatectic gneiss region: The moldanubicum of the area Lam-Deggendorf, eastern Bavaria, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rb-Sr isotopic analyses of whole-rocks and biotite and U-Th-Pb analyses of zircon and monazite reveal regional metamorphic events for the Ordovician (Caledonian metamorphism) and the Carboniferous (Variscan=Hercynian orogeny), both accompanied by anatexis. The extent of the Caledonian and Variscan anatexis, however, cannot be evaluated, so far, because the field petrographic criteria are not sufficient to distinguish clearly between early and

Borwin Grauert; Ruedi Hänny; Gorica Soptrajanova

1974-01-01

298

Constituents of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Moringa oleifera Lam., Heliotropium indicum L. and Bidens pilosa L. from Nigeria.  

PubMed

The essential oils of four plant species from Nigeria have been extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of Cajanus cajan were comprised of sesquiterpenes (92.5%, 81.2% and 94.3% respectively in the leaves, stem and seeds). The major compounds identified were alpha-himachalene (9.0-11.5%), beta-himachalene (8.0-11.0%), gamma-himachalene (6.9-8.1%), alpha-humulene (7.1-8.7%) and alpha-copaene (4.5-5.6%). However, monoterpenoid compounds (81.8%) dominated the oil of Moringa oleifera with an abundance of alpha-phellandrene (25.2%) and p-cymene (24.9%). On the other hand, aldehydes (52.8%) occurred in the highest amount in Heliotropium indicum, represented by phenylacetaldehyde (22.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (8.3%) and (E, Z)-2-nonadienal (6.1%), with a significant quantity of hexahydrofarnesylacetone (8.4%). The leaf and stem oils of Bidens pilosa were dominated by sesquiterpenes (82.3% and 59.3%, respectively). The main compounds in the leaf oil were caryophyllene oxide (37.0%), beta-caryophyllene (10.5%) and humulene oxide (6.0%), while the stem oils had an abundance of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (13.4%), delta-cadinene (12.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.0%). The observed chemical patterns differ considerably from previous investigations. PMID:19476009

Ogunbinu, Akinola O; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier L; Adebayo, Muritala A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

2009-04-01

299

Physiological and biochemical changes associated with flower development and senescence in so far unexplored Helleborus orientalis Lam. cv. Olympicus.  

PubMed

The so far unexplored H. Orientalis cv. Olympicus exhibits a unique pattern of flower senescence, involving re-greening of creamy white petaloid sepals at the later stages. The greenish sepals become photosynthetically competent immediately after pollination and persist until the seeds are set. After the seed set, the entire (green) flower abscises from the plant. Flower development of Helleborus orientalis cv. Olympicus growing in the open was divided into six stages (I-VI) from tight bud stage to the senescent stage. The average life span of an individual flower after it is fully open is about 6 days. Membrane permeability of sepal tissues estimated as electrical conductivity of leachates increased during senescence. The content of sugars and soluble proteins in the sepal tissues increased during flower opening and declined thereafter during senescence. The protease activity increased as the flower progressed towards senescence. From the present study, it becomes evident that decline in the sugar status and elevation in specific protease activity leading to degradation of proteins are the important factors regulating development and senescence in H. orientalis flowers. Although the tissue content of soluble proteins registered an overall quantitative decrease but SDS-PAGE of protein extract from sepal tissues suggested a decrease in the expression of high molecular weight proteins and an increase in low molecular weight proteins during flower development and senescence. At this stage it is not known whether the polypeptides that increased during senescence play an important role in the senescence of Helleborus orientalis flowers. The increase in these polypeptides during flower senescence is of particular interest because they may be linked to flower longevity. Understanding the nature of these proteins can provide new insights into the pathways that execute senescence and the post-transcriptional regulation of senescence in this flower system. PMID:23572993

Shahri, Waseem; Tahir, Inayatullah; Islam, Sheikh Tajamul; Bhat, Mushtaq Ahmad

2011-03-01

300

Juice of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) inhibits oxytocin-induced increase of the intracellular calcium concentration in human myometrial cells.  

PubMed

The use of preparations from Bryophyllum pinnatum in tocolysis is supported by both clinical (retrospective comparative studies) and experimental (using uterus strips) evidence. We studied here the effect of B. pinnatum juice on the response of cultured human myometrial cells to stimulation by oxytocin, a hormone known to be involved in the control of uterine contractions by increasing the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). In this work, [Ca2+]i was measured online during stimulation of human myometrial cells (hTERT-C3 and M11) with oxytocin, which had been pre-incubated in the absence or in the presence of B. pinnatum juice. Since no functional voltage-gated Ca2+ channels could be detected in these myometrial cells, the effect of B. pinnatum juice was as well studied in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which are known to have such channels and can be depolarised with KCl. B. pinnatum juice prevented the oxytocin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in hTERT-C3 human myometrial cells in a dose-dependent manner, achieving a ca. 80% inhibition at a 2% concentration. Comparable results were obtained with M11 human primary myometrial cells. In hTERT-C3 cells, prevention of the oxytocin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was independent of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration and of voltage-dependent Ca2+-channels. B. pinnatum juice delayed, but did not prevent the depolarization-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, the data suggest a specific and concentration-dependent effect of B. pinnatum juice on the oxytocin signalling pathway, which seems to corroborate its use in tocolysis. Such a specific mechanism would explain the rare and minor side-effects in tocolysis with B. pinnatum as well as its high therapeutic index. PMID:20381326

Simões-Wüst, A P; Grãos, M; Duarte, C B; Brenneisen, R; Hamburger, M; Mennet, M; Ramos, M H; Schnelle, M; Wächter, R; Worel, A M; von Mandach, U

2010-10-01

301

Evaluating the last remnants of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze Forest for their in situ conservation: a case study.  

PubMed

This paper provides a suitable framework for consolidating knowledge and providing a useful starting point to undertake conservation of the last remnants of Butea monosperma forest. A survey was conducted to assess the status of a reportedly unexplored B. monosperma forest in a narrow strip of land along the northeastern region of Pakistan in order to conserve the remaining remnants. A preliminary reconnaissance survey on the basis of land use divides the narrow stretch of land, with concentration of remnants into four zones. The remnants were further evaluated for in situ conservation by a scoring system based on vegetation analysis and quality of habitat. Low value was assigned to those criteria which had negative impact and high to those which had positive impact on performance of B. monosperma and its long-term survival. Additional information, pertaining to decline, trends of change in the land use, and the underlying socioeconomic processes, was also made. Information from the study area indicated that, in the past two decades, the decline and conversion of the remaining B. monosperma forest to agriculture and forestry has been intensified. The vegetation analysis revealed that all remnants are broadly B. monosperma-Adhatoda vasica, bispecies association. The scoring system ranked the remnants into four classes. Two forests from the intact remnant class and one from the mildly degraded class were recommended for in situ conservation. Keeping in view the deteriorating status of the highly ranked remnants across the landscape and the degree of alteration it is undergoing, they were assigned the conservation status category of "critical." An approach suggested for their immediate conservation was to fence them, with open access to the local people for sustainable resource use. In situ conservation of these benchmarks would help in further understanding the ecological, evolutionary, and structural features of this unique biogeographic ecotone and its affinities with the adjacent ecosystems. PMID:19894131

Khan, Amin U

2010-11-01

302

Genetics Home Reference: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis  

MedlinePLUS

... as a feature of an inherited syndrome called tuberous sclerosis complex. When LAM occurs alone it is called ... a common complication of angiomyolipomas. Read more about tuberous sclerosis complex . How common is LAM? Sporadic LAM is ...

303

Mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex gene TSC2 are a cause of sporadic pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive and often fatal interstitial lung disease characterized by a diffuse proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells in the lungs. LAM is of unusual interest biologically because it affects almost exclusively young women. LAM can occur as an isolated disorder (sporadic LAM) or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex. Renal angiomyolipomas, which are found in most

Thomas Carsillo; Aristotelis Astrinidis; Elizabeth Petri Henske

2000-01-01

304

Direct somatic embryogenesis in Myristica malabarica Lam., an endemic, threatened medicinal species of Southern India and detection of phytochemicals of potential medicinal value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct somatic embryogenesis was obtained from intact and fragmented zygotic embryos of Myristica malabarica, an endemic, threatened medicinal species of Western Ghats of Southern India while cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium containing activated charcoal. In the absence of activated charcoal there was no embryogenic response but only callus formation in zygotic embryos and their fragments. The addition of gibberellic

R. Indira Iyer; G. Jayaraman; A. Ramesh

2009-01-01

305

Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. ssp. argenteum and T. densum (Lab.) Schultz Bip. ssp. amani heywood from Turkey.  

PubMed

Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum ssp. argenteum and T. densum ssp. amani from Turkey were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oil of T. argenteum ssp. argenteum was characterized with alpha-pinene 36.7%, beta-pinene 27.5% and 1,8-cineole 9.8%. T. densum ssp. amani was characterized with beta-pinene 27.2%, 1,8-cineole 13.1%, alpha-pinene 9.7% and p-cymene 8.9%. Antibacterial activity of the oils were evaluated for five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria by using a broth microdilution assay. The highest inhibitory activity was observed against Bacillus cereus for T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil (125 microg/mL) when compared with positive control chloramphenicol it showed the same inhibition potency. However, the same oil showed lower inhibitory activity against B. subtilis when compared. The oil of T. densum ssp. amani did not show significant activity against the tested microorganisms. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil was investigated for 15 and 10 mg/mL concentrations. However, the oil did not show significant activity when compared to positive control alpha-tocopherol. Both oils showed toxicity to Vibrio fischeri in the TLC-bioluminescence assay. PMID:20513969

Polato?lu, Kaan; Demirci, Fatih; Demirci, Betül; Gören, Nezhun; Ba?er, Kemal Hüsnü Can

2010-01-01

306

Chemical composition and general toxicity of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of Artemisia armeniaca Lam. and A. incana (L.) Druce growing in Iran  

PubMed Central

The essential oils of the aerial parts of A. armeniaca and A. incana, collected from Arasbaran area (East Azarbaijan province, Iran) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. In total, 16 and 40 constituents were identified and quantified in the oils of A. armeniaca and A. incana representing 80.5% and 84.6% of the oils, respectively. The essential oil of A. armeniaca was mainly composed of non-terpene hydrocarbons (24.8%). The major components of the oil were ?–pinene (10.7%), nonadecane (10.0%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (9.4%), spathulenol (7.8%) and Z-verbenol (5.8%). The essential oil of A. incana was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (41.6%), with camphor (20.4%), 1,8-cineol (10.3%), Z-verbenol (8.7%), ?-thujone (8.3%) and ?-thujone (5.6%), as major components. The essential oils were also subjected to general toxicity assay using brine shrimp lethality method. The toxicity profile of both oils indicated some degree of toxicity in comparison with podophyllotoxin.

Mojarrab, M.; Delazar, A.; Esnaashari, S.; Afshar, F. Heshmati

2013-01-01

307

Evaluation of nutritional quality of moringa ( Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves as an alternative protein source for Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of freeze-dried moringa leaf meal, Moringa oleifera, as an alternative protein source for Nile tilapia. Three experimental diets were formulated to contain moringa leaf meal at levels of 10%, 20% and 30% of the total dietary protein (Diets 2, 3 and 4, respectively) and one diet acting as a control (Diet 1)

Nahid Richter; Perumal Siddhuraju; Klaus Becker

2003-01-01

308

Larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal efficacy of Erythrina indica (Lam.) (Family: Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are the major vector for the transmission of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and Japanese encephalitis. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Erythrina indica against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of E. indica against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values of 69.43, 75.13, and 91.41 ppm and 125.49, 134.31, and 167.14 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of E. indica against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus exerted 100 % mortality (zero hatchability) at 150, 200, and 250 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed above 99.3-100 % hatchability. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in methanol extract against A. stephensi followed by A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus with the LD50 and LD90 values of 88.76, 94.09, and 119.64 ppm and 160.83, 169.01, and 219.77 ppm, respectively. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of E. indica have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:24322290

Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

2014-02-01

309

Mechanisms of photosynthetic and growth inhibition of a southern African geophyte Tritonia crocata (L.) Ker. Gawl. by an invasive European annual grass Lolium multiflorum Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

European annual grasses are displacing native species along South Africa's West Coast, a region rich in wildflower diversity which forms the basis of a growing nature-based tourist industry. Little is known of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying competitive interactions between these grasses and native taxa and how they are affected by resource supply. Consequently, this study compared Photosystem II

C. F. Musil; J. L. Arnolds; P. D. R. van Heerden; B. S. Kgope

2009-01-01

310

Hindilerde Bordetella avium antikorlarinin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, mikroaglutinasyon ve lam aglutinasyon testleri ile belirlenmesi üzerine kar?ila?tirmali bir ara?tirma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The aims of this study were to develop a serum plate agglutination test (LAT) antigen and microagglutination (MAT) test antigen for the serologic detection of turkeys that have been exposed to B. avium with respiratory disease symptom and to compare sensitivity of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with these tests. All serum samples were collected from commercial turkey enterprises

Süheyla TÜRKYILMAZ; Uzman Veteriner Hekim; Adnan Menderes

311

Chemical composition and biological activities of Ishpingo essential oil, a traditional Ecuadorian spice from Ocotea quixos (Lam.) Kosterm. (Lauraceae) flower calices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Ishpingo (Ocotea quixos, Lauraceae) fruit calices was analysed by GC (gas chromatography) and GC–MS (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry). Fourty-four compounds were identified. The main components detected were trans-cinnamaldehyde (27.9%), methylcinnamate (21.6%), 1,8-cineole (8.0%), benzaldehyde (3.6%), and ?-selinene (2.1%). In vitro antioxidant properties of the essential oil, obtained by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ?-carotene bleaching assays, were also evaluated.

Renato Bruni; Alessandro Medici; Elisa Andreotti; Carlo Fantin; Mariavittoria Muzzoli; Marco Dehesa; Carlo Romagnoli; Gianni Sacchetti

2004-01-01

312

Evaluation of hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Treculia africana Decne and Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. and their mixture on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plants Treculia africana and Bryophyllum pinnatum are ethnobotanically used in the treatment of various diseases including diabetes and heart diseases. Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by hyperglycaemia, and hyperlipidaemia which leads to an increased risk of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. The effects of aqueous ethanol (80%) extracts of T. africana leaves and B. pinnatum plants and their

313

A Nonhost Peptidase Inhibitor of ~14?kDa from Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. Seeds Affects Negatively the Growth and Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera.  

PubMed

Helicoverpa armigera is one of the major devastating pests of crop plants. In this context a serine peptidase inhibitor purified from the seeds of Butea monosperma was evaluated for its effect on developmental physiology of H. armigera larvae. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor on 12% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis exhibited a single protein band of ~14?kDa with or without reduction. In vitro studies towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera and bovine trypsin indicated measurable inhibitory activity. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor dose for 50% mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 0.5% w/w and 0.10% w/w, respectively. The IC50 of B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor against total H. armigera gut proteinases activity was 2.0?µg/mL. The larval feeding assays suggested B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor to be toxic as reflected by its retarded growth and development, consequently affecting fertility and fecundity of pest and prolonging the larval-pupal duration of the insect life cycle of H. armigera. Supplementing B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor in artificial diet at 0.1% w/w, both the efficiencies of conversion of ingested as well as digested food were downregulated, whereas approximate digestibility and metabolic cost were enhanced. The efficacy of Butea monosperma peptidase inhibitor against progressive growth and development of H. armigera suggest its usefulness in insect pest management of food crops. PMID:24860667

Pandey, Prabhash K; Singh, Dushyant; Singh, Sangram; Khan, M Y; Jamal, Farrukh

2014-01-01

314

Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) leaves using ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi  

PubMed Central

Materials and Methods : Thirty-six Wistar male rats were randomly divided into six equal groups. Group A animals received distilled water for 28 days. Group B to group F animals received 1% v/v ethylene glycol in distilled water for 28 days and group B served as ethylene glycol control. Groups C and D (preventive groups) received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively for 28 days. Groups E and F (treatment groups) received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively from 15th to 28th day. On days 0 and 28, 24 hrs urine samples were collected for urinary volume and urinary oxalate measurement. On day 28, blood was collected for serum creatinine and blood urea level monitoring. All animals were sacrificed and kidneys were removed, weighed, and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate crystals deposition. Results: Administration of aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum reduced urine oxalate level ?significantly, as compared with Group B (p<0.001). Serum creatinine and blood urea level were ?improved significantly in all aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum-treated groups. Relative ?kidney weight and calcium oxalate depositions were found significantly reduced in animals ?received ABP as compared with Group B (p<0.001). ? Conclusions: B. pinnatum is effective in prevention and treatment of ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis.

Shukla, Apexa Bhanuprasad; Mandavia, Divyesh Rasikbhai; Barvaliya, Manish Jasmatbhai; Baxi, Seema Natvarlal; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu Rajkishore

2014-01-01

315

Influence of excipients and technological process on anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin and Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) D.C. extracts by oral route.  

PubMed

The flavonoids quercetin, 3-O-methylquercetin and luteolin play an important role in the anti-inflammatory activity of Achyrocline satureioides ethanol extracts when administered intraperitoneally. The present work describes the oral anti-inflammatory effect of quercetin and A. satureioides extracts and the role played by the solvent concentration, adjuvant and drying processes of freeze-drying (FD) or spray-drying (SD) on the effect. The best anti-edema effect was observed with 250 mg/kg body wt of the freeze-dried powder (FDP), prepared with 40% (v/v) ethanol (FDP40). In contrast, 250 mg/kg body wt of FDP80, prepared with ethanol 80% (ES80), did not significantly inhibit the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. However, when ES80 was freeze-dried in the presence of polysorbate 80 (FDP80-P80) or spray-dried in the presence of colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD) and P80 (SDP80), both dried extracts became more active. Quercetin suspension in saline did not inhibit paw edema, but the mixture of quercetin with polysorbate 80 was effective in edema inhibition by the oral route. Aqueous extract (ESAQ), freeze-dried (FDPAQ, FDPAQ-P80) or spray-dried (SDPAQ) did not exhibit the edema-inhibition effect. Taken together, the results point to the following order of efficacy (at 4 h, for example): FDP40 > indomethacin > SDP40 > SDP80 = FDP80-80 > Quercetin-P80. Additionally, the FDP40, SDP40 (prepared from 40% v/v ethanol added of CSD) and SDP80 reduced the total leukocyte and polymorphonuclear cell migration in the pleural cavity. PMID:17258686

De Souza, K C B; Bassani, V L; Schapoval, E E S

2007-02-01

316

Chemical composition and general toxicity of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of Artemisia armeniaca Lam. and A. incana (L.) Druce growing in Iran.  

PubMed

The essential oils of the aerial parts of A. armeniaca and A. incana, collected from Arasbaran area (East Azarbaijan province, Iran) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. In total, 16 and 40 constituents were identified and quantified in the oils of A. armeniaca and A. incana representing 80.5% and 84.6% of the oils, respectively. The essential oil of A. armeniaca was mainly composed of non-terpene hydrocarbons (24.8%). The major components of the oil were ?-pinene (10.7%), nonadecane (10.0%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (9.4%), spathulenol (7.8%) and Z-verbenol (5.8%). The essential oil of A. incana was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (41.6%), with camphor (20.4%), 1,8-cineol (10.3%), Z-verbenol (8.7%), ?-thujone (8.3%) and ?-thujone (5.6%), as major components. The essential oils were also subjected to general toxicity assay using brine shrimp lethality method. The toxicity profile of both oils indicated some degree of toxicity in comparison with podophyllotoxin. PMID:24459478

Mojarrab, M; Delazar, A; Esnaashari, S; Afshar, F Heshmati

2013-01-01

317

Composition and allelopathic effect of essential oils of two thistles: Cirsium creticum (Lam.) D.'Urv. ssp. triumfetti (Lacaita) Werner and Carduus nutans L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cirsium and Carduus are two of the main genera of true thistles. Different species in these genera share a quantity of secondary metabolites and have interesting ecological properties. The essential oils of two species, Cirsium creticum and Carduus nutans, were analysed, showing the presence as main compounds of 4-ethyl guaiacol (15%), hexadecanoic acid (10.6%), (E)-?-damascenone (7.8%), dihydroactinidiolide (6.0%) and 4-vinyl

Carmen Formisano; Daniela Rigano; Felice Senatore; Vincenzo De Feo; Maurizio Bruno; Sergio Rosselli

2007-01-01

318

A Nonhost Peptidase Inhibitor of ~14 kDa from Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. Seeds Affects Negatively the Growth and Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera  

PubMed Central

Helicoverpa armigera is one of the major devastating pests of crop plants. In this context a serine peptidase inhibitor purified from the seeds of Butea monosperma was evaluated for its effect on developmental physiology of H. armigera larvae. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor on 12% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis exhibited a single protein band of ~14?kDa with or without reduction. In vitro studies towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera and bovine trypsin indicated measurable inhibitory activity. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor dose for 50% mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 0.5% w/w and 0.10% w/w, respectively. The IC50 of B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor against total H. armigera gut proteinases activity was 2.0?µg/mL. The larval feeding assays suggested B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor to be toxic as reflected by its retarded growth and development, consequently affecting fertility and fecundity of pest and prolonging the larval-pupal duration of the insect life cycle of H. armigera. Supplementing B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor in artificial diet at 0.1% w/w, both the efficiencies of conversion of ingested as well as digested food were downregulated, whereas approximate digestibility and metabolic cost were enhanced. The efficacy of Butea monosperma peptidase inhibitor against progressive growth and development of H. armigera suggest its usefulness in insect pest management of food crops.

Pandey, Prabhash K.; Singh, Dushyant; Singh, Sangram; Khan, M. Y.; Jamal, Farrukh

2014-01-01

319

French maritime pine bark (Pinus maritima Lam.) extract (Flavangenol) prevents chronic UVB radiation-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis in melanin-possessing hairless mice.  

PubMed

A French maritime pine bark extract, Flavangenol, is widely used as a nutritional supplement for protection against atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, etc. Chronic exposure to solar UV radiation damages skin, increasing cutaneous thickness, wrinkling and pigmentation, as well as reducing elasticity, and causes skin cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of flavangenol on skin damage and the incidence of skin tumors caused by long-term UVB irradiation in melanin-possessing hairless mice. The oral administration of flavangenol (60, 200 or 600 mg kg(-1), twice daily) significantly inhibited increases in skin thickness, and the formation of wrinkles and melanin granules, as well as increases in the diameter and length of skin blood vessels. Furthermore, it prevented increases in numbers of apoptotic, Ki-67-positive and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)-positive cells, and the expression of skin vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced by chronic UVB irradiation. The effect on these biomarkers was associated with a reduction in the incidence of tumors in mice. The antiphotoaging and anticarcinogenetic activities of flavangenol may be due to inhibition of the expression of Ki-67, 8-OHdG and VEGF through a scavenging effect on reactive oxygen species. PMID:20497364

Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho

2010-01-01

320

Preparation and evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) wine and its protective role against radiation induced DNA damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jackfruit is an underutilized edible fruit in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to produce wine from jackfruit pulp and to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties of the wine. The ability of scavenging free radicals was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant assay (FRAP), N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) and nitric oxide

Umesh B. Jagtap; Shailesh R. Waghmare; Vinayak H. Lokhande; Penna Suprasanna; Vishwas A. Bapat

2011-01-01

321

Extrapulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis presented as the asymptomatic retroperitoneal tumours--two cases report.  

PubMed

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis [LAM] is a rare lung disease affecting women and characterized by abnormal smooth muscle cells (LAM cells) proliferation along lung and lymphatic channels. The frequent occurrence of extrapulmonary LAM [e-LAM] has been reported as abdomen pelvic lymph nodes involvement, angiomyolipomas, lymphangioleiomyomas or lymphangiomas in LAM patients. An extrapulmonary manifestation as the initial LAM presentation preceding pulmonary disorders and as asymptomatic extrapulmonary LAM lesions are unusual. We report two women presented with asymptomatic retroperitoneal cystic masses accidentally found on ultrasound examination. The tumours were surgically removed and diagnosed as: 1-malignant mesothelioma and 2-tymphangiomyoma. The microscopical sections were reviewed and re-diagnosed as e-LAM at advanced pulmonary LAM development. Mesotheliosis present in e-LAM morphology is unique and was misleading for malignancy diagnosis. The second case illustrates the hormone dependent growth of lymphangiomyoma and LAM development in young women. It is difficult to prove the presence of pulmonary LAM at the time of tumours excision but both cases demonstrate importance of appropriate LAM diagnosis and being aware of such diagnosis in cases presenting with extrapulmonary extension of the disease. PMID:17285764

S?odkowska, Janina; Patera, Jan; Breborowicz, Jan; Jarzemska, Agnieszka; Korzeniewska-Kosela, Maria; Siemiatkowska, Krystyna; Radzikowska, Elzbieta; Przybylski, Grzegorz; Koz?owski, Wojciech

2006-01-01

322

EFECTO DE LA SUPLEMENTACIÓN CON LEUCAENA (Leucaena leucocephala LAM. DE WIT) SOBRE LA DEGRADABILIDAD RUMINAL DEL PASTO ALEMÁN (Echinochloa polystachya H.B.K. HITCH) Effect of Leucaena Supplementation (Leucaena leucocephala Lam. De Wit) on Ruminal Degradability of Aleman-Grass (Echinochloa polystachya H.B.K. Hitch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of Leucaena supplementation on in situ ruminal dry matter (DM) degradability of Aleman-grass (AG), DM potential degradability (a+b), soluble fraction (a), maximum degradability (DM), degradation rate (c), ruminal pH and am- monia nitrogen, three ruminal cannulated Criollo Limonero steers were fed at 14-day adaptation period (F1) and samples were taken during the following 4-day period (F2).

Juan Vergara-López; Ángel Rodríguez-Petit; Carlos Navarro; Ángel Atencio

323

Sensitivity of Local Model Prediction to Large Scale Forcing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Limited Area Models (LAMs) are becoming increasingly complex in order to produce accurate and finely resolved numerical weather forecasts. This thesis describes a LAM developed and used at the University of Utah and examines the choices of numerical diffe...

K. M. Waldron

1994-01-01

324

Characterization of a Truncated Lipoarabinomannan from the Actinomycete Turicella otitidis  

PubMed Central

Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) lipoglycans have been characterized from a range of mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes and from the amycolate actinomycete Amycolatopsis sulphurea. To further understand the structural diversity of this family, we have characterized the lipoglycan of the otic commensal Turicella otitidis. T. otitidis LAM (TotLAM) has been determined to consist of a mannosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor unit carrying an (? 1?6)-linked mannan core and substituted with terminal-arabinosyl branches. Thus, TotLAM has a novel truncated LAM structure. Using the human monocytic THP-1 cell line, it was found that TotLAM exhibited only minimal ability to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha. These findings contribute further to our understanding of actinomycete LAM diversity and allow further speculation as to the correlation between LAM structure and the immunomodulatory activities of these lipoglycans.

Gilleron, Martine; Garton, Natalie J.; Nigou, Jerome; Brando, Therese; Puzo, Germain; Sutcliffe, Iain C.

2005-01-01

325

Extrapulmonary Lymphangioleiomyoma: Clinicopathological Analysis of 4 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a slowly progressive neoplastic disease that predominantly affects females. Usually, LAM affects the lung; it can also affect extrapulmonary sites, such as the mediastinum, the retroperitoneum, or the lymph nodes, although these locations are rare. A localized form of LAM can manifest as extrapulmonary lesions; this form is referred to as extrapulmonary lymphangioleiomyoma (E-LAM). Due to the rare occurrence of E-LAM and its variable, atypical location, E-LAM is often difficult to diagnose. Herein, we report the clinicopathological information from four E-LAM cases, and also review previous articles investigating this disease. Methods Four patients with E-LAM were identified at the Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) from 1995 to 2012. All E-LAM lesions underwent surgical excision. Results All patients were females within the age range of 43 to 47 years. Two patients had para-aortic retroperitoneal masses, while the other two patients had pelvic lesions; two out of the four patients also had accompanying pulmonary LAM. In addition, no patient displayed any evidence of tuberous sclerosis. Histologically, two patients exhibited nuclear atypism with cytologic degeneration. Conclusions E-LAM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with pelvic or para-aortic masses. We also conclude that further clinical and pathological evaluation is needed in patients with E-LAM and nuclear atypism.

Song, Dae Hyun; Choi, In Ho; Ha, Sang Yun; Han, Kang Min; Lee, Jae Jun; Hong, Min Eui; Choi, Yoon-La; Jang, Kee-Taek; Song, Sang Yong; Yi, Chin A

2014-01-01

326

A new rapid and simple method for large-scale purification of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a major and structurally important outer cell wall component of all mycobacteria. LAM is also generally regarded as an important immunomodulating substance affecting several immunologic networks and hence important in the pathogenesis of mycobacterial infections. We here describe a new method for large-scale purification of mycobacterial LAM. A crude cell wall preparation was prepared from batch-grown Mycobacterium

Beston Hamasur; Gunilla Källenius; Stefan B Svenson

1999-01-01

327

Linear Atrophoderma of Moulin: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Linear atrophoderma of Moulin (LAM) is a rare dermatosis in childhood and early adolescence. The exact etiology of LAM is still obscure. Several treatment modalities were reported but none was consistently successful. We report a case of LAM in which a favorable outcome was obtained with topical calcipotriol. The relevant literature is also reviewed.

Wongkietkachorn, Kuanjira; Intarasupht, Julphat; Srisuttiyakorn, Chutika; Aunhachoke, Kobkul; Nakakes, Artit; Niumpradit, Nucha

2013-01-01

328

Laser Additive Manufacturing and Bionics: Redefining Lightweight Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

New layer wise manufacturing technologies such as Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM) allow innovative approaches to product design. Especially for lightweight design in aircraft applications LAM offers new possibilities for load-adapted structures. However, to fully capture lightweight potential of LAM technologies new design guidelines and processes have to be developed. A novel approach to extreme lightweight design is realized by incorporating

C. Emmelmann; P. Sander; J. Kranz; E. Wycisk

2011-01-01

329

Possible involvement of l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway in the antidepressant activity of berberine chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Berberis aristata, a major herb widely used in Indian and Chinese systems of medicine. Berberine possessed a wide range of biological activity including antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory effects and some central nervous system activity as well. The present study was designed to explore the antidepressant activity and its possible mechanism of action. Further, the

Shrinivas K. Kulkarni; Ashish Dhir

2007-01-01

330

Studies on preventive and curative effects of berberine on chemical-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberis aristata is an edible plant employed in the South Asian Traditional Medicine, particularly its fruits being used as a tonic remedy for liver and heart. In this investigation, berberine, a known compound from this plant, was studied for its possible antihepatotoxic action in rats. Pretreatment of animals with berberine (4 mg\\/kg; orally twice daily for 2 days) prevented the

K. H Janbaz; A. H Gilani

2000-01-01

331

Effect of Berberine Sulphate on Entamoeba histolytica  

Microsoft Academic Search

BERBERINE, an alkaloid derived from the plant Berberis aristata Linn., has been shown to be useful in the treatment of experimental cholera in the infant rabbit model1. It compares well with chloramphenicol in the chemotherapy of cholera and severe diarrhoea in humans2. Results of the investigations on Entamoeba histolytica reported here suggest that berberine and its salts, such as berberine

T. V. Subbaiah; A. H. Amin

1967-01-01

332

The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation of herbal extracts against Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation against Entamoeba histolytica was studied. In the traditional system of medicine in India, the formulation has been prescribed for intestinal disorders. It comprises of five medicinal herbs, namely, Boerhavia diffusa, Berberis aristata, Tinospora cordifolia, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The dried and pulverized plants were extracted in ethanol together and individually. In

Youvraj R. Sohni; Padmaja Kaimal; Ranjan M. Bhatt

1995-01-01

333

Activity of a crude extract formulation in experimental hepatic amoebiasis and in immunomodulation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of a crude extract formulation was evaluated in experimental amoebic liver abscess in golden hamsters and in immunomodulation studies. The formulation comprises the following five plants — Boerhavia diffusa, Tinospora cordifolia, Berberis aristata, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The formulation had a maximum cure rate of 73% at a dose of 800 mg\\/kg\\/day in hepatic amoebiasis reducing the

Youvraj R. Sohni; Ranjan M. Bhatt

1996-01-01

334

The effects of small-scale environmental heterogeneity on seed germination in experimental treefall gaps in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed germination of woody species was studied in treefall gaps in New Zealand to assess how environmental heterogeneity affects regeneration from seed. Gaps were created in a relictual Pinus radiata plantation destined for restoration to native forest. Seeds of the native species Alectryon excelsus, Macropiper excelsum, and Fuch- sia excorticata, and the invasive alien species Cytisus scoparius and Berberis darwinii

Kate G. McAlpine; Donald R. Drake

2002-01-01

335

Factors contributing to antiviral effect of adefovir dipivoxil therapy added to ongoing lamivudine treatment in patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The antiviral effect of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) added to ongoing lamivudine (LAM) treatment for LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis\\u000a B (CHB) differs among patients. We investigated clinical factors affecting the response to ADV therapy in LAM-resistant CHB.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The subjects were 75 LAM-resistant CHB patients treated with ADV in addition to LAM. Virological response (VR) was defined\\u000a as HBV DNA clearance (<2.6 logcopies\\/ml) at

Nao Kurashige; Naoki Hiramatsu; Kazuyoshi Ohkawa; Takayuki Yakushijin; Shinichi Kiso; Tatsuya Kanto; Tetsuo Takehara; Akinori Kasahara; Yoshinori Doi; Akira Yamada; Masahide Oshita; Eiji Mita; Hideki Hagiwara; Toshihiko Nagase; Harumasa Yoshihara; Eijiro Hayashi; Yasuharu Imai; Michio Kato; Takeshi Kashihara; Norio Hayashi

2009-01-01

336

Molecular characterization of Capra hircus lysosomal ?-mannosidase and potential mutant site for the therapy of locoweed poisoning.  

PubMed

Lysosomal ?-Mannosidase (LAM) belongs to the glycoside hydrolyzing enzymes family 38 and is involved in the biosynthesis and turnover of N-linked glycoproteins process. Locoweeds, which contain swainsonine (SW) that inhibits LAM, are the main poisoning plants in many regions of the world, and thereby resulting in animal poisoning or even death. Based on regions of protein sequence conservation between LAM from Bos taurus and Homo sapiens, we cloned cDNA encoding Capra hircus LAM (chLAM). Expression of cDNA in Pichia pastoris resulted in the secretion of aLAM activity into the culture medium. The recombinant chLAM was activated 1.6 and 1.2-fold with Zn(2+) and Ca(2+), respectively. By homology modeling, molecular docking and mutant analysis, we obtained the probable binding modes of SW at the allosteric sites of chLAM, and the potential mutant sites for the resistance to SW. Prediction of SW sensitivity to A28 W/G, D58 Y/G mutant chLAM is lower than wild type chLAM. The obtained results lead to a better understanding of not only interactions between substrate/SW and chLAM, but also of a potential strategy for a novel therapy for locoweed poisoning. PMID:24660168

Xiangya, Kong; Jiangye, Zhang; Ying, Wu; Jianfei, Li; Qinfan, Li

2014-01-01

337

Integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method into a family planning program in Ecuador.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of a 12-month implementation study documenting the process of integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) into a multiple-method family planning service-delivery organization, the Céntro Médico de Orientación y Planificación Familiar (CEMOPLAF), in Ecuador. LAM was introduced as a family planning option in four CEMOPLAF clinics. LAM was accepted by 133 breastfeeding women during the program's first five months, representing about one-third of postpartum clients. Seventy-three percent of LAM acceptors were new to any family planning method. Follow-up interviews with a systematic sample of 67 LAM users revealed that the method was generally used correctly. Three pregnancies were reported, none by women who were following LAM as recommended. Service providers' knowledge of LAM resulted in earlier IUD insertions among breastfeeding women. Relationships with other maternal and child health organizations and programs were also established. PMID:7940621

Wade, K B; Sevilla, F; Labbok, M H

1994-01-01

338

Binding of the terminal mannosyl units of lipoarabinomannan from a virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to human macrophages.  

PubMed

Recent studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that macrophage phagocytosis of virulent strains (Erdman and H37Rv), but not the attenuated H37Ra strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is mediated by phagocyte mannose receptors (MR) in addition to complement receptors (CR1 and the leukocyte integrins CR3 and CR4). Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a major surface lipoglycan of M. tuberculosis. LAM from the Erdman strain (Man-LAM) contains mannose oligosaccharides at the terminal portions of the molecule. This study investigated the ability of ManLAM to serve as a microbial ligand in adherence to human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Polystyrene microspheres were coated with known amounts of purified ManLAM, LAM without the terminal mannosyl units from an avirulent mycobacterium (AraLAM), lipomannan (LM), or buffer and incubated with MDM monolayers in the absence of serum. The presence of LAM on microspheres was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence studies. Microspheres coated with ManLAM demonstrated a more than threefold increase in adherence to MDM when compared with microspheres coated with AraLAM, LM, or buffer and the low levels of adherence of microspheres in the latter three groups were comparable. Compared with control monolayers, selective down-modulation of MDM MR on a mannan substrate abrogated the enhanced adherence of microspheres mediated by ManLAM. Adherence of microspheres coated with AraLAM, LM, or buffer was not influenced by MR modulation. To confirm the importance of the terminal mannosyl units of ManLAM in the enhanced adherence of ManLAM microspheres to MDM, these units were selectively removed by exomannosidase treatment. The structure of LAM products before and after enzyme treatment was confirmed by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Removal of the terminal mannosyl units abolished the capacity of ManLAM to mediate enhanced adherence of microspheres to MDM. Finally, preincubation of Erdman M. tuberculosis with CS-40, a mAb directed against LAM, resulted in a consistent inhibition of adherence of the bacteria to MDM (up to 49% inhibition), confirming a role for ManLAM on intact bacteria in adherence to MDM. Thus, we provide evidence for a novel receptor-ligand pathway in phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis that consists of MR on macrophages and mannosyl units at the terminal end of ManLAM, a major microbial surface lipoglycan. PMID:8144972

Schlesinger, L S; Hull, S R; Kaufman, T M

1994-04-15

339

Depositional and tectonic setting of the Paleoproterozoic Lower Aillik Group, Makkovik Province, Canada: evolution of a passive margin-foredeep sequence based on petrochemistry and U–Pb (TIMS and LAM-ICP-MS) geochronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Paleoproterozoic Lower Aillik Group is a deformed metasedimentary–metavolcanic succession located in the Makkovik Province of Labrador, eastern Canada. The group is situated near the boundary between reworked Archaean gneiss of the Nain (North Atlantic) craton and juvenile Paleoproterozoic crust that was both tectonically accreted and formed on or adjacent to this craton during the ca. 1.9–1.78 Ma Makkovikian orogeny.

John W. F. Ketchum; Simon E. Jackson; Nicholas G. Culshaw; Sandra M. Barr

2001-01-01

340

Seed isotopic analysis as a tool to understand ecological processes influencing plant development and physiology: the case study of Quercus rotundifolia Lam. in a desertification gradient in Mediterranean areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant responses to climate change highly depend on the temporal variability in precipitation events and on plant specific strategies, such as drought tolerance and resilience. Within the different plant organs, seeds have become an important research tool in the past years to study plant development and nutrients allocation. Key features of seeds such as the tendency to accumulate and store nutrient compounds open many possibilities to explore isotope analysis (13C, 15N and 18O), with many outcomes in fields from ecology to food traceability. The application of light stable isotopes to plant materials have been used to study both physiological (i.e. photosynthesis and stomatal conductance), nutrients uptake and metabolism (origin of nitrogen and symbiotic associations) as well as many ecological processes, which will produce a distinctive isotope fingerprint on the plant tissues. Thus, the isotopic composition of certain bio and geo-elements of seeds, yielding relevant information on plant ecophysiology, are able to relate the plant functioning with local climatic conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation). The application of isotope analysis in this way can be used as a proxy to understand complex environmental degradation processes such as land degradation in drylands resulting from various factors including climatic variations and human activities. In this study acorns of Quercus ilex plants were sampled during 2012-2013 in a region of southern Portugal, according to (i) soil land-use; (ii) aridity and desertification indexes. The approach developed combined plant seed analysis (seed morphology and compounds quantification) with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (?13C, ?15N and ?18O) as a "tool" to study changes in plant ecophysiology over time and space. Seeds allow studies at specific temporal scale (development period) which varies according to its biology and depends on the climatic conditions where the plant is grown (i.e, seed's biomass integrate climate variations information of several months). The results indicate a clear relationship between seed morphology and both temperature and precipitation as well a significant correlation between ?15N and precipitation, which indicate an influence of major climatic variables on seed carbon allocation and nitrogen uptake. These results may also contribute to future mitigation programmes in degraded areas where there are systematic problems with plant regeneration and ultimately to learn about the application of stable isotopes approaches in dryland ecosystems.

Oliveira, Tatiana; Silva, Anabela; Rodrigues, Carla; Antunes Antunes, Cristina; Pinho, Pedro; Ramos, Alzira; João Pereira, Maria; Branquinho, Cristina; Máguas, Cristina

2014-05-01

341

Combined U–Pb geochronology and Lu–Hf isotope systematics by LAM–ICPMS of zircons from granites and metasedimentary rocks of Carrazeda de Ansiães and Sabugal areas, Portugal, to constrain granite sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carrazeda de Ansiães and Sabugal areas in the Central Iberian Zone of the Iberian Variscan Belt contain abundant S-type granites formed during the post-thickening stage of the Variscan orogeny (syn- to post-D3, i.e. the last ductile deformation phase). Magmatic zircons and inherited zircon cores from two granites (G and G5), magmatic zircons from three other granites (G1, G4 and

R. J. S. Teixeira; A. M. R. Neiva; P. B. Silva; M. E. P. Gomes; T. Andersen; J. M. F. Ramos

2011-01-01

342

Orientation to Employment in the U.S. for Refugees--Vietnamese = Cong an viec lam o Hoa Ky: Tap Huong Dan danh cho Nguoi Ti Nan moi toi.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of refugee orientation materials, this guide to employment is intended to assist Vietnamese refugees in their understanding of the employment situation in the United States and to give them necessary information for obtaining work. The text is in Vietnamese followed by an English-language version, which is not an exact translation…

Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

343

Prognostic impact of day 15 blast clearance in risk-adapted remission induction chemotherapy for younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia: long-term results of the multicenter prospective LAM-2001 trial by the GOELAMS study group  

PubMed Central

Early response to chemotherapy has a major prognostic impact in acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with a double induction strategy. Less is known about patients treated with standard-dose cytarabine and anthracycline. We designed a risk-adapted remission induction regimen in which a second course of intermediate-dose cytarabine was delivered after standard “7+3” only if patients had 5% or more bone marrow blasts 15 days after chemotherapy initiation (d15-blasts). Of 823 included patients, 795 (96.6%) were evaluable. Five hundred and forty-five patients (68.6%) had less than 5% d15-blasts. Predictive factors for high d15-blasts were white blood cell count (P<0.0001) and cytogenetic risk (P<0.0001). Patients with fewer than 5% d15-blasts had a higher complete response rate (91.7% vs. 69.2%; P<0.0001) and a lower induction death rate (1.8% vs. 6.8%; P=0.001). Five-year event-free (48.4% vs. 25%; P<0.0001), relapse-free (52.7% vs. 36.9%; P=0.0016) and overall survival (55.3% vs. 36.5%; P<0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with d15-blasts lower than 5%. Multivariate analyses identified d15-blasts and cytogenetic risk as independent prognostic factors for the three end points. Failure to achieve early blast clearance remains a poor prognostic factor even after early salvage. By contrast, early responding patients have a favorable outcome without any additional induction course. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01015196)

Bertoli, Sarah; Bories, Pierre; Bene, Marie C.; Daliphard, Sylvie; Lioure, Bruno; Pigneux, Arnaud; Vey, Norbert; Delaunay, Jacques; Leymarie, Vincent; Luquet, Isabelle; Blanchet, Odile; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Hunault, Mathilde; Bouscary, Didier; Fegueux, Nathalie; Guardiola, Philippe; Dreyfus, Francois; Harousseau, Jean Luc; Cahn, Jean Yves; Ifrah, Norbert; Recher, Christian

2014-01-01

344

Prognostic impact of day 15 blast clearance in risk-adapted remission induction chemotherapy for younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia: long-term results of the multicenter prospective LAM-2001 trial by the GOELAMS study group.  

PubMed

Early response to chemotherapy has a major prognostic impact in acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with a double induction strategy. Less is known about patients treated with standard-dose cytarabine and anthracycline. We designed a risk-adapted remission induction regimen in which a second course of intermediate-dose cytarabine was delivered after standard "7+3" only if patients had 5% or more bone marrow blasts 15 days after chemotherapy initiation (d15-blasts). Of 823 included patients, 795 (96.6%) were evaluable. Five hundred and forty-five patients (68.6%) had less than 5% d15-blasts. Predictive factors for high d15-blasts were white blood cell count (P<0.0001) and cytogenetic risk (P<0.0001). Patients with fewer than 5% d15-blasts had a higher complete response rate (91.7% vs. 69.2%; P<0.0001) and a lower induction death rate (1.8% vs. 6.8%; P=0.001). Five-year event-free (48.4% vs. 25%; P<0.0001), relapse-free (52.7% vs. 36.9%; P=0.0016) and overall survival (55.3% vs. 36.5%; P<0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with d15-blasts lower than 5%. Multivariate analyses identified d15-blasts and cytogenetic risk as independent prognostic factors for the three end points. Failure to achieve early blast clearance remains a poor prognostic factor even after early salvage. By contrast, early responding patients have a favorable outcome without any additional induction course. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01015196). PMID:23975179

Bertoli, Sarah; Bories, Pierre; Béné, Marie C; Daliphard, Sylvie; Lioure, Bruno; Pigneux, Arnaud; Vey, Norbert; Delaunay, Jacques; Leymarie, Vincent; Luquet, Isabelle; Blanchet, Odile; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Hunault, Mathilde; Bouscary, Didier; Fegueux, Nathalie; Guardiola, Philippe; Dreyfus, François; Harousseau, Jean Luc; Cahn, Jean Yves; Ifrah, Norbert; Récher, Christian

2014-01-01

345

Nutritive value of sweet potato ( Ipomea batatas (L) Lam) forage as goat feed: voluntary intake, growth and digestibility of mixed rations of sweet potato and batiki grass ( Ischaemum aristatum var. indicum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight (8) growing female Anglo-Nubian × Fiji local goats, 8–9-month-old, with a pre-trial mean live weight of 12.3±0.18kg were allotted randomly in a double 4×4 Latin Square design after having balanced the groups for age and weight. They were used to investigate the nutritive value of sweet potato forage and its mixtures with batiki grass as goat feed in terms

E. M. Aregheore

2004-01-01

346

Forced expression of laminin ?1 in podocytes prevents nephrotic syndrome in mice lacking laminin ?2, a model for Pierson syndrome  

PubMed Central

Pierson syndrome is a congenital nephrotic syndrome with ocular and neurological defects caused by mutations in LAMB2, the gene encoding the basement membrane protein laminin ?2 (Lam?2). It is the kidney glomerular basement membrane (GBM) that is defective in Pierson syndrome, as Lam?2 is a component of laminin-521 (LM-521; ?5?2?1), the major laminin in the mature GBM. In both Pierson syndrome and the Lamb2?/? mouse model for this disease, laminin ?1 (Lam?1), a structurally similar homolog of Lam?2, is marginally increased in the GBM, but it fails to fully compensate for the loss of Lam?2, leading to the filtration barrier defects and nephrotic syndrome. Here we generated several lines of Lam?1 transgenic mice and used them to show that podocyte-specific Lam?1 expression in Lamb2?/? mice abrogates the development of nephrotic syndrome, correlating with a greatly extended lifespan. In addition, the more Lam?1 was expressed, the less urinary albumin was excreted. Transgenic Lam?1 expression increased the level of Lam?5 in the GBM of rescued mice, consistent with the desired increased deposition of laminin-511 (?5?1?1) trimers. Ultrastructural analysis revealed occasional knob-like subepithelial GBM thickening but intact podocyte foot processes in aged rescued mice. These results suggest the possibility that up-regulation of LAMB1 in podocytes, should it become achievable, would likely lessen the severity of nephrotic syndrome in patients carrying LAMB2 mutations.

Suh, Jung Hee; Jarad, George; VanDeVoorde, Rene G.; Miner, Jeffrey H.

2011-01-01

347

Sulfated modification and anti-tumor activity of laminarin  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the sulfated modification of laminarin and the changes in structure and antitumor activity. The chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method was applied for sulfated modification. The molecular weights of laminarin and laminarin sulfate (LAMS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and IR and NMR spectra were also recorded. The surface conformations of laminarin and LAMS were observed with a scanning electron microscope. The antitumor activities of the two polysaccharides were also evaluated using an MTT assay. LAMS with a sulfate content of 45.92% and a molecular weight of 16,000 was synthesized. The IR spectra of laminarin and LAMS showed the characteristic absorption peaks of a polysaccharide, and LAMS also had the characteristic absorption peaks of sulfate moieties. The NMR spectra showed that laminarin and LAMS had ?-(1?3) glycosidic bonds forming the main chain, and sulfate substitution was at the hydroxyl groups of C2 and C6. Under the scanning electron microscope, there were clear differences in surface conformation between laminarin and LAMS; laminarin was cloud-like and spongy, while LAMS was block-like and flaky. The MTT results showed that laminarin and LAMS had inhibitory effects on LoVo cell growth, and the antitumor activity of LAMS was higher than that of laminarin at the same concentration. This suggests that sulfated modification was able to change the laminarin structure and markedly enhance the antitumor activity.

JI, CHEN-FENG; JI, YU-BIN; MENG, DE-YOU

2013-01-01

348

Positioning ganglioside D3 as an immunotherapeutic target in lymphangioleiomyomatosis.  

PubMed

Tumors that develop in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) as a consequence of biallelic loss of TSC1 or TSC2 gene function express melanoma differentiation antigens. However, the percentage of LAM cells expressing these melanosomal antigens is limited. Here, we report the overexpression of ganglioside D3 (GD3) in LAM. GD3 is a tumor-associated antigen otherwise found in melanoma and neuroendocrine tumors; normal expression is largely restricted to neuronal cells in the brain. We also observed markedly reduced serum antibody titers to GD3, which may allow for a population of GD3-expressing LAM cells to expand within patients. This is supported by the demonstrated sensitivity of cultured LAM cells to complement mediated cytotoxicity via GD3 antibodies. GD3 can serve as a natural killer T (NKT) cell antigen when presented on CD1d molecules expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells. Although CD1d-expressing monocyte derivatives were present in situ, enhanced NKT-cell recruitment to LAM lung was not observed. Cultured LAM cells retained surface expression of GD3 over several passages and also expressed CD1d, implying that infiltrating NKT cells can be directly cytotoxic toward LAM lung lesions. Immunization with antibodies to GD3 may thus be therapeutic in LAM, and enhancement of existing NKT-cell infiltration may be effective to further improve antitumor responses. Overall, we hereby establish GD3 as a suitable target for immunotherapy of LAM. PMID:23665200

Gilbert, Emily R; Eby, Jonathan M; Hammer, Adam M; Klarquist, Jared; Christensen, David G; Barfuss, Allison J; Boissy, Raymond E; Picken, Maria M; Love, Robert B; Dilling, Daniel F; Le Poole, I Caroline

2013-07-01

349

Chyloperitoneum, chylothorax and lower extremity lymphedema in woman with sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis successfully treated with sirolimus: a case report.  

PubMed

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease characterized by diffuse thin-walled cysts throughout the lungs on computed tomography and diffuse proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells) on lung biopsy. LAM affects women almost exclusively, predominantly in their reproductive age. The most typical presenting symptoms include dyspnea, spontaneous pneumothorax, cough and chylothorax. Abdominal findings represent less common initial manifestations of the disease and may pose diagnostic difficulties. The treatment of LAM has not been fully established. Recent studies report effectiveness of sirolimus in LAM patients. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with sporadic LAM, successfully treated with sirolimus, in whom the first manifestation of the disease was chyloperitoneum and after three and nine years, respectively, lymphedema of the left lower extremity and right sided chylothorax occurred. PMID:23057149

Chachaj, A; Drozdz, K; Chabowski, M; Dziegiel, P; Grzegorek, I; Wojnar, A; Jazwiec, P; Szuba, A

2012-06-01

350

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for recurrent pneumothorax in pulmonary lymphangioleimyomatosis with tuberous sclerosis complex  

PubMed Central

Pneumothorax in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a difficult condition to manage. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) may play a role in diagnosis and treatment of this situation. We present a case of right recurrent pneumothorax due to LAM with TSC in whom VATS was performed for pathological diagnosis and mechanical pleurodesis. The unique presentation of LAM in TSC was also discussed.

2013-01-01

351

CT and MR Imaging Findings of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Involving the Uterus and Pelvic Cavity  

PubMed Central

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare idiopathic disease and this is characterized by a proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells in the lungs and in the lymphatic system of the thorax and retroperitoneum. The female genital tract is rarely affected by LAM. We report here on the CT and MR imaging findings of extensive LAM involving the uterus and pelvic cavity, and this was seen as multiple cystic uterine and parauterine masses with internal hemorrhage in a young female with tuberous sclerosis complex.

Kim, You Sung; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon; Park, Jong Sup

2011-01-01

352

Prior exposure to lamivudine increases entecavir resistance risk in chronic hepatitis B Patients without detectable lamivudine resistance.  

PubMed

The efficacy of entecavir (ETV) treatment in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who were exposed to lamivudine (LAM) but had no detectable LAM resistance (LAM-R) is not well evaluated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the probability of developing genotypic resistance to ETV in LAM-exposed patients with or without LAM-R is comparable to that in antiviral-naive patients. This retrospective cohort study included 500 consecutive patients with CHB who started ETV monotherapy at a single tertiary hospital in Korea. The patients were divided into three groups: nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA)-naive patients (group 1, n=142), patients who were previously exposed to LAM and had no currently or previously detected LAM-R (group 2, n=233), and patients with LAM-R when starting ETV (group 3, n=125). The overall median ETV treatment duration was 48.7 months. The probabilities of virologic breakthrough were significantly increased not only in group 3 (hazard ratio [HR]=14.4, P<0.001) but also in group 2 (HR=5.0, P<0.001) compared to group 1. Genotypic ETV resistance (ETV-R) developed more frequently in group 2 (HR=13.0, P=0.013) as well as group 3 (HR=43.9, P<0.001) than in group 1: the probabilities of developing ETV-R in groups 1, 2, and 3 were <1.0%, 8.0%, and 28.2%, respectively, at month 48. The results of this study indicate that ETV-R occurred more frequently in LAM-exposed patients, even though they had no detectable LAM-R, than in NA-naive patients. Therefore, LAM-exposed CHB patients, regardless of the presence or absence of LAM-R, should be monitored more cautiously for the development of ETV-R during ETV monotherapy. PMID:24395227

Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Cho, Yuri; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Lee, Minjong; Yoo, Jeong-ju; Choi, Won-mook; Cho, Young Youn; Lee, Yun Bin; Yu, Su Jong; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hyo-Suk; Kim, Yoon Jun

2014-03-01

353

Importance of Secondary Structure in the Signal Sequence for Protein Secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutant Escherichia coli strains in which export of the LamB protein (coded for by the lamB gene) to the outer membrane of the cell is prevented have been described previously. One of these mutant strains contains a small (12-base pair) deletion mutation within the region of the lamB gene that codes for the NH2-terminal signal sequence. In this mutant strain,

Scott D. Emr; Thomas J. Silhavy

1983-01-01

354

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for recurrent pneumothorax in pulmonary lymphangioleimyomatosis with tuberous sclerosis complex.  

PubMed

Pneumothorax in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a difficult condition to manage. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) may play a role in diagnosis and treatment of this situation. We present a case of right recurrent pneumothorax due to LAM with TSC in whom VATS was performed for pathological diagnosis and mechanical pleurodesis. The unique presentation of LAM in TSC was also discussed. PMID:23597154

Tsai, Chia-Fen; Hsiao, Chen-Hao; Lee, Jang-Ming; Chen, Ke-Cheng; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Chen, Jin-Shing

2013-01-01

355

Diurnal and seasonal changes of leaf lamina hydraulic conductance in bur oak ( Quercus macrocarpa ) and trembling aspen ( Populus tremuloides )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the diurnal and seasonal variations in the sensitivity of leaf lamina (K\\u000a lam) hydraulic conductance to irradiance in bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), which vary in their responses of K\\u000a lam to irradiance. K\\u000a lam was determined using the high-pressure method and the measurements were carried

Mihaela C. VoicuJanusz; Janusz J. Zwiazek

2011-01-01

356

The Composite Cosine Transform on the Stiefel Manifold and Generalized Zeta Integrals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new integral transform $T^\\\\lam f$, $\\\\lam \\\\in C^m$, on the Stiefel manifold of orthonormal $m$-frames in $R^n$ which generalizes the $\\\\lam$-cosine transform on the Grassmann manifold of $m$-dimensional linear subspaces of $R^n$. We call it the composite cosine transform, by taking into account that its kernel agrees with the composite power function of the cone of positive

E. Ournycheva; B. Rubin

2005-01-01

357

Correlation between Mechanical Strength and Surface Conditions of Laser Assisted Machined Silicon Nitride  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a High power fiber-coupled diode lasers for Laser-Assisted Machining (LAM) of ceramics provides an efficient, cost effective\\u000a solution for surface finishing of ceramic products. This paper presents experimental evidence of advantages of LAM over the\\u000a traditional diamond wheel grinding, a standard technique currently utilized in the finishing of ceramic surfaces. LAM, utilizing\\u000a fiber-coupled diode lasers, also provides advantages over other types

F. M. Sciammarella; M. J. Matusky

358

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, neoplastic disease in which abnormal smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells) proliferate\\u000a in the lungs and along the axial lymphatic systems including the lymph nodes and thoracic ducts. LAM cells are transformed\\u000a cells due to loss-of-function type mutations of either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene, which are tumor suppressor genes originally identified to be the genetic

Kuniaki Seyama; Toshio Kumasaka; Teruhiko Sato; Keiko Mitani

359

The laser additive manufacture of Ti6Al4V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a manufacturing technique with cost-reduction potential for titanium aerospace components.\\u000a The mechanical properties of LAM Ti-6Al-4V have been investigated extensively, but little work on microstructure evolution\\u000a has been performed to date. The results presented here provide a first look at the relationships between LAM processing parameters\\u000a and microstructure in as-deposited Ti-6Al-4V.

P. A. Kobryn; S. L. Semiatin

2001-01-01

360

The laser additive manufacture of Ti6Al4V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a manufacturing technique with cost-reduction potential for titanium aerospace components. The mechanical properties of LAM Ti-6Al-4V have been investigated extensively, but little work on microstructure evolution has been performed to date. The results presented here provide a first look at the relationships between LAM processing parameters and microstructure in as-deposited Ti-6Al-4V.

P. A. Kobryn; S. L. Semiatin

2001-01-01

361

La enhances IRES-mediated translation of laminin B1 during malignant epithelial to mesenchymal transition  

PubMed Central

The majority of transcripts that harbor an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) are involved in cancer development via corresponding proteins. A crucial event in tumor progression referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows carcinoma cells to acquire invasive properties. The translational activation of the extracellular matrix component laminin B1 (LamB1) during EMT has been recently reported suggesting an IRES-mediated mechanism. In this study, the IRES activity of LamB1 was determined by independent bicistronic reporter assays. Strong evidences exclude an impact of cryptic promoter or splice sites on IRES-driven translation of LamB1. Furthermore, no other LamB1 mRNA species arising from alternative transcription start sites or polyadenylation signals were detected that account for its translational control. Mapping of the LamB1 5?-untranslated region (UTR) revealed the minimal LamB1 IRES motif between ?293 and ?1 upstream of the start codon. Notably, RNA affinity purification showed that the La protein interacts with the LamB1 IRES. This interaction and its regulation during EMT were confirmed by ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation. In addition, La was able to positively modulate LamB1 IRES translation. In summary, these data indicate that the LamB1 IRES is activated by binding to La which leads to translational upregulation during hepatocellular EMT.

Petz, Michaela; Them, Nicole; Huber, Heidemarie; Beug, Hartmut; Mikulits, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

362

Effusion cytology: an effective method for the diagnosis of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis.  

PubMed

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare progressive lung disease. Chylous effusion is one of the most common clinical manifestations of LAM. Herein we present a 39-year-old female who presented progressive dyspnea on exertion and chylothorax. The chest computed tomography showed multiple thin-walled cysts in both lungs which suggesting LAM. The pleural effusion cytology plus with further immunocytochemistry confirmed the computed tomography diagnosis. Therefore, the LAM can be diagnosed by cytologic examination combined with conventional chest computed tomography and clinical manifestations, which can help some patients to avoid an invasive biopsy. PMID:24822126

Fan, Daming; Ding, Li; Liu, Hui; Wang, Jigang; Ran, Wenwen; Li, Yujun; Lin, Dongliang

2014-05-01

363

Laser Additive Manufacturing and Bionics: Redefining Lightweight Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New layer wise manufacturing technologies such as Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM) allow innovative approaches to product design. Especially for lightweight design in aircraft applications LAM offers new possibilities for load-adapted structures. However, to fully capture lightweight potential of LAM technologies new design guidelines and processes have to be developed. A novel approach to extreme lightweight design is realized by incorporating structural optimization tools, bionic structures and LAM guidelines into one design process. By consequently following this design process designers can achieve lightweight savings in designing new aircraft structures.

Emmelmann, C.; Sander, P.; Kranz, J.; Wycisk, E.

364

Effusion cytology: an effective method for the diagnosis of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis  

PubMed Central

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare progressive lung disease. Chylous effusion is one of the most common clinical manifestations of LAM. Herein we present a 39-year-old female who presented progressive dyspnea on exertion and chylothorax. The chest computed tomography showed multiple thin-walled cysts in both lungs which suggesting LAM. The pleural effusion cytology plus with further immunocytochemistry confirmed the computed tomography diagnosis. Therefore, the LAM can be diagnosed by cytologic examination combined with conventional chest computed tomography and clinical manifestations, which can help some patients to avoid an invasive biopsy.

Fan, Daming; Ding, Li; Liu, Hui; Wang, Jigang; Ran, Wenwen; Li, Yujun

2014-01-01

365

Initial report on the application of laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the analysis of radioactive Hanford Tank Waste materials  

SciTech Connect

Initial LA/MS analyses of Hanford tank waste samples were performed successfully using laboratory and hot cell LA/MS instrumentation systems. The experiments described in this report have demonstrated that the LA/MS data can be used to provide rapid analysis of solid, radioactive Hanford tank waste samples to identify major, minor, and trace constituents (elemental and isotopic) and fission products and radioactive isotopes. The ability to determine isotopic constituents using the LA/MS method yielded significant advantages over ICP/AES analysis by providing valuable information on fission products and radioactive constituents.

Smith, M.R.; Hartman, J.S.; Alexander, M.L.; Mendoza, A.; Hirt, E.H.; Stewart, T.L.; Hansen, M.A.; Park, W.R.; Peters, T.J.; Burghard, B.J.

1996-12-01

366

Fruit mineral contents of six wild species of the North Andean Patagonia, Argentina.  

PubMed

The fruit mineral contents (K, Ca, Ba, Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, and Sr) of four native and two exotic naturalized shrubs growing in different areas of the Andean Patagonian region of Argentina were investigated. Native species Berberis darwinii, Berberis microphylla (Berberidaceae), Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae) and Ribes magellanicum (Saxifragaceae) produce small berries while the fruits of the exotic species Rosa rubiginosa and Rosa canina (Rosaceae) are aggregates of aquenes. They are used to prepare jams, tea, liquors, and ice creams. Native shrub fruits had higher content of Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and Na than those of the exotic naturalized species. Rosa species showed the highest contents of Ca and Ba in their fruits (the mean content doubled those of the native plant fruits). The fruit nutrient content found in the studied species was similar or higher than other values reported for fruits of temperate and tropical species in the world. PMID:18512032

Damascos, María A; Arribere, Maria; Svriz, Maya; Bran, Donaldo

2008-10-01

367

The effects of small-scale environmental heterogeneity on seed germination in experimental treefall gaps in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed germination of woody species was studied in treefall gaps in NewZealand to assess how environmental heterogeneity affects regeneration fromseed. Gaps were created in a relictual Pinus radiataplantation destined for restoration to native forest. Seeds of the nativespecies Alectryon excelsus, Macropiperexcelsum, and Fuchsia excorticata, and theinvasive alien species Cytisus scoparius andBerberis darwinii were sown in sites differing inexposure,with and without

Kate G. McAlpine; Donald R. Drake

2003-01-01

368

Inferring the contribution of sexual reproduction, migration and off-season survival to the temporal maintenance of microbial populations: a case study on the wheat fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici.  

PubMed

Understanding the mode of temporal maintenance of plant pathogens is an important domain of microbial ecology research. Due to the inconspicuous nature of microbes, their temporal maintenance cannot be studied directly through tracking individuals and their progeny. Here, we suggest a series of population genetic analyses on molecular marker variation in temporally spaced samples to infer about the relative contribution of sexual reproduction, off-season survival and migration to the temporal maintenance of pathogen populations. We used the proposed approach to investigate the temporal maintenance of wheat yellow rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (PST), in the Himalayan region of Pakistan. Multilocus microsatellite genotyping of PST isolates revealed high genotypic diversity and recombinant population structure across all locations, confirming the existence of sexual reproduction in this region. The genotypes were assigned to four genetic groups, revealing a clear differentiation between zones with and without Berberis spp., the alternate host of PST, with an additional subdivision within the Berberis zone. The lack of any differentiation between samples across two sampling years, and the very infrequent resampling of multilocus genotypes over years at a given location was consistent with limited over-year clonal survival, and a limited genetic drift. The off-season oversummering population in the Berberis zone, likely to be maintained locally, served as a source of migrants contributing to the temporal maintenance in the non-Berberis zone. Our study hence demonstrated the contribution of both sexual recombination and off-season oversummering survival to the temporal maintenance of the pathogen. These new insights into the population biology of PST highlight the general usefulness of the analytical approach proposed. PMID:24354737

Ali, Sajid; Gladieux, Pierre; Rahman, Hidayatur; Saqib, Muhammad S; Fiaz, Muhammad; Ahmad, Habib; Leconte, Marc; Gautier, Angélique; Justesen, Annemarie F; Hovmøller, Mogens S; Enjalbert, Jérôme; de Vallavieille-Pope, Claude

2014-02-01

369

Intracellular compartmentation of two enzymes of berberine biosynthesis in plant cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of the eight enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine, at least, two enzymes, berberine bridge enzyme and (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase, are exclusively located in a vesicle with a specific gravity of ?=1.14 g·cm-3 as shown by direct enzymatic assay as well as immunoelectrophoresis. Electronmicroscopic examination of the enzyme-containing particulate preparation from Berberis wilsoniae var. subcaulialata cultured

M. Amann; G. Wanner; M. H. Zenk

1986-01-01

370

Quality evaluation of ayurvedic crude drug daruharidra, its allied species, and commercial samples from herbal drug markets of India.  

PubMed

Berberis aristata known as "Daruharidra" in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India), the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata. PMID:23431340

Srivastava, Sharad; Rawat, A K S

2013-01-01

371

Structure-guided identification of a laminin binding site on the laminin receptor precursor.  

PubMed

The 37/ 67-kDa human laminin receptor (LamR) is a cell surface receptor for laminin, prion protein, and a variety of viruses. Because of its wide range of ligands, LamR plays a role in numerous pathologies. LamR overexpression correlates with a highly invasive cell phenotype and increased metastatic ability, mediated by interactions between LamR and laminin. In addition, the specific targeting of LamR with small interfering RNAs, blocking antibodies, and Sindbis viral vectors confers anti-tumor effects. We adopted a structure-based approach to map a laminin binding site on human LamR by comparing the sequences and crystal structures of LamR and Archaeoglobus fulgidus S2p, a non-laminin-binding ortholog. Here, we identify a laminin binding site on LamR, comprising residues Phe32, Glu35, and Arg155, which are conserved among mammalian species. Mutation of these residues results in a significant loss of laminin binding. Further, recombinant wild-type LamR is able to act as a soluble decoy to inhibit cellular migration towards laminin. Mutation of this laminin binding site results in loss of migration inhibition, which demonstrates the physiological role of Phe32, Glu35, and Arg155 for laminin binding activity. Mapping of the LamR binding site should contribute to the development of therapeutics that inhibit LamR interactions with laminin and may aid in the prevention of tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:21040730

Jamieson, Kelly V; Hubbard, Stevan R; Meruelo, Daniel

2011-01-01

372

Inositol phosphate capping of the nonreducing termini of lipoarabinomannan from rapidly growing strains of Mycobacterium.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that the nonreducing termini of the lipoarabinomannan (LAM) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are extensively capped with mannose residues, whereas those from a fast growing Mycobacterium sp., once thought to be an attenuated strain of M. tuberculosis, are not. The noncapped LAM, termed AraLAM, is known to be more potent than the mannose-capped LAM (ManLAM) in inducing functions associated with macrophage activation. Using a combination of chemical and enzymatic approaches coupled with fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry analysis, we demonstrated that LAMs from all M. tuberculosis strains examined (Erdman, H37Ra, and H37Rv), as well as the attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, are mannose-capped with the extent of capping varying between 40 and 70%. The nonreducing termini of LAM from Mycobacterium leprae were also found to be capped with mannoses but at a significantly lower level. A novel inositol phosphate capping motif was identified on a minor portion of the otherwise uncapped arabinan termini of LAMs from the fast growing Mycobacterium sp. and Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 14468 and mc(2)155. In addition, an inositol phosphate tetra-arabinoside was isolated from among endoarabinase digestion products of AraLAM and was shown to induce tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Accordingly, we concluded that AraLAM is characteristic of some rapidly growing Mycobacterium spp. It is distinct from ManLAMs of M. tuberculosis, M. bovis BCG, and Mycobacterium leprae not only in the absence of mannose-capping but also in containing some terminal inositol phosphate substituents which may account for its particular potency in inducing macrophage activation. PMID:7759478

Khoo, K H; Dell, A; Morris, H R; Brennan, P J; Chatterjee, D

1995-05-26

373

Effect of dietary laminarin and fucoidan on selected microbiota, intestinal morphology and immune status of the newly weaned pig.  

PubMed

A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the interactions between laminarin (LAM; 0 and 300 parts per million (ppm)) and fucoidan (FUC; 0 and 240 ppm) levels on intestinal morphology, selected microbiota and inflammatory cytokine gene expression in the weaned pig. There was an interaction between LAM and FUC supplementation on the Enterobacteriaceae population (P< 0·05) and the abundance of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) strains (P< 0·05) in the colon. Pigs offered the FUC diet had a reduced Enterobacteriaceae population compared with pigs offered the basal diet. However, the effect of FUC on the Enterobacteriaceae population was not observed when combined with LAM. Pigs offered the LAM diet had reduced abundance of AEEC strains compared with pigs offered the basal diet. However, there was no effect of LAM on the abundance of AEEC strains when combined with FUC. There was an interaction between LAM and FUC supplementation on villous height (P< 0·01) and the villous height:crypt depth ratio (P< 0·01) in the duodenum. Pigs offered the LAM or FUC diet had an increased villous height and villous height:crypt depth ratio compared with pigs offered the basal diet. However, there was no effect of the LAM and FUC combination diet on intestinal morphology. Pigs offered the LAM-supplemented diets had a lower IL-6 (P< 0·05), IL-17A (P< 0·01) and IL-1? (P< 0·01) mRNA expression in the colon compared with pigs offered the diets without LAM. In conclusion, supplementation with either LAM or FUC alone modified intestinal morphology and selected intestinal microbiota, but these effects were lost when offered in combination. PMID:23531383

Walsh, A M; Sweeney, T; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; O'Doherty, J V

2013-11-14

374

Isolation and phytotoxicity of terpenes from Tectona grandis.  

PubMed

A study was carried out on the allelopathic potential of four forest species, Tectona grandis, Aleurites fordii, Gliricidia sepium, and Maytenus buxifolia. The most active species, T. grandis, was selected to perform a phytochemical study. A new compound, abeograndinoic acid, was isolated, and elucidation of its structure showed that this compound has an unusual carbon skeleton. A further 21 known terpenoids-including 4 sesquiterpenoids, 8 diterpenes and 9 triterpenes-also were isolated. A biosynthetic scheme for the presence of the new compound is proposed. Bioactivity profiles that used etiolated wheat coleoptiles and phytotoxicity bioassays on the isolated compounds were conducted. The compounds that presented the highest phytotoxic activity are the diterpenes 9 (2-oxokovalenic acid) and 12 (19-hydroxyferruginol). PMID:20237951

Macías, Francisco A; Lacret, Rodney; Varela, Rosa M; Nogueiras, Clara; Molinillo, Jose M G

2010-04-01

375

Molecular genetic analysis of the nested Drosophila melanogaster lamin C gene.  

PubMed

Lamins are intermediate filaments that line the inner surface of the nuclear envelope, providing structural support and making contacts with chromatin. There are two types of lamins, A- and B-types, which differ in structure and expression. Drosophila possesses both lamin types, encoded by the LamC (A-type) and lamin Dm0 (B-type) genes. LamC is nested within an intron of the essential gene ttv. We demonstrate that null mutations in LamC are lethal, and expression of a wild-type LamC transgene rescues lethality of LamC but not ttv mutants. Mutations in the human A-type lamin gene lead to diseases called laminopathies. To determine if Drosophila might serve as a useful model to study lamin biology and disease mechanisms, we generated transgenic flies expressing mutant LamC proteins modeled after human disease-causing lamins. These transgenic animals display a nuclear lamin aggregation phenotype remarkably similar to that observed when human mutant A-type lamins are expressed in mammalian cells. LamC aggregates also cause disorganization of lamin Dm0, indicating interdependence of both lamin types for proper lamina assembly. Taken together, these data provide the first detailed genetic analysis of the LamC gene and support using Drosophila as a model to study the role of lamins in disease. PMID:15965247

Schulze, Sandra R; Curio-Penny, Beatrice; Li, Yuhong; Imani, Reza A; Rydberg, Lena; Geyer, Pamela K; Wallrath, Lori L

2005-09-01

376

Intelligent Buffer Module. Speed Up of CAMAC System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A start of data taking using the CAMAC system is usually triggered by the LAM(Look at Me) signal from a module. A host computer processes a LAM interruption and issues a CAMAC I/O operation in order to read in the data from modules and handles an I/O comp...

M. Ikeda K. Ukai

1987-01-01

377

Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The component technologies were developed required for an advanced control moment gyro (CMG) type of slewing actuator for large payloads. The key component of the CMG is a large-angle magnetic suspension (LAMS). The LAMS combines the functions of the gimb...

J. Downer J. Goldie R. Torti

1991-01-01

378

AAC Best Practice Using Automated Language Activity Monitoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief paper describes automated language activity monitoring (LAM), an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) methodology for the collection, editing, and analysis of language data in structured or natural situations with people who have severe communication disorders. The LAM function records each language event (letters, words,…

Hill, Katya; Romich, Barry

379

Structural, Optical and Dielectric Studies On Pure and Doped LAlaninium Maleate Single Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Good optical quality single crystals of pure and doped L-Alaninium Maleate (LAM) crystals have been grown. The crystals have been grown by slow evaporation method at a constant temperature of 35°C from its aqueous solution. The grown single crystals of pure and doped LAM were characterized by employing FTIR, SHG, ICP, Dielectric study and X- ray diffraction methods.

Karunanithi, U.

2012-06-01

380

Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms of Soft Tissue and Gynecologic Origin A Clinicopathologic Study of 26 Cases and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

PEComas, occasionally associated with the tuberous sclerosis complex, are defined by the presence of perivascular epithelioid cells that coexpress muscle and melanocytic markers. This family of tumors includes angiomyolipoma (AML), clear cell sugar tumor of the lung (CCST), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), and very rare tumors in other locations. Because non-AML\\/non-LAM PEComas are extremely rare and their natural history and prognostic features

Andrew L. Folpe; Thomas Mentzel; Hans-Anton Lehr; Cyril Fisher; Bonnie L. Balzer; Sharon W. Weiss

381

Mutations in pimE Restore Lipoarabinomannan Synthesis and Growth in a Mycobacterium smegmatis lpqW Mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipoarabinomannans (LAMs) and phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs) are abundant glycolipids in the cell walls of all corynebacteria and mycobacteria, including the devastating human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We have recently shown that M. smegmatis mutants of the lipoprotein-encoding lpqW gene have a profound defect in LAM biosynthesis. When these mutants are cultured in complex medium, spontaneous bypass mutants consistently evolve in which

Paul K. Crellin; Svetozar Kovacevic; Kirstee L. Martin; Rajini Brammananth; Yasu S. Morita; Helen Billman-Jacobe; Malcolm J. McConville; Ross L. Coppel

2008-01-01

382

Increasing Interoperability of E-Learning Content in Moodle within a Franco-Arabo Educative Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how Moodle, as an open-source Learning Management System, can be made more interoperable. The authors tested two software standards, LAMS and RELOAD, compatible with socio-constructivism norms. The analysis showed that pedagogic activities created with the LAMS-IMS Learning Design Level A Format are useable with Moodle but…

El Harrassi, Souad; Labour, Michel

2010-01-01

383

SRC kinase is a novel therapeutic target in lymphangioleiomyomatosis.  

PubMed

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive cystic lung disease affecting some women with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Sporadic LAM can develop in women without TSC, owing to somatic mutations in the TSC2 gene. Accumulating evidence supports the view of LAM as a low-grade, destructive, metastasizing neoplasm. The mechanisms underlying the metastatic capability of LAM cells remain poorly understood. The observed behavior of LAM cells with respect to their infiltrative growth pattern, metastatic potential, and altered cell differentiation bears similarity to cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Here, we report increased levels of active Src kinase in LAM lungs and in TSC2(-/-) cells, caused by a reduction of autophagy. Furthermore, increased Src kinase activation promoted migration, invasion, and inhibition of E-cadherin expression in TSC2(-/-) cells by upregulating the transcription factor Snail. Notably, Src kinase inhibitors reduced migration and invasion properties of TSC2(-/-) cells and attenuated lung colonization of intravenously injected TSC2(-/-) cells in vivo to a greater extent than control TSC2(+/+) cells. Our results reveal mechanistic basis for the pathogenicity of LAM cells and they rationalize Src kinase as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of LAM and TSC. PMID:24691995

Tyryshkin, Alexey; Bhattacharya, Abhisek; Eissa, N Tony

2014-04-01

384

Think globally, act locally: library, archive, and museum collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the collections libraries, archives, and museums (LAMs) manage remain necessarily fragmented in the real world, potential users of these collections increasingly expect to experience the world of information as accessible from a single search online. The groundwork for success in a networked environment is laid in local collaborations, such as creating cohesiveness among LAMs belonging to the same organization.

Günter Waibel; Ricky Erway

2009-01-01

385

Mutant Bias in Nonlethal Selections Results From Selective Recovery of Mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have characterized a nonlethal selection for mutations that allow Escherichia coli to grow on large maltodextrins (Dex') in the absence of the lamB encoded maltoporin LamB. These Dex+ mutations occur before and after imposition of the selection and the selection does not result in a general increase in mutagenesis. The recovered Dex+ mutations are almost exclusively mutations that alter

Spencer A. Benson; Amy M. DeCloux; Joelle Munro

1991-01-01

386

Recurrent Pneumothorax in a Young Female with Pulmonary Lymphangiomyomatosis: A Case Report and Overview of Literature  

PubMed Central

Lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare cystic interstitial lung disease that exclusively affects women of child bearing age and is associated with vascular proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the lung. We report a case of young female with pulmonary LAM presenting with recurrent pneumothorax.

Jain, Vishakha V.; Gupta, O. P.; Jajoo, Sumedh; Khiangate, Benjamin

2014-01-01

387

A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

SatCon Technology Corporation has completed a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 program to develop a Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension (LAMS) for the NASA Langley Research Center. The Superconducting LAMS was a hardware demonstration of the control technology required to develop an advanced momentum exchange effector. The Phase 2 research was directed toward the demonstration for the key technology

James R. Downer; George V. Anastas Jr.; Dariusz A. Bushko; Frederick J. Flynn; James H. Goldie; Vijay Gondhalekar; Timothy J. Hawkey; Richard L. Hockney; Richard P. Torti

1992-01-01

388

Recurrent pneumothorax in a young female with pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis: a case report and overview of literature.  

PubMed

Lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare cystic interstitial lung disease that exclusively affects women of child bearing age and is associated with vascular proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the lung. We report a case of young female with pulmonary LAM presenting with recurrent pneumothorax. PMID:24791247

Jain, Vishakha V; Gupta, O P; Jajoo, Sumedh; Khiangate, Benjamin

2014-01-01

389

Generation of in Vitro Cellular Models of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis for the Development of Tuberous Sclerosis Therapeutics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purposes of this work are three related objectives: to generate human TSC2-/- LAM cell lines; to generate matching inducible isogenic TSC2 knock-in cell lines; and to confirm the absence and rescue of TSC signaling in these LAM lines. We generated 400...

R. Squillace

2006-01-01

390

Lipoarabinomannan Localization and Abundance during Growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis ? †  

PubMed Central

Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a structurally heterogeneous amphipathic lipoglycan present in Mycobacterium spp. and other actinomycetes, which constitutes a major component of the cell wall and exhibits a wide spectrum of immunomodulatory effects. Analysis of Mycobacterium smegmatis subcellular fractions and spheroplasts showed that LAM and lipomannan (LM) were primarily found in a cell wall-enriched subcellular fraction and correlated with the presence (or absence) of the mycolic acids in spheroplast preparations, suggesting that LAM and LM are primarily associated with the putative outer membrane of mycobacteria. During the course of these studies significant changes in the LAM/LM content of the cell wall were noted relative to the age of the culture. The LAM content of the M. smegmatis cell wall was dramatically reduced as the bacilli approached stationary phase, whereas LM, mycolic acid, and arabinogalactan content appeared to be unchanged. In addition, cell morphology and acid-fast staining characteristics showed variations with growth phase of the bacteria. In the logarithmic phase, the bacteria were found to be classic rod-shaped acid-fast bacilli, while in the stationary phase M. smegmatis lost the characteristic rod shape and developed a punctate acid-fast staining pattern with carbolfuchsin. The number of viable bacteria was independent of LAM content and phenotype. Taken together, the results presented here suggest that LAM is primarily localized with the mycolic acids in the cell wall and that the cellular concentration of LAM in M. smegmatis is selectively modulated with the growth phase.

Dhiman, Rakesh K.; Dinadayala, Premkumar; Ryan, Gavin J.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Schenkel, Alan R.; Crick, Dean C.

2011-01-01

391

Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Severity of Disease in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a disease that occurs primarily in women, is characterized by cystic lung lesions causing respiratory failure, which may require lung transplantation. Lung diffusion (DLCO) and\\/or FEV1 are decreased, but frequently not in parallel with each other. Because cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides information that is not obtainable from resting cardiopul- monary tests, we performed CPET in 217 LAM

Angelo M. Taveira-DaSilva; Mario P. Stylianou; Carolyn J. Hedin; Arnold S. Kristof; Nilo A. Avila; Antoinette Rabel; William D. Travis; Joel Moss

392

A pleuro-peritoneal communication through the diaphragm affected with lymphangioleiomyomatosis.  

PubMed

A 30-year-old Japanese woman with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) developed a left chylothorax and chylous ascites. A pleuro-peritoneal communication was confirmed by a scintigram with (99)mTc-labeled macroaggregated-albumin injected into the peritoneal cavity. Video-assisted thoracic surgery revealed a protruding papillary lesion on the left diaphragm. Chyle was oozing into the pleural cavity through this lesion. Histopathological analyses demonstrated that the protrusion was a diaphragmatic LAM lesion and that LAM-associated lymphangiogenesis enabled communication between the pleural and peritoneal cavities through lymphatic vessels. This case demonstrated a new mechanism for chylous pleural effusion in LAM and illustrates the significance of LAM-associated lymphangiogenesis. PMID:20190480

Takagi, Yumiko; Sato, Teruhiko; Morio, Yoshiteru; Kumasaka, Toshio; Mitani, Keiko; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Iwakami, Shin-Ichiro; Kodama, Yuzo; Onuma, Emi; Seyama, Kuniaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2010-01-01

393

A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The component technologies were developed required for an advanced control moment gyro (CMG) type of slewing actuator for large payloads. The key component of the CMG is a large-angle magnetic suspension (LAMS). The LAMS combines the functions of the gimbal structure, torque motors, and rotor bearings of a CMG. The LAMS uses a single superconducting source coil and an array of cryoresistive control coils to produce a specific output torque more than an order of magnitude greater than conventional devices. The designed and tested LAMS system is based around an available superconducting solenoid, an array of twelve room-temperature normal control coils, and a multi-input, multi-output control system. The control laws were demonstrated for stabilizing and controlling the LAMS system.

Downer, James; Goldie, James; Torti, Richard

1991-01-01

394

Antibodies Induced by Lipoarabinomannan in Bovines: Characterization and Effects on the Interaction between Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis and Macrophages In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a major glycolipidic antigen on the mycobacterial envelope. The aim of this study was to characterize the humoral immune response induced by immunization with a LAM extract in bovines and to evaluate the role of the generated antibodies in the in vitro infection of macrophages with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Sera from fourteen calves immunized with LAM extract or PBS emulsified in Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant and from five paratuberculosis-infected bovines were studied. LAM-immunized calves developed specific antibodies with IgG1 as the predominant isotype. Serum immunoglobulins were isolated and their effect was examined in MAP ingestion and viability assays using a bovine macrophage cell line. Our results show that the antibodies generated by LAM immunization significantly increase MAP ingestion and reduce its intracellular viability, suggesting an active role in this model.

Jolly, Ana; Colavecchia, Silvia Beatriz; Fernandez, Barbara; Fernandez, Eloy; Mundo, Silvia Leonor

2011-01-01

395

Exacerbation and remission of pulmonary micronodules with lymphangioleiomyomatosis around the time of childbirth.  

PubMed

We present a case of multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia (MMPH), lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) and angiomyolipoma (AML) in a 33-year-old woman with tuberous sclerosis complex referred to us during her first pregnancy. Computed tomography of the chest showed diffuse micronodules and cysts in both lungs. Compared to those before pregnancy, the number of micronodules increased evidently. We hypothesized the micronodules in both lungs were either LAM, MMPH, or a combination of the two. Bilateral renal AML also intensified. About one month after childbirth, LAM and renal AML decreased without treatment. Therefore, we observed that LAM and AML were affected by the pregnancy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report regarding the reversible alteration of LAM without treatment. PMID:23729367

Ogawa, Ryo; Miyagawa, Masao; Ide, Kana; Akamune, Akihisa; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Mochizuki, Teruhito

2013-09-01

396

Anesthesia for Suboccipital Craniotomy in a Patient with Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare pulmonary condition often presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax. Imaging or biopsy confirm the diagnosis. Published case reports describe the anesthetic management of patients with LAM undergoing brief procedures. No reports describe the anesthetic management for lengthy neurosurgical procedures. We describe anesthetic management for craniotomy in a patient with LAM. Clinical Features. A woman presented with 2 spontaneous left pneumothoraces. She received a diagnosis of LAM by imaging. She did well after pleurodesis. Hearing loss and tinnitus led to brain imaging demonstrating a large left cerebello-pontine angle mass. She presented for elective craniotomy to remove the mass while preserving cranial nerve function. Our technique for general endotracheal anesthesia aimed to reduce the likelihood of another pneumothorax while providing good surgical conditions and permitting neuromonitoring. Conclusion. We demonstrate the successful anesthetic management of a patient with LAM undergoing a lengthy suboccipital craniotomy for a posterior fossa mass.

Peterfreund, Robert A.; Luman, Emily; Martuza, Robert L.

2012-01-01

397

Reasons for false-positive lipoarabinomannan ELISA results in a Tanzanian population.  

PubMed

Lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a cell wall component of mycobacteria, can be detected in the urine of tuberculosis (TB) patients. Advantages of this diagnostic include the ease of sample collection and test methods. However, as with most new TB diagnostics, LAM tests have been evaluated in well-controlled laboratory settings and subsequently need assessment under real working conditions. Our experience showed that the diagnosis of TB using the detection of LAM in urine under field conditions is prone to false-positive results due to contamination. Dust and soil, but also stool, seemed to lead to increased OD values and thus false-positive results of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for LAM; however, contamination with blood, as well as bacterial or fungal organisms, had no influence. The collection of urine for the detection of LAM should therefore follow strict collection criteria in order to avoid contamination. PMID:24274710

Kroidl, Inge; Clowes, Petra; Mwakyelu, Joshua; Maboko, Leonard; Kiangi, Abubakary; Rachow, Andrea; Reither, Klaus; Jung, Jutta; Nsojo, Anthony; Saathoff, Elmar; Hoelscher, Michael

2014-02-01

398

Lactational amenorrhea method as a contraceptive strategy in Niger.  

PubMed

If used properly, the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) can be a valuable family planning tool, particularly in low-income countries; however, the degree to which LAM is used correctly and characteristics associated with its use have not been well documented. We therefore sought to use nationally representative data from Niger, where fertility rates are high and women may have limited access to alternative contraceptive methods, to describe the proportion of women who use LAM correctly and the characteristics associated with LAM use. We utilized cross-sectional data from the 2006 Niger Demographic Health Survey. Our sample included all sexually active, non-pregnant, breastfeeding women using some form of contraception (N = 673, unweighted). We used weighted frequencies to describe the correct use of LAM and logistic regression models to describe women who chose LAM for contraception. Among our sample, 52% reported LAM as their primary method of contraception, but only 21% of the women who reported using LAM used it correctly. Women who reported using LAM were more likely to live in certain regions of the country, to have no formal education, and to have delivered their most recent baby at home. They were also less likely to have discussed family planning at a health facility or with their husband/partner in the past year. Results indicated that few women in Niger who reported using LAM used it correctly. Our findings reinforce the need to address this knowledge gap, especially given Niger's high fertility rate, and may inform efforts to improve family planning in Niger and in other low-income countries. PMID:22688540

Sipsma, Heather L; Bradley, Elizabeth H; Chen, Peggy G

2013-05-01

399

In pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis expression of progesterone receptor is frequently higher than that of estrogen receptor.  

PubMed

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) of the lung is a rare low-grade malignancy affecting primarily women of childbearing age. LAM is characterized by the proliferation of SMA and HMB-45 positive spindle-shaped and epithelioid cells throughout the lung in the form of discrete lesions causing cystic destruction and ultimately respiratory insufficiency. LAM occurs sporadically or in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and is etiologically linked to mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Although LAM cells are known to express estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR, respectively), their respective expression level was never determined. Therefore, here we measured the immunohistochemical expression of ERs and PRs in a large series of pulmonary LAM cases using the Aperio Spectrum Analysis Platform. Our case series comprised open lung biopsy specimens from 20 LAM patients and lungs explanted during the course of lung transplant from 24 patients. All cases were positive for ER and PR. PR expression was statistically significantly higher than ER in 80 % of the biopsies while ER predominated only in one case. Specimens from explanted cases of LAM had relatively fewer PR-positive nuclei. As a result, PR expression was significantly higher than ER in 38 % of the cases, whereas ER predominated in 33 %. Overall, PR expression predominated in 57 % of cases and ER in 21 %. These data indicate that PR frequently prevails over ER in pulmonary LAM. LAM is unusual in its high PR/ER ratio; other female neoplasms show a definite prevalence of ER. Our findings therefore warrant further study of PR function in LAM. PMID:24570392

Gao, Ling; Yue, Michael M; Davis, Jennifer; Hyjek, Elisabeth; Schuger, Lucia

2014-04-01

400

Association of Lipoarabinomannan with Human High Density Lipoprotein in Blood: Implications for Bio-distribution and Serum Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We have also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum, and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of ‘monomeric’ LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. This phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host-pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics.

Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N.; Lee, Myungsun; Cho, Sang Nae; Barry, Clifton E.; Via, Laura E.; Swanson, Basil I.; Mukundan, Harshini

2013-01-01

401

The leader region of Laminin B1 mRNA confers cap-independent translation  

PubMed Central

Translation initiation of eukaryotic mRNAs generally occurs by cap-dependent ribosome scanning. However, certain mRNAs contain internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) allowing cap-independent translation. Several of these IRES-competent transcripts and their corresponding proteins are involved in tumourigenesis. This study focused on IRES-driven translation control during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of hepatocytes that reflects crucial aspects of carcinoma progression. Expression profiling of EMT revealed Laminin B1 (LamB1) to be translationally upregulated. The 5?-untranslated region (UTR) of LamB1 was potent to direct IRES-dependent mRNA utilization of a bicistronic reporter construct. Stringent assays for cryptic promoter and splice sites showed no aberrantly expressed transcripts, suggesting that the reporter activity provided by the leader region of LamB1 mRNA exclusively depends on IRES. In accordance, LamB1 expression increased upon negative interference with cap-dependent translation by expression of human rhinovirus 2A protease or heat shock of cells. Finally, the enhanced expression of LamB1 during EMT correlated with an elevated IRES activity. Together, these data provide first evidence that the 5?-UTR of LamB1 contains a bona fide IRES that directs translational upregulation of LamB1 during stress conditions and neoplastic progression of hepatocytes.

Petz, Michaela; Kozina, Daniela; Huber, Heidemarie; Siwiec, Tanja; Seipelt, Joachim; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Mikulits, Wolfgang

2007-01-01

402

Linear atrophoderma of moulin: a distinct entity?  

PubMed

Linear atrophoderma of Moulin (LAM) is a rare dermatologic disorder characterized by a hyperpigmented atrophoderma that consistently follows the lines of Blaschko. There are many clinical and histologic similarities between LAM, atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini (APP), and morphea, and whether LAM represents part of a disease spectrum or its own distinct entity is debated. This case of a 16-year-old boy with LAM supports the hypothesis that LAM, APP, and morphea are a spectrum of disorders rather than unique entities. Although the patient's overall clinical picture supports a diagnosis of LAM with hyperpigmented, depressed lesions following the lines of Blaschko and perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate on biopsy, the bilateral presentation typical of APP, collagen entrapment of eccrine ducts typical of morphea, and changes in dermal collagen illustrate features spanning all three disorders, suggesting a relationship between these conditions that represents a spectrum of disease. Furthermore, a review of all reported cases of LAM in the literature suggests an evolving definition beyond what Moulin and colleagues originally described, including features related to those of APP and morphea. PMID:23046463

de Golian, Emily; Echols, Kathryn; Pearl, Henna; Davis, Loretta

2014-05-01

403

Mannosylated lipoarabinomannans from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis alters the inflammatory response by bovine macrophages and suppresses killing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium organisms.  

PubMed

Analysis of the mechanisms through which pathogenic mycobacteria interfere with macrophage activation and phagosome maturation have shown that engagement of specific membrane receptors with bacterial ligands is the initiating event. Mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (Man-LAM) has been identified as one of the ligands that modulates macrophage function. We evaluated the effects of Man-LAM derived from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on bovine macrophages. Man-LAM induced a rapid and prolonged expression of IL-10 message as well as transient expression of TNF-?. Preincubation with Man-LAM for up to 16 h did not suppress expression of IL-12 in response to interferon-?. Evaluation of the effect of Man-LAM on phagosome acidification, phagosome maturation, and killing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) showed that preincubation of macrophages with Man-LAM before addition of MAA inhibited phagosome acidification, phagolysosome fusion, and reduced killing. Analysis of signaling pathways provided indirect evidence that inhibition of killing was associated with activation of the MAPK-p38 signaling pathway but not the pathway involved in regulation of expression of IL-10. These results support the hypothesis that MAP Man-LAM is one of the virulence factors facilitating survival of MAP in macrophages. PMID:24098744

Souza, Cleverson; Davis, William C; Eckstein, Torsten M; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Weiss, Douglas J

2013-01-01

404

[A case of incidentally diagnosed retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyomatosis with no respiratory symptoms].  

PubMed

A 39-year-old woman presented with a large retroperitoneal tumor found incidentally in a routine examination. The 138×37×26 mm mass was located in the left paraaortic region. Blood tests and urinalyses including endocrinological examinations revealed no abnormalities. A chest computed tomography revealed multiple thin-walled pulmonary cysts, which is a characteristic of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Because the findings strongly suggested that the retroperitoneal tumor was an extrapulmonary manifestion of LAM, we performed laparoscopic resection of the tumor for diagnosis and treatment. The pathological diagnosis was LAM. The tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for ? -smooth muscle actin and weakly positive for HMB45, which is consistent with LAM. The cells were also positive for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR). LAM is a rare progressive disease that affects mainly the lung, and leads to chronic respiratory failure. Extrapulmonary LAM without respiratory symptoms, is extremely rare. In the past, the prognosis of LAM was poor, with a median survival of 8-10 years, but now 85% survive more than 10 years. In the present case, deterioration of pulmonary lesions was not observed during the 10 months follow-up. Because ERand PgRfindings were positive, we will consider hormonal therapy as a treatment option, when the pulmonary lesions progress in the present case. PMID:24322407

Tanaka, Ken; Miyazaki, Jun; Uchida, Masahiro; Ichioka, Daishi; Kimura, Tomokazu; Oikawa, Takehiro; Suetomi, Takahiro; Kawai, Koji; Uesugi, Noriko; Nasu, Katsuhiro; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

2013-11-01

405

Detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan with an antigen-capture ELISA in unprocessed urine of Tanzanian patients with suspected tuberculosis.  

PubMed

A direct antigen-capture ELISA based on the detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in unprocessed urine was evaluated for its usefulness in clinical practice. In Tanzania, 231 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and 103 healthy volunteers were screened with standard TB tests and with the new LAM-ELISA. Of 132 patients with confirmed pulmonary mycobacterial disease (positive sputum culture), 106 were positive using the LAM-ELISA (sensitivity 80.3%). In comparison, the sensitivity of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) sputum microscopy was 62.1% (82 of 132 confirmed cases). Of the 231 patients, 17 were both culture- and AFB-negative, but had typical radiographic signs of pulmonary mycobacterial infection and did not respond to antibiotic treatment. Of these 17 patients, 13 (76.5%) had positive LAM-ELISA test results. To define the specificity of the assay, urine samples from 103 healthy volunteers were also screened using LAM-ELISA. All but one had an optical density below the cut-off (specificity 99%). Of interest was a significant correlation between level of microscopic density of mycobacteria in sputum and LAM antigen concentration in urine (chi2=8.44). The LAM-ELISA is a field-adapted tool that can improve screening standards in countries with a high incidence of TB. PMID:16139316

Boehme, C; Molokova, E; Minja, F; Geis, S; Loscher, T; Maboko, L; Koulchin, V; Hoelscher, M

2005-12-01

406

Critical Roles for Lipomannan and Lipoarabinomannan in Cell Wall Integrity of Mycobacteria and Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Lipomannan (LM) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) are mycobacterial glycolipids containing a long mannose polymer. While they are implicated in immune modulations, the significance of LM and LAM as structural components of the mycobacterial cell wall remains unknown. We have previously reported that a branch-forming mannosyltransferase plays a critical role in controlling the sizes of LM and LAM and that deletion or overexpression of this enzyme results in gross changes in LM/LAM structures. Here, we show that such changes in LM/LAM structures have a significant impact on the cell wall integrity of mycobacteria. In Mycobacterium smegmatis, structural defects in LM and LAM resulted in loss of acid-fast staining, increased sensitivity to ?-lactam antibiotics, and faster killing by THP-1 macrophages. Furthermore, equivalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants became more sensitive to ?-lactams, and one mutant showed attenuated virulence in mice. Our results revealed previously unknown structural roles for LM and LAM and further demonstrated that they are important for the pathogenesis of tuberculosis.

Fukuda, Takeshi; Matsumura, Takayuki; Ato, Manabu; Hamasaki, Maho; Nishiuchi, Yukiko; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Taroh; Morita, Yasu S.

2013-01-01

407

Real-time Recognition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Lipoarabinomannan using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance  

PubMed Central

A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor has been successfully employed to screen for both whole Mycobacteria tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli and a Mtb surface antigen, lipoarabinomannan (LAM). One of the most abundant components of the Mtb cell surface, LAM, may be detected without the presence of the entire bacterium. Using available antibodies with proven utility in enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs), a sensor was designed to measure Mtb bacilli and LAM. Equilibrium association constants (Ka) were determined for the interaction of Mtb with immobilized ?-LAM and anti-H37Rv antibodies, where avidity was seen to strengthen this interaction and provide for greater binding than might have otherwise been achieved. The binding of LAM to immobilized ?-LAM had a high associate rate constant (ka) allowing for rapid detection. Evaluating these binding constants helped the compare the sensitivity of these immunosensors to conventional ELISAs. The use of these assays with the better antibodies may allow for immunosensor use in determining LAM as a point-of-care (POC) diagnostic for Mtb.

Hiatt, Leslie A.; Cliffel, David E.

2012-01-01

408

Biocompatibility evaluation of emulsion electrospun nanofibers using osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Emulsion electrospinning is an advanced technique to fabricate core-shell structured nanofibrous scaffolds, with great potential for drug encapsulation. Incorporation of dual factors hydroxyapatite (HA) and laminin, respectively, within the shell and core of nanofibers through emulsion electrospinning might be of advantageous in supporting the adhesion, proliferation, and maturation of cells instead of single factor-encapsulated nanofibers. We fabricated poly(L-lactic acid-co-?-caprolactone) (PLCL)/hydroxyapaptite (PLCL/HA), PLCL/laminin (PLCL/Lam), and PLCL/hydroxyapatite/laminin (PLCL/HA/Lam) scaffolds with fiber diameter of 388 ± 35, 388 ± 81, and 379 ± 57 nm, respectively, by emulsion electrospinning. The elastic modulus of the prepared scaffolds ranged from 22.7-37.0 MPa. The osteoblast proliferation on PLCL/HA/Lam scaffolds, determined on day 21, was found 10.4% and 12.0% higher than the cell proliferation on PLCL/Lam or PLCL/HA scaffold, respectively. Cell maturation determined on day 14, by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, was significantly higher on PLCL/HA/Lam scaffolds than the ALP activity on PLCL/HA and PLCL/Lam scaffolds (p ? 0.05). Results of the energy dispersive X-ray studies carried out on day 28 also showed higher calcium deposition by cells seeded on PLCL/HA/Lam scaffolds. Osteoblasts were found to adhere, proliferate, and mature actively on PLCL/HA/Lam nanofibers with enhanced cell proliferation, ALP activity, bone protein expression, and mineral deposition. Based on the results, we can conclude that laminin and HA individually played roles in osteoblast proliferation and maturation, and the synergistic function of both factors within the novel emulsion electrospun PLCL/HA/Lam nanofibers enhanced the functionality of osteoblasts, confirming their potential application in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:23819766

Tian, Lingling; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Ding, Xin; Ramakrishna, Seeram

2013-01-01

409

Successful factor XIII administration for persistent chylothorax after lung transplantation for lymphangioleiomyomatosis.  

PubMed

Lung transplantation has emerged as a viable treatment option for patients with end-stage lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), and therapeutic outcome results reported thus far have been satisfactory. However, persisting chylothorax after transplantation for LAM remains a challenging problem, and the optimal management has not been decided. We present the case with persistent chylothorax after lung transplantation for LAM, in which the intravenous administration of a tissue repair factor (human factor XIII) resulted in complete resolution of chylous effusion without performing additional invasive treatments, leading to a successful transplant outcome. PMID:19699944

Shigemura, Norihisa; Kawamura, Tomohiro; Minami, Masato; Sawabata, Noriyoshi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Utsumi, Tomoki; Nakagiri, Tomoyuki; Matsumiya, Goro; Sawa, Yoshiki; Okumura, Meinoshin

2009-09-01

410

Surgical treatment of chylothorax caused by lymphangioleiomyomatosis.  

PubMed

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare progressive disease caused by infiltration of smooth muscle-like cells in lymph vessels as well as the lung. We report a case of pulmonary LAM in a 22-year-old female with shortness of breath, recurrent pneumothorax and chylous pleural effusions. Multiple ligation of thoracic in lower part of thoracic duct was performed and biopsy of thoracic duct confirmed the diagnosis of LAM. The operation was successful and the patient was discharged. Although the thoracic duct involvement is extensive, multiple ligation in lower part of thoracic duct may be a good choice. PMID:24605238

Liu, Mingliang; Wu, Bingqun; Cui, Yong; Chang, Dong; Zhang, Shuhong; Gong, Min

2014-02-01

411

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean family and its sublineages in the light of robust evolutionary markers.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a clonal population structure, and the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family is one of the largest and most widespread within this species, showing evidence for remarkable pathobiology and a confusing phylogeny. Here, we applied robust phylogenetic markers to study the evolution of the LAM family and its major sublineages circulating in Russia and neighboring countries. A total of 250 M. tuberculosis isolates were confirmed to belong to the LAM family based on the analysis of the LAM-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Rv3062 and Rv0129c genes. At this stage, the family status was rectified for 121 isolates misleadingly assigned by CRISPR spoligotyping to non-LAM families (T1- or T5-RUS1). Consequently, the reestimated LAM prevalence rate increased 2-fold in Russia and Kazakhstan and 4-fold in Belarus. The majority (91.8 to 98.7%) of the LAM isolates from all three countries belonged to the LAM-RUS sublineage. In contrast, the Ibero-American LAM RD-Rio sublineage was identified in only 7 Russian isolates. Taken together, our findings and further analyses suggest a monophyletic origin of LAM-RUS: at a historically distant time, in Russia, in a small founding bacterial/human population. Its dissemination pattern and high prevalence rate in Northern Eurasia may indicate a long-term coexistence of the LAM-RUS sublineage and local human populations hypothetically leading to coadaptation and reduced pathogenicity of the relatively more ancient clones, such as spoligotype international type 254 (SIT254), compared to the more recent SIT252 and SIT266 clones. In contrast, rare LAM RD-Rio isolates were likely brought to Russia through occasional human contact. The spread of RD-Rio strains is not as global as commonly claimed and is determined largely by human migration flows (rather than by pathobiological properties of these strains). Consequently, a host population factor appears to play a major role in shaping the in situ dissemination pattern of the imported strains in an autochthonous population. PMID:24584500

Mokrousov, Igor; Vyazovaya, Anna; Narvskaya, Olga

2014-05-01

412

[Retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyomatosis - a case reports].  

PubMed

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare progressive disease affecting women of childbearing age. The disease is characterised by an abnormal proliferation of immature smooth muscle cells predominantly in the lung. It gradually leads to respiratory failure, and it frequently result in death. Extrapulmonary LAM typically presents with abdominal mass, abdominal pain and chylous ascites. In the case reports we describe two cases of premenopausal females with extrapulmonary LAM. In both cases they occur in pelvic location in the obturator fossa and around the external iliac artery. After surgical procedures patients were primary treated with progesterone. Sirolimus was second-line drugs. PMID:23710987

Lajtman, E; Mlyn?ek, M; Matejka, M; Sláde?ek, A; Langová, I

2013-04-01

413

Mycobacterium tuberculosis glycosylated phosphatidylinositol causes phagosome maturation arrest  

PubMed Central

The tubercle bacillus parasitizes macrophages by inhibiting phagosome maturation into the phagolysosome. This phenomenon underlies the tuberculosis pandemic involving 2 billion people. We report here how Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes phagosome maturation arrest. A glycosylated M. tuberculosis phosphatidylinositol [mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM)] interfered with the phagosomal acquisition of the lysosomal cargo and syntaxin 6 from the trans-Golgi network. ManLAM specifically inhibited the pathway dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding effectors. These findings identify ManLAM as the M. tuberculosis product responsible for the inhibition of phagosomal maturation.

Fratti, Rutilio A.; Chua, Jennifer; Vergne, Isabelle; Deretic, Vojo

2003-01-01

414

Plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Israel.  

PubMed

In an extensive ethnobotanical survey (130 informants) of the medicinal plants of Israel, 16 species were found to be used for hypoglycaemic treatments. The list includes Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.-Bip, Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam, Atriplex halimus L., Capparis spinosa L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del., Eryngium creticum Lam., Inula viscosa (L.) Ait., Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch.-Bip, Origanum syriaca L., Paronychia argentea Lam, Prosopis farcta (Banks et Sol.) Macbride, Salvia fruticosa Mill., Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Sp., and Teucrium polium L.; eight of them (marked with an asterisk) are first recorded here as used for this purpose. PMID:3613607

Yaniv, Z; Dafni, A; Friedman, J; Palevitch, D

1987-01-01

415

A case report of lymphangioleiomyomatosis presenting as spontaneous pneumothorax.  

PubMed

Spontaneous pneumothorax is a commonly encountered problem in the Emergency Department. Patients are often treated without further investigation for an underlying etiology. We present a patient who was unable to completely resolve a pneumothorax and was found to have lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare cystic lung disease. In the past, LAM was difficult to diagnose and had a mortality of 100% after 10 years, but now there is a 71% survival after 10 years. Recent research has led to increased characterization of the pathology and radiographic findings. This article briefly presents the case and discusses the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of LAM. PMID:22594143

Riojas, Ramon A; Bahr, Brady A; Thomas, David B; Perciballi, John; Noyes, Lachland

2012-04-01

416

The therapeutic response of antiviral therapy in HBsAg-positive renal transplant recipients and a long-term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Early prediction of lamivudine (LAM) response by individualized monitoring of serum HBV DNA like roadmap concept, and investigation\\u000a of the outcome after LAM discontinuation in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a study on 19 RTRs with HBV infection receiving LAM treatment for 2 years from 2004 to 2007. HBV DNA level was\\u000a assessed at baseline,

Tsung-Hui Hu; Ming-Chao Tsai; Yen-Ta Chen; Yu-Shu Chien; Chao-Hung Hung; Te-Chuan Chen; Po-Lin Tseng; Kuo-Chin Chang; Yi-Hao Yen

417

Add-On Adefovir Is Superior to a Switch to Entecavir as Rescue Therapy for Lamivudine-Resistant Chronic Hepatitis B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims  Lamivudine (LAM) has been extensively used to treat hepatitis B, but high incidence of drug resistance has required rescue\\u000a studies. We validated the optimum treatment strategy for LAM-resistant patients by means of a comparative study of add-on\\u000a adefovir (ADV) and a switch to entecavir (ETV).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We assessed the virologic response in consecutive LAM-resistant patients who received add-on ADV or a

Goh Eun Chung; Won Kim; Kook Lae Lee; Sang Youn Hwang; Jeong-Hoon Lee; Hwi Young Kim; Yong Jin Jung; Donghee Kim; Ji Bong Jeong; Byeong Gwan Kim; Yoon Jun Kim; Jung-Hwan Yoon; Hyo-Suk Lee

2011-01-01

418

Attempted Growth of Single-Crystal LaPO4 and LaPO4-M+2Th(PO4)2 Solid Solutions: The Role of Flux Composition and La/(M+2+Th) Ratio, With Implications for Monazite Chemical Dating Standards.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements of a standard for chemical dating of monazite are: 1) grain-scale homogeneity; 2) "monazite-like" matrix composition; 3) incorporation of known concentrations of Pb, Th, and U. Grain sizes > 500 ? m are also desirable. Homogeneous LnPO4 (La-Lu) and YPO4 crystals up to 5 mm in long dimension have been synthesized at 1 atm from a mixture of microcrystalline phosphate and (Li,Na) 2 CO3-MoO3 fluxes. Single-crystal structural refinements indicate that the run products possess the monazite (La-Gd) and xenotime (Tb-Lu, Y) structures. However, growth runs with M+2Th(PO4)2 or LaPO4-M+2Th(PO4)2 solid solutions (M+2 = Ca, Pb) yielded uncoarsened M+2ThMo oxide, or crystalline LaPO4 plus uncoarsened M+2ThMo oxide. In subsequent runs with microcrystalline LaPO4, PbTh(PO4)2, and La80Brb20 solid solution, a KF-K2MoO4 flux was employed. Synthesis runs with end-member phosphates yielded only coarsened La2O3, or coarsened ThO2 plus uncoarsened K-Pb-Th-Mo phosphate. However, the La80Brb20 synthesis yielded four homogeneous phases, each up to 6 mm in long dimension. These phases include LaPO4, LaK3 (PO4)2, a K-Ca-La oxyphosphate (K2O:P2O5 = 3:1, approximately K12Ca10La2(PO4)4O13), and a La-K-Th oxyphosphate (La2O3:P2O5 = 8:3, approximately La32K2Th(PO4)12O56). Theoretical yield ratio of the 4 phases (LaPO:KLaPO:KCaLaPO:LaKThPO) obtained from mass balance is 1.45:0.70:0.03:1.00, which is similar to modal estimates obtained from image analysis of the run products The last phase represents successful incorporation of Th in coarsely crystalline La-P matrix; ThO2 concentration in the La-K-Th oxyphosphate varies between 2.5 and 5.0 wt.%. However, this combination of starting composition, flux, and cooling rate (15 hr soak at 1270° C followed by 1270° C-870° C, 5° C/hr) did not produce a La-phosphate containing both M+2 and Th+4, the primary requirement (when M+2 = Pb) of a monazite chemical dating standard. The initial results suggest that coarsening of microcrystalline phosphate in a KF-K2MoO4 flux is optimized for a La50(M+2Th) 50 solid solution. This hypothesis will be tested for both La50(PbTh)50 and La50(CaTh)50 solid solutions, in conjunction with use of alternate fluxes and seeding of runs with crystalline LaPO4.

Pyle, J. M.; Cherniak, D. J.; Rakovan, J. F.

2004-05-01

419

Professional Communication through Journal Articles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews studies of journal articles as a means of professional communication in the field of library and information science. The focus has been on content analysis and bibliometrics, which includes author, topic, and citation analysis. (LAM)

Rochester, Maxine K.

1996-01-01

420

75 FR 17910 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...without change, including any personal identifiers or contact information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Miriam Brown-Lam (202) 685-6545. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Department of the Navy systems of records notices subject to the...

2010-04-08

421

75 FR 61618 - Privacy Act of 1974; Implementation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...without change, including any personal identifiers or contact information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Miriam Brown-Lam at (202) 685- 6545. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Executive Order 12866, ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' It has...

2010-10-06

422

Effect of Matrix Resin on the Impact Fracture Characteristics of Graphite-Epoxy Laminates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of resin chemistry on basic impact energy absorbent mechanisms exibited by graphite-epoxy composites was investigated. Impact fracture modes and microscopic resin deformation characteristics were examined for 26 NASA-impacted graphite epoxy lam...

P. E. Hertzberg B. W. Smith A. G. Miller

1982-01-01

423

Transitional Gas Jet Diffusion Flames in Microgravity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drop tower experiments were performed to identify buoyancy effects in transitional hydrogen gas jet diffusion flames. Quantitative rainbow schlieren deflectometry was utilized to optically visualize the flame and to measure oxygen concentration in the lam...

A. K. Agrawal K. Alammar S. R. Gollahalli

2000-01-01

424

Label-acquired magnetorotation as a signal transduction method for protein detection: aptamer-based detection of thrombin  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a new signal transduction method, called Label-Acquired Magnetorotation (LAM), for the measurement of proteins in solution. We demonstrate the use of LAM to detect the protein thrombin using aptamers, with an LOD (limit of detection) of 300 pM. LAM is modeled after a sandwich assay, with a 10 µm nonmagnetic “mother” sphere as the capture component, and with 1 µm magnetic “daughter” beads as the labels. The protein-mediated attachment of daughter beads to the mother sphere forms a rotating sandwich complex. In a rotating magnetic field, the rotational frequency of a sandwich complex scales with the number of attached magnetic beads, which scales with the concentration of the protein present in solution. This paper represents the first instance of the detection of a protein using LAM.

Hecht, Ariel; Akshay Kumar, Anand; Kopelman, Raoul

2011-01-01

425

Use of Chaos Metrics to Analyze Lagrangian Particle Diffusion Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chaos metrics are examined as a tool to analyze atmospheric three-dimensional dispersion models at the individual particle rather than the aggregate level. These include the self-affine fractal dimension, DA, Shannon entropy, S, and Lyapunov exponent, lam...

K. V. Jackson

1992-01-01

426

Gene Probe Detection of Pathogens in Sludge Amended Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilized to detect indicator organisms and pathogens in environmental samples. Primers from the lamB gene were used to detect fecal coliforms. Primers were also designed to detect enteroviruses in environmental samples....

I. L. Pepper C. P. Gerba

1993-01-01

427

A new approach to resolving climate-cryosphere relations: Downscaling climate dynamics to glacier-scale mass and energy balance without statistical scale linking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel combination of multiscale modeling systemsProcess-resolving mass balance model is successfully driven by direct LAM outputHigh-resolution atmospheric modeling should be pursued in cryospheric research

Thomas Mölg; Georg Kaser

2011-01-01

428

What Causes Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders?  

MedlinePLUS

... pleurisy include: Bacterial infections (such as pneumonia and tuberculosis) and infections from fungi or parasites Pulmonary embolism ( ... a pneumothorax include COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), tuberculosis, LAM, and cystic fibrosis . Surgery or a chest ...

429

Theoretical investigation of zero field splitting parameters for Mn 2+ centres in L-asparagine monohydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters D and E are calculated using the point-charge model (PCM) and superposition model (SPM) for Mn 2+ centre in L-asparagine monohydrate (LAM) single crystal. The calculated ZFS parameters obtained using these two models are compared with the experimental values for interstitial site of Mn 2+. The SPM and PCM give ZFS parameters similar to those of experimental ones. This supports the notion that the impurity ion occupies interstitial site in LAM.

Kripal, Ram; Pandey, Shri Devi

2011-08-01

430

St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire Has Longitudinal Construct Validity in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an uncommon, progressive, cystic lung disease that causes shortness of breath, hypoxemia, and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL). Whether St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), a respiratory-specific HRQL instrument, captures longitudinal changes in HRQL in patients with LAM is unknown. Methods: Using data from the Multicenter International Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Efficacy and Safety of Sirolimus trial, we performed analyses to examine associations between SGRQ scores and values for four external measures (anchors). Anchors included (1) FEV1, (2) diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, (3) distance walked during the 6-min walk test, and (4) serum vascular endothelial growth factor-D. Results: SGRQ scores correlated with the majority of anchor values at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Results from longitudinal analyses demonstrated that SGRQ change scores tracked changes over time in values for each of the four anchors. At 12 months, subjects with the greatest improvement from baseline in FEV1 experienced the greatest improvement in SGRQ scores (Symptoms domain, ?13.4 ± 14.6 points; Activity domain, ?6.46 ± 8.20 points; Impacts domain, ?6.25 ± 12.8 points; SGRQ total, ?7.53 ± 10.0 points). Plots of cumulative distribution functions further supported the longitudinal validity of the SGRQ in LAM. Conclusions: In LAM, SGRQ scores are associated with variables used to assess LAM severity. The SGRQ is sensitive to change in LAM severity, particularly when change is defined by FEV1, perhaps the most clinically relevant and prognostically important variable in LAM. The constellation of results here supports the validity of the SGRQ as capable of assessing longitudinal change in HRQL in LAM.

Lee, Hye-Seung; Cohen, Marsha; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Moss, Joel; Singer, Lianne G.; Young, Lisa R.; McCormack, Francis X.

2013-01-01

431

Osteoprotegerin contributes to the metastatic potential of cells with a dysfunctional TSC2 tumor-suppressor gene.  

PubMed

In addition to its effects on bone metabolism, osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble member of the tumor necrosis factor family of receptors, promotes smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration and may act as a survival factor for tumor cells. We hypothesized that these cellular mechanisms of OPG may be involved in the growth and proliferation of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) cells, abnormal smooth muscle-like cells with mutations in one of the tuberous sclerosis complex tumor-suppressor genes (TSC1/TSC2) that cause LAM, a multisystem disease characterized by cystic lung destruction, lymphatic infiltration, and abdominal tumors. Herein, we show that OPG stimulated proliferation of cells cultured from explanted LAM lungs, and selectively induced migration of LAM cells identified by the loss of heterozygosity for TSC2. Consistent with these observations, cells with TSC2 loss of heterozygosity expressed the OPG receptors, receptor activator of NF-?B ligand, syndecan-1, and syndecan-2. LAM lung nodules showed reactivities to antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, receptor activator of NF-?B ligand, syndecan-1, and syndecan-2. LAM lung nodules also produced OPG, as shown by expression of OPG mRNA and colocalization of reactivities to anti-OPG and anti-gp100 (HMB45) antibodies in LAM lung nodules. Serum OPG was significantly higher in LAM patients than in normal volunteers. Based on these data, it appears that OPG may have tumor-promoting roles in the pathogenesis of lymphangioleiomyomatosis, perhaps acting as both autocrine and paracrine factors. PMID:23867796

Steagall, Wendy K; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Glasgow, Connie G; Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Lin, Jing-Ping; Zheng, Gang; Moss, Joel

2013-09-01

432

Comparison of TIMS (UPb) and laser ablation microprobe ICP-MS (Pb) techniques for age determination of detrital zircons from Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks from northeastern Laurentia, Canada, with tectonic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ages of detrital zircon grains from four samples of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks from northeastern Laurentia, Canada, analysed by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) and laser-ablation microprobe inductively-coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS), are presented and the methods compared. The TIMS results are more precise (±0.1% of age) and in the case of concordant analyses more accurate than the LAM-ICP-MS analyses

David J. Scott; Gilles Gauthier

1996-01-01

433

Laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry for space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a miniature reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer for in situ planetary surface analysis. The laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) measures the elemental and isotopic composition of regolith materials without any sample preparation or high-voltage source extraction. The small size (<2×103 cm3) and low mass (~2 kg) of LAMS, due to its fully coaxial design and two-stage reflectron, satisfy the

W. B. Brinckerhoff; G. G. Managadze; R. W. McEntire; A. F. Cheng; W. J. Green

2000-01-01

434

Interlacing and asymptotic properties of Stieltjes polynomials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polynomial solutions to the generalized Lam\\\\'e equation, the \\\\textit{Stieltjes polynomials}, and the associated \\\\textit{Van Vleck polynomials} have been studied since the 1830's, beginning with Lam\\\\'e in his studies of the Laplace equation on an ellipsoid, and in an ever widening variety of applications since. In this paper we show how the zeros of Stieltjes polynomials are distributed and present two

A. Bourget; T. McMillen

2009-01-01

435

Choquet order for spectra of higher Lame operators and orthogonal polynomials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We establish a hierarchy of weighted majorization relations for the singularities of generalized Lam\\\\'e equations and the zeros of their Van Vleck and Heine-Stieltjes polynomials as well as for multiparameter spectral polynomials of higher Lam\\\\'e operators. These relations translate into natural dilation and subordination properties in the Choquet order for certain probability measures associated with the aforementioned polynomials. As a

Julius Borcea

2007-01-01

436

TerraneChron?: delivering a competitive edge in exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

erraneChron? is GEMOC's unique methodology for studying crustal evolution and evaluating the metallogenic potential of terranes. It is based on the integrated in situ analysis of zircons for U-Pb age, Hf-isotopic composition and trace-element composition using GEMOC's laser-ablation-microprobe (LAM) ICPMS, LAM-Multi-Collector (MC) ICPMS and electron microprobe (EMP). The method can be applied to zircons separated from single rocks or to

Suzanne Y. O'Reilly; W. L. Griffin; E. A. Belousova