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1

Beneficial effect of Berberis buxifolia Lam, Ziziphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba extracts on oxidative stress induced by chloramphenicol.  

PubMed

The chemiluminescence of luminol, a measure of oxidative stress, increased immediately as a consequence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulated by this antibiotic. The effect of Ch was dose dependent with maximum stimulus at 8 mg/ml (Vmax); above this concentration the cells began to reduce the production of ROS. The oxidative injury of Ch was counteracted by water extracts of Berberis buxifolia lam, Zizyphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba, indigenous fruits from Argentina. The relatively light units (RLU) emitted decreased immediately as a consequence of a protective effect exerted by the extracts of these fruit extracts on blood cells. The three indigenous fruit extracts reduced to a different extent the oxidative injury caused by Ch. B.buxifolia lam exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity followed by Z.mistol Griseb. Water extracts of both fruit extracts were the most effective against the oxidative stress, while P.alba presented better antioxidant capacity in the ethanolic fraction obtained. Hexane extracts showed low protective action on blood cells, with little reduction of area under curve (AUC) of RLU plotted versus time. Leukocytes remained viable in blood samples incubated for 3h with Ch and water extracts of B. buxifolia lam or Z. mistol Griseb (97.1% and 92.5% viability by Trypan blue exclusion, respectively); whereas with Ch only the cells were stressed and viability decreased to 30%. The three fruit extracts protected the viability of leukocytes in parallel with the decrease of ROS. Erythrocytes were not lysed in the presence of Ch. PMID:20228027

Albrecht, Claudia; Pellarin, Gabriela; Rojas, María José; Albesa, Inés; Eraso, Alberto F

2010-01-01

2

Two-stage culture for producing berberine by cell suspension and shoot cultures of Berberis buxifolia Lam.  

PubMed

In vitro cultures of Berberis buxifolia were established using thidiazuron (4.5, 23 and 45 mM) or picloram (4 and 40 mM) as plant growth regulators for sustaining growth. For producing berberine, a two-stage culture was performed. In the first step, thidiazuron or picloram were used for biomass production followed by the production stage where benzylaminopurine (4.4 mM) was added as a plant growth regulator. Berberine yields (102 mg g(-1) DW) and in vitro shoot cultures (200 mg g(-1) DW) were significantly lower than those of whole plants in the field (416 mg g(-1) DW). The highest productivity (0.18 mg 1(-1) day(-1)) was attained using picloram (either 4 on 40 mM) in the first stage for producing biomass. PMID:18979211

Alvarez, María A; Eraso, Natalia Fernandez; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra I; Marconi, Patricia L

2008-11-02

3

Cyclopeptide alkaloids from Scutia buxifolia Reiss.  

PubMed

Scutianene E (1), 3,4,28-tris-epi-scutiaene E (2), 28-epi-scutianene E (3) and scutianene L (4), four neutral cyclopeptide alkaloids, were isolated from Scutia buxifolia Reiss, together with four known cyclopeptide alkaloids, scutianines B, C, D and E. Scutianenes 1-3 are diastereoisomeric compounds, with 3-hydroxyleucine as a ?-hydroxy amino acid unit, which is connected to the styryl fragment via an ether bridge, ?-phenylserine, as a common ring-bonded amino acid residue. Attached to the amino group of ?-hydroxyamino acid is a side chain [trans-CH=CH-Ph]. The structures of the peptides were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis, including extensive 2D NMR studies. The stereochemistry for the diastereomeric 3,4,28-tris-epi-scutiaene E and 28-epi-scutianene E was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis of their O-acetyl derivatives. PMID:21420695

Maldaner, Graciela; Marangon, Patricia; Ilha, Vinicius; Caro, Miguel S Balparda; Burrow, Robert A; Dalcol, Ionara Irion; Morel, Ademir F

2011-03-21

4

LAM (Lymphangioleiomyomatosis)  

MedlinePLUS

... shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body. The inset image shows a cross-section of a healthy lung. Figure B shows a view of the lungs with LAM and a collapsed lung (pneumothorax). The inset image ... or AMLs, in their kidneys. Women who have LAM also may ...

5

Cyclopeptide alkaloids from Scutia buxifolia Reiss and their antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

The present study reports a cyclopeptide alkaloid, scutianine M, isolated from the methanolic root bark extract of Scutia buxifolia Reiss (Rhamnaceae) along with six known compounds, scutianines-B, -C, -D, -E, -F, and scutianene D. Its structure was established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including application of 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. As part of a study of the bioactive compounds of medicinal plants from southern Brazil, we also compared the antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds towards Gram (+), Gram (-) bacteria, and yeasts. PMID:16226284

Morel, Ademir F; Maldaner, Graciela; Ilha, Vinicius; Missau, Fabiana; Silva, Ubiratan F; Dalcol, Ionara I

2005-10-13

6

LAM/MPI  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

LAM/MPI is a high quality implementation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) Standard. LAM/MPI provides high performance on a variety of platforms, from small off-the-shelf single CPU clusters to large SMP machines with high speed networks, even in heterogenous environments. In addition to high performance, LAM provides a number of usability features key to developing large scale MPI applications.

Llamas, The

7

Some physical properties of sun-dried Berberis fruit ( Berberis crataegina )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to evaluate some physical properties of sun dried Berberis fruit as a function of moisture\\u000a content, varying from 9.59% to 27.90% (w.b.). Dried fruit length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter and sphericity,\\u000a increased nonlinearly from 7.19 to 7.53 mm; 3.42 to 4.03 mm; 2.78 to 3.02 mm; 4.05 to 4.51 mm and 0.56 to 0.62, respectively\\u000a with increased moisture

Nursel Develi I??kl?; ?lkay Y?lmaz

8

ANÁLISIS DE LAS COMUNIDADES DE MICROHONGOS DE LA HOJARASCA DE SCUTIA BUXIFOLIA (RHAMNACEAE) EN EL ESTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allegrucci, N., Cazau M. C., Cabello, M. N. & Arambarri, A. M. 2005. Analysis of microfungal communities on Scutia buxifolia (Rhamnaceae) leaf litter from eastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Darwiniana 43(1-4): 1-9. Decomposer saprotrophic mycobiota of leaf litter from woods of Scutia buxifolia (Coronillo) was analyzed in both disturbed and non disturbed areas, evaluating their seasonal variations. The relative frecuency

NATALIA ALLEGRUCCI; MARÍA CECILIA CAZAU; MARTA NOEMÍ CABELLO; ANGÉLICA MARGARITA ARAMBARRI

2005-01-01

9

ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF BERBERIS LYCEUM ROYLE IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Berberis lyceum is a medicinal shrub used in conventional therapy for a number of diseases including diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antihyperglycemic effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Berberis lyceum in alloxan induced diabetic and normal rats. Rats were administered 50 and 100 mg\\/kg of aqueous and ethanol root extracts and

Muhammad Gulfraz; Ghulam Qadir; Fatima Nosheen; Zahida Parveen

2007-01-01

10

Putative proteaceous elements of the Lomatites -type reinterpreted as new Berberis of the European Tertiary  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?A characteristic xeromorphic foliage occurring in the European Tertiary was originally identified as a Proteaceae according\\u000a to gross morphology, and compared with Grevillea L. and Lomatia L. (Grevillea kymeana Unger, Lomatites aquensis Saporta). On the basis of venation patterns and phyllotaxy, these elements are now reinterpreted as extinct species of Berberis L. (Berberidaceae): Berberis andreanszkyi spec. nov. occurring in the

Z. Kva?ek; B. Erdei

2001-01-01

11

Cytotoxic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Berberis aristata DC on Colon Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Natural products represent a reservoir of diverse templates and are being tapped to outsource novel anticancer agents. Berberis aristata DC (Fam: Berberidaceae) has been reported to be useful for the treatment of inflammation, cuts, wounds, eye and skin diseases, diarrhea, ulcers, cancers. In the present study, the methanolic extract of the stems of Berberis aristata, was investigated against

Saumya Das; Papiya Mitra Mazumder

2009-01-01

12

Phyto-chemical and pharmacological applications of Berberis aristata.  

PubMed

In the recent years, the interest and research in medicinal plants have increased in a great deal. Ayurvedic medicines and formulations developed from ancient Indian herbal systems are renowned for their various important applications. Berberis aristata - an Indian medicinal plant, which belongs to the family Berberidaceae is an ayurvedic herb used since ancient times. It is also known as Indian berberi, Daruharidra, Daruhaldi, Darvi and Chitra. The plant is useful as anti-pyretic, anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-lipidemic agent. B. aristata extracts and its formulations are also useful in the treatment of diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, gynaecological disorders, HIV-AIDS, osteoporosis, diabetes, eye and ear infections, wound healing, jaundice, skin diseases and malarial fever. This review aims to highlight the ethnobotany, pharmacognosy and pharmacological uses of B. aristata which will give insights in developing potentially new bioactives from the plant scaffolds. This review will also highlight the patenting trends, the new compositions developed using the actives from B. aristata and the different assignees involved in filing patents. PMID:22808523

Potdar, Dipti; Hirwani, R R; Dhulap, Sivakami

2012-07-01

13

Berbanine: a new isoquinoline-isoquinolone alkaloid from Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae).  

PubMed

A new isoquinoline-isoquinolone alkaloid was isolated from the root bark of Berberis vulgaris and named berbanine. The structure was established by spectroscopic methods (including 2D NMR, HR-EI-MS). PMID:23738447

Host'álková, Anna; Novák, Zdenek; Pour, Milan; Jirosová, Anna; Opletal, Lubomír; Kunes, Jirí; Cahliková, Lucie

2013-04-01

14

Staphylococcus aureus MDR efflux pump inhibitors from a Berberis and a Mahonia (sensu strictu) species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive fractionation, based on multi-drug resistance (MDR) pump inhibition in Staphylococcus aureus, resulted in the isolation of the active inhibitors 5?-methoxyhydnocarpin-D from leaves of Berberis (formerly Mahonia) trifoliolata and pheophorbide a from Berberis fendleri. The hydnocarpin derivative was not found in the latter species. Pheophytin a (the phytol derivative of pheophorbide a) was identified from both species, but it proved

Frank R. Stermitz; Teresa D. Beeson; Paul J. Mueller; Jen-Fang Hsiang; Kim Lewis

2001-01-01

15

Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum fixed combination on lipid profile and insulin secretion in dyslipidemic patients.  

PubMed

Background: Relatively large number of dietary supplements and nutraceuticals have been studied for their supposed or demonstrated ability to reduce cholesterolemia in humans. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy as antihypercholesterolemic and insulin-sensitizing agent of a combination of Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum extract (Berberol®) in a sample of dyslipidemic patients. A total of 102 dyslipidemic subjects were enrolled. After a 6 months run-in period of diet and physical activity, the patients were randomized to placebo or Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum extract 588 mg/105 mg, twice a day for 3 months. Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum and placebo were then interrupted for 2 months (washout period), and then restarted for further 3 months. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were assessed; moreover, all patients underwent a glucagon stimulation test. Results: Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol after 3 months from randomization and compared to placebo group. When Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum was interrupted, lipid profile worsened, and it improved again when nutraceutical combination was reintroduced. During the glucagon stimulation test, a higher increase of C-peptide levels and a lower increase in glycemia after the test with Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum compared to placebo, to baseline and to randomization were recorded. No patients had serious adverse events in both groups. Conclusion: Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum is effective and safe in improving lipid profile and insulin secretion in euglycemic dyslipidemic patients. PMID:23971720

Derosa, Giuseppe; Bonaventura, Aldo; Bianchi, Lucio; Romano, Davide; D'Angelo, Angela; Fogari, Elena; Maffioli, Pamela

2013-08-24

16

Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity, energy of activation and energy consumption during the thin-layer drying of berberis fruit (Berberidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberis is known as a medicinal and ornamental plant in the world. Berberis fruit is used in medicine to cure liver, neck and stomach cancer, blood purification and mouth scent. Dried berberis fruit using new technology was preserved for relatively long time. Thin-layer drying simulation was used to obtain experiment data, using laboratory scale hot-air dryer of the static tray.

Mortaza Aghbashlo; Mohammad H. kianmehr; Hadi Samimi-Akhijahani

2008-01-01

17

LAM actuated propellant flow control device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced design LAM (limited angle motor) positions an integral flow control element for bi-level flow control of storable propellants. The LAM incorporates permanent magnet latching to maintain the flow control element in either the low or high flow position without continuous electrical energization. The LAM stator and rotor are fully sheathed within stainless steel. This construction method permits the LAM to control storable propellants without using dynamic seals to isolate the LAM from the propellants. All welded construction prevents external leakage. The design concept selection rationale and the computer FEA (finite element analysis) methods employed to optimize design characteristics are presented. Correlations of analyses to test results are described.

Reinicke, Robert H.; Cust, Kevin M.

1992-02-01

18

Insect-mediated reproduction of systemic infections by Puccinia arrhenatheri on Berberis vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Witches' brooms on Berberis vulgaris are induced by a systemically infecting rust fungus, Puccinia arrhenatheri. These witches' brooms bear yellow discolored leaves on which the fungus exposes its gametes in a sugary nectar. During the spermatial stage of the fungus the infected leaves emit a strong, flowery scent. • An exclusion-experiment was used to evaluate whether fungal reproductive

Andreas Naef; Bitty A. Roy; Roman Kaiser; Rosmarie Honegger

2002-01-01

19

Mechanism of seedlessness in Iranian seedless barberry ( Berberis vulgaris L. var. asperma)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species of barberry (Berberis vulgaris L. var. asperma) is cultivated in arid and semi arid areas of Iran (South Khorasan province). It is widely used as a food additive. Fruits of this species are seedless, while wild type barberries produce seeds in the same area. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of seedlessness in seedless barberry by pollen viability

A. Ebadi; M. Rezaei; R. Fatahi

2010-01-01

20

An Improved LAM Feature Selection Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In text categorization, feature selection is an effective feature dimension-reduction methods. To solve the problems of unadaptable high original feature space dimension, too much irrelevance, data redundancy and difficulties in selecting a threshold, we propose an improved LAM feature selection algorithm (ILAMFS). Firstly, combining the gold segmentation and the LAM algorithm based on the characteristics and the category of the

Yong-gong Ren; Nan Lin; Yu-qi Sun

2010-01-01

21

Characterisation and preliminary bioactivity determination of Berberis boliviana Lechler fruit anthocyanins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberis boliviana Lechler is a member of the Berberidaceae family that has a small edible red-purple berry. The plant is native to the Peruvian Andes and contains high amounts of anthocyanin pigments. The monomeric anthocyanin content, determined by a pH-differential method, was 7\\/100g of seedless berries. Pigments were characterised by HPLC coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) and mass spectrophotometer

Carla Del Carpio Jiménez; Carlos Serrano Flores; Jian He; Quingguo Tian; Steven J. Schwartz; M. Mónica Giusti

2011-01-01

22

Effects of Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum association on metabolic parameters and adipocytokines in overweight dyslipidemic patients.  

PubMed

Nutraceuticals and functional foods have attracted considerable interest as potential alternative therapies for treatment of different cardiovascular disorders and insulin resistance. We evaluated the efficacy of a combination of Berberis Aristata/Silybum Marianum extract (Berberol®) in a sample of overweight, dyslipidemic patients at low cardiovascular risk. We enrolled 105 Caucasian, euglycemic, overweight, dyslipidemic patients, of either sex. At baseline all patients underwent a 6 months run-in period during which they followed an adequate diet and practiced physical activity. At the end of the run-in period, patients were randomised to take placebo or a combination of Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum, 1 tablet during the lunch and 1 tablet during the dinner, for three months, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum and placebo were then interrupted for 2 months (wash-out period), and all patients continued with only diet and physical activity. At the end of the wash-out period, patients re-started Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum or placebo twice a day for further 3 months. We evaluated during the run-in period, at randomisation, before and after the wash-out period these parameters: body weight and BMI, fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, insulin resistance, retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4), adiponectin (ADN), resistin. Total cholesterol, LDL-C, and Tg decreased, and HDL-C increase after 3 months of Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum, both compared to baseline and placebo. Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum decreased fasting plasma insulin, and HOMA-IR, both compared to baseline and to placebo. Moreover, there was a decrease of RBP-4, and resistin, and an increase of ADN after 3 months of Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum. All these positive effects disappeared after the wash-out period, and re-appeared after the re-introduction of the drug. We observed a significant correlation between HOMA-index decrease and resistin, and RBP-4 decrease, and between HOMA-index decrease and ADN increase in Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum group, but not in placebo group. Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum fixed combination seems to be safe and effective in improving lipid profile, but also in improving insulin resistance and adipocytokines levels. PMID:24152839

Derosa, G; Bonaventura, A; Bianchi, L; Romano, D; D' Angelo, A; Fogari, E; Maffioli, P

23

Influence of Environmental Factors on Production of Berberine Content in Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC in Kumaun West Himalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberis asiatica samples collected from nine altitudes of Kumaun Himalaya, India were analyzed for berberine concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. Correlation between berberine concentration, size class, and season were established. The root and stem bark samples from lower altitude, having larger size class, contained more berberine. Berberine concentration was the highest in summer and lowest in the rainy season. Low

Harish C. Andola; Kailash S. Gaira; Ranbeer S. Rawal; Mohan S. M. Rawat; Indra D. Bhatt

2011-01-01

24

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): Molecular insights lead to targeted therapies  

PubMed Central

Summary LAM is a rare lung disease, found primarily in women of childbearing age, characterized by cystic lung destruction and abdominal tumors (e.g., renal angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyoma). The disease results from proliferation of a neoplastic cell, termed the LAM cell, which has mutations in either of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1 or TSC2 genes. Molecular phenotyping of LAM patients resulted in the identification of therapeutic targets for drug trials. Loss of TSC gene function leads to activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and thereby, effects on cell size and number. The involvement of mTOR in LAM pathogenesis is the basis for initiation of therapeutic trials of mTOR inhibitors (e.g., sirolimus). Occurrence of LAM essentially entirely in women is consistent with the hypothesis that anti-estrogen agents might prevent disease progression (e.g., gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues). Levels of urinary matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were elevated in LAM patients, and MMPs were found in LAM lung nodules. In part because of these observations, effects of doxycycline, an anti-MMP, and anti-angiogenic agent, are under investigation. The metastatic properties of LAM cells offer additional potential for targets. Thus, insights into the molecular and biological properties of LAM cells and molecular phenotyping of patients with LAM have led to clinical trials of targeted therapies. Funded by the Intramural Research Program, NIH/NHLBI

Glasgow, Connie G.; Steagall, Wendy K.; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Cai, Xiong; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Moses, Marsha; Darling, Thomas; Moss, Joel

2011-01-01

25

Co 2 assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence in green versus red Berberis thunbergii leaves measured with different quality irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis, photorespiration, and chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence in green and red Berberis thunbergii leaves were studied with two different measuring radiations, red (RR) and “white” (WR). The photosynthetic and photorespiration\\u000a rates responded differently to the different radiation qualities, which indicate that the carboxylase and oxygenase activities\\u000a of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (RuBPCO) were affected. Differences in photosynthetic rate between the\\u000a two color leaves

P.-M. Li; L. Cheng; T. Peng; H.-Y. Gao

2009-01-01

26

Development of ITS sequence-based markers to distinguish Berberis aristata DC. from B. lycium Royle and B. asiatica Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stems of Berberis aristata DC. (Berberidaceae) are used in the South Asian traditional medicine as a key ingredient in formulations for eye care, skin\\u000a diseases, jaundice, rheumatism and also in diabetes. B. lycium Royle and B. asiatica Roxb. are traded as equivalents of B. aristata. Conventional macro-morphology and microscopic examination does not aid in critically distinguishing the three species.

Subramani Paranthaman Balasubramani; Gurinder Singh Goraya; Padma Venkatasubramanian

27

An antitumor promoter from Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of studies on the isolation of bioactive compounds from Philippine plants, the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. were examined and from the ethanol extract were isolated the new O-ethyl-4-(?-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl carbamate (1) together with seven known compounds, 4(?-l-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2), niazimicin (3), niazirin (4), ?-sitosterol (5), glycerol-1-(9-octadecanoate) (6), 3-O-(6?-O-oleoyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)-?-sitosterol (7), and ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (8). Four of the isolates (2,

Amelia P. Guevara; Carolyn Vargas; Hiromu Sakurai; Yasuhiro Fujiwara; Keiji Hashimoto; Takashi Maoka; Mutzuo Kozuka; Yoshohiro Ito; Harukuni Tokuda; Hoyoku Nishino

1999-01-01

28

Comparative fungal responses in managed plant communities infested by spotted ( Centaurea maculosa Lam.) and diffuse ( C. diffusa Lam.) knapweed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) and diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.) infested plant communities that are being studied for improved management practices to enhance native perennial grass species were evaluated for selected fungal responses during 2000–2003. Replicated plots were treated using combinations of carbohydrate addition to reduce soil N availability, reseeding with desirable mid- and late-seral plant species, and reintroducing

Donald A. Klein; Mark W. Paschke; Tamara L. Heskett

2006-01-01

29

Voltammetric determination of antioxidant character in Berberis lycium Royel, Zanthoxylum armatum and Morus nigra Linn plants.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity potential of three different plant extracts was investigated against superoxide anion radical while employing cyclic voltammetry technique. The plants Berberis lyceum Royle, Morus nigra Linn and Zanthoxylum armatum were selected because of their potential use in the traditional medicine. The voltammetric response of the electrochemically generated superoxide anion radial in DMSO was monitored in the absence and presence of the plat extracts. The decrease in the current was interpreted in terms of antiradical activity of the added extract. The thermodynamic feasibility of the radical scavenging by extracts was accounted in terms of antioxidant activity coefficient (K(ao)) and standard Gibbs free energy (?G(o)). The values of K(ao) and ?G(o) ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 57 x 102 L(-1) and -18 to -27 kJmol(-1), respectively. The possible mechanism of the antioxidant reaction was regarded as E(r)C(i) mechanism i.e. reversible electron transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer- an irreversible chemical reaction. PMID:22713934

Ahmed, Safeer; Shakeel, Faria

2012-07-01

30

Algebraic Solutions of the Lam´ e Equation, Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

A minor error in the necessary conditions for the algebraic form of the Lam´ e equation to have a finite projective monodromy group, and hence for it to have only algebraic solutions, is pointed out. (See F. Baldassarri, \\

Robert S. Maier

2002-01-01

31

The therapeutic potential of Berberis darwinii stem-bark: quantification of berberine and in vitro evidence for Alzheimer's disease therapy.  

PubMed

Berberis darwinii is native to South America but has been widely distributed in Europe and other continents following its discovery by Charles Darwin. Herewith, the therapeutic potential of stem-bark of the plant for treating Alzheimer's disease was studied using an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay. It was found that the methanolic extract of the stem-bark was a potent inhibitor of the enzyme with an IC50 value of 1.23 +/- 0.05 microg/mL. An HPLC-based berberine quantification study revealed an astonishing 38% yield of the dried methanolic extract. PMID:21922905

Habtemariam, Solomon

2011-08-01

32

User-level checkpoint and recovery for LAM\\/MPI  

Microsoft Academic Search

As high-performance clusters continue to grow in size and popularity, issues of fault tolerance and reliability are becoming limiting factors on application scalability. We integrated one user-level checkpointing and rollback recovery (CRR) library to LAM\\/MPI, a high performance implementation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI), to improve its availability. Compared with the current CRR implementation of LAM\\/MPI, our work supports

Youhui Zhang; Dongsheng Wong; Weimin Zheng

2005-01-01

33

Legitimate seed dispersal by lizards in an alpine habitat: The case of Berberis empetrifolia (Berberidaceae) dispersed by Liolaemus belii (Tropiduridae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we determined the effect of seed passage through Liolaemus bellii lizard digestive tracts on germination of fleshy-fruited Andean shrub species Berberis empetrifolia (Berberidaceae), and evaluated the effect of this passage on seed coat characteristics. In addition, we assessed the spatial patterns of fecal deposition by lizards onto various microhabitats available in the Andean environments of central Chile. The germination rate and the final percentage of lizard-ingested B. empetrifolia seeds was greater than control seeds. Comparing photographs and seed coat histological cuts, we suggest that the cutine wax present on seed coats from lizard-ingested seeds was probably removed by abrasion inside the lizards' digestive tract. Sixty-two percent of the lizard's feces was deposited on bare soil near rocks commonly inhabited by lizards. However, this microhabitat represents only 29% of the available ground cover at the study site. By enhancing seed germination and depositing seeds onto potential safe sites for recruitment, the lizard Liolaemus bellii is acting, at least qualitatively, as an effective disperser of Berberis empetrifolia.

Celedón-Neghme, Constanza; San Martin, Leonardo A.; Victoriano, Pedro F.; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

2008-05-01

34

Development of ITS sequence-based markers to distinguish Berberis aristata DC. from B. lycium Royle and B. asiatica Roxb.  

PubMed

The stems of Berberis aristata DC. (Berberidaceae) are used in the South Asian traditional medicine as a key ingredient in formulations for eye care, skin diseases, jaundice, rheumatism and also in diabetes. B. lycium Royle and B. asiatica Roxb. are traded as equivalents of B. aristata. Conventional macro-morphology and microscopic examination does not aid in critically distinguishing the three species. DNA markers were developed by amplifying and sequencing the complete internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS2) from the genomic DNA, using universal primers. The markers developed are efficient and reliable in authenticating B. aristata, B. asiatica and B. lycium. These are useful as molecular pharmacognostic tool in quality control of raw drugs. PMID:22558531

Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Goraya, Gurinder Singh; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

2011-01-18

35

Immunological relatedness of the LamB proteins among members of Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed

We have studied the immunological relatedness of LamB proteins from a wide range of enterobacterial species, using antibodies directed against denatured Escherichia coli K12 and Klebsiella pneumoniae LamB proteins (LamBE.c. and LamBK.p., respectively), and anti-peptide antibodies directed against 10 distinct loops of LamB from E. coli K12 predicted to protrude either side of the outer membrane. We have shown that a protein immunologically related to LamBE.c. and LamBK.p. was present in all members of Enterobacteriaceae tested. A protein recognized by several anti-peptide antibodies was identified in E. coli, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium and Kleb. pneumoniae, as well as in two Citrobacter species, two Enterobacter species and Kluyvera ascorbata. The recognition patterns obtained with the anti-peptide antibodies were in agreement with the LamB protein sequence data available. They indicated that the cell surface and also the periplasmic loops of LamB are subject to great antigenic variability. PMID:8515243

Werts, C; O'Callaghan, D; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

1993-04-01

36

Mutations that alter the transport function of the LamB protein in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Some Escherichia coli K-12 lamB mutants, those producing reduced amounts of LamB protein (one-tenth the wild type amount), grow normally on dextrins but transport maltose when present at a concentration of 1 microM at about one-tenth the normal rate. lamB Dex- mutants were found as derivatives of these strains. These Dex- mutants are considerably impaired in the transport of maltose at low concentrations (below 10 microM), and they have a structurally altered LamB protein which is impaired in its interaction with phages lambda and K10 but still interacts with a lambda host range mutant lambda hh*. The Dex- mutants are double lamB mutants carrying one mutation, already present in the parental strains, that reduces LamB synthesis and a second that alters LamB structure. The secondary mutations, present in different independent Dex- mutants, are clustered in the same region of the lamB gene. Dex+ revertants were isolated and analyzed: when the altered LamB protein is made in wild-type amount, due to a reversion of the first mutation, the phenotype reverts to Dex+. However, these Dex+ revertants are still very significantly impaired in maltose transport at low concentrations (below 10 microM). Images

Wandersman, C; Schwartz, M

1982-01-01

37

Stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB, an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

We have directly measured the stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB. Scatchard plots and computer fitting of flow dialysis (rate-of-dialysis) experiments clearly establish three independent binding sites per LamB trimer, with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 microM for maltoheptaose. The current model for LamB's function as a specific pore is discussed with respect to the symmetry in LamB's kinetic properties and the implications of our results. Images

Gehring, K; Cheng, C H; Nikaido, H; Jap, B K

1991-01-01

38

Study of Load Alleviation and Mode Suppression (Lams) on the YF-12A Airplane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potentials and capability for implementing a LAMS (load alleviation and mode suppression) system on the YF-12A for the purpose of flight research were evaluated. The nature of the research is to minimize the design risk in application of LAMS to futur...

L. D. Edinger F. L. Chenk A. R. Curtis

1972-01-01

39

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oil from Lam Bank  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss the crude oil from a new offshore field called the Lam Bank in the Caspian Sea. A segregated commercial crude was distilled and the distillation data is shown. In order to determine the content of n-paraffins, the naphthenic-paraffinic part of the narrow cuts was subjected to adsorptive separation on CaA zeolite. Owing to the high contents of naphthenic and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons and the low content of aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate part, this crude can be used to produce high-quality fuels and oils by the use of the dewaxing processes.

Samedova, F.I.; Agaeva, R.M.; Alieva, F.Z.; Valiev, M.A.

1987-07-01

40

[In vitro effects of Fagaro xanthoxyloïdes Lam. on drepanocytic erythrocytes].  

PubMed

Study of the effect of acquious extract of Fagara xanthoxyloids Lam on the red blood corpuscles of 17 drepanocytics (SS) and 3 carriers of the trait (AS) showed drepanocyte reversibility with a residual level of 7%, an increase in the haemoglobin jellification time to 25 mn. 15 sec. (as compared to 9 mn. 57 sec.) and a shortening of red corpuscle filtration time from the normal 24.65 sec. to 9.6 sec. In a way as yet not understood, Fagara, like pentoxiphyllin, improves the rheological properties of drepanocytary blood. PMID:2131190

Thiam, D; Bako, R; Seck Fall, K; Diakhate, L

1990-01-01

41

[Relationships between grazing-path and Berberis aggregate population characteristics in upper reaches of Minjiang River, Southwest China].  

PubMed

Taking the Berberis aggregate shrubs in the ecotone of dry valley and montane forests in upper reaches of Minjiang River as study objects, and by the methods of tracking grazing and field survey, this paper studied the characteristics of habitat utilization by livestock and the features of grazing-path. The major factors affecting the features of grazing-path were screened by redundancy analysis (RDA), and the relationships of the grazing-path features with the coverage, size class, and distribution pattern of the shrubs were analyzed. It was shown that the distribution pattern of the grazing-path could intuitively reflect the characteristics of the habitat utilization by livestock, being in accordance with the results of tracking grazing. The Morisita index at 5 m scale could objectively reflect the distribution type of the grazing-path. Sample plots 1, 2 and 6 presented a contagious distribution of grazing-path, while the other plots showed regular distribution. In slope scale, the coverage and height of the shrubs were the notable affecting factors, which had negative correlations with the grazing-path features. There was a significant negative correlation between the coverage of B. aggregate population and the area of grazing-path. The population structure of B. aggregate had a close correlation with the distribution of grazing-path. The ratio of the long axis to short axis of the shrubs was averagely 1.29, and the shape of the shrubs approached to round. It was considered that the grazing-path landscape and the livestock on the grazing-paths had the function of reconstructing the shape of the shrubs. The directionality of the population pattern of B. aggregate was generally in line with the distribution type of grazing-path, but actually, they were opposite in distribution. The patches of the shrubs were in aggregated or uniform distribution in the areas deviated from the grazing-path. PMID:23717991

Liu, Jin-Xin; Gong, Yuan-Bo; Zheng, Jiang-Kun; Zhang, Xing-Hua; Jiang, Guang-Zheng; Yue, Yan-Jie; Zuo, Qin; Liu, Mu

2013-01-01

42

Berberis vulgaris root extract alleviates the adverse effects of heat stress via modulating hepatic nuclear transcription factors in quails.  

PubMed

To evaluate the action mode of Berberis vulgaris root extract in the alleviation of oxidative stress, female Japanese quails (n 180, aged 5 weeks) were reared, either at 22°C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or 34°C for 8 h/d (heat stress, HS), and fed one of three diets: diets containing 0, 100 or 200 mg of B. vulgaris root extract per kg for 12 weeks. Exposure to HS depressed feed intake by 8·5% and egg production by 12·1%, increased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level by 98·0% and decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities by 23·5, 35·4 and 55·7%, respectively (P<0·001 for all). There were also aggravations in expressions of hepatic NF-?B and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) by 42 and 43%, respectively and suppressions in expressions of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and haeme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) by 57 and 61%, respectively, in heat-stressed quails (P<0·001 for all). As supplemental B. vulgaris extract increased, there were linear increases in performance parameters, activities of antioxidant enzymes and hepatic Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions (P<0·001 for all) and linear decreases in hepatic MDA level and NF-?B and HSP70 expressions at a greater extent in quails reared under TN condition and those reared under HS condition. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of B. vulgaris root extract to quails reduces the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation resulting from HS via activating the host defence system at the cellular level. PMID:23312115

Sahin, Kazim; Orhan, Cemal; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Borawska, Maria H; Jab?onski, Jakub; Guler, Osman; Sahin, Nurhan; Hayirli, Armagan

2013-01-14

43

Construction and first characterization of two reciprocal hybrids between LamB from Escherichia coli K12 and Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

The LamB proteins from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli K12 were previously shown to be highly homologous. The most conserved parts correspond to the N-proximal third and to the transmembranous portions of the molecule, while the variability occurred essentially within regions exposed to the cell surface or to the periplasm. Since the two proteins displayed identical in vitro trimer stability and in vivo pore properties, we tested whether the N-terminal parts of the two proteins could be exchanged and still allow the formation of stable and functional maltoporins. For that purpose, we expressed the LamB protein from K. pneumoniae in E. coli K12, and constructed two reciprocal hybrids between LamB from E. coli K12 and LamB from K. pneumoniae. The first hybrid (LamBE.c.-K.p.) is composed of residues 1 to 183 from LamBE.c. followed by residues 184 to 404 from LamBK.p. The second one comprises residues 1 to 183 from LamBK.p., followed by residues 184 to 421 from LamBE.c. (LamBK.p.-E.c.). Both hybrid proteins were correctly incorporated in the outer membrane of E. coli K12. Like the two parental LamB proteins, the two hybrids could be purified by affinity chromatography on a starch-sepharose column. The LamBE.c.-K.p. hybrid formed highly stable trimers, but was strongly impaired in its in vivo maltose transport function (15% of the wild-type level). The trimers formed by LamBK.p.-E.c. hybrid were less stable, but could be detected on the surface of intact cells by four anti-LamBE.c. monoclonal antibodies. This hybrid was also affected in its in vivo maltose transport function (30% of the wild-type level). As expected from the location of the residues critical for phage adsorption, both proteins had lost the phage receptor activity of the E. coli K12 LamB protein. We also examined whether LamBE.c. could form heterotrimers with LamBK.p., LamBK.p.-E.c., and LamBE.c.-K.p. In no case were heterotrimers detected, indicating that both terminal parts of the LamB protein are involved in homotrimer formation. All these data suggest that trimer formation and activity involve rare variable residues in the conserved regions and/or variable regions. PMID:7504315

Werts, C; Charbit, A

1993-05-01

44

75 FR 76952 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer Fabrication Equipment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer Fabrication Equipment) Fremont, Newark, and Livermore, CA Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C....

2010-12-10

45

[Identification of a confused species of Euphorbia hirta L. E. indica Lam].  

PubMed

The article reported the morphological and histological identification for Euporbia hirta L. and its confused species E. indica Lam.. It provided evidences for identifying Euphorbia hirta L.. PMID:11341025

Chu, X; Cao, L; Yuan, C

2001-01-01

46

Secretion of LamB-LacZ by the signal recognition particle pathway of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

LamB-LacZ fusion proteins have classically been used in studies of the general secretion pathway of Escherichia coli. Here we describe how increasing signal sequence hydrophobicity routes LamB-LacZ Hyb42-1 to the signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway. Secretion of this hydrophobic fusion variant (H*LamB-LacZ) was reduced in the absence of fully functional Ffh and Ffs, and the translocator jamming caused by Hyb42-1 was prevented by efficient delivery of the fusion to the periplasm. Finally, we found that in the absence of the ribosome-associated chaperone, trigger factor (Tig), LamB-LacZ localized to the periplasm in a SecA-dependent, SRP-independent fashion. Collectively, our results provide compelling in vivo evidence that there is an SRP-dependent cotranslational targeting mechanism in E. coli and argue against a role for trigger factor in pathway discrimination. PMID:13129940

Bowers, Christina Wilson; Lau, Fion; Silhavy, Thomas J

2003-10-01

47

Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) Diversity in Bangladesh: Land Use and Artificial Selection 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jackfruit (\\u000a Artocarpus heterophyllus\\u000a Lam.) Diversity in Bangladesh: Land Use and Artificial Selection. Bangladesh is often recognized as a secondary center of diversity for jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) and is expected to harbor important genetic diversity of this underutilized tree crop. Unfortunately, genetic erosion\\u000a is occurring before this rich local resource has been documented and utilized for potential crop improvement.

Ruby Khan; Nyree Zerega; Salma Hossain; M. I. Zuberi

2010-01-01

48

Mycobacterium tuberculosis ManLAM inhibits T-cell-receptor signaling by interference with ZAP-70, Lck and LAT phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Immune evasion is required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to survive in the face of robust CD4+ T cell responses. We have shown previously that M. tuberculosis cell wall glycolipids, including mannose capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), directly inhibit polyclonal murine CD4+ T cell activation by blocking ZAP-70 phosphorylation. We extended these studies to antigen-specific murine CD4+ T cells and primary human T cells and found that ManLAM inhibited them as well. Lck and LAT phosphorylation also were inhibited by ManLAM without affecting their localization to lipid rafts. Inhibition of proximal TCR signaling was temperature sensitive, suggesting that ManLAM insertion into T cell membranes was required. Thus, M. tuberculosis ManLAM inhibits antigen-specific CD4+ T cell activation by interfering with very early events in TCR signaling through ManLAM's insertion in T cell membranes.

Mahon, Robert N.; Sande, Obondo J.; Rojas, Roxana E.; Levine, Alan D.; Harding, Clifford V.; Boom, W. Henry

2012-01-01

49

Isolation of different bacteriophages using the LamB protein for adsorption on Escherichia coli K-12.  

PubMed Central

Ten phages which use the LamB protein for adsorption have been isolated from sewage waters. Nine have a shape similar to lambda and require only the LamB protein for adsorption. One has a shape similar to T phages and can use either the LamB or the OmpC protein. Preliminary characterization by a number of criteria showed that at least nine of these phages were different and also differed from other known phages which use the LamB protein, such as lambda, 21, and K10. Images

Charbit, A; Hofnung, M

1985-01-01

50

Heterologous expression of two FAD-dependent oxidases with (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase activity from Arge mone mexicana and Berberis wilsoniae in insect cells.  

PubMed

Berberine, palmatine and dehydrocoreximine are end products of protoberberine biosynthesis. These quaternary protoberberines are elicitor inducible and, like other phytoalexins, are highly oxidized. The oxidative potential of these compounds is derived from a diverse array of biosynthetic steps involving hydroxylation, intra-molecular C-C coupling, methylenedioxy bridge formation and a dehydrogenation reaction as the final step in the biosynthesis. For the berberine biosynthetic pathway, the identification of the dehydrogenase gene is the last remaining uncharacterized step in the elucidation of the biosynthesis at the gene level. An enzyme able to catalyze these reactions, (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase (STOX, EC 1.3.3.8), was originally purified in the 1980s from suspension cells of Berberis wilsoniae and identified as a flavoprotein (Amann et al. 1984). We report enzymatic activity from recombinant STOX expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells. The coding sequence was derived successively from peptide sequences of purified STOX protein. Furthermore, a recombinant oxidase with protoberberine dehydrogenase activity was obtained from a cDNA library of Argemone mexicana, a traditional medicinal plant that contains protoberberine alkaloids. The relationship of the two enzymes is discussed regarding their enzymatic activity, phylogeny and the alkaloid occurrence in the plants. Potential substrate binding and STOX-specific amino acid residues were identified based on sequence analysis and homology modeling. PMID:21327819

Gesell, Andreas; Chávez, Maria Luisa Díaz; Kramell, Robert; Piotrowski, Markus; Macheroux, Peter; Kutchan, Toni M

2011-02-15

51

Effect of berberine and Berberis aetnensis C. Presl. alkaloid extract on glutamate-evoked tissue transglutaminase up-regulation in astroglial cell cultures.  

PubMed

Berberis aetnensis C. Presl. is a bushy-spiny shrub common on Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy), containing various alkaloids with several pharmacological properties. This study assessed the effect of berberine and of the alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis roots on the glutamate-evoked tissue transglutaminase (TG2) up-regulation in rat astrocyte primary cultures, used as an in vitro model of excitotoxicity. The findings show that the alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis roots consists mainly of berberine. Furthermore, berberine and the alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis roots were able to restore the oxidative status modified by glutamate and the levels of TG2 to control values. It was found that berberine or the alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis roots are able to ameliorate the excessive production of glutamate, protein misfolding and aggregation, mitochondrial fragmentation, and neurodegeneration. Thus, it is suggested that berberine and the alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis roots, may represent a natural therapeutic strategy in the neuropathological conditions associated with excitotoxicity. PMID:21086546

Campisi, Agata; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Raciti, Giuseppina; Vanella, Angelo; De Pasquale, Rita; Puglisi, Salvatore; Iauk, Liliana

2010-11-17

52

[Determination of ten metal elements in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam by microwave digestion-FAAS].  

PubMed

Comprehensive utilization of traditional Uighur medicine has been increasingly emphasized, and the relationship between metal elements and traditional Uighur medicine has attracted great attention, so it is quite important to determine the contents of traditional Uighur medicine. The Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam powder was digested with HNO3 by microwave digestion before determination. Ten metal elements in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam were determined by FAAS. The work conditions, accuracy and precision of the method were studied. The linear correlations of standard curves are good (r = 0.999 0-0.999 8). The recovery (n = 6) is 95%-108%, and the RSD(n = 6) is 0.45%-1.53%. The results showed that there were comparatively rich metal elements, among which are comparatively high calcium, magnesium and potassium in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. The method offers traits of low detection limit, high sensitivity, speediness and exactness, and wasapplied to the determination of metal elements in samples with satisfactory results. It provided useful data for discussing the relationship between the content of the metal elements in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam and clinical application of the Uighur medicine. PMID:19798990

Tian, Shu-Ge; Zhou, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Tun-Hai; Ding, Jian-Bing; Shan, Li-Juan; Shi, Yang

2009-07-01

53

Stochasticity in the Expression of LamB and its Affect on ? phage Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

? phage binds to E. Coli's lamB protein and injects its DNA into the cell. The phage quickly replicates and after a latent period the bacteria bursts, emitting mature phages. We developed a mathematical model based on the known physical events that occur when a ? phage infects an E.Coli cell. The results of these models predict that the bacteria and phage populations become extinct unless the parameters of the model are very finely tuned, which is untrue in the nature. The lamB protein is part of the maltose regulon and can be repressed to minimal levels when grown in the absence of inducer. Therefore, a cell that is not expressing any lamB protein at that moment is resistant against phage infection. We studied the dynamic relationship between ? phage and E. Coli when the concentration of phage greatly outnumbers the concentration of bacteria. We study how the stochasticity of the expression of lamB affects the percentage of cells that the ? phage infects. We show that even in the case when the maltose regulon is fully induced a percentage of cells continue to persist against phage infection.

Chapman, Emily; Wu, Xiao-Lun

2006-03-01

54

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects in extracts of the medicinal herb Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. (\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. (Compositae) is a medicinal herb used in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Paraguay for its choleret- ic, antispasmodic and hepatoprotective properties. The presence of the flavonoid quercetin and its derivatives, and of different phenolic acids such as caffeic, chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids in the aerial parts of this plant has led us to study the antioxidant activity

C. Desmarchelier; J. Coussio; G. Ciccia

1998-01-01

55

Rapid and Reliable Method of Extracting DNA and RNA from Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L). Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quick, simple and reliable method of extracting DNA from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) has been developed. The method was applied successfully for extraction of total DNA from leaves and total RNA from leaves and various tissues. The yield of DNA extracted by this procedure was high (about 1 mg\\/g leaf tissue). The extracted DNA was completely digested by restriction

Sun-Hyung Kim; Tatsuro Hamada

2005-01-01

56

Influence of growth phase on the essential oil composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ziziphora clinopodioides belongs to the Lamiaceae family, that are widespread all over Iran. The leaves, flowers and stems of the plant are frequently used as wild vegetables or additives in food to offer aroma and flavour. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of Z. clinopodioides Lam. in different growth stages were analysed by GC

Hamzeh Amiri

2009-01-01

57

New ?-glucosides of caffeoyl quinic acid from the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.  

PubMed

Two new caffeoyl quinic acid ?-glucosides, together with three known caffeoyl quinic acids and five known flavonoid glucosides, were isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 4-O-(4'-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (1) and 4-O-(3'-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (2) by spectroscopic analyses. PMID:21748486

Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Ahmed, Fakhruddin Ali; Kurimoto, Shin-ichiro; Kim, Sang-Yong; Shibata, Hirofumi; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Takaishi, Yoshihisa

2011-07-05

58

Removal of cadmium from aqueous system by shelled Moringa oleifera Lam. seed powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores the unexploited sorption properties of the plant Moringa oleifera Lam. for decontamination of Cd at laboratory scale. Sorption studies using standard practices were carried out in batch experiments as functions of biomass dosage, contact time, metal concentrations, particle size and pH. Percentage sorption in each case was computed on the basis of Cd estimation using a

Parul Sharma; Pushpa Kumari; M. M. Srivastava; Shalini Srivastava

2006-01-01

59

Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. root-wood on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae)) is commonly used as a phytotherapeutic agent. The effect of oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood on calcium oxalate urolithiasis has been studied in male Wistar albino rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. Supplementation with aqueous and

Ravindra V. Karadi; Navneet B. Gadge; K. R. Alagawadi; Rudraprabhu V. Savadi

2006-01-01

60

Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated

Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen

2007-01-01

61

Chemical characterization, antioxidant properties, and volatile constituents of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) cultivated in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is a native fruit of the Andes, cultivated and consumed mainly in Ecuador, Colombia, and Central America. Because of its pleasant aroma and attractive color, it has high potential as an ingredient of products such as juices, nectars, and jams. The main characteristics of mature naranjilla fruits cultivated in Costa Rica were assessed, including sugar

Óscar Acosta; Ana M. Pérez; Fabrice Vaillant

2009-01-01

62

A model of maltodextrin transport through the sugar-specific porin, LamB, based on deletion analysis.  

PubMed

LamB facilitates the uptake of maltose and maltodextrins across the bacterial outer membrane and acts as a general porin for small molecules. Using directed deletion mutagenesis we removed several regions of the LamB polypeptide and identified a polypeptide loop that both constricts the maltoporin channel and binds maltodextrins. In conjunction with a second sugar binding site that we identified at the rim of the channel, these data clarify, for the first time, the mechanism of transport through a substrate-specific porin. Furthermore, unlike the transverse loops of general porins, which originate from a central location in their primary structure, the loop that regulates LamB permeability originates from a C-terminal site. Thus LamB represents a second distinct class of porins in the bacterial outer membrane that is differently organized and separately evolved from OmpF-type, general porins. PMID:7925308

Klebba, P E; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

1994-10-01

63

Bionic lightweight design by laser additive manufacturing (LAM) for aircraft industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today many challenges lie ahead of the aircraft industry. The increasing competition and shortage of resources raise a challenge for future manufacturing technologies and lightweight design. A possibility to cope with these circumstances is the manufacturing technology of Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM). However there are still challenges to cope with due to the processes novelty, such as the development of further materials, especially lightweight alloys, and new design approaches. Therefore innovative approaches for material development and lightweight design were created in order to fully exploit the processes potentials. The material development process is based on an analytical calculation of temperature distribution versus effective process factors in order to identify acceptable operating conditions for the LAM process. A novel approach to extreme lightweight design was realized by incorporating structural optimization tools and bionic structures into one design process. By consequently following these design principles, designers can achieve lightweight savings in designing new aircraft structure and push lightweight design to new limits.

Emmelmann, Claus; Petersen, Maren; Kranz, Jannis; Wycisk, Eric

2011-04-01

64

Microstructural and Mechanical Property Characterization of Laser Additive Manufactured (LAM) Rhenium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report will review the mechanical and microstructural properties of the refractory element rhenium (Re) deposited using Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM). With useable structural strength over 2200 °C, existing applications up to 2760 °C, very high strength, ductility and chemical resistance, interest in Re is understandable. This study includes data about tensile properties including tensile data up to 1925 °C, fracture modes, fatigue and microstructure including deformation systems and potential applications of that information. The bulk mechanical test data will be correlated with nanoindentation and crystallographic examination. LAM properties are compared to the existing properties found in the literature for other manufacturing processes. The literature indicates that Re has three significant slip systems but also twins as part of its deformation mechanisms. While it follows the hcp metal characteristics for deformation, it has interesting and valuable extremes such as high work hardening, potentially high strength, excellent wear resistance and superior elevated temperature strength. These characteristics are discussed in detail.

Adams, Robbie

65

Use and variation of Pandanus tectorius Parkinson ( P. fascicularis Lam.) along the coastline of Orissa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pandanus tectorius Parkinson (\\u000a P. fascicularis Lam.) of the family Pandanaceae constitutes one of the major bioresources of Ganjam coast, Orissa; used mainly in small scale\\u000a perfume industry for aromatic compound extracted from the male inflorescences. In order to establish genetic diversity, if\\u000a any related to perfume yield, samples of P. tectorius representing male populations from seven locations representing populations

Kamal K. Panda; Anath B. Das; Brahma B. Panda

2009-01-01

66

Purification and Characterization of Peroxidase from Sweet Gourd (Cucurbita moschata Lam. Poiret)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7; donor: hydrogen peroxide oxidoreductase) is an oxidoreductase enzyme found in many fruits and vegetables. This enzyme was purified from sweet gourd (Cucurbita moschata Lam. Poiret) by ammonium sulphate precipitation and CM-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, optimum pH, optimum temperature, optimum ionic strength, stable pH, and stable temperature conditions were determined as 7.2, 50°C, 0.4 M, 8.0, and 40°C,

Ekrem Koksal; Ercan Bursal; Ahmet Gokhan Aggul; Ilhami Gulcin

2012-01-01

67

Volatile components, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Dacryodes buettneri H. J. Lam. essential oil from Gabon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water-distilled oil obtained from resin of Dacryodes buettneri H.J.Lam, Burseraceae from Gabon was examined by GC and GC\\/MS. The analysis led to the identification of 28 components. The essential oil is characterized by a high proportion of terpinen-4-ol (27.33%) along with p-cymene (19%), ?-pinene (13.23%), sabinene (4.40%) and isoascaridol (4%). The in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated with two

Louis-Clément Obame; Jean Koudou; Jean-Claude Chalchat; Ismael Bassolé; Prosper Edou; Aboubakar S. Ouattara; Alfred S. Traore

68

In vitro hypoglycemic effects of Butea monosperma Lam. leaves and bark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the antidiabetic potential of Butea monosperma Lam. Kuntze (Fabaceae) leaves and the stem bark using various in vitro techniques. The samples were studied for their effects\\u000a on glucose adsorption, diffusion, amylolysis kinetics, enteric enzymes and glucose transport across yeast cells. Both the\\u000a samples adsorbed glucose and the adsorption of glucose increased with increase in glucose concentration.

M. Harish; Faiyaz Ahmed; Asna Urooj

69

Biological activity of the shrub Boscia senegalensis (PERS.) LAM. ex Poir. (Capparaceae) on stored grain insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological activity of leaves, fruits and extract of the African shrubBoscia senegalensis (PERS.) LAM. ex Poir. was evaluated against five stored-grain insects. When added to cowpeas at 2–4% (w\\/w), fresh ground fruits and leaves caused 80–100% mortality inCallosobruchus maculants (F.) adults and significantly reduced both emergence and damage of the F1 progeny. Acetone fruit extract exhibited a potent fumigant effect

D. Seck; G. Lognay; E. Haubruge; J.-P. Wathelet; M. Marlier; C. Gaspar; M. Severin

1993-01-01

70

Antinociceptive effect of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) in models of acute pain in rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyZanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) is locally known as “mamica de cadela”, and its bark is popularly used for toothache and earache. The objective of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract from this species’ stem bark (EtOH), its fractions of partition (hexane—HEX, ethyl acetate—AcOEt, aqueous—AQ) and lupeol (a triterpene obtained from HEX)

S. S. Pereira; L. S. Lopes; R. B. Marques; K. A. Figueiredo; D. A. Costa; M. H. Chaves; F. R. C. Almeida

2010-01-01

71

Isolation and characterization of a flocculating protein from Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flocculating protein from the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. was isolated by extraction with phosphate buffer followed by cation exchange chromatography. The molecular mass of the protein determined by SDS-PAGE was about 6.5 kDa, the isoelectric point was above pH 10. Amino acid analysis and sequencing showed high contents of glutamine, arginine and proline, and a total of 60

Ursula Gassenschmidt; Klaus D. Jany; Tauscher Bernhard; Heinz Niebergall

1995-01-01

72

Establishment of Carex stricta Lam. seedlings in experimental wetlands with implications for restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of Carex dominated meadows due to agricultural drainage in the previously glaciated midcontinent of North America has been extensive.\\u000a The lack of natural Carex recruitment in wetland restorations and the failures of revegetation attempts underscore the need for information on the\\u000a establishment requirements of wetland sedges. In this study, seedlings of Carex stricta Lam. were planted in three

Rachel A. Budelsky; Susan M. Galatowitsch

2004-01-01

73

Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation using embryogenic suspension cultures in sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was achieved using embryogenic suspension cultures of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Lizixiang. Cell aggregates from embryogenic suspension cultures were cocultivated with the A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA1301 with gusA and hygromycin phosphotransferase II gene (hpt II) genes. Selection culture was conducted using 25 mg l?1 hygromycin. A total of 2,218 plants were

Bo Yu; Hong Zhai; Yuping Wang; Ning Zang; Shaozhen He; Qingchang Liu

2007-01-01

74

PREDICTING WATER ACTIVITY IN ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS WITH THE CISTERNAS-LAM MODEL  

SciTech Connect

Water activity is an important parameter needed to predict the solubility of hydrated salts in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. A number of models available in the scientific literature predict water activity from electrolyte solution composition. The Cisternas-Lam model is one of those models and has several advantages for nuclear waste application. One advantage is that it has a single electrolyte specific parameter that is temperature independent. Thus, this parameter can be determined from very limited data and extrapolated widely. The Cisternas-Lam model has five coefficients that are used for all aqueous electrolytes. The present study aims to determine if there is a substantial improvement in making all six coefficients electrolyte specific. The Cisternas-Lam model was fit to data for six major electrolytes in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. The model was first fit to all data to determine the five global coefficients, when they were held constant for all electrolytes it yielded a substantially better fit. Subsequently, the model was fit to each electrolyte dataset separately, where all six coefficients were allowed to be electrolyte specific. Treating all six coefficients as electrolyte specific did not make sufficient difference, given the complexity of applying the electrolyte specific parameters to multi-solute systems. Revised water specific parameters, optimized to the electrolytes relevant to Hanford waste, are also reported.

REYNOLDS JG; GREER DA; DISSELKAMP RL

2011-03-01

75

A reconstructive surgeon's taste in art: Dr Peter Parker and the Lam Qua oil paintings.  

PubMed

Hidden within the basement archives of Yale University's Historical Medical Library lie the original oil painting collection and personal papers of the first American surgeon to practice in China. The Reverend Dr Peter Parker, a graduate of Yale, established the first American hospital in Guangzhou (formerly Canton) in 1835 and successfully introduced Western surgical techniques including amputation, anesthesia, and reconstructive surgery. In addition to this distinguished career of medical missionary service, Parker commissioned the Chinese artist Lam Qua to paint a fascinating series of portraits depicting patients with extreme tumor growths. In this article, Parker's own journals are examined to reveal both his missionary zeal and his frustrations working in China. Selected examples of the Lam Qua paintings are presented along with Parker's corresponding patient descriptions. These detailed patient reports give insight into the extent of surgical pathology as well as the relative brutality of surgical techniques in the early to mid-1800s. The historical significance of the Peter Parker-Lam Qua collaboration within the context of the Western transformation of Chinese art and medicine is also discussed. PMID:8342936

Chang, J

1993-05-01

76

Mutations that affect lamB gene expression at a posttranscriptional level.  

PubMed Central

We previously obtained strains of Escherichia coli in which the beginning of gene lacZ, which codes for beta-galactosidase, is replaced by the beginning of gene lamB, which codes for a maltose-inducible outer membrane protein. In some of these strains the induction (with maltose) of lamB-lacZ hybrid protein synthesis was lethal because of membrane damage resulting from an incomplete export of this protein to the outer membrane. We describe here a class of maltose-resistant mutants obtained from one such strain. Mutants in this class fail to produce the lamB-lacZ hybrid protein but retain the ability to express lacY, which is located distal to the hybrid gene. Some of the mutants carry deletions within the hybrid gene. The others carry point mutations which most probably affect the initiation of translation at the beginning of the hybrid gene. One of these is located in the sequence that codes for the presumed ribosome interaction site on the mRNA. Three others, of which two are located in the coding region (sixth codon), are believed to result in an alteration of mRNA secondary structure such that the accessibility of the ribosome interaction site is reduced.

Schwartz, M; Roa, M; Debarbouille, M

1981-01-01

77

A Job Pause Service under LAM/MPI+BLCR for Transparent Fault Tolerance  

SciTech Connect

Checkpoint/restart (C/R) has become a requirement for long-running jobs in large-scale clusters due to a meantime- to-failure (MTTF) in the order of hours. After a failure, C/R mechanisms generally require a complete restart of an MPI job from the last checkpoint. A complete restart, however, is unnecessary since all but one node are typically still alive. Furthermore, a restart may result in lengthy job requeuing even though the original job had not exceeded its time quantum. In this paper, we overcome these shortcomings. Instead of job restart, we have developed a transparent mechanism for job pause within LAM/MPI+BLCR. This mechanism allows live nodes to remain active and roll back to the last checkpoint while failed nodes are dynamically replaced by spares before resuming from the last checkpoint. Our methodology includes LAM/MPI enhancements in support of scalable group communicationwith fluctuating number of nodes, reuse of network connections, transparent coordinated checkpoint scheduling and a BLCR enhancement for job pause. Experiments in a cluster with the NAS Parallel Benchmark suite show that our overhead for job pause is comparable to that of a complete job restart. A minimal overhead of 5.6% is only incurred in case migration takes place while the regular checkpoint overhead remains unchanged. Yet, our approach alleviates the need to reboot the LAM run-time environment, which accounts for considerable overhead resulting in net savings of our scheme in the experiments. Our solution further provides full transparency and automation with the additional benefit of reusing existing resources. Executing continues after failures within the scheduled job, i.e., the application staging overhead is not incurred again in contrast to a restart. Our scheme offers additional potential for savings through incremental checkpointing and proactive diskless live migration, which we are currently working on.

Wang, Chao [North Carolina State University; Mueller, Frank [North Carolina State University; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Scott, Steven L [ORNL

2007-01-01

78

Topology of the membrane protein LamB by epitope tagging and a comparison with the X-ray model.  

PubMed Central

We previously developed a genetic approach to study, with a single antibody, the topology of the outer membrane protein LamB, an Escherichia coli porin with specificity towards maltodextrins and a receptor for bacteriophage lambda. Our initial procedure consisted of inserting at random the same reporter epitope (the C3 neutralization epitope from poliovirus) into permissive sites of LamB (i.e., sites which tolerate insertions without deleterious effects on the protein activities or the cell). A specific monoclonal antibody was then used to examine the position of the inserted epitope with respect to the protein and the membrane. In the present work, we set up a site-directed procedure to insert the C3 epitope at new sites in order to distinguish between two-dimensional folding models. This allowed us to identify two new surface loops of LamB and to predict another periplasmic exposed region. The results obtained by random and directed epitope tagging are analyzed in light of the recently published X-ray structure of the LamB protein. Study of 23 hybrid LamB-C3 proteins led to the direct identification of five of the nine external loops (L4, L5, L6, L7, and L9) and led to the prediction of four periplasmic loops (I1, I4, I5, and I8) of LamB. Nine of the hybrid proteins did not lead to topological conclusions, and none led to the wrong predictions or conclusions. The comparison indicates that parts of models based on secondary structure predictions alone are not reliable and points to the importance of experimental data in the establishment of outer membrane protein topological models. The advantages and limitations of genetic foreign epitope insertion for the study of integral membrane proteins are discussed.

Newton, S M; Klebba, P E; Michel, V; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

1996-01-01

79

Antioxidant action of Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) against antitubercular drugs induced lipid peroxidation in rats.  

PubMed

The protective effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidants was investigated during antitubercular drug (isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide)-induced toxicity in rats. Enhanced hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation of antitubercular drug treatment was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of vitamin C, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase. Administration of Moringa oleifera extract and silymarin significantly decreased hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation with a simultaneous increase in the level of antioxidants. We speculate that Moringa oleifera extract exerts its protective effects by decreasing liver lipid peroxides and enhancing antioxidants. PMID:14585192

Ashok Kumar, N; Pari, L

2003-01-01

80

Tenofovir (TDF) has stronger antiviral effect than adefovir (ADV) against lamivudine (LAM) - resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  We retrospectively compared the antiviral effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) with that of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV)\\u000a for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who developed resistance to lamivudine (LAM).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  One hundred nine patients (86 males), all Asian-American except 1 Caucasian male, with LAM resistance received TDF or ADV.\\u000a HBV DNA levels were measured every 3 months. The HBeAg

Hie-Won Hann; Hee Bok Chae; Stephen R. Dunn

2008-01-01

81

Antineoplastic potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum lam. on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. used in folk medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China and Australia contains a wide range of active compounds, well known for their haemostatic and wound-healing properties. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. on N-diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced hepatic injury in rats. Material and Methods: The aerial part of B. pinnatum aqueous and ethanolic extract was prepared in doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Hepatic injury was induced by DENA. Acute toxicity was also carried out. Result: Treatment with different doses of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum (250 mg/kg, p.o.) was not significantly able to treat the liver injury induced by DENA, but 500 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum protects the liver slightly. Treatment with different doses of aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P*<0.05; P**<0.01 and P***<0.001) treated the liver injury induced by DENA. Conclusion: It may be inferred from the present study that the hepatoprotective activities of the aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum leaves in DENA-induced hepatotoxicity may involve its antioxidant or oxidative free radical scavenging activities by alleviating lipid peroxidation through scavenging of free radicals, or by enhancing the activity of antioxidants.

Afzal, Muhammad; Kazmi, Imran; Anwar, Firoz

2013-01-01

82

Total polyphenolic (flavonoids) content and antioxidant capacity of different Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts  

PubMed Central

Objective: This paper investigates the total polyphenolic and flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts of different polarity. Materials and Methods: The total polyphenolic content was analysed using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content analysis was performed using the colorimetric method. Results: The total polyphenolic content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (19.27%), chloroform (4.99%) and n-butanol extracts (3.94%) containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The petroleum ether (0.23%) and ethanol extracts (1.64%) contain almost no polyphenolic content. The total flavonoid content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (65.61%), chloroform (14.36%) and n-butanol extracts (10.76%) containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The Z. clinopodioides Lam. ethyl acetate extract exhibits a good antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate extracts contain a large number of polyphenolic compounds (19.27%) and flavonoids (65.61%) owing to good antioxidant capacity.

Tian, Shuge; Shi, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ge, Liang; Upur, Halmuart

2011-01-01

83

The effects of floating mats of Azolla filiculoides Lam. and Lemna minuta Kunth on the growth of submerged macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory experiments, the growth characteristics of the submerged species Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) St. John and Potamogeton crispus L. were assessed in the presence and absence of floating mats of Azolla filiculoides Lam. and Lemna minuta Kunth. Light penetration and the development of pH and dissolved oxygen differences were monitored. The growth of P. crispus was suppressed much more than

Rachel A. Janes; John W. Eaton; Keith Hardwick

1996-01-01

84

Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were

Pjotr Popel; Boris Gelchinskii; Valeriy Sidorov

2008-01-01

85

Utilization of Ensiled Sweet Potato ( Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) Leaves as a Protein Supplement in Diets for Growing Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four diets were formulated with protein from fishmeal (FM), groundnut cake (GC), ensiled sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam.)) leaves (SP) or ensiled sweet potato leaves with lysine (SPL). In experiment 1, 24 crossbred (Large White×Mong Cai) growing pigs were allocated randomly by sex into four groups of six pigs and given one of four diets. Experiment 2 was conducted

L. Van An; T. T. T. Hong; B. Ogle; J. E. Lindberg

2005-01-01

86

Study on the Transfer of Foreign Genes into the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialisLam. Eggs by Spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of transferring exogenous DNA into eggs by mussel Mytilus galloprovincialisLam. sperms both with the use of certain methods of transfection and without them was studied. The efficacy of egg fertilization by sperms treated with foreign DNA and the development of larvae at early stages of embryogenesis were evaluated. Negative effects of the contact between mussel sperms and exogenous

A. V. Kuznetsov; A. V. Pirkova; G. A. Dvoryanchikov; E. A. Panfertsev; A. V. Gavryushkin; I. V. Kuznetsova; V. E. Erokhin

2001-01-01

87

MicroRNA-21 is Induced by Rapamycin in a Model of Tuberous Sclerosis (TSC) and Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)  

PubMed Central

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a multisystem disease of women, is manifest by the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells in the lung resulting in cystic lung destruction. Women with LAM can also develop renal angiomyolipomas. LAM is caused by mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex genes (TSC1 or TSC2), resulting in hyperactive mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. The mTOR inhibitor, Rapamycin, stabilizes lung function in LAM and decreases the volume of renal angiomyolipomas, but lung function declines and angiomyolipomas regrow when treatment is discontinued, suggesting that factors induced by mTORC1 inhibition may promote the survival of TSC2-deficient cells. Whether microRNA (miRNA, miR) signaling is involved in the response of LAM to mTORC1 inhibition is unknown. We identified Rapamycin-dependent miRNA in LAM patient angiomyolipoma-derived cells using two separate screens. First, we assayed 132 miRNA of known significance to tumor biology. Using a cut-off of >1.5-fold change, 48 microRNA were Rapamycin-induced, while 4 miRs were downregulated. In a second screen encompassing 946 miRNA, 18 miRs were upregulated by Rapamycin, while eight were downregulated. Dysregulation of miRs 29b, 21, 24, 221, 106a and 199a were common to both platforms and were classified as candidate “RapamiRs.” Validation by qRT-PCR confirmed that these microRNA were increased. miR-21, a pro-survival miR, was the most significantly increased by mTOR-inhibition (p<0.01). The regulation of miR-21 by Rapamycin is cell type independent. mTOR inhibition promotes the processing of the miR-21 transcript (pri-miR-21) to a premature form (pre-miR-21). In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that Rapamycin upregulates multiple miRs, including pro-survival miRs, in TSC2-deficient patient-derived cells. The induction of miRs may contribute to the response of LAM and TSC patients to Rapamycin therapy.

Neuman, Nicole A.; Myachina, Faina; Yu, Jane; Priolo, Carmen; Henske, Elizabeth P.

2013-01-01

88

Preliminary Assessment of the Chemical Stability of Dried Extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae).  

PubMed

We report the results of a preliminary estimation of the stability of the dried extract from bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. ("Mutamba"), with and without added colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD). The physical and chemical properties and the compatibility of CSD in the extract were evaluated for 21 days of storage under stress conditions of temperature (45 ± 2°C) and humidity (75 ± 5%). Thermogravimetry (TG) was supplemented using selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of stability of the characteristic constituents (chemical markers), namely, procyanidin B2 (PB2) and epicatechin (EP). The results showed that PB2 is an appropriate compound to be used as a chemical marker in the quality control of dried extracts of G. ulmifolia. The stress study showed that there was no significant difference between the two formulations. However, considering the TG data and the high temperatures involved, the results suggest that CSD increases the stability of the dried extract of G. ulmifolia. PMID:22291706

Lopes, Gisely C; Longhini, Renata; Dos Santos, Paulo Victor P; Araújo, Adriano A S; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano; de Mello, João Carlos P

2012-01-12

89

Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. root-wood on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.  

PubMed

In India, drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae)) is commonly used as a phytotherapeutic agent. The effect of oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood on calcium oxalate urolithiasis has been studied in male Wistar albino rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. Supplementation with aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood significantly reduced the elevated urinary oxalate, showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats was also significantly lowered by curative and preventive treatment using aqueous and alcoholic extracts. The results indicate that the root-wood of Moringa oleifera is endowed with antiurolithiatic activity. PMID:16386862

Karadi, Ravindra V; Gadge, Navneet B; Alagawadi, K R; Savadi, Rudraprabhu V

2006-01-04

90

Rapid and reliable method of extracting DNA and RNA from sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L). Lam.  

PubMed

A quick, simple and reliable method of extracting DNA from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) has been developed. The method was applied successfully for extraction of total DNA from leaves and total RNA from leaves and various tissues. The yield of DNA extracted by this procedure was high (about 1 mg/g leaf tissue). The extracted DNA was completely digested by restriction endonucleases indicating the absence of common contaminating compounds. The absorbancy ratios of A260/A230 and A260/A280 of isolated RNA were approx. 2 and the yield was about 0.2 mg/g fresh wt. CIPK and tublin genes were successfully amplified by RT-PCR, suggesting the integrity of isolated RNA. The total DNA and RNA isolated by this method was of sufficient quality for subsequent molecular analysis. PMID:16328977

Kim, Sun-Hyung; Hamada, Tatsuro

2005-12-01

91

Cloning and characterization of the Rubisco activase gene from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.  

PubMed

A full-length cDNA of Rubisco activase (IBrcaI) was cloned from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) using Rapid-Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). IBrcaI contains a 1,347 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 439 amino acids. The sequence alignment of multiple Rubisco activase genes from sweet potato and other plants showed high homology at two previously described ATP-binding sites. Western blot analysis indicated that there are two Rubisco activase proteins in sweet potato. Expression of IBrcaI was only detected in leaves. In the 14 h light and 10 h dark photoperiods, maximal and minimal IBrcaI mRNA expression levels were detected at 8:00 in the morning and at midnight, respectively. PMID:19296237

Xu, Ke; He, Bowen; Zhou, Shuang; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yizheng

2009-03-19

92

Characterization of monkey orange (Strychnos spinosa Lam.), a potential new crop for arid regions.  

PubMed

The green monkey orange (Strychnos spinosa Lam., Loganiaceae), a tree indigenous to tropical and subtropical Africa, produces juicy, sweet-sour, yellow fruits containing numerous hard brown seeds. The species has recently been introduced into Israel as a potential new commercial crop. However, little is known about its agronomical performance, fruit development and ripening, or postharvest physiology. The current study shows that during ripening in storage, the peel color changes from green to yellow, accompanied by a climacteric burst of ethylene and carbon dioxide emission. Total soluble solids slightly increased during storage, whereas total titratable acidity and pH did not change significantly. The major sugars that accumulated during ripening in storage were sucrose, glucose, and fructose, and the main acids, citric and malic acids. The main volatiles present in the peel of ripe fruits were phenylpropanoids, trans-isoeugenol being the major compound. PMID:14518952

Sitrit, Yaron; Loison, Stephanie; Ninio, Racheli; Dishon, Eran; Bar, Einat; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Mizrahi, Yosef

2003-10-01

93

Biological monitoring of organochlorides using the limnic bivalves Anodontites trapesialis (Lam., 1819).  

PubMed

The mussel Anodontites trapesialis (Lam, 1819) was used as an indicator of organochloride pollutants in the Canoas River, located in the municipality of Mococa (21 degrees 25'08''S and 47 degrees W), State of São Paulo, Brazil. Biological monitoring was performed for one year at the site of an orange grove on the left bank of the river. Forty-five animals were placed in aluminum enclosures on the river bottom at this site and 4 animals were sacrificed for pesticide analysis at 3-month intervals, each corresponding to one season of the year. Pesticides were extracted by the method of Bedford et al., (1968), modified, and the analyses were performed by gas phase chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. The animals were found to have been exposed to DDT, Lindane and Heptachlor. Variation in Aldrin and Dieldrin levels was not significant enough to permit inferences. Endrin was not detected in any of the analyses. PMID:1811433

Avelar, W E; Nather, F C; de Figueiredo, M C; Casanova, I C; Lopes, J L

1991-12-01

94

Toxicity studies of Calycopteris floribunda Lam. in calf, rabbit and rat.  

PubMed

The toxicological evaluation of the plant Calycopteris floribunda Lam. was done in calf, rabbit and rat. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and saponins. Morbidity and mortality was observed in methanol extract-treated rats and rabbits. In rabbits (25 g/kg/day) and calves (35 g/kg/day) fed fresh leaves showed morbidity and mortality with premonitory clinical signs like depression, downer status, polyuria and characteristic forelimb paresis (seen only in rabbits). The serum urea, alanine-amino transferase, glucose and total cholesterol concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) increased compared to control values. Necropsy of calves revealed the congestion of liver, lung and petechiae on epicardium. The present study indicated the toxic nature of the plant in calf, rabbit and rat. PMID:16677787

Sreekanth, P; Narayana, K; Shridhar, N B; Bhat, Avinash

2006-03-27

95

Preliminary Assessment of the Chemical Stability of Dried Extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)  

PubMed Central

We report the results of a preliminary estimation of the stability of the dried extract from bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (“Mutamba”), with and without added colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD). The physical and chemical properties and the compatibility of CSD in the extract were evaluated for 21 days of storage under stress conditions of temperature (45 ± 2°C) and humidity (75 ± 5%). Thermogravimetry (TG) was supplemented using selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of stability of the characteristic constituents (chemical markers), namely, procyanidin B2 (PB2) and epicatechin (EP). The results showed that PB2 is an appropriate compound to be used as a chemical marker in the quality control of dried extracts of G. ulmifolia. The stress study showed that there was no significant difference between the two formulations. However, considering the TG data and the high temperatures involved, the results suggest that CSD increases the stability of the dried extract of G. ulmifolia.

Lopes, Gisely C.; Longhini, Renata; dos Santos, Paulo Victor P.; Araujo, Adriano A. S.; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano; de Mello, Joao Carlos P.

2012-01-01

96

Diversity of mollusks in the Lam Ta Khong reservoir, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.  

PubMed

Sampling surveys to study the diversity of mollusks in the Lam Ta Khong reservoir, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, northeast Thailand, were carried out in the hot, rainy and cold seasons. The study area was divided into: Area I--the upper part where the Lam Ta Khong river drains; Area II--the mid-section of the reservoir; Area III--behind the dam. Mollusks were collected from four locations on each bank (to the right and left) of each area. Each location was sampled to include 6 cross-sectional stations; in total, 144 stations were sampled. In the deep water, an Ekman dredge was used to collect samples; the scoop or manual method was used at the water's edge. Ten species of snails and four species of clams were found. The dominant species of snails were: Clea helena, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos and Melanoides tuberculata; clams were dominated by Corbicula sp. The intermediate host of the human blood fluke was not found. The population of most mollusk species increased during the cold season while that of clams and that of some species of snails increased during the rainy season. Clams and operculate snails predominated in Areas II and III. Pulmonate snails were mostly found close to the bank and on aquatic plants especially in Areas I and II. Operculate snails and clams mainly inhabited water 1 to 10 m deep. Two species of edible mollusks were found: Filopaludina martensi martensi and large numbers of Corbicula. Neither shedding light nor digestion with pepsin A revealed any human parasites in the mollusks sampled. PMID:12757219

Tesana, Smarn

2002-12-01

97

Can Point-of-Care Urine LAM Strip Testing for Tuberculosis Add Value to Clinical Decision Making in Hospitalised HIV-Infected Persons?  

PubMed Central

Background The urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) strip-test (Determine®-TB) can rapidly rule-in TB in HIV-infected persons with advanced immunosuppression. However, given high rates of empiric treatment amongst hospitalised patients in high-burden settings (?50%) it is unclear whether LAM can add any value to clinical decision making, or identify a subset of patients with unfavourable outcomes that would otherwise have been missed by empiric treatment. Methods 281 HIV-infected hospitalised patients with suspected TB received urine LAM strip testing, and were categorised as definite (culture-positive), probable-, or non-TB. Both the proportion and morbidity of TB cases identified by LAM testing, early empiric treatment (initiated prior to test result availability) and a set of clinical predictors were compared across groups. Results 187/281 patients had either definite- (n?=?116) or probable-TB (n?=?71). As a rule-in test for definite and probable-TB, LAM identified a similar proportion of TB cases compared to early empiric treatment (85/187 vs. 93/187, p?=?0.4), but a greater proportion than classified by a set of clinical predictors alone (19/187; p<0.001). Thirty-nine of the 187 (21%) LAM-positive patients who had either definite- or probable-TB were missed by early empiric treatment, and of these 25/39 (64%) would also have been missed by smear microscopy. Thus, 25/187 (8%) of definite- or probable-TB patients with otherwise delayed initiation of TB treatment could be detected by the LAM strip test. LAM-positive patients missed by early empiric treatment had a lower median CD4 count (p?=?0.008), a higher median illness severity score (p?=?0.001) and increased urea levels (p?=?0.002) compared to LAM-negative patients given early empiric treatment. Conclusions LAM strip testing outperformed TB diagnosis based on clinical criteria but in day-to-day practice identified a similar proportion of patients compared to early empiric treatment. However, compared to empiric treatment, LAM identified a different subset of patients with more advanced immunosuppression and greater disease severity.

Peter, Jonathan G.; Theron, Grant; Dheda, Keertan

2013-01-01

98

THE APPLICATION OF LASER.ABLATION MICROPROBE - INDUCTIVELY COU PLED PLASMA - MASS SPECTROMETRY (LAM-ICP-MS) TO IN SITU TRACE.ELEMENT DETERMINATIONS IN MINERALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laser ablation microprobe (LAM) sample-introduction system, designed for in sira microsampling of minerals in petrographic sections, has been interfacedto anlnductively CoupledPlasma-Mass Spectrometer(ICP-MS). TheLAM consists of aQ-switched Nd:YAG laser with power attenuation and steering optics to guide the laser beam through the phototube of a petrographic microscope, where it is focused onto the petrographic section contained in a sample cell.

SMON E. JACKSON; HENRY P. LONGERICH; GREG R. DUNNING; BRIAN J. FRYER

99

Protein Ia and the lamB protein can replace each other in the constitution of an active receptor for the same coliphage.  

PubMed

Protein Ia and the lamB protein are both located in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli K-12. The lamB protein is known to be the receptor for phage lambda. Datta et al. [Datta, D. B., Arden, B. & Henning, U. (1977) J. Bacteriol. 131, 821--829] recently isolated a phage called TuIa that uses protein Ia for its adsorption. While phage TuIa fails to grow on ompB mutants, which lack protein Ia, we show here that host-range mutants of TuIa can be isolated that do grow on ompB strains. These host-range mutants fail to grow on ompB lamB double mutants, but retain the ability of the parental phage to grow on ompB+ lamB strains. They are therefore apparently able to use either protein Ia or the lamB protein for their adsorption. Genetic evidence suggests that essentially the same site on the lamB protein may be interacting with phage lambda or the host-range mutants of phage TuIa. PMID:364487

Wandersman, C; Schwartz, M

1978-11-01

100

Protein Ia and the lamB protein can replace each other in the constitution of an active receptor for the same coliphage.  

PubMed Central

Protein Ia and the lamB protein are both located in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli K-12. The lamB protein is known to be the receptor for phage lambda. Datta et al. [Datta, D. B., Arden, B. & Henning, U. (1977) J. Bacteriol. 131, 821--829] recently isolated a phage called TuIa that uses protein Ia for its adsorption. While phage TuIa fails to grow on ompB mutants, which lack protein Ia, we show here that host-range mutants of TuIa can be isolated that do grow on ompB strains. These host-range mutants fail to grow on ompB lamB double mutants, but retain the ability of the parental phage to grow on ompB+ lamB strains. They are therefore apparently able to use either protein Ia or the lamB protein for their adsorption. Genetic evidence suggests that essentially the same site on the lamB protein may be interacting with phage lambda or the host-range mutants of phage TuIa.

Wandersman, C; Schwartz, M

1978-01-01

101

A new suppressor of a lamB signal sequence mutation, prlZ1, maps to 69 minutes on the Escherichia coli chromosome.  

PubMed Central

Reversion analysis has been employed to isolate suppressors that restore export of a unique LamB signal sequence mutant. The mutation results in a substitution of Arg for Met at position 19, which prevents LamB export to the outer membrane and leads to a Dex- phenotype. Unlike other LamB signal sequence mutants utilized for reversion analysis, LamB19R becomes stably associated with the inner membrane in an export-specific manner. In this study, Dex+ revertants were selected and various suppressors were isolated. One of the extragenic suppressors, designated prlZ1, was chosen for further study. prlZ1 maps to 69 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome. The suppressor is dominant and SecB dependent. In addition to its effect on lamB19R, prlZ1 suppresses the export defect of signal sequence point mutations at positions 12, 15, and 16, as well as several point mutations in the maltose-binding protein signal sequence. prlZ1 does not suppress deletion mutations in either signal sequence. This pattern of suppression can be explained by interaction of a helical LamB signal sequence with the suppressor. Images

Wei, S Q; Stader, J

1994-01-01

102

A valued Indian medicinal plant - Begonia malabarica Lam. : Successful plant regeneration through various explants and field performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cost-effective and efficient protocol has been described in the present work for large- scale and rapid in vitro propagation of a valuable medicinal herb Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae) by shoot auxillary-bud proliferation and organogenesis on MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA; 0.0-8.8 mg\\/l) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.0-2.88 mg\\/l) at different concentrations, either alone or in combinations. Initiation of

Mathan C. Nisha; Sevanan Rajeshkumar; Thangavel Selvaraj

103

Optimization of somatic embryogenesis in suspension cultures of horsegram [ Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.]—A hardy grain legume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell suspension cultures were established from immature cotyledon derived calli from drought tolerant legume horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.]. Embryogenic callus could be originated from cut slices of the immature cotyledons on MS solid medium [Murashige, T. Skoog, K., 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473–497] augmented with 1.0?M zeatin

Shamsudeen Varisai Mohamed; Jih-Min Sung; Toong-Long Jeng; Chang-Sheng Wang

2005-01-01

104

Lead induced changes in antioxidant metabolism of horsegram ( Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) and bengalgram ( Cicer arietinum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-month old horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. cv VZM1) and bengalgram (Cicer arietinum L. cv Annogiri) were exposed to different regimes of lead stress as Pb(NO3)2 at 0, 200, 500 and 800ppm concentrations. The extent of oxidative damage as the rate of lipid peroxidation, antioxidative response and the accumulation of lead in roots and shoots of both plants were evaluated

Alavala Matta Reddy; Surabhi Giridara Kumar; Gottimukkala Jyothsnakumari; S. Thimmanaik; Chinta Sudhakar

2005-01-01

105

Antioxidant activity of phenolic components present in barks of Azadirachta indica, Terminalia arjuna, Acacia nilotica, and Eugenia jambolana Lam. trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barks extracts of four different trees (Azadirachta indica, Terminalia arjuna, Acacia nilotica, and Eugenia jambolana Lam.) in three different solvents 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, and 80% acetone (solvent:water, 80:20v\\/v) were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolic (TP), and total flavonoids (TF) contents. Antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by measuring reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and

Bushra Sultana; Farooq Anwar; Roman Przybylski

2007-01-01

106

Trace element partition coefficients for clinopyroxene and phlogopite in an alkaline lamprophyre from Newfoundland by LAM-ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral\\/rock matrix partition coefficients have been determined for clinopyroxene (Cpx) and phlogopite from a Mesozoic alkaline lamprophyre from Newfoundland, Canada, by Laser Ablation Microprobe (LAM-ICP-MS). Values for twenty-one elements were obtained for Cpx, whereas only eleven were possible for phlogopite due to REE abundances below detection limits ( 1 ppm). Ablation pits of 40–50 ?m diameter enabled investigation of zonation

Stephen F. Foley; Simon E. Jackson; Brian J. Fryer; John D. Greenouch; George A. Jenner

1996-01-01

107

Chemomodulatory Effect of Moringa Oleifera, Lam, on Hepatic Carcinogen Metabolising Enzymes, Antioxidant Parameters and Skin Papillomagenesis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulatory effects of a hydro-alchoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg\\/ kg bodyweight and 250 mg\\/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b 5 and Cytochrome P 450 ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and

Rupjyoti Bharali; Jawahira Tabassum; Mohammed Rekibul; Haque Azad

2003-01-01

108

Hypocholesterolemic effects of crude extract of leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam in high-fat diet fed wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypocholesterolemic agent in obese patients. The scientific basis for their use in hypercholesterolemia was therefore examined. It was found that administration of the crude leaf extract of Moringa oleifera along with high-fat diet decreased the high-fat diet-induced increases in serum, liver, and

S Ghasi; E Nwobodo; J. O Ofili

2000-01-01

109

X-ray crystallographic native sulfur SAD structure determination of laminarinase Lam16A from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed

Laminarinase Lam16A from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris, crystallized and the structure was solved at 1.34 A resolution using native sulfur SAD X-ray crystallography. It is the first structure of a non-specific 1,3(4)-beta-D-glucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16). P. chrysosporium is a wood-degrading basidiomycete fungus and Lam16A is the predominant extracellular protein expressed when laminarin is used as the sole carbon source. The protein folds into a curved beta-sandwich homologous to those of other known GH16 enzyme structures (especially kappa-carrageenase from Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora and beta-agarase from Zobelia galactanivorans). A notable likeness is also evident with the related glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7) enzymes. A mammalian lectin, p58/ERGIC, as well as polysaccharide lyase (PL7) enzymes also showed significant similarity to Lam16A. The enzyme has two potential N-glycosylation sites. One such site, at Asn43, displayed a branched heptasaccharide sufficiently stabilized to be interpreted from the X-ray diffraction data. The other N-glycosylation motif was found close to the catalytic centre and is evidently not glycosylated. PMID:17057348

Vasur, Jonas; Kawai, Rie; Larsson, Anna M; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Sandgren, Mats; Samejima, Masahiro; Ståhlberg, Jerry

2006-10-18

110

The C-Terminal Portion of the Tail Fiber Protein of Bacteriophage Lambda Is Responsible for Binding to LamB, Its Receptor at the Surface of Escherichia coli K-12  

PubMed Central

Bacteriophage ? adsorbs to its Escherichia coli K-12 host by interacting with LamB, its cell-surface receptor. We fused C-terminal portions of J, the tail fiber protein of ?, to maltose-binding protein. Solid-phase binding assays demonstrated that a purified fusion protein comprising only the last 249 residues of J could bind to LamB trimers and inhibited recognition by anti-LamB antibodies. Electron microscopy further demonstrated that the fusion protein could also bind to LamB at the surface of intact cells. This interaction prevented ? adsorption but affected only partially maltose uptake.

Wang, Jiang; Hofnung, Maurice; Charbit, Alain

2000-01-01

111

The C-terminal portion of the tail fiber protein of bacteriophage lambda is responsible for binding to LamB, its receptor at the surface of Escherichia coli K-12.  

PubMed

Bacteriophage lambda adsorbs to its Escherichia coli K-12 host by interacting with LamB, its cell-surface receptor. We fused C-terminal portions of J, the tail fiber protein of lambda, to maltose-binding protein. Solid-phase binding assays demonstrated that a purified fusion protein comprising only the last 249 residues of J could bind to LamB trimers and inhibited recognition by anti-LamB antibodies. Electron microscopy further demonstrated that the fusion protein could also bind to LamB at the surface of intact cells. This interaction prevented lambda adsorption but affected only partially maltose uptake. PMID:10629200

Wang, J; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

2000-01-01

112

A role for residue 151 of LamB in bacteriophage lambda adsorption: possible steric effect of amino acid substitutions.  

PubMed Central

LamB is the cell surface receptor for bacteriophage lambda. LamB missense mutations yielding resistance to lambda have been previously grouped in two classes. Class I mutants block growth of lambda with wild-type host range (lambda h+) but support growth of one-step extended-host-range mutants (lambda h). Class II mutants block lambda h but support growth of two-step extended host range mutants (lambda hh*). While Class I mutations occur at 11 different amino acid sites, in five distinct portions of LamB, all the Class II mutations analyzed previously correspond to the same G-to-D change at amino acid 151. We generated by in vitro mutagenesis four different new substitutions at site 151 (to S, V, R, and C). Two of the mutants (G-151-->V [G151V] and G151R) were of Class II, while the two others (G151S and G151C) were of Class I, demonstrating that not only the site but also the nature of the substitutions at residue 151 was critical for the phage sensitivity phenotypes. The introduction of a negatively charged, a positively charged, or an aliphatic nonpolar residue at site 151 of LamB prevented both lambda h+ and lambda h adsorption, indicating that the block is not due to a charge effect. In contrast to G151D, which was sensitive to all the lambda hh* phages, G151V and G151R conferred sensitivity to only four of the five lambda hh* phages. Thus, G151V and G151R represent a new subclass of Class II LamB mutations that is more restrictive with respect to the growth of lambda hh*. Our results agree with the hypothesis that residue 151 belongs to an accessibility gate controlling the access to the phage tight-binding site and that substitutions at this residue affect the access of the phage to the binding site in relation to the size of the substitute side chain (surface area): the most restrictive changes are G151V and G151R, followed to a lesser extent by G151D and they by G151S and G151C. Images

Charbit, A; Werts, C; Michel, V; Klebba, P E; Quillardet, P; Hofnung, M

1994-01-01

113

A role for residue 151 of LamB in bacteriophage lambda adsorption: possible steric effect of amino acid substitutions.  

PubMed

LamB is the cell surface receptor for bacteriophage lambda. LamB missense mutations yielding resistance to lambda have been previously grouped in two classes. Class I mutants block growth of lambda with wild-type host range (lambda h+) but support growth of one-step extended-host-range mutants (lambda h). Class II mutants block lambda h but support growth of two-step extended host range mutants (lambda hh*). While Class I mutations occur at 11 different amino acid sites, in five distinct portions of LamB, all the Class II mutations analyzed previously correspond to the same G-to-D change at amino acid 151. We generated by in vitro mutagenesis four different new substitutions at site 151 (to S, V, R, and C). Two of the mutants (G-151-->V [G151V] and G151R) were of Class II, while the two others (G151S and G151C) were of Class I, demonstrating that not only the site but also the nature of the substitutions at residue 151 was critical for the phage sensitivity phenotypes. The introduction of a negatively charged, a positively charged, or an aliphatic nonpolar residue at site 151 of LamB prevented both lambda h+ and lambda h adsorption, indicating that the block is not due to a charge effect. In contrast to G151D, which was sensitive to all the lambda hh* phages, G151V and G151R conferred sensitivity to only four of the five lambda hh* phages. Thus, G151V and G151R represent a new subclass of Class II LamB mutations that is more restrictive with respect to the growth of lambda hh*. Our results agree with the hypothesis that residue 151 belongs to an accessibility gate controlling the access to the phage tight-binding site and that substitutions at this residue affect the access of the phage to the binding site in relation to the size of the substitute side chain (surface area): the most restrictive changes are G151V and G151R, followed to a lesser extent by G151D and they by G151S and G151C. PMID:8195074

Charbit, A; Werts, C; Michel, V; Klebba, P E; Quillardet, P; Hofnung, M

1994-06-01

114

Determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid contents in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. by HPLC method  

PubMed Central

A simple, precise, rapid and accurate, binary-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid contents in the Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. with short run time. Chromatographic separation is achieved by using HPLC system consisting of a Shimadzu LC-6AD and Kromasil C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 10 ?m, with pre-column), the mobile phase consists of methanol and 0.03 M phosphate buffer (pH = 3, 90:10). Detection wavelength is 214 nm. The speed of flow is 0.5 ml/min. The specimen handing quantity is 10 ?l. The oleanolic acid's linearity range is 0.4 ~ 1.2 mg/ml (r = 0.9996). The ursolic acid's linearity range is 0.6 ~ 1.8 mg/ml (r = 0.9996), and the linear relationship is accurate. The average recovery (n = 6) of oleanolic acid is 99.5% (RSD = 1.19%) and ursolic acid is 102.3% (RSD = 1.25%). The content of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in Ziziphora clinopodioides are 0.76 mg/g and 1.176 mg/g, respectively. The developed HPLC method can therefore be applied to both in vitro studies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid formulations as well as drug estimation in biological samples.

Tian, Shuge; Shi, Yang; Yu, Qian; Upur, Halmurat

2010-01-01

115

Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense  

PubMed Central

Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA-) stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, ?2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity.

Barioni, Eric Diego; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes de Paula; Ferraz-de-Paula, Viviane; Wagner, Theodoro Marcel; Cogliati, Bruno; Correa dos Santos, Matheus; Machado, Marina da Silva; de Andrade, Sergio Faloni; Niero, Rivaldo; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli

2013-01-01

116

Disentangling the Origins of Cultivated Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)  

PubMed Central

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.

Roullier, Caroline; Duputie, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernandez Bringas, Victor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

2013-01-01

117

First Chemical Constituents from Cordia exaltata Lam and Antimicrobial Activity of Two Neolignans.  

PubMed

The phytochemical study of Cordia exaltata Lam. (Boraginaceae) led to the isolation, through chromatographic techniques, of nineteen secondary metabolites: 8,8'dimethyl-3,4,3',4'-dimethylenedioxy-7-oxo-2,7'cyclolignan (1), 8,8'-dimethyl-4,5-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenodioxy-7-oxo-2,7'cyclolignan (2), sitosterol (3a), stigmasterol (3b), sitosterol-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (4a), stigmasterol-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (4b), phaeophytin A (5), 132-hydroxyphaeophytin A (6), 173-ethoxypheophorbide A (7), 132-hydroxy-173-ethoxypheophorbide A (8), m-methoxy-p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (9), (E)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-propenoic acid (10), 1-benzopyran-2-one (11), 7-hydroxy-1-benzopyran-2-one (12), 2,5-bis-(3',4'-methylenedioxiphenyl)-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrofuran (13), 3,4,5,3',5'-pentamethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan (14), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavonol (15), 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (16), 5,8-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (17), kaempherol 3-O-?-d-glucosyl-6''-?-L-ramnopyranoside (18) and kaempherol 3,7-di-O-?-l-ramnopyranoside (19). Their structures were identified by 1H and 13C-NMR using one and two-dimensional techniques. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of compounds 1, 2, 13 and 14 against bacteria and fungi are reported here for the first time. PMID:24025457

de Sá de Sousa Nogueira, Tiago Bezerra; de Sá de Sousa Nogueira, Raquel Bezerra; E Silva, Davi Antas; Tavares, Josean Fechine; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; da Silva Maciel, Jéssica Karina; de Souza Fernandes, Milen Maria Magalhães; de Medeiros, Fernando Antônio; do Socorro Ferreira Rodrigues Sarquis, Rosangela; Filho, Raimundo Braz; de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza, Maria

2013-09-10

118

Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves' extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam  

PubMed Central

Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed.

Pochapski, Marcia Thais; Fosquiera, Eliana Cristina; Esmerino, Luis Antonio; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fabio Andre; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

2011-01-01

119

Cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant properties of Verbascum mucronatum Lam. and its secondary metabolites.  

PubMed

The aqueous extract of Verbascum mucronatum Lam. along with its fractions and secondary metabolites were assessed for their antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by three methods: as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion-chelating effect, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tests. The AChE activity was determined by the Ellman method using an ELISA microplate reader. Phytochemical investigations revealed the presence of four iridoid glucosides, ajugol (1), aucubin (2), lasianthoside I (3) and catalpol (4), two saponins, ilwensisaponin A (5) and C (6), and a phenylethanoid glycoside, verbascoside (7), in Verbascum mucronatum. Their structures were elucidated by spectral techniques. The aqueous extract and fractions including the phenylethanoid glycoside 7 showed DPPH scavenger effect and had the best FRAP. Besides these results, one of the phenylethanoid fractions displayed the highest ferrous ion-chelating effect. While only 7 was found to possess moderate AChE inhibition, the extract, fractions, and all other tested compounds did not inhibit AChE and BChE. PMID:21319708

Kahraman, Cigdem; Tatli, I Irem; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Akdemir, Zeliha S

120

Investigation on the influence of foreign metal ions in crystal growth and characterization of l-Alaninium Maleate (LAM) single crystals.  

PubMed

A Nonlinear Optical, good quality, single crystals of doped and undoped l-Alaninium Maleate (LAM) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. The lattice parameters were analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The identification of Cadmium ion in the doped crystals was done using the EDAX spectrum. The presence of functional group of the dopant with LAM molecule was studied using FTIR spectra. The results of UV-Vis study is used to compare the transparencies of the doped and undoped LAM crystals. The optical band gap energy of the grown crystal was also calculated. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurement with KDP reference is used to find the incorporation of metal to l-Alaninium Maleate crystals and the parent material. Also the thermal stability of the grown crystals was studied by TGA/DTA spectrum. The mechanical stability of the grown crystals was confirmed through Vickers micro hardness study. By parallel plate capacitor technique, the dielectric response was studied over a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures. The various studies showed the incorporation of the impurity Cd(2+) into LAM crystals and the investigations indicated that the impurity played an important role in the changes of the spectral and structural properties of LAM crystals. PMID:23892119

Ruby Nirmala, L; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

2013-07-05

121

Development of a rapid resolution liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the determination of three compounds in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam from different origins of Xinjiang  

PubMed Central

Context: As a traditional Uygur medicinal plant, Z. clinopodioides Lam has various uses in Xinjiang. Aims: A reversed-phase rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RP-RRLC) method with diode array detector (DAD) was developed for simultaneous determination of diosmin, linarin, and pulegone from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam, a widely used in traditional Uygur medicine for treating heart disease, high blood pressure, and other diseases. Settings and Design: Compounds were separated on a XDB-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 1.8 ?m) with gradient elution using methanol and 1% aqueous acetic acid (v/v) at 0.9 mL/min. he detection wavelength was set at 270 nm. Materials and Methods: Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. were collected from ten different origins in Xinjiang, including the Ban fang ditch, Tuoli, the Altay mountains, Terks, Xiata Road, Zhaosu Highway, Guozigou, Fukang, Jimsar, Wulabo. Statistical Analysis Used: The intra-day and inter-day precisions of all three compounds were less than 0.89% and the average recoveries ranged from 97.4 to 104.1%. There were highly significant linear correlations between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of three active components in Z. clinopodioides Lam. samples from different locations in Xinjiang. Conclusions: The proposed method is simple, consistent, accurate, and could be utilized as a quality control method for Z. clinopodioides Lam.

Tian, Shuge; Yu, Qian; Wang, Dongdong; Upur, Halmuart

2012-01-01

122

The aerial parts of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. protect against NSAID-induced gastric lesions.  

PubMed

Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., a member of the Sterculiaceae family, is used in folk medicine because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial and antihypertensive properties. Most of the research work carried out on this plant has focused on the bark because of its high concentration of antioxidant proanthocyanidins. The flowers and leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia, though less studied, are also used as a remedy for different conditions, such as kidney and gastrointestinal diseases, fever and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the gastroprotective effects of an aqueous suspension of the ethanolic extract from leaves and flowers of Guazuma ulmifolia in a model of acute gastric ulcer induced by diclofenac as ulcerogenic agent, using the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole as a protection reference. Therefore, the extract was administered two times orally to three groups of Wistar rats at doses of 500, 250 and 125mg/kg, with a 24-h interval between doses. Diclofenac (100mg/kg) was given 1h after the last administration of the extract. Pretreatment with Guazuma ulmifolia or omeprazole decreased the ulcerated area in a dose-dependent way. Myeloperoxidase activity as a marker of neutrophil infiltration was slightly reduced in vivo, whereas in vitro, anti-inflammatory activity was clearly inhibited in a dose-dependent way. The lowest doses of the extract significantly decreased the levels of lipoperoxides, and superoxide dismuthase activity increased to a similar extent as with omeprazole (P<0.001). Examination of glutathione metabolism reflected a significant rise in glutathione peroxidase activity at the highest dose of Guazuma ulmifolia. Finally, there was a faint elevation in prostaglandin E(2) levels with all doses, though the depletion induced by diclofenac could not be reverted. We conclude that the aerial parts of Guazuma ulmifolia protect gastric mucosa against the injurious effect of NSAIDs mainly by anti-inflammatory and radical-scavenging mechanisms. PMID:17884315

Berenguer, B; Trabadela, C; Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Quílez, A; Miño, P; De la Puerta, R; Martín-Calero, M J

2007-07-22

123

Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eupatilin, a lipophilic flavonoid from mountain wormwood ( Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.).  

PubMed

Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) is the major lipophilic flavonoid from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber, two mountain wormwoods used for the production of the celebrated alpine liqueur genepy. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of eupatilin was investigated using the inhibition of the Croton-oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear as the end point. The oedematous response and the leukocyte infiltration were evaluated up to 48 h after the induction of phlogosis, comparing eupatilin with hydrocortisone and indomethacin as representatives of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. At maximum development, eupatilin significantly reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner (ID(50) = 0.28 micromol/cm(2)), showing an anti-inflammatory potency comparable to that of indomethacin (ID(50) = 0.26 micromol/cm(2)) and only 1 order of magnitude lower than that of hydrocortisone (ID(50) = 0.03 micromol/cm(2)). Within 48 h, eupatilin (0.30 micromol/cm(2)) caused a global inhibition of the oedematous response (42%) higher than that of an equimolar dose of indomethacin (18%) and fully comparable to that of 0.03 micromol/cm(2) of hydrocortisone (55%). Moreover, the effect of eupatilin on the granulocytes infiltrate (32% inhibition) was similar to that of indomethacin (35% inhibition) and comparable to that of hydrocortisone (42% reduction), as confirmed by histological analysis. When our results are taken together, they show that eupatilin is endowed with potent in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity, qualitatively similar to that of hydrocortisone and intermediate in terms of potency between those of steroid and non-steroid drugs. PMID:19663482

Giangaspero, Anna; Ponti, Cristina; Pollastro, Federica; Del Favero, Giorgia; Della Loggia, Roberto; Tubaro, Aurelia; Appendino, Giovanni; Sosa, Silvio

2009-09-01

124

Physiological and proteomic characterization of salt tolerance in a mangrove plant, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lam.  

PubMed

Salinity is a major abiotic stress that is responsible for growth reduction in most higher plants. Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lam., a mangrove plant, is a halophyte and is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. Physiological and proteomic characteristics of B. gymnorrhiza were investigated under three NaCl concentrations (0, 200 and 500 mM) in this study. Maximum seedling growth occurred at 200 mM NaCl. Leaf osmotic potential was more negative as salt levels increased further. Physiological results revealed that inorganic ions (especially Na(+) and Cl(-)) played a key role in osmotic adjustment of B. gymnorrhiza leaves under salinity treatments. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 23 salt-responsive proteins in B. gymnorrhiza leaves, which were differentially expressed under salt treatment compared with control. Ten protein spots were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, leading to identification of proteins involved in photosynthesis, antioxidation, protein folding, cell organization and metabolism. Salt-responsive mechanism was different between 200 and 500 mM NaCl-treated plants on the basis of the physiological and proteomic analyses. Salt tolerance under 200 mM NaCl treatment was due to effective osmotic adjustment, accumulation of inorganic ions (especially Na(+) and Cl(-)) as well as increased expression of photosynthesis-related proteins and antioxidant enzymes, which improved the salt tolerance of B. gymnorrhiza, and furthermore promoted plant growth. On the other hand, 500 mM NaCl reduced the growth of B. gymnorrhiza, which appears to have been caused by the accumulation of NaCl (ionic effect) and energy consumption by organic solute synthesis. Moreover, the repressed expression of photosynthesis-related proteins and antioxidant enzymes led to the reduction of growth. Protein folding and degradation-related proteins and cell organization-related protein were up-regulated and played important roles in salt tolerance of B. gymnorrhiza under severe salt stress. PMID:23100256

Zhu, Zhu; Chen, Juan; Zheng, Hai-Lei

2012-10-25

125

Cytotoxic, Antitumour and Antimetastatic Activity of Two New Polyacetylenes Isolated from Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers.  

PubMed

Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers., popularly known as Enxuga, Erva-de-São Simão and Piracá, has been used in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, wound healing and antimicrobial properties. Two polyacetylenes, 5-octa-2,4,6-triynyl-furan-2(5H)-one (1) and 8'-hydroxy 3-4 dihydrovernoniyne (2), were isolated from the dichloromethane extract fraction of V. scorpioides. In this study, polyacetylene 1 demonstrated a more potent cytotoxic activity than 2 in the tumour cell lines examined, and cytotoxicity was found to be comparable to a commercial drug (p > 0.05) in melanoma cells. No significant cytotoxic effect was observed in normal cell lines. Furthermore, polyacetylene 1 induced an in vitro increase in caspase-3 activity in B16F10 cells. When polyacetylene 1 was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in mice, a reduction in solid tumour volume and metastasis was observed in mice injected with B16F10 cells. An increase in locomotor activity was also observed in mice with solid tumours, and an inhibition of mechanical hypersensitivity was observed in a mouse model of metastasis. Notably, no significant morphological change was observed in several organs harvested from the treated mice. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of polyacetylene 1 was consistently observed and involved the induction of apoptosis by the activation of caspase-3. The anticancer activity demonstrated by polyacetylene 1, together with the absence of preliminary toxicological effects, represents a new and interesting option for the management of neoplastic disease. PMID:23763911

Klein, Juliana B; Nowill, Alexandre E; Franchi, Gilberto C; Biavatti, Maique W; Quintão, Nara L M; de Freitas, Rilton A

2013-07-09

126

Transcriptional Response of the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.) following Exposure to Heat Stress and Copper  

PubMed Central

Global warming is a major factor that may affect biological organization, especially in marine ecosystems and in coastal areas that are particularly subject to anthropogenic pollution. We evaluated the effects of simultaneous changes in temperature and copper concentrations on lysosomal membrane stability (N-acetyl-hexosaminidase activity) and malondialdehyde accumulation (MDA) in the gill of the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.). Temperature and copper exerted additive effects on lysosomal membrane stability, exacerbating the toxic effects of metal cations present in non-physiological concentrations. Mussel lysosomal membrane stability is known to be positively related to scope for growth, indicating possible effects of increasing temperature on mussel populations in metal-polluted areas. To clarify the molecular response to environmental stressors, we used a cDNA microarray with 1,673 sequences to measure the relative transcript abundances in the gills of mussels exposed to copper (40 µg/L) and a temperature gradient (16°C, 20°C, and 24°C). In animals exposed only to heat stress, hierarchical clustering of the microarray data revealed three main clusters, which were largely dominated by down-regulation of translation-related differentially expressed genes, drastic up-regulation of protein folding related genes, and genes involved in chitin metabolism. The response of mussels exposed to copper at 24°C was characterized by an opposite pattern of the genes involved in translation, most of which were up-regulated, as well as the down-regulation of genes encoding heat shock proteins and “microtubule-based movement” proteins. Our data provide novel information on the transcriptomic modulations in mussels facing temperature increases and high copper concentrations; these data highlight the risk of marine life exposed to toxic chemicals in the presence of temperature increases due to climate change.

Negri, Alessandro; Oliveri, Catherina; Sforzini, Susanna; Mignione, Flavio; Viarengo, Aldo; Banni, Mohamed

2013-01-01

127

Oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in early developmental stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity during early development were studied in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam. The oxygen consumption rate increased from 0.12 ?mol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 in unfertilized eggs to 0.38 ?mol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 25 min after fertilization. Specific activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase was significantly stimulated after fertilization, ranging up to 1.07 ?mol Pi h-1 mg protein-1 in the late blastula stage and slightly lower values in the early and late pluteus stages.

Tomši?, Sanja; Stankovi?, Suzana; Lucu, ?edomil

2011-09-01

128

Clinical Utility of a Commercial LAM-ELISA Assay for TB Diagnosis in HIV-Infected Patients Using Urine and Sputum Samples  

PubMed Central

Background The accurate diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected patients, particularly with advanced immunosuppression, is difficult. Recent studies indicate that a lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assay (Clearview-TB®-ELISA) may have some utility for the diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected patients; however, the precise subgroup that may benefit from this technology requires clarification. The utility of LAM in sputum samples has, hitherto, not been evaluated. Methods LAM was measured in sputum and urine samples obtained from 500 consecutively recruited ambulant patients, with suspected TB, from 2 primary care clinics in South Africa. Culture positivity for M. tuberculosis was used as the reference standard for TB diagnosis. Results Of 440 evaluable patients 120/387 (31%) were HIV-infected. Urine-LAM positivity was associated with HIV positivity (p?=?0.007) and test sensitivity, although low, was significantly higher in HIV-infected compared to uninfected patients (21% versus 6%; p<0.001), and also in HIV-infected participants with a CD4 <200 versus >200 cells/mm3 (37% versus 0%; p?=?0.003). Urine-LAM remained highly specific in all 3 subgroups (95%–100%). 25% of smear-negative but culture-positive HIV-infected patients with a CD4 <200 cells/mm3 were positive for urine-LAM. Sputum-LAM had good sensitivity (86%) but poor specificity (15%) likely due to test cross-reactivity with several mouth-residing organisms including actinomycetes and nocardia species. Conclusions These preliminary data indicate that in a high burden primary care setting the diagnostic usefulness of urine-LAM is limited, as a rule-in test, to a specific patient subgroup i.e. smear-negative HIV-infected TB patients with a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3, who would otherwise have required further investigation. However, even in this group sensitivity was modest. Future and adequately powered studies in a primary care setting should now specifically target patients with suspected TB who have advanced HIV infection.

Dheda, Keertan; Davids, Virginia; Lenders, Laura; Roberts, Teri; Meldau, Richard; Ling, Daphne; Brunet, Laurence; van Zyl Smit, Richard; Peter, Jonathan; Green, Clare; Badri, Motasim; Sechi, Leonardo; Sharma, Surendra; Hoelscher, Michael; Dawson, Rodney; Whitelaw, Andrew; Blackburn, Jonathan; Pai, Madhukar; Zumla, Alimuddin

2010-01-01

129

Target site mutation and reduced translocation are present in a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype from Spain.  

PubMed

The resistance mechanism of a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype collected in Córdoba (Southern Spain) was examined. Resistance Factor values at three different growth stages ranged between 4.77 and 4.91. At 96 hours after treatment (HAT) the S biotype had accumulated seven times more shikimic acid than the R biotype. There were significant differences in translocation of (14)C-glyphosate between biotypes, i.e. at 96 HAT, the R biotype accumulated in the treated leaf more than 70% of the absorbed herbicide, in comparison with 59.21% of the S biotype; the R biotype translocated only 14.79% of the absorbed (14)C-glyphosate to roots, while in the S population this value was 24.79%. Visualization of (14)C-glyphosate by phosphor imaging showed a reduced distribution in the R biotype compared with the S. Glyphosate metabolism was not involved in the resistance mechanism due to both biotypes showing similar values of glyphosate at 96 HAT. Comparison of the EPSPS gene sequences between biotypes indicated that the R biotype has a proline 182 to serine amino acid substitution. In short, the resistance mechanism of the L. multiflorum Lam. biotype is due to an impaired translocation of the herbicide and an altered target site. PMID:22771431

González-Torralva, Fidel; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Barro, Francisco; Brants, Ivo; De Prado, Rafael

2012-06-17

130

Improvement of the hydrocarbon phytoremediation rate by Cyperus laxus Lam. inoculated with a microbial consortium in a model system.  

PubMed

Hydrocarbon phytoremediation by Cyperus laxus Lam. growing on perlite and inoculated with hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms was evaluated. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were extracted from weathered soil (60.7 g of TPH kg(-1) of dry soil) and spiked on perlite at initial concentration of 5 g of TPH kg(-1) of dry perlite. Phenological characteristics, total microbial viable counts, hydrocarbon degraders and residual hydrocarbons were determined through 180 days of culture. Phenological characteristics of inoculated plants were improved as compared with non-inoculated plants: root biomass was 1.6 times greater, flowering time was reduced (13%), and the number of inflorescences was 1.5 times higher. The rhizospheric bacterial and fungi counts were higher for planted treatments (inoculated and not inoculated) than for unplanted pots. The maximum phytoremediation rate (0.51 mg of TPH g(-1) of dry plant d(-1)) for inoculated plants was reached at 60 days of culture, and was two times higher than for non-inoculated plants (55% TPH removal). Similar hydrocarbon phytoremediation extent values for inoculated (90%) and non-inoculated (85%) plants were obtained at 180 days of culture. The present study demonstrated that mutual benefits between C. laxus and inoculated hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms are improved during phytoremediation. It is pertinent to note that this is the first report of hydrocarbon phytoremediation by Cyperus laxus Lam., a native plant growing in highly contaminated swamps. PMID:15763093

Escalante-Espinosa, E; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Favela-Torres, E; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

2004-12-08

131

AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DAS SEMENTES DE Moringa oleifera LAM. DURANTE O ARMAZENAMENTO Evaluation of quality of the drumstick seeds during the storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae) is a perennial species originating from the indian northwest that adapts to both irrigated and rain fed crop conditions and it is not very demanding on soils and fertilizers. It is grown in the brazilian northeast, specially in Ceará State, due to its use in clarification of cloudy waters. In spite of its recognized medicinal

Antonio Marcos; Esmeraldo Bezerra; Sebastião Medeiros Filho; João Batista; Santiago Freitas; Elizita Maria Teófilo

132

GROWTH OF ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L.) BENTH., AND LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA (LAM.) DE-WIT, IN DIFFERENT SOIL COMPOSITIONS OF KARACHI UNIVERSITY CAMPUS SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth., and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de-Wit, were studied in soils collected from Karachi University area under natural ecological circumstances. Various growth variables of A. lebbeck and L. leucocephala were reduced from different soil composition (25, 50 and 75%) of Karachi University soil (sandy soil) as compared to Garden soil. Growth of L. leucocephala in

Syed Atiq-ur-Rehman; Muhammad Zafar Iqbal

2010-01-01

133

Identification of stress-induced genes from the drought tolerant semi-arid legume crop horsegram ( Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) through analysis of subtracted expressed sequence tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abiotic stresses adversely affect the agricultural productivity worldwide. Horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) is a legume crop that can tolerate severe adverse environmental conditions such as drought, salinity and heavy metal contamination. As a first step towards characterization of genes that contribute to combating abiotic stresses, construction and analysis of subtracted cDNA library is reported here. Using this strategy a

P. Chandra Obul Reddy; G. Sairanganayakulu; M. Thippeswamy; P. Sudhakar Reddy; M. K. Reddy; Chinta Sudhakar

2008-01-01

134

SWEET POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATAS (L.) LAM.) TISSUE AS A BIOCATALYST IN A PARAFFIN\\/GRAPHITE BIOSENSOR FOR HYDRAZINE DETERMINATION IN BOILER FEED WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biosensor based on paraffin\\/graphite modified with a sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) tissue as the source of peroxidase was developed and used for determining hydrazine in boiler feed water. This enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide catalyses the oxidation of hydroquinone to p-benzoquinone from which electrochemical reduction back to hydroquinone was obtained at a peak potential of

Iolanda Cruz Vieira; Karina Omuro Lupetti; Orlando Fatibello-Filho

2002-01-01

135

Bioassay-guided isolation of urease and ?-chymotrypsin inhibitory constituents from the stems of Lawsonia alba Lam. (Henna).  

PubMed

Seven constituents were isolated from the stems of Lawsonia alba Lam., following an activity-guided isolation, which include two new constituents, namely lawsorosemarinol (1) and lawsofructose (2), one known compound 2-(?-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-1, 4-naphthoquinone (3) and four compounds, 4-hydroxy coumarine (4), 3-(4-hyroxyphenyl)-triacontyl-(Z)-propenoate (5), 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-triacontyl-(Z)-propenoate (6) and 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin (7) first time isolated from Lawsonia alba. Their structure elucidation was based on spectroscopic data analyses. Compounds 3 and 7 showed a moderate inhibition of urease activity, while rest of them showed less than 50% inhibition. These compounds did not show any significant inhibition against ?-chymotrypsin. PMID:23103954

Uddin, Nizam; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Begum, Sabira; Ali, Muhammad Imran; Marasini, Bishnu P; Khan, Ajmal; Choudhary, M Iqbal

2012-10-24

136

In vivo Function and Membrane Binding Properties are Correlated for Escherichia coli LamB Signal Peptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wild-type and pseudorevertant signal peptides of the lamB gene product of Escherichia coli interact with lipid systems whereas a nonfunctional deletion mutant signal peptide does not. This conclusion is based on (i) interaction of synthetic signal peptides with a lipid monolayer-water surface, (ii) conformational changes induced by presence of lipid vesicles in an aqueous solution of signal peptide, and (iii) capacities of the peptides to promote vesicle aggregation. Analysis of the signal sequences and previous conformational studies suggest that these lipid interaction properties may be attributable to the tendency of the functional signal peptides to adopt ? -helical conformations. Although the possibility of direct interaction between the signal peptide and membrane lipids during protein secretion is controversial, the results suggest that conformationally related amphiphilicity and consequent membrane affinity of signal sequences are important for function in vivo.

Briggs, Martha S.; Gierasch, Lila M.; Zlotnick, Adam; Lear, James D.; Degrado, William F.

1985-05-01

137

Bioactive secondary metabolites from Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, an endophytic fungus of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam.  

PubMed

An endophytic fungus was isolated from the root of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam. Based on analyzing the rDNA sequence, the fungus was identified as Nigrospora sp. This is the first report of the isolation of endophytic Nigrospora from M. oleifera. By bioassay-guided fractionation, four antifungal secondary metabolites were isolated from liquid cultures of the fungus Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, and their chemical structures were determined to be griseofulvin (1), dechlorogriseofulvin (2), 8-dihydroramulosin (3) and mellein (4) on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2, 3 and 4 were isolated from Nigrospora sp. for the first time. In vitro antifungal assay showed that griseofulvin displayed clear inhibition of the growth of 8 plant pathogenic fungi. Dechlorogriseofulvin and mellein exhibited only weak antifungal activities, whereas 8-dihydroramulosin displayed no antifungal activities. PMID:22806033

Zhao, J H; Zhang, Y L; Wang, L W; Wang, J Y; Zhang, C L

2012-02-12

138

Laser-ablation microprobe (LAM)-ICPMS unravels the highly siderophile element geochemistry of the oceanic mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly siderophile element (HSE) contents of base-metal sulphides have been determined by laser-ablation microprobe (LAM)-ICPMS in abyssal peridotites from the Mid-Atlantic and South West Indian ridges. (Pd/Ir) N (0.007-505, N: CI-chondrite-normalised), (Pt/Ir) N (0.001-0.77) and (Rh/Ir) N (0.159-273) vary significantly between both grains and samples, irrespective of indicators of melt removal, but in line with bulk-rock platinum-group element (PGE) ratios and sulphide modal abundances. Positive deviations of PGE abundance ratios in whole-rock analyses are due to late-precipitated Cu-Ni-rich magmatic sulphides from incompletely extracted partial melts. These results contradict explanations of the HSE systematics of the oceanic mantle as reflecting global scale processes such as core-mantle exchange.

Luguet, A.; Alard, O.; Lorand, J. P.; Pearson, N. J.; Ryan, C.; O'Reilly, S. Y.

2001-07-01

139

Adsorption of bacteriophage lambda on the LamB protein of Escherichia coli K-12: point mutations in gene J of lambda responsible for extended host range.  

PubMed

LamB is the cell surface receptor for bacteriophage lambda. LamB missense mutations yielding resistance to lambda group in two classes. Class I mutants block the growth of lambda with the wild-type host range (lambda h+) but support the growth of one-step host range mutants (lambda h). Class II mutants block lambda h but support the growth of two-step host range mutant (lambda hh*) phages. To identify amino acid residues in the J protein (the tail fiber of phage lambda) responsible for the extended host range phenotype of mutants of phage (lambda h+), we selected a series of one-step (lambda h) and two-step (lambda hh*) host range mutants and analyzed their corresponding J genes. Three different class I LamB missense mutants (mutations at sites 247, 245, and 148) were used to select 11 independent, new, one-step host range mutants (lambda h phages). DNA sequence analysis revealed a single-amino-acid change in each case. The 11 alterations affected only three residues in the distal part of J, corresponding to a Val-->Ala change at site 1077 in five cases, a Thr-->Met change at site 1040 in three cases, and a Leu-->Pro change at site 1127 in three cases. Recombination experiments confirmed that in the cases tested, the mutations identified were indeed responsible for the extended host range phenotype. The class II LamB mutant (Gly-->Asp at site 151) was used to select two-step extended host range mutants (lambda hh* phages) from three new lambda h phages, corresponding to different amino acid modifications in the J protein (at sites 1040, 1077, and 1127). The new lambda hh* phages analyzed corresponded to either double or triple point mutations located at the distal end of the J protein. In all, seven residues involved in the extended host range properties of lambda mutants were identified in the distal part of the J protein, suggesting that the last C-terminal portion of the J protein participates directly in the adsorption of the phage onto LamB. In agreement with the fact that the lambda h mutants (and the lambda hh* mutants) could grow on all of the lamB class I mutations tested, we found tha the nature of the J mutations did not depend on the LamB class I mutant used to select them. This is interpreted as meaning that the mutated residues in the J protein and in the LamB mutants are not involved in allele-specific protein-protein interactions. Rather, the LamB mutations would block a step in phage adsorption, and this block would be overcome by the mutations in the J protein. PMID:8106335

Werts, C; Michel, V; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

1994-02-01

140

Adsorption of bacteriophage lambda on the LamB protein of Escherichia coli K-12: point mutations in gene J of lambda responsible for extended host range.  

PubMed Central

LamB is the cell surface receptor for bacteriophage lambda. LamB missense mutations yielding resistance to lambda group in two classes. Class I mutants block the growth of lambda with the wild-type host range (lambda h+) but support the growth of one-step host range mutants (lambda h). Class II mutants block lambda h but support the growth of two-step host range mutant (lambda hh*) phages. To identify amino acid residues in the J protein (the tail fiber of phage lambda) responsible for the extended host range phenotype of mutants of phage (lambda h+), we selected a series of one-step (lambda h) and two-step (lambda hh*) host range mutants and analyzed their corresponding J genes. Three different class I LamB missense mutants (mutations at sites 247, 245, and 148) were used to select 11 independent, new, one-step host range mutants (lambda h phages). DNA sequence analysis revealed a single-amino-acid change in each case. The 11 alterations affected only three residues in the distal part of J, corresponding to a Val-->Ala change at site 1077 in five cases, a Thr-->Met change at site 1040 in three cases, and a Leu-->Pro change at site 1127 in three cases. Recombination experiments confirmed that in the cases tested, the mutations identified were indeed responsible for the extended host range phenotype. The class II LamB mutant (Gly-->Asp at site 151) was used to select two-step extended host range mutants (lambda hh* phages) from three new lambda h phages, corresponding to different amino acid modifications in the J protein (at sites 1040, 1077, and 1127). The new lambda hh* phages analyzed corresponded to either double or triple point mutations located at the distal end of the J protein. In all, seven residues involved in the extended host range properties of lambda mutants were identified in the distal part of the J protein, suggesting that the last C-terminal portion of the J protein participates directly in the adsorption of the phage onto LamB. In agreement with the fact that the lambda h mutants (and the lambda hh* mutants) could grow on all of the lamB class I mutations tested, we found tha the nature of the J mutations did not depend on the LamB class I mutant used to select them. This is interpreted as meaning that the mutated residues in the J protein and in the LamB mutants are not involved in allele-specific protein-protein interactions. Rather, the LamB mutations would block a step in phage adsorption, and this block would be overcome by the mutations in the J protein.

Werts, C; Michel, V; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

1994-01-01

141

Sawdust of lam tree ( Cordia africana ) as a low-cost, sustainable and easily available adsorbent for the removal of toxic metals like Pb(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sawdust of lam tree (Cordia africana) has been investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of lead and nickel ions from aqueous solution. Since lam tree is widely\\u000a grown in almost all the eastern, western, central and southern tropical African countries (United States Department of Agriculture,\\u000a GRIN, Maryland), it can be a common most easily available, sustainable, low cost adsorbent for

Syed Muzaffar Ali Andrabi

2011-01-01

142

GROWTH AND FLOWERING OF LENTEN ROSE (Helleborus orientalis Lam.) DEPENDING ON THE DOSE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE AND TOP DRESSING WITH PETERS PROFESSIONAL SPECIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedlings and young plants of lenten rose (Helleborus orientalis Lam.) were grown for two years (2006-2007) in containers on peat substrate which was deacidified with calcium carbonate at doses (g·dm-3) of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0. Within each dose of CaCO3 plants were divided into two groups, of which one was fertilized with a lower (0.1%) and the other with

Monika Henschke; Piotr Czuchaj

143

OmpC and LamB proteins can serve as substitute receptors for host range mutants of coliphage TuIa.  

PubMed Central

Coliphage TuIa, which uses the OmpF protein as a receptor, can adapt by mutation to using instead the OmpC or LamB protein, or both. Most of the phage mutants retained the ability to use the OmpF protein, when present, but one class of mutants lost this ability and could only use the OmpC protein.

Moreno, F; Wandersman, C

1980-01-01

144

Coliphage which requires either the LamB protein or the OmpC protein for adsorption to Escherichia coli K-12.  

PubMed Central

Either of two different proteins in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli K-12 (LamB and OmpC) can function in the constitution of receptor activity for a newly isolated T-even bacteriophage. This bacteriophage (SSI) differs from other T-even phages which use the OmpC protein as their receptors. The simple procedure used to isolate phage SSI may be suitable for the detection of bacteriophages with novel outer membrane receptor requirements.

Beher, M G; Pugsley, A P

1981-01-01

145

OmpC and LamB proteins can serve as substitute receptors for host range mutants of coliphage TuIa.  

PubMed

Coliphage TuIa, which uses the OmpF protein as a receptor, can adapt by mutation to using instead the OmpC or LamB protein, or both. Most of the phage mutants retained the ability to use the OmpF protein, when present, but one class of mutants lost this ability and could only use the OmpC protein. PMID:7002910

Moreno, F; Wandersman, C

1980-12-01

146

Differential sensitivity of stomatal and non-stomatal components to NaCl or Na2SO4 salinity in horsegram, Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

14CO2 assimilation rate (P), leaf diffusive conductance (gs), photosynthetic electron flow, and activities of enzymes of Calvin cycle were studied in a horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.)] in response to salinity induced by NaCl or Na2SO4. A significant reduction in P and gs by both salt treatments was registered. Na2SO4 caused a greater reduction in gs than the NaCl salinity. Studies

P. Sreenivasulu Reddy; S. Ramanjulu; C. Sudhakar; K. Veeranjaneyulu

1998-01-01

147

A case of multiple sclerosis with granulomatous uveitis in Japan—use of the antilipoarabinomannan (LAM)B test in differential diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To report a patient with multiple sclerosis and associated with granulomatous uveitis, and how anti-lipoarabinomannan (LAM)-B antibody can play a key role in differential diagnosis.METHODS: Case report.RESULTS: A 35-year-old Japanese woman with multiple sclerosis, diagnosed 3 years ago, presented with blurred vision in her left eye. Ophthalmological examinations revealed granulomatous iridocyclitis in her left eye and retinal periphlebitis in

Kenji Inoue; Jiro Numaga; Satoru Joko; Shinzo Izumi; Satoshi Kato; Hidetoshi Kawashima; Yujiro Fujino

2001-01-01

148

In situ trace-element analysis of individual silicate melt inclusions by laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the successful application of laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS) to the in situ analysis of a diverse suite of twenty trace elements including Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y, and REEs, in individual silicate melt inclusions in phenocrysts from Fantale volcano, Ethiopia. The UV laser, a frequency quadrupled Nd: YAG operating at 266 nm, significantly improves

R. P. Taylor; S. E. Jackson; H. P. Longerich; J. D. Webster

1997-01-01

149

Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation of sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) from stem explants using a two-step kanamycin-hygromycin selection method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To achieve reliable stable transformation of sweet potato, we first developed efficient shoot regeneration for stem explants,\\u000a leaf disks, and petioles of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cultivar Beniazuma. The shoot regeneration protocol enabled reproducible stable transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. The binary vector pIG121Hm contains the npt II (pnos) gene for kanamycin (Km) resistance, the hpt

Guo-Qing Song; Hideo Honda; Ken-Ichi Yamaguchi

2004-01-01

150

Validation of turbulence and convective schemes on western Africa; comparison of LAM and CRM simulations on an AMMA case study.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to analyse the behaviour of turbulence and convective parameterizations included in the Météo-France ALADIN-CLIMAT Limited Area Model in the frame of a 48 hour simulation of an AMMA case study, in comparison to observations and to a CRM (Méso-NH, with a 5 km horizontal grid-mesh) simulation carried out under the same boundary forcings. This framework provides an intermediate step of parameterization validation between the Single Column Model and Global Climate Model simulation studies. The chosen case study is the 26-27th July 2006 over a 43° x 40° region centred over Burkina Faso, in continuation to a previous work done with a HAPEX-Sahel case-study. During this 2 day period, two successive mesoscale convective systems are located ahead and in phase with the trough of an African easterly Wave (AEW). Both LAM and CRM simulations have been performed over the same considered domain, using the same ECMWF boundary forcings. Sensitivity tests to resolution (both horizontal and vertical) have been first carried out with ALADIN-CLIMAT. Second, the two different convection schemes used in ALADIN-CLIMAT show two kinds of response mainly due to their different formulations of triggering (no constraints in the dry layer under the convective cloud versus continuous treatment of convection including this dry layer) and closure (moisture convergence versus CAPE). Third, the impact of convective downdrafts will be shown. Fourth, the impact of different boundary forcing fields will also be presented.

Pollack, David; Gueremy, Jean-Francois; Beau, Isabelle

2010-05-01

151

Enhanced Biofuel Production from High-Concentration Bioethanol Wastewater by a Newly Isolated Heterotrophic Microalga, Chlorella vulgaris LAM-Q.  

PubMed

Microalgal biofuel production from wastewater has economic and environmental advantages. This article investigates the lipid production from high chemical oxygen demand (COD) bioethanol wastewater without dilution or additional nutrients, using a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga, Chlorella vulgaris LAM-Q. To enhance lipid accumulation, the combined effects of important operational parameters were studied via response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were found to be temperature of 22.8?, initial pH of 6.7, and inoculum density of 1.2 × 10(8) cells/ml. Under these conditions, the lipid productivity reached 195.96 mg/l/d, which was markedly higher than previously reported values in similar systems. According to the fatty acid composition, the obtained lipids were suitable feedstock for biodiesel production. Meanwhile, 61.40% of COD, 51.24% of total nitrogen, and 58.76% of total phosphorus were removed from the bioethanol wastewater during microalgal growth. In addition, 19.17% of the energy contained in the wastewater was transferred to the microalgal biomass in the fermentation process. These findings suggest that C. vulgaris LAMQ can efficiently produce lipids from high-concentration bioethanol wastewater, and simultaneously performs wastewater treatment. PMID:23801252

Xie, Tonghui; Liu, Jing; Du, Kaifeng; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Yongkui

2013-10-28

152

Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract.  

PubMed

The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200?mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50?mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

2013-06-04

153

Intergeneric somatic hybridization in Gramineae: somatic hybrid plants between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.).  

PubMed

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) protoplasts, inactivated by iodoacetamide, and non-morphogenic Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) protoplasts, both derived from suspension cultures, were electrofused and putative somatic hybrid plants were recovered. Two different genotypic fusion combinations were carried out and several green plants were regenerated in one of them. With respect to plant habitus, leaf and inflorescence morphology, the regenerants had phenotypes intermediate between those of the parents. Southern hybridization analysis using a rice ribosomal DNA probe revealed that the regenerants contained both tall fescue- and Italian ryegrass-specific-DNA fragments. A cloned Italian ryegrass-specific interspersed DNA probe hybridized to total genomic DNA from Italian ryegrass and from the green regenerated somatic hybrid plants but not to tall fescue. Chromosome counts and zymograms of leaf esterases suggested nuclear genome instability of the somatic hybrid plants analyzed. Four mitochondrial probes and one chloroplast DNA probe were used in Southern hybridization experiments to analyze the organellar composition of the somatic hybrids obtained. The somatic hybrid plants analyzed showed tall fescue, additive or novel mtDNA patterns when hybridized with different mitochondrial gene-specific probes, while corresponding analysis using a chloroplast gene-specific probe revealed in all cases the tall fescue hybridization profile. Independently regenerated F. arundinacea (+) L. multiflorum somatic hybrid plants were successfully transferred to soil and grown to maturity, representing the first flowering intergeneric somatic hybrids recovered in Gramineae. PMID:1753939

Takamizo, T; Spangenberg, G; Suginobu, K; Potrykus, I

1991-12-01

154

Contaminated soil phytoremediation by Cyperus laxus Lam. cytochrome p450 EROD-activity induced by hydrocarbons in roots.  

PubMed

Laboratory and greenhouse experiments with Cyperus laxus Lam were conducted to determine the rate and extent of phytoremediation and the effect of hydrocarbons on the cytochrome P450 EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) enzymatic activity in roots. Plants were cultivated on hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (HCS) and spiked perlite. Phytoremediation was evaluated using 6.5 kg HCS (173 +/- 15 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] g(-1) of dry soil) pots at different moisture contents; the average removal rate was 3.46-0.25 mg TPH g(-1) dry soil month(-1) and 48% was removed when moisture was kept at 60%. The aromatic hydrocarbon fraction was the mostly removed, 60%; aliphatic, 51%; and polar 24% after 24-month experiments. In unplanted pots, TPH concentration did not exhibit significant differences with respect to the initial concentration. We confirmed that the presence of hydrocarbons induced ERODactivity up to 6.5-fold. Moreover, short-term experiments (up to 13 d) with spiked perlite demonstrated that two EROD activities in roots contributed to the total detected; 60% was found in the cytosolic and 40% in the microsomal fraction. To our knowledge, this is the first work that tries to build links between the hydrocarbon-inducible character of ERODactivity in roots and the phytoremediation ability of C. laxus in highly contaminated soils. PMID:19260214

López-Martínez, S; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Pérez-Flores, L J; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

155

Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200?mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50?mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

2013-01-01

156

Antinociceptive effect of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background: Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial herb used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of various painful conditions. Little scientific evidence exists in literature on the effect of this plant on pain. Materials and Methods: The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of H. latifolia in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, glutamate, formalin, and capsaicin tests) and thermal (tail immersion test) behavioral pain models in rodents. The possible mechanisms of the antinociceptive action were also assessed with various antagonists in the formalin test. Results: The H. latifolia extract (HLE) together with morphine and diclofenac (positive controls), showed significant antinociceptive activity in all the models used. The antinociceptive effect exhibited by HLE in the formalin test was partly or wholly reversed by the systemic administration of naloxone, theophylline, and atropine. Glibenclamide, ondansetron, yohimbine, nifedipine, and NG-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), however, did not significantly block the antinociceptive effect of the extract. HLE, unlike morphine, did not induce tolerance to its antinociceptive effect in the formalin test after chronic administration; morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to HLE. Interestingly, also, the chronic concomitant administration of HLE and morphine significantly suppressed the development of morphine tolerance. Conclusion: Together, these results indicate that HLE produces dose-related antinociception in several models of chemical and thermal pain, without tolerance induction, through mechanisms that involve an interaction with adenosinergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and opioid pathways.

Woode, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K. M.

2011-01-01

157

A dithiol glutaredoxin cDNA from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam): enzyme properties and kinetic studies.  

PubMed

Glutaredoxins (Grx) play an important role in reduction of protein glutathione mixed disulphides. An IbGrx cDNA (561?bp, EF362614) encoding a putative dithiol Grx was cloned from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam). The deduced amino acid sequence is conserved among the reported dithiol Grx, having a CGYC dithiol motif at the active site. A 3-D structural model was created based on the known crystal structure of a poplar Grx (GrxC1). To characterise the IbGrx protein, the coding region was subcloned into an expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. The recombinant His(6) -tagged IbGrx was expressed and purified by metal affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme showed a monomeric band, as demonstrated with 15% SDS-PAGE. The Michaelis constant (K(M) ) for ß-hydroxyethyl disulphide (HED) was 0.50?±?0.08?Mm. The enzyme retained 60% activity at 80?°C for 16?min. The enzyme was active over a broad pH range from 6.0 to 11.0, and in the presence of imidazole up to 0.4?M. The enzyme was susceptible to protease. PMID:22288388

Chi, X-W; Lin, C-T; Jiang, Y-C; Wen, L; Lin, C-T

2012-01-30

158

Immunogenicity of viral B-cell epitopes inserted into two surface loops of the Escherichia coli K12 LamB protein and expressed in an attenuated aroA strain of Salmonella typhimurium.  

PubMed

We previously developed a general procedure which allows the genetic coupling of a chosen foreign linear epitope in different 'permissive' sites of a carrier protein. By using the outer membrane protein LamB of Escherichia coli K12 as a carrier, we were able to express a number of different foreign epitopes at the bacterial surface. In the present work, taking advantage of the recent determination of the crystal structure of LamB, we inserted two model B-cell epitopes i.e.--the C3 epitope from poliovirus (residues 93 to 103 of VP1) and the preS2 epitope from hepatitis B virus, (residues 132 to 145)--at the tip of the most distal and largest surface exposed region of LamB (after residues 386, into loop L9). We also used two previously constructed LamB hybrids, corresponding to the insertion of the C3B or preSB epitope into permissive site 153 (lying in the middle of the fourth surface loop of LamB), to construct two LamB proteins corresponding to the simultaneous insertion of the two different epitopes (with one epitope per site). The LamB hybrids were placed under the control of the anaerobically inducible pnirB promoter and expressed in a LamB-negative derivative of the aroA attenuated strain of S. typhimurium, SL3261. In vitro, the recombinant proteins were expressed at a high level (up to 10% of whole cell proteins) and in vivo the recombinant plasmids were stably maintained. For both epitopes, genetic coupling at site 386 appeared to be more favorable for the induction of anti-epitope antibodies than coupling at site 153. Moreover, the LamB hybrid corresponding to the simultaneous insertion of the preSB epitope at site 153 and of the C3B epitope at site 386 allowed the induction of both anti-poliovirus and anti-hepatitis B antibodies. PMID:10078601

Wang, J; Michel, V; Leclerc, C; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

1999-01-01

159

Lead induced changes in antioxidant metabolism of horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) and bengalgram (Cicer arietinum L.).  

PubMed

One-month old horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. cv VZM1) and bengalgram (Cicer arietinum L. cv Annogiri) were exposed to different regimes of lead stress as Pb(NO3)2 at 0, 200, 500 and 800 ppm concentrations. The extent of oxidative damage as the rate of lipid peroxidation, antioxidative response and the accumulation of lead in roots and shoots of both plants were evaluated after 12 days of lead stress. Lead (Pb) treated plants showed increased levels of lipid peroxidation as evidenced from the increased malondialdehyde content coupled with the increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) compared to control (untreated) plants. Lead stress caused significant changes in the activity of antioxidative enzymes. The effect of lead was found to be concentration dependent. Higher concentration of lead (800 ppm) resulted 2- to 3-fold increase in SOD, catalase and peroxidase activities, 3- to 5-fold increase in GR activity and 3- to 4-fold increase in GST activity in roots and leaves of both horsegram and bengalgram plants. Lead stress caused a significant increase in the rate of peroxidation as showed in the levels of malondialdehyde content in roots and leaves of both plant species. Horsegram registered lower Pb accumulation than bengalgram, however localization of Pb was greater in roots than leaves in both plants. In general, lipid peroxide levels and antioxidative enzyme activities were higher in horsegram than bengalgram and also more in roots than leaves which best concordance with the lead contents of both the plants and organs. These results suggest that Pb toxicity causes oxidative stress in plants and the antioxidative enzymes SOD, CAT, POD, GR, GST could play a pivotal role against oxidative injury. PMID:15910908

Reddy, Alavala Matta; Kumar, Surabhi Giridara; Jyothsnakumari, Gottimukkala; Thimmanaik, S; Sudhakar, Chinta

2005-01-25

160

Ontogenetic Variation of Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity in Roots, Leaves and Flowers of Astragalus compactus Lam. (Fabaceae)  

PubMed Central

Introduction The potential health risks and toxicity of synthetic antioxidants resulted in an upsurge of interest in phytochemicals as new sources of natural antioxidants. Phenolics of Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) possess antioxidant properties and have been shown to have a protective effect against several degenerative diseases. The objective of this study was to determine total phenolics and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from different parts of A. compactus Lam. at different phenological phases and to investigate the correlations between antioxidation and the contents of the total phenolics. Methods Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Results Generally, the TPC in leaves was higher than that of the roots and flowers. TPC in leaves, roots and flowers of the species varied from 5.01-8.25, 4.29-7.89 and 4.19 ?g GAE/mg DW, respectively. In addition, roots and leaves at fructification stage possessed higher TPC than vegetative and flowering stages. Therefore, the leaf extracts at fructification phase showed the highest TPC that accompanied with best antioxidant activity. In the root extracts, fructification stage was also characterized by the highest antioxidant activity. Conclusion A positive relationship between antioxidant activity and TPC showed that phenolics were the dominant antioxidant components in the species. The results obtained suggest that A. compactus methanolic extracts may serve as potential sources of natural phenolic antioxidants and that the fructification phase could be considered as the best stage for the harvesting of this plant.

Naghiloo, Somayeh; Movafeghi, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Dadpour, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

161

Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter.  

PubMed

Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture. The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter, to maintain acceptable levels of soil, water and air quality. In this study, two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems; recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation water in local communities with low income. In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation. It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen), 90% for NO2(-)-N, 64.8% for NO3(-)-N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN, 82% for NO2(-)-N and 60.5% for NO3(-)-N. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well, however, plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming. Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction, the treatment with L. perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality. A. viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge. The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves. PMID:17966513

Nduwimana, André; Yang, Xiang-Long; Wang, Li-Ren

2007-01-01

162

Digital Gene Expression Analysis Based on Integrated De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.  

PubMed Central

Background Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.]) ranks among the top six most important food crops in the world. It is widely grown throughout the world with high and stable yield, strong adaptability, rich nutrient content, and multiple uses. However, little is known about the molecular biology of this important non-model organism due to lack of genomic resources. Hence, studies based on high-throughput sequencing technologies are needed to get a comprehensive and integrated genomic resource and better understanding of gene expression patterns in different tissues and at various developmental stages. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina paired-end (PE) RNA-Sequencing was performed, and generated 48.7 million of 75 bp PE reads. These reads were de novo assembled into 128,052 transcripts (?100 bp), which correspond to 41.1 million base pairs, by using a combined assembly strategy. Transcripts were annotated by Blast2GO and 51,763 transcripts got BLASTX hits, in which 39,677 transcripts have GO terms and 14,117 have ECs that are associated with 147 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, transcriptome differences of seven tissues were analyzed by using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiling and numerous differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were identified. Moreover, the expression characteristics of genes involved in viral genomes, starch metabolism and potential stress tolerance and insect resistance were also identified. Conclusions/Significance The combined de novo transcriptome assembly strategy can be applied to other organisms whose reference genomes are not available. The data provided here represent the most comprehensive and integrated genomic resources for cloning and identifying genes of interest in sweet potato. Characterization of sweet potato transcriptome provides an effective tool for better understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular processes including development of leaves and storage roots, tissue-specific gene expression, potential biotic and abiotic stress response in sweet potato.

Wang, Hai-Yan; Zheng, Wen; Li, Xiao; Zhao, Chuan-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Zheng

2012-01-01

163

Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of an ANS Gene Encoding Anthocyanidin Synthase from Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), a 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) iron-dependent oxygenase, catalyzes the penultimate step in the biosynthesis\\u000a of anthocyanin. This reaction is responsible for the formation of the colored anthocyanidins from the colorless leucoanthocyanidins.\\u000a A full-length cDNA was isolated from purple-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) cv. Yamakawamurasaki, designated IbANS, containing a 1,086-bp open reading frame encoding a 362-amino-acid polypeptide. Multiple

Wei Zhou; Chengtao Huang; Yifu Gong; Qili Feng; Feng Gao

2010-01-01

164

How Is LAM Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... and Other Pleural Disorders How the Lungs Work Lung Function Tests Chest X Ray Thoracentesis Related Media Videos Widgets ... up, making it easier for you to breathe. Lung function tests can sometimes show whether these medicines are likely ...

165

Determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by enhanced chemiluminescence of CdTe quantum dots on calcein/K3Fe(CN)6 system.  

PubMed

In this paper, 3-mercaptocarboxylic acid (MPA) modified CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were used as sensitizers, to enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system. A new CL system of CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was developed. The effects of reactant concentrations and the particle sizes of CdTe QDs on the CL emission were investigated in detail. The possible enhancement mechanism of the CL was also further investigated based on the photoluminescence (PL) and CL spectra. Polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid, quercetin, hyperin, catechin and kaempferol, were observed to inhibit the CL signal of the CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system and determined by the proposed method. The proposed method was applied to the determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and the results obtained were satisfactory. PMID:23442699

Kang, Jing; Li, Xuwen; Geng, Jiayang; Han, Lu; Tang, Jieli; Jin, Yongri; Zhang, Yihua

2012-04-18

166

Point-of-care detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine for diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis: a state of the art review.  

PubMed

Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in urine is attractive as a potential means of diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) regardless of the anatomical site of disease. The most promising candidate antigen is the cell wall lipopolysaccharide antigen lipoarabinomannan (LAM), which has been used to develop commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Although highly variable diagnostic accuracy has been observed in different clinical populations, it is now clear that this assay has useful sensitivity for diagnosis of HIV-associated TB in patients with advanced immunodeficiency and low CD4 cell counts. Thus, this assay is particularly useful when selectively used among patients enrolling in antiretroviral treatment services or in HIV-infected patients requiring admission to hospital medical wards. These are the very patients who have the highest mortality risk and who stand to gain the most from rapid diagnosis, permitting immediate initiation of TB treatment. A recently developed low-cost, lateral-flow (urine 'dip-stick') format of the assay provides a result within 30 minutes and is potentially a major step forward as it can be used at the point-of-care, making the possibility of immediate diagnosis and treatment a reality. This paper discusses the likely utility of this point-of-care assay and how it might best be used in combination with other diagnostic assays for TB. The many further research studies that are needed on this assay are described. Consideration is particularly given to potential reasons for the variable specificity observed in existing field evaluations of LAM ELISAs. Whether this might be related to the assay itself or to the challenges associated with study design is discussed. PMID:22536883

Lawn, Stephen D

2012-04-26

167

Determination of partition coefficients for trace elements in high pressure-temperature experimental run products by laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS)  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the first trace element partition coefficients measured on experimentally produced products (clinopyroxene, garnet, rutile, and glass) by laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS). A 266 nm (UV) laser microprobe was used to improve ablation characteristics and to achieve a fourfold reduction in ablation pit diameter compared to the previously used 1064 nm beam. Results are compared with PIXE analyses on the same experimental products, and literature values, where available, for similar systems, and include the first simultaneously measured partition coefficients for Zr, Nb, and Ta between rutile and glass. Advantages of the LAM technique include rapid results and simultaneous determination of a wide range of major and trace elements, thus ensuring sampling integrity through time-resolved analysis of the sampled material.

Jenner, G.A.; Jackson, S.E.; Fryer, B.J.; Longerich, H.P. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's (Canada)); Foley, S.F. (Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)); Green, T.H. (Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, New South Wales (Australia))

1993-12-01

168

Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Tyrosine 118 within the Central Constriction Site of the LamB (Maltoporin) Channel of Escherichia coli. II. Effect on Maltose and Maltooligosaccharide Binding Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3-D structure of the maltooligosaccharide-specific LamB channel of Escherichia coli (also called maltoporin) is known from x-ray crystallography. The central constriction of the channel formed by the external loop 3 is controlled by tyrosine 118. Y118 was replaced by site-directed mutagenesis by 10 other amino acids (alanine (A), isoleucine (I), asparagine (N), serine (S), cysteine (C), aspartic acid (D),

Frank Orlik; Christian Andersen; Roland Benz

2002-01-01

169

Site-directed mutagenesis of tyrosine 118 within the central constriction site of the LamB (maltoporin) channel of Escherichia coli. II. Effect on maltose and maltooligosaccharide binding kinetics.  

PubMed

The 3-D structure of the maltooligosaccharide-specific LamB channel of Escherichia coli (also called maltoporin) is known from x-ray crystallography. The central constriction of the channel formed by the external loop 3 is controlled by tyrosine 118. Y118 was replaced by site-directed mutagenesis by 10 other amino acids (alanine (A), isoleucine (I), asparagine (N), serine (S), cysteine (C), aspartic acid (D), arginine (R), histidine (H), phenylalanine (F), and tryptophan (W)) including neutral ones, negatively and positively charged amino acids to study the effect of their size, their hydrophobicity index, and their charge on maltose and maltooligosaccharide binding to LamB. The mutants were reconstituted into lipid bilayer membranes and the stability constants for binding of maltose, maltotriose, maltopentaose, and maltoheptaose to the channel were measured using titration experiments. The mutation of Y118 to any other non-aromatic amino acid led to a substantial decrease of the stability constant of binding by factors between about two and six. The highest effect was observed for the mutant Y118A. Replacement of Y118 by the two other aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine (F) and tryptophan (W), resulted in a substantial increase of the stability constant maximally by a factor of almost 400 for the Y118W mutant. The carbohydrate-induced block of the channel function was used for the study of current noise through the different mutant LamB channels. The analysis of the power density spectra allowed the evaluation of the on- and off-rate constants (k(1) and k(-1)) of sugar binding. The results suggest that both rate constants were affected by the mutations. For most mutants, with the exception of Y118F and Y118W, k(1) decreased and k(-1) increased, whereas the opposite was found for the aromatic amino acid mutants. The results suggest that tyrosine 118 has a crucial effect on carbohydrate transport through LamB. PMID:12080122

Orlik, Frank; Andersen, Christian; Benz, Roland

2002-07-01

170

Phylogenetic Diversity of Rhizobia Associated with Horsegram [ Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] Grown in South India Based on glnII , recA and 16S-23S Intergenic Sequence Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) is an important grain legume and fodder crop in India. Information on root nodule endosymbionts of this legume\\u000a in India is limited. In the present study, 69 isolates from naturally occurring root nodules of horsegram collected from two\\u000a agro-eco-climatic regions of South India was analyzed by generation rate, acid\\/alkali reaction on YMA medium, restriction\\u000a fragment

Chinnaswamy Appunu; Govindan Ganesan; Micha? Kalita; Raghavan Kaushik; Balamurugan Saranya; Vaiyapuri Ramalingam Prabavathy; Nair Sudha

2011-01-01

171

Determination of partition coefficients for trace elements in high pressure-temperature experimental run products by laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the first trace element partition coefficients measured on experimentally produced products (clinopyroxene, garnet, rutile, and glass) by laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS). A 266 nm (UV) laser microprobe was used to improve ablation characteristics and to achieve a fourfold reduction in ablation pit diameter compared to the previously used 1064 nm beam. Results are compared

G. A. Jenner; S. E. Jackson; B. J. Fryer; H. P. Longerich; S. F. Foley; T. H. Green

1993-01-01

172

Evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity in the early successional Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. compared to the late successional Hymenaea courbaril L. grown in contrasting light environments.  

PubMed

The present study investigated changes in photosynthetic characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (early successional species) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (late successional species) grown in contrasting light conditions as a way of assessing photosynthetic plasticity. Early successional species typically inhabit gap environments being exposed to variability in multiple resources, hence it is expected that these species would show higher photosynthetic plasticity than late successional ones. In order to test this hypothesis, light and CO2 response curves and chlorophyll content (Chl) were measured in plants grown in high and low light environments. G. ulmifolia presented the highest amounts of both Chl a and b, especially in the low light, and both species presented higher Chl a than b in both light conditions. The Chl a/b ratio was higher in high light leaves of both species and greater in G. ulmifolia. Taken together, these results evidence the acclimation potential of both species, reflecting the capacity to modulate light harvesting complexes according to the light environment. However, G. ulmifolia showed evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity, as indicated by the greater amplitude of variation on photosynthetic characteristics between environments shown by more significant shade adjusted parameters (SAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Thus, the results obtained were coherent with the hypothesis that the early successional species G. ulmifolia exhibits higher photosynthetic plasticity than the late successional species H. courbaril. PMID:20231962

Portes, M T; Damineli, D S C; Ribeiro, R V; Monteiro, J A F; Souza, G M

2010-02-01

173

Validation of turbulence and convective schemes on western Africa; comparison of LAM and CRM simulations on a HAPEX-Sahel case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to analyse the behaviour of turbulence and convective parameterizations included in the Météo-France ALADIN-CLIMAT Limited Area Model in the frame of a 24 hour simulation of a HAPEX-Sahel case study, in comparison to observations and to a CRM (Méso-NH, with a 5 km horizontal grid-mesh) simulation carried out under the same boundary forcings. This framework provides an intermediate step of parameterization validation between the Single Column Model and Global Climate Model simulation studies. The chosen case study is the 21st August 1992 over a 12° x 12° region centred over SW Niger. It is characterised by the life cycle of a westward propagating convective system associated to an African Easterly Wave. Both LAM and CRM simulations have been performed over the same considered domain, using the same ERA40 boundary forcings. Sensitivity tests to resolution (both horizontal and vertical) have been first carried out with ALADIN-CLIMAT. Second, the two different convection schemes used in ALADIN-CLIMAT show two kinds of response mainly due to their different formulations of triggering (no constraints in the dry layer under the convective cloud versus continuous treatment of convection including this dry layer) and closure (moisture convergence versus CAPE). Third, the impact of entrainment at the top of the PBL (included in the turbulence scheme) and of convective downdrafts will be shown. Fourth, the impact of different boundary forcing fields will also be presented.

Pollack, D.; Gueremy, J. F.; Beau, I.

2009-04-01

174

Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants have been shown to have both chemopreventive and/or therapeutic effects on cancer and other diseases related to oxidative damage. Moringa oleifera Lam., known in the Hausa and Igala languages of Nigeria as "Zogale" and "Gergedi," respectively, and drumstick in English, is a plant that is used both as food and in folkloric medicine in Nigeria and elsewhere. Different parts of the plant were analyzed for polyphenol content as well as in vitro antioxidant potential. The methanol extract of the leaves of M. oleifera contained chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, whereas in the root and stem barks, several procyanidin peaks were detected. With the xanthine oxidase model system, all the extracts exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 16, 30, and 38 microL for the roots, leaves, and stem bark, respectively. Similarly, potent radical scavenging capacity was observed when extracts were evaluated with the 2-deoxyguanosine assay model system, with IC(50) values of 40, 58, and 72 microL for methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks, respectively. The high antioxidant/radical scavenging effects observed for different parts of M. oleifera appear to provide justification for their widespread therapeutic use in traditional medicine in different continents. The possibility that this high antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity may impact on the cancer chemopreventive potential of the plant must be considered. PMID:20521992

Atawodi, Sunday E; Atawodi, Joy C; Idakwo, Gabriel A; Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Wurtele, Gerd; Bartsch, Helmut; Owen, Robert W

2010-06-01

175

In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. Leaves in Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. leaves in Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. In in vitro studies T. asiatica leaves ethyl acetate extract showed very good scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 605.34±2.62?g/ml), hydroxyl (IC50 694.37±2.12?g/ml) and nitric oxide (IC50 897.83±1.48?g/ml) radicals, as well as high reducing power. In Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats, oral treatment with T. asiatica leaves ethyl acetate extract produced a significant (P?0.005) decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in comparison with hexane and methanol extracts. In high fat diet-fed hyperlipidemic rats, the ethyl acetate extract (200 and 400mg/kg) significantly altered the plasma and liver lipids levels to near normal. PMID:23891761

Irudayaraj, Santiagu Stephen; Sunil, Christudas; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2013-07-25

176

Biochemical Aspects of a Serine Protease from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) Seeds: A Potential Tool to Access the Mobilization of Seed Storage Proteins  

PubMed Central

Several proteins have been isolated from seeds of leguminous, but this is the first report that a protease was obtained from seeds of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., a tree belonging to the Fabaceae family. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatographies and gel filtration. This 61-kDa serine protease (CeSP) hydrolyses H-D-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (Km 55.7??M) in an optimum pH of 7.1, and this activity is effectively retained until 50°C. CeSP remained stable in the presence of kosmotropic anions (PO4?3?, SO4?2?, and CH3COO?) or chaotropic cations (K+ and Na+). It is strongly inhibited by TLCK, a serine protease inhibitor, but not by E-64, EDTA or pepstatin A. The characteristics of the purified enzyme allowed us to classify it as a serine protease. The role of CeSP in the seeds cannot be assigned yet but is possible to infer that it is involved in the mobilization of seed storage proteins.

Praxedes-Garcia, Priscila; Cruz-Silva, Ilana; Gozzo, Andrezza Justino; Abreu Nunes, Viviane; Torquato, Ricardo Jose; Tanaka, Aparecida Sadae; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia; Gonzalez, Yamile Gonzalez; Araujo, Mariana da Silva

2012-01-01

177

Effect of charged residue substitutions on the thermodynamics of signal peptide-lipid interactions for the Escherichia coli LamB signal sequence.  

PubMed Central

We have used tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize the binding affinities of an Escherichia coli LamB signal peptide family for lipid vesicles. These peptides harbor charged residue substitutions in the hydrophobic core region. Titrations of peptides with vesicles composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-3-phosphoglycerol (65:35 mol%), in conjunction with evaluation of peptide dissociation rates from these vesicles, were used to determine binding parameters quantitatively. We find that under low ionic strength conditions, point mutations introducing negatively charged aspartate residues substantially reduce peptide affinity relative to the wild-type peptide. However, the difference between wild-type and mutant peptide affinities was much lower under approximately physiological ionic strength. In addition, the lipid affinities of model surface-binding and transmembrane peptides were determined. These comparative studies with signal and model peptides permitted semi-quantitative deconvolution of signal peptide binding into electrostatic and hydrophobic components. We find that both interactions contribute significantly to binding, although the theoretically available hydrophobic free energy is largely offset by unfavorable polar-group effects. The implications of these results for understanding the potential roles of the signal sequence in protein translocation are discussed.

Jones, J D; Gierasch, L M

1994-01-01

178

Adhesion to and invasion of pulmonary epithelial cells by the F15/LAM4/KZN and Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Globally, specific genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been shown to dominate in patients, suggesting that these are more successful pathogens. One such genotype, the F15/LAM4/KZN (KZN) family of M. tuberculosis, has predominated in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, since the early 1990s. This strain recently evolved from multidrug-resistant to extensively drug-resistant (XDR). The ability of M. tuberculosis strains belonging to the Beijing family, the KZN family, strains with unique DNA fingerprint patterns and laboratory strains (H37Rv and H37Ra) to adhere to and invade a human alveolar (A549) and a human bronchial (BBM) epithelial cell line was investigated. All strains displayed greater adhesion to and invasion of A549 cells as compared to BBM cells. The Beijing and KZN strains combined showed greater adhesion (28 %) than the unique strains (5 %) (P <0.05). The XDR variant of KZN invaded A549 cells more effectively than the other isolates. These results suggest that the successful spread of the Beijing and KZN strains might be related to their interaction with alveolar epithelium. PMID:20110390

Ashiru, Olubisi T; Pillay, Manormoney; Sturm, A Willem

2010-01-28

179

Phosphorus status and microbial community of paddy soil with the growth of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) under different phosphorus fertilizer treatments*  

PubMed Central

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was grown in paddy soil in pots under different phosphorus (P) fertilizer treatments to investigate changes of P fractions and microbial community of the soil. The treatments included Kunyang phosphate rock (KPR) applications at 50 mg P/kg (KPR50) and 250 mg P/kg (KPR250), mono-calcium phosphate (MCP) application at 50 mg P/kg (MCP50), and the control without P application. The results showed that KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications significantly increased the dry weight of the ryegrass by 13%, 38%, and 55%, and increased P uptake by 19%, 135%, and 324%, respectively. Compared with MCP50, the relative effectiveness of KPR50 and KPR250 treatments in ryegrass production was about 23% and 68%, respectively. After one season of ryegrass growth, the KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications increased soil-available P by 13.4%, 26.8%, and 55.2%, respectively. More than 80% of the applied KPR-P remained as HCl-P fraction in the soil. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis showed that the total and bacterial PLFAs were significantly higher in the soils with KPR250 and MCP50 treatments compared with KPR50 and control. The latter had no significant difference in the total or bacterial PLFAs. The KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 treatments increased fungal PLFA by 69%, 103%, and 69%, respectively. Both the principal component analysis and the cluster analysis of the PLFA data suggest that P treatments altered the microbial community composition of the soils, and that P availability might be an important contributor to the changes in the microbial community structure during the ryegrass growth in the paddy soils.

Guo, Hai-chao; Wang, Guang-huo

2009-01-01

180

Development of a validated HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of flavonoids in Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by ultra-violet detection  

PubMed Central

Background Cuscuta species known as dodder, have been used in traditional medicine of eastern and southern Asian countries as liver and kidney tonic. Flavonoids are considered as the main biologically active constituents in Cuscuta plants especially in C. chinensis Lam. Objective In the present study, a fast, simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination and quantization of C. chinensis flavonols including hyperoside, rutin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol has been developed. Materials and methods The chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase ACE 5 C18 with eluting at a flow rate of 1 ml/min using a gradient with O-phosphoric acid 0.25% : acetonitrile for 42 min. UV spectra were collected across the range of 200–900 nm, extracting 360 nm for the chromatograms. The method was validated according to linearity, selectivity, precision, recovery, LOD and LOQ. Results The method was selective for determination of rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin and kampferol. The calibration graphs of flavonols were linear with r2?>?0.999. RSDs% of intra- and inter-day precisions were found 1.3&3.4 for rutin, 1.5&2.8 for hyperoside, 1.3&3.3 for isorhamnetin and 1.7 & 2.9 for kaempferol which were satisfactory. LODs and LOQs were calculated as 1.73 & 8.19 for rutin, 0.09 & 4.19 for hyperoside, 2.09 & 6.3 for isorhamnetin and 0.18 & 0.56 for kaempferol. The recovery averages of above-mentioned flavonols were 90.3%, 97.4%, 98.7% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusion The simplicity of the method makes it highly valuable for quality control of C. chinensis according to quantization of flavonols.

2012-01-01

181

Effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on growth and N2 fixation of a legume subshrub (Caragana microphylla Lam.) in temperate grassland in China.  

PubMed

It is well demonstrated that the responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration are species-specific and dependent on environmental conditions. We investigated the responses of a subshrub legume species, Caragana microphylla Lam., to elevated CO(2) and nitrogen (N) addition using open-top chambers in a semiarid temperate grassland in northern China for three years. Measured variables include leaf photosynthetic rate, shoot biomass, root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity, and leaf N content. Symbiotic nitrogenase activity was determined by the C(2)H(2) reduction method. Elevated CO(2) enhanced photosynthesis and shoot biomass by 83% and 25%, respectively, and the enhancement of shoot biomass was significant only at a high N concentration. In addition, the photosynthetic capacity of C. microphylla did not show down-regulation under elevated CO(2). Elevated CO(2) had no significant effect on root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity and leaf N content. Under elevated CO(2), N addition stimulated photosynthesis and shoot biomass. By contrast, N addition strongly inhibited symbiotic nitrogenase activity and slightly increased leaf N content of C. microphylla under both CO(2) levels, and had no significant effect on root biomass. The effect of elevated CO(2) and N addition on C. microphylla did not show interannual variation, except for the effect of N addition on leaf N content. These results indicate that shoot growth of C. microphylla is more sensitive to elevated CO(2) than is root growth. The stimulation of shoot growth of C. microphylla under elevated CO(2) or N addition is not associated with changes in N(2)-fixation. Additionally, elevated CO(2) and N addition interacted to affect shoot growth of C. microphylla with a stimulatory effect occurring only under combination of these two factors. PMID:22046376

Zhang, Lin; Wu, Dongxiu; Shi, Huiqiu; Zhang, Canjuan; Zhan, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Shuangxi

2011-10-26

182

Eugenia jambolana Lam. Berry Extract Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer but not Non-Tumorigenic Breast Cells  

PubMed Central

The ripe purple berries of the native Indian plant, Eugenia jambolana Lam., known as Jamun, are popularly consumed and available in the United States in Florida and Hawaii. Despite the growing body of data on the chemopreventive potential of edible berry extracts, there is paucity of such data for Jamun fruit. Therefore our laboratory initiated the current study with the following objectives:1) to prepare a standardized Jamun fruit extract (JFE) for biological studies and, 2) to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, and in a normal/non-tumorigenic (MCF-10A) breast cell line. JFE was standardized to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC50=27 µg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC50=40 µg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC50>100 µg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 µg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro (p?0.05) and the MDA-MB-231 (p?0.01) breast cancer cells, but not towards the normal MCF-10A breast cells. These studies suggest that JFE may have potential beneficial effects against breast cancer.

Li, Liya; Adams, Lynn S.; Chen, Shiuan; Killian, Caroline; Ahmed, Aftab; Seeram, Navindra P.

2009-01-01

183

In vitro analysis on bactericidal screening and antioxidant potentiality of leaf and root extracts of Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. An ethnobotanical plant  

PubMed Central

Objective Natural products of plant origin are potential source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidative agents. Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. (T. siliquosa). A medicinal herb used by local tribals for treating various ailments. The present study aims at the phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis, in vitro antibacterial activity and antioxidant potentiality of root and leaf extracts of T. siliquosa. Methods Hot continuous Soxhlet extraction, GC-MS analysis, antibacterial analysis by disc diffusion, microdilution assay and antioxidant potentialities by hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical scavenging. The data was statistically analyzed. Results Phytochemical screening of the ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of leaf and root revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins and saponin. The extract revealed a pool of phytochemicals by comparison with authentic standards from spectral library. Both the extracts has shown their broad spectrum of inhibition against the selected bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia compared with standard antibiotic drug streptomycin. The extracts showed antioxidant activity by scavenging of free radicals such as hydroxyl and nitric oxide. The IC50 values of the ethyl acetate extracts leaf and root and standard in this assay were 167.5±0.67, 99.4±1.2, 192±2.5 µg/mL respectively. Similarly those methanolic extracts of leaf and root were 269.5±0.89 and 289.1±2.66 µg/mL respectively. Similarly, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts also caused a moderate dose-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide with an IC50 range 65.5±1.55 to 148 ±3.09 µg/mL. The inhibitory activities were found to be dose dependent. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that ethyl acetate and methanol extract of leaf and root of T. siliquosa are potential source of natural antioxidants and bactericidal nature. It is essential that research should continue to isolate and purify the bio active components of this natural plant and use in drug discovery and development.

Nusaiba, Saiba Abdul Wahab; Murugan, Kumaraswamy

2013-01-01

184

Hæmerythrin in Priapulus caudatus Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHEN the body wall of Priapulus is punctured, large amounts of a pinkish fluid can be obtained. The coelomic fluid contains erythrocytes composing about 2 per cent of its total volume. By hæmolysis with distilled water the pigment of the erythrocytes goes into solution. The properties of this solution are similar to those described from studies with hæmerythrin solutions1,2. The

Ragnar Fänge

1950-01-01

185

Multicenter study of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) III: effectiveness, duration, and satisfaction with reduced client–provider contact 1 1 With the Principal Investigators from each site: Michele Barbato, MD, Italy; Thelma E. Canto de C., MD, Mexico; O.A. Dada, PhD, Sagamu, Nigeria; Loraine Hollins, United Kingdom; Wolfgang Senger, MD, Germany; Joe A. M. Otubu, MD, Jos, Nigeria; Rebecca Ramos, MD, Philippines; Mamdouh M. Shabaan, MD, Egypt; Jean-Gilles Tchabo, MD, United States; and Annette Kaplan, BSc, RNM, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this effort was to assess the use and efficacy of the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) with reduced numbers of client–provider contacts. A co-sponsored multicenter study of LAM was performed to test the efficacy and acceptability of the method under “post-marketing” conditions, with investigator-initiated contact occurring only twice: at the time of intake and then again at month

A. E. Peterson; R. Pe?ez-Escamilla; M. H. Labboka; V. Hight; H. von Hertzen; P. Van Look

2000-01-01

186

Phylogenetic diversity of rhizobia associated with horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] grown in South India based on glnII, recA and 16S-23S intergenic sequence analyses.  

PubMed

Horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) is an important grain legume and fodder crop in India. Information on root nodule endosymbionts of this legume in India is limited. In the present study, 69 isolates from naturally occurring root nodules of horsegram collected from two agro-eco-climatic regions of South India was analyzed by generation rate, acid/alkali reaction on YMA medium, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (IGS), and sequence analyses of IGS and housekeeping genes glnII and recA. Based on the rDNA IGS RFLP by means of three restriction enzymes rhizobia were grouped in five clusters (I-V). By sequence analysis of 16S-23S rDNA IGS identified genotypes of horsegram rhizobia were distributed into five divergent lineages of Bradyrhizobium genus which comprised (I) the IGS type IV rhizobia and valid species B. yuanmingense, (II) the strains of IGS type I and Bradyrhizobium sp. ORS 3257 isolated from Vigna sp., (III) the strains of the IGS type II and Bradyrhizobium sp. CIRADAc12 from Acacia sp., (IV) the IGS type V strains and Bradyrhizobium sp. genospecies IV, and (V) comprising genetically distinct IGS type III strains which probably represent an uncharacterized new genomic species. Nearly, 87% of indigenous horsegram isolates (IGS types I, II, III, and V) could not be related to any other species within the genus Bradyrhizobium. Phylogeny based on housekeeping glnII and recA genes confirmed those results found by the analysis of the IGS sequence. All the isolated rhizobia nodulated Macrotyloma sp. and Vigna spp., and only some of them formed nodules on Arachis hypogeae. The isolates within each IGS type varied in their ability to fix nitrogen. Selection for high symbiotic effective strains could reward horsegram production in poor soils of South India where this legume is largely cultivated. PMID:21188591

Appunu, Chinnaswamy; Ganesan, Govindan; Kalita, Micha?; Kaushik, Raghavan; Saranya, Balamurugan; Prabavathy, Vaiyapuri Ramalingam; Sudha, Nair

2010-12-25

187

Partial replacement of dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves for noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake in the diet of highland sheep fed on wheat straw.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of replacing noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake by dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves on feed intake, live weight gain, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen balance of highland sheep in Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Twenty intact yearling male highland sheep weighing 16.9 ± 1.62 kg were used in a randomized complete block design and included the following four treatments: T1 (control, wheat straw ad libitum + 200 g noug seed cake (NSC) + 150 g wheat bran (WB)); T2 (wheat straw ad libitum + 170 g NSC + 44.3 g dried L. leucocephala (DLL) + 150 g WB); T3 (wheat straw ad libitum + 140 g NSC + 87.3 g DLL + 150 g WB); and T4 (wheat straw ad libitum + 110 g NSC + 130.2 g DLL + 150 g WB). Sheep fed on T4 diet consumed higher total dry matter (658 g/head/day) and recorded the highest average daily weight gain (59 g/head/day). Sheep fed on T4 diet had higher dry matter (61 %), organic matter (63 %), and crude protein (75 %) digestibility values than the other treatments. Sheep fed on T3 diet demonstrated higher feed conversion ratio (11.93) than sheep kept on the other treatments. All sheep exhibited positive nitrogen balance, with the highest nitrogen retention being measured in T4 (12 g/head/day). It is concluded that partially replacing NSC by DLL can improve total dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients, and body weight gain in highland sheep fed on wheat straw as the basal diet. PMID:22820996

Tesfay, Temesgen; Tesfay, Yayneshet

2012-07-23

188

PROSPECTS FOR LEARNING DESIGN RESEARCH AND LAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning Design is a descriptive framework for acti vity structures that can describe many different pedagogical methods. It is similar to music notatio n, which can describe many styles of music using a common format, but Learning Design needs further research to be an effective format for sharing good teaching ideas among educators. Learning Design may also provide benefits for

James Dalziel

189

The COSMOS Information Systems at LAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decades have witnessed a strong increase in the amount of data coming from astronomical surveys. These data are exploited by large international collaborations of scientists working around the same scientific goals. The regular request of high data-quality control, fast data access via easy-to-use graphic interfaces, as well as the possibility to cross correlate information coming from different observations motivate the use of scientific information systems. The CeSAM (Centre de donneéS Astronomiques de Marseille) data center answers to the aforementioned needs offering a specialized database service to the contemporary large astrophysical surveys (VVDS, GALEX, HST-COSMOS, Hershel, CoRoT, etc.). We here focus our attention on the HST-COSMOS and zCOSMOS information systems, recently opened to the scientific community. We are dealing with data coming from the largest ever-undertaken cosmological survey. The associated database has the specificity to archive, visualize and correlate multi-wavelength and spectroscopic datasets.

Moreau, C.; Gimenez, S.; Kneib, J.-P.; Tasca, L.

2011-07-01

190

Leaves of Berberidaceae ( Berberis and Mahonia) from Oligocene sediments, near Tepexi de Rodr??guez, Puebla  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the Oligocene Los Ahuehuetes locality, near Tepexi de Rodr??guez, Puebla, Mexico, five new plant species are described based on their leaf architecture. The presence of brochidodromous or acrodromous venation, and secondary veins forming angular (versus rounded) arcs, are well defined characters in the fossil material that relate it to Berberidaceae. Comparison with the leaves and leaflets of extant and

José Luis Ram??rez; Sergio R. S. Cevallos-Ferriz

2000-01-01

191

Spine production is induced by fire: a natural experiment with three Berberis species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies indicate that some plant species allocate more mass to produce longer spines in shoots resprouting after browsing. Here we present, for the first time, evidence that fire induces a similar response. Many terrestrial herbivores may benefit from fire through the enhanced availability of fast growing species colonizing or re-sprouting in burned areas. It is less clear whether post-fire

Juan Gowda; Estela Raffaele

2004-01-01

192

Diversity in soil fungi from undisturbed and disturbed Celtis tala and Scutia buxifolia forests in the eastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina).  

PubMed

The rhizospheric soil microfungi from a native forest (undisturbed and disturbed) were studied using soil dilution plate and soil washing methods. Fungi were isolated using slightly acid and alkaline culture media. 54 taxa were isolated: 49 from undisturbed forest soil and 37 from disturbed forest soil. Acremonium sp., Aspergillus ustus, Coemansia pectinata, Doratomyces stemonitis, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Gliocladium roseum, Humicola fusco-atra, Mortierella sp., Penicillium lilacinum, Trichoderma harzianum, and T koningii, showed the highest frequency, in both, undisturbed and disturbed forests. In undisturbed soil forest the biodiversity index was 3.97 whereas in disturbed ones was 3.89. PMID:12002400

Cabello, Marta; Arambarri, Angélica

2002-01-01

193

Linking seed dispersal, germination and seedling recruitment in the invasive species Berberis darwinii (Darwin’s barberry)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedling recruitment is a multi-phased process involving seed production, dispersal, germination, seedling establishment and\\u000a subsequent survival. Understanding the factors that determine success at each stage of this process is of particular interest\\u000a to scientists and managers seeking to understand how invasive species spread and persist, and identify critical stages for\\u000a management. To understand the factors and processes influencing recruitment of

Kate G. McAlpine; Linley K. Jesson

2008-01-01

194

Antimicrobial isothiocyanates from the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam.  

PubMed

4-(alpha-L-Rhamnosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (1) and 4-(4'-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2) isolated from Moringa oleifera seeds were screened for their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for their antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum using the disk diffusion method. Isothiocyanates 1 and 2 were found active at the lowest inhibitory concentration of 1 mg/ml against all Gram-positive bacteria tested (S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis) and against the dermatophytic fungi E. floccosum and T. rubrum. Statistically significant differences were found between the mean inhibition zones (IZ) of 1 and 2 and the standard drugs, ofloxacin and clotrimazole. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values confirmed the good antimicrobial activity of 1 and 2 against S. aureus, good to moderate activity against S. epidermidis, moderate activity against B. subtilis, and weak activity against E. floccosum and T. rubrum. The in vitro bactericidal effect of 1 and 2 against the Gram-positive bacterial strains tested is suggested by MBC:MIC ratios of 2:1. PMID:23413749

Padla, Eleanor P; Solis, Ludivina T; Levida, Ruel M; Shen, Chien-Chang; Ragasa, Consolacion Y

195

Spectroscopy around lam Ori and sig Ori (Maxted+, 2008)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radial velocities and spectral indices for 218 stars and brown dwarfs around {sigma} and {lambda} Orionis. Observations were obtained with the FLAMES/GIRAFFE multi-object spectrograph on ESO's VLT UT2 (Kueyen) telescope (programme ID 076.C_145). The equivalent width of the NaI 8200{AA} and the strength of the TiO 8442{AA} spectral features were measured from the median average spectrum. Radial velocities were measured by cross-correlation against a template spectrum of the brown dwarf star USco CTIO 055 at multiple epochs. (3 data files).

Maxted, P. F. L.; Jeffries, R. D.; Oliveira, J. M.; Naylor, T.; Jackson, R. J.

2008-05-01

196

A fungitoxic principle from the leaves of lawsonia inermis lam.  

PubMed

During antifungal screening of higher plants, the leaves of Lawsonia inermis were found to exhibit strong fungitoxicity. On chemical investigation, the antifungal factor was found to be 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (Lawsone). The minimum effective dose against test organism was found to be 1000 ppm. Lawsone was found to exhibit fungicidal activity, wide fungitoxic spectrum and nonphytotoxicity. PMID:620734

Tripathi, R D; Srivastava, H S; Dixit, S N

1978-01-15

197

A fungitoxic principle from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During antifungal screening of higher plants, the leaves ofLawsonia inermis were found to exhibit strong fungitoxicity. On chemical investigation, the antifungal factor was found to be 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (Lawsone). The minimum effective dose against test organism was found to be 1000 ppm. Lawsone was found to exhibit fungicidal activity, wide fungitoxic spectrum and nonphytotoxicity.

R. D. Tripathi; H. S. Srivastava; S. N. Dixit

1978-01-01

198

PROPERTIES OF LAM´ E OPERATORS WITH FINITE MONODROMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey paper contains recent developments in the study of Lame operators having finite monodromy group. We present the approach based on the pull-back theory of Klein, that allowed the description of the projective monodromy groups by Baldassarri ((Bal81)), as well as the connection with Grothendieck's the- ory of dessins d'enfants, that leads to explicit properties and formulae. The results

Rùazvan Litcanu; Leonardo Zapponi

2006-01-01

199

THE LAM´ E FAMILY OF CONNECTIONS ON THE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with rank two connections on the projective line having four simple poles with prescribed local ex- ponents 1\\/4 and -1\\/4. This Lame family of connections has been extensively studied in the literature. The dierential Galois group of a Lame connection is never maximal: it is either dihedral (fi- nite or infinite) or reducible. We provide an explicit

PROJECTIVE LINE

200

THE LAM´ E FAMILY OF CONNECTIONS ON THE PROJECTIVE LINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with rank two connections on the projective line having four simple poles with prescribed local ex- ponents 1\\/4 and -1\\/4. This Lame family of connections has been extensively studied in the literature. The differential Galois group of a Lame connection is never maximal: it is either dihedral (fi- nite or infinite) or reducible. We provide an explicit

F. LORAY; M. VAN DER PUT; F. ULMER

2008-01-01

201

Cost of Service Information System -Load Analysis Model (LAm).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cost of Service Information System of models (COSIS) is an integrated, electric utility strategic planning system. This system of five models, written in FORTRAN, provides a framework for the examination of a wide range of utility strategics or enviro...

1982-01-01

202

Radical scavenging potential of phenolics from Bryophyllum pinnatum (LAM.) OKEN.  

PubMed

Optimization of the extraction process of phenolics from Bryophyllum pinnatum was carried out using response-surface methodology (RSM). The effect of different variables such as ratio of solvents, plant material/solvent ratio, extraction time, and temperature were investigated. An optimal phenolics yield of 7.952 mg/g gallic acid equivalence (GAE) was achieved at reduced levels of methanol/water ratio (1:1, v/v). During optimization, the product yield was enhanced by ?2-fold at reduced extraction solvent (methanol/water) up to 37%. Validation of the RSM model for extraction of total phenolic content (TPC) was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The obtained experimental values were in good agreement with the predicted values, thereby indicating the appropriateness of the model generated. Phenolic extracts from B. pinnatum were further examined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods for determining the radical scavenging activities. EC(50) values of B. pinnatum extracts (BPEs) obtained by these methods were in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in the extract. Significant correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). PMID:21660869

Gupta, Suneel; Banerjee, Rintu

2011-01-01

203

The tumor specific cytotoxicity of dihydronitidine from Toddalia asiatica Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: In recent years, a number of reports have shown the anticancer activity of plant extracts and phytoalkaloid. Methods: We have evaluated the cytotoxicity profiles of 157 extracts prepared from dietary or medical plants growing in the Okinawa island, using 10 different cell lines. In vitro cytotoxicity screening indicated the presence of a highly selective cytotoxic compound in the extract

Hironori Iwasaki; Hirosuke Oku; Ryo Takara; Hanako Miyahira; Kaoru Hanashiro; Yasuhiko Yoshida; Yasuhiro Kamada; Tetsuya Toyokawa; Kensaku Takara; Masashi Inafuku

2006-01-01

204

Phytotoxic compounds from roots of Centaurea diffusa Lam.  

PubMed Central

An extract of roots of Centaurea diffusa (diffuse knapweed) yielded caryophyllene oxide and linoleic acid which were shown to be phytotoxic. Also isolated were germacrene B, a previously-known phytotoxin as well as the inactive polyene aplotaxene. A combination of these compounds, if transferred to the soil, could be one factor in the invasive behavior of this weed. Contrary to a literature report, 8-hydroxyquinoline was not detected in root exudates of in vitro grown C. diffusa nor could it be identified in the root extract. However, a recent report from a different group maintains that 8-hydroxyquinoline can be released from roots of C. diffusa following a diurnal rhythm.

Quintana, Naira; El Kassis, Elie G; Stermitz, Frank R

2009-01-01

205

Ecology and Management of Diffuse Knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A close relative of spotted knapweed in the Asteraceae taxonomic family, diffuse knapweed is typically biennial, reproducing exclusively by seed. It forms a rosette with a central crown and tap root in the juvenile stage and a single upright stem one to three feet (0.3 to 0.9 m) tall with numerous spreading branches at maturity. White (occasionally purple) flowers are

Jim Jacobs; Sharlene Sing

206

Ecology and Management of Oxeye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxeye daisy is a European perennial forb that spreads by seed and creeping rhizomes. Its distinctive flowerhead with yellow disc and white ray flowers and its spatula-shaped, lobed rosette leaves help identify this Montana Category I noxious weed. First recorded from Lewis and Clark County in 1890, it spread to 24 counties by 2007. Oxeye daisy is a prolific seed

Jim Jacobs

207

7 CFR 301.38-4 - Interstate movement of regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-4 Interstate movement...through any protected area: (i) All rust-susceptible Berberis , Mahoberberis...Berberis species and varieties designated as rust-resistant in §...

2010-01-01

208

7 CFR 301.38-4 - Interstate movement of regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-4 Interstate movement...through any protected area: (i) All rust-susceptible Berberis , Mahoberberis...Berberis species and varieties designated as rust-resistant in §...

2009-01-01

209

Seasonal variation of temperature response of respiration in invasive Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry) and two co-occurring native understory shrubs in a northeastern US deciduous forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the understory of a closed forest, plant growth is limited by light availability, and early leafing is proposed to be an\\u000a important mechanism of plant invasion by providing a spring C “subsidy” when high light is available. However, studies on\\u000a respiration, another important process determining plant net C gain, are rare in understory invasive plants. In this study,\\u000a leaf

Cheng-Yuan Xu; W. S. F. Schuster; Kevin L. Griffin

2007-01-01

210

Antiplasmodial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis on Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell.  

PubMed

The antiplasmodial activity of plant extracts related to four families was tested on chloroquine sensitive strain 3D7 and chloroquine resistant strain Dd2 of Plasmodium falciparum. The methanolic extract of Harrisonia abyssinica (Simaroubaceae) inhibited Dd2 with IC50 value of 4.7 microg/ml, while in 3D7, the IC50 value was 10 microg/ml. Most of the plants from the family Meliaceae showed highly potent antiplasmodial activity against the two tested strains. Khaya senegalensis, Azadirachta indica and Trichilia emetica showed IC50 values less than 5 microg/ml. The methanolic extract of Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) leaves showed high antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 2 and 30 microg/ml on 3D7 and Dd2, respectively. While stem bark showed moderate activity with IC50 values of 8.5 and 120 microg/ml on Dd2. Maytenus senegalensis (Celastraceae) possessed IC50 values of 3.9 on 3D7, 10 microg/ml on Dd2 and had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation even at the highest tested concentration; the IC50 was greater than 100 microg/ml. Liquid-liquid separation of the methanolic extract of M. senegalensis revealed that the dichloromethane extract possessed an IC50 value of only 2.1 microg/ml. Column fractionation of dichloromethane extract gave four fractions and fraction two showed an IC50 value of 0.5 microg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of dichloromethane fraction revealed terpenoids and traces of phenolic principles but no alkaloid, tannins or flavonoids were detected. PMID:10363837

El Tahir, A; Satti, G M; Khalid, S A

1999-03-01

211

lam Ori and sig Ori low-mass stars spectroscopy (Maxted+, 2008)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radial velocities and spectral indices for 218 stars and brown dwarfs around {sigma} and {lambda} Orionis. Observations were obtained with the FLAMES/GIRAFFE multi-object spectrograph on ESO's VLT UT2 (Kueyen) telescope (programme ID 076.C_145). The equivalent width of the NaI 8200{AA} and the strength of the TiO 8442{AA} spectral features were measured from the median average spectrum. Radial velocities were measured by cross-correlation against a template spectrum of the brown dwarf star USco CTIO 055 at multiple epochs. (3 data files).

Maxted, P. F. L.; Jeffries, R. D.; Oliveira, J. M.; Naylor, T.; Jackson, R. J.

2008-05-01

212

J F de Beer, K van Rooyen, F Lam, D Bhatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calcium deposit accumulates in one of the tendons of the shoulder. The cause is unknown and not related to injury, diet or osteoporosis. The patient most commonly affected is a female 40-50 years of age, but other age groups and males are regularly affected. The calcium deposit is a paste-like material in the tendon and not a hard object

CALCIFIC TENDINITIS

213

Mycobacteria are hidden endophytes in the shoots of rock plant [Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack.] (Poaceae).  

PubMed

A mycobacterium was isolated from micropropagated Pogonatherum paniceum and identified as a close relative of Mycobacterium cookii. The endophyte diversity in the shoots of potted and micropropagated P. paniceum plants was studied by culture-independent techniques. Group- and strain-specific PCR demonstrated that the P. paniceum plants harboured the isolated Mycobacterium strain as a minority. Altogether 101 clones of the PCR products were sequenced. The shoots of potted P. paniceum plants harboured unculturable endophytes in the families Phyllobacteriaceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae, Sphingobacteriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Alcaligenaceae and Mycobacteriaceae. Among the unculturable Mycobacteriaceae strains related to Mycobacterium chubuense, M. poriferae, M. obuense, M. fortuitum, M. neoaurum, M. diernhoferi, M. intracellulare and M. cookii were identified. Three unique sequences that clustered with M. llatzarense and M. mucogenicum were identified in micropropagated plants. According to the results, the shoots and micropropagated tissues of rock plant are inhabited by mycobacteria, which should stimulate further studies on the diversity of unculturable mycobacteria in edible crop plants. PMID:23766233

Koskimäki, Janne J; Hankala, Elina; Suorsa, Marja; Nylund, Sannakajsa; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

2010-08-01

214

Antiplasmodial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis on Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiplasmodial activity of plant extracts related to four families was tested on chloroquine sensitive strain 3D7 and chloroquine resistant strain Dd2 of Plasmodium falciparum. The methanolic extract of Harrisonia abyssinica (Simaroubaceae) inhibited Dd2 with IC50 value of 4.7 ?g\\/ml, while in 3D7, the IC50 value was 10 ?g\\/ml. Most of the plants from the family Meliaceae showed highly potent

Ahmed El Tahir; Gwiria M. H Satti; Sami A Khalid

1999-01-01

215

Physio-anatomic aspects on the initial growth of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seedlings.  

PubMed

This paper aimed to evaluate the initial growth of "mutambo" seedlings in different conditions of light intensity and treatments with gibberellic acid (GA). The seedlings were kept under full sun and 50% of shading. Sixty days after the emergence, seedlings were sprayed with: 1) 100 mg L(-1) GA(3); 2) 200 mg L(-1) GA(3); 3) control. At the end of the appraisals, seedlings height under 50% of shading was compared to the height that were growing under full sun with 200 mg L(-1) GA. Stem diameter was lower under shading. Leaf area did not vary among the treatments, but the root system growth was higher under full sun and did not vary among GA levels. The number of stomata, trichomes and epidermal cells on adaxial and abaxial sides was higher under full sun. Total dry masses of leaf and root were highe runder full sun and with 200 mg L(-1) GA application. "Mutambo" seedlings presented a higher initial growth under full sun, although with a lower height, diameter, and lenght of the largest root and total dry masses of leaf and root were higher. A concentration with 200 mg L(-1) promoted a higher growth. PMID:21670888

Scalon, Silvana P Q; Pereira, Heloisa H G; Glaeser, Daniele F; Silva, Jocemar J; Betoni, Roseli; Mussury, Rosilda M

2011-06-01

216

The effects of phosphate on the biomineralization of the green alga, Halimeda incrassata (Ellis) Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field surveys indicated that individuals of Halimeda incrassata (Ellis) Lamouroux, a rhizophytic alga, were significantly more mineralized when collected from phosphate-limited carbonate sediments of the Florida Keys than those collected from siliciclastic sediments at Tarpon Springs on the west coast of Florida. Results from field experiments in Tarpon Springs, which compared growth of H. incrassata in enriched conditions to unmanipulated

Kyle W. Demes; Susan S. Bell; Clinton J. Dawes

2009-01-01

217

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.  

PubMed Central

Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl–hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5–7.5?mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25–7.5?mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5–7.5?mg/mL and 2.5–10?mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7??g/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1??g/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w) showed significant (P < 0.05) wound contraction at day 7 with 72% of wound closure whiles significant (P < 0.05) wound contractions were observed on day 11 for stem bark of K. africana, leaf and root extracts of S. hispidus. Wound tissues treated with the extracts showed improved collagenation, re-epitheliazition and rapid granulation formation compared with untreated wound tissues. The extracts were found to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these may justify the medicinal uses of the plants for treatment of microbial infections and wounds.

Agyare, Christian; Dwobeng, Anita Serwaa; Agyepong, Nicholas; Boakye, Yaw Duah; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Ayande, Patrick George; Adarkwa-Yiadom, Martin

2013-01-01

218

Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit Leucaena, tantan Leguminosae (Mimosoideae) Legume Family.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leucaena leucocephala commonly known as leucaena, tantan, guaje (Mexico), huaxin (Central America), zarcilla (Puerto Rico), and by many other names, is one of the most extensively cultivated leguminous trees in the world. Adapted to a wide range of lowlan...

1992-01-01

219

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subcellular root tissues of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)  

PubMed Central

Background Because of the increasing quantity and high toxicity to humans of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment, several bioremediation mechanisms and protocols have been investigated to restore PAH-contaminated sites. The transport of organic contaminants among plant cells via tissues and their partition in roots, stalks, and leaves resulting from transpiration and lipid content have been extensively investigated. However, information about PAH distributions in intracellular tissues is lacking, thus limiting the further development of a mechanism-based phytoremediation strategy to improve treatment efficiency. Results Pyrene exhibited higher uptake and was more recalcitrant to metabolism in ryegrass roots than was phenanthrene. The kinetic processes of uptake from ryegrass culture medium revealed that these two PAHs were first adsorbed onto root cell walls, and they then penetrated cell membranes and were distributed in intracellular organelle fractions. At the beginning of uptake (< 50 h), adsorption to cell walls dominated the subcellular partitioning of the PAHs. After 96 h of uptake, the subcellular partition of PAHs approached a stable state in the plant water system, with the proportion of PAH distributed in subcellular fractions being controlled by the lipid contents of each component. Phenanthrene and pyrene primarily accumulated in plant root cell walls and organelles, with about 45% of PAHs in each of these two fractions, and the remainder was retained in the dissolved fraction of the cells. Because of its higher lipophilicity, pyrene displayed greater accumulation factors in subcellular walls and organelle fractions than did phenanthrene. Conclusions Transpiration and the lipid content of root cell fractions are the main drivers of the subcellular partition of PAHs in roots. Initially, PAHs adsorb to plant cell walls, and they then gradually diffuse into subcellular fractions of tissues. The lipid content of intracellular components determines the accumulation of lipophilic compounds, and the diffusion rate is related to the concentration gradient established between cell walls and cell organelles. Our results offer insights into the transport mechanisms of PAHs in ryegrass roots and their diffusion in root cells.

2010-01-01

220

Wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. leaf--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The extract of K. pinnata was evaluated for its wound healing activity by using excision wound model in rats. On day 11, animals treated with the ethanolic leaf extract exhibited 86.33% reduction in the wound area, compared to petroleum jelly treated control (69.36%) and the mupirocin treated standard (85.49%). The hydroxyproline content of extract treated animals was higher, as compared to control and the standard groups. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that K. pinnata leaf extract exhibits significant wound healing potential. The increased rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content in the extract treated animals supports the claims made by traditional healers of the benefits obtained from the medicinal use of K. pinnata. PMID:20882759

Nayak, B Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin

2010-06-01

221

Anti-obese activity of Butea monosperma (Lam) bark extract in experimentally induced obese rats.  

PubMed

To study the efficacy of ethanolic extract of B. monosperma bark in cafeteria and atherogenic diet fed rats and monosodium glutamate (MSG) obese rats, different doses (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of B. monosperma bark showed dose dependent decrease in body weight, daily food intake, glucose, lipids, internal organs' weight and fat pad weight in cafeteria and atherogenic diet fed rats and monosodium glutamate obese rats. The results suggested that B. monosperma has significant anti-obese activity. PMID:22822527

Dixit, P; Prakash, T; Karki, Roopa; Kotresha, D

2012-07-01

222

Alternative herbicides to manage Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum lam) resistant to glyphosate at different phenological stages.  

PubMed

During the growing season of 2002--2003, field and greenhouse experiments were conducted with the objective of evaluating the influence of Italian ryegrass phenological stages and management alternatives on the control of resistant biotypes to glyphosate. Three field experiments were conducted in Lagoa Vermelha, RS, Brazil and glyphosate was applied alone and in combinations with alternative herbicides. Two greenhouse experiments were also conducted at the Department of Crop Science, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. The Italian ryegrass resistant population was collected from Lagoa Vermelha, RS, Brazil. From the results it was possible to conclude that: (i) the more advanced the phenological stage of application, the more difficult the control of resistant Italian ryegrass by glyphosate, mainly by the rate of 960 g a.i. ha(-1); however, this rate applied at earlier phenological stage (five tillers), the control was higher than 90%; (ii) with the increment of glyphosate rate, it significant response was observed on the control at all stages of application; (iii) the mixture of glyphosate + clethodim (1440 + 72 g a.i. ha(-1)), paraquat + diuron (500 + 250 g a.i. ha(-1)), at all stages of application and clethodim (96 g a.i. ha(-1)) and paraquat + diuron (300 + 150 g a.i. ha(-1)) at the initial stages until pre-flowering were excellent alternatives for management of these populations; and (iv) the response of control was much faster for the mixture of glyphosate + clethodim, independently of growth stage. PMID:15656163

Christoffoleti, Pedro Jacob; Trentin, Renato; Tocchetto, Saulo; Marochi, Aroldo; Galli, Antonio João Batista; López-Ovejero, Ramiro Fernando; Nicolai, Marcelo

2005-01-01

223

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities on foodborne pathogens of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae) leaves extracts.  

PubMed

Total water extract, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions from the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus were evaluated for phenolic content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities against some foodborne pathogens such as E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of extract and fractions determined by the agar dilution method were ranged from 221.9 microg/mL for ethyl acetate fraction to 488.1 microg/mL for total extract. In the agar diffusion method the diameters of inhibition were 12.2 for the total extract, 10.7 and 11.5 for ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions, respectively. A. heterophyllus showed significant antioxidant activity tested in different in vitro systems (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and Fe(2+) chelating activity assay). In particular, in DPPH assay A. heterophyllus total extract exhibited a strong antiradical activity with an IC(50) value of 73.5 microg/mL while aqueous fraction exerted the highest activity in FRAP assay (IC(50) value of 72.0 microg/mL). The total phenols content by Folin-Ciocalteau method was determined with the purpose of testing its relationship with the antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:20629886

Loizzo, M R; Tundis, R; Chandrika, U G; Abeysekera, A M; Menichini, F; Frega, N G

2010-06-01

224

Does leaf manipulation affect leaf appearance in italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mechanical stimuli such as rubbing, shaking, or flexing plants can alter their growth rates and morphologies. Plant response to mechanical stress can result in delayed plant growth, reduced leaf size, shorten and thicken stems, and reduced yields. Repeated measurements, such as leaf counting or me...

225

Anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga Wall. and Azima tetracantha Lam.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga rootbark powder and Azima tetracantha leaf powder was assayed in male albino rats using carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema (acute inflammation) and cotton pellet granuloma (chronic inflammation) methods. Both the crude drugs were maximally active at a dose of 1000 mg/kg. In the cotton pellet granuloma assay, these drugs were able to suppress the transudative, exudative and proliferative components of chronic inflammation. Furthermore, these drugs were able to lower the lipid peroxide content of exudate and liver, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in the exudate of cotton pellet granuloma. The increased acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and decreased serum albumin in cotton pellet granulomatous rats were normalised after treatment with these drugs. It is likely that these drugs may exert their activity by antiproliferative, antioxidative and lysosomal membrane stabilization. PMID:9174976

Ismail, T S; Gopalakrishnan, S; Begum, V H; Elango, V

1997-04-01

226

Genome Sequence of the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfotomaculum hydrothermale Lam5T  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Desulfotomaculum hydrothermale, a sulfate-reducing, spore-forming bacterium isolated from a Tunisian hot spring. The genome is composed of 2.7 Mb, with a G+C content of 49.48%, and it contains 2,643 protein-coding sequences.

Amin, Oulfat; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Valette, Odile; Hirschler-Rea, Agnes; Barbe, Valerie; Medigue, Claudine; Vacherie, Benoit; Ollivier, Bernard; Bertin, Philippe N.

2013-01-01

227

Nutritional constituents and antioxidant properties of indigenous kembayau ( Dacryodes rostrata (Blume) H. J. Lam) fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional and antioxidant properties of peels, pulp and seeds of kembayau (Dacryodes rostrata) fruits were evaluated. Kembayau seeds and pulp were rich in fat, while peels had the highest ash contents. Potassium was the most prevalent mineral in peels (380.72–1112.00mg\\/100g). In kembayau fruits, total flavonoid content (1012.74–28,022.28mg rutin equivalent\\/100g) was higher than total phenolic and total monomeric anthocyanin contents.

Kin Weng Kong; Lye Yee Chew; K. Nagendra Prasad; Cheng Yuon Lau; Amin Ismail; Jian Sun; Bahareh Hosseinpoursarmadi

2011-01-01

228

Effectiveness of lifesaving skills training and improving institutional emergency obstetric care readiness in Lam Dong, Vietnam.  

PubMed

Essential obstetric care is promoted as the prime strategy to save women's lives in developing countries. We measured the effect of improving lifesaving skills (LSS) capacity in Vietnam, a country in which most women deliver in health facilities. A quasi-experimental study was implemented to assess the impact of LSS training and readiness (availability of essential obstetric equipment, supplies, and medication) on the diagnosis of life-threatening obstetric conditions and appropriate management of labor and birth. The intervention (LSS training and readiness) was provided to all clinics and hospitals from 1 of 3 demographically similar districts in southcentral Vietnam, to hospitals only in another district, with the third district serving as the comparison group. Detection of life-threatening obstetric conditions increased in both experimental clinics and hospitals, but the intervention only improved the management of these conditions in hospitals. Management of life-threatening obstetric conditions is most effective in hospitals. The intervention did not clearly benefit women delivering in clinics. PMID:15973269

Sloan, Nancy L; Nguyen, Thi Nhu Ngoc; Do, Trong Hieu; Quimby, Charlotte; Winikoff, Beverly; Fassihian, Goli

229

Hybridization and invasion: an experimental test with diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of studies have suggested a causative link between hybridization and invasion. In this study, we experimentally test for such a link through a greenhouse common garden study with artificially created Backcross 1 (BC1) diffuse knapweed hybrids. In comparison with diffuse knapweed plants of n...

230

Genome Sequence of the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfotomaculum hydrothermale Lam5(T).  

PubMed

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Desulfotomaculum hydrothermale, a sulfate-reducing, spore-forming bacterium isolated from a Tunisian hot spring. The genome is composed of 2.7 Mb, with a G+C content of 49.48%, and it contains 2,643 protein-coding sequences. PMID:23405336

Amin, Oulfat; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Valette, Odile; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès; Barbe, Valérie; Médigue, Claudine; Vacherie, Benoit; Ollivier, Bernard; Bertin, Philippe N; Dolla, Alain

2013-01-24

231

Progress with extreme adaptive optics test bench for ELT at LAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct detection of exo-planets from the ground will become a reality with the advent of a new class of extreme-adaptive optics instruments that will come on-line within the next few years on 8-10 meters class telescopes. One major technical challenge in reaching the requisite high contrast at small angles is the sensing and control of wave front errors which becomes

Maud Langlois; Celine Pasanau; Brice Leroux; Gil Moretto; Kacem El Hadi; Didier Rabaud

2008-01-01

232

Immunomodulatory effects of alcbholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of Moringa olifera Lam leaves.  

PubMed

Effects of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of the alcoholic and hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of M. olifera were studied on various immune paradigms like delayed type hypersensitivity reaction using SRBC as an antigen, determination of antibody titer, neutrophil adhesion test as an indicator for neutrophil index, total leucocyte count in cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressed animals and carbon clearance assay as a measure of phagocytic activity. Hydro-alcoholic extract of M. olifera substantially enhanced cellular immune response, humoral immune response, neutrophil index and phagoctic activity in doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg body weight) was efficient in improving immune response. The results suggest that M. olifera has a significant role to play as an immune stimulator. PMID:22611915

Banji, Otilia J F; Banji, David; Kavitha, R

2012-04-01

233

Amelioration of ionizing radiation induced lipid peroxidation in mouse liver by Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract.  

PubMed

Protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) against radiation-induced lipid peroxidation has been investigated. Swiss albino mice, selected from an inbred colony, were administered with MoLE (300 mg/kg body wt) for 15 days before exposing to a single dose of 5 Gy 60Co-gamma radiation. After treatments, animals were necropsied at different post irradiation intervals (days 1, 7 and 15) and hepatic lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were estimated to observe the relative changes due to irradiation and its possible amelioration by MoLE. It was observed that, MoLE treatment restored GSH in liver and prevented radiation induced augmentation in hepatic lipid peroxidation. Phytochemical analysis showed that MoLE possess various phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, myricetin) etc., which may play the key role in prevention of hepatic lipid peroxidation by scavenging radiation induced free radicals. PMID:22439436

Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Dipesh Kr; Datta, Sanjukta; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Sanjit

2012-03-01

234

Removal of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution using Moringa oleifera Lam. (horseradish tree) biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution using pure and chemically pretreated biomass of Moringa oleifera was investigated at 30±1°C in this study. The experimental results explored that the maximum pH (pHmax) for efficient sorption of Zn(II) was 7±0.1 at which evaluated biosorbent dosage and biosorbent particle size, were 0.5g\\/L, <0.255mm, respectively. The cellular Zn(II) concentration increased with the

Haq Nawaz Bhatti; Beenish Mumtaz; Muhammad Asif Hanif; Raziya Nadeem

2007-01-01

235

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of genetic variation in Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moringa oleifera is an important multipurpose tree introduced to Africa from India at the turn of this century. Despite limited knowledge of the levels of genetic diversity and relatedness of introduced populations, their utilization as a source of seed for planting is widespread. In order to facilitate reasoned scientific decisions on its management and conservation and prepare for a selective

G. M. MULUVI; J. I. SPRENT; N. SORANZO; J. PROVAN; D. ODEE; G. FOLKARD; J. W. McNICOL; W. POWELL

1999-01-01

236

Fruit of the jambolan tree (Eugenia jambolana Lam.) and experimental diabetes.  

PubMed

The fruit of Indian Eugenia jambolana have been shown to have therapeutic properties, but because the therapeutic potential of a plant is related to the geographic region in which the plant was grown and to the part of the plant used, we investigated Brazilian Eugenia jambolana fruit using the same preparation and experimental methods as have been used in India. The well-established metabolic cage model was used to evaluate the physiological and metabolic parameters associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats (n=10) which had been administered, by gavage, 50 mg per day of lyophilised Eugenia jambolana fruit-pulp extract for 41 days. We found that, compared to untreated controls, rats treated with the lyophilised fruit-pulp showed no observable difference in body weight, food or water intake, urine volume, glycaemia, urinary urea and glucose, hepatic glycogen, or on serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol or triglycerides. No change was observed in the masses of epididymal or retroperitoneal adipose tissue or of soleus or extensor digitorum longus muscles. This lack of any apparent effect on the diabetes may be attributable to the regional ecosystem where the fruit was collected and/or to the severity of the induced diabetes. PMID:15588649

Pepato, M T; Mori, D M; Baviera, A M; Harami, J B; Vendramini, R C; Brunetti, I L

2005-01-01

237

Alley cropping maize ( Zea mays L.) and leucaena ( Leucaena leucocephala Lam) in southern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A maize-leucaena alley cropping system was studied on a N-deficient sandy Apomu soil series (Psammentic Usthorthent) at Ibadan\\u000a in the forest zone of southern Nigeria from 1976 to 1980. In this system maize was grown in 4 m width alleys between Leucaena\\u000a hedge rows.\\u000a \\u000a Five to six annual prunings of the leucaena hedge rows yielded between 5 to 8 tons

B. T. Kang; G. F. Wilson; L. Sipkens

1981-01-01

238

Medicinal potential of Morella serata (Lam.) Killick (Myricaceae) root extracts: biological and pharmacological activities  

PubMed Central

Background Morella serata is a South African medicinal plant used in the treatment of microbial infections and to enhance male sexual performance. There is dearth of information in scientific literature on its efficacy and safety. Methods In the present study, the root extracts were investigated for the phytochemicals that may be present the antibacterial, anticandida activity using 96 wells microtitre plate method and cytotoxicity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay. Results The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids. All the extracts including water inhibited both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria strains at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.09 – 6.25 mgmL-1. The best activity was observed in the acetone extract inhibiting all the bacteria tested at MIC range of 0.09 – 0.78 mgmL-1 except Shigella flexneri KZN that was inhibited at 1.56 mgmL-1. Similarly, all the extracts suppressed the growth of all Candida species and Trichophyton mucoides at MIC ranging from 0.13 – 3.13 mgmL-1. The cytotoxicity assay revealed potent cytotoxic potential of M. serata methanol and ethanol root extracts by displaying LC50 of 0.26 and 0.18 ?gmL-1 respectively. Conclusion The results obtained from the present study indicated broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and justifies the use of the plant in the treatment of infectious diseases. Also the species could be a good natural source of antitumor compounds considering its lethality against brine shrimp nauplii.

2013-01-01

239

Antioxidant, xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and phenolics of Bauhinia rufescens Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aqueous acetone extract of the stem with the leaves of Bauhinia rufescens and its fractions were analysed for their antioxidant and enzyme-inhibitory activities, as well as their phytochemical composition. For measurement of the antioxidant activities, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulphonate) and the ferric-reducing methods were used. The results indicated that the aqueous acetone, its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions possessed considerable

M. Compaoré; C. E. Lamien; A. Lamien-Meda; L. Vlase; M. Kiendrebeogo; C. Ionescu; O. G. Nacoulma

2012-01-01

240

Antioxidant, xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and phenolics of Bauhinia rufescens Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aqueous acetone extract of the stem with the leaves of Bauhinia rufescens and its fractions were analysed for their antioxidant and enzyme-inhibitory activities, as well as their phytochemical composition. For measurement of the antioxidant activities, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulphonate) and the ferric-reducing methods were used. The results indicated that the aqueous acetone, its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions possessed considerable

M. Compaoré; C. E. Lamien; A. Lamien-Meda; L. Vlase; M. Kiendrebeogo; C. Ionescu; O. G. Nacoulma

2011-01-01

241

Establishment of an in vitro micropropagation protocol for Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. ex Poir.  

PubMed

This report describes in vitro micropropagation of Boscia senegalensis, so-called famine foods, that helped the people in Darfur and Kordofan, Sudan survive during the 1984-1985 famine. Four types of explants prepared from green mature zygotic embryos were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with 1-5 mg/L 6-benzyladenine (BA). The highest number of shoots per explant (14.3±0.9) was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BA, while the highest shoot length [(3.5±0.4) cm] was obtained with 1 mg/L BA. The shoot cluster, when subcultured to its same medium, significantly increased the rate of shoot multiplication by the end of the third subculture. The maximum mean number of shoots per explant (86.5±3.6) was produced after three multiplication cycles on 3 mg/L BA-supplemented medium. In vitro induced shoots were excised and rooted on half strength MS medium fortified with 0.25 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) to obtain complete plantlets. B. senegalensis-regenerated plantlets obtained in vitro for the first time, were hardened and 95% survived under greenhouse conditions. PMID:21462387

Khalafalla, Mutasim M; Daffalla, Hussien M; Abdellatef, Eltayb; Agabna, Elsadig; El-Shemy, Hany A

2011-04-01

242

Differential effects of sodium salts on the germination of a native halophytic species from South America: Prosopis strombulifera (Lam.) Benth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prosopis strombulifera is a halophytic shrub frequently found in the salinized areas of central Argentina. Interactions between\\u000a temperature, ionic and osmotic components of salinity, and seed germination in this species are discussed in this chapter.\\u000a Besides the osmotic effect, specific ion effects of salts play an important role in seed germination causing toxicity to the\\u000a embryo. In saline soils where

Virginia M. Luna; Analía S. Llanes; Laura R. Sosa; Mariana A. Reginato; Herminda E. Reinoso

243

Juice of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) inhibits oxytocin-induced increase of the intracellular calcium concentration in human myometrial cells.  

PubMed

The use of preparations from Bryophyllum pinnatum in tocolysis is supported by both clinical (retrospective comparative studies) and experimental (using uterus strips) evidence. We studied here the effect of B. pinnatum juice on the response of cultured human myometrial cells to stimulation by oxytocin, a hormone known to be involved in the control of uterine contractions by increasing the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). In this work, [Ca2+]i was measured online during stimulation of human myometrial cells (hTERT-C3 and M11) with oxytocin, which had been pre-incubated in the absence or in the presence of B. pinnatum juice. Since no functional voltage-gated Ca2+ channels could be detected in these myometrial cells, the effect of B. pinnatum juice was as well studied in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which are known to have such channels and can be depolarised with KCl. B. pinnatum juice prevented the oxytocin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in hTERT-C3 human myometrial cells in a dose-dependent manner, achieving a ca. 80% inhibition at a 2% concentration. Comparable results were obtained with M11 human primary myometrial cells. In hTERT-C3 cells, prevention of the oxytocin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was independent of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration and of voltage-dependent Ca2+-channels. B. pinnatum juice delayed, but did not prevent the depolarization-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, the data suggest a specific and concentration-dependent effect of B. pinnatum juice on the oxytocin signalling pathway, which seems to corroborate its use in tocolysis. Such a specific mechanism would explain the rare and minor side-effects in tocolysis with B. pinnatum as well as its high therapeutic index. PMID:20381326

Simões-Wüst, A P; Grãos, M; Duarte, C B; Brenneisen, R; Hamburger, M; Mennet, M; Ramos, M H; Schnelle, M; Wächter, R; Worel, A M; von Mandach, U

2010-04-09

244

Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Butea monosperma Lam flowers in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Daily treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic animals with 50% ethanolic extract of B. monosperma flowers (BMEE) for 45 days significantly lowered blood glucose level thereby preventing steep onset of hyperglycemia which was observed after alloxan administration and maintained body weight and blood glucose level close to the values observed in normal control and glibenclamide-treated diabetic mice. Moreover, the level of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also lowered, whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which was reduced in untreated diabetic animals, was significantly elevated. Oxidative damage in the liver, pancreas and kidneys of diabetic mice as evidenced by a marked increment in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and also a distinct diminution in glutathione content was nullified by BMEE. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were also assessed in all the experimental groups. These enzymes registered a decline in their activity in diabetic animals thus revealing the damaging effects of free radicals generated due to alloxan exposure but their activities were reverted towards near normal range in BMEE-administered mice thus indicating the antioxidant efficacy of the drug in resisting oxidative damage. PMID:19761041

Sharmna, Nidhi; Garg, Veena

2009-07-01

245

Genome-wide high-throughput integrome analyses by nrLAM-PCR and next-generation sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-throughput integration site profiling has become a feasible tool to assess vector biosafety and to monitor the cell fate of the gene-corrected cell population in clinical gene therapy studies. Here we report a step-by-step protocol for universal genome-wide and comprehensive integrome analysis that can be performed on >102–103 samples of interest in parallel. This assay is composed of fast and

Anna Paruzynski; Anne Arens; Richard Gabriel; Cynthia C Bartholomae; Simone Scholz; Wei Wang; Stephan Wolf; Hanno Glimm; Christof von Kalle; Manfred Schmidt

2010-01-01

246

Consistent detection of QTLs for crown rust resistance in Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) across environments and phenotyping methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. lolii, is one of the most important diseases of temperate forage grasses, such as ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), affecting yield and nutritional quality. Therefore, resistance to crown rust is a major goal in ryegrass breeding\\u000a programmes. In a two-way pseudo-testcross population consisting of 306 Lolium multiflorum individuals, multisite field evaluations as well as

Bruno Studer; Beat Boller; Eva Bauer; Ulrich K. Posselt; Franco Widmer; Roland Kölliker

2007-01-01

247

Physiological and biochemical changes associated with flower development and senescence in so far unexplored Helleborus orientalis Lam. cv. Olympicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The so far unexplored H. Orientalis cv. Olympicus exhibits a unique pattern of flower senescence, involving re-greening of creamy white petaloid sepals at the\\u000a later stages. The greenish sepals become photosynthetically competent immediately after pollination and persist until the\\u000a seeds are set. After the seed set, the entire (green) flower abscises from the plant. Flower development of Helleborus orientalis cv.

Waseem Shahri; Inayatullah Tahir; Sheikh Tajamul Islam; Mushtaq Ahmad Bhat

2011-01-01

248

Phylogenetic relationships among morphotypes of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpinioideae: Leguminosae) evidenced by trnL intron sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood or Pernambuco wood) comprises a complex of three morphological leaf variants, characterized by differences in the number and size of the pinnae and leaflets, and occurring in allopatric and sympatric populations. The present study evaluates the utility of the chloroplast DNA trnL intron in a phylogenetic analysis of the three leaf variants along with other species of Caesalpinia and generic relatives. Our study supports the hypothesis that the name C. echinata designates a species complex and provides evidence that one of the forms, the highly divergent C. echinata large-leafleted variant, represents a distinct taxon.

Juchum, Fabrício Sacramento; Costa, Marco Antônio; Amorim, André Márcio; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier

2008-11-01

249

Anatomy and ultrastructure alterations of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi in response to arsenic-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Many studies demonstrate the potential application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for remediation purposes, but little is known on AMF potential to enhance plant tolerance to arsenic (As) and the mechanisms involved in this process. We carried anatomical and ultrastructural studies to examine this symbiotic association and the characteristics of shoots and roots of Leucaena leucocephala in As-amended soils (35 and 75mgAsdm(-3)). The experiment used 3 AMF isolates from uncontaminated soils: Acaulospora morrowiae, Glomus clarum, and Gigaspora albida; a mixed inoculum derived from combining these 3 isolates (named Mix AMF); and, 3 AMF isolates from As-contaminated areas: A. morrowiae, G. clarum and Paraglomus occultum. Phytotoxicity symptoms due to arsenic contamination appeared during plant growth, especially in treatments without AMF application. Inoculation with G. clarum and the mixture of species (A. morrowiae, G. albida, and G. clarum) resulted in better growth of L. leucocephala in soils with high As concentrations, as well as significant As removal from the soil, showing a potential for using AMF in phytoextraction. Light microscopy (LS), transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) studies showed the colonization of the AMF in plant tissues and damage in all treatments, with ultrastructural changes being observed in leaves and roots of L. leucocephala, especially with the addition of 75mgdm(-3) of As. PMID:22704769

Schneider, Jerusa; Labory, Claudia Regina Gontijo; Rangel, Wesley Melo; Alves, Eduardo; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto Guimarães

2012-06-01

250

Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets from the expressed sequence tags of horsegram ( Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of naturally occurring and small non-coding RNA molecules of about 21–25 nucleotides in length.\\u000a Their main function is to downregulate gene expression in different manners like translational repression, mRNA cleavage and\\u000a epigenetic modification. To predict new miRNAs in plants different computational approaches have been developed. In the present\\u000a study, an EST based approach has been

Jyoti Bhardwaj; Hasan Mohammad; Sudesh Kumar Yadav

2010-01-01

251

In vitro plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis through cell suspension cultures of horsegram [ Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) verdc.  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a In vitro regeneration of plants via somatic embryogenesis through cell suspension culture was achieved in horsegram. Embryogenic calluses\\u000a were induced on leaf segments on solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 9.0 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Differentiation of somatic embryos occurred when the embryogenic calluses were transferred\\u000a to liquid MS medium containing 2,4-D. Maximum frequency (33.2%) of somatic embryos

S. Varisai Mohamed; C. S. Wang; M. Thiruvengadam; N. Jayabalan

2004-01-01

252

Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets from the expressed sequence tags of horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.).  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of naturally occurring and small non-coding RNA molecules of about 21-25 nucleotides in length. Their main function is to downregulate gene expression in different manners like translational repression, mRNA cleavage and epigenetic modification. To predict new miRNAs in plants different computational approaches have been developed. In the present study, an EST based approach has been used to identify novel miRNAs in horsegram. Identification of miRNAs was initiated by mining the EST database available at NCBI. Total of 989 ESTs were obtained for the identification of miRNAs. These ESTs were subjected to CAP3 assembly to remove the redundancy. This resulted in an output of 72 contigs and 606 singletons as non redundant datasets. The miRNAs were then predicted by using miRNA-finder. A total of eight potential miRNAs were predicted and named as hor-miR1 to hor-miR8. None of identified miRNAs showed significant homology with the previously reported in plants and therefore should be considered novel. These miRNAs were inputted to miRU2 program to predict their targets. The target mRNAs for these miRNAs mainly belong to zinc finger, chromosome condensation, protein kinase, abscisic acid-responsive, calcineurin-like phosphoesterase, disease resistance and transcriptional factor family proteins. These targets appeared to be involved in plant growth and development and environmental stress responses. PMID:20978860

Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Mohammad, Hasan; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

2010-10-27

253

Evaluating the last remnants of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze Forest for their in situ conservation: a case study.  

PubMed

This paper provides a suitable framework for consolidating knowledge and providing a useful starting point to undertake conservation of the last remnants of Butea monosperma forest. A survey was conducted to assess the status of a reportedly unexplored B. monosperma forest in a narrow strip of land along the northeastern region of Pakistan in order to conserve the remaining remnants. A preliminary reconnaissance survey on the basis of land use divides the narrow stretch of land, with concentration of remnants into four zones. The remnants were further evaluated for in situ conservation by a scoring system based on vegetation analysis and quality of habitat. Low value was assigned to those criteria which had negative impact and high to those which had positive impact on performance of B. monosperma and its long-term survival. Additional information, pertaining to decline, trends of change in the land use, and the underlying socioeconomic processes, was also made. Information from the study area indicated that, in the past two decades, the decline and conversion of the remaining B. monosperma forest to agriculture and forestry has been intensified. The vegetation analysis revealed that all remnants are broadly B. monosperma-Adhatoda vasica, bispecies association. The scoring system ranked the remnants into four classes. Two forests from the intact remnant class and one from the mildly degraded class were recommended for in situ conservation. Keeping in view the deteriorating status of the highly ranked remnants across the landscape and the degree of alteration it is undergoing, they were assigned the conservation status category of "critical." An approach suggested for their immediate conservation was to fence them, with open access to the local people for sustainable resource use. In situ conservation of these benchmarks would help in further understanding the ecological, evolutionary, and structural features of this unique biogeographic ecotone and its affinities with the adjacent ecosystems. PMID:19894131

Khan, Amin U

2009-11-06

254

Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. Cultivated in Mozambique.  

PubMed

The antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) grown in Mozambique was investigated. The chemical composition was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. Hexacosane (13.9%), pentacosane (13.3%) and heptacosane (11.4%) were the main components. Ultra High Performance Chromatography-DAD analysis detected the flavonoids quercetin (126 ?g/g) and luteolin (6.2 ?g/g). The essential oil exhibited a relatively low free radical scavenging capacity. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against two Gram-positive strains (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and five fungal strains of agro-food interest (Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium digitatum, and Aspergillus niger spp.). B. cereus and P. aeruginosa, as well as the fungal strains were sensitive to the essential oil. PMID:24022760

Marrufo, Tatiana; Nazzaro, Filomena; Mancini, Emilia; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele; De Martino, Laura; Agostinho, Adelaide Bela; De Feo, Vincenzo

2013-09-09

255

Effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars.  

PubMed

The effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of three sweet potato cultivars (Beniazuma, Koganesengan, Kotobuki) cultivated in Turkey were investigated. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition, total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, ?-carotene, antiradical activity, and free sugars. The dry matter, protein, and starch contents of the sweet potatoes were significantly changed by the treatments while the ash and crude fiber contents did not differ as significantly. The ?-carotene contents of baked and boiled sweet potatoes were lower than those of fresh sweet potatoes; however, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of the baked and boiled sweet potatoes were higher than those of the fresh samples. Generally, the antiradical activity of the sweet potatoes increased with the treatments. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose were quantified as free sugars in all fresh sweet potatoes; however, maltose was determined in the treated samples. In terms of the analyzed parameters, there were no explicit differences among the sweet potato cultivars. PMID:22101780

Dincer, Cuneyt; Karaoglan, Mert; Erden, Fidan; Tetik, Nedim; Topuz, Ayhan; Ozdemir, Feramuz

2011-11-01

256

New furanoflavanoids, intestinal ?-glucosidase inhibitory and free-radical (DPPH) scavenging, activity from antihyperglycemic root extract of Derris indica (Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical examination of antihyperglycemic root extract of Derris indica resulted in isolation and characterization of two new furanoflavanoids (1, 2) along with thirteen known compounds (3–15). Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR) data analysis and by comparison with the literature data. All the compounds were tested

R. Ranga Rao; Ashok K. Tiwari; P. Prabhakar Reddy; K. Suresh Babu; Amtul Z. Ali; K. Madhusudana; J. Madhusudana Rao

2009-01-01

257

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the extracts and compounds from the leaves of Psorospermum aurantiacum Engl. and Hypericum lanceolatum Lam.  

PubMed Central

Background Psorospermun aurantiacum and Hypericum lanceolatum are plants locally used in Cameroon and other parts of Africa for the treatment of gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections, skin infections, venereal diseases, gastrointestinal disorder, infertility, epilepsy as well as microbial infections. The present study was designed in order to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and radical scavenging activities of the extracts and isolated compounds from the leaves of these plants. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate and methanol and fractionated by column chromatography. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses in conjunction with literature data. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. The antioxidant potentials of the extracts and their isolated compounds were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Results Five known compounds: physcion (1), 1,8-dihydroxy-3-geranyloxy-6-methylanthraquinone (2), kenganthranol B (3), vismiaquinone (4), and octacosanol (5) were isolated from the leaves of P. aurantiacum while six compounds including friedelin (6), betulinic acid (7), 2,2’,5,6’-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (8), allanxanthone A (9), 1,3,6- trihydroxyxanthone (10) and isogarcinol (11) were isolated from H. lanceolatum. Compound 8 and 4 exhibited the highest antibacterial and antifungal activities with MIC ranges of 2–8??g/ml and 4–32??g/ml respectively. P. aurantiacum crude extract (Rsa50?=?6.359?±?0.101) showed greater radical scavenging activity compared with H. lanceolatum extract (Rsa50?=?30.996?±?0.879). Compound 11 showed the highest radical scavenging activity (RSa50?=?1.012?±?0.247) among the isolated compounds, comparable to that of L-arscobic acid (RSa50?=?0.0809?±?0.045). Conclusions The experimental findings show that the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and isolated compounds from P. aurantiacum and H. lanceolatum stem bark possess significant antimicrobial and antioxidant activities justifying the use of these plants in traditional medicine, which may be developed as phytomedicines.

2012-01-01

258

Active recombinant thioredoxin h protein with antioxidant activities from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam Tainong 57) storage roots.  

PubMed

Recombinant thioredoxin h (Trx2) overproduced in Escherichia coli (M15) was purified by Ni2+-chelated affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of Trx2 is approximately 1.4 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Total antioxidant status, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) staining, reducing power method, Fe2+-chelating ability, ferric thiocyanate (FTC) method, and protection of calf thymus DNA against hydroxyl radical-induced damage were studied. The thioredoxin h protein with a concentration of 12.5 mg/mL exhibited the highest activity (expressed as 0.37 +/- 0.012 mM ABTS* radical cation being cleared) in a total antioxidant status test. In the DPPH staining thioredoxin h appeared as white spots when it was diluted to 50 mg/mL (a final amount of 15 microg). Like the total antioxidant status, the reducing power, Fe2+-chelating ability, FTC activity, and protection against hydroxyl radical-induced calf thymus DNA damage were found with the thioredoxin h protein. It was suggested that thioredoxin h might contribute to its antioxidant activities against hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. PMID:15264905

Huang, Dong-Jiann; Chen, Hsien-Jung; Hou, Wen-Chi; Lin, Chun-Der; Lin, Yaw-Huei

2004-07-28

259

Effect of Growth Regulators on In Vitro Morphogenic Response of Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. Poir. Using Mature Zygotic Embryos Explants.  

PubMed

The percent study describes the in vitro responses of mature zygotic embryos of Boscia senegalensis to different concentrations (0.0-5.0?mg/L) of 6-benzyladnine (BA), Thidiazuron (TDZ), ?-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) supplemented on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS). The plant growth regulators (PGRs) were considerably affected the morphogenetic responses. BA produced adventitious shoots through two ways: direct organogenesis and auxiliary shoot formation. Both 2, 4-D and TDZ tend to produce callus, whereas NAA improve the development of embryos to seedlings. Maximum number of shoots/explant (14.8 ± 0.6) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 3.0?mg/L BA. 67.0% of excised shoots were rooted either on 1/2 MS medium augmented with or without 0.25?mg/L IBA. The highest number of roots (1.2 ± 0.4) and root length (0.5 ± 0.2?cm) was produced on 0.25?mg/L IBA-containing medium. Regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized and transferred to the green house with 70% survival rate. All the plants appeared morphologically uniform with normal growth pattern. A rapid (30 days), efficient and without subculturing protocol for in vitro regeneration of B. senegalensis was developed. PMID:21687567

Daffalla, Hussien H; Abdellatef, Eltayb; Elhadi, Elsadig A; Khalafalla, Mutasim M

2011-06-08

260

Aplicação de cromatografia centrífuga de contra-corrente na purificação de ácido ursólico das folhas de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

13 C-RMN, GC-EM e co-injeção com padrão comercial em CG-DIC, na forma do éster metílico. A técnica de CCCAV, usualmente usada para triterpenos glicosilados, foi aqui aplicada para a aglicona. As fases móvel e estacionária, no experimento de CCCAV, foram geradas pela mistura de n-hexano : acetato de etila : metanol : água, na proporção 10:5:2,5:1. A seleção do sistema

N. Frighetto; R. M. Welendorf; A. M. P. Silva; M. J. Nakamura; A. C. Siani

2005-01-01

261

Effect of Growth Regulators on In Vitro Morphogenic Response of Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. Poir. Using Mature Zygotic Embryos Explants  

PubMed Central

The percent study describes the in vitro responses of mature zygotic embryos of Boscia senegalensis to different concentrations (0.0–5.0?mg/L) of 6-benzyladnine (BA), Thidiazuron (TDZ), ?-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) supplemented on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS). The plant growth regulators (PGRs) were considerably affected the morphogenetic responses. BA produced adventitious shoots through two ways: direct organogenesis and auxiliary shoot formation. Both 2, 4-D and TDZ tend to produce callus, whereas NAA improve the development of embryos to seedlings. Maximum number of shoots/explant (14.8 ± 0.6) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 3.0?mg/L BA. 67.0% of excised shoots were rooted either on 1/2 MS medium augmented with or without 0.25?mg/L IBA. The highest number of roots (1.2 ± 0.4) and root length (0.5 ± 0.2?cm) was produced on 0.25?mg/L IBA-containing medium. Regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized and transferred to the green house with 70% survival rate. All the plants appeared morphologically uniform with normal growth pattern. A rapid (30 days), efficient and without subculturing protocol for in vitro regeneration of B. senegalensis was developed.

Daffalla, Hussien H.; Abdellatef, Eltayb; Elhadi, Elsadig A.; Khalafalla, Mutasim M.

2011-01-01

262

The Hf isotope composition of cratonic mantle: LAM-MC-ICPMS analysis of zircon megacrysts in kimberlites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zircon megacrysts represent a late stage in the crystallisation of the magmas that produced the low-Cr megacryst suite (Ol+Opx+Cpx+Gnt+Ilm+Phl+Zir) found in many kimberlites, and may carry information on the sources of the parent magmas and the interaction of these magmas with the cratonic lithosphere. The isotopic composition of Hf has been measured in 124 mantle-derived zircon megacrysts from African, Siberian

W. L. Griffin; N. J. Pearson; E. Belousova; S. E. Jackson; E. van Achterbergh; Suzanne Y. O’Reilly; S. R. Shee

2000-01-01

263

75 FR 29722 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...amplifiers, magnetic and optical media, monitors, electrical circuitry and components, lamps, wiring, cable, electrical insulators, optical fibers and devices, lenses, lasers, liquid crystal devices, self adhesive and non-adhesive sheets,...

2010-05-27

264

Main extracts and hypolipidemic effects of the Bauhinia racemosa Lam. leaf extract in HFD-fed hamsters.  

PubMed

The lipid lowering effects of ethanolic extract (BR) obtained from leaves of Bauhinia racemosa on hyperlipidemic hamsters were examined. BR showed significant lowering of lipid profile at a dose of 250 mg kg(-1) body-wt of hamster. Chloroform fraction (F2) obtained from BR showed pronounced activity at lower dose of 100 mg kg(-1). F2 gave two most active fractions (L and T) whose chromatographic separations led to the isolation of constituents 1-5, which are being reported for the first time from this natural source. The results of activity profile of the plant were found to be better than the standard drug lovastatin. PMID:22840186

Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya P; Srivastava, Anuj; Puri, Anju

2012-07-30

265

Triterpenoids from Brazilian Ilex species and their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity.  

PubMed

From the leaves of Ilex affinis and Ilex buxifolia, two adulterant species of "erva mate" (Ilex paraguariensis), three new triterpenoid glycosides were isolated. Affinoside 1 (3beta-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[2-O-acetyl-(1-->2

Taketa, Alexandre T C; Gnoatto, Simone C B; Gosmann, Grace; Pires, Viviane S; Schenkel, Eloir P; Guillaume, Dominique

2004-10-01

266

Citrus tristeza virus replicates and forms infectious virions in protoplasts of resistant citrus relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the most economically important viral disease of citrus worldwide. Cultivars with improved CTV tolerance or resistance are needed to manage CTV-induced diseases. The citrus relatives Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf., Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco) Merr., and Severinia buxifolia (Poir) Ten. are potential sources of CTV resistance, but their resistance mechanisms are poorly characterized. As a first step

Maria R. Albiach-Marti; Jude W. Grosser; Siddarame Gowda; Munir Mawassi; Tatineni Satyanarayana; Stephen M. Garnsey; William O. Dawson

2004-01-01

267

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) Center for Drug ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Treatment Lam 300 Lam 250 Prop Escape (95% CI 31/108 (29%) ... Treatment Lam 300 Lam 250 Prop Escape (95% CI 37/108 (34%) (25.3, 43.2) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

268

Crystal Structure of the Human Laminin Receptor Precursor  

SciTech Connect

The human laminin receptor (LamR) interacts with many ligands, including laminin, prions, Sindbis virus, and the polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and has been implicated in a number of diseases. LamR is overexpressed on tumor cells, and targeting LamR elicits anti-cancer effects. Here, we report the crystal structure of human LamR, which provides insights into its function and should facilitate the design of novel therapeutics targeting LamR.

Jamieson,K.; Wu, J.; Hubbard, S.; Meruelo, D.

2008-01-01

269

Low-Level Persistence of Drug Resistance Mutations in Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Subjects with a Past History of Lamivudine Treatment  

PubMed Central

We sought to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) lamivudine (LAM)-resistant minority variants in subjects who once received LAM but had discontinued it prior to virus sampling. We performed direct PCR Sanger sequencing and ultradeep pyrosequencing (UDPS) of HBV reverse transcriptase (RT) of plasma viruses from 45 LAM-naive subjects and 46 LAM-experienced subjects who had discontinued LAM a median of 24 months earlier. UDPS was performed to a depth of ?3,000 reads per nucleotide. Minority variants were defined as differences from the Sanger sequence present in ?0.5% of UDPS reads in a sample. Sanger sequencing identified ?1 LAM resistance mutations (rtL80I/V, rtM204I, and rtA181T) in samples from 5 (11%) of 46 LAM-experienced and none of 45 LAM-naive subjects (0%; P = 0.06). UDPS detected ?1 LAM resistance mutations (rtL80I/V, rtV173L, rtL180M, rtA181T, and rtM204I/V) in 10 (22%) of the 46 LAM-experienced subjects, including 5 in whom LAM resistance mutations were not identified by Sanger sequencing. Overall, LAM resistance mutations were more likely to be present in LAM-experienced (10/46, 22%) than LAM-naive subjects (0/45, 0%; P = 0.001). The median time since LAM discontinuation was 12.8 months in the 10 subjects with a LAM resistance mutation compared to 30.5 months in the 36 LAM-experienced subjects without a LAM resistance mutation (P < 0.001). The likelihood of detecting a LAM resistance mutation was significantly increased using UDPS compared to Sanger sequencing and was inversely associated with the time since LAM discontinuation.

Svarovskaia, Evguenia S.; Babrzadeh, Farbod; Martin, Ross; Liu, Tommy F.; Pacold, Mary; Reuman, Elizabeth C.; Holmes, Susan P.; Borroto-Esoda, Katyna

2013-01-01

270

Low-level persistence of drug resistance mutations in hepatitis B virus-infected subjects with a past history of Lamivudine treatment.  

PubMed

We sought to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) lamivudine (LAM)-resistant minority variants in subjects who once received LAM but had discontinued it prior to virus sampling. We performed direct PCR Sanger sequencing and ultradeep pyrosequencing (UDPS) of HBV reverse transcriptase (RT) of plasma viruses from 45 LAM-naive subjects and 46 LAM-experienced subjects who had discontinued LAM a median of 24 months earlier. UDPS was performed to a depth of ?3,000 reads per nucleotide. Minority variants were defined as differences from the Sanger sequence present in ?0.5% of UDPS reads in a sample. Sanger sequencing identified ?1 LAM resistance mutations (rtL80I/V, rtM204I, and rtA181T) in samples from 5 (11%) of 46 LAM-experienced and none of 45 LAM-naive subjects (0%; P = 0.06). UDPS detected ?1 LAM resistance mutations (rtL80I/V, rtV173L, rtL180M, rtA181T, and rtM204I/V) in 10 (22%) of the 46 LAM-experienced subjects, including 5 in whom LAM resistance mutations were not identified by Sanger sequencing. Overall, LAM resistance mutations were more likely to be present in LAM-experienced (10/46, 22%) than LAM-naive subjects (0/45, 0%; P = 0.001). The median time since LAM discontinuation was 12.8 months in the 10 subjects with a LAM resistance mutation compared to 30.5 months in the 36 LAM-experienced subjects without a LAM resistance mutation (P < 0.001). The likelihood of detecting a LAM resistance mutation was significantly increased using UDPS compared to Sanger sequencing and was inversely associated with the time since LAM discontinuation. PMID:23114756

Margeridon-Thermet, Severine; Svarovskaia, Evguenia S; Babrzadeh, Farbod; Martin, Ross; Liu, Tommy F; Pacold, Mary; Reuman, Elizabeth C; Holmes, Susan P; Borroto-Esoda, Katyna; Shafer, Robert W

2012-10-31

271

Influence of forest structure and environmental variables on recruit survival and performance of two Mediterranean tree species ( Quercus faginea L. and Q. suber Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the regeneration requirements of the two dominant tree species in a mixed-oak forest of SW Portugal: Quercus suber (cork oak, evergreen) and Q.\\u000a faginea (Portuguese oak, winter-deciduous). We hypothesized that (1) recruits of different oak species are differentially influenced\\u000a by soil and overstory variables and (2) different factors explain the recruitment occurrence and performance of the same species.

Sara Maltez-Mouro; Luis V. García; Helena Freitas

2009-01-01

272

Chemical composition and biological activities of Ishpingo essential oil, a traditional Ecuadorian spice from Ocotea quixos (Lam.) Kosterm. (Lauraceae) flower calices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Ishpingo (Ocotea quixos, Lauraceae) fruit calices was analysed by GC (gas chromatography) and GC–MS (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry). Fourty-four compounds were identified. The main components detected were trans-cinnamaldehyde (27.9%), methylcinnamate (21.6%), 1,8-cineole (8.0%), benzaldehyde (3.6%), and ?-selinene (2.1%). In vitro antioxidant properties of the essential oil, obtained by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ?-carotene bleaching assays, were also evaluated.

Renato Bruni; Alessandro Medici; Elisa Andreotti; Carlo Fantin; Mariavittoria Muzzoli; Marco Dehesa; Carlo Romagnoli; Gianni Sacchetti

2004-01-01

273

Site factors associated with the performance of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit and Sesbania sesban (L.) Merill in pure and mixed stands in the northern highlands of Rwanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alley cropping with leguminous tree hedgerows planted on contours is an emerging practice in the northern highlands of Rwanda\\u000a where field slopes range from 4 to 76% and loss of soil fertility due to erosion is the principal impediment to food production.\\u000a Sesbania sesban and Leucaena Leucocephala, the two woody species recommended for alley cropping in the region, do not

J. R. Burleigh; C. F. Yamoah

1997-01-01

274

Diversity and evolutionary relationship of nucleotide binding site-encoding disease-resistance gene analogues in sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most plant disease-resistance genes (R-genes) isolated so far encode proteins with a nucleotide binding site (NBS) domain and belong to a superfamily. NBS domains\\u000a related to R-genes show a highly conserved backbone of an amino acid motif, which makes it possible to isolate resistance gene analogues\\u000a (RGAs) by degenerate primers. Degenerate primers based on the conserved motif (P-loop and GLPL)

Guanshui Chen; Daren Pan; Yifei Zhou; Sheng Lin; Xiangde Ke

2007-01-01

275

Factors regulating the growth rate of Lolium perenne L. cv. ‘Grasslands Ruanui’ and L. multiflorum Lam. cv. ‘Grasslands Tama’ a Tetraploid  

Microsoft Academic Search

When seedlings and young plants of these ryegrass varieties are glasshouse-grown in pots with adequate nutrient and light, Tama maintains a 14–16% higher mean relative growth rate (shoot) than Ruanui. A number of developmental, physiological, and biochemical assessments have been made in an attempt to explain some of the reasons for this difference in growth rate. Some discussion on the

A. O. Taylor; J. A. Rowley; N. M. Jepsen

1971-01-01

276

The antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging capacity of dietary phenolic extracts from horse gram ( Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total phenolics and the antioxidative properties of two varieties of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) were studied. The raw and dry-heated seed samples were extracted successively with methanol and 70% acetone separately. After removing the solvents, the extracts were freeze-dried. The black seeds contained relatively high levels of total phenolics and tannins than the brown seeds with respect to the treatments

Perumal Siddhuraju; Sellamuthu Manian

2007-01-01

277

Herbicidal activity of Brassicaceae seed meal on wild oat (Avena fatua), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is an on-going need for the development of sustainable methods of weed control in crop production systems. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different Brassicaceae seed meals and application rates on the emergence of several weed species including wild oat, Italian rye grass, ...

278

Cloudworks as a 'pedagogical wrapper' for LAMS sequences: supporting the sharing of ideas across professional boundaries and facilitating collaborative design, evaluation and critical reflection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloudworks is a specialised social networking site for sharing, debating and co- creating ideas as well as designs and resources for teaching, learning and scholarship in education. The site has been co-funded by JISC and The Open University, and has ca.2500 registered users and visitors from 165 countries (May 2010). Fundamental to the development of the site has been the

Rebecca Galley; Gráinne Conole; James Dalziel; Ernie Ghiglione

279

Alternative protection of cowpea seeds against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) using hermetic storage alone or in combination with Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam ex Poir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hermetic storage alone or in combination with Boscia senegalensis has been evaluated against Callosobruchus maculatus. Analysis of gas concentrations within a 7-day period indicated that O2 declined from 19.2 to 2.3% and CO2 rose from 1.2 to 22.8%. Prolonged storage durations increased adult mortality, significantly increased the developmental time and induced 60–80% reduction in the F1 progeny.

D. Seck; G. Lognay; E. Haubruge; M. Marlier; C. Gaspar

1996-01-01

280

The influence of cutting height, planting density, harvesting frequency and fertilization on edible dry matter yield of leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de wit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leucaena leucocephala was evaluated to determine the agronomic and management requirements of this legume in Natal. The objectives were to test the effect of maintaining hedge?rows at different heights, and to investigate the effect of different densities, harvest intervals and fertilization on edible dry matter (EDM) production of L. leucocephala plants grown in the pure stand situation. Cutting plants in

A. R. Maclaurin; D. I. Bransby; N. M. Tainton

1982-01-01

281

Isolation and characterisation of cDNA clones representing the genes encoding the major tuber storage protein (dioscorin) of yam (Dioscorea cayenensis Lam.).  

PubMed

cDNA clones encoding dioscorins, the major tuber storage proteins (M(r) 32,000) of yam (Dioscorea cayenesis) have been isolated. Two classes of clone (A and B, based on hybrid release translation product sizes and nucleotide sequence differences) which are 84.1% similar in their protein coding regions, were identified. The protein encoded by the open reading frame of the class A cDNA insert is of M(r) 30,015. The difference in observed and calculated molecular mass might be attributed to glycosylation. Nucleotide sequencing and in vitro transcription/translation suggest that the class A dioscorin proteins are synthesised with signal peptides of 18 amino acid residues which are cleaved from the mature peptide. The class A and class B proteins are 69.6% similar with respect to each other, but show no sequence identity with other plant proteins or with the major tuber storage proteins of potato (patatin) or sweet potato (sporamin). Storage protein gene expression was restricted to developing tubers and was not induced by growth conditions known to induce expression of tuber storage protein genes in other plant species. The codon usage of the dioscorin genes suggests that the Dioscoreaceae are more closely related to dicotyledonous than to monocotyledonous plants. PMID:7632909

Conlan, R S; Griffiths, L A; Napier, J A; Shewry, P R; Mantell, S; Ainsworth, C

1995-06-01

282

Callus induction and plant regeneration from excised zygotic embryos of the seed-propagated yams Dioscorea composita Hemsl. and D. cayenensis Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tissue culture method for regeneration of plantlets from calluses of Dioscorea composita Hemsl. and Dioscorea cayenensis L. is described. Zygotic embryos were used as initial explants. Calluses were obtained on Murashige & Skoog basal medium supplemented with 18 µM 2,4-D and plantlets were regenerated on media containing 0.1 µM zeatin and 3.3 mM glutamine according to previously described protocols

Ana Maria Viana; Sinclair H. Mantell

1989-01-01

283

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Enicostemma axillare (Lam). Raynal against CCL4-induced liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

Enicostemma axillare is used in Indian traditional medicine as a liver tonic. Its ethyl acetate extract has shown potent in vitro antioxidant activity and found to contain 7.26% of a bitter secoiridoid glycoside, swertiamarin. Hence, in the present study the ethyl acetate extract was screened for hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in rats. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage and changes in serum enzymes and metabolites. The pretreatment with the extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight doses given orally for eight days prior to CCl4 caused significant restoration of altered biochemical changes due to CCl4 towards the normal in serum, liver and kidney. The extract treatment at 200 mg/kg body weight was found to be more potent than the standard silymarin at 100 mg/kg body weight in reversing most of the biochemical parameters. Histopathological studies complemented the results of biochemical estimations in providing a proof of hepatoprotective and antioxidant actions of the extract. The study provides a support to the ethnomedical use of E. axillare in India. PMID:21506497

Jaishree, V; Badami, Shrishailappa; Krishnamurthy, Praveen Thaggikuppe

2010-09-01

284

Evaluation of nutritional quality of moringa ( Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves as an alternative protein source for Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of freeze-dried moringa leaf meal, Moringa oleifera, as an alternative protein source for Nile tilapia. Three experimental diets were formulated to contain moringa leaf meal at levels of 10%, 20% and 30% of the total dietary protein (Diets 2, 3 and 4, respectively) and one diet acting as a control (Diet 1)

Nahid Richter; Perumal Siddhuraju; Klaus Becker

2003-01-01

285

Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract prevents early liver injury and restores antioxidant status in mice fed with high-fat diet.  

PubMed

Consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may lead to multiple complications affecting human health. In the present study, effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) in alleviating HFD induced liver injury in mice has been reported. Liver histology and serum activity of hepatic marker enzymes i.e. aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been studied. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated using liver homogenate. Results of the study suggested that MoLE treatment protected HFD-induced liver damage as indicated by histopathology and liver enzyme activity compared to only-HFD fed group (P < 0.05). Interestingly, early signs of HFD-induced fatty liver were also alleviated by MoLE. Moreover, significant increase in endogenous antioxidant parameters and lower lipid peroxidation were found in liver of all MoLE treated groups. Results of the study indicated that MoLE has both preventive as also curative hepatoprotective activity. PMID:22734251

Das, Nilanjan; Sikder, Kunal; Ghosh, Santinath; Fromenty, Bernard; Dey, Sanjit

2012-06-01

286

Biochemical composition, antimicrobial activities,and anti-quorum-sensing activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from Hypericum connatum Lam. (Guttiferae).  

PubMed

We studied the polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of Hypericum connatum (Guttiferae), in addition to their antimicrobial and antiquorum-sensing (AQS) properties. The extracts exhibited a similar polyphenol content and a notable antioxidant activity, which was stronger in the ethanolic extract (EC50=3.2 ?g/mL). Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed different polyphenol profiles, with rutin and apigen being the main components of the ethanolic extract and caffeic acid, (-)-epicatechin and p-coumaric acid being abundant in the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited a more effective antimicrobial activity than the ethanolic extract against the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For the first time, AQS activity was detected in H. connatum: the ethanolic extract inhibited the production of violacein, a quorum-sensing-regulated pigment, in a Chromobacterium violaceum tester strain, without interfering with its growth. PMID:23631492

Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; Marandino, Aurelio; Fusco, Maria Del Rosario; Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura

2013-04-30

287

African eggplant (Solanum anguivi Lam.) fruit with bioactive polyphenolic compounds exerts in vitro antioxidant properties and inhibits Ca2+-induced mitochondrial swelling  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of Solanum anguivi fruit (SAG) and its possible effect on mitochondrial permeability transition pore as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) isolated from rat liver. Methods Antioxidant activity of SAG was assayed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, iron chelation and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in both liver and brain homogenate of rats. Also, the effect of SAG on mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial swelling were determined. Identification and quantification of bioactive polyphenolics was done by HPLC-DAD. Results SAG exhibited potent and concentration dependent free radical-scavenging activity (IC50/DPPH=275.03±7.8 µg/mL). Reductive and iron chelation abilities also increase with increase in SAG concentration. SAG also inhibited peroxidation of cerebral and hepatic lipids subjected to iron oxidative assault. SAG protected against Ca2+ (110 µmol/L)-induced mitochondrial swelling and maintained the ??m. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid [(17.54±0.04) mg/g], chlorogenic acid (21.90±0.02 mg/g), caffeic acid (16.64±0.01 mg/g), rutin [(14.71±0.03) mg/g] and quercetin [(7.39±0.05) mg/g]. Conclusions These effects could be attributed to the bioactive polyphenolic compounds present in the extract. Our results suggest that SAG extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants that may be used not only in pharmaceutical and food industry but also in the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress.

Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Bolingon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Lopes, Seeger Rodrigo; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Kade, Ige Joseph; Adanlawo, Isaac Gbadura; Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira

2013-01-01

288

Productivity of alley farming with leucaena ( Leucaena leucocephala Lam. de Wit) and Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum K. Schum) in coastal lowland Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate supply of fodder is a serious constraint to the potentially-promising small-holder-dairy production system in coastal Kenya. Alley farming could be an approach to addressing this problem. A study of forage production based on Napier grass and leucaena in an alley cropping system was conducted on an infertile sandy soil in lowland coastal Kenya. The effects of leucaena hedgerows,Clitoria ternatea

J. G. Mureithi; R. S. Tayler; W. Thorpe

1995-01-01

289

Construction and Use of a Broad-Host-Range Plasmid Expressing the lamB Gene for Utilization of Bacteriophage ? Vectors in the Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The remarkable success of Escherichia coli as a model organism in molecular genetics was dependent, among other things, on its susceptibility to genetic manipulation.\\u000a Many versatile and sophisticated genetic tools for molecular biology studies are derived from bacteriophage ?. However, this\\u000a bacteriophage is specific for E. coli, and thus ?-based techniques have been restricted to this bacterium. Plasmids expressing

Jacek Jasiecki; Agata Czy?; Magdalena Gabig; Grzegorz W?grzyn

2001-01-01

290

Using Haines Index coupled with fire weather model predicted from high resolution LAM forecasts to asses wildfire extreme behaviour in Southern Europe.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haines Index (HI) was developed by USDA Forest Service to measure the atmosphere's contribution to the growth potential of a wildfire. The Haines Index combines two atmospheric factors that are known to have an effect on wildfires: Stability and Dryness. As operational tools, HI proved its ability to predict plume dominated high intensity wildfires. However, since HI does not take into account the fuel continuity, composition and moisture conditions and the effects of wind and topography on fire behaviour, its use as forecasting tool should be carefully considered. In this work we propose the use of HI, predicted from HR Limited Area Model forecasts, coupled with a Fire Weather model (i.e., RISICO system) fully operational in Italy since 2003. RISICO is based on dynamic models able to represent in space and in time the effects that environment and vegetal physiology have on fuels and, in turn, on the potential behaviour of wildfires. The system automatically acquires from remote databases a thorough data-set of input information both of in situ and spatial nature. Meteorological observations, radar data, Limited Area Model weather forecasts, EO data, and fuel data are managed by a Unified Interface able to process a wide set of different data. Specific semi-physical models are used in the system to simulate the dynamics of the fuels (load and moisture contents of dead and live fuel) and the potential fire behaviour (rate of spread and linear intensity). A preliminary validation of this approach will be provided with reference to Sardinia and Corsica Islands, two major islands of the Mediterranean See frequently affected by extreme plume dominated wildfires. A time series of about 3000 wildfires burnt in Sardinia and Corsica in 2007 and 2008 will be used to evaluate the capability of HI coupled with the outputs of the Fire Weather model to forecast the actual risk in time and in space.

Gaetani, Francesco; Baptiste Filippi, Jean; Simeoni, Albert; D'Andrea, Mirko

2010-05-01

291

Plant regeneration from embryogenic calli of six Citrus related genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryos were induced from immature seeds of eight Citrus relatives including Aegle marmelos, Atalantia ceylanica,\\u000a Citropsis gabunensis, Clausena excavata, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Microcitrus australasica, Murraya paniculata and Severinia\\u000a buxifolia on MT medium supplemented with 0.05 mg l?1 2,4-D, 0.05 mg l?1 BA and 400 mg l?1 malt extract. Approximately 20% of somatic embryos from six of the genera underwent callogenesis

Jing-Tian Ling; Masao Iwamasa

1997-01-01

292

Status of the South American tuberous legume Pachyrhizus tuberosus (Lam.) Spreng.: Field observations, taxonomic analysis, linguistic studies and agronomic data on the diversity of the South American Pachyrhizus tuberosus (Lam.) Spreng. complex with special reference to the identification of two new cultivar groups from Ecuador and Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tuberous legume Pachyrhizus tuberosus is found in cultivation sporadically throughout the tropical lowlands of South America.\\u000a As a result of field studies conducted in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, three distinct cultivar groups have been identified.\\u000a Rare references presenting further evidence in support of this grouping, and yielding information on the cultivation history,\\u000a are reviewed. The differences in morphology,

MARTEN SØRENSEN; SØREN DØYGAARD; JAIME E. ESTRELLA; LARS PETER KVIST; POUL ERIK NIELSEN

1997-01-01

293

21 CFR 73.2190 - Henna.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...additive henna is the dried leaf and petiole of Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.). It may be identified by its characteristic...plant material from Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.) other than the leaf and...

2013-04-01

294

21 CFR 73.2190 - Henna.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...additive henna is the dried leaf and petiole of Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.). It may be identified by its characteristic...plant material from Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.) other than the leaf and...

2010-04-01

295

21 CFR 73.2190 - Henna.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...additive henna is the dried leaf and petiole of Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.). It may be identified by its characteristic...plant material from Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.) other than the leaf and...

2009-04-01

296

Sensitivity of Local Model Prediction to Large Scale Forcing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Limited Area Models (LAMs) are becoming increasingly complex in order to produce accurate and finely resolved numerical weather forecasts. This thesis describes a LAM developed and used at the University of Utah and examines the choices of numerical diffe...

K. M. Waldron

1994-01-01

297

Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SatCon Technology Corporation has completed a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 program to develop a Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension (LAMS) for the NASA Langley Research Center. The Superconducting LAMS was a hardware demon...

J. R. Downer G. V. Anastas D. A. Bushko F. J. Flynn J. H. Goldie

1992-01-01

298

Tissue-Specific Renin-Angiotensin System in Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a multisystem disease found in middle-aged women, is characterized by cystic lung destruction andabdominaltumors(e.g.,angiomyolipomas,lymphangioleimyo- mas), resulting from proliferation of abnormal-appearing, smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells). The LAM cells, in combination with other cells, form nodular structures within the lung interstitium and in the walls of the cysts. LAM cells contain mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex TSC1 and\\/or

Julio C. Valencia; Gustavo Pacheco-Rodriguez; Adriana K. Carmona; Janina Xavier; Patrick Bruneval; William K. Riemenschneider; Yoshihiko Ikeda; Zu-Xi Yu; Victor J. Ferrans; Joel Moss

2006-01-01

299

Modulation of TGF-?-inducible hypermotility by EGF and other factors in human prostate epithelial cells and keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratinocytes migrating from a wound edge or initiating malignant invasion greatly increase their expression of the basement\\u000a membrane protein Laminin-322 (Lam332). In culture, keratinocytes initiate sustained directional hypermotility when plated\\u000a onto an incompletely processed form of Lam332 (Lam332?) or when treated with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), an inducer\\u000a of Lam332 expression. The development and tissue architecture of stratified squamous

Wei Wei; Patricia D. Barron; James G. Rheinwald

2010-01-01

300

Characterization of a Truncated Lipoarabinomannan from the Actinomycete Turicella otitidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) lipoglycans have been characterized from a range of mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes and from the amycolate actinomycete Amycolatopsis sulphurea. To further understand the struc- tural diversity of this family, we have characterized the lipoglycan of the otic commensal Turicella otitidis. T. otitidis LAM (TotLAM) has been determined to consist of a mannosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor unit carrying an ( 136)-linked

Martine Gilleron; Natalie J. Garton; Jerome Nigou; Therese Brando; Germain Puzo; Iain C. Sutcliffe

2005-01-01

301

Evaluation of surface roughness in laser-assisted machining of aluminum oxide ceramics with Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates laser-assisted machining (LAM) as an economically viable process for manufacturing precision aluminum oxide ceramic parts. Because it is locally heated by an intense laser source prior to material removal, LAM leads to higher material removal rates, as well as improved control of workpiece properties and geometry. To assess the feasibility of the LAM process and better understand

Chih-Wei Chang; Chun-Pao Kuo

2007-01-01

302

Understanding the interaction of Lipoarabinomannan with membrane mimetic architectures.  

PubMed

Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a critical virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. LAM is secreted in urine and serum from infected patients and is being studied as a potential diagnostic indicator for the disease. Herein, we present a novel ultra-sensitive and specific detection strategy for monomeric LAM based on its amphiphilic nature and consequent interaction with supported lipid bilayers. Our strategy involves the capture of LAM on waveguides functionalized with membrane mimetic architectures, followed by detection with a fluorescently labeled polyclonal antibody. This approach offers ultra-sensitive detection of lipoarabinomannan (10 fM, within 15 min) and may be extended to other amphiphilic markers. We also show that chemical deacylation of LAM completely abrogates its association with the supported lipid bilayers. The loss of signal using the waveguide assay for deacylated LAM, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) images that show no change in height upon addition of deacylated LAM support this hypothesis. Mass spectrometry of chemically deacylated LAM indicates the presence of LAM-specific carbohydrate chains, which maintain antigenicity in immunoassays. Further, we have developed the first three-dimensional structural model of mannose-capped LAM that provides insights into the orientation of LAM on supported lipid bilayers. PMID:22033469

Mukundan, Harshini; Price, Dominique N; Goertz, Matthew; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan; Montaño, Gabriel A; Kumar, Sandeep; Scholfield, Matthew R; Anderson, Aaron S; Gnanakaran, S; Iyer, Srinivas; Schmidt, Jurgen; Swanson, Basil I

2011-10-26

303

Laminin and collagen IV subunit distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues of colorectum and breast.  

PubMed Central

To invade and metastasize, carcinomas must penetrate or lose their epithelial basement membrane (EBM), and then penetrate basement membranes (BMs) surrounding blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves and muscle cells. Knowledge of the composition of different BMs is necessary, so that appropriate antibodies and DNA probes are used to analyse these events. Laminin and type IV collagen are the principal BM components. However, recent studies show these two proteins exist in various isoforms, each of which is a heterotrimer of different subunit polypeptides. In this study, we analysed the distribution of laminin subunits, alpha 1 (lam), alpha 2 (lam), beta 1(lam), beta 2(lam) and gamma 1 (lam), and collagen IV subunits, alpha 1(IV), alpha 3(IV), alpha 4(IV) and alpha 5 (IV), in normal and neoplastic tissues of colorectum and breast. Subunits alpha 1(IV), alpha 1(lam), beta 1(lam) and gamma 1(lam) were detected in all BMs, while the distribution of alpha 3(IV), alpha 4(IV), alpha 5(IV) and alpha 2(lam) was much more restricted. In carcinomas, EBM staining for all subunits was invariably discontinuous or absent, consistent with the presence of complete EBM breaks. Use of antibody to alpha 1(lam) selectively stained the EBMs of carcinomas. Strong vascular staining for alpha 1(lam), beta 1(lam), gamma 1(lam) and alpha 1(IV) suggests an abundance of BM proteins in vessel walls, which may aid tumour cell attachment before vascular invasion. Within carcinomas, vascular BM staining for beta 2(lam) was clearly weaker than in normal tissues, which may reflect incomplete maturation of these vessels. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5

Hewitt, R. E.; Powe, D. G.; Morrell, K.; Balley, E.; Leach, I. H.; Ellis, I. O.; Turner, D. R.

1997-01-01

304

Development of monoclonal antibody against isoquinoline alkaloid coptisine and its application for the screening of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the development of immunoassay technique, the design of hapten containing a functional group suitable for protein conjugate is the key step for the preparation of antibodies against small molecules. Coptisine (MW 320), a bioactive constituent of Berberis and Coptis species, is small as an immunogen. In addition, coptisine has no reactive group in molecule for conjugating with a protein.

Jun-Sik Kim; Hiroyuki Tanaka; Chun-Su Yuan; Yukihiro Shoyama

2004-01-01

305

The alkaloid Berberine inhibits the growth of Anoikis-resistant MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines by inducing cell cycle arrest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberine is a pure phenanthren alkaloid isolated from the roots and bark of herbal plants such as Berberis, Hydrastis canadensis and Coptis chinensis. Berberine has been established to inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells, but its effects on the drug resistance and anoikis-resistance of breast cancer cells have yet to be elucidated. Anoikis, or detachment-induced apoptosis, may prevent cancer

J. B. Kim; J.-H. Yu; E. Ko; K.-W. Lee; A. K. Song; S. Y. Park; I. Shin; W. Han; D. Y. Noh

2010-01-01

306

Studies on preventive and curative effects of berberine on chemical-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberis aristata is an edible plant employed in the South Asian Traditional Medicine, particularly its fruits being used as a tonic remedy for liver and heart. In this investigation, berberine, a known compound from this plant, was studied for its possible antihepatotoxic action in rats. Pretreatment of animals with berberine (4 mg\\/kg; orally twice daily for 2 days) prevented the

K. H Janbaz; A. H Gilani

2000-01-01

307

Environmentally Friendly Natural Dyeing of Organic Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, organic cotton fabrics were dyed with different natural dye sources (madder root, walnut shell, henna, horse chestnut, pomegranate peel, berberis vulgaris root, thyme, and sage tea). The dyeing was carried out with different mordants (copper sulphate, potassium aluminum sulphate, potassium tartrate, and citric acid), using pre-mordanting dyeing methods. The color of the fabrics was investigated in terms

Mustafa Tutak; N. Ebru Korkmaz

2012-01-01

308

Differences in Earthworm Densities and Nitrogen Dynamics in Soils Under Exotic and Native Plant Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of the invasion of two exotic plants – Berberis thunbergii and Microstegium vimineum – in hardwood forests of New Jersey have shown a significant increase of pH in soils under the invasive plants as compared with soils from under native shrubs (Vaccinium spp). We present a further investigation of soil properties under the exotic plants in question. We

P. S. Kourtev; W. Z. Huang; J. G. Ehrenfeld

1999-01-01

309

78 FR 27855 - Black Stem Rust; Additions of Rust-Resistant Species and Varieties  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...United States. The disease is caused by a fungus (Puccinia graminis) that reduces the...addition to infecting small grains, the fungus lives on a variety of alternate host plants...Berberis, Mahoberberis, and Mahonia. The fungus is spread from host to host by...

2013-05-13

310

75 FR 54461 - Black Stem Rust; Additions of Rust-Resistant Varieties  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...United States. The disease is caused by a fungus that reduces the quality and yield of...addition to infecting small grains, the fungus lives on a variety of alternate host plants...Berberis, Mahoberberis, and Mahonia. The fungus is spread from host to host by...

2010-09-08

311

Copper catalyzed N-arylation of amidines with aryl boronic acids and one-pot synthesis of benzimidazoles by a Chan-Lam-Evans N-arylation and C-H activation/C-N bond forming process.  

PubMed

Mono-N-arylation of benzamidines 1 with aryl boronic acids 2 was effectively achieved in the presence of a catalytic amount of Cu(OAc)(2) and NaOPiv under mild aerobic conditions. Combining this step with an intramolecular direct C-H bond functionalization, catalyzed by the same catalytic system but under oxygen at 120 °C, afforded benzimidazoles 3 in good to excellent yields. PMID:23151245

Li, Jihui; Bénard, Sébastien; Neuville, Luc; Zhu, Jieping

2012-11-14

312

Immunosuppressive cytokine Interleukin10 (IL10) is up-regulated in high-grade CIN but not associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) at baseline, outcomes of HR-HPV infections or incident CIN in the LAMS cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bypassing the local immunological defense reactions in the cervix is one of the prerequisites for human papillomaviruses (HPV)\\u000a infections to progress to intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The role of potent immunosuppressive cytokines, e.g., interleukin-10\\u000a (IL-10), depressing these local virus-specific immunological responses is incompletely studied. To assess, whether IL-10 expression\\u000a in cervical HPV lesions has any implications in the outcome of HPV

Stina Syrjänen; Paulo Naud; Luis Sarian; Sophie Derchain; Cecilia Roteli-Martins; Adhemar Longatto-Filho; Silvio Tatti; Margherita Branca; Mojca Eržen; L. S. Hammes; S. Costa; Kari Syrjänen

2009-01-01

313

Depositional and tectonic setting of the Paleoproterozoic Lower Aillik Group, Makkovik Province, Canada: evolution of a passive margin-foredeep sequence based on petrochemistry and U–Pb (TIMS and LAM-ICP-MS) geochronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Paleoproterozoic Lower Aillik Group is a deformed metasedimentary–metavolcanic succession located in the Makkovik Province of Labrador, eastern Canada. The group is situated near the boundary between reworked Archaean gneiss of the Nain (North Atlantic) craton and juvenile Paleoproterozoic crust that was both tectonically accreted and formed on or adjacent to this craton during the ca. 1.9–1.78 Ma Makkovikian orogeny.

John W. F. Ketchum; Simon E. Jackson; Nicholas G. Culshaw; Sandra M. Barr

2001-01-01

314

YAMUK KES?TL? KANAL ?ÇER?S?NDE LAM?NER AKI?TA H?DROD?NAM?K VE ISIL OLARAK GEL??MEKTE OLAN ISI TRANSFER? PROBLEM?N?N SAYISAL OLARAK ?NCELENMES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laminar forced convection inside trapezoidal duct is of interest in design of thermal equipment. Heat transfer to both hydrodynamically and thermally developing three dimensional forced convection inside a duct having trapezoidal cross section was investigated numerically under steady-state and constant surface temperature conditions. Numerical study was carried out for Reynolds number range of 100?Re?800. Air (Pr?0.7) was used as working

Nevzat ONUR; Kamil ARSLAN; Feyza GÜNBEY

315

Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. "Tainong 57"] Starch Improves Insulin Sensitivity in High-Fructose Diet-Fed Rats by Ameliorating Adipocytokine Levels, Pro-Inflammatory Status, and Insulin Signaling.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-glycemic index (GI) sweet potato starch on adipocytokines, pro-inflammatory status, and insulin signaling in the high-fructose diet-induced insulin-resistant rat. We randomly divided 24 insulin-resistant rats and 16 normal rats into two groups fed a diet containing 575 g/kg of starch: a low-GI sweet potato starch (S) or a high-GI potato starch (P). The four experimental groups were labeled as follows: insulin-resistant P (IR-P), insulin-resistant S (IR-S), normal P (N-P) and normal S (N-S). After 4 wk on the experimental diets, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was conducted, and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), adipocytokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines levels, and insulin signaling-related protein expression were measured. The homeostasis model assessment values were significantly lower in the IR-S than in the IR-P group, suggesting that insulin sensitivity was improved among sweet potato starch-fed rats. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, resistin, and retinol binding protein-4 were significantly lower in the IR-S versus the IR-P group, indicating an improvement of pro-inflammatory status in sweet potato starch-fed rats. The sweet potato starch diet also significantly enhanced the protein expression of phospho-Tyr-insulin receptor substrate-1 and improved the translocation of glucose transporter 4 in the skeletal muscle. Our results illustrated that sweet potato starch feeding for 4 wk can improve insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant rats, possibly by improving the adipocytokine levels, pro-inflammatory status, and insulin signaling. PMID:24064727

Chen, Ya-Yen; Lai, Ming-Hoang; Hung, Hsin-Yu; Liu, Jen-Fang

2013-01-01

316

Forced expression of laminin ?1 in podocytes prevents nephrotic syndrome in mice lacking laminin ?2, a model for Pierson syndrome  

PubMed Central

Pierson syndrome is a congenital nephrotic syndrome with ocular and neurological defects caused by mutations in LAMB2, the gene encoding the basement membrane protein laminin ?2 (Lam?2). It is the kidney glomerular basement membrane (GBM) that is defective in Pierson syndrome, as Lam?2 is a component of laminin-521 (LM-521; ?5?2?1), the major laminin in the mature GBM. In both Pierson syndrome and the Lamb2?/? mouse model for this disease, laminin ?1 (Lam?1), a structurally similar homolog of Lam?2, is marginally increased in the GBM, but it fails to fully compensate for the loss of Lam?2, leading to the filtration barrier defects and nephrotic syndrome. Here we generated several lines of Lam?1 transgenic mice and used them to show that podocyte-specific Lam?1 expression in Lamb2?/? mice abrogates the development of nephrotic syndrome, correlating with a greatly extended lifespan. In addition, the more Lam?1 was expressed, the less urinary albumin was excreted. Transgenic Lam?1 expression increased the level of Lam?5 in the GBM of rescued mice, consistent with the desired increased deposition of laminin-511 (?5?1?1) trimers. Ultrastructural analysis revealed occasional knob-like subepithelial GBM thickening but intact podocyte foot processes in aged rescued mice. These results suggest the possibility that up-regulation of LAMB1 in podocytes, should it become achievable, would likely lessen the severity of nephrotic syndrome in patients carrying LAMB2 mutations.

Suh, Jung Hee; Jarad, George; VanDeVoorde, Rene G.; Miner, Jeffrey H.

2011-01-01

317

Positioning ganglioside D3 as an immunotherapeutic target in lymphangioleiomyomatosis.  

PubMed

Tumors that develop in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) as a consequence of biallelic loss of TSC1 or TSC2 gene function express melanoma differentiation antigens. However, the percentage of LAM cells expressing these melanosomal antigens is limited. Here, we report the overexpression of ganglioside D3 (GD3) in LAM. GD3 is a tumor-associated antigen otherwise found in melanoma and neuroendocrine tumors; normal expression is largely restricted to neuronal cells in the brain. We also observed markedly reduced serum antibody titers to GD3, which may allow for a population of GD3-expressing LAM cells to expand within patients. This is supported by the demonstrated sensitivity of cultured LAM cells to complement mediated cytotoxicity via GD3 antibodies. GD3 can serve as a natural killer T (NKT) cell antigen when presented on CD1d molecules expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells. Although CD1d-expressing monocyte derivatives were present in situ, enhanced NKT-cell recruitment to LAM lung was not observed. Cultured LAM cells retained surface expression of GD3 over several passages and also expressed CD1d, implying that infiltrating NKT cells can be directly cytotoxic toward LAM lung lesions. Immunization with antibodies to GD3 may thus be therapeutic in LAM, and enhancement of existing NKT-cell infiltration may be effective to further improve antitumor responses. Overall, we hereby establish GD3 as a suitable target for immunotherapy of LAM. PMID:23665200

Gilbert, Emily R; Eby, Jonathan M; Hammer, Adam M; Klarquist, Jared; Christensen, David G; Barfuss, Allison J; Boissy, Raymond E; Picken, Maria M; Love, Robert B; Dilling, Daniel F; Le Poole, I Caroline

2013-05-10

318

[Pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis diagnosed by video-assisted thoracic surgery; report of a case].  

PubMed

Pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease which occurs mainly in women of child-bearing age. The clinical characteristics of LAM include recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax, dyspnea on exertion, hemoptysis, chylothorax, and so on. A 41-year old woman was referred to our department for treatment of recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed right pneumothorax and multiple small bullae located bilateral lung. These CT findings were most suggestive of LAM. To obtain a definitive diagnosis and treat pneumothorax, we performed a thoracoscopic lung biopsy, bullectomy, plication of bullae, and also performed mechanical and chemical pleurodesis. Histopathological examination of surgical specimen using immunohistochemical staining of HMB-45 and alpha-SMA revealed the proliferation of LAM cells, confirming a diagnosis of LAM. Here, we report a case that was diagnosed as LAM by thoracoscopic lung biopsy and treated by thoracoscopic surgery and pleurodesis. PMID:19048913

Shimizu, Y; Tsunezuka, Y; Tanaka, N

2008-11-01

319

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis -- a wolf in sheep's clothing  

PubMed Central

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare progressive lung disease of women. LAM is caused by mutations in the tuberous sclerosis genes, resulting in activation of the mTOR complex 1 signaling network. Over the past 11 years, there has been remarkable progress in the understanding of LAM and rapid translation of this knowledge to an effective therapy. LAM pathogenic mechanisms mirror those of many forms of human cancer, including mutation, metabolic reprogramming, inappropriate growth and survival, metastasis via blood and lymphatic circulation, infiltration/invasion, sex steroid sensitivity, and local and remote tissue destruction. However, the smooth muscle cell that metastasizes, infiltrates, and destroys the lung in LAM arises from an unknown source and has an innocent histological appearance, with little evidence of proliferation. Thus, LAM is as an elegant, monogenic model of neoplasia, defying categorization as either benign or malignant.

Henske, Elizabeth P.; McCormack, Francis X.

2012-01-01

320

Isolation and characterization of OmpC porin mutants with altered pore properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LamB protien is normally required for the uptake of maltodextrins. Starting with a LamB⁻ OmpF⁻ strain, we have isolated mutants that will grow on maltodextrins. The mutation conferring the Dex\\/sup +\\/ phenotype in the majority of these mutants has been mapped to the ompC locus. These mutants, unlike LamB⁻ OmpF⁻ strains, grew on maltotriose and maltotetraose, but not on

R. Misra; S. A. Benson

1988-01-01

321

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for recurrent pneumothorax in pulmonary lymphangioleimyomatosis with tuberous sclerosis complex.  

PubMed

Pneumothorax in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a difficult condition to manage. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) may play a role in diagnosis and treatment of this situation. We present a case of right recurrent pneumothorax due to LAM with TSC in whom VATS was performed for pathological diagnosis and mechanical pleurodesis. The unique presentation of LAM in TSC was also discussed. PMID:23597154

Tsai, Chia-Fen; Hsiao, Chen-Hao; Lee, Jang-Ming; Chen, Ke-Cheng; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Chen, Jin-Shing

2013-04-18

322

A numerical approach to the internal large amplitude motion Hamiltonian of a polyatomic molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully numerical approach to the vibrational Hamiltonian of a polyatomic molecule is presented and applied to four-membered ring molecules. Large amplitude motions (LAMs) and small amplitude vibrations (SAVs) are described by curvilinear coordinates. On the grounds of the adiabatic separation of LAMs and SAVs, a very efficient method of solving the inverse spectral problem is proposed. Coordinate transformations which eliminate the kinetic LAM-SAV interaction and ensure high accuracy of the adiabatic method are discussed.

Pyka, J.; Foltynowicz, I.; Makarewicz, J.

1990-09-01

323

Lymphangiomyomatosis discovered by massive hemoptysis during general anesthesia -A case report-  

PubMed Central

Lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung disease that is characterized by the progressive proliferation of atypical smooth muscle-like cells, which leads to severe respiratory impairment and death. Dyspnea, cough, recurrent pneumothorax, and hemoptysis are the most common clinical symptoms of LAM. We report a 29-year-old female patient with massive hemoptysis during laparoscopic gynecologic surgery under general anesthesia, who was diagnosed with pulmonary LAM.

Kim, Deokkyu; Lee, Sung Nyu; Lee, Sang-Kyi

2012-01-01

324

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for recurrent pneumothorax in pulmonary lymphangioleimyomatosis with tuberous sclerosis complex  

PubMed Central

Pneumothorax in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a difficult condition to manage. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) may play a role in diagnosis and treatment of this situation. We present a case of right recurrent pneumothorax due to LAM with TSC in whom VATS was performed for pathological diagnosis and mechanical pleurodesis. The unique presentation of LAM in TSC was also discussed.

2013-01-01

325

Correlation between Mechanical Strength and Surface Conditions of Laser Assisted Machined Silicon Nitride  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a High power fiber-coupled diode lasers for Laser-Assisted Machining (LAM) of ceramics provides an efficient, cost effective\\u000a solution for surface finishing of ceramic products. This paper presents experimental evidence of advantages of LAM over the\\u000a traditional diamond wheel grinding, a standard technique currently utilized in the finishing of ceramic surfaces. LAM, utilizing\\u000a fiber-coupled diode lasers, also provides advantages over other types

F. M. Sciammarella; M. J. Matusky

326

The laser additive manufacture of Ti-6Al-4V  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a manufacturing technique with cost-reduction potential for titanium aerospace components. The mechanical properties of LAM Ti-6Al-4V have been investigated extensively, but little work on microstructure evolution has been performed to date. The results presented here provide a first look at the relationships between LAM processing parameters and microstructure in as-deposited Ti-6Al-4V.

Kobryn, P. A.; Semiatin, S. L.

2001-09-01

327

PDGF enhances IRES-mediated translation of Laminin B1 by cytoplasmic accumulation of La during epithelial to mesenchymal transition  

PubMed Central

The extracellular matrix protein Laminin B1 (LamB1) regulates tumor cell migration and invasion. Carcinoma cells acquire invasive properties by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a fundamental step in dissemination of metastatic cells from the primary tumor. Recently, we showed that enhanced translation of LamB1 upon EMT of malignant hepatocytes is mediated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). We demonstrated that the IRES transacting factor La binds the minimal IRES motif and positively modulates IRES activity of LamB1. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) enhances IRES activity of LamB1 by the increasing cytoplasmic localization of La during EMT. Accordingly, cells expressing dominant negative PDGF receptor display reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of La and show no elevation of IRES activity or endogenous LamB1 levels after stimulation with PDGF. Furthermore, La-mediated regulation of LamB1 IRES activity predominantly depends on MAPK/ERK signaling downstream of PDGF. Notably, LamB1 expression is not significantly downregulated by the impairment of the translation initiation factor eIF4E. In vivo, knockdown of La associated with decreased LamB1 expression and reduced tumor growth. Together, these data suggest that PDGF is required for the cytoplasmic accumulation of La that triggers IRES-dependent translation of LamB1 during EMT.

Petz, Michaela; Them, Nicole C. C.; Huber, Heidemarie; Mikulits, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

328

La enhances IRES-mediated translation of laminin B1 during malignant epithelial to mesenchymal transition  

PubMed Central

The majority of transcripts that harbor an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) are involved in cancer development via corresponding proteins. A crucial event in tumor progression referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows carcinoma cells to acquire invasive properties. The translational activation of the extracellular matrix component laminin B1 (LamB1) during EMT has been recently reported suggesting an IRES-mediated mechanism. In this study, the IRES activity of LamB1 was determined by independent bicistronic reporter assays. Strong evidences exclude an impact of cryptic promoter or splice sites on IRES-driven translation of LamB1. Furthermore, no other LamB1 mRNA species arising from alternative transcription start sites or polyadenylation signals were detected that account for its translational control. Mapping of the LamB1 5?-untranslated region (UTR) revealed the minimal LamB1 IRES motif between ?293 and ?1 upstream of the start codon. Notably, RNA affinity purification showed that the La protein interacts with the LamB1 IRES. This interaction and its regulation during EMT were confirmed by ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation. In addition, La was able to positively modulate LamB1 IRES translation. In summary, these data indicate that the LamB1 IRES is activated by binding to La which leads to translational upregulation during hepatocellular EMT.

Petz, Michaela; Them, Nicole; Huber, Heidemarie; Beug, Hartmut; Mikulits, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

329

Lipoarabinomannan-Induced Cell Signaling Involves Ceramide and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase  

PubMed Central

Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a major cell wall-associated lipoglycan, produced in large amounts (15 mg/g of bacteria) in different species of mycobacteria. Our laboratory has previously reported that LAM from Mycobacterium smegmatis exerts its cytotoxic activity via inhibition of protein kinase C, a key signaling molecule inside the mononuclear cells (S. Ghosh, S. Pal, S. Das, S. K. Dasgupta, and S. Majumdar, FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 21:181-188, 1998). In this study we report that LAM from Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces a signal transduction pathway in favor of survivability of the host cells via the generation of ceramide, a novel second messenger. The endogenous ceramide level in mononuclear cells was found to be enhanced during LAM treatment. The effects of LAM on protein tyrosine phosphorylation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were examined. LAM enhanced the tyrosine phosphorylation of p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase) and dephosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase. LAM-induced phosphorylation of p42 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2) was further enhanced by wortmannin, a PI3 kinase inhibitor. To examine whether these effects are due to elevation of endogenous ceramide, we exposed the cells to cell-permeative C2-ceramide exogenously and studied the activities of different protein kinases. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and morphological studies showed that LAM induces cell survival. Therefore, these results suggest the ability of LAM to induce ceramide in the altered signaling pathway and help in cell survival.

Sirkar, Madhumita; Majumdar, Subrata

2002-01-01

330

La enhances IRES-mediated translation of laminin B1 during malignant epithelial to mesenchymal transition.  

PubMed

The majority of transcripts that harbor an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) are involved in cancer development via corresponding proteins. A crucial event in tumor progression referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows carcinoma cells to acquire invasive properties. The translational activation of the extracellular matrix component laminin B1 (LamB1) during EMT has been recently reported suggesting an IRES-mediated mechanism. In this study, the IRES activity of LamB1 was determined by independent bicistronic reporter assays. Strong evidences exclude an impact of cryptic promoter or splice sites on IRES-driven translation of LamB1. Furthermore, no other LamB1 mRNA species arising from alternative transcription start sites or polyadenylation signals were detected that account for its translational control. Mapping of the LamB1 5'-untranslated region (UTR) revealed the minimal LamB1 IRES motif between -293 and -1 upstream of the start codon. Notably, RNA affinity purification showed that the La protein interacts with the LamB1 IRES. This interaction and its regulation during EMT were confirmed by ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation. In addition, La was able to positively modulate LamB1 IRES translation. In summary, these data indicate that the LamB1 IRES is activated by binding to La which leads to translational upregulation during hepatocellular EMT. PMID:21896617

Petz, Michaela; Them, Nicole; Huber, Heidemarie; Beug, Hartmut; Mikulits, Wolfgang

2011-09-06

331

Isolation of a distinct Mycobacterium tuberculosis mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan isoform responsible for recognition by CD1b-restricted T cells.  

PubMed

Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) is a complex lipoglycan abundantly present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell envelope. Many biological properties have been ascribed to ManLAM, from directly interacting with the host and participating in the intracellular survival of M. tuberculosis, to triggering innate and adaptive immune responses, including the activation of CD1b-restricted T cells. Due to its structural complexity, ManLAM is considered a heterogeneous population of molecules which may explain its different biological properties. The presence of various modifications such as fatty acids, succinates, lactates, phosphoinositides and methylthioxylose in ManLAM have proven to correlate directly with its biological activity and may potentially be involved in the interactions between CD1b and the T cell population. To further delineate the specific ManLAM epitopes involved in CD1b-restricted T cell recognition, and their potential roles in mediating immune responses in M. tuberculosis infection, we established a method to resolve ManLAM into eight different isoforms based on their different isoelectric values. Our results show that a ManLAM isoform with an isoelectric value of 5.8 was the most potent in stimulating the production of interferon-? in different CD1b-restricted T-cell lines. Compositional analyses of these isoforms of ManLAM revealed a direct relationship between the overall charge of the ManLAM molecule and its capacity to be presented to T cells via the CD1 compartment. PMID:22534567

Torrelles, Jordi B; Sieling, Peter A; Zhang, Nannan; Keen, Mark A; McNeil, Michael R; Belisle, John T; Modlin, Robert L; Brennan, Patrick J; Chatterjee, Delphi

2012-04-25

332

7 CFR 361.1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...States: Agrotricumâx Agrotriticum Ciferri... Lam. Ryegrass, intermediateâLolium Ãhybridum...corniculatus L. Triticaleâx Triticosecale Wittm...Schult. Wheatgrass, intermediateâElytrigia intermedia...SiberianâAgropyron fragile (Roth)...

2009-01-01

333

7 CFR 361.1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...States: Agrotricumâx Agrotriticum Ciferri... Lam. Ryegrass, intermediateâLolium Ãhybridum...corniculatus L. Triticaleâx Triticosecale Wittm...Schult. Wheatgrass, intermediateâElytrigia intermedia...SiberianâAgropyron fragile (Roth)...

2010-01-01

334

Critical roles for lipomannan and lipoarabinomannan in cell wall integrity of mycobacteria and pathogenesis of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Lipomannan (LM) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) are mycobacterial glycolipids containing a long mannose polymer. While they are implicated in immune modulations, the significance of LM and LAM as structural components of the mycobacterial cell wall remains unknown. We have previously reported that a branch-forming mannosyltransferase plays a critical role in controlling the sizes of LM and LAM and that deletion or overexpression of this enzyme results in gross changes in LM/LAM structures. Here, we show that such changes in LM/LAM structures have a significant impact on the cell wall integrity of mycobacteria. In Mycobacterium smegmatis, structural defects in LM and LAM resulted in loss of acid-fast staining, increased sensitivity to ?-lactam antibiotics, and faster killing by THP-1 macrophages. Furthermore, equivalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants became more sensitive to ?-lactams, and one mutant showed attenuated virulence in mice. Our results revealed previously unknown structural roles for LM and LAM and further demonstrated that they are important for the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. IMPORTANCE Tuberculosis (TB) is a global burden, affecting millions of people worldwide. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a causative agent of TB, and understanding the biology of M. tuberculosis is essential for tackling this devastating disease. The cell wall of M. tuberculosis is highly impermeable and plays a protective role in establishing infection. Among the cell wall components, LM and LAM are major glycolipids found in all Mycobacterium species, show various immunomodulatory activities, and have been thought to play roles in TB pathogenesis. However, the roles of LM and LAM as integral parts of the cell wall structure have not been elucidated. Here we show that LM and LAM play critical roles in the integrity of mycobacterial cell wall and the pathogenesis of TB. These findings will now allow us to seek the possibility that the LM/LAM biosynthetic pathway is a chemotherapeutic target. PMID:23422411

Fukuda, Takeshi; Matsumura, Takayuki; Ato, Manabu; Hamasaki, Maho; Nishiuchi, Yukiko; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Taroh; Morita, Yasu S

2013-02-19

335

TSC2 loss in lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells correlated with expression of CD44v6, a molecular determinant of metastasis.  

PubMed

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare multisystem disease found primarily in women of childbearing age, is characterized by the proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like cells, LAM cells, that form nodules in the pulmonary interstitium. Proliferation of LAM cells results, in part, from dysfunction in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes TSC1 (hamartin) and/or TSC2 (tuberin). Identification of LAM cells in donor lungs, their isolation from blood, and their presence in urine, chylous ascites, and pleural effusions are consistent with their ability to metastasize. Here, we investigated the presence on LAM cells of the hyaluronic acid receptor CD44 and its splice variants associated with metastasis. The heterogeneous populations of cells grown from lungs of 12 LAM patients contain cells expressing mRNA for the variant CD44v6. Histologically, CD44v6 was present in LAM lung nodules, but not in normal vascular smooth muscle cells. CD44v6-positive sorted cells showed loss of heterozygosity at the TSC2 locus; binding of CD44v6 antibody resulted in loss of cell viability. Levels of CD44 were higher in cultured Eker rat (Tsc2-/-) cells than in Tsc2+/+ cells, but unlike human LAM cells, the Tsc2-/- Eker rat cells did not contain CD44v6 splice variant mRNA. CD44 splicing and signaling is regulated by osteopontin. Plasma from LAM patients contained higher concentrations of osteopontin than plasma of healthy, age-, and sex-matched volunteers (P = 0.00003) and may be a biomarker for LAM. The cell surface receptor CD44 and its splice variant CD44v6 may contribute to the metastatic potential of LAM cells. PMID:17975002

Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Steagall, Wendy K; Crooks, Denise M; Stevens, Linda A; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Li, Shaowei; Wang, Ji-an; Darling, Thomas N; Moss, Joel

2007-11-01

336

Fruit mineral contents of six wild species of the North Andean Patagonia, Argentina.  

PubMed

The fruit mineral contents (K, Ca, Ba, Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, and Sr) of four native and two exotic naturalized shrubs growing in different areas of the Andean Patagonian region of Argentina were investigated. Native species Berberis darwinii, Berberis microphylla (Berberidaceae), Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae) and Ribes magellanicum (Saxifragaceae) produce small berries while the fruits of the exotic species Rosa rubiginosa and Rosa canina (Rosaceae) are aggregates of aquenes. They are used to prepare jams, tea, liquors, and ice creams. Native shrub fruits had higher content of Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and Na than those of the exotic naturalized species. Rosa species showed the highest contents of Ca and Ba in their fruits (the mean content doubled those of the native plant fruits). The fruit nutrient content found in the studied species was similar or higher than other values reported for fruits of temperate and tropical species in the world. PMID:18512032

Damascos, María A; Arribere, Maria; Svriz, Maya; Bran, Donaldo

2008-05-30

337

Intelligent Buffer Module. Speed Up of CAMAC System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A start of data taking using the CAMAC system is usually triggered by the LAM(Look at Me) signal from a module. A host computer processes a LAM interruption and issues a CAMAC I/O operation in order to read in the data from modules and handles an I/O comp...

M. Ikeda K. Ukai

1987-01-01

338

Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The component technologies were developed required for an advanced control moment gyro (CMG) type of slewing actuator for large payloads. The key component of the CMG is a large-angle magnetic suspension (LAMS). The LAMS combines the functions of the gimb...

J. Downer J. Goldie R. Torti

1991-01-01

339

Generation of in Vitro Cellular Models of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis for the Development of Tuberous Sclerosis Therapeutics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purposes of this work are three related objectives: to generate human TSC2-/- LAM cell lines; to generate matching inducible isogenic TSC2 knock-in cell lines; and to confirm the absence and rescue of TSC signaling in these LAM lines. We generated 400...

R. Squillace

2006-01-01

340

Nonlinear parameter estimation by linear association: application to a five-parameter passive neuron model.  

PubMed

Linear associative memories (LAM) have been intensely used in the areas of pattern recognition and parallel processing for the past two decades. Application of LAM to nonlinear parameter estimation, however, has only been recently attempted. The process consists in converting the nonlinear function in the parameters into a set of linear algebraic equations. The nature of the linearized system and the factors influencing the accuracy of the parameter estimates have not yet been fully investigated. In this paper, LAM is applied to a nonlinear five-parameter model of the neuron. Ill-conditioning, which is often exhibited in LAM, is treated with the method of regularization as well as by the singular value decomposition (SVD). Simulation results indicate that the parameters estimated by LAM exhibit a remarkable robustness against additive white noise in comparison with the classical gradient optimization technique. Moreover, it is shown that regularization can be superior to SVD under certain conditions. Our results suggest that LAM can be used both as a noise reduction technique and as a stand-alone nonlinear parameter estimation algorithm. The comparison between LAM and a gradient technique show that, for this estimation problem, the LAM method can give more reliable estimates. Further improvements in estimation quality may still be achieved by the use of other forms of regularizing functions. PMID:8070806

Tawfik, B; Durand, D M

1994-05-01

341

Lipoarabinomannan Localization and Abundance during Growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis ? †  

PubMed Central

Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a structurally heterogeneous amphipathic lipoglycan present in Mycobacterium spp. and other actinomycetes, which constitutes a major component of the cell wall and exhibits a wide spectrum of immunomodulatory effects. Analysis of Mycobacterium smegmatis subcellular fractions and spheroplasts showed that LAM and lipomannan (LM) were primarily found in a cell wall-enriched subcellular fraction and correlated with the presence (or absence) of the mycolic acids in spheroplast preparations, suggesting that LAM and LM are primarily associated with the putative outer membrane of mycobacteria. During the course of these studies significant changes in the LAM/LM content of the cell wall were noted relative to the age of the culture. The LAM content of the M. smegmatis cell wall was dramatically reduced as the bacilli approached stationary phase, whereas LM, mycolic acid, and arabinogalactan content appeared to be unchanged. In addition, cell morphology and acid-fast staining characteristics showed variations with growth phase of the bacteria. In the logarithmic phase, the bacteria were found to be classic rod-shaped acid-fast bacilli, while in the stationary phase M. smegmatis lost the characteristic rod shape and developed a punctate acid-fast staining pattern with carbolfuchsin. The number of viable bacteria was independent of LAM content and phenotype. Taken together, the results presented here suggest that LAM is primarily localized with the mycolic acids in the cell wall and that the cellular concentration of LAM in M. smegmatis is selectively modulated with the growth phase.

Dhiman, Rakesh K.; Dinadayala, Premkumar; Ryan, Gavin J.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Schenkel, Alan R.; Crick, Dean C.

2011-01-01

342

Biogenesis of the Mycobacterial Cell Wall and the Site of Action of Ethambutol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ethambutol (EMB) is primarily on polymerization steps in the biosynthesis of the arabinan component of cell wall arabinogalactan (AG) of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Inhibition of the synthesis of the arabinan of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) occurred later, and thus in the cases of AG and LAM, the polymer- ization of D-arabinofuranose apparently involves separate pathways. While the synthesis of these

KATARINA MIKUSOVA; RICHARD A. SLAYDEN; GURDYAL S. BESRA; ANDPATRICK J. BRENNAN

1995-01-01

343

The effects of freeze-thaw cycles and leaching on the loss of soluble carbohydrates from leaf material of two subantarctic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves and litter of two phanerogams (Acaena magellanica (Lam.) Vahl and Poa flabellata (Lam.) Hook. f.) were collected in spring on the subantarctic island of South Georgia. Leaves immersed in water lost up to 80% of their total available soluble carbohydrates after 6–8 h. The loss of K+ and PO43-followed a similar pattern to that shown by the carbohydrates. Up

J. L. Hurst; G. J. F. Pugh; D. W. H. Walton

1985-01-01

344

Efficient and low cost devices for solar energy conversion: Efficiency and stability of some natural-dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye-sensitized solar cells, named by us Dye-Cells, are one of the most promising devices for solar energy conversion due to their reduced production cost and low environmental impact, especially those sensitized by natural dyes. The efficiency and stability of devices based on natural sensitizers such as mulberry (Morus alba Lam), blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus Lam), and jaboticaba's skin (Mirtus cauliflora Mart)

A. O. T. Patrocínio; S. K. Mizoguchi; L. G. Paterno; C. G. Garcia; N. Y. Murakami Iha

2009-01-01

345

Tuberculosis Toxin Blocking Phagosome Maturation Inhibits a Novel Ca 2 ? \\/Calmodulin-PI3K hVPS34 Cascade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to infect latently over one billion people and cause two million fatalities annually rests with its ability to block phagosomal maturation into the phagoly- sosome in infected macrophages. Here we describe how M. tuberculosis toxin lipoarabinomannan (LAM) causes phagosome maturation arrest, interfering with a new pathway connecting intra- cellular signaling and membrane trafficking. LAM from

Isabelle Vergne; Jennifer Chu; Vojo Deretic

2003-01-01

346

Raman spectroscopic investigations of the structure and phase transitions of liquid crystalline lead(II) alkanoates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead(II) alkanoates with even chain lengths from octanoate to octadecanoate have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy. In the low frequency region, transverse and longitudinal acoustical modes (TAM, LAM) have been assigned. It was shown that LAM-1 is the vibration of the double chain with the node of the vibration in the Pb layer. A fully extended conformation of the chains

J. Schwede; L. Köhler; H. P. Großmann; M. Pietralla; H. D. Burrows

1994-01-01

347

CT of Sclerotic Bone Lesions: Imaging Features Differentiating Tuberous Sclerosis Complex with Lymphangioleiomyomatosis from Sporadic Lymphangioleiomymatosis1  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine if sclerotic bone lesions evident at body computed tomography (CT) are of value as a diagnostic criterion of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and in the differentiation of TSC with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) from sporadic LAM. Materials and Methods: Informed consent was signed by all patients in this HIPAA-compliant study approved by the institutional review board. Retrospective analysis was performed of the body CT studies of 472 patients: 365 with sporadic LAM, 82 with TSC/LAM, and 25 with TSC. The images were reviewed by using a picture archiving and communication system workstation with bone settings (window width, 1500 HU; window level, 300 HU) and fit-to-screen option. CT image characteristics assessed included shape, size, and distribution of sclerotic bone lesions with subsequent calculation of differences in the frequency of these lesions. Results: Most commonly the sclerotic bone lesions were round, measured 0.3 cm (range, 0.2–3.2), and were distributed throughout the spine. The frequencies differed among the three patient groups Four or more sclerotic bone lesions were detected in all 25 (100%) of those with TSC, with a sensitivity of .89 (72 of 82) and specificity of .97 (355 of 367) in the differentiation of sporadic LAM from TSC/LAM (P < .01). Conclusion: The number of sclerotic bone lesions at body CT is of potential value in the diagnosis of TSC and in the differentiation of patients with sporadic LAM from those with TSC/LAM. © RSNA, 2010

Dwyer, Andrew J.; Rabel, Antoinette; Darling, Thomas; Hong, Chien-Hui; Moss, Joel

2010-01-01

348

Transient, three-dimensional heat transfer model for the laser assisted machining of silicon nitride: I. Comparison of predictions with measured surface temperature histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser assisted machining (LAM), in which the material is locally heated by an intense laser source prior to material removal, provides an alternative machining process with the potential to yield higher material removal rates, as well as improved control of workpiece properties and geometry, for difficult-to-machine materials such as structural ceramics. To assess the feasibility of the LAM process and

Jay C. Rozzi; Frank E. Pfefferkorn; Frank P. Incropera; Yung C. Shin

2000-01-01

349

Impact of SASS Wind Data on Analyses and Forecasts of a Fine Mesh Limited Area Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impact of SEASAT/SASS (SEASAT-A Scatterometer System) data on analyses and forecasts was studied in preparation for the use of ERS-1 scatterometer winds in a Limited Area Model (LAM). With the LAM, parallel runs are carried out with and without these ...

A. C. M. Stoffelen G. Cats L. M. Hafkenscheid A. P. M. Baede

1990-01-01

350

The mannose cap of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan does not dominate the Mycobacterium–host interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenic mycobacteria have the ability to persist in phagocytic cells and to suppress the immune system. The glycolipid lipoarabinomannan (LAM), in particular its mannose cap, has been shown to inhibit phagolysosome fusion and to induce immunosuppressive IL-10 production via interaction with the mannose receptor or DC-SIGN. Hence, the current paradigm is that the mannose cap of LAM is a crucial

B. J. Appelmelk; J. den Dunnen; N. N. Driessen; R. Ummels; M. Pak; J. Nigou; G. Larrouy-Maumus; S. S. Gurcha; F. Movahedzadeh; J. Geurtsen; E. J. Brown; M. M. Eysink Smeets; G. S. Besra; P. T. J. Willemsen; T. L. Lowary; Y. van Kooyk; J. J. Maaskant; N. G. Stoker; P. van der Ley; G. Puzo; C. M. J. E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; C. W. Wieland; T. van der Poll; T. B. H. Geijtenbeek; Sar van der A. M; W. Bitter

2008-01-01

351

The civil justice system and going concern audit reports: Comments on “Auditors’ decision-making under going concern uncertainties in low litigation risk environments: Evidence from Hong Kong”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lam and Mensah [Lam, K., Mensah, Y.M., 2006. Auditors’ decision-making under going concern uncertainties in low litigation risk environments: Evidence from Hong Kong. J. Account. Public Pol. 25 (6), this issue] provide some valuable insight on auditors’ choice of going concern audit reports in an environment where the civil justice system affords, from the standpoint of the plaintiff, fewer remedies

Randall E. LaSalle

2006-01-01

352

Virtual Sensor Based Fault Detection and Classification on a Plasma Etch Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SEMATECH sponsored J-88-E project teaming Texas Instruments with NeuroDyne (et al) focused on Fault Detection and Classification (FDC) on a Lam 9600 aluminum plasma etch reactor, used in the process of semiconductor fabrication. Fault classification was accomplished by implementing a series of virtual sensor models which used data from real sensors (Lam Station sensors, Optical Emission Spectroscopy, and RF

Donald Sofge

2007-01-01

353

Increasing Interoperability of E-Learning Content in Moodle within a Franco-Arabo Educative Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines how Moodle, as an open-source Learning Management System, can be made more interoperable. The authors tested two software standards, LAMS and RELOAD, compatible with socio-constructivism norms. The analysis showed that pedagogic activities created with the LAMS-IMS Learning Design Level A Format are useable with Moodle but…

El Harrassi, Souad; Labour, Michel

2010-01-01

354

Microcomputer-Based Local Automation Model: Test Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Test Plan for the microcomputer-based Local Automation Model (microLAM) is written to: 1) Establish a comprehensive test plan to determine whether the prototype system provides the functions and capabilities required for the microLAM; 2) Describe the...

R. W. Hartt D. J. O'Connor

1986-01-01

355

Isolation and characterization of two types of beta-1,3-glucanases from the common sea hare Aplysia kurodai.  

PubMed

Two types of beta-1,3-glucanases, AkLam36 and AkLam33 with the molecular masses of 36kDa and 33kDa, respectively, were isolated from the digestive fluid of the common sea hare Aplysia kurodai. AkLam36 was regarded as an endolytic enzyme (EC 3.2.1.6) degrading laminarin and laminarioligosaccharides to laminaritriose, laminaribiose, and glucose, while AkLam33 was regarded as an exolytic enzyme (EC 3.2.1.58) directly producing glucose from polymer laminarin. AkLam36 showed higher activity toward beta-1,3-glucans with a few beta-1,6-linked glucose branches such as Laminaria digitata laminarin (LLam) than highly branched beta-1,3-glucans such as Eisenia bicyclis laminarin (ELam). AkLam33 showed moderate activity toward both ELam and LLam and high activity toward smaller substrates such as laminaritetraose and laminaritriose. Although both enzymes did not degrade laminaribiose as a sole substrate, they were capable of degrading it via transglycosylation reaction with laminaritriose. The N-terminal amino-acid sequences of AkLam36 and AkLam33 indicated that both enzymes belong to the glycosyl hydrolase family 16 like other molluscan beta-1,3-glucanases. PMID:19883786

Kumagai, Yuya; Ojima, Takao

2010-02-01

356

Lymphatic endothelial differentiation in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells.  

PubMed

Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, low-grade neoplasm affecting almost exclusively women of childbearing age. LAM belongs to the family of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors, characterized by spindle and epithelioid cells with smooth muscle and melanocytic differentiation. LAM cells infiltrate the lungs, producing multiple, bilateral lesions rich in lymphatic channels and forming cysts, leading to respiratory insufficiency. Here we used antibodies against four lymphatic endothelial markers-podoplanin (detected by D2-40), prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1)-to determine whether LAM cells show lymphatic differentiation. Twelve of 12 diagnostic biopsy specimens (early-stage LAM) and 19 of 19 explants (late-stage LAM) showed immunopositivity for D2-40 in most neoplastic cells. PROX1, VEGFR-3, and LYVE1 immunoreactivity varied from scarce in the early stage to abundant in the late stage. Lymphatic endothelial, smooth muscle, and melanocytic markers were partially co-localized. These findings indicate that lymphatic endothelial differentiation is a feature of LAM and provide evidence of a previously unidentified third lineage of differentiation in this neoplasm. This study has implications for the histological diagnosis of LAM, the origin of the neoplastic cells, and potential future treatment with drugs targeting lymphangiogenesis. PMID:23609227

Davis, Jennifer M; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Husain, Aliya N; Shen, Le; Jones, Jennifer; Schuger, Lucia A

2013-04-22

357

S-adenosyl-L-methionine: (S)-scoulerine 9-O-methyltransferase, a highly stereo- and regio-specific enzyme in tetrahydroprotoberberine biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspension cultures of Berberis species are useful sources for the detection and isolation of a new enzyme which transfers the methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine specifically to the 9-position of the (S)-enantiomer of scoulerine, producing (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine. The enzyme was enriched 27-fold; it is not particle bound, has a pH optimum of 8.9, a molecular weight of 63 000 and shows a

S. Muemmler; M. Rueffer; N. Nagakura; M. H. Zenk

1985-01-01

358

S-Adenosyl-l-methionine: Columbamine-O-methyl transferase, a compartmentalized enzyme in protoberberine biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspension cultures of Berberis wilsoniae var. subcaulialata and B. aggregata are a useful source for the detection, partial purification and characterization of a new enzyme which specifically transfers the methyl group from (S)-adenosyl-L-methionine to the 2-OH-position of columbamine, thus producing palmatine. The enzyme was enriched approx. 30-fold; it is situated in a vesicle with the density ?=1.14, has a pH-optimum

M. Rueffer; M. Amann; M. H. Zenk

1986-01-01

359

The accumulation of trans-4-hydroxy- N-methylproline and N-methylproline by some plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans-4-hydroxy-N-methylproline and N-methylproline have been isolated from several Angiosperm species, but the striking feature is the high content of these two proline derivatives, being in excess of 1% of the dry weight of Berchemia zeyheri, Critoniella vargasiana, Hovenia dulcis and Serjania communis and in excess of 0.8% of Berberis aggregata and Annona chirimola. These high contents suggest the possibility that

Gerald Blunden; Asmita V. Patel; Maricela Adrian-Romero; Pablo Meléndez

2004-01-01

360

Assimilation of berberine and chelidoxanthine by bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Several species of bacteria are able to assimilate the alkaloid berberine while growing in extracts ofBerberis vulgaris, Chelidonium majus, andMahonia aquifolium. They can also assimilate the alkaloid in nutrient media containing berberine hydrochloride in concentrations up to and including 2.0 per cent, but only if provided with suitable sources of carbon and nitrogen. Some bacteria, especially Gram-positive species, were

P. H. H. Gray; R. A. Lachance

1957-01-01

361

Berbamine induces Fas-mediated apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and inhibits its tumor growth in nude mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berbamine, a natural compound from the plant Berberis amurensis, is a traditional Chinese medicine mainly used in stimulating normal hematopoiesis in clinic. Our previous studies demonstrated that berbamine has anti-leukemia activity. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of berbamine against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells in vitro and in vivo. Berbamine treatment decreased the cell growth in

Guan-Yu Wang; Qing-Hua Lv; Qi Dong; Rong-Zhen Xu; Qing-Hua Dong

2009-01-01

362

Quality evaluation of ayurvedic crude drug daruharidra, its allied species, and commercial samples from herbal drug markets of India.  

PubMed

Berberis aristata known as "Daruharidra" in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India), the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata. PMID:23431340

Srivastava, Sharad; Rawat, A K S

2013-01-22

363

Quality Evaluation of Ayurvedic Crude Drug Daruharidra, Its Allied Species, and Commercial Samples from Herbal Drug Markets of India  

PubMed Central

Berberis aristata known as “Daruharidra” in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India), the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata.

Srivastava, Sharad; Rawat, A. K. S.

2013-01-01

364

Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: implications for diagnostics.  

PubMed

Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We have also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum, and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of 'monomeric' LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. This phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host-pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics. PMID:23507184

Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N; Lee, Myungsun; Cho, Sang Nae; Barry, Clifton E; Via, Laura E; Swanson, Basil I; Mukundan, Harshini

2013-03-16

365

Test Characteristics of Urinary Lipoarabinomannan and Predictors of Mortality among Hospitalized HIV-Infected Tuberculosis Suspects in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis is the most common cause of death among patients with HIV infection living in tuberculosis endemic countries, but many cases are not diagnosed pre-mortem. We assessed the test characteristics of urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and predictors of mortality among HIV-associated tuberculosis suspects in Tanzania. Methods We prospectively enrolled hospitalized HIV-infected patients in Dar es Salaam, with ?2 weeks of cough or fever, or weight loss. Subjects gave 2 mLs of urine to test for LAM using a commercially available ELISA, ?2 sputum specimens for concentrated AFB smear and solid media culture, and 40 mLs of blood for culture. Results Among 212 evaluable subjects, 143 (68%) were female; mean age was 36 years; and the median CD4 count 86 cells/mm3. 69 subjects (33%) had culture confirmation of tuberculosis and 65 (31%) were LAM positive. For 69 cases of sputum or blood culture-confirmed tuberculosis, LAM sensitivity was 65% and specificity 86% compared to 36% and 98% for sputum smear. LAM test characteristics were not different in patients with bacteremia but showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity with decreasing CD4 cell count. Two month mortality was 64 (53%) of 121 with outcomes available. In multivariate analysis there was significant association of mortality with absence of anti-retroviral therapy (p?=?0.004) and a trend toward association with a positive urine LAM (p?=?0.16). Among culture-negative patients mortality was 9 (75%) of 12 in LAM positive patients and 27 (38%) of 71 in LAM negative patients (p?=?0.02). Conclusions Urine LAM is more sensitive than sputum smear and has utility for the rapid diagnosis of culture-confirmed tuberculosis in this high-risk population. Mortality data raise the possibility that urine LAM may also be a marker for culture-negative tuberculosis.

Teixeira, Pedro; Matee, Mecky; Bakari, Muhammad; Lahey, Timothy; von Reyn, Fordham

2012-01-01

366

Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan enhances LPS-induced TNF-? production and inhibits NO secretion by engaging scavenger receptors.  

PubMed

Lipoarabinomannan capped with terminal oligomannosides (ManLAM) is a component of mycobacteria cell wall enabling Mycobacterium tuberculosis to infect macrophages. We found that short treatment (3.5h) of macrophage-like J774 cells and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal murine macrophages with ManLAM and its deacylated form enhanced LPS-stimulated release of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). In contrast, prolong incubation of J774 cells with ManLAM (16h) led to inhibition of LPS-stimulated TNF-? production. LPS-triggered secretion of nitric oxide (NO) was suppressed by ManLAM and its deacylated form. Effects of ManLAM and its deacylated derivative were mimicked by dextran sulfate, a general ligand of scavenger receptors. The enhancement of LPS-induced TNF-? production by dextran sulfate was partially reversed by an antibody neutralizing scavenger receptor SR-PSOX/CXCL16 while the stimulatory activity of deacylated ManLAM was reversed by an antibody neutralizing class B scavenger receptor CD36. Our data suggest that CD36 mediates the activity of ManLAM and its deacylated form leading to TNF-? release in LPS-stimulated J774 cells and peritoneal murine macrophages, while NO production is modulated by unknown scavenger receptors. PMID:21419839

Józefowski, Szczepan; Sobota, Andrzej; Paw?owski, Andrzej; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna

2011-03-23

367

Real-time Recognition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Lipoarabinomannan using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance.  

PubMed

A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor has been successfully employed to screen for both whole Mycobacteria tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli and a Mtb surface antigen, lipoarabinomannan (LAM). One of the most abundant components of the Mtb cell surface, LAM, may be detected without the presence of the entire bacterium. Using available antibodies with proven utility in enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs), a sensor was designed to measure Mtb bacilli and LAM. Equilibrium association constants (K(a)) were determined for the interaction of Mtb with immobilized ?-LAM and anti-H37Rv antibodies, where avidity was seen to strengthen this interaction and provide for greater binding than might have otherwise been achieved. The binding of LAM to immobilized ?-LAM had a high associate rate constant (k(a)) allowing for rapid detection. Evaluating these binding constants helped the compare the sensitivity of these immunosensors to conventional ELISAs. The use of these assays with the better antibodies may allow for immunosensor use in determining LAM as a point-of-care (POC) diagnostic for Mtb. PMID:23175600

Hiatt, Leslie A; Cliffel, David E

2012-08-19

368

Critical Roles for Lipomannan and Lipoarabinomannan in Cell Wall Integrity of Mycobacteria and Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Lipomannan (LM) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) are mycobacterial glycolipids containing a long mannose polymer. While they are implicated in immune modulations, the significance of LM and LAM as structural components of the mycobacterial cell wall remains unknown. We have previously reported that a branch-forming mannosyltransferase plays a critical role in controlling the sizes of LM and LAM and that deletion or overexpression of this enzyme results in gross changes in LM/LAM structures. Here, we show that such changes in LM/LAM structures have a significant impact on the cell wall integrity of mycobacteria. In Mycobacterium smegmatis, structural defects in LM and LAM resulted in loss of acid-fast staining, increased sensitivity to ?-lactam antibiotics, and faster killing by THP-1 macrophages. Furthermore, equivalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants became more sensitive to ?-lactams, and one mutant showed attenuated virulence in mice. Our results revealed previously unknown structural roles for LM and LAM and further demonstrated that they are important for the pathogenesis of tuberculosis.

Fukuda, Takeshi; Matsumura, Takayuki; Ato, Manabu; Hamasaki, Maho; Nishiuchi, Yukiko; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Taroh; Morita, Yasu S.

2013-01-01

369

Lymphatic Involvement in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis  

PubMed Central

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, multisystem disease affecting primarily premenopausal women. The disease is characterized by cystic lung disease, at times leading to respiratory compromise, abdominal tumors (in particular, renal angiomyolipomas), and involvement of the axial lymphatics (e.g., adenopathy, lymphangioleiomyomas). Disease results from the proliferation of neoplastic cells (LAM cells), which, in many cases, have a smooth muscle cell phenotype, express melanoma antigens, and have mutations in one of the tuberous sclerosis complex genes (TSC1 or TSC2). In the lung, LAM cells found in the vicinity of cysts are, at times, localized in nodules and may be responsible for cyst formation through the production of proteases. Lymphatic channels, expressing characteristic lymphatic endothelial cell markers, are found within the LAM lung nodules. LAM cells may also be localized within the walls of the axial lymphatics, and, in some cases, penetrate the wall and proliferate in the surrounding adipose tissue. Consistent with extensive lymphatic involvement in LAM, the serum concentration of VEGF-D, a lymphangiogenic factor, is higher in LAM patients than in healthy volunteers.

Glasgow, Connie G.; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M.; Darling, Thomas N.; Moss, Joel

2012-01-01

370

Real-time Recognition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Lipoarabinomannan using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance  

PubMed Central

A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor has been successfully employed to screen for both whole Mycobacteria tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli and a Mtb surface antigen, lipoarabinomannan (LAM). One of the most abundant components of the Mtb cell surface, LAM, may be detected without the presence of the entire bacterium. Using available antibodies with proven utility in enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs), a sensor was designed to measure Mtb bacilli and LAM. Equilibrium association constants (Ka) were determined for the interaction of Mtb with immobilized ?-LAM and anti-H37Rv antibodies, where avidity was seen to strengthen this interaction and provide for greater binding than might have otherwise been achieved. The binding of LAM to immobilized ?-LAM had a high associate rate constant (ka) allowing for rapid detection. Evaluating these binding constants helped the compare the sensitivity of these immunosensors to conventional ELISAs. The use of these assays with the better antibodies may allow for immunosensor use in determining LAM as a point-of-care (POC) diagnostic for Mtb.

Hiatt, Leslie A.; Cliffel, David E.

2012-01-01

371

Mannosylated Lipoarabinomannans from Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Alters the Inflammatory Response by Bovine Macrophages and Suppresses Killing of Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Avium Organisms  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the mechanisms through which pathogenic mycobacteria interfere with macrophage activation and phagosome maturation have shown that engagement of specific membrane receptors with bacterial ligands is the initiating event. Mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (Man-LAM) has been identified as one of the ligands that modulates macrophage function. We evaluated the effects of Man-LAM derived from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on bovine macrophages. Man-LAM induced a rapid and prolonged expression of IL-10 message as well as transient expression of TNF-?. Preincubation with Man-LAM for up to 16 h did not suppress expression of IL-12 in response to interferon-?. Evaluation of the effect of Man-LAM on phagosome acidification, phagosome maturation, and killing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) showed that preincubation of macrophages with Man-LAM before addition of MAA inhibited phagosome acidification, phagolysosome fusion, and reduced killing. Analysis of signaling pathways provided indirect evidence that inhibition of killing was associated with activation of the MAPK-p38 signaling pathway but not the pathway involved in regulation of expression of IL-10. These results support the hypothesis that MAP Man-LAM is one of the virulence factors facilitating survival of MAP in macrophages.

Souza, Cleverson; Davis, William C.; Eckstein, Torsten M.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Weiss, Douglas J.

2013-01-01

372

Tsukamurella paurometabola lipoglycan, a new lipoarabinomannan variant with pro-inflammatory activity.  

PubMed

The genus Tsukamurella is a member of the phylogenetic group nocardioform actinomycetes and is closely related to the genus Mycobacterium. The mycobacterial cell envelope contains lipoglycans, and of particular interest is lipoarabinomannan, one of the most potent mycobacterial immunomodulatory molecules. We have investigated the presence of lipoglycans in Tsukamurella paurometabola and report here the isolation and structural characterization of a new lipoarabinomannan variant, designated TpaLAM. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometric analysis revealed that TpaLAM had an average molecular mass of 12.5 kDa and consequently was slightly smaller than Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan. Using a range of chemical degradations, NMR experiments, capillary electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry analyses, TpaLAM revealed an original carbohydrate structure. Indeed, TpaLAM contained a mannosylphosphatidyl-myo-inositol (MPI) anchor glycosylated by a linear (alpha1-->6)-Manp mannan domain, which is further substituted by an (alpha1-->5)-Araf chain. Half of the Araf units are further substituted at the O-2 position by a Manp-(alpha1-->2)-Manp-(alpha1--> dimannoside motif. Altogether, TpaLAM appears to be the most elaborated non-mycobacterial LAM molecule identified to date. TpaLAM was found to induce the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha when tested with either human or murine monocyte/macrophage cell lines. This induction was completely abrogated in the presence of an anti-toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) antibody, suggesting that TLR-2 participates in the mediation of TNF-alpha production in response to TpaLAM. Moreover, we established that the lipomannan core of TpaLAM is the primary moiety responsible for the observed TNF-alpha-inducing activity. This conclusively demonstrates that a linear (alpha1-->6)-Manp chain, linked to the MPI anchor, is sufficient in providing pro-inflammatory activity. PMID:15031299

Gibson, Kevin J C; Gilleron, Martine; Constant, Patricia; Brando, Thérèse; Puzo, Germain; Besra, Gurdyal S; Nigou, Jérôme

2004-03-18

373

Biocompatibility evaluation of emulsion electrospun nanofibers using osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Emulsion electrospinning is an advanced technique to fabricate core-shell structured nanofibrous scaffolds, with great potential for drug encapsulation. Incorporation of dual factors hydroxyapatite (HA) and laminin, respectively, within the shell and core of nanofibers through emulsion electrospinning might be of advantageous in supporting the adhesion, proliferation, and maturation of cells instead of single factor-encapsulated nanofibers. We fabricated poly(L-lactic acid-co-?-caprolactone) (PLCL)/hydroxyapaptite (PLCL/HA), PLCL/laminin (PLCL/Lam), and PLCL/hydroxyapatite/laminin (PLCL/HA/Lam) scaffolds with fiber diameter of 388?±?35, 388?±?81, and 379?±?57?nm, respectively, by emulsion electrospinning. The elastic modulus of the prepared scaffolds ranged from 22.7-37.0?MPa. The osteoblast proliferation on PLCL/HA/Lam scaffolds, determined on day 21, was found 10.4% and 12.0% higher than the cell proliferation on PLCL/Lam or PLCL/HA scaffold, respectively. Cell maturation determined on day 14, by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, was significantly higher on PLCL/HA/Lam scaffolds than the ALP activity on PLCL/HA and PLCL/Lam scaffolds (p???0.05). Results of the energy dispersive X-ray studies carried out on day 28 also showed higher calcium deposition by cells seeded on PLCL/HA/Lam scaffolds. Osteoblasts were found to adhere, proliferate, and mature actively on PLCL/HA/Lam nanofibers with enhanced cell proliferation, ALP activity, bone protein expression, and mineral deposition. Based on the results, we can conclude that laminin and HA individually played roles in osteoblast proliferation and maturation, and the synergistic function of both factors within the novel emulsion electrospun PLCL/HA/Lam nanofibers enhanced the functionality of osteoblasts, confirming their potential application in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:23819766

Tian, Lingling; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Ding, Xin; Ramakrishna, Seeram

2013-07-02

374

A Brief Prehospital Stroke Severity Scale Identifies Ischemic Stroke Patients Harboring Persisting Large Arterial Occlusions  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose The Los Angeles Motor Scale (LAMS) is a brief 3-item stroke severity assessment measure designed for prehospital and Emergency Department use. Methods The LAMS and NIHSS were scored in under-12-hour acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients. Stroke severity ratings were correlated with cervicocerebral vascular occlusion on CTA, MRA, and catheter angiography. Receiver operating curves, c statistics, and likelihood ratios were used to evaluate the predictive value for vascular occlusion of stroke severity ratings. Results Among 119 patients, mean age was 67 (±18), 45% were male. Time from onset to ED arrival was mean 190 minutes (range 10 to 660). Persisting large vessel occlusions (PLVOs) were present in 62% of patients. LAMS stroke severity scores were higher in patients harboring a vascular occlusion, median 5 (IQR 4 to 5) versus 2 (IQR 1 to 3). Similarly, NIHSS stroke severity scores were higher in PLVO patients, 19 (14 to 24) versus 5 (3 to 7). ROC curves demonstrated that the LAMS was highly effective in identifying patients with PLVOs, c statistic 0.854. At the optimal threshold of 4 or higher, LAMS scores showed sensitivity 0.81, specificity 0.89, and overall accuracy 0.85. LAMS performance was comparable to NIHSS performance (c statistic 0.933). The positive likelihood ratio associated with a LAMS score ?4 was 7.36 and the negative likelihood ratio 0.21. Conclusions Stroke severity assessed by the LAMS predicts presence of large artery anterior circulation occlusion with high sensitivity and specificity. The LAMS is a promising instrument for use by prehospital personnel to identify select stroke patients for direct transport to Comprehensive Stroke Centers capable of endovascular interventions. (Stroke.2008;39:2264-2267.)

Nazliel, Bijen; Starkman, Sidney; Liebeskind, David S.; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Kim, Doojin; Sanossian, Nerses; Ali, Latisha; Buck, Brian; Villablanca, Pablo; Vinuela, Fernando; Duckwiler, Gary; Jahan, Reza; Saver, Jeffrey L.

2009-01-01

375

Solutions of several coupled discrete models in terms of Lamé polynomials of arbitrary order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled discrete models abound in several areas of physics. Here we provide an extensive set of exact quasiperiodic solutions of a number of coupled discrete models in terms of Lam\\'e polynomials of arbitrary order. The models discussed are (i) coupled Salerno model, (ii) coupled Ablowitz-Ladik model, (iii) coupled $\\phi^4$ model, and (iv) coupled $\\phi^6$ model. In all these cases we show that the coefficients of the Lam\\'e polynomials are such that the Lam\\'e polynomials can be reexpressed in terms of Chebyshev polynomials of the relevant Jacobi elliptic function.

Khare, Avinash; Saxena, Avadh; Khare, Apoorva

2012-09-01

376

Mycobacterium tuberculosis glycosylated phosphatidylinositol causes phagosome maturation arrest.  

PubMed

The tubercle bacillus parasitizes macrophages by inhibiting phagosome maturation into the phagolysosome. This phenomenon underlies the tuberculosis pandemic involving 2 billion people. We report here how Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes phagosome maturation arrest. A glycosylated M. tuberculosis phosphatidylinositol [mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM)] interfered with the phagosomal acquisition of the lysosomal cargo and syntaxin 6 from the trans-Golgi network. ManLAM specifically inhibited the pathway dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding effectors. These findings identify ManLAM as the M. tuberculosis product responsible for the inhibition of phagosomal maturation. PMID:12702770

Fratti, Rutilio A; Chua, Jennifer; Vergne, Isabelle; Deretic, Vojo

2003-04-17

377

Plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Israel.  

PubMed

In an extensive ethnobotanical survey (130 informants) of the medicinal plants of Israel, 16 species were found to be used for hypoglycaemic treatments. The list includes Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.-Bip, Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam, Atriplex halimus L., Capparis spinosa L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del., Eryngium creticum Lam., Inula viscosa (L.) Ait., Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch.-Bip, Origanum syriaca L., Paronychia argentea Lam, Prosopis farcta (Banks et Sol.) Macbride, Salvia fruticosa Mill., Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Sp., and Teucrium polium L.; eight of them (marked with an asterisk) are first recorded here as used for this purpose. PMID:3613607

Yaniv, Z; Dafni, A; Friedman, J; Palevitch, D

378

CR3-dependent negative regulation of human eosinophils by Mycobacterium bovis BCG lipoarabinomannan.  

PubMed

Eosinophils have recently been shown to participate in innate immune responses against mycobacteria. We have investigated whether Mycobacterium bovis BCG regulate the human eosinophil immune response. A negative correlation between mycobacteria internalization and eosinophil activation was observed. In addition, mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan from M. bovis BCG (ManLAM) failed to induce a significant release of eosinophil peroxidase and TNF-?. Noteworthy, ManLAM exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on eosinophil peroxidase release by TLR2-activated eosinophils involving the complement receptor-3 molecule and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway. ManLAM, generally present in pathogenic mycobacteria, plays an important role in modulating eosinophil-dependent immune response. PMID:22391042

Driss, Virginie; Hermann, Emmanuel; Legrand, Fanny; Loiseau, Sylvie; Delbeke, Marie; Kremer, Laurent; Guerardel, Yann; Dombrowicz, David; Capron, Monique

2012-02-25

379

Use of Ipomoea trifida germ plasm for sweet potato improvement. 3. Development of 4x interspecific hybrids between Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (2n=6x=90) and I. trifida (H.B.K) G. Don. (2n=2x=30) as storage-root initiators for wild species  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 28,000 pollinations were carried out between 5 Ipomoea batatas and 41 diploid I. trifida accessions of diverse origins to obtain 4x interspecific hybrids. From the resultant 730 seeds, 248 plants were finally obtained. Ploidy level determination of the progeny showed unexpected results: 52 individuals were hexaploid, 5 were pentaploid, 190 were tetraploid, as expected, and one was not

G. Orjeda; R. Freyre; M. Iwanaga

1991-01-01

380

Predictive value of electronic fetal monitoring for intrapartum fetal asphyxia with metabolic acidosis 1 1 The authors thank Dr. Joseph L. Pater and Dr. Miu Lam, Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Queen’s University, for advice in the analysis of data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the predictive value of each fetal heart rate (FHR) variable and of patterns of FHR variables for fetal asphyxia during labor.Methods: This matched case-control study included an asphyxia group of 71 term infants with umbilical artery base deficit greater than 16 mmol\\/L and a control group of 71 term infants with umbilical artery base deficit less than

James A Low; Rahi Victory; E. Jane Derrick

1999-01-01

381

Effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on anxiety for children with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorders Ooi Y P, Lam C M, Sung M, Tan W T S, Goh T J, Fung D S S, Pathy P, Ang R P, Chua A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) often exhibit one or more comorbid disorders, including anxiety, disruptive behaviour, mental retardation, and depression. Various studies have documented the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in treating children with anxiety. Although studies have indicated a high prevalence of anxiety in individuals with ASD, there is a lack of systematic studies substantiating the effectiveness

Senior Counsellor

382

Attempted Growth of Single-Crystal LaPO4 and LaPO4-M+2Th(PO4)2 Solid Solutions: The Role of Flux Composition and La/(M+2+Th) Ratio, With Implications for Monazite Chemical Dating Standards.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements of a standard for chemical dating of monazite are: 1) grain-scale homogeneity; 2) "monazite-like" matrix composition; 3) incorporation of known concentrations of Pb, Th, and U. Grain sizes > 500 ? m are also desirable. Homogeneous LnPO4 (La-Lu) and YPO4 crystals up to 5 mm in long dimension have been synthesized at 1 atm from a mixture of microcrystalline phosphate and (Li,Na) 2 CO3-MoO3 fluxes. Single-crystal structural refinements indicate that the run products possess the monazite (La-Gd) and xenotime (Tb-Lu, Y) structures. However, growth runs with M+2Th(PO4)2 or LaPO4-M+2Th(PO4)2 solid solutions (M+2 = Ca, Pb) yielded uncoarsened M+2ThMo oxide, or crystalline LaPO4 plus uncoarsened M+2ThMo oxide. In subsequent runs with microcrystalline LaPO4, PbTh(PO4)2, and La80Brb20 solid solution, a KF-K2MoO4 flux was employed. Synthesis runs with end-member phosphates yielded only coarsened La2O3, or coarsened ThO2 plus uncoarsened K-Pb-Th-Mo phosphate. However, the La80Brb20 synthesis yielded four homogeneous phases, each up to 6 mm in long dimension. These phases include LaPO4, LaK3 (PO4)2, a K-Ca-La oxyphosphate (K2O:P2O5 = 3:1, approximately K12Ca10La2(PO4)4O13), and a La-K-Th oxyphosphate (La2O3:P2O5 = 8:3, approximately La32K2Th(PO4)12O56). Theoretical yield ratio of the 4 phases (LaPO:KLaPO:KCaLaPO:LaKThPO) obtained from mass balance is 1.45:0.70:0.03:1.00, which is similar to modal estimates obtained from image analysis of the run products The last phase represents successful incorporation of Th in coarsely crystalline La-P matrix; ThO2 concentration in the La-K-Th oxyphosphate varies between 2.5 and 5.0 wt.%. However, this combination of starting composition, flux, and cooling rate (15 hr soak at 1270° C followed by 1270° C-870° C, 5° C/hr) did not produce a La-phosphate containing both M+2 and Th+4, the primary requirement (when M+2 = Pb) of a monazite chemical dating standard. The initial results suggest that coarsening of microcrystalline phosphate in a KF-K2MoO4 flux is optimized for a La50(M+2Th) 50 solid solution. This hypothesis will be tested for both La50(PbTh)50 and La50(CaTh)50 solid solutions, in conjunction with use of alternate fluxes and seeding of runs with crystalline LaPO4.

Pyle, J. M.; Cherniak, D. J.; Rakovan, J. F.

2004-05-01

383

Elliptic Faulhaber polynomials and Lamé densities of states  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalisation of the Faulhaber polynomials and Bernoulli numbers related\\u000ato elliptic curves is introduced and investigated. This is applied to compute\\u000athe density of states for the classical Lam\\\\'e operators.

M.-P. Grosset; A. P. Veselov

2006-01-01

384

Eulerian-Lagrangian Localized Adjoint Method for the Advection-Diffusion Equation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents a space-time localized adjoint method (LAM) approximation for the advection-diffusion transport equation. The formulation is based on a space-time discretization in which specialized test functions are defined. These functions locally s...

M. A. Celia T. F. Russell I. Herera R. E. Ewing

1990-01-01

385

Fast Parallel Computing Machine for Real Time Decision Making: Applications to Real Time Processing, War Games, Forest Fire and Fluid Dynamics Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hardware prototype of a MIMD (multiple instruction multiple data) computing machine dedicated to the processing of large amounts of data in real time is described. The Lattice Automata Machine (LAM) is based on cellular automata architecture, but has ...

J. Toste-rego R. Dilao

1995-01-01

386

77 FR 65878 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exported: Various semiconductor manufacturing equipment manufactured by Applied Materials, Inc., Axcelis Technologies, Inc., FEI Co., KLA-Tencor Corporation, Lam Research International Sarl, Novellus Systems, and Varian. Information on...

2012-10-31

387

Infrared, Raman and INS studies of poly-ethylene oxide oligomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

InfraRed and Raman spectroscopy and inelastic neutron scattering on polyethylene oxide.The D-LAM spectral contribution depends on the polymerization degree.The results show an oligomer-polymer transition.

Migliardo, F.; Magazù, S.; Caccamo, M. T.

2013-09-01

388

Experience with K-Epsilon Turbulence Models for Heat Transfer Computations in Rotating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation discusses geometry and flow configuration, effect of y+ on heat transfer computations, standard and extended k-epsilon turbulence model results with wall function, low-Re model results (the Lam-Bremhorst model without wall func...

P. Tekriwal

1995-01-01

389

Comparative Study between Different Diagnostic Techniques in Acute Bacterial Meningitis. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sensitivity and specificity of the Gram stain (GS), bacterial culture, latex agglutination (LA), counter-immuno- electrophoresis (CIEP) and limulus amebocyte lysate (LAM) in the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis were evaluated in 57 patients wit...

M. F. Wahab S. M. El Okby J. K. Podgore M. F. Montasser N. I. Girgis

1992-01-01

390

Response of Automated TOW Placed Laminates to Stress Concentrations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, the response of laminates with stress concentrations is explored. Automated Tow Placed (ATP, also known as Fiber Placement) laminates are compared to conventional tape layup manufacturing. Previous tensile fracture tests on fiber placed lam...

D. S. Cairns L. B. Ilcewicz T. Walker

1993-01-01

391

Effect of Ethylene on Peroxidase Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ethylene increased the peroxidase activity of nine out of ten varieties of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) root disks tested. The increase which was observed four hours after ethylene treatment was partially overcome by carbon dioxide. The increa...

H. E. Gahagan R. E. Holm F. B. Abeles

1968-01-01

392

Label-acquired magnetorotation as a signal transduction method for protein detection: aptamer-based detection of thrombin  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a new signal transduction method, called Label-Acquired Magnetorotation (LAM), for the measurement of proteins in solution. We demonstrate the use of LAM to detect the protein thrombin using aptamers, with an LOD (limit of detection) of 300 pM. LAM is modeled after a sandwich assay, with a 10 µm nonmagnetic “mother” sphere as the capture component, and with 1 µm magnetic “daughter” beads as the labels. The protein-mediated attachment of daughter beads to the mother sphere forms a rotating sandwich complex. In a rotating magnetic field, the rotational frequency of a sandwich complex scales with the number of attached magnetic beads, which scales with the concentration of the protein present in solution. This paper represents the first instance of the detection of a protein using LAM.

Hecht, Ariel; Akshay Kumar, Anand; Kopelman, Raoul

2011-01-01

393

7 CFR 201.2 - Terms defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Lam. Ryegrass, intermediateâLolium Ãhybridum...corniculatus L. Triticaleâx Triticosecale Wittm...Schult. Wheatgrass, intermediateâElytrigia intermedia...SiberianâAgropyron fragile (Roth) Candargy...occurrence of each. (x) Inoculant....

2009-01-01

394

7 CFR 201.2 - Terms defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Lam. Ryegrass, intermediateâLolium Ãhybridum...corniculatus L. Triticaleâx Triticosecale Wittm...Schult. Wheatgrass, intermediateâElytrigia intermedia...SiberianâAgropyron fragile (Roth) Candargy...occurrence of each. (x) Inoculant....

2010-01-01

395

7 CFR 361.1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...napus L. var. annua Koch Rape, bird--Brassica rapa L. subsp. rapa Rape, turnip--Brassica rapa L. subsp. silvestris (Lam.) Janchen...var. capitata L. Cabbage, Chinese--Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis (Lour.)...

2003-01-01

396

Plant Community Diversity After Herbicide Control of Spotted Knapweed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Herbicides were applied to four west-central Montana sites with light to moderate spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) infestations. Although knapweed suppression was high, 2 years after the spraying the communities were not converted to grass monoc...

P. M. Rice D. J. Bedunah C. E. Carlson

1992-01-01

397

Determination of a general solution of three-dimensional Lamé equations of elasticity theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We integrate the Lam equation and find new solutions in the case of three-dimensional elasticity theory, which are expressed\\u000a in terms of harmonic functions. We prove that the solution obtained involves only three independent functions. In a curvilinear\\u000a orthogonal coordinate system, a general solution of the Lam equation is expressed in terms of three harmonic functions.

V. P. Revenko

2006-01-01

398

Detection of North Atlantic Polar Lows in Climate Mode Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polar lows are not properly resolved in global re-analyses. Atmospheric limited area models (LAMs), which post- process re-analysis data, may be an appropriate tool for describing the year-to-year variability and decadal trends in the formation of Polar Lows. The merits and potential of this approach are examined in case studies of reproducing polar low occurrences with a LAM. A series

M. Zahn; H. von Storch; S. Bakan

2007-01-01

399

A Novel Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Glycoside Hydrolase from Ustilago esculenta Functions in ?-1,3-Glucan Degradation  

PubMed Central

A glycoside hydrolase responsible for laminarin degradation was partially purified to homogeneity from a Ustilago esculenta culture filtrate by weak-cation-exchange, strong-cation-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Three proteins in enzymatically active fractions were digested with chymotrypsin followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis, resulting in the identification of three peptide sequences that shared significant similarity to a putative ?-1,3-glucanase, a member of glucoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) from Sporisorium reilianum SRZ2. A gene encoding a laminarin-degrading enzyme from U. esculenta, lam16A, was isolated by PCR using degenerate primers designed based on the S. reilianum SRZ2 ?-1,3-glucanase gene. Lam16A possesses a GH16 catalytic domain with an N-terminal signal peptide and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor peptide. Recombinant Lam16A fused to an N-terminal FLAG peptide (Lam16A-FLAG) overexpressed in Aspergillus oryzae exhibited hydrolytic activity toward ?-1,3-glucan specifically and was localized both in the extracellular and in the membrane fractions but not in the cell wall fraction. Lam16A without a GPI anchor signal peptide was secreted extracellularly and was not detected in the membrane fraction. Membrane-anchored Lam16A-FLAG was released completely by treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. These results suggest that Lam16A is anchored in the plasma membrane in order to modify ?-1,3-glucan associated with the inner cell wall and that Lam16A is also used for the catabolism of ?-1,3-glucan after its release in the extracellular medium.

Nakajima, Masahiro; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Machiko; Nakano, Yuki

2012-01-01

400

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare multisystemic disease of women of child-bearing age and affects mainly the lungs,\\u000a promoting cystic destruction of lung parenchyma or leading to abdominal tumor formation (e.g., angiomyolipomas, lymphangioleiomyomas).\\u000a LAM can arise sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an autosomal inherited syndrome characterized\\u000a by hamartoma-like tumor growth and pathologic features that are distinct from

Dimitrios Chorianopoulos; Grigoris Stratakos

2008-01-01

401

The Arabinosyltransferase EmbC Is Inhibited by Ethambutol in Mycobacterium tuberculosis?  

PubMed Central

Ethambutol (EMB) is an antimycobacterial drug used extensively for the treatment of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. EMB targets the biosynthesis of the cell wall, inhibiting the synthesis of both arabinogalactan and lipoarabinomannan (LAM), and is assumed to act via inhibition of three arabinosyltransferases: EmbA, EmbB, and EmbC. EmbA and EmbB are required for the synthesis of arabinogalactan, and at least one enzyme (M. tuberculosis EmbA [EmbAMt]) is essential in M. tuberculosis. EmbCMt is also essential for the viability of M. tuberculosis but is involved in the synthesis of LAM. We show that mutations in EmbCMt that reduce its arabinosyltransferase activity result in increased sensitivity to EMB and the production of smaller LAM species in M. tuberculosis. Overexpression of EmbCMt was not tolerated in M. tuberculosis, but overexpression of Mycobacterium smegmatis EmbC (EmbCMs) led to EMB resistance and the production of larger LAM species in M. tuberculosis. Treatment of wild-type M. tuberculosis strains with EMB led to inhibition of LAM synthesis, resulting in the production of smaller species of LAM. In contrast, no change in LAM production was seen in EMB-resistant strains. Overexpression of EmbBMs in M. tuberculosis also resulted in EMB resistance, but at a lower level than that caused by EmbCMs. Overexpression of EmbAMt in M. tuberculosis had no effect on EMB resistance. Thus, there is a direct correlation between EmbC activity and EMB resistance, as well as between EmbC activity and the size of the LAM species produced, confirming that EmbC is one of the cellular targets of EMB action.

Goude, R.; Amin, A. G.; Chatterjee, D.; Parish, T.

2009-01-01

402

Broncheoalveolar carcinoma associated with pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: case report.  

PubMed

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disorder that predominantly affects the lung parenchyma of young women and it's characterized by pulmonary cyst. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare genetic disorder presenting with hamartomas and neurologic symptoms. The two renal pathologies most commonly seen in TSC are angiomyolipomas and cysts; less commonly, TSC co-exist with polycystic kidney disease. In this report is described an uncommon case of a patient with broncheoalveolar carcinoma, pulmonary LAM and TSC with polycystic kidney disease. PMID:21513862

Carneiro, Cláudia; Gupta, Narainder

403

Estrogen promotes the survival and pulmonary metastasis of tuberin-null cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an often fatal disease primarily affecting young women in which tuberin (TSC2)-null cells metastasize to the lungs. The mechanisms underlying the striking female predominance of LAM are unknown. We report here that 17-beta-estradiol (E2) causes a 3- to 5-fold increase in pulmonary metastases in male and female mice, respectively, and a striking increase in circulating tumor cells

Jane J. Yu; Victoria A. Robb; Tasha A. Morrison; Eric A. Ariazi; Magdalena Karbowniczek; Aristotelis Astrinidis; Chunrong Wang; Lisa Hernandez-Cuebas; Laura F. Seeholzer; Emmanuelle Nicolas; Harvey Hensley; V. Craig Jordan; Cheryl L. Walker; Elizabeth P. Henske

2009-01-01

404

A novel glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoside hydrolase from Ustilago esculenta functions in ?-1,3-glucan degradation.  

PubMed

A glycoside hydrolase responsible for laminarin degradation was partially purified to homogeneity from a Ustilago esculenta culture filtrate by weak-cation-exchange, strong-cation-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Three proteins in enzymatically active fractions were digested with chymotrypsin followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis, resulting in the identification of three peptide sequences that shared significant similarity to a putative ?-1,3-glucanase, a member of glucoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) from Sporisorium reilianum SRZ2. A gene encoding a laminarin-degrading enzyme from U. esculenta, lam16A, was isolated by PCR using degenerate primers designed based on the S. reilianum SRZ2 ?-1,3-glucanase gene. Lam16A possesses a GH16 catalytic domain with an N-terminal signal peptide and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor peptide. Recombinant Lam16A fused to an N-terminal FLAG peptide (Lam16A-FLAG) overexpressed in Aspergillus oryzae exhibited hydrolytic activity toward ?-1,3-glucan specifically and was localized both in the extracellular and in the membrane fractions but not in the cell wall fraction. Lam16A without a GPI anchor signal peptide was secreted extracellularly and was not detected in the membrane fraction. Membrane-anchored Lam16A-FLAG was released completely by treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. These results suggest that Lam16A is anchored in the plasma membrane in order to modify ?-1,3-glucan associated with the inner cell wall and that Lam16A is also used for the catabolism of ?-1,3-glucan after its release in the extracellular medium. PMID:22685137

Nakajima, Masahiro; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Machiko; Nakano, Yuki; Takeda, Takumi

2012-06-08

405

Nurse-midwives’ knowledge and promotion of lactational amenorrhea and other natural family-planning methods for child spacing ? ? CNMs\\/CMs and midwives used herein refer to midwives who are certified by the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) or the ACNM Certification Counsel, Inc., and midwifery refers to the profession as practiced in accordance with the standards promulgated by the ACNM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe and assess certified nurse-midwives’ (CNMs) knowledge and promotion of two modalities for child spacing, natural family-planning (NFP) and the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM). One thousand two hundred CNMs were randomly selected from a national membership list and mailed a 24-item questionnaire on NFP and LAM. Of the 514 respondents (42.8% return rate),

Richard J Fehring; Lisa Hanson; Joseph B Stanford

2001-01-01

406

Deformation mechanisms and constitutive modeling for silicon nitride undergoing laser-assisted machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material deformation behavior has been studied for silicon nitride containing 10 wt% of YSiAlON glass under laser-assisted machining (LAM). Material removal mechanisms were inferred from scanning electron microscopy observations of the chips, and the shear zone stress was determined using three-dimensional machining theory with a new approach to determining shear angles for segmented chips formed in LAM. The effects of

Shuting Lei; Yung C Shin; Frank P Incropera

2000-01-01

407

A reply to Randall E. LaSalle: “The civil justice system and going-concern audit reports: Comments on ‘Auditors’ decision-making under going-concern uncertainties in low litigation-risk environments: Evidence from Hong Kong’ ”  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a dissent from the conclusion reached in Lam and Mensah [Lam, K, Mensah, Y.M., 2006. Auditors’ decision-making under going-concern uncertainties in low Litigation-risk environments: Evidence from Hong Kong. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 25 (6), 706–739], Lasalle has proposed a number of alternative plausible explanations for our findings that Hong Kong auditors issued disclaimer of opinions in a

Kevin C. K. Lam; Yaw M. Mensah

2006-01-01

408

Biosynthesis of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan: Role of a branching mannosyltransferase  

PubMed Central

Lipoarabinomannan (LAM), one of the few known bacterial glycosylphosphoinositides (GPIs), occurs in various structural forms in Mycobacterium species. It has been implicated in key aspects of the physiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the immunology and pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Yet, little is known of the biosynthesis of LAM. A bioinformatics approach identified putative integral membrane proteins, MSMEG4250 in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Rv2181 in M. tuberculosis, with 10 predicted transmembrane domains and a glycosyltransferase (GT) motif (DID), features that are common to eukaryotic mannosyltransferases (ManTs) of the GT-C superfamily that rely on polyprenyl-linked rather than nucleotide-linked sugar donors. Inactivation of M. smegmatis MSMEG4250 by allelic exchange resulted in altered growth and inability to synthesize lipomannan (LM) but accumulation of a previously uncharacterized, truncated LAM. MALDI-TOF/MS and NMR indicated a structure lower in molecular weight than the native molecule, a preponderance of 6-linked Manp residues, and the absence of 2,6-linked and terminal Manp. Complementation of the mutant with the corresponding ortholog of M. tuberculosis H37Rv restored normal LM/LAM synthesis. The data suggest that MSMEG4250 and Rv2181 are ManTs that are responsible for the addition of ?(1?2) branches to the mannan core of LM/LAM and that arrest of this branching in the mutant deters formation of native LAM. The results allow for the presentation of a unique model of LM and LAM biosynthesis. The generation of mutants defective in the synthesis of LM/LAM will help define the role of these GPIs in the immunology and pathogenesis of mycobacterial infections and physiology of the organism.

Kaur, Devinder; Berg, Stefan; Dinadayala, Premkumar; Gicquel, Brigitte; Chatterjee, Delphi; McNeil, Michael R.; Vissa, Varalakshmi D.; Crick, Dean C.; Jackson, Mary; Brennan, Patrick J.

2006-01-01

409

Comparison of TIMS (UPb) and laser ablation microprobe ICP-MS (Pb) techniques for age determination of detrital zircons from Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks from northeastern Laurentia, Canada, with tectonic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ages of detrital zircon grains from four samples of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks from northeastern Laurentia, Canada, analysed by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) and laser-ablation microprobe inductively-coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS), are presented and the methods compared. The TIMS results are more precise (±0.1% of age) and in the case of concordant analyses more accurate than the LAM-ICP-MS analyses

David J. Scott; Gilles Gauthier

1996-01-01

410

Hydrolysis of ?-1,3\\/1,6-glucan by glycoside hydrolase family 16 endo -1,3(4)-?-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown with laminarin (a ?-1,3\\/1,6-glucan) as the sole carbon source, a ?-1,3-glucanase with a molecular mass of 36 kDa was produced as a major extracellular protein. The cDNA encoding this enzyme was cloned, and the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that this enzyme belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 16; it was named Lam16A. Recombinant Lam16A, expressed in

Rie Kawai; Kiyohiko Igarashi; Makoto Yoshida; Motomitsu Kitaoka; Masahiro Samejima

2006-01-01

411

Associations between dairy production indices and lipoarabinomannan enzyme-immunoassay results for paratuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

Data from an epidemiological study in Ontario, involving 304 dairy herds, were used to identify associations between selected production indices and lipoarabinomannan antigen serological test results for paratuberculosis (LAM-ELISA). Analyses were conducted at both the herd and individual cow levels of organization. After analytically controlling for management and cow factors in the respective regression models, positive serological paratuberculosis status (as defined by the LAM-ELISA test), was associated with higher milk somatic cell counts at both the herd average (p less than 0.01), and individual cow levels of organization (p less than 0.0001). In contrast, LAM-ELISA test results were consistently not associated with calving intervals in either the herd average or individual cow level analyses. Associations between LAM-ELISA results and milk production were inconsistent. No associations were found at the herd level of organization, and LAM-ELISA results were not associated with a change in breed class average (BCA) for milk, between the previous and the most recent lactations of individual cattle. However, at the individual cow level, LAM-ELISA results were positively associated with higher milk production as measured by the current BCA (p less than 0.05), and individual cow average kg of milk produced per year of life since two years of age (p less than 0.0001).

McNab, W B; Meek, A H; Martin, S W; Duncan, J R

1991-01-01

412

Mutant Bias in Nonlethal Selections Results from Selective Recovery of Mutants  

PubMed Central

We have characterized a nonlethal selection for mutations that allow Escherichia coli to grow on large maltodextrins (Dex(+)) in the absence of the lamB encoded maltoporin LamB. These Dex(+) mutations occur before and after imposition of the selection and the selection does not result in a general increase in mutagenesis. The recovered Dex(+) mutations are almost exclusively mutations that alter the ompF gene that encodes a major E. coli porin, OmpF even though analogous mutations in the homologous ompC gene, which encodes the OmpC porin, can confer a Dex(+) phenotype. We show that the bias for ompF mutations results from a biased recovery and that the genetic background of the starting strain and the selection itself influences the type of mutants that are recovered. When we use a strain carrying an amber mutation in the lamB gene we observe the same preference for ompF mutations as when we start with a lamB deletion strain. In addition, we show that there is no preferential mutagenesis of the lamB gene during the selection which induces transcription of the lamB gene. We present evidence that the biased recovery of mutants observed in this selection does not result from adaptive or directed mutagenesis and that the phenotypic fitness which allows recovery of Dex(+) mutants involves more than the increased ability to take up maltodextrins.

Benson, S. A.; DeCloux, A. M.; Munro, J.

1991-01-01

413

An optimized antiviral modification strategy for prevention of hepatitis B reactivation in patients undergoing prophylactic lamivudine and chemotherapy: a pilot study.  

PubMed

In patients receiving prophylactic lamivudine (LAM) and chemotherapy, hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation cannot be eliminated without knowing the latent causes and optimal management. In our previous study, virus breakthrough and relapse were highly suspected as potential virologic causes for HBV reactivation. Therefore, we reviewed 24 previous studies and 447 patients who underwent chemotherapy and prophylactic LAM, with an incidence of 7.2 % HBV reactivation. Virus breakthrough and relapse were seldom investigated in these studies. In addition, 72 patients that underwent prophylactic LAM and chemotherapy at our centers were also analyzed. Among them, eight patients developed virus breakthrough, with another nine developing virus relapse after discontinuation of LAM. Eight patients received antiviral modification, which included administration of adefovir for patients with virus breakthrough or resumption of LAM for patients with virus relapse and none of them developed HBV reactivation. In contrast, of the nine patients who did not receive antiviral modification, six developed HBV reactivation and two died. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that virus breakthrough and relapse were the critical causative factors of HBV reactivation in patients receiving chemotherapy and prophylactic LAM. An optimized antiviral modification strategy could effectively prevent HBV reactivation in patients with virus breakthrough or relapse. PMID:23269606

Wu, Xiang-Yuan; Li, Xing; Chen, Zhan-Hong; Wen, Jing-Yun; Lin, Qu; Xing, Yan-Fang; Dong, Min; Wei, Li; Wang, Tian-Tian; Chen, Jie; Lin, Ze-Xiao; Wan, Xiang-bo; Ruan, Dan-Yun; Ma, Xiao-Kun

2012-12-27

414

Effect of a Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone Analogue on Lung Function in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a multisystem disease occurring primarily in women, is characterized by cystic lung destruction, and kidney and lymphatic tumors, caused by the proliferation of abnormal-appearing cells (ie, LAM cells) with a smooth muscle cell phenotype that express melanoma antigens and are capable of metastasizing. Estrogen receptors are present in LAM cells, and this finding, along with reports of disease progression during pregnancy or following exogenous estrogen administration, suggest the involvement of estrogens in the pathogenesis of LAM. Consequently, antiestrogen therapies have been employed in treatment. The goal of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of triptorelin, a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue, in 11 premenopausal women with LAM. Methods Patients were evaluated at baseline and every 3 to 6 months thereafter, for a total of 36 months. Hormonal assays, pulmonary function tests, 6-min walk tests, high-resolution CT scans of the chest, and bone mineral density studies were performed. Results Gonadal suppression was achieved in all patients. Overall, a significant decline in lung function was observed; two patients underwent lung transplantation 1 year after study enrollment, and another patient was lost to follow-up. Treatment with triptorelin was associated with a decline in bone mineral density. Conclusions Triptorelin appears not to prevent a decline in lung function in patients with LAM. Its use, however, may be associated with the loss of bone mineral density.

Harari, Sergio; Cassandro, Roberto; Chiodini, Jacopo; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M.; Moss, Joel

2010-01-01

415

An Attempt to Improve Pure Neural Leprosy Diagnosis Using Immunohistochemistry Tests in Peripheral Nerve Biopsy Specimens.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of pure neural leprosy (PNL) is based on clinical and laboratory data, including the histopathology of nerve biopsy specimens and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Given that histopathologic examination and PCR methods may not be sufficient to confirm the diagnosis, immunolabeling of lipoarabinomanan (LAM) and/or phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-1) M. leprae wall components was utilized in the present investigation in an attempt to detect any vestigial presence of M. leprae in acid-fast bacilli (AFB) nerve samples. Twenty-three PNL nerve samples (6 AFB and 17 AFBPCR) were cryosectioned and subjected to LAM and PGL-1 immunohistochemical staining by immunoperoxidase. Five nonleprosy nerve samples were used as controls. The 6 AFB samples showed LAM/PGL-1 immunoreactivity. Among the 17 AFB samples, 8 revealed LAM and/or PGL-1 immunoreactivity. In 17 AFBPCR patients, just 7 yielded LAM and/or PGL-1 nerve results. In the PNL cases, the detection of immunolabeled LAM and PGL-1 in the nerve samples would have contributed to an enhanced diagnostic efficiency in the absence of molecular diagnostic facilities. PMID:23702646

Medeiros, Mildred Ferreira; Jardim, Márcia Rodrigues; Vital, Robson Teixeira; Costa Nery, José Augusto da; Sales, Anna Maria; Moraes, Milton Ozorio de; Chimelli, Leila Maria; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Ferreira, Helen; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Antunes, Sérgio Luiz Gomes

2013-05-22

416

Limited-area short-range ensemble predictions targeted for heavy rain in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inherent uncertainties in short-range quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) from the high-resolution, limited-area numerical weather prediction model DMI-HIRLAM (LAM) are addressed using two different approaches to creating a small ensemble of LAM simulations, with focus on prediction of extreme rainfall events over European river basins. The first ensemble type is designed to represent uncertainty in the atmospheric state of the initial condition and at the lateral LAM boundaries. The global ensemble prediction system (EPS) from ECMWF serves as host model to the LAM and provides the state perturbations, from which a small set of significant members is selected. The significance is estimated on the basis of accumulated precipitation over a target area of interest, which contains the river basin(s) under consideration. The selected members provide the initial and boundary data for the ensemble integration in the LAM. A second ensemble approach tries to address a portion of the model-inherent uncertainty responsible for errors in the forecasted precipitation field by utilising different parameterisation schemes for condensation and convection in the LAM. Three periods around historical heavy rain events that caused or contributed to disastrous river flooding in Europe are used to study the performance of the LAM ensemble designs. The three cases exhibit different dynamic and synoptic characteristics and provide an indication of the ensemble qualities in different weather situations. Precipitation analyses from the Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD) are used as the verifying reference and a comparison of daily rainfall amounts is referred to the respective river basins of the historical cases.

Sattler, K.; Feddersen, H.

2005-10-01

417

Inhibitor studies of leaf lamina hydraulic conductance in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) leaves.  

PubMed

The present study investigated leaf water transport properties in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) leaves. Leaf lamina hydraulic conductance (K(lam)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were drastically suppressed by NaF (a general metabolic inhibitor). In leaves treated with 0.2 mM HgCl(2) (an aquaporin blocker), K(lam) declined by 22% when the leaves were sampled in June but the decline was not significant when the leaves were sampled in August. The leaves sampled in June that transpired 30 mM beta-mercaptoethanol following mercury application showed similar K(lam) as those in control leaves transpiring distilled water. When leaves were pressure-infiltrated with 0.1 mM HgCl(2), K(lam) significantly declined by 25%. Atrazine (a photosystem II inhibitor) drastically reduced leaf net CO(2) uptake by the leaves from seedlings and mature trees but did not have any effect on K(lam) regardless of the irradiance at the leaf level during the K(lam) measurements. When PTS(3) (trisodium 3-hydroxy-5,8,10-pyrenetrisulphonate) apoplastic tracer was pressure-infiltrated inside the leaves, its concentration in the leaf exudates did not change from ambient light to high irradiance treatment and declined in the presence of HgCl(2) in the treatment solution. Trembling aspen K(lam) appears to be linked to leaf metabolism and is uncoupled from the short-term variations in photosynthesis. Aquaporin-mediated water transport does not appear to constitute the dominant pathway for the pressure-driven water flow in the leaves of trembling aspen trees. PMID:20022867

Voicu, Mihaela C; Zwiazek, Janusz J

2009-12-17

418

The glomerular distribution of laminin and fibronectin in glomerulonephritis.  

PubMed

Laminin (LAM) and fibronectin (FI) are regarded as major components of the glomerular extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to define the distribution of LAM and FI in primary glomerulonephritis (GN) and GN of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to correlate the type of glomerular disorders with possible changes in the expression of these components. Normal portions of kidney tissue from 10 patients with renal tumors and sixty-six renal biopsies obtained from patients with GN were studied by the immunoperoxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method for the detection of LAM and FI. Twelve patients had membranous GN (MGN), 8 mesangiocapillary GN (MCGN), 21 mesangioproliferative GN (MPGN), including 11 cases of IgA nephropathy, 11 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and 14 had SLE. In MGN, LAM was detected more intensely than FI along the glomerular basement membranes (GBM), in subepithelial GBM protrusions and in the newly-formed GBM. On the contrary, FI was intensely expressed in the mesangium. LAM and FI expression was pronounced in stages II and III of MGN. In MCGN, LAM and FI were diffusely expressed along the GBM and in the mesangium. The distribution of the two antigens in MPGN and FSGS was similar to that seen in normal glomeruli. However, the FI staining reaction was more intense in severe mesangioproliferative lesions, mainly observed in the cases of IgA-nephropathy. There were no differences in the distribution of LAM and FI between primary and SLE GN. The antigen staining pattern was pronounced in the membranous and mesangiocapillary lesions of SLE GN.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7689370

Nakapoulou, I; Stefanaki, K; Zeis, P M; Papadakis, J; Boletis, J; Vosnidis, G; Davaris, P

1993-07-01

419

Identification of a novel mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan from Amycolatopsis sulphurea.  

PubMed Central

The genus Amycolatopsis is a member of the phylogenetic group nocardioform actinomycetes, which also includes the genus Mycobacterium. Members of this group have a characteristic cell envelope structure, dominated by various complex lipids and polysaccharides. Amongst these, lipoglycans are of particular interest since mycobacterial lipoarabinomannans are important immunomodulatory molecules. In this study we report the isolation and structural characterization of Amycolatopsis sulphurea lipoarabinomannan, designated AsuLAM. SDS/PAGE analysis revealed that AsuLAM was of an intermediate size between Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan and lipomannan, confirmed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry that predicted an average molecular mass of 10 kDa. Using a range of chemical degradations, NMR experiments and capillary electrophoresis analysis, AsuLAM was revealed as an original structure. The mannosyl-phosphatidyl- myo -inositol anchor exhibits a single acyl-form, characterized by a diacylated glycerol moiety, and contains, as one of the main fatty acids, 14-methyl-pentadecanoate, a characteristic fatty acid of the Amycolatopsis genus. AsuLAM also contains a short mannan domain; and is dominated by a multi-branched arabinan domain, composed of an (alpha1-->5)-Ara f (arabinofuranose) chain substituted, predominately at the O -2 position, by a single beta-Ara f. The arabinan domain is further elaborated by manno-oligosaccharide caps, with around one per molecule. This is the first description of manno-oligosaccharide caps found in a non-mycobacterial LAM. AsuLAM was unable to induce the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha when tested with human or murine macrophage cell lines, reinforcing the paradigm that mannose-capped LAM are poor inducers of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Gibson, Kevin J C; Gilleron, Martine; Constant, Patricia; Puzo, Germain; Nigou, Jerome; Besra, Gurdyal S

2003-01-01

420

Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium tuberculosis preferentially inhibits sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced migration of Th1 cells.  

PubMed

Chemokine receptor cross-desensitization provides an important mechanism to regulate immune cell recruitment at sites of inflammation. We previously reported that the mycobacterial cell wall glycophospholipid mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) could induce human peripheral blood T cell chemotaxis. Therefore, we examined the ability of ManLAM to desensitize T cells to other chemoattractants as a potential mechanism for impaired T cell homing and delayed lung recruitment during mycobacterial infection. We found that ManLAM pretreatment inhibited in vitro migration of naive human or mouse T cells to the lymph node egress signal sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Intratracheal administration of ManLAM in mice resulted in significant increases in T cells, primarily CCR5(+) (Th1) cells, in lung-draining lymph nodes. To investigate the selective CCR5 effect, mouse T cells were differentiated into Th1 or Th2 populations in vitro, and their ability to migrate to S1P with or without ManLAM pretreatment was analyzed. ManLAM pretreatment of Th1 populations inhibited S1P-induced migration but had no effect on Th2 cell S1P-directed migration, suggesting a differential effect by S1P on the two subsets. The PI3K/AKT inhibitor Ly294002 inhibited S1P-directed migration by Th1 cells, whereas the ERK inhibitor U0126 inhibited Th2 cell S1P-directed migration. These observations demonstrate that S1P-induced migratory responses in Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes occurs via different signaling pathways and suggests further that the production of ManLAM during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection may function to sequester Th1 cells in lung-draining lymph nodes, thereby delaying their recruitment to the lung. PMID:23129756

Richmond, Jillian M; Lee, Jinhee; Green, Daniel S; Kornfeld, Hardy; Cruikshank, William W

2012-11-05

421

Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Panama Is Driven by Clonal Expansion of a Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain Related to the KZN Extensively Drug-Resistant M. tuberculosis Strain from South Africa.  

PubMed

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a significant health problem in Panama. The extent to which such cases are the result of primary or acquired resistance and the strain families involved are unknown. We performed whole-genome sequencing of a collection of 66 clinical MDR isolates, along with 31 drug-susceptible isolates, that were isolated in Panama between 2001 and 2010; 78% of the MDR isolates belong to the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family. Drug resistance mutations correlated well with drug susceptibility profiles. To determine the relationships among these strains and to better understand the acquisition of resistance mutations, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on a genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis. The phylogenetic tree shows that the isolates are highly clustered, with a single strain (LAM9-c1) accounting for nearly one-half of the MDR isolates (29/66 isolates). The LAM9-c1 strain was most prevalent among male patients of working age and was associated with high mortality rates. Members of this cluster all share identical mutations conferring resistance to isoniazid (KatG S315T mutation), rifampin (RpoB S531L mutation), and streptomycin (rrs C517T mutation). This evidence of primary resistance supports a model in which MDR-TB in Panama is driven by clonal expansion and ongoing transmission of several strains in the LAM family, including the highly successful MDR strain LAM9-c1. The phylogenetic analysis also shows that the LAM9-c1 strain is closely related to the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) extensively drug-resistant TB strain identified in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The LAM9-c1 and KZN strains likely arose from a recent common ancestor that was transmitted between Panama and South Africa and had the capacity to tolerate an accumulation of multiple resistance mutations. PMID:23884993

Lanzas, Fedora; Karakousis, Petros C; Sacchettini, James C; Ioerger, Thomas R

2013-07-24

422

Clinical prediction of failure of Lamivudine prophylaxis for hepatitis B virus-infected patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy for malignancy.  

PubMed

Although lamivudine (LAM) prophylaxis is recommended for patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) undergoing chemotherapy for malignant disease, HBV reactivation sometimes occurs during or after LAM administration. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of LAM prophylactic failure in patients with malignancies. Patients with malignancies were routinely screened for serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) from June 2002 to August 2008. All consecutive, HBsAg-positive patients received LAM prophylaxis during and after completion of chemotherapy. We assessed risk factors for virologic breakthrough and withdrawal hepatitis. Death without HBV reactivation was regarded as a competing risk event, which was adjusted by Fine and Gray's model. A total of 110 patients were included in this study. They received LAM prophylaxis for a median of 9.2 months. Virologic breakthrough occurred in 15 patients at a median of 10.9 months from the initiation of LAM prophylaxis. Withdrawal hepatitis occurred in 15 patients at a median of 2.4 months after cessation of LAM prophylaxis. Multivariable analysis showed that high baseline HBV DNA titer (?2,000 IU/ml) (hazard ratio [HR], 9.94; P = 0.0063) and the use of rituximab (HR, 3.19; P = 0.027) were significant predictors of virologic breakthrough and that high baseline HBV DNA titer (HR, 5.90; P = 0.007), liver cirrhosis (HR, 10.4; P = 0.002), and distant metastasis (HR, 5.14; P = 0.008) were independent risk factors for withdrawal hepatitis. Patients with high viremia, liver cirrhosis, rituximab treatment, and distant metastasis are at high risk of prophylactic failure and need antiviral agents with a greater barrier to resistance. PMID:22890764

Kim, In Kyoung; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Kim, Won; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hyo Suk

2012-08-13

423

Diagnosing tuberculosis with urine lipoarabinomannan: systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a potential marker of active tuberculosis (TB). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding use of urinary LAM assays for diagnosing active TB. We systematically searched for published and unpublished studies that evaluated urinary LAM for active TB diagnosis. Extracted data were pooled using bivariate random effects models and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves. Heterogeneity was explored through subgroup analysis and meta-regression. Quality was assessed according to standardised QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) criteria. In seven studies that assessed test accuracy in microbiologically confirmed cases only, estimates of sensitivity ranged from 13% to 93%, while specificity ranged from 87% to 99%. In five studies that assessed accuracy in clinical and confirmed TB cases, sensitivity ranged from 8% to 80%, while specificity ranged from 88% to 99%. In five studies with results stratified by HIV status, sensitivity was 3-53% higher in HIV-positive than HIV-negative subgroups; sensitivity was highest with advanced immunosuppression. The LAM urinary assay has several characteristics that make it attractive for diagnosing active TB, but has suboptimal sensitivity for routine clinical use. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential value of the LAM assay in individuals with advanced HIV or for diagnosis of paediatric TB. PMID:21700601

Minion, J; Leung, E; Talbot, E; Dheda, K; Pai, M; Menzies, D

2011-06-23

424

Pleiotropic mutations rendering Escherichia coli K-12 resistant to bacteriophage TP1.  

PubMed Central

tpo mutations, located at 74 min on the genetic map, rendered Escherichia coli K-12 resistant to TP1, a phage which can use either the OmpF protein or the LamB protein as its receptor. tpo mutants synthesized decreased amounts of OmpF and LamB proteins but increased amounts of the OmpC product, another outer membrane protein. The effect of the tpo mutations in lam B gene expression was transcriptional. It is one facet of the following effect on the maltose regulon: strong decreases in the syntheses of the LamB protein and the periplasmic MalE protein occurred when the regulon was uninduced; a lesser decrease occurred in the syntheses of the LamB protein the MalE protein, and the cytoplasmic MalQ protein (amylomaltase) when the regulon was induced. The tpo mutants were found to be phenotypically identical to the perA mutant recently described by Wanner et al. (J. Bacteriol. 140:229--239, 1979) and to some of the ompB mutants described by Verhoef et al. (Mol. Gen. Genet. 169:137--146, 1979). Mapping and complementation analysis suggested that these three types of mutations belong to the same cistron. Our results bring to at least four the number of clearly distinct phenotypes which can result from mutations at, or close to, ompB, a locus which appears increasingly complex. Images

Wandersman, C; Moreno, F; Schwartz, M

1980-01-01

425

Determinants of membrane-targeting and transmembrane translocation during bacterial protein export.  

PubMed Central

We have separately analyzed membrane-targeting and membrane translocation of an exported bacterial protein. The precursor of the outer membrane protein LamB of Escherichia coli was synthesized in vitro and translocated into inverted plasma membrane vesicles under co- and post-translational conditions. The translation/translocation products of LamB were subsequently resolved into soluble and membrane-associated material. Dissipation of the H(+)-motive force, depletion of ATP and treatment of membranes with N-ethylmaleimide each inhibited processing and translocation of preLamB without preventing its binding to the membranes. Hence, all three conditions block transmembrane passage rather than membrane-targeting. The latter was abolished by pretreatment of salt-extracted membrane vesicles with trypsin. It was also drastically reduced when preLamB was synthesized in cell extracts derived from either a secA amber or a secB null mutant. Membrane-targeting of preLamB therefore requires soluble SecA and SecB as well as a protease-sensitive membrane receptor. The finding that SecA is involved in targeting whereas ATP is required for the transmembrane passage suggests that SecA, which harbors an ATPase activity [Lill et al. (1989), EMBO J., 8, 961-966], might have a dual function in bacterial protein export. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7.

Swidersky, U E; Hoffschulte, H K; Muller, M

1990-01-01

426

Contemporary Clinical Research of Traditional Chinese Medicines for Chronic Hepatitis B in China: An Analytical Review  

PubMed Central

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is major global health problem. In China, where about 120,000,000 persons are chronically infected, CHB has been treated for centuries with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). The aim of this review was to summarize and meta-analyze critically the results of randomized, controlled, clinical trials (RCTs) of TCM formulations reported from China in 1998--2008 for treatment of CHB. RCTs comparing either TCM formulations alone or in combination with interferon or lamivudine (IFN/LAM) versus IFN or LAM were included. The Chinese electronic databases were searched. The methodological quality of RCTs was assessed by the Jadad-scale. Results: (i) TCM had a greater beneficial effect (p = 0.0003) than IFN and slightly better effect (p = 0.01) than LAM on normalization of serum ALT. (ii) TCM had a similar beneficial effect when compared with IFN or LAM for CHB on antiviral activity as evidenced by the loss of serum HBeAg and HBV DNA. (iii) TCM enhanced IFN and LAM anti-viral activities and improvements of liver function. Quality of many studies was poor; often, reports lacked information regarding methods of randomization or blinding, and adverse events. In conclusion, some TCM seem effective as alternative remedies for patients with CHB suggesting that further study of TCM in the treatment of CHB is warranted, both in pre-clinical models of HBV infection and in higher quality RCTs world-wide.

Zhang, Lingyi; Wang, Guqi; Hou, Weihong; Li, Ping; Dulin, Andrea; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

2010-01-01

427

Effect of lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium avium subsp avium in Freund's incomplete adjuvant on the immune response of cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine whether lipoarabinomannan (LAM), in combination with Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), was able to improve cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA) in cattle. Twenty-three calves were assigned to four treatment groups, which were subcutaneously immunized with either OVA plus FIA, OVA plus FIA and LAM from Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, FIA plus LAM, or FIA alone. Lymphoproliferation, IFN-? production and cell subpopulations on peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and 15 days after treatment were evaluated. Delayed hypersensitivity was evaluated on day 57. Specific humoral immune response was measured by ELISA. Inoculation with LAM induced higher levels of lymphoproliferation and IFN-? production in response to ConA and OVA (P < 0.05). Specific antibody titers were similar in both OVA-immunized groups. Interestingly, our results showed that the use of LAM in vaccine preparations improved specific cell immune response evaluated by lymphoproliferation and IFN-? production by at least 50 and 25%, respectively, in cattle without interfering with tuberculosis and paratuberculosis diagnosis. PMID:22286534

Colavecchia, S B; Jolly, A; Fernández, B; Fontanals, A M; Fernández, E; Mundo, S L

2012-02-02

428

CO2 adsorption over Si-MCM-41 materials having basic sites created by postmodification with La2O3.  

PubMed

Moderate basic sites could be created onto mesoporous Si-MCM-41 materials by postsynthesis modification with highly dispersed La2O3. The La2O3-modified MCM-41 materials (designated here as LaM) have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature-programmed desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and N2 adsorption/desorption and have been tested as model adsorbents for CO2 adsorption. XRD and N2 adsorption results showed that all LaM materials still maintained their uniform hexagonal mesoporous structure even after postsynthesis modification with La2O3 loading up to 20 wt %. Although the surface area, pore size, and pore volume of LaM materials decreased with increasing La2O3 loading, their capacity for CO2 storage could be significantly improved when La2O3 loading was increased from 0 to 10 wt %. Unidentate and bidentate carbonates have been identified by in situ FTIR as the two types of CO2 species adsorbed on LaM surface. The LaM material also possesses good thermal stability, allowing the model adsorbent to be regenerated at high temperature and recyclable. PMID:15461497

Shen, S C; Chen, Xiaoyin; Kawi, S

2004-10-12

429

A catalytically and genetically optimized ?-lactamase-matrix based assay for sensitive, specific, and higher throughput analysis of native henipavirus entry characteristics  

PubMed Central

Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are the only paramyxoviruses requiring Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) containment. Thus, study of henipavirus entry at less than BSL-4 conditions necessitates the use of cell-cell fusion or pseudotyped reporter virus assays. Yet, these surrogate assays may not fully emulate the biological properties unique to the virus being studied. Thus, we developed a henipaviral entry assay based on a ?-lactamase-Nipah Matrix (?la-M) fusion protein. We first codon-optimized the bacterial ?la and the NiV-M genes to ensure efficient expression in mammalian cells. The ?la-M construct was able to bud and form virus-like particles (VLPs) that morphologically resembled paramyxoviruses. ?la-M efficiently incorporated both NiV and HeV fusion and attachment glycoproteins. Entry of these VLPs was detected by cytosolic delivery of ?la-M, resulting in enzymatic and fluorescent conversion of the pre-loaded CCF2-AM substrate. Soluble henipavirus receptors (ephrinB2) or antibodies against the F and/or G proteins blocked VLP entry. Additionally, a Y105W mutation engineered into the catalytic site of ?la increased the sensitivity of our ?la-M based infection assays by 2-fold. In toto, these methods will provide a more biologically relevant assay for studying henipavirus entry at less than BSL-4 conditions.

Wolf, Mike C; Wang, Yao; Freiberg, Alexander N; Aguilar, Hector C; Holbrook, Michael R; Lee, Benhur

2009-01-01

430

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis and TSC2-/- cells.  

PubMed

The cells comprising pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are heterogeneous, with variable mixtures of cells exhibiting differentiation towards smooth muscle, fat, and vessels. Cells grown from LAM and AMLs have likewise tended to be heterogeneous. The discovery that LAM and AMLs contain cells with mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes is allowing investigators to discriminate between "two-hit" cells and neighboring cells, providing insights into disease pathogenesis. In rare cases, it has been possible to derive cells from human tumors, including AMLs and TSC skin tumors that are highly enriched for TSC2(-/-) cells. Cells derived from an Eker rat uterine leiomyoma (ELT3 cells) are Tsc2-null and these have been used in a rodent cell models for LAM. Further improvements in the ability to reliably grow well-characterized TSC2(-/-) cells from human tumors are critical to developing in vitro and in vivo model systems for studies of LAM pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:20235888

Darling, Thomas N; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Gorio, Alfredo; Lesma, Elena; Walker, Cheryl; Moss, Joel

2010-03-01

431

A test-based comparison between technologies implemented in commercial cameras for high contrast imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LAM is developing a high-contrast imaging testbeds for in-lab demonstration of new instrumental concepts requiring high contrast imaging: in particular, for solar and stellar coronagraphy applications. In such applications, a faint target has to be detected close to a very bright source. For these test-benches, a high-dynamic range detector is required to characterize and/or to determine the performance of a new concept. Beyond the capability to detect the target, an imaging detector has to be accurate, reliable and provide reproducible performances. In order to identify a commercial camera for the development of laboratory demonstrators working with high contrast scenes, we carried out a test campaign at the Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) evaluating several cameras implementing different detector technologies. This paper presents the results of the test campaign, carried out at LAM, providing a quantitative comparison between the investigated technologies

Pancrazzi, M.; Landini, F.; Vives, S.; Escolle, C.; N'Diaye, M.; Focardi, M.; Guillon, C.

2012-07-01

432

Learning diagnostic features: the delta rule does Bubbles.  

PubMed

It has been shown (Murray & Gold, 2004a) that the Bubbles paradigm for studying human perceptual identification can be formally analyzed and compared to reverse correlation methods when the underlying identification model is conceived as a linear amplifier (LAM). However the usefulness of a LAM for characterizing human perceptual identification mechanisms has subsequently been questioned (Gosselin & Schyns, 2004). In this article we show that a simple linear model that is formally analogous to the LAM--a linear perceptron trained with the delta rule--can make sense of several Bubbles experiments in the context of letter identification. Specifically, an analysis of input-output connection weights after training revealed that the most positive weights clustered around letter parts in a way that mimicked the diagnostic parts of letters revealed by the Bubbles technique (Fiset et al., 2008). Our results suggest that linear observer models are indeed unreasonably effective, at least as first approximations to human letter identification mechanisms. PMID:23863510

Hannagan, Thomas; Grainger, Jonathan

2013-07-17

433

Small-Scale Interaction of Turbulence with Thermonuclear Flames in Type Ia Supernovae  

SciTech Connect

Microscopic turbulence-flame interactions of thermonuclear fusion flames occurring in Type Ia supernovae were studied by means of incompressible direct numerical simulations with a highly simplified flame description. The flame is treated as a single diffusive scalar field with a nonlinear source term. It is characterized by its Prandtl number, Pr<<1, and laminar flame speed, S{sub lam}. We find that if S{sub lam} {>=}u', where u' is the rms amplitude of turbulent velocity fluctuations, the local flame propagation speed does not significantly deviate from S{sub lam} even in the presence of velocity fluctuations on scales below the laminar flame thickness. This result is interpreted in the context of subgrid-scale modeling of supernova explosions and the mechanism for deflagration-detonation transitions. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society.

Niemeyer, J. C.; Bushe, W. K.; Ruetsch, G. R.

1999-10-10

434

Genes from Cellvibrio mixtus encoding beta-1,3 endoglucanase.  

PubMed Central

Two genes encoding beta-1,3 glucanase activity were cloned from the gram-negative soil bacterium Cellvibrio mixtus. The two clones, designated cwd (cell wall degradation) and lam (laminarin degradation), had distinct endonuclease restriction patterns and encoded enzymes with distinct substrate specificities. The 3.7-kilobase cwd insert encoded an enzyme which degraded yeast cell walls as well as the soluble beta-1,3 glucan laminarin and the insoluble beta-1,3 glucans zymosan and pachyman. The 1.8-kilobase lam insert encoded an enzyme which degraded laminarin only. Both enzymes degraded laminarin in an endohydrolytic manner to yield laminarobiose, laminarotriose, and laminarotetraose as major end products. Radiolabeled translation products of the cwd and lam transcripts were identified. Images

Sakellaris, H; Pemberton, J M; Manners, J M

1990-01-01

435

Genes from Cellvibrio mixtus encoding. beta. -1,3 endoglucanase  

SciTech Connect

Two genes encoding {beta}-1,3 glucanase activity were cloned from the gram-negative soil bacterium Cellvibrio mixtus. The two clones, designated cwd (cell wall degradation) and lam (laminarin degradation), had distinct endonuclease restriction patterns and encoded enzymes with distinct substrate specificities. The 3.7-kilobase cwd insert encoded an enzyme which degraded yeast cell walls as well as the soluble {beta}-1,3 glucan laminarin and the insoluble {beta}-1,3 glucans zymosan and pachyman. The 1.8-kilobase lam insert encoded an enzyme which degraded lamarin only. Both enzymes degraded laminarin in an endohydrolytic manner to yield laminarobiose, laminarotriose, and laminarotetraose as major end products. Radiolabeled translation products of the cwd and lam transcripts were identified.

Sakellaris, H.; Pemberton, J.M.; Manners, J.M. (Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia (Australia))

1990-10-01

436

Isolation and analysis of novel mutants of Escherichia coli prlA (secY).  

PubMed Central

Plasmid libraries of prlA mutants containing single-base-pair changes throughout the gene were generated by in vitro random mutagenesis. The prlA mutations capable of suppressing the secretion defect of LamB caused by mutations in the LamB signal peptide were selected and analyzed. Together with additional mutations generated by site-directed mutagenesis, a number of novel prlA mutations and/or suppressors were identified. These mutations provide the starting points for studying the relationship of structure and function of PrlA in its interaction with LamB and/or other component(s) in the Escherichia coli protein secretion-translocation complex.

Olsen, M K; Rosey, E L; Tomich, C S

1993-01-01

437

Divergent Effects of Mycobacterial Cell Wall Glycolipids on Maturation and Function of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is able to evade the immune defenses and may persist for years, decades and even lifelong in the infected host. Mtb cell wall components may contribute to such persistence by modulating several pivotal types of immune cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells and hence play a crucial role in the initial immune response to infections by connecting the innate with the adaptive immune system. Principal Findings We investigated the effects of two of the major mycobacterial cell wall-associated types of glycolipids, mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) and phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs) purified from the Mtb strains H37Rv and Mycobacterium bovis, on the maturation and cytokine profiles of immature human monocyte-derived DCs. ManLAM from Mtb H37Rv stimulated the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-12, and IL-6 and expression of co-stimulatory (CD80, CD86) and antigen-presenting molecules (MHC class II). ManLAM from M. bovis also induced TNF, IL-12 and IL-6 but at significantly lower levels. Importantly, while ManLAM was found to augment LPS-induced DC maturation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, addition of PIMs from both Mtb H37Rv and M. bovis strongly reduced this stimulatory effect. Conclusions These results indicate that the mycobacterial cell wall contains macromolecules of glycolipid nature which are able to induce strong and divergent effects on human DCs; i.e while ManLAM is immune-stimulatory, PIMs act as powerful inhibitors of DC cytokine responses. Thus PIMs may be important Mtb-associated virulence factors contributing to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis disease. These findings may also aid in the understanding of some earlier conflicting reports on the immunomodulatory effects exerted by different ManLAM preparations.

Mazurek, Jolanta; Ignatowicz, Lech; Kallenius, Gunilla; Svenson, Stefan B.; Pawlowski, Andrzej; Hamasur, Beston

2012-01-01

438

Molecular Detection of Mixed Infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains in Sputum Samples from Patients in Karonga District, Malawi ? †  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of mixed infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is no longer disputed. However, their frequency, and the impact they may have on our understanding of tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis and epidemiology, remains undetermined. Most previous studies of frequency applied genotyping techniques to cultured M. tuberculosis isolates and found mixed infections to be rare. PCR-based techniques may be more sensitive for detecting multiple M. tuberculosis strains and can be applied to sputum. To date, one study in South Africa has used a PCR approach and suggested that mixed infection could be common. We investigated mixed infections in northern Malawi using two lineage-specific PCR assays targeting the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) and Beijing lineages. Compared with spoligotyping, the specificity and sensitivity of both assays was 100%. From 160 culture-positive sputa, mixed LAM and non-LAM strains were detected in 4 sputa belonging to 2 (2.8%) patients. Both patients were HIV positive, with no history of TB. Cultured isolates from both patients showed only LAM by PCR and spoligotyping. In a set of 377 cultured isolates, 4 were mixed LAM and non-LAM. Only one showed evidence of more than one M. tuberculosis strain using IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP) and spoligotyping analyses. Corresponding sputa for the 4 isolates were unavailable. Mixed Beijing and non-Beijing strains were not detected in this study. Mixed infections appear to be rare in our setting and are unlikely to affect findings based on DNA fingerprinting data. Molecular methods, which avoid the selective nature of culture and target distinct strains, are well suited to detection of mixed infections.

Mallard, Kim; McNerney, Ruth; Crampin, Amelia C.; Houben, Rein; Ndlovu, Richard; Munthali, Lumbani; Warren, Robin M.; French, Neil; Glynn, Judith R.

2010-01-01

439

Expression and immunogenicity of the V3 loop from the envelope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in an attenuated aroA strain of Salmonella typhimurium upon genetic coupling to two Escherichia coli carrier proteins.  

PubMed

A peptide comprising residues glu293 to ser334 from the principal neutralization determinant (V3 loop) of the envelope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV1 LAVBRU isolate) has been inserted within internal permissive sites of either LamB or MalE, two envelope proteins from Escherichia coli K12. The MalE hybrid protein (MalE133-V3 loop) was stably expressed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli K12, and the V3 loop peptide was detectable on the surface of the native protein by an anti-gp160 monoclonal antibody (mAb 110-A). The disulfide bridge between the two cysteines of the loop was formed. In contrast, genetic coupling to the outer membrane protein LamB did not allow the expression of a stable hybrid protein, and major proteolytic cleavage products of the LamB153-V3 loop were detected by mAb 110-A. The two plasmid-encoded hybrid genes were transferred to an aroA mutant of Salmonella typhimurium. Constitutive expression of the MalE133-V3 loop had no detectable effect on cell growth and on the survival in vivo of the recipient strain. The LamB153-V3 loop was not stably expressed in Salmonella, either in vitro or in vivo. Live recombinant salmonellas expressing MalE-V3 and LamB-V3 loop hybrids were used to immunize mice. The MalE-V3 loop hybrid induced anti-HIV1 envelope antibodies detectable by Western blot and ELISA, while the anti-HIV1 envelope antibodies induced by the LamB-V3 loop hybrid were only detectable by Western blot. In addition, purified MalE-V3 loop hybrid protein was able to stimulate in vitro and induce in vivo a V3 loop-specific T-cell proliferative response. PMID:8256503

Charbit, A; Martineau, P; Ronco, J; Leclerc, C; Lo-Man, R; Michel, V; O'Callaghan, D; Hofnung, M

1993-09-01

440

A Bispecific Antibody Based Assay Shows Potential for Detecting Tuberculosis in Resource Constrained Laboratory Settings  

PubMed Central

The re-emergence of tuberculosis (TB) as a global public health threat highlights the necessity of rapid, simple and inexpensive point-of-care detection of the disease. Early diagnosis of TB is vital not only for preventing the spread of the disease but also for timely initiation of treatment. The later in turn will reduce the possible emergence of multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is an important non-protein antigen of the bacterial cell wall, which is found to be present in different body fluids of infected patients including blood, urine and sputum. We have developed a bispecific monoclonal antibody with predetermined specificities towards the LAM antigen and a reporter molecule horseradish peroxidase (HRPO). The developed antibody was subsequently used to design a simple low cost immunoswab based assay to detect LAM antigen. The limit of detection for spiked synthetic LAM was found to be 5.0 ng/ml (bovine urine), 0.5 ng/ml (rabbit serum) and 0.005 ng/ml (saline) and that for bacterial LAM from M. tuberculosis H37Rv was found to be 0.5 ng/ml (rabbit serum). The assay was evaluated with 21 stored clinical serum samples (14 were positive and 7 were negative in terms of anti-LAM titer). In addition, all 14 positive samples were culture positive. The assay showed 100% specificity and 64% sensitivity (95% confidence interval). In addition to good specificity, the end point could be read visually within two hours of sample collection. The reported assay might be used as a rapid tool for detecting TB in resource constrained laboratory settings.

Sarkar, Susmita; Tang, Xinli L.; Das, Dipankar; Spencer, John S.; Lowary, Todd L.; Suresh, Mavanur R.

2012-01-01

441

Chemopreventive activity of lantadenes on two-stage carcinogenesis model in Swiss albino mice: AP-1 (c-jun), NFkappaB (p65) and P53 expression by ELISA and immunohistochemical localization.  

PubMed

Lantadenes are pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from leaves of Lantana camara L. and have antitumor activity. Lantadene A (LA) and methyl ester of LA (LAM) were earlier studied in the author's lab for their chemopreventive effect on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) followed by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced squamous cell carcinoma incidence in Swiss albino mice. The present study was specially designed to initiate the involvement of the molecular targets in chemopreventive activity of these compounds. Skin lesions were induced by twice-weekly topical application of DMBA (100 nmol/100 microl of acetone) for 2 weeks followed by TPA (1.7 nmol/100 microl of acetone) on depilated back of mice for 20 weeks. LA and LAM were administered orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight twice weekly, 1 week before DMBA application and continued for 20 weeks thereafter. A significant decrease in the incidence of number of lesions in mice was obtained in LA/LAM treated groups as compared to DMBA/TPA alone. Significant increase in the protein levels of c-jun, p65, and p53 by ELISA were observed in DMBA/TPA treated mice tumors whereas less expression was observed in LA and LAM treated tumors. Further immunohistochemical localization of transcription factors was studied which also showed less localization of c-jun, p65, and p53 in LA and LAM treated tumors as compared to localization in DMBA/TPA treated tumors. It can be inferred that LA and LAM chemopreventive activity may be linked to the deregulation of above molecular targets which warrants further studies in that direction. PMID:18425423

Kaur, Jagdeep; Sharma, Manu; Sharma, P D; Bansal, M P

2008-04-19

442

Detection ofColiform Bacteria inWaterbyPolymerase Chain Reaction andGeneProbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)amplification andgene probedetection ofregions oftwogenes,lacZand lamB, weretested fortheir abilities todetect coliform bacteria. Amplification ofa segmentofthecoding region ofEscherichia coli lacZbyusing a PCR primer annealing temperature of50°Cdetected E.coli andother coliform bacteria (including Shigella spp.) butnotSalmonella spp.andnoncoliform bacteria. Amplification of a region ofE.coli lamBbyusing a primerannealing temperature of50°Cselectively detected E.coli and Salmonella andShigella spp.PCRamplification andradiolabeled geneprobes detected aslittle as 1to10fgof

ASIM K. BEJ; ROBERT J. STEFFAN; LAWRENCE HAFF; RONALD M. ATLAS

1990-01-01

443

Permissive sites and topology of an outer membrane protein with a reporter epitope.  

PubMed Central

We are developing a genetic approach to study with a single antibody the folding and topology of LamB, an integral outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli K-12. This approach consists of inserting the same reporter foreign antigenic determinant (the C3 epitope from poliovirus) at different sites of LamB so that the resulting hybrid proteins have essentially kept the in vivo biological properties of LamB and therefore its cellular location and structure; the corresponding sites are called permissive sites. A specific monoclonal antibody can then be used to examine the position of the reporter epitope with respect to the protein and the membrane. We present an improved and efficient procedure that led us to identify eight new permissive sites in LamB. These sites appear to be distributed on both sides of the membrane. At one of them (after residue 253), the C3 epitope was detected on intact bacteria, providing the first direct argument for exposure of the corresponding LamB region at the cell surface. At this site as well as at four others (after residues 183, 219, 236, and 352), the C3 epitope could be detected with the C3 monoclonal antibody at the surface of the extracted trimeric LamB-C3 hybrid proteins. We provide a number of convergent arguments showing that the hybrid proteins are not strongly distorted with respect to the wild-type protein so that the conclusions drawn are also valid for this protein. These conclusions are essentially in agreement with the proposed folding model for the LamB protein. They agree, in particular, with the idea that regions 183 and 352 are exposed to the periplasm. In addition, they suggest that region 236 is buried at the external face of the outer membrane and that region 219 is exposed to the periplasm. Including the 3 sites previously determined, 11 permissive sites are now available in LamB, including 3 at the cell surface and most probably at least 3 in the periplasm. We discuss the nature of such sites, the generalization of this approach to other proteins, and possible applications. Images

Charbit, A; Ronco, J; Michel, V; Werts, C; Hofnung, M

1991-01-01

444