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Sample records for berberis buxifolia lam

  1. GREENING MANAGEMENT CONTACTS CITRUS GREENING Murraya paniculata Severinia buxifolia

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    GREENING MANAGEMENT CONTACTS CITRUS GREENING x Murraya paniculata Severinia buxifolia x; #12; x #12; Citrus Research and Education Center Citrus contact the University of Florida, IFAS, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred 863 956 1151

  2. First report of graft-transmission and PCR detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus from Atalantia buxifolia in Guangdong, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atalantia buxifolia (Jiubingle), syn. Severinia buxifolia, is a common landscape plant and a popular Chinese medicinal herb known as Dongfengjie. It is unclear if this Rutaceous plant is a host for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the pathogen of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) in Guangdong, P. R. Chin...

  3. Antiulcerogenic activity of Scutia buxifolia on gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Boligon, Aline Augusti; de Freitas, Robson Borba; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Klimaczewski, Cláudia Vargas; de Ávila, Daiana Silva; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane

    2014-10-01

    Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and their development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. Scutia buxifolia, commonly known as coronilha, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its pharmacological properties and its potential therapeutic applications. In this study, the preventive effects of the crude extract of Scutia buxifolia (ceSb) against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol were evaluated in male Wistar rats. In addition, the composition of ceSb was clarified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). S. buxifolia extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) attenuated oxidative and histopathological features induced by ethanol. Moreover, all evaluated doses of ceSb caused significant (P<0.001 and P<0.0001) and dose-dependent increase in sulfhydryl groups (NPSH) levels, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Furthermore, the administration of ceSb reversed the increase in lipid peroxidation produced by ethanol. The protective effect of the extract could be attributed to antioxidant compounds present in the ceSb, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, which were quantified by HPLC. Thus, an antioxidant effect of the extract leads to a protection on gastric tissue. These results indicate that S. buxifolia could have a beneficial role against ethanol toxicity by preventing oxidative stress and gastric tissue injury. PMID:26579405

  4. Antiulcerogenic activity of Scutia buxifolia on gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in rats

    PubMed Central

    Boligon, Aline Augusti; de Freitas, Robson Borba; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Klimaczewski, Cláudia Vargas; de Ávila, Daiana Silva; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and their development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. Scutia buxifolia, commonly known as coronilha, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its pharmacological properties and its potential therapeutic applications. In this study, the preventive effects of the crude extract of Scutia buxifolia (ceSb) against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol were evaluated in male Wistar rats. In addition, the composition of ceSb was clarified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). S. buxifolia extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) attenuated oxidative and histopathological features induced by ethanol. Moreover, all evaluated doses of ceSb caused significant (P<0.001 and P<0.0001) and dose-dependent increase in sulfhydryl groups (NPSH) levels, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Furthermore, the administration of ceSb reversed the increase in lipid peroxidation produced by ethanol. The protective effect of the extract could be attributed to antioxidant compounds present in the ceSb, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, which were quantified by HPLC. Thus, an antioxidant effect of the extract leads to a protection on gastric tissue. These results indicate that S. buxifolia could have a beneficial role against ethanol toxicity by preventing oxidative stress and gastric tissue injury. PMID:26579405

  5. Systematics and phylogeographic studies of Berberis L. (Berberidaceae) in the Nepal Himalaya 

    E-print Network

    Adhikari, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    Berberis L. contains more than 500 species, is the largest genus in the Berberidaceae, and is now recognised to comprise Berberis s.s. with simple leaves and compoundleaved species formally ascribed to Mahonia. Because ...

  6. Assessment of Antioxidant Potential, Total Phenolics and Flavonoids of Different Solvent Fractions of Monotheca Buxifolia Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shumaila; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Rashid, Umbreen; Bokhari, Jasia

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and aqueous) of fruits of Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) Dc., a locally used fruit in Pakistan. Methods Dried powder of the fruit of M. buxifolia was extracted with methanol and the resultant was fractionated with solvents having escalating polarity; n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and the residual soluble aqueous fraction. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were estimated for the methanol and various fractions. These fractions were also subjected to various in vitro assays to estimate the scavenging activity for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), superoxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide and reductive ability for ferric ions and phosphomolybdate assay. Results The n-butanol, aqueous and methanol fractions possessed high amount of phenolics and flavonoids compared with other fractions, and subsequently showed a pronounced scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, superoxide, hydroxyl and hydrogen peroxide radicals and had a potent reductive ability on ferric ion and phosphomolybdate assay. There was a found significant correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and EC50 of DPPH, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide radical and phosphomolybdate assays, whereas a nonsignificant correlation was found with the hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical assay. Conclusion M. buxifolia fruit can be used as natural antioxidant source to prevent damage associated with free radicals. PMID:24298440

  7. A review on biological and chemical diversity in Berberis (Berberidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sharad; Srivastava, Manjoosha; Misra, Ankita; Pandey, Garima; Rawat, AKS

    2015-01-01

    Berberis is an important genus and well known in the Indian as well as European systems of traditional medicine. It is used since ancient times for curing eye disease, fever, jaundice, rheumatism, vomiting during pregnancy, kidney and gall balder stones and various other ailments due to the presence of biologically active alkaloid berberine. Action of the root extracts of few species are believed to be as powerful as quinine in the treatment of malarial fever. A plethora of literature pertaining to the taxonomy, biology, chemistry, traditional and ethnic uses of Berberis in different countries and indigenous cultures was collected by both offline (library, journals, textbooks etc.) and online mode (electronic search of available databases). In addition to this, books on traditional medicine and ethno pharmacological knowledge were also referred to extract ancient uses of Berberis in different traditional medicine systems. Most of the folklore, traditional and ethno botanical claims about Berberis species were validated by broad spectrum in vitro and vivo pharmacological studies. The present article summarizes its usage in eye and liver disorder, fever, kidney and gall stones along with anticancer activity. This comprehensive review will not only help researchers for further evaluation but also provide substantial information for future exploitation of species to develop novel herbal formulations. PMID:26535033

  8. Morphological comparison of aeciospores from rust fungi infecting Berberis spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently there are about 30 different species of rust fungi described that infect Berberis and/or Mahonia, and include both autoecious and heteroecious. Our current work is on the molecular phylogenetic and morphological characterization of macrocyclic, heteroecious rust fungi with cereal and grass...

  9. Some physical properties of sun-dried Berberis fruit (Berberis crataegina).

    PubMed

    I??kl?, Nursel Develi; Y?lmaz, Ilkay

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate some physical properties of sun dried Berberis fruit as a function of moisture content, varying from 9.59% to 27.90% (w.b.). Dried fruit length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter and sphericity, increased nonlinearly from 7.19 to 7.53 mm; 3.42 to 4.03 mm; 2.78 to 3.02 mm; 4.05 to 4.51 mm and 0.56 to 0.62, respectively with increased moisture content. When we tested 1000-dried fruits, their mass increased linearly from 3.10 to 4.89 g, the true and bulk density increased nonlinearly from 769 to 845 kg m(-3) and 389 to 395 kg m(-3), respectively; with increased moisture content. Also, porosity values of dried fruits increased nonlinearly from 49.40% to 53.30%. The lowest static coefficient of friction was found on the steel surface. The angle of repose increased nonlinearly from 20.14° to 23.20° with the increasing in the moisture content. PMID:24426054

  10. Identification of Berberis spp. as alternate hosts of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is an important disease on wheat in China because of high virulence diversity. Since the discovery of sexual stage of P. striiformis on Berberis spp., especially B. chinesensis, our interests focused on identifying Berberis spec...

  11. Identification and characterization of microsatellites from calafate (Berberis microphylla, Berberidaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Varas, Benjamín; Castro, María H.; Rodriguez, Roberto; von Baer, Dietrich; Mardones, Claudia; Hinrichsen, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Southern barberry or calafate (Berberis microphylla) is a shrub species endemic to the Patagonian region of South America that is used for human consumption. The fruit is very rich in vitamin C and anthocyanins and has a very high antioxidant capacity. There have been only a few genetic studies of this and other closely related species. • Methods and Results: Here we present the first 18 microsatellite markers of B. microphylla that were characterized using 66 accessions of calafate from Patagonia. On average, they had 7.6 alleles per marker, with an expected heterozygosity of 0.688. The informativeness of these markers was also evaluated in another 15 Berberis species, including most of the native and endemic Chilean species. • Conclusions: The results confirm that these new simple sequence repeat markers are very polymorphic and potentially useful in genetic studies in any species of the genus Berberis. PMID:25202561

  12. Local area monitoring (LAM).

    PubMed

    Kirsch, T D

    1988-01-01

    Routine surveillance of the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases has not proved sensitive enough to demonstrate the impact of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in many countries. In order to document progress since the start of the EPI in 1979, data are needed for several years prior to that. In most developing countries these can be found only in major cities or large hospitals. Therefore a system of sentinel surveillance, the Local Area Monitoring Project (LAM), is being set up in selected institutions in the major cities of the developing world. The goal is to include the major city of each of the 25 largest developing countries, with a total population of 115 million. These 25 countries together account for 85% of all births in the developing world. In some cases the city was selected because it had an excellent municipal reporting system. For example, the Istanbul Health Office collects data from 169 hospitals, primary health centres, maternal and child health clinics and other institutions, and provides compiled municipal figures within six weeks. The trend of measles cases seen at the Children's Hospital exactly matches the trend for the city as a whole, indicating that for measles, at least, the Children's Hospital is an excellent sentinel site representative of the whole city. Manila has a hospital to which all cases of infectious disease are routinely referred, which is also a good sentinel site. In Rangoon it has been necessary to survey four hospitals, and in Jakarta seven, to cover all the target diseases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3376484

  13. A new isoquinoline alkaloid with anti-microbial properties from Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid. var. jaeschkeana.

    PubMed

    Alamzeb, Muhammad; Khan, M Rafiullah; Mamoon-Ur-Rashid; Ali, Saqib; Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    One new isoquinoline alkaloid named berberidione (1) along with four new source alkaloids berberine (2), palmatine (3), jatrorrhizine (4) and chondrofoline (5) and three new source non-alkaloids syringic acid (6), ?-sitosterol (7) and stigmasterol (8) was isolated and characterised from different fractions of Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid var. jaeschkeana. All the structures were determined from 1D and 2D spectroscopic data. Crude extract, sub-fractions and isolated compounds showed excellent anti-microbial properties. The toxicity level for the alkaloids was found to be very low on THP-1 cells. PMID:25424893

  14. Century-old Mystery of Puccinia striiformis Life History Solved with the Identification of Berberis as an Alternate Host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life history of Puccinia striiformis remains a mystery because the alternate host has never been found. Inoculation of grasses using aeciospores from naturally infected Berberis chinensis and B. koreana resulted in infection on Poa pratensis, producing uredinia typical of stripe rust caused by P...

  15. Role of Berberis spp. as alternate hosts in generating new races of Puccinia graminis and P. striiformis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common barberry and several other Berberis spp. serve as the alternate hosts to two important rust pathogens of small grains and grasses, Puccinia graminis and P. striiformis. Barberry eradication has been practiced for centuries as a means to control stem rust. Diverse virulence variations have...

  16. A quick overview on some aspects of endocrinological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Ali; Changizi-Ashtiyani, Saeed; Taheri, Soheila; Ramezani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Many herbaceous plants contain compounds that have biological effects in addition to their medicinal properties. They have compounds with numerous properties, including hypo lipidemic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and hepato protective ones, which have been analyzed at different levels. One of these plants, with the scientific name of Berberis vulgaris, is barberry. The most important compounds identified in this plant are berberine, oxycontin, palmatine, bervulcine, berbamine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, and berbamine. In addition to alkaloids, organic acids such as chelidonic acid, citric acid, malic acid, resin, tannin, pectinic, and mucilagic substances are among the ingredients of barberry. In this paper, it was attempted to determine the role and effect of the extract of barberry on various body organs. The results showed that berberine actually increases insulin sensitivity and is capable of inhibiting alpha glucosidase, adipogenesis, and thus acts as an anti-obesity and hypoglycemic agent. Berberine reduces the density of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and can improve the function of liver enzymes, therefore, it can be suggested as a hypo lipidemic and hepato protective plant extract. The hepato protective effects of this extract are probably due to its antioxidant properties. Studies showed that barberry have numerous health benefits, including anti-inflammatory ones. Moreover, it can be used as a medicinal herb to treat a variety of disorders, such as diabetes, liver disease, gallbladder pain, digestive, urinary tract diseases, and gallstones. However, more studies on this issue and doing more focused and intensive researches in this field are recommended. PMID:26693406

  17. A quick overview on some aspects of endocrinological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Ali; Changizi-Ashtiyani, Saeed; Taheri, Soheila; Ramezani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Many herbaceous plants contain compounds that have biological effects in addition to their medicinal properties. They have compounds with numerous properties, including hypo lipidemic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and hepato protective ones, which have been analyzed at different levels. One of these plants, with the scientific name of Berberis vulgaris, is barberry. The most important compounds identified in this plant are berberine, oxycontin, palmatine, bervulcine, berbamine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, and berbamine. In addition to alkaloids, organic acids such as chelidonic acid, citric acid, malic acid, resin, tannin, pectinic, and mucilagic substances are among the ingredients of barberry. In this paper, it was attempted to determine the role and effect of the extract of barberry on various body organs. The results showed that berberine actually increases insulin sensitivity and is capable of inhibiting alpha glucosidase, adipogenesis, and thus acts as an anti-obesity and hypoglycemic agent. Berberine reduces the density of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and can improve the function of liver enzymes, therefore, it can be suggested as a hypo lipidemic and hepato protective plant extract. The hepato protective effects of this extract are probably due to its antioxidant properties. Studies showed that barberry have numerous health benefits, including anti-inflammatory ones. Moreover, it can be used as a medicinal herb to treat a variety of disorders, such as diabetes, liver disease, gallbladder pain, digestive, urinary tract diseases, and gallstones. However, more studies on this issue and doing more focused and intensive researches in this field are recommended.

  18. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb Extract Shows Anti-Neoplastic Effects on Prostate Cancer Stem/Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Assaad; Daoud, Georges; Hosry, Leina; Monzer, Alissar; Mouhieddine, Tarek H.; Hamade, Aline; Najjar, Fadia; Abou-Kheir, Wassim

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), including those of advanced prostate cancer, are a suggested reason for tumor resistance toward conventional tumor therapy. Therefore, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed for targeting CSCs. Despite the minimal understanding of their modes of action, natural products and herbal therapies have been commonly used in the prevention and treatment of many cancers. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb (BLE) is a plant rich in alkaloids which may possess anti-cancer activity and a high potential for eliminating CSCs. We tested the effect of BLE on prostate cancer cells and our data indicated that this extract induced significant reduction in cell viability and inhibited the proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3 and 22Rv1) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BLE extract induced a perturbation of the cell cycle, leading to a G0-G1 arrest. Furthermore, we noted 50% cell death, characterized by the production of high levels of reactive oxidative species (ROS). Inhibition of cellular migration and invasion was also achieved upon treatment with BLE extract, suggesting a role in inhibiting metastasis. Interestingly, BLE extract had a major effect on CSCs. Cells were grown in a 3D sphere-formation assay to enrich for a population of cancer stem/progenitor cells. Our results showed a significant reduction in sphere formation ability. Three rounds of treatment with BLE extract were sufficient to eradicate the self-renewal ability of highly resistant CSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest a high therapeutic potential of BLE extract in targeting prostate cancer and its CSCs. PMID:25380390

  19. Hepatoprotective Effects of Berberis vulgaris L. Extract/? Cyclodextrin on Carbon Tetrachloride–Induced Acute Toxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hermenean, Anca; Popescu, Cristina; Ardelean, Aurel; Stan, Miruna; Hadaruga, Nicoleta; Mihali, Ciprian-Valentin; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the capacity of formulated Berberis vulgaris extract/?-cyclodextrin to protect liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Formulated and non-formulated extracts were given orally (50 mg/kg/day) to mice for 7 days and were then intra-peritoneally injected with 1.0 mL/kg CCl4 on the 8th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration, an increase in the levels of apartate-amino-transferase (AST), alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was found and a significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) levels could be detected. This was accompanied by extended centrilobular necrosis, steatosis, fibrosis and an altered ultrastructure of hepatocytes. Pre-treatment with formulated or non-formulated extract suppressed the increase in ALT, AST and MDA levels and restored the level of antioxidant enzymes at normal values. Histopathological and electron-microscopic examination showed milder liver damage in both pre-treated groups and the protective effect was more pronounced after the formulated extract was administered. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation induced by CCl4 was reduced in the group which received non-formulated extract and absent in the group which received formulated extract. Taken together, our results suggest that Berberis vulgaris/?-cyclodextrin treatment prevents hepatic injury induced by CCl4 and can be considered for further nutraceutical studies. PMID:22942749

  20. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) Diversity in Bangladesh: Land Use and Artificial Selection1

    E-print Network

    Wagenius, Stuart

    Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) Diversity in Bangladesh: Land Use and Artificial *Corresponding author; e-mail: nzerega@chicagobotanic.org Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) Diversity of diversity for jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) and is expected to harbor important genetic

  1. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Kelsie Priest, Lahiru Chandrawansa, Leon Lam, Manjot Toor, Marcel Olsthoorn, Mike Kai Hin Lam

    E-print Network

    Chandrawansa, Leon Lam, Manjot Toor, Marcel Olsthoorn, Mike Kai Hin Lam UBC Botanical Garden Redevelopment CIVL One Mike Kai Hin Lam Kelsie Priest Lahiru Chandrawansa Leon Lam the detail design works for the later stage. However, Group 1 is open to cooperating with other teams

  2. On LAM's and SAM's for Halley's rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, Stanton J.

    1992-01-01

    Non principal axis rotation for comet Halley is inferred from dual periodicities evident in the observations. The modes where the spin axis precesses around the axis of minimum moment of inertia (long axis mode or LAM) and where it precesses around the axis of maximum moment of inertia (short axis mode or SAM) are described from an inertial point of view. The currently favored LAM model for Halley's rotation state satisfies observational and dynamical constraints that apparently no SAM can satisfy. But it cannot reproduce the observed post perihelion brightening through seasonal illumination of localized sources on the nucleus, whereas a SAM can easily produce post or pre perihelion brightening by this mechanism. However, the likelihood of a LAM rotation for elongated nuclei of periodic comets such as Halley together with Halley's extreme post perihelion behavior far from the Sun suggest that Halley's post perihelion brightening may be due to effects other than seasonal illumination of localized sources, and therefore such brightening may not constrain its rotation state.

  3. Isolation, structure elucidation and enzyme inhibition studies of a new hydroxy ester and other compounds from Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid stem.

    PubMed

    Alamzeb, Muhammad; Khan, M Rafiullah; Mamoon-Ur-Rashid; Ali, Saqib; Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation and fractionation of Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid var. jaeschkeana stem resulted in the isolation and characterisation of a new long chain hydroxy ester named as berberinol (1) along with six known compounds (2-7). All the structures were established from 1D and 2D spectroscopic data. Crude extract, sub-fractions and all the isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-fungal and urease enzyme inhibition properties. All of the sub-fractions and compounds showed good anti-fungal and urease enzyme inhibition properties. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were calculated for all active samples in case of urease enzyme inhibition. MICs values were found to be in the range of 39.03-49.78 ?g/mL for urease enzyme inhibition. PMID:25604951

  4. Classical closure theory and Lam's interpretation of epsilon-RNG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    Lam's phenomenological epsilon-renormalization group (RNG) model is quite different from the other members of that group. It does not make use of the correspondence principle and the epsilon-expansion procedure. We demonstrate that Lam's epsilon-RNG model is essentially the physical space version of the classical closure theory in spectral space and consider the corresponding treatment of the eddy viscosity and energy backscatter.

  5. Ethnopharmacological uses of Antidesma madagascariense Lam. (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Korumtollee, Housna Nazifah; Chady, Zaynab Zaina Banu Khan

    2015-01-01

    Antidesma madagascariense Lam. is an indigenous plant of the Mascarene Islands which has interestingly shined as a promising traditional medicinal plant. The ethnobotanical uses of this plant were geared toward the treatment and management of dysentery, albumin in the urine, jaundice, fever, diabetes, skin infections, rheumatic and body aches among others. Preliminary screening of this plant coupled with a plethora of in vitro and in vivo tests have furnished scientists with documented findings that have appraised its traditional use in the treatment and management of infectious diseases. The presence of antidesmin, a commonly characterized component of Antidesma species, might justify the medicinal virtues of this plant. The present monograph aims at providing the botanical description, traditional uses and latest findings documented on A. madagascariense. Nonetheless, continued research on this plant needs to be completed in order to rationalize the use of this promising plant as a potential source of beneficial constituents for the treatment and management of human diseases and hence set up promising optimism for drug development. PMID:26401391

  6. Clinical & Experimental Pathology Lamming, J Clin Exp Pathol 2012, S4

    E-print Network

    Sabatini, David M.

    Dudley W. Lamming1 , David M. Sabatini1 and Joseph A. Baur2 * 1 Department of Biology, MIT, Cambridge, MA: Lamming DW, Sabatini DM, Baur JA (2012) Pharmacologic Means of Extending Lifespan. J Clin Exp Pathol S4

  7. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Kevin Petersen, On Tak Lam, Zhejian Zhang

    E-print Network

    Lam, Zhejian Zhang An Investigation into the Benefits of Remanufactured Toner Cartridges APSC 261 Investigation into the Benefits of Remanufactured Toner Cartridges On Tak Lam Kevin Petersen Zhejian Zhang

  8. Lam6 Regulates the Extent of Contacts between Organelles.

    PubMed

    Elbaz-Alon, Yael; Eisenberg-Bord, Michal; Shinder, Vera; Stiller, Sebastian Berthold; Shimoni, Eyal; Wiedemann, Nils; Geiger, Tamar; Schuldiner, Maya

    2015-07-01

    Communication between organelles is crucial for eukaryotic cells to function as one coherent unit. An important means of communication is through membrane contact sites, where two organelles come into close proximity allowing the transport of lipids and small solutes between them. Contact sites are dynamic in size and can change in response to environmental or cellular stimuli; however, how this is regulated has been unclear. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lam6 resides in several central contact sites: ERMES (ER/mitochondria encounter structure), vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch), and NVJ (nuclear vacuolar junction). We show that Lam6 is sufficient for expansion of contact sites under physiological conditions and necessary for coordination of contact site size. Given that Lam6 is part of a large protein family and is conserved in vertebrates, our work opens avenues for investigating the underlying principles of organelle communication. PMID:26119743

  9. Lam6 Regulates the Extent of Contacts between Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz-Alon, Yael; Eisenberg-Bord, Michal; Shinder, Vera; Stiller, Sebastian Berthold; Shimoni, Eyal; Wiedemann, Nils; Geiger, Tamar; Schuldiner, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Summary Communication between organelles is crucial for eukaryotic cells to function as one coherent unit. An important means of communication is through membrane contact sites, where two organelles come into close proximity allowing the transport of lipids and small solutes between them. Contact sites are dynamic in size and can change in response to environmental or cellular stimuli; however, how this is regulated has been unclear. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lam6 resides in several central contact sites: ERMES (ER/mitochondria encounter structure), vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch), and NVJ (nuclear vacuolar junction). We show that Lam6 is sufficient for expansion of contact sites under physiological conditions and necessary for coordination of contact site size. Given that Lam6 is part of a large protein family and is conserved in vertebrates, our work opens avenues for investigating the underlying principles of organelle communication. PMID:26119743

  10. Evolution and Vaccination of Influenza Virus Ham Ching Lam

    E-print Network

    Boley, Daniel

    Evolution and Vaccination of Influenza Virus Ham Ching Lam , Srinand Sreevatsan, and Daniel Boley to the high dimensional influenza genetic sequences in order to investigate whether vaccine is a driving force of vaccine-controlled and non-vaccine controlled influenza viruses in low di- mensional space. We

  11. DCEG Fellows Lam and Loftfield Successfully Defend Dissertations

    Cancer.gov

    Clara Lam, Ph.D., successfully defended her doctoral dissertation at the George Washington School of Public Health. Her dissertation, titled “Identifying risk factors for second malignancies after non-Hodgkin lymphoma,” represented the first analytic study of second cancers after NHL to consider both treatments and immune-related medical conditions as potential second cancer risk factors.

  12. Identification of eighteen Berberis species as alternate hosts of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and virulence variation in the pathogen isolates from natural infection of barberry plants in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Long; Wang, Zhiyan; Chen, Xianming; Zhang, Hongchang; Yao, Juanni; Zhan, Gangming; Chen, Wen; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2013-09-01

    ABSTRACT The wheat stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) population in China has been reported to be a distinct genetic group with higher diversity than those in many other countries. Genetic recombination in the P. striiformis f. sp. tritici population has been identified with molecular markers but whether sexual reproduction occurs in China is unknown. In this study, we surveyed barberry plants for infection by rust fungi in the stripe rust "hotspot" regions in Gansu, Sichuan, and Shaanxi provinces; collected barberry plants and inoculated plants of 20 Berberis spp. with germinated teliospores under controlled greenhouse conditions for susceptibility to P. striiformis f. sp. tritici; and tested P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates obtained from aecia on naturally infected barberry plants on the wheat genotypes used to differentiate Chinese P. striiformis f. sp. tritici races to determine virulence variations. Different Berberis spp. were widely distributed and most surveyed plants had pycnia and aecia of rust fungi throughout the surveyed regions. In total, 28 Berberis spp. were identified during our study. From 20 Berberis spp. tested with teliospores of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici from wheat plants, 18 species were susceptible under greenhouse conditions. Among 3,703 aecia sampled from barberry plants of three species (Berberis shensiana, B. brachypoda, and B. soulieana) under natural infections in Gansu and Shaanxi provinces, four produced P. striiformis f. sp. tritici uredinia on susceptible wheat 'Mingxian 169'. Sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the four isolates from barberry shared 99% identity with the P. striiformis f. sp. tritici sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. The four isolates had virulence patterns different from all previously reported races collected from wheat plants. Furthermore, 82 single-uredinium isolates obtained from the four barberry isolates had high virulence diversity rates of 9.0 to 28.1%, indicating that the diverse isolates were produced through sexual reproduction on barberry plants under natural conditions. In addition to P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction products of the ITS regions and inoculation tests on wheat identified P. graminis (the stem rust pathogen). Our results indicated that P. striiformis f. sp. tritici can infect some Berberis spp. under natural conditions, and the sexual cycle of the fungus may contribute to the diversity of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici in China. PMID:23514262

  13. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2lam discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (540-965nm) was obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  14. Stiochiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB, an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Gehring, K.; Cheng, Chaohsiung; Jap, B.K. ); Nikaido, H. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors have directly measured the stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB. Scatchard plots and computer fitting of flow dialysis (rate-of-dialysis) experiments clearly establish three independent binding sites per LamB trimer, with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 {mu}M for maltoheptaose. The current model for LamB's function as a specific pore is discussed with respect to the symmetry in LamB's kinetic properties and the implications of their results.

  15. Clonal expansion and seedling recruitment of Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa) in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests: comparisons with salal (Gaultheria shallon)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, D.; Tappeiner, J. C., II

    1997-01-01

    Seedling regeneration and morphology of Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa Pursh) and salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh) were studied in thinned and unthinned Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in the central Coast Range, Oregon. Above- and below-ground growth of both species were significantly and negatively correlated with stand density. Oregon grape appears to have less potential for vegetative spread than does salal. It produced two to three times fewer rhizome extensions, and rhizome extensions were only half as long as those of salal. Oregon grape seedlings were common in areas of moss ground cover among patches of the two species. Salal seedlings were restricted to decaying logs. Seedling densities of Oregon grape in thinned stands were more than six times those in unthinned stands. For Oregon grape, understory establishment is accomplished by seedling establishment and recruitment of new genets. In contrast, salal maintains itself in forest understories primarily through vegetative growth, since its seedling establishment is restricted mainly to decayed wood. Continual recruitment of new aerial stems or ramets enables Oregon grape to maintain a dense cover once it is established in the understory.

  16. Antidiabetic Effect of Methanolic Extract from Berberis julianae Schneid. via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Ping; Wan, Dingrong; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Chao; Shu, Guangwen; Mei, Zhinan; Yang, Xinzhou

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the antidiabetic effect and mechanism of methanolic extract of Berberis julianae Schneid. (BJSME) in STZ induced Type 2 diabetes mellitus mice. T2DM mice were induced by high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ). BJSME was orally administrated at the doses of 60, 120, and 240?mg/kg/d, for 21 days. Metformin was used as positive control drug. Food intake, body weight, plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, insulin, and blood-lipid content were measured. The effects of BJSME on the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in L6 myotubes and the GLUT4 protein expression in skeletal muscle as well as phosphorylation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in liver and muscle were examined. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that BJSME increased GLUT4 translocation by 1.8-fold and BJSME significantly improved the oral glucose tolerance and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of serum and reduced body weight, glucose, and other related blood-lipid contents. The BJSME treatment also stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK. Thus, BJSME seems to possess promising beneficial effects for the treatment of T2DM with the possible mechanism via stimulating AMPK activity. PMID:25258641

  17. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 ?g/g and Cu 36.3 ?g/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  18. Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.: a rich source of lipophilic phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Nereida; Freitas, Nélia; Faria, Marisa; Gouveia, Manuela

    2013-12-18

    The lipophilic extracts from the storage root of 13 cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with the aim to valorize them and offer information on their nutritional properties and potential health benefits. The amount of lipophilic extractives ranged from 0.87 to 1.32% dry weight. Fatty acids and sterols were the major families of compounds identified. The most abundant saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were hexadecanoic acid (182-428 mg/kg) and octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid (133-554 mg/kg), respectively. ?-Sitosterol was the principal phytosterol, representing 55.2-77.6% of this family, followed by campesterol. Long-chain aliphatic alcohols and ?-tocopherol were also detected but in smaller amounts. The results suggest that sweet potato should be considered as an important dietary source of lipophilic phytochemicals. PMID:24345069

  19. Analysis of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) patent tomograms: Stereology and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, V.; Wing, G.M.; Winter, L.; Zahrt, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an insidious disease of young women which attacks the lungs and if untreated results in death. Treatment is radical. Currently a woman diagnosed as having LAM (usually by computed tomography (CT) of the lung) is run through an exhausting set of tests and exercises to determine the extent of the disease. Image processing techniques have been able to quantify the tomograms by providing a histogram of the number of cyst intercepts of a given area. The images are digital, so the data are discrete, and the areas are in terms of square pixels. It is hoped that by analyzing the data and by recovering the probability density of the cysts themselves one can provide a set of parameters that will aid in the early diagnosis of the disease and that will correlate well with the physiology. The desire to invert the data, that is to determine the probability density of the cysts from the probability density of the circular intersections of the cysts with the tomographic plane, led to a re-examination of the Wicksell equation. In Section 2, the authors transform Wicksell`s equation in diameter (a generalized Abel equation) into an equation in areas (the original Abel equation). In Section 3 they present the adjoint equation in several equivalent forms. Analytic solutions of the adjoint equation necessary for later use are developed in Section 4. Outside of the framework of integral equations they have done some modeling of the data. They find that, to a very high degree of reliability, the data follows a simple power law. The distribution of spheres likewise follows a simple power law. These considerations are given in Section 5. Then in Section 6 they explore the exponential model as an alternative. Section 7 solves the Wicksell equation and uses the Golberg device, via the adjoint, to solve a related problem. They finally get to the number of cysts and their average size in Section 8. Their conclusions are in Section 9.

  20. 78 FR 3319 - Amendments to Existing Validated End User Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ...Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam Research Corporation, SK hynix Semiconductor (China) Ltd., and SK hynix Semiconductor (Wuxi) Ltd. in the People's Republic of China; Clarification of Scope of Entries...

  1. Determination of color, pigment, and phenolic stability in yogurt systems colored with nonacylated anthocyanins from Berberis boliviana L. as compared to other natural/synthetic colorants.

    PubMed

    Wallace, T C; Giusti, M M

    2008-05-01

    Anthocyanins are of interest to the food industry because of their antioxidant power, attractive color, and stability in high acid foods. Powder from the Peruvian berry Berberis boliviana Lechler, rich in nonacylated anthocyanins (7% to 8% dry weight), was incorporated into yogurt samples containing 3 different fat levels. Color (CIE L, a, b, chroma, and hue angle), pigment (monomeric anthocyanin and polymeric color), and total phenolics were monitored over 8 wk of storage and compared to yogurt treatments containing purple carrot acylated anthocyanins, red beet betalaines, or FD&C Red nr 40. Anthocyanin profiles were analyzed by HPLC coupled to photodiode array and mass detectors. Color of yogurt containing B. boliviana anthocyanins at 20 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (cy-3-glu) equivalents/100 g yogurt (L*= 65, chroma = 14, and hue angle = 335 degrees ) was similar to commercial blueberry yogurt (L*= 65, chroma = 10.5, and hue angle = 341 degrees ). High color, pigment, and phenolic stability were observed in yogurts colored with B. boliviana, independent of the fat matrix. Acylated anthocyanins from purple carrot extracts exhibited increased stability with higher fat content. Anthocyanin degradation followed 1st-order kinetics. Pigment half-lives were 125 and 104 d for nonacylated anthocyanins at 10 and 20 mg cy-3-glu equivalents/100 g yogurt and 550.2, 232.6, and 128.9 d for acylated anthocyanins at 20 mg of cy-3-glu equivalents/100 g of 4%, 2%, and 0% fat yogurt. Addition of B. boliviana whole berry powder to yogurt matrices produced an attractive, stable anthocyanin-rich product, eliminating the need for industrial colorant extraction. PMID:18460117

  2. Prescription of Psychiatric Medications and Polypharmacy in the LAMS Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kowatch, Robert A.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Horwitz, Sarah; Demeter, Christine; Fristad, Mary A.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Ryan, Neal; Frazier, Thomas W.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Young, Andrea S.; Gill, MaryKay; Findling, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated demographic and clinical correlates and predictors of polypharmacy at baseline assessment in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) sample, a cohort of children age six to 12 years at their first outpatient mental health visit at university-affiliated clinics. Methods Use of medications in four classes (mood stabilizers, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and stimulants) was assessed, and the Service Assessment for Children and Adolescents classified lifetime and current use of various services. Analyses examined correlates of the number of medications prescribed and odds of polypharmacy, defined as use of two or more concurrent medications. Results In the total sample, 201 of 698 participants (29%) were prescribed two or more medications. These participants had lower Children's Global Assessment Scale scores, more comorbid disorders, and higher baseline parent-reported mood symptoms than those prescribed no or one medication. White youths were three times as likely as nonwhite youths to be receiving two or more psychotropics, even after adjustment for other demographic and clinical characteristics. Of 262 participants (38% of sample) not being treated with medications, 252 (96%) had a diagnosis of at least one psychiatric disorder (74% had two or more). Conclusions Findings suggest that patients with greater severity and comorbidity were more likely to receive two or more medications. However, 38% of these children with serious disorders were not receiving psychotropic medication at the time of this assessment. Results counter findings suggesting overtreatment with medications of children with psychiatric disorders in the community. PMID:23852186

  3. New phytoconstituents from the aerial parts of Fumaria parviflora Lam

    PubMed Central

    Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae) is an annual herb found throughout the world. Traditionally it has great significance in various disorders. In folk medicine of Turkey it is used against hepato-biliary dysfunction and imported from Iran. In Charaka and Sushruta, it is recommended for treatment of fevers, blood disorders, chronic skin diseases, urinary diseases and cough. The compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel (60-120 mesh) as stationary phase and structure of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of its aerial parts led to the isolation of five new compounds characterized as (5?H,11?H)-8-oxo-homoiridolide (1), n-docosanyl-2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl salicylate (2), 2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylenedodecan-10-oyl-12, 15-olide14-O-?-D-xylopyranoside (3), 4-oxo-stigmast-5-en-3?-ol-D-glucopyranoside (4) and salicylic acid-O-?-D-xylopyranoside (5) along with the known compounds ?-D-glucopyranosyl hexadecanoate (6) and ?-D-glucopyranosyl- (2 ? 1?)-?-D-glucopyranoside (7). The isolated compounds are useful as they will provide essential data and information for the further researchers and development of effective analytical marker for identity, purity and quality control of this traditional plant in future. PMID:24959414

  4. Predictive and prognostic properties of TB-LAM among HIV-positive patients initiating ART in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    d'Elia, Alexander; Evans, Denise; McNamara, Lynne; Berhanu, Rebecca; Sanne, Ian; Lönnermark, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    While the diagnostic properties of the TB LAM urine assay (LAM) have been well-described, little is known about its predictive and prognostic properties at ART initiation in a routine clinic setting. We describe the predictive and prognostic properties of LAM in HIV-positive patients initiating ART at an urban hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Retrospective study of HIV-positive adults (>18 years) who initiated standard first-line ART between February 2012 and April 2013 and had a LAM test at initiation. In HIV-positive patients with no known TB at ART initiation, we assessed the sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative likelihood ratios of LAM to predict incident TB within 6 months of ART initiation. In addition, in patients with a TB diagnosis and on TB treatment <3 months at ART initiation, we measured the CD4 response at 6 months on ART. Of the 274 patients without TB at ART initiation, 65% were female with median CD4 count of 213 cells/mm3. Among the 14 (5.1%) patients who developed active TB, none were urine LAM +ve at baseline. LAM had poor sensitivity (0.0% 95% CI 0.00-23.2) to predict incident TB within 6 months of initiation. We analyzed 22 patients with a confirmed TB diagnosis at initiation separately. Of these, LAM +ve patients (27%) showed lower CD4 gains compared to LAM negative patients (median increase 103 vs 199 cells/mm3; p = 0.08). LAM has limited value for accurately predicting incident TB in patients with higher CD4 counts after ART initiation. LAM may help identify TB/HIV co-infected patients at ART initiation who respond more slowly to treatment and require targeted interventions to improve treatment outcomes. Larger studies with longer patient follow-up are needed. PMID:26600904

  5. A Sacrificial Lam: A Divided School Board, a Beleaguered Superintendent, and an Urgent Need to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossey, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This case describes the confrontational relationship between four trustees on the San Antonio School Board and the San Antonio School District's superintendent Diana Lam, a nationally recognized school reformer, who came to San Antonio in 1994. The case includes a dramatic board meeting where a closely divided board meets to buy out Lam's…

  6. Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer (LAMS) as a Standoff Analyzer in Space Missions for Airless Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; Pugel, D. E.; Corrigan, C. M.; Doty, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) based on a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer with adjustable drift length is proposed as a standoff elemental composition sensor for space missions to airless bodies. It is found that the use of a retarding potential analyzer in combination with a two-stage reflectron enables LAMS to be operated at variable drift length. For field-free drift lengths between 33 cm to 100 cm, at least unit mass resolution can be maintained solely by adjustment of internal voltages, and without resorting to drastic reductions in sensitivity. Therefore, LAMS should be able to be mounted on a robotic arm and analyze samples at standoff distances of up to several tens of cm, permitting high operational flexibility and wide area coverage of heterogeneous regolith on airless bodies.

  7. A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing Wai Lam Chan,a

    E-print Network

    systems use a ras- ter scan to move an object in front of a single pixel detector. This mechanicalA single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing Wai Lam Chan,a Kriti Charan; accepted 5 September 2008; published online 23 September 2008 We describe a terahertz imaging system

  8. FDTD simulation of hexagonal micropillar cavities Frankie Kin Lam Tung, Ning Ma and Andrew W. Poon

    E-print Network

    Poon, Andrew Wing On

    FDTD simulation of hexagonal micropillar cavities Frankie Kin Lam Tung, Ning Ma and Andrew W. Poon Hexagonal micropillar (µ-pillar) cavities have been studied using 2-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Singlemode resonances have been observed from a 2-µm sized hexagonal µ-pillar cavity

  9. Reflection Analysis for Java Benjamin Livshits, John Whaley, and Monica S. Lam

    E-print Network

    Livshits, Ben

    Reflection Analysis for Java Benjamin Livshits, John Whaley, and Monica S. Lam Computer Science. Reflection has always been a thorn in the side of Java static analysis tools. Without a full treatment of reflection, static analysis tools are both incomplete because some parts of the program may not be in- cluded

  10. Efficient Rare-event Simulation for Perpetuities Blanchet, J., Lam, H., and Zwart, B.

    E-print Network

    Blanchet, Jose H.

    Efficient Rare-event Simulation for Perpetuities Blanchet, J., Lam, H., and Zwart, B. Abstract We consider perpetuities of the form D = B1 exp (Y1) + B2 exp (Y1 + Y2) + ..., where the Yj's and Bj's might of a perpetuity (also known as infinite horizon discounted reward). Perpetu- ities arise in the context of ruin

  11. ROME: Routing On Metropolitan-scale Ethernet Chen Qian and Simon S. Lam

    E-print Network

    Lam, Simon S.

    ROME: Routing On Metropolitan-scale Ethernet Chen Qian and Simon S. Lam Department of Computer the architecture and protocols of ROME, a layer-2 network designed to be backwards compatible with Eth- ernet and scalable to tens of thousands of switches and millions of end hosts. ROME is based upon a recently

  12. Catching Old Influenza Virus with A New Markov Model HamChing Lam

    E-print Network

    Boley, Daniel

    Catching Old Influenza Virus with A New Markov Model HamChing Lam Dept. of Computer Science on the Hemag- glutinin (HA) gene, a major surface antigen of the avian influenza virus. Using this model we Influenza virus, Poisson process, Markov Model 1. INTRODUCTION For the past century researchers have been

  13. Analyze Influenza Virus Sequences Using Binary Encoding HamChing Lam

    E-print Network

    Boley, Daniel

    Analyze Influenza Virus Sequences Using Binary Encoding Approach HamChing Lam Dept. of Computer 55455, USA boley@cs.umn.edu ABSTRACT Capturing mutation patterns of each individual influenza virus distance. We first convert the influenza genetic sequence to a binary string and then ap- ply Principal

  14. NOPdb: Nucleolar Proteome Database Anthony Kar Lun Leung*, Laura Trinkle-Mulcahy, Yun Wah Lam,

    E-print Network

    Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura

    NOPdb: Nucleolar Proteome Database Anthony Kar Lun Leung*, Laura Trinkle-Mulcahy, Yun Wah Lam, Jens proteomic data, we have established the Nucleolar Proteome Database (NOPdb), a database aiming to archive Odense M, Denmark Received August 13, 2005; Accepted August 16, 2005 ABSTRACT The Nucleolar Proteome

  15. 75 FR 76952 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer Fabrication Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 29722-29723, 5/27/2010) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ... Equipment) Fremont, Newark, and Livermore, CA Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of... distribution facilities of Lam Research Corporation, located in Fremont, Newark, and Livermore,...

  16. Fatty acid, flavonol, and mineral composition variability among seven macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) verdc. accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horse gram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] seeds containing high concentrations of fatty acids, flavonols and minerals will provide government, public and private organizations with a nutritious and healthy food for use by malnourished and food deprived people worldwide. Seeds from seven horse...

  17. RFID Paperclip Tags Pavel V. Nikitin, K. V. S. Rao, and Sander Lam

    E-print Network

    Hannaford, Blake

    applications is document tracking and management. To track documents using RFID, it was earlier proposed document. a b c d Fig. 1. Prior work on document tracking using RFID: a ­ inlays attached to the paperRFID Paperclip Tags Pavel V. Nikitin, K. V. S. Rao, and Sander Lam Intermec Technologies

  18. Laboratoire Langues, Littratures, Linguistique des Universits d'Angers et du Maine (3L.AM) -

    E-print Network

    Di Girolami, Cristina

    Laboratoire Langues, Littératures, Linguistique des Universités d'Angers et du Maine (3L.AM) - EA n;ORGANISATION : Le Laboratoire Langues, Littératures, Linguistique des universités d'Angers et du Maine (Labo 3L travers lesquelles il étudie les relations qu'entretiennent la mémoire, la fiction et le réel. Le 3L

  19. Silicon Photonicsfor Optical Access Networks Ryohei Urata, Hong Liu, Cedric Lam, Pedram Dashti, and Chris Johnson

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    Silicon Photonicsfor Optical Access Networks Ryohei Urata, Hong Liu, Cedric Lam, Pedram Dashti@google.com Abstract: We highlight promising developments and directions in silicon photonics for realizing cost]. In this paper, we discuss the potential role of silicon photonics for realizing key device technologies which

  20. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates) and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates) from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database), this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8%) strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains). By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321). Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family. PMID:26517715

  1. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates) and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates) from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database), this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8%) strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains). By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321). Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family. PMID:26517715

  2. Purification and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Junchen; Liu, Yuan; An, Tianchen; Liu, Yujun; Wang, Manchuriga; Song, Yanting; Zheng, Feifei; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yingxia; Deng, Shiming

    2015-05-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor against trypsin was isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. by successive ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, and gel-filtration chromatography. The trypsin inhibitor, named as AHLTI (A. heterophyllus Lam. trypsin inhibitor), consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 28.5 kDa, which was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel-filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of AHLTI was DEPPSELDAS, which showed no similarity to other known trypsin inhibitor sequence. AHLTI completely inhibited bovine trypsin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (AHLTI:trypsin) analyzed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, inhibition activity assay, and gel-filtration chromatography. Moreover, kinetic enzymatic studies were carried out to understand the inhibition mechanism of AHLTI against trypsin. Results showed that AHLTI was a competitive inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) of 3.7 × 10(-8) M. However, AHLTI showed weak inhibitory activity toward chymotrypsin and elastase. AHLTI was stable over a broad range of pH 4-8 and temperature 20-80°C. The reduction agent, dithiothreitol, had no obvious effect on AHLTI. The trypsin inhibition assays of AHLTI toward digestive enzymes from insect pest guts in vitro demonstrated that AHLTI was effective against enzymes from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). These results suggested that AHLTI might be a novel trypsin inhibitor from A. heterophyllus Lam. belonging to Kunitz family, and play an important role in protecting from insect pest. PMID:25851516

  3. PREDICTING WATER ACTIVITY IN ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS WITH THE CISTERNAS-LAM MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    REYNOLDS JG; GREER DA; DISSELKAMP RL

    2011-03-01

    Water activity is an important parameter needed to predict the solubility of hydrated salts in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. A number of models available in the scientific literature predict water activity from electrolyte solution composition. The Cisternas-Lam model is one of those models and has several advantages for nuclear waste application. One advantage is that it has a single electrolyte specific parameter that is temperature independent. Thus, this parameter can be determined from very limited data and extrapolated widely. The Cisternas-Lam model has five coefficients that are used for all aqueous electrolytes. The present study aims to determine if there is a substantial improvement in making all six coefficients electrolyte specific. The Cisternas-Lam model was fit to data for six major electrolytes in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. The model was first fit to all data to determine the five global coefficients, when they were held constant for all electrolytes it yielded a substantially better fit. Subsequently, the model was fit to each electrolyte dataset separately, where all six coefficients were allowed to be electrolyte specific. Treating all six coefficients as electrolyte specific did not make sufficient difference, given the complexity of applying the electrolyte specific parameters to multi-solute systems. Revised water specific parameters, optimized to the electrolytes relevant to Hanford waste, are also reported.

  4. Molecular cloning and heterologous expression of a cDNA encoding berbamunine synthase, a C--O phenol-coupling cytochrome P450 from the higher plant Berberis stolonifera.

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, P F; Kutchan, T M

    1995-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a cytochrome P450-dependent oxidase, berbamunine synthase (EC 1.1.3.34; CYP80), from cell suspension cultures of the higher plant Berberis stolonifera Koehne and Wolf (barberry) has been isolated and heterologously expressed in functional form in insect cell culture using a baculovirus-based expression system. This cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme is unusual in that it catalyzes the regio- and stereoselective formation of a C--O phenol couple in bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis without concomitant incorporation of activated oxygen into the product. Consistent with the function of an oxidase rather than a monooxygenase, an essential glycine residue in the distal helix, which forms the oxygen-binding pocket in the well-studied bacterial enzyme P-450cam, is replaced by proline at the equivalent position in berbamunine synthase. This oxidase was accumulated in an active form in insect cell microsomes and accepted electrons from the endogenous NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. The heterologously expressed enzyme oxidatively couples either two molecules of (R)-N-methylcoclaurine to form the (R,R) dimer guattegaumerine or one molecule each of (R)- and (S)-N-methylcoclaurine to form the (R,S) dimer berbamunine. The ratio of the two bisbenzylisoquinolines formed could be altered by reductase source or by varying the enantiomer composition of the substrates. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:7892226

  5. "Phloem sap analysis of Schleichera oleosa (Lour) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam) Taub. and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam) and hemolymph of Kerria lacca (Kerr) using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry".

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, Amit; Rathi, Brijesh; Kaushik, Sandeep; Sharma, K K; Lakhanpaul, Suman

    2013-10-01

    Females of lac insects especially of Kerria lacca (Kerr) secret a resin known as lac for their own protection, which has tremendous applications. Lac insect completes its lifecycle on several host taxa where it exclusively feeds on phloem sap but Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam.) and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam.) are its major hosts. Analysis of phloem sap constituents as well as hemolymph of lac insect is important because it ultimately gets converted into lac by insect intervention. Main phloem sap constituent's viz. sugars and free amino acids and hemolymph of lac insect were analyzed using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The results were transformed to relative percentage of the total sugars and free amino acids analyzed in each sample for comparison among lac insect hemolymph and the phloem sap of the three different host taxa. Sucrose (58.9?±?3.6-85.6?±?0.9) and trehalose (62.3?±?0.4) were the predominant sugars in phloem sap of three taxa and hemolymph of lac insect, respectively. Glutamic acid (33.1?±?1.4-39.8?±?1.4) was found to be main amino acid among the phloem sap of three taxa while tyrosine (61?±?2.6) was the major amino acid in hemolymph of lac insect. The relative percentage of non-essential amino acids (60.8 %-69.9 %) was found to be more in all the three host taxa while essential amino acids (30.1 %-35.4 %) were present at a lower relative percentage. In contrast to this, the relative percentage of essential amino acids (81.9 %) was observed to be higher as compared to non-essential amino acids (17.7 %) in lac insect hemolymph. These results led to the detection of lac insect's endosymbionts. Moreover, this study revealed a clue regarding the importance of development of a synthetic diet for this insect so that a precise pathway of lac biosynthesis could be investigated for thorough understanding. PMID:24431523

  6. Interaction of Human Laminin Receptor with Sup35, the [PSI+] Prion-Forming Protein from S. cerevisiae: A Yeast Model for Studies of LamR Interactions with Amyloidogenic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pampeno, Christine; Derkatch, Irina L.; Meruelo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The laminin receptor (LamR) is a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix laminin, whereas the same protein within the cell interacts with ribosomes, nuclear proteins and cytoskeletal fibers. LamR has been shown to be a receptor for several bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, LamR interacts with both cellular and infectious forms of the prion protein, PrPC and PrPSc. Indeed, LamR is a receptor for PrPC. Whether LamR interacts with PrPSc exclusively in a capacity of the PrP receptor, or LamR specifically recognizes prion determinants of PrPSc, is unclear. In order to explore whether LamR has a propensity to interact with prions and amyloids, we examined LamR interaction with the yeast prion-forming protein, Sup35. Sup35 is a translation termination factor with no homology or functional relationship to PrP. Plasmids expressing LamR or LamR fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) were transformed into yeast strain variants differing by the presence or absence of the prion conformation of Sup35, respectively [PSI+] and [psi?]. Analyses by immunoprecipitation, centrifugal fractionation and fluorescent microscopy reveal interaction between LamR and Sup35 in [PSI+] strains. The presence of [PSI+] promotes LamR co-precipitation with Sup35 as well as LamR aggregation. In [PSI+] cells, LamR tagged with GFP or mCherry forms bright fluorescent aggregates that co-localize with visible [PSI+] foci. The yeast prion model will facilitate studying the interaction of LamR with amyloidogenic prions in a safe and easily manipulated system that may lead to a better understanding and treatment of amyloid diseases. PMID:24416454

  7. Effect of different growth stages of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. on its chemical composition

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenhuan; Yang, Tao; Liu, Feng; Tian, Shuge

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to monitor the changes in the chemical composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. throughout nine different growth stages. Materials and Methods: Volatile components such as essential oils were analyzed using the gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry, and the contents of non-volatile components were determined by a visible spectrophotometer. Results: Hydro-distilled essential oil content ranged from a minimum of 1.1% (in the post-flowering stage) to a maximum of 1.8% (in the flowering stage). The essential oils included pulegone, which was the most abundant component (77.48-87.3%), p-menthanone (2.79-12.39%), trans-isopulegone (1.04-2.06%), d-limonene (0.51-3.03%) and eucarvone (1.5-4.48%). The contents of non-volatile components, such as that of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC), total triterpenoids content (TTC) and total free amino acids content (TFAAC) were measured using visible spectrophotometry. In the growing stage, TPC, TFC, TTC and TFAAC were 9.91-12.80 mg/g, 29.84-50.63 mg/g, 0.57-1.41 mg/g and 13.33-28.56 mg/g, respectively. Conclusion: These data can be used as a basis to determine the optimal harvest time of Z. clinopodioide Lam. PMID:24914287

  8. Hybrid Security Architecture for Data Center Ho-Yu Lam, Song Zhao, Kang Xi, H. Jonathan Chao

    E-print Network

    Chao, Jonathan

    Hybrid Security Architecture for Data Center Networks Ho-Yu Lam, Song Zhao, Kang Xi, H. Jonathan, Brooklyn, NY Abstract--Security is critical to data centers, especially multi- tenant data centers routing and security are operated by different teams. When a data center scales, the security system needs

  9. Retrieval by Spatial Con guration Xin Chen a , C. P. Lam b and W. F. Smyth c d

    E-print Network

    Smyth, William F.

    1 Retrieval by Spatial Con#12;guration Xin Chen a , C. P. Lam b and W. F. Smyth c d a IBM Toronto be distributed easily and cheaply. Increasingly, it is vital to be able to retrieve digital images from collections as many more application areas such as the miltary, geographical imformation systems

  10. Low Cost Silver Ink RFID Tag Antennas Pavel V. Nikitin, Sander Lam, and K. V. S. Rao

    E-print Network

    Hochberg, Michael

    Low Cost Silver Ink RFID Tag Antennas Pavel V. Nikitin, Sander Lam, and K. V. S. Rao Intermec for manufacturing RFID tags at Ultra High Frequencies (UHF). An analysis of two different RFID tag an- tennas made from the results that RFID tag performance depends both on material and on the shape of the antenna

  11. Wideband Metal Mount UHF RFID Tag K. V. S. Rao, Sander F. Lam, and Pavel V. Nikitin*

    E-print Network

    Hannaford, Blake

    -sections of large (left) and small (right) versions of tag. #12;The final tag antenna and RFID chip were integratedWideband Metal Mount UHF RFID Tag K. V. S. Rao, Sander F. Lam, and Pavel V. Nikitin* Intermec.nikitin}@intermec.com Abstract This paper presents a wideband UHF RFID tag designed for operating on multiple materials including

  12. Identifying and selecting for genetic diversity in Papua New Guinea sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. germplasm collected as botanical seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic analysis was conducted on 141 "Ipomoea batatas" L. (Lam.) Genotypes derived from botanical seed originally collected from 26 sites in 4 provinces in Papua New Guinea. Relatedness among accessions was estimated by analysis of the AFLP data using the Dice coefficient of similarity and UPGMA. ...

  13. 75 FR 29722 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 18--San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer Fabrication Equipment Manufacturing); Fremont, Newark, and Livermore, CA An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade...

  14. ReTAX+: A Cooperative Taxonomy Revision Tool Sik Chun (Joey) Lam, Derek Sleeman, and Wamberto Vasconcelos

    E-print Network

    Sleeman, Derek

    1 ReTAX+: A Cooperative Taxonomy Revision Tool Sik Chun (Joey) Lam, Derek Sleeman, and Wamberto in an established taxonomy; it suggests a number of ways in which that can be achieved namely; modifying the new entity, the taxonomy, or both. Further, a set of refinement operators are used to guarantee

  15. Screening antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties of extracts isolated from Jackfruit pulp (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Burgos-Hernández, A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; López-Saiz, C M; Velázquez-Contreras, C A; Navarro-Ocaña, A; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A

    2015-05-15

    The present focused on the study of the antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of pulp Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) extract, using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line M12.C3.F6 (murine B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Jackfruit pulp extract was sequentially fractionated by chromatography (RP-HPLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. The organic extracts obtained from Jackfruit pulp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and proliferation of cells M12.C3.F6; a dose-response relationship was showed. Sequential RP-HPLC fractionation of the active extracts produced both antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the Jackfruit contained compounds with chemoprotective properties to reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1, also proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:25577099

  16. Predicting weed migration from soil and climate maps. [Centaurea maculosa Lam

    SciTech Connect

    Chicoine, T.K.; Fay, P.K.; Nielsen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Soil characteristics, elevation, annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, length of frost-free season, and mean maximum July temperature were estimated for 116 established infestations of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam. number/sup 3/ CENMA) in Montana using basic land resource maps. Areas potentially vulnerable to invasion by the plant were delineated on the basis of representative edaphic and climatic characteristics. No single environmental variable was an effective predictor of sites vulnerable to invasion by spotted knapweed. Only a combination of variables was effective, indicating that the factors that regulate adaptability of this plant are complex. This technique provides a first approximation map of the regions most similar environmentally to infested sites and; therefore, most vulnerable to further invasion. This weed migration prediction technique shows promise for predicting suitable habitats of other invader species. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  17. Preliminary Assessment of the Chemical Stability of Dried Extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Gisely C.; Longhini, Renata; dos Santos, Paulo Victor P.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano; de Mello, João Carlos P.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a preliminary estimation of the stability of the dried extract from bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (“Mutamba”), with and without added colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD). The physical and chemical properties and the compatibility of CSD in the extract were evaluated for 21 days of storage under stress conditions of temperature (45 ± 2°C) and humidity (75 ± 5%). Thermogravimetry (TG) was supplemented using selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of stability of the characteristic constituents (chemical markers), namely, procyanidin B2 (PB2) and epicatechin (EP). The results showed that PB2 is an appropriate compound to be used as a chemical marker in the quality control of dried extracts of G. ulmifolia. The stress study showed that there was no significant difference between the two formulations. However, considering the TG data and the high temperatures involved, the results suggest that CSD increases the stability of the dried extract of G. ulmifolia. PMID:22291706

  18. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam)--a valuable medicinal food: a review.

    PubMed

    Mohanraj, Remya; Sivasankar, Subha

    2014-07-01

    Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam, also known as sweet potato, is an extremely versatile and delicious vegetable that possesses high nutritional value. It is also a valuable medicinal plant having anti-cancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Sweet potato is now considered a valuable source of unique natural products, including some that can be used in the development of medicines against various diseases and in making industrial products. The overall objective of this review is to give a bird's-eye view of the nutritional value, health benefits, phytochemical composition, and medicinal properties of sweet potato. Specifically, this review outlines the biological activities of some of the sweet potato compounds that have been isolated, the pharmacological action of the sweet potato extract, clinical studies, and plausible medicinal applications of sweet potato (along with a safety evaluation), and demonstrates the potential of sweet potato as a medicinal food. PMID:24921903

  19. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of M. oleifera. This assembly represents 91.78% of the estimated genome size and contains 19,465 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis between M. oleifera and related woody plant genomes helps clarify the general evolution of this species, while the identification of several species-specific gene families and positively selected genes in M. oleifera may help identify genes related to M. oleifera's high protein content, fast-growth, heat and stress tolerance. This reference genome greatly extends the basic research on M. oleifera, and may further promote applying genomics to enhanced breeding and improvement of M. oleifera. PMID:26032590

  20. Rapid and reliable method of extracting DNA and RNA from sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L). Lam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Hyung; Hamada, Tatsuro

    2005-12-01

    A quick, simple and reliable method of extracting DNA from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) has been developed. The method was applied successfully for extraction of total DNA from leaves and total RNA from leaves and various tissues. The yield of DNA extracted by this procedure was high (about 1 mg/g leaf tissue). The extracted DNA was completely digested by restriction endonucleases indicating the absence of common contaminating compounds. The absorbancy ratios of A260/A230 and A260/A280 of isolated RNA were approx. 2 and the yield was about 0.2 mg/g fresh wt. CIPK and tublin genes were successfully amplified by RT-PCR, suggesting the integrity of isolated RNA. The total DNA and RNA isolated by this method was of sufficient quality for subsequent molecular analysis. PMID:16328977

  1. Characterization of monkey orange (Strychnos spinosa Lam.), a potential new crop for arid regions.

    PubMed

    Sitrit, Yaron; Loison, Stephanie; Ninio, Racheli; Dishon, Eran; Bar, Einat; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2003-10-01

    The green monkey orange (Strychnos spinosa Lam., Loganiaceae), a tree indigenous to tropical and subtropical Africa, produces juicy, sweet-sour, yellow fruits containing numerous hard brown seeds. The species has recently been introduced into Israel as a potential new commercial crop. However, little is known about its agronomical performance, fruit development and ripening, or postharvest physiology. The current study shows that during ripening in storage, the peel color changes from green to yellow, accompanied by a climacteric burst of ethylene and carbon dioxide emission. Total soluble solids slightly increased during storage, whereas total titratable acidity and pH did not change significantly. The major sugars that accumulated during ripening in storage were sucrose, glucose, and fructose, and the main acids, citric and malic acids. The main volatiles present in the peel of ripe fruits were phenylpropanoids, trans-isoeugenol being the major compound. PMID:14518952

  2. Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-02-15

    The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp. PMID:25236202

  3. Diversity of mollusks in the Lam Ta Khong reservoir, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tesana, Smarn

    2002-12-01

    Sampling surveys to study the diversity of mollusks in the Lam Ta Khong reservoir, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, northeast Thailand, were carried out in the hot, rainy and cold seasons. The study area was divided into: Area I--the upper part where the Lam Ta Khong river drains; Area II--the mid-section of the reservoir; Area III--behind the dam. Mollusks were collected from four locations on each bank (to the right and left) of each area. Each location was sampled to include 6 cross-sectional stations; in total, 144 stations were sampled. In the deep water, an Ekman dredge was used to collect samples; the scoop or manual method was used at the water's edge. Ten species of snails and four species of clams were found. The dominant species of snails were: Clea helena, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos and Melanoides tuberculata; clams were dominated by Corbicula sp. The intermediate host of the human blood fluke was not found. The population of most mollusk species increased during the cold season while that of clams and that of some species of snails increased during the rainy season. Clams and operculate snails predominated in Areas II and III. Pulmonate snails were mostly found close to the bank and on aquatic plants especially in Areas I and II. Operculate snails and clams mainly inhabited water 1 to 10 m deep. Two species of edible mollusks were found: Filopaludina martensi martensi and large numbers of Corbicula. Neither shedding light nor digestion with pepsin A revealed any human parasites in the mollusks sampled. PMID:12757219

  4. In this report we will review the mechanical and microstructural properties of the refractory element rhenium (Re) deposited using Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM).

    E-print Network

    element rhenium (Re) deposited using Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM). With useable structural strength are compared to the existing properties found in the literature for other manufacturing processes Engineering Doctoral Defense Microstructural and Mechanical Property Characterization of Laser Additive

  5. Can Point-of-Care Urine LAM Strip Testing for Tuberculosis Add Value to Clinical Decision Making in Hospitalised HIV-Infected Persons?

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Jonathan G.; Theron, Grant; Dheda, Keertan

    2013-01-01

    Background The urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) strip-test (Determine®-TB) can rapidly rule-in TB in HIV-infected persons with advanced immunosuppression. However, given high rates of empiric treatment amongst hospitalised patients in high-burden settings (?50%) it is unclear whether LAM can add any value to clinical decision making, or identify a subset of patients with unfavourable outcomes that would otherwise have been missed by empiric treatment. Methods 281 HIV-infected hospitalised patients with suspected TB received urine LAM strip testing, and were categorised as definite (culture-positive), probable-, or non-TB. Both the proportion and morbidity of TB cases identified by LAM testing, early empiric treatment (initiated prior to test result availability) and a set of clinical predictors were compared across groups. Results 187/281 patients had either definite- (n?=?116) or probable-TB (n?=?71). As a rule-in test for definite and probable-TB, LAM identified a similar proportion of TB cases compared to early empiric treatment (85/187 vs. 93/187, p?=?0.4), but a greater proportion than classified by a set of clinical predictors alone (19/187; p<0.001). Thirty-nine of the 187 (21%) LAM-positive patients who had either definite- or probable-TB were missed by early empiric treatment, and of these 25/39 (64%) would also have been missed by smear microscopy. Thus, 25/187 (8%) of definite- or probable-TB patients with otherwise delayed initiation of TB treatment could be detected by the LAM strip test. LAM-positive patients missed by early empiric treatment had a lower median CD4 count (p?=?0.008), a higher median illness severity score (p?=?0.001) and increased urea levels (p?=?0.002) compared to LAM-negative patients given early empiric treatment. Conclusions LAM strip testing outperformed TB diagnosis based on clinical criteria but in day-to-day practice identified a similar proportion of patients compared to early empiric treatment. However, compared to empiric treatment, LAM identified a different subset of patients with more advanced immunosuppression and greater disease severity. PMID:23390504

  6. Structural and biochemical characterization of the laminarinase ZgLamCGH16 from Zobellia galactanivorans suggests preferred recognition of branched laminarin.

    PubMed

    Labourel, Aurore; Jam, Murielle; Legentil, Laurent; Sylla, Balla; Hehemann, Jan Hendrik; Ferrières, Vincent; Czjzek, Mirjam; Michel, Gurvan

    2015-02-01

    Laminarin is a ?-1,3-D-glucan displaying occasional ?-1,6 branches. This storage polysaccharide of brown algae constitutes an abundant source of carbon for marine bacteria such as Zobellia galactanivorans. This marine member of the Bacteroidetes possesses five putative ?-1,3-glucanases [four belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 16 (GH16) and one to GH64] with various modular architectures. Here, the characterization of the ?-glucanase ZgLamC is reported. The catalytic GH16 module (ZgLamCGH16) was produced in Escherichia coli and purified. This recombinant enzyme has a preferential specificity for laminarin but also a significant activity on mixed-linked glucan (MLG). The structure of an inactive mutant of ZgLamCGH16 in complex with a thio-?-1,3-hexaglucan substrate unravelled a straight active-site cleft with three additional pockets flanking subsites -1, -2 and -3. These lateral pockets are occupied by a glycerol, an acetate ion and a chloride ion, respectively. The presence of these molecules in the vicinity of the O6 hydroxyl group of each glucose moiety suggests that ZgLamCGH16 accommodates branched laminarins as substrates. Altogether, ZgLamC is a secreted laminarinase that is likely to be involved in the initial step of degradation of branched laminarin, while the previously characterized ZgLamA efficiently degrades unbranched laminarin and oligo-laminarins. PMID:25664729

  7. Gene Expression Rhythms in the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.) across an Annual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Banni, Mohamed; Negri, Alessandro; Mignone, Flavio; Boussetta, Hamadi; Viarengo, Aldo; Dondero, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal environmental changes may affect the physiology of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.), an intertidal filter-feeder bivalve occurring commonly in Mediterranean and Atlantic coastal areas. We investigated seasonal variations in relative transcript abundance of the digestive gland and the mantle (gonads) of males and females. To identify gene expression trends – in terms of relative mRNA abundance- we used a medium-density cDNA microarray (1.7 K probes) in dual-color competitive hybridization analyses. Hierarchical clustering of digestive gland microarray data showed two main branches, distinguishing profiles associated with the “hot” months (May–August) from the other months. Genes involved in chitin metabolism, associated with mussel nutrition and digestion showed higher mRNA levels during summer. Moreover, we found different gene transcriptomic patterns in the digestive glands of males when compared to females, during the four stages of mussel gonadal development. Microarray data from gonadal transcripts also displayed clear patterns during the different developmental phases respect to the resting period (stage I) with peak relative mRNA abundance at the ripe phase (stage III) for both sexes. These data showed a clear temporal pattern in transcriptomic profiles of mussels sampled over an annual cycle. Physiological response to thermal variation, food availability, and reproductive status across months may contribute to variation in relative mRNA abundance. PMID:21573210

  8. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Moringa oleifera Lam. flower targeting Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Joydeep; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    Leishmaniases is a group of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. At least 20 species of Leishmania are known to infect humans transmitted by female sandflies, Phlebotomus spp. Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis, considered most lethal among the common three forms of leishmaniasis. Lack of appropriate vaccines, emergence of drug resistance and side effects of currently used drugs stress the need for better alternative drugs, particularly from natural sources. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the efficacy of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The flower extract of M. oliefera (MoF) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial agent when compared to other parts of the plant like leaf, root, bark and stem. It imparted significant reduction in parasite number in infected macrophages. The bioactivity guided fractionation of MoF showed ethyl acetate fraction (MoE) as the most active and gave significant parasite reduction in the infected macrophages. Further, growth kinetics studies revealed loss of L. donovani promastigotes viability in the presence of MoE in both time and dose dependent manner. In vivo experiment in Balb/c mouse model of leishmaniasis supported the in vitro findings with a remarkable reduction of the parasite burden in both liver and spleen. PMID:26669018

  9. The Effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. Extracts on In Vitro Dengue Replication

    PubMed Central

    Husin, Fitrien; Chan, Yean Yean; Gan, Siew Hua; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Shueb, Rafidah Hanim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the potential effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. (H. sibthorpioides) extracts against in vitro dengue viral replication. Methods. The cytotoxicity of H. sibthorpioides was evaluated using a cell viability assay. Cells were pre- and posttreated with water and methanol extracts of H. sibthorpioides, and the viral inhibitory effect was investigated by observing the morphological changes, which were further confirmed by plaque assay. Results. The methanolic extract cytotoxicity was higher in Vero and C6/36 cells than the cytotoxicity of the water extract. Preincubation of the cells with H. sibthorpioides extract showed nonexistent to mild prophylactic effects. The posttreatment of Vero cells with H. sibthorpioides methanolic extract presented higher antidengue activities when compared with the water extract. Surprisingly, posttreatment of C6/36 cells resulted in an enhancement of viral replication. Conclusion. H. sibthorpioides had variable effects on dengue viral replication, depending on the treatment, cell lines, and solvent types. This study provides important novel insights on the phytomedicinal properties of H. sibthorpioides extracts on dengue virus. PMID:25767554

  10. Hexane soluble extract of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. root possesses anti-leukaemic activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. is a well known medicinal plant of Asia and Australia. Various compounds from different aerial parts of the plant have been reported possessing potent pharmacological, antiviral, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. We were interested to determine the effects of some root extracts from M. philippensis on human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell proliferation, cell cycle regulators and apoptosis in order to investigate its anti-leukemic potential. Results Root extract of M. philippensis was initially extracted in organic solvents, hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The hexane extract showed highest toxicity against p53-deficient HL-60 cells (IC50 1.5 mg dry roots equivalent/ml medium) after 72 h and interestingly, inhibition of cell proliferation was preceded by the upregulation of the proto-oncogenes Cdc25A and cyclin D1 within 24 h. The hexane extract induced 18% apoptosis after 48 h of treatment. Chemical composition of the hexane extract was analyzed by GC-MS and the 90% fragments were matched with polyphenolic compounds. Conclusions The present study confirms that the hexane fraction of M. philippensis root extract possesses anti-leukemic activity in HL-60 cells. The polyphenols were the main compounds of the hexane extract that inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. PMID:24041220

  11. Simultaneous HPLC quantitative analysis of active compounds in leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2014-08-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. A simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of the contents of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, the primary antioxidative compounds, in M. oleifera leaves. HPLC analysis was successfully conducted by using a Hypersil BDS C18 column, eluted with a gradient of methanol-1% acetic acid with a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and detected at 334 nm. Parameters for the validation included linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation. The developed HPLC method was precise, with relative standard deviation < 2%. The recovery values of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in M. oleifera leaf extracts were 98.50, 98.47 and 98.59%, respectively. The average contents of these compounds in the dried ethanolic extracts of the leaves of M. oleifera collected from different regions of Thailand were 0.081, 0.120 and 0.153% (w/w), respectively. The developed HPLC method was appropriate and practical for the simultaneous analysis of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in the leaf extract of M. oleifera. This work is valuable as guidance for the standardization of the leaf extracts and pharmaceutical products of M. oleifera. PMID:23828911

  12. Identification of Ellagitannins and Flavonoids from Eugenia brasilienses Lam. (Grumixama) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luciane de Lira; Bertoldi, Fabiano Cleber; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto

    2015-06-10

    The grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.), also known as Brazilian cherry, is a fruit native to Brazil. This study identified the flavonoids in the flesh and seeds and ellagitannin in the flesh of purple and yellow varieties. The physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity of these fruits were also evaluated. Anthocyanins and flavonols were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (32-180 mg 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (13-41 mg 100 g(-1) FW), respectively. The major flavonoids identified were cyanidin 3-glucoside and quercetin aglycone. Furthermore, ellagitannins were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (82-243 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (92 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and seeds (2220-2905 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW). The ellagitannin profiles of both varieties were first characterized in which pedunculagin isomers, strictinin isomers, and ellagic acid galloyl hexoside were the major ellagitannins identified. In summary, both varieties of the grumixama fruit as well as the seeds could be good sources of bioactive compounds, mainly ellagitannins. PMID:25990484

  13. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Methods Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. Results It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity. PMID:25183111

  14. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    PubMed

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970

  15. Anticancer, chemopreventive and radioprotective potential of black plum (Eugenia jambolana lam.).

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2011-01-01

    Despite good understanding of the molecular basis of the disease and advances in treatment, globally cancer is still a major cause of death. Estimates are that it will surpass cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death, with higher incidences in the developing countries that have minimal resources. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the two most commonly used treatment modalities, are associated with untoward side effects. This has necessitated the search for alternatives that are effective, non toxic and easily affordable for patients and traditional medicinal plants are an ideal source. Eugenia jambolana Lam., commonly known as black plum or 'jamun' is an important medicinal plant in various traditional systems of medicine. It is effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, inflammation, ulcers and diarrhea and preclinical studies have also shown it to possess antineoplastic, chemopreventive and radioprotective properties. Here, for the first time, the effects of jamun in treatment and prevention of cancer, and the mechanisms responsible for these effects are appraised. Additionally the drawbacks in existing knowledge are also stressed to emphasize the possible avenues that need to be investigated, so that maximum effects on both prevention and cure can be attained. PMID:21517226

  16. Development of a rapid resolution liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the determination of three compounds in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam from different origins of Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuge; Yu, Qian; Wang, Dongdong; Upur, Halmuart

    2012-01-01

    Context: As a traditional Uygur medicinal plant, Z. clinopodioides Lam has various uses in Xinjiang. Aims: A reversed-phase rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RP-RRLC) method with diode array detector (DAD) was developed for simultaneous determination of diosmin, linarin, and pulegone from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam, a widely used in traditional Uygur medicine for treating heart disease, high blood pressure, and other diseases. Settings and Design: Compounds were separated on a XDB-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 1.8 ?m) with gradient elution using methanol and 1% aqueous acetic acid (v/v) at 0.9 mL/min. he detection wavelength was set at 270 nm. Materials and Methods: Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. were collected from ten different origins in Xinjiang, including the Ban fang ditch, Tuoli, the Altay mountains, Terks, Xiata Road, Zhaosu Highway, Guozigou, Fukang, Jimsar, Wulabo. Statistical Analysis Used: The intra-day and inter-day precisions of all three compounds were less than 0.89% and the average recoveries ranged from 97.4 to 104.1%. There were highly significant linear correlations between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of three active components in Z. clinopodioides Lam. samples from different locations in Xinjiang. Conclusions: The proposed method is simple, consistent, accurate, and could be utilized as a quality control method for Z. clinopodioides Lam. PMID:24082631

  17. Stability of Jahn-Teller distortion ordering in LaM n1 -xS cxO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuartero, V.; Blasco, J.; Subías, G.; García, J.; Meneghini, C.; Aquilanti, G.

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the role of M n3 + Jahn-Teller distortion in driving ferromagnetism in the LaM n1 -xS cxO3 series. The replacement of Mn by Sc in LaMn O3 decreases the orthorhombic distortion of the Pbnm cell, but the unit cell remains distorted even in the LaSc O3 sample. The analysis of the x-ray diffraction patterns indicates a continuous evolution from the typical Jahn-Teller distorted octahedron in LaMn O3 into a nearly regular one in LaSc O3 . Surprisingly, x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements at the Mn and Sc K edges reveal the stability of both Jahn-Teller distorted Mn O6 octahedron and nearly regular Sc O6 octahedron along the whole Sc-substituted series. Moreover, the structure is described as a random distribution of Jahn-Teller distorted Mn O6 octahedra spatially ordered as in LaMn O3 and nearly regular Sc O6 octahedra. This result contrasts with the pseudocubic phase and the appearance of regular Mn O6 octahedra in LaM n1 -xG axO3 for x >0.5 . Thus the occurrence of Jahn-Teller distortion strongly depends on the distorted orthorhombic crystallographic structure of the matrix in which the M n3 + atom is allocated. Besides, a ferromagnetic ground state is observed for x >0.5 in both series independently of the presence (or not) of Jahn-Teller distortions around M n3 + , which discards either the spin flipping or the vibronic superexchange models proposed for the ferromagnetism in LaM n1 -xBxO3 (B =Sc or Ga) .

  18. Analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the extract of Solanum sisymbriifolium (Lam.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Bhuyan, Shakhawat Hossan; Matin, Maima; Hossain, Faruq; Khatun, Farjana; Taiab, Abu; Jamaluddin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the ethanol extract of leaves of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Family: Solanaceae). Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was measured by acetic acid-induced writhing inhibition test. The neuropharmacological activities were evaluated using hole cross, hole board, and elevated plus-maze test and the anti-diarrheal activity was assessed using castor oil-induced diarrhea inhibition method. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay was carried out for assessing the cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract of the leaves. Except cytotoxic activity, all the tests were conducted on mice. Results: The extract at oral doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight showed highly significant (p<0.001) decrease in number of writhing, 52.1±0.66 and 4.4±0.64 compared with the control (78.6±0.29) with the percentage of inhibitions of writhing response were found to be 33.72% and 94.40%, respectively. Compare with the control, the extract at both doses showed significant sedative effect in hole cross test. In hole board test, the extract exhibited highly significant (p<0.001) anxiolytic activity at dose of (200 mg/kg), while the same activity was observed at dose of 400 mg/kg in elevated plus-maze test. The extract showed highly significant (p<0.001) anti-diarrheal activity in a dose-dependent manner. With the extract, significant lethality to brine shrimp was found with LC50 value of 61.66±0.9 ?g/ml, which was comparable with the positive control (LC50: 11.89±0.8 µg/ml). Conclusion: The results from the present studies support the traditional uses of this plant part and could form the basis of further investigation including compound isolation. PMID:25050287

  19. Transcriptional Response of the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.) following Exposure to Heat Stress and Copper

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Alessandro; Oliveri, Catherina; Sforzini, Susanna; Mignione, Flavio; Viarengo, Aldo; Banni, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is a major factor that may affect biological organization, especially in marine ecosystems and in coastal areas that are particularly subject to anthropogenic pollution. We evaluated the effects of simultaneous changes in temperature and copper concentrations on lysosomal membrane stability (N-acetyl-hexosaminidase activity) and malondialdehyde accumulation (MDA) in the gill of the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.). Temperature and copper exerted additive effects on lysosomal membrane stability, exacerbating the toxic effects of metal cations present in non-physiological concentrations. Mussel lysosomal membrane stability is known to be positively related to scope for growth, indicating possible effects of increasing temperature on mussel populations in metal-polluted areas. To clarify the molecular response to environmental stressors, we used a cDNA microarray with 1,673 sequences to measure the relative transcript abundances in the gills of mussels exposed to copper (40 µg/L) and a temperature gradient (16°C, 20°C, and 24°C). In animals exposed only to heat stress, hierarchical clustering of the microarray data revealed three main clusters, which were largely dominated by down-regulation of translation-related differentially expressed genes, drastic up-regulation of protein folding related genes, and genes involved in chitin metabolism. The response of mussels exposed to copper at 24°C was characterized by an opposite pattern of the genes involved in translation, most of which were up-regulated, as well as the down-regulation of genes encoding heat shock proteins and “microtubule-based movement” proteins. Our data provide novel information on the transcriptomic modulations in mussels facing temperature increases and high copper concentrations; these data highlight the risk of marine life exposed to toxic chemicals in the presence of temperature increases due to climate change. PMID:23825565

  20. Comparison of two sampling methods when studying periphyton colonization in Lam Tsuen River, Hong Kong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Anping; Lam, Kwan-Sing Paul; Hu, Zhangli

    2011-01-01

    We used standard periphyton samplers to examine the colonization pattern of periphytic algae on artificial substrates (glass slides) in Lam Tsuen River, Hong Kong, in dry (winter) and wet (summer) seasons. In each season, six replicated slides were retrieved randomly and replaced by new slides at weekly intervals over a period of 6 weeks. We thus obtained two batches of slides, both with a series of different exposure times (1 to 6 weeks): one batch was set up at the same time (start of the sampling) and the other was harvested at the same time (end of the sampling). Changes in taxonomic composition, species diversity (Shannon-Wiener diversity index), standing crop (in terms of cell density and cell biovolume), and abundance of the abundant algal species were monitored and compared between the two batches of slides. The succession patterns of the periphytic algae were similar between the two batches in each season, while more remarkable differences were observed between the two seasons, suggesting that either batch would be suitable for a colonization study of periphytic algae. The cell density was dominated by diatoms in both seasons, while the cell biovolume was dominated by diatoms in winter and by green algae in summer. The cell density and biovolume attributed to blue green algae was relatively small. Most of the diatom species exhibited similar colonization patterns throughout the experiment, while green algae showed different succession patterns in different seasons or sampling methods, indicating that diatoms are better bio-indicators than green algae for a periphyton colonization study. In general, the diversity indices and the standing crops reached their maximums at around week 4, and they were higher in summer than in winter.

  1. In vitro antibacterial potency of Butea monosperma Lam. against 12 clinically isolated multidrug resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Mahesh Chandra; Padhy, Rabindra Nath

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity, using cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water to validate medicinal uses of Butea monosperma Lam (B. monosperma) in controlling infections; and to qualitatively estimate phytochemical constituents of leaf-extracts of the plant. Methods The antibacterial activity of leaf-extracts was evaluated by the agar-well diffusion method against clinically isolated 12 Gram-positive and -negative multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria in vitro. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of leaf-extracts against each bacterium were obtained in a 96-well micro-titre plate, by broth dilution micro-titre plate technique. Results The presence of tannins, flavonoids, starch, glycosides and carbohydrates in different leaf extracts was established. Pathogenic bacteria used were, Acinetobacter sp., Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sp., Enterococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), methicillin resistant S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus, along with standard bacterial strains. These MDR bacteria had been recorded to have significant inhibitions by leaf extracts, obtained by cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents. In addition, the hot aqueous extract against Enterococcus sp. had the highest inhibition zone-size (21 mm). Ciprofloxacin 30 µg/disc was the positive/reference control and the diluting solvent, 10% dimethyl sulphoxide was the negative control. Recorded MIC values of different extracts ranged between 0.23 and 13.30 mg/mL, and MBC values were 0.52 to 30.00 mg/mL, for these bacteria. Conclusions Leaf-extracts with hot water and ethanol had shown significant antibacterial activity against all bacteria. B. monosperma leaf-extract could be used in treating infectious diseases, caused by the range of tested bacteria, as complementary and alternate medicine.

  2. Effect of crude extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. on human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chinni, Santhivardhan; Dubala, Anil; Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Satish Kumar, M N; Kannan, Elango

    2014-11-01

    The fruit of Eugenia jambolana Lam. is very popular for its anti-diabetic property. Previous studies on the crude extract of E.?jambolana (EJE) have successfully explored the scientific basis for some of its traditional medicinal uses. Considering its wide use and consumption as a seasonal fruit, the present study investigates the ability of E.?jambolana to interact with cytochrome P450 enzymes. The standardized EJE was incubated with pooled human liver microsomes to assess the CYP2C9-, CYP2D6-, and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of diclofenac, dextromethorphan, and testosterone, respectively. The metabolites formed after the enzymatic reactions were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. EJE showed differential effect on cytochrome P450 activities with an order of inhibitory potential as CYP2C9?>?CYP3A4?>?CYP2D6 having IC50 of 76.69, 359.02, and 493.05?µg/mL, respectively. The selectivity of EJE for CYP2C9 rather than CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 led to perform the enzyme kinetics to explicate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of CYP2C9-mediated diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation. EJE was notably potent in inhibiting the reaction in a non-competitive manner with Ki of 84.85?±?5.27?µg/mL. The results revealed the CYP2C9 inhibitory potential of EJE with lower Ki value suggesting that EJE should be examined for its potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions when concomitantly administered with other drugs. PMID:24590863

  3. Mechanism of Supported Membrane Disruption by Antimicrobial Peptide Protegrin-1 Kin Lok H. Lam,,# Yuji Ishitsuka,,# Yishan Cheng, Karen Chien, Alan J. Waring,|,

    E-print Network

    Lee, Ka Yee C.

    of antimicrobial activity of PG-1 comes from its ability to selectively disrupt the cell membrane of microorMechanism of Supported Membrane Disruption by Antimicrobial Peptide Protegrin-1 Kin Lok H. Lam been suggested as an important step in the membrane disruption process induced by antimicrobial

  4. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resources potential of crop wild relatives of sweeetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. I. series Batatas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, and the limited availability of germplasm wi...

  5. Red Electrophosphorescence from Polyacetylene-Based Light Emitting Z. L. Xie, J. W. Y. Lam,* H. J. Peng, M. Wong, B. Z. Tang,* and H. S. Kwok

    E-print Network

    Red Electrophosphorescence from Polyacetylene-Based Light Emitting Diodes Z. L. Xie, J. W. Y. Lam-containing polyacetylene (PA) was used as a host material in the construction of red phosphorescent LEDs using room temperature spin-coating, screen printing or ink-jet printing techniques. However

  6. Do Ecological Niche Model Predictions Reflect the Adaptive Landscape of Species?: A Test Using Myristica malabarica Lam., an Endemic Tree in the Western Ghats, India

    E-print Network

    Nagaraju, Shivaprakash K.; Gudasalamani, Ravikanth; Barve, Narayani; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Narayangowda, Ganeshaiah Kotiganahalli; Ramanan, Uma Shaanker

    2013-11-29

    . Study system Myristica malabarica Lam. commonly known as “Bombay mace, Malabar Nutmeg or Jaikai” belongs to the family Myristicaceae[28]. It is an evergreen tree, growing up to 15-20 m in height. The species is distributed in the Western Ghats...

  7. The ?-Glucanase ZgLamA from Zobellia galactanivorans Evolved a Bent Active Site Adapted for Efficient Degradation of Algal Laminarin*

    PubMed Central

    Labourel, Aurore; Jam, Murielle; Jeudy, Alexandra; Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Czjzek, Mirjam; Michel, Gurvan

    2014-01-01

    Laminarinase is commonly used to describe ?-1,3-glucanases widespread throughout Archaea, bacteria, and several eukaryotic lineages. Some ?-1,3-glucanases have already been structurally and biochemically characterized, but very few from organisms that are in contact with genuine laminarin, the storage polysaccharide of brown algae. Here we report the heterologous expression and subsequent biochemical and structural characterization of ZgLamAGH16 from Zobellia galactanivorans, the first GH16 laminarinase from a marine bacterium associated with seaweeds. ZgLamAGH16 contains a unique additional loop, compared with other GH16 laminarinases, which is composed of 17 amino acids and gives a bent shape to the active site cleft of the enzyme. This particular topology is perfectly adapted to the U-shaped conformation of laminarin chains in solution and thus explains the predominant specificity of ZgLamAGH16 for this substrate. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and two enzyme-substrate complexes, one with laminaritetraose and the other with a trisaccharide of 1,3–1,4-?-d-glucan, have been determined at 1.5, 1.35, and 1.13 ? resolution, respectively. The structural comparison of substrate recognition pattern between these complexes allows the proposition that ZgLamAGH16 likely diverged from an ancestral broad specificity GH16 ?-glucanase and evolved toward a bent active site topology adapted to efficient degradation of algal laminarin. PMID:24337571

  8. Applications of a Feather-weight Virtual Machine Yang Yu Hariharan Kolam govindarajan Lap-Chung Lam Tzi-cker Chiueh

    E-print Network

    Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    Applications of a Feather-weight Virtual Machine Yang Yu Hariharan Kolam govindarajan Lap-Chung Lam}@cs.sunysb.edu Abstract A Feather-weight Virtual Machine (FVM) is an OS-level virtual- ization technology that enables kernel and allow each VM to run a set of applications isolated from other VMs. Feather-weight Virtual

  9. Foreign Code Detection on the Windows/X86 Platform Susanta Nanda Wei Li Lap-Chung Lam Tzi-cker Chiueh

    E-print Network

    Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    with the Internet, users of Windows-based computers tend to knowingly or unknowingly download executable programsForeign Code Detection on the Windows/X86 Platform Susanta Nanda Wei Li Lap-Chung Lam Tzi Stony Brook, NY 11794-4400 Abstract As new attacks against Windows-based machines emerge almost

  10. Mathematical modeling of PCB bioaccumulation in Perna viridis K.N. Yu a,b,*, P.K.S. Lam b,c

    E-print Network

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Mathematical modeling of PCB bioaccumulation in Perna viridis K.N. Yu a,b,*, P.K.S. Lam b,c , C In the present work, we built a mathematical model of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation in Perna change of the PCB concentration Q (lg gÀ1 lipid) in the soft tissues of the mussel depends

  11. Bioassay-guided isolation of urease and ?-chymotrypsin inhibitory constituents from the stems of Lawsonia alba Lam. (Henna).

    PubMed

    Uddin, Nizam; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Begum, Sabira; Ali, Muhammad Imran; Marasini, Bishnu P; Khan, Ajmal; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Seven constituents were isolated from the stems of Lawsonia alba Lam., following an activity-guided isolation, which include two new constituents, namely lawsorosemarinol (1) and lawsofructose (2), one known compound 2-(?-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-1, 4-naphthoquinone (3) and four compounds, 4-hydroxy coumarine (4), 3-(4-hyroxyphenyl)-triacontyl-(Z)-propenoate (5), 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-triacontyl-(Z)-propenoate (6) and 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin (7) first time isolated from Lawsonia alba. Their structure elucidation was based on spectroscopic data analyses. Compounds 3 and 7 showed a moderate inhibition of urease activity, while rest of them showed less than 50% inhibition. These compounds did not show any significant inhibition against ?-chymotrypsin. PMID:23103954

  12. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of total flavonoids from sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] leaf in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunguang; Zhang, Lianying

    2013-08-01

    The in vivo anti-fatigue activity of the total flavonoids from sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] leaf was investigated in male Kunming mice. The total flavonoids from sweet potato leaf (TFSL) were orally administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 4 weeks and the anti-fatigue effect was studied using a weight-loaded swimming test, along with the determination of serum urea nitrogen (SUN), blood lactic acid (BLA) and hepatic and muscle glycogen contents. The results showed that TFSL had significant anti-fatigue effects. TFSL extended the exhaustive swimming time, effectively inhibited the increase of BLA, decreased the level of SUN and increased the hepatic and muscle glycogen content of mice. Thus, TFSL may have potential as an anti-fatigue agent. PMID:24772953

  13. Anthelmintic efficacy of aqueous extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze against Haemonchus contortus of sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Singh, Rajeev; Verma, P K; Singh, R; Anand, A

    2015-06-01

    Infection with Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important economic problems in small ruminants worldwide. Resistance development by parasites, drug residues in meat, toxicity, non-availability and high cost limit the usefulness of currently used synthetic drugs. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of aqueous extract of seeds of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze against H. contortus. Phytochemical analysis of extract showed high concentration of phenolic (11.93 ± 0.64 mg of GAE/g of extract), flavonoids (238.17 ± 19.14 mg of quercetin/g extract) and tannin (10.80 ± 0.70 mg of GAE/g of extract) content. The observations revealed that parasites were sluggish and movement was little at 4 h post exposure of 25, 50 mg/ml and very sluggish in 100 mg/ml concentration. The extract showed complete mortality of the adult H. contortus worms at the concentrations of 100 mg/ml at the time exposure of 6 h and with the concentration of 50 mg/ml at the post exposure of 8 h. At 25 mg/ml concentration 50 % mortality was recorded at 6 h and complete at 8 h post exposure. The LC50 at 6 and 8 h were 45.20 and 17.50 mg/ml respectively. Levamisole at concentration of 0.5 mg/ml caused 50 % mortality at 2 h post exposure and full mortality at 4 h post exposure. These cidal effects may be due to presence of high phenolic, flavonoids and tannin content in the extract. The results confirm the aqueous extract of B. monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze on adult H. contortus worms. PMID:26064000

  14. (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of the LAM-RRM1 N-terminal module of La protein from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Chasapis, Christos T; Argyriou, Aikaterini I; Apostolidi, Maria; Konstantinidou, Parthena; Bentrop, Detlef; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2015-10-01

    The N-terminal half of La protein consists of two concatenated motifs: La motif (LAM) and the N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM1) both of which are responsible for poly(U) RNA binding. Here, we present the backbone and side-chain assignments of the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonances of the 191-residue LAM-RRM1 region of the La protein from the lower eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum and its secondary structure prediction. PMID:25687647

  15. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling, simulation; G: Surface and interface; H: Mechanical properties and new materials; I: Quasicrystals; J: Industrial applications. The largest sessions were E, C, D and F with 53, 47, 43 and 40 reports, respectively. Posters were exhibited during the first (sessions A-E) or last (sessions F-J) three days of the conference. As usual, each oral session started with an invited talk. In accordance with contemporary tendencies the first invited talk of M Yao (Kyoto University) was devoted to interrelations between liquid metal studies and nanoscience. He pointed out that the physics of disordered matter, especially liquid metals, has provided nanoscience with basic ideas and theoretical tools such as ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. K Tamura (Kyoto University) reported experimental investigation results of expanded liquid rubidium, showing that observed structural features are originated from the instability of low-density electron gas. Modern theory has predicted that interacting electron gas suffers negative compressibility and the static dielectric function (DF) becomes negative when electron density is sufficiently reduced. Negative DF is of special interest when considering the possibility of new types of superconductors. In the next invited lecture, M I Mendelev and J R Morris (USA) described how MD simulations were performed to study phase transformations in supercooled liquid Al. The authors found that the widely used EAM potential for Al enables vitrification for cooling rates achievable in classical MD simulation, while other Al potentials enable crystallization under the same conditions. The reason for this difference was discussed, as well as features of vitrification in the EA Al. P Häussler (Chemnitz Univeristy) spoke about fundamental structure-forming processes in liquid and amorphous materials. He proposed the resonance model as an autonomous missing link between the microscopic description of atoms/molecules of Schrödinger's equation, and crystals, where global concepts such as planar resonances exist and Bloch's theorem is applied. D Holland-

  16. Antinociceptive effect of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Woode, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial herb used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of various painful conditions. Little scientific evidence exists in literature on the effect of this plant on pain. Materials and Methods: The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of H. latifolia in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, glutamate, formalin, and capsaicin tests) and thermal (tail immersion test) behavioral pain models in rodents. The possible mechanisms of the antinociceptive action were also assessed with various antagonists in the formalin test. Results: The H. latifolia extract (HLE) together with morphine and diclofenac (positive controls), showed significant antinociceptive activity in all the models used. The antinociceptive effect exhibited by HLE in the formalin test was partly or wholly reversed by the systemic administration of naloxone, theophylline, and atropine. Glibenclamide, ondansetron, yohimbine, nifedipine, and NG-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), however, did not significantly block the antinociceptive effect of the extract. HLE, unlike morphine, did not induce tolerance to its antinociceptive effect in the formalin test after chronic administration; morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to HLE. Interestingly, also, the chronic concomitant administration of HLE and morphine significantly suppressed the development of morphine tolerance. Conclusion: Together, these results indicate that HLE produces dose-related antinociception in several models of chemical and thermal pain, without tolerance induction, through mechanisms that involve an interaction with adenosinergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and opioid pathways. PMID:21966159

  17. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 ?g/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 ?g/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected. PMID:24344977

  18. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200?mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50?mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

  19. Contaminated soil phytoremediation by Cyperus laxus Lam. cytochrome p450 EROD-activity induced by hydrocarbons in roots.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, S; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Pérez-Flores, L J; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments with Cyperus laxus Lam were conducted to determine the rate and extent of phytoremediation and the effect of hydrocarbons on the cytochrome P450 EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) enzymatic activity in roots. Plants were cultivated on hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (HCS) and spiked perlite. Phytoremediation was evaluated using 6.5 kg HCS (173 +/- 15 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] g(-1) of dry soil) pots at different moisture contents; the average removal rate was 3.46-0.25 mg TPH g(-1) dry soil month(-1) and 48% was removed when moisture was kept at 60%. The aromatic hydrocarbon fraction was the mostly removed, 60%; aliphatic, 51%; and polar 24% after 24-month experiments. In unplanted pots, TPH concentration did not exhibit significant differences with respect to the initial concentration. We confirmed that the presence of hydrocarbons induced ERODactivity up to 6.5-fold. Moreover, short-term experiments (up to 13 d) with spiked perlite demonstrated that two EROD activities in roots contributed to the total detected; 60% was found in the cytosolic and 40% in the microsomal fraction. To our knowledge, this is the first work that tries to build links between the hydrocarbon-inducible character of ERODactivity in roots and the phytoremediation ability of C. laxus in highly contaminated soils. PMID:19260214

  20. Aculeatin, a coumarin derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Akio; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshida, Izumi; Harada, Teppei; Mishima, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Aculeatin promoted adipocyte differentiation. • Aculeatin improved glucose uptake. • Aculeatin enhanced adipocyte lipolysis. - Abstract: Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. asiatica) has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of anti-diabetic agents, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigated the effects of fractionated T. asiatica extracts on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and identified aculeatin as a potential active agent. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with aculeatin isolated from T. asiatica in the presence of insulin, aculeatin increased cellular triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. This indicated that aculeatin could enhance the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Further analyses using a DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed an increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? target genes (Pparg, Ap2, Cd36, Glut4 and Adipoq) by aculeatin, suggesting that aculeatin enhances the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by modulating the expression of genes critical for adipogenesis. Interestingly, after treatment of differentiated adipocytes with aculeatin, glucose uptake and lipolysis were enhanced. Overall, our results suggested that aculeatin is an active compound in T. asiatica for enhancing both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes, which are useful for the treatment of lipid abnormalities as well as diabetes.

  1. Resurgence and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili Limit: Connecting Weak and Strong Coupling in the Mathieu and Lam'e Systems

    E-print Network

    Basar, Gokce

    2015-01-01

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit for the low-energy behavior of N=2 and N=2* supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theories is encoded in the spectrum of the Mathieu and Lam'e equations, respectively. This correspondence is usually expressed via an all-orders Bohr-Sommerfeld relation, but this neglects non-perturbative effects, the nature of which is very different in the electric, magnetic and dyonic regions. In the gauge theory dyonic region the spectral expansions are divergent, and indeed are not Borel-summable, so they are more properly described by resurgent trans-series in which perturbative and non-perturbative effects are deeply entwined. In the gauge theory electric region the spectral expansions are convergent, but nevertheless there are non-perturbative effects due to poles in the expansion coefficients, and which we associate with worldline instantons. This provides a concrete analog of a phenomenon found recently by Drukker, Marino and Putrov in the large N expansion of the ABJM matrix model, in which non-pe...

  2. Resurgence and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili Limit: Connecting Weak and Strong Coupling in the Mathieu and Lam'e Systems

    E-print Network

    Gokce Basar; Gerald V. Dunne

    2015-01-22

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit for the low-energy behavior of N=2 and N=2* supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theories is encoded in the spectrum of the Mathieu and Lam'e equations, respectively. This correspondence is usually expressed via an all-orders Bohr-Sommerfeld relation, but this neglects non-perturbative effects, the nature of which is very different in the electric, magnetic and dyonic regions. In the gauge theory dyonic region the spectral expansions are divergent, and indeed are not Borel-summable, so they are more properly described by resurgent trans-series in which perturbative and non-perturbative effects are deeply entwined. In the gauge theory electric region the spectral expansions are convergent, but nevertheless there are non-perturbative effects due to poles in the expansion coefficients, and which we associate with worldline instantons. This provides a concrete analog of a phenomenon found recently by Drukker, Marino and Putrov in the large N expansion of the ABJM matrix model, in which non-perturbative effects are related to complex space-time instantons. In this paper we study how these very different regimes arise from an exact WKB analysis, and join smoothly through the magnetic region. This approach also leads to a simple proof of a resurgence relation found recently by Dunne and Unsal, showing that for these spectral systems all non-perturbative effects are subtly encoded in perturbation theory, and identifies this with the Picard-Fuchs equation for the quantized elliptic curve.

  3. In vitro screening and evaluation of antivenom phytochemicals from Azima tetracantha Lam. leaves against Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snakebites are considered a neglected tropical disease that affects thousands of people worldwide. Although antivenom is the only treatment available, it is associated with several side effects. As an alternative, plants have been extensively studied in order to obtain an alternative treatment. In folk medicine, Azima tetracantha Lam. is usually used to treat snakebites. The present study aims to provide a scientific explanation for the use of this plant against snakebite. The extracts of shade dried leaves of A. tetracantha were tested for in vitro inhibitory activity on toxic venom enzymes like phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, acetylcholinesterase, hyaluronidase etc. from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venoms. Results The ethylacetate extract rendered a significant inhibitory effect on the phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, phospholipase A2 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes. Conclusions The present study suggests that ethylacetate extract of A. tetracantha leaves possesses compounds that inhibit the activity of toxic enzymes from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venom. Further pharmacological and in vivo studies would provide evidence that this substance may lead to a potential treatment against these venoms. PMID:24690426

  4. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fernanda Fraga; Sales Junior, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro José; Araújo, Márcio S S; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Resende, Jarbas M; Alves, Tânia M A; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Santos, Vera Lúcia dos; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania Barros

    2015-02-01

    Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae). We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 32-64 ?g/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 ?g/mL) and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 ?g/mL), Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 ?g/mL). Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 ?g/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 ?g/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 ?g/mL (2.43 ?M) in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay. PMID:25742265

  5. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP "Tainung 73," which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-??, TNF-?, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. PMID:26509161

  6. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fernanda Fraga; Sales, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro José; Araújo, Márcio SS; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Resende, Jarbas M; Alves, Tânia MA; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; dos Santos, Vera Lúcia; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania Barros

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae). We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 32-64 ?g/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 ?g/mL) and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 ?g/mL), Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 ?g/mL). Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 ?g/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 ?g/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 ?g/mL (2.43 ?M) in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay. PMID:25742265

  7. Biological activity of the shrubBoscia senegalensis (PERS.) LAM. ex Poir. (Capparaceae) on stored grain insects.

    PubMed

    Seck, D; Lognay, G; Haubruge, E; Wathelet, J P; Marlier, M; Gaspar, C; Severin, M

    1993-02-01

    Biological activity of leaves, fruits and extract of the African shrubBoscia senegalensis (PERS.) LAM. ex Poir. was evaluated against five stored-grain insects. When added to cowpeas at 2-4% (w/w), fresh ground fruits and leaves caused 80-100% mortality inCallosobruchus maculants (F.) adults and significantly reduced both emergence and damage of the F1 progeny. Acetone fruit extract exhibited a potent fumigant effect onProstephanus truncatus HORN, C.maculatus, andSitotroga cerealella OLIV.; with LT50 values of 3.8, 2.3, and below 1.5 hr, respectively. LC50 determination forB. senegalensis fruits and leaves as well as pure methylisothiocyanate (MITC) onTribolium castaneum HERBST,Sitophilus zeamais MOTSCH. andC. maculatus showed a differential response of the insects to plant parts or MITC. Quantitative dosage ofBoscia active components and LC50 values obtained for the plant tissues, compared to those of pure molecules, indicate that the biological activity ofB. senegalensis is due to the liberation of MITC from a glucosinolate precursor glucocapparin contained inBoscia fruits and leaves. PMID:24248882

  8. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP “Tainung 73,” which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-??, TNF-?, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. PMID:26509161

  9. A comparative study of proteomic differences between pencil and storage roots of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeung Joo; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kwak, Youn-Sig; An, Jae Young; Kim, Pil Joo; Lee, Byung Hyun; Kumar, Vikranth; Park, Kee Woong; Chang, Eun Sil; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-02-01

    Fibrous roots of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) usually develop into both pencil and storage roots. To understand protein function in root development, a proteomic analysis was conducted on the pencil and storage roots of the light orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivar, Yulmi. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that expression of 30 protein spots differed between pencil and storage roots: 15 proteins were up-regulated or expressed in pencil roots and 15 in storage roots. Differentially expressed proteins spots were investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, and 10 proteins from pencil roots were identified as binding protein isoform A, catechol oxidase, peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, endochitinase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and unknown proteins. Of the proteins up-regulated in, or restricted to, storage roots, 13 proteins were identified as protein disulfide isomerase, anionic peroxidase, putative ripening protein, sporamin B, sporamin A and sporamin A precursor. An analysis of enzyme activity revealed that catechol oxidase and peroxidase as the first and last enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway, and ascorbate peroxidase had higher activities in pencil than in storage roots. The total concentration of phenolic compounds was also far higher in pencil than in storage roots, and lignin accumulated only in pencil roots. These results provide important insight into sweetpotato proteomics, and imply that lignin biosynthesis and stress-related proteins are up-regulated or uniquely expressed in pencil roots. The results indicate that the reduction of carbon flow toward phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and its delivery to carbohydrate metabolism is a major event in storage root formation. PMID:25562766

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Asghari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Diana; Saeidi, Mozhgan; Nasr-Esfahani, Salar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4%) and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg) and normal saline (1 ml/kg) were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6) and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm) as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg) were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg) was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive. PMID:25050310

  11. Improvement of the coagulation/flocculation process using a combination of Moringa oleifera lam with anionic polymer in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Bongiovani, Milene Carvalho; Camacho, Franciele Pereira; Nishi, Letícia; Coldebella, Priscila Ferri; Valverde, Karina Cardoso; Vieira, Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of anionic polymer as a flocculant aid on the coagulation/flocculation performance with a saline solution of Moringa oleifera as a coagulant to provide larger flocs and decrease the time sedimentation. For the tests, raw water was used from Pirapó River Basin (Maringá, Paraná, Brazil). Optimization of coagulation/flocculation tests was initially performed in a jar-test with a dosage of M. oleifera Lam (crude extract--MO, oil-extracted with ethanol--MO (et) and hexane--MO (hex) 1% m/v) as the coagulant that ranged from 10 to 60 mg L(-1) and of the anionic polymer 0.1% as a flocculant aid with a dosage that ranged from 0 to 0.4 mg L(-1). The parameters analysed were colour, turbidity and compounds with absorption in UV254nm. In view of the statistical analysis results, MO (hex) with a dosage of 30 mg L(-1) was chosen as a coagulant for the next tests of coagulation/flocculation. When anionic polymer was used alone (0.0 mg L(-1) of MO (hex)), parameters were not removed and there was no generation of heavy flocs as compared with the combination of MO (hex) with the anionic polymer. Statistical analysis showed that MO (hex) obtained the highest removals of the parameters analysed in lower dosages and no significant increase in parameters removal was observed when the polymer dosage was increased. The efficacy of the coagulant +/- anionic polymer was optimal when 30mg L(-1) of MO (hex) was used as a coagulant and 0.1 mg L(-1) of the anionic polymer was used as a flocculant aid, decreasing the time sedimentation from 1 h to 15 min. PMID:25145175

  12. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial evaluation of a novel compound N-octacosan 7? ol, from Fumaria parviflora Lam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumaraceae) is widely used in traditional as well as folkloric system of medicine from ancient. It is commonly known as ‘Pitpapra’ or ‘Shahtrah’ in Indian traditional system of medicine and used for treating numerous ailments like diarrhea, fever, influenza, blood purifier and other complications. The object of the present study was to evaluate the Antileishmanial, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic potential of isolated compound. Methods Methanolic extract of whole plant of Fumaria parviflora was dried under reduced pressure to obtain a dark brown residue which was adsorbed on silica gel column grade (60–120 mesh) to obtain a slurry and chromatographed over silica gel loaded column in petroleum ether – chloroform (3:1, 1:1 and 1:3?v/v). The in vitro antileishmanial evaluation of isolated compound against Leishmania donovani promastigotes was investigated by growth kinetics assay, reversibility assay, analysis of cellular morphology, adverse toxicity and determination of 50% growth inhibitory concentration (GI50). Disc diffusion and broth micro dilution methods were used to study the antibacterial (Gram?+?Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis; Gram - Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) and antifungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) potential in vitro. Results Structure elucidation by spectral data analysis revealed a novel compound, n-octacosan-7?-ol (OC), yield (0.471%), having significant antimicrobial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger in vitro with GI50?=?5.35, MIC 250, MIC 250 and MFC 500 and MIC 250 ?g ml-1 respectively. The isolated compound did not show adverse effect against mammalian macrophages. Conclusions The available evidence of compound suggested that it may be used as antimicrobial agent in future and may provide new platform for drug discovery programmes for leishmaniasis. PMID:24621260

  13. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S; Raghavendra, K M; Biswas, S

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  14. The Saharan heat low and moisture transport pathways in the central Sahara—Multiaircraft observations and Africa-LAM evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelstaedter, S.; Washington, R.; Flamant, C.; Parker, D. J.; Allen, C. J. T.; Todd, M. C.

    2015-05-01

    We present a characterization of the Saharan heat low (SHL) based on dropsonde observations made on 22 June 2011 by two simultaneously flying aircraft during the Fennec project. The observations are used to identify moisture transport pathways and to validate the UK Met Office limited area model for northern Africa (Africa-LAM). The observations capture the SHL, harmattan, and monsoon surge. The SHL has a northeast-southwest orientated elongated shape centered over northern Mauritania. The SHL core is associated with a 950 hPa temperature minimum (36.4°C) in the morning caused by the monsoon surge and a maximum (42.6°C) in the afternoon. The monsoon surge east of the SHL core splits into two transport pathways: (a) curving around the SHL core in the north, especially pronounced in a morning near-surface layer, and (b) northeastward transport within the ~2 km deep monsoon surge (afternoon observations only). In the morning the model forecasts the harmattan, monsoon surge, and the SHL geographic location and northeast-southwest orientation well but the model represents the SHL flatter and more spatially extended and overestimates the convective boundary layer (CBL) by up to ~0.3 km. The simulated afternoon SHL location appears shifted westward by up to ~1°. The model overestimates the shallow afternoon monsoon surge CBL depth of ~1.8 km by >2 km resulting in southwestward transport of vertically mixed moisture above ~2.5 km contrasting observed northeastward-only transport at lower levels. This moisture distribution model error is likely to have consequences for simulations of Saharan thermodynamics and dust emissions caused by convection-driven cold pools.

  15. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, S.; Raghavendra, K. M.; Biswas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  16. Digital Gene Expression Analysis Based on Integrated De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Zheng, Wen; Li, Xiao; Zhao, Chuan-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.]) ranks among the top six most important food crops in the world. It is widely grown throughout the world with high and stable yield, strong adaptability, rich nutrient content, and multiple uses. However, little is known about the molecular biology of this important non-model organism due to lack of genomic resources. Hence, studies based on high-throughput sequencing technologies are needed to get a comprehensive and integrated genomic resource and better understanding of gene expression patterns in different tissues and at various developmental stages. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina paired-end (PE) RNA-Sequencing was performed, and generated 48.7 million of 75 bp PE reads. These reads were de novo assembled into 128,052 transcripts (?100 bp), which correspond to 41.1 million base pairs, by using a combined assembly strategy. Transcripts were annotated by Blast2GO and 51,763 transcripts got BLASTX hits, in which 39,677 transcripts have GO terms and 14,117 have ECs that are associated with 147 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, transcriptome differences of seven tissues were analyzed by using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiling and numerous differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were identified. Moreover, the expression characteristics of genes involved in viral genomes, starch metabolism and potential stress tolerance and insect resistance were also identified. Conclusions/Significance The combined de novo transcriptome assembly strategy can be applied to other organisms whose reference genomes are not available. The data provided here represent the most comprehensive and integrated genomic resources for cloning and identifying genes of interest in sweet potato. Characterization of sweet potato transcriptome provides an effective tool for better understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular processes including development of leaves and storage roots, tissue-specific gene expression, potential biotic and abiotic stress response in sweet potato. PMID:22558397

  17. Toddaculin, Isolated from of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., Inhibited Osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264 Cells and Enhanced Osteoblastogenesis in MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Akio; Kumagai, Momochika; Mishima, Takashi; Ito, Junya; Otoki, Yurika; Harada, Teppei; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Mikihiko; Suzuki, Misora; Yoshida, Izumi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis with bone loss is widely recognized as a major health problem. Bone homeostasis is maintained by balancing bone formation and bone resorption. The imbalance caused by increased bone resorption over bone formation can lead to various bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoclasts are the principal cells responsible for bone resorption and the main targets of anti-resorptive therapies. However, excessive inhibition of osteoclast differentiation may lead to inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. Therefore, it is important to screen for new compounds capable of inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of rheumatism. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of pharmacological agents for the treatment of bone-related diseases, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. We investigated whether toddaculin, derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., affects both processes by inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Towards this end, we used pre-osteoclastic RAW 264 cells and pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. We found that toddaculin not only inhibited the differentiation of osteoclasts via activation of the NF-?B, ERK 1/2, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, but it also induced differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts by regulating differentiation factors. Thus, toddaculin might be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25993011

  18. Evaluation of the rate constants of sugar transport through maltoporin (LamB) of Escherichia coli from the sugar-induced current noise

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    LamB (maltoporin) of Escherichia coli outer membrane was reconstituted into artificial lipid bilayer membranes. The channel contains a binding site for sugars and is blocked for ions when the site is occupied by a sugar. The on and off reactions of sugar binding cause an increase of the noise of the current through the channel. The sugar-induced current noise of maltoporin was used for the evaluation of the sugar-binding kinetics for different sugars of the maltooligosaccharide series and for sucrose. The on rate constant for sugar binding was between 10(6) and 10(7) M-1.s-1 for the maltooligosaccharides and corresponds to the movement of the sugars from the aqueous phase to the central binding site. The off rate (corresponding to the release of the sugars from the channel) decreased with increasing number of glucose residues in the maltooligosaccharides from approximately 2,000 s-1 for maltotriose to 180 s-1 for maltoheptaose. The kinetics for sucrose movement was considerably slower. The activation energies of the stability constant and of the rate constants for sugar binding were evaluated from noise experiments at different temperatures. The role of LamB in the transport of maltooligosaccharides across the outer membrane is discussed. PMID:7539481

  19. Toddaculin, Isolated from of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., Inhibited Osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264 Cells and Enhanced Osteoblastogenesis in MC3T3-E1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akio; Kumagai, Momochika; Mishima, Takashi; Ito, Junya; Otoki, Yurika; Harada, Teppei; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Mikihiko; Suzuki, Misora; Yoshida, Izumi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis with bone loss is widely recognized as a major health problem. Bone homeostasis is maintained by balancing bone formation and bone resorption. The imbalance caused by increased bone resorption over bone formation can lead to various bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoclasts are the principal cells responsible for bone resorption and the main targets of anti-resorptive therapies. However, excessive inhibition of osteoclast differentiation may lead to inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. Therefore, it is important to screen for new compounds capable of inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of rheumatism. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of pharmacological agents for the treatment of bone-related diseases, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. We investigated whether toddaculin, derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., affects both processes by inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Towards this end, we used pre-osteoclastic RAW 264 cells and pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. We found that toddaculin not only inhibited the differentiation of osteoclasts via activation of the NF-?B, ERK 1/2, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, but it also induced differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts by regulating differentiation factors. Thus, toddaculin might be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25993011

  20. Correlations among attributes of senescence and antioxidative status of leaf discs during epiphyllous bud differentiation in Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. (Pers.).

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sarita; Chawla, Raman; Sawhney, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Leaf detachment is a common signal that triggers both the differentiation of dormant epiphyllous buds as well as the onset of foliar senescence in Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. (Pers.). The present study looked for any probable correlations among selected attributes of foliar senescence, e.g. soluble proteins, chlorophylls a and b (Chl(a+b)), and membrane stability index (MSI), and the antioxidative status, e.g. phenolics, ferric reducing ability in plasma equivalence (FRAP(eq)), and membrane protection index (MPI), during epiphyllous bud differentiation. The experimental system comprised 0.75-cm leaf discs, with or without a dormant epiphyllous bud, cultured in vitro and exposed for ten days to continuous light or dark. A steady depletion of soluble proteins and Chl(a+b), and lowering of MSI in the leaf discs were observed, the decline being relatively faster and of higher magnitude in discs exposed to dark rather than to light. The pigment loss in discs with differentiating epiphyllous buds was greater and faster than in those lacking buds, a somewhat reverse situation was observed in case of soluble proteins. Simultaneously, a time-dependent decrease in the level of phenolics was also observed. Their content was found to be lower in discs exposed to dark as compared to light, pointing to a relationship with a higher rate of senescence-related degradative processes in the dark. The change in the content of Chl(a+b) was found to be significantly correlated with the variation in the level of phenolics. The average FRAP(eq) after ten days was one half that of the initial level, which could be correlated with the decreasing levels of phenolics (intra-correlation) and maximally correlated with variations in Chl(a+b) and protein contents (inter-correlation). Aqueous alcohol foliar extracts significantly (p < 0.05) protected membranes against peroxidative stress, although the pattern was not found to be in line with that of the phenolics content or FRAP(eq). The diminishing Chl(a+b) content was found to be maximally correlated with alterations in the membrane protection. PMID:23016282

  1. Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Rupjyoti; Tabassum, Jawahira; Azad, Mohammed Rekibul Haque

    2003-01-01

    The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the activities of hepatic cytochrome b(5), cytochrome p(450), catalase, glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ), glutathione reductase (GR), acid soluble sulfhydryl content (-SH ) and a significant decrease ( p<0.01 ) in the hepatic MDA level were observed at both dose levels of treatment when compared with the control values. Glutathione-S- transferase ( GST )activity was found to be significantly increased (p<0.01 ) only at the higher dose level. Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA ) fed at a dose of 0.75% in the diet for 7 and 14 days (positive control ) caused a significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the levels of hepatic phase I and phase II enzymes, anti- oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and a decrease in lipid peroxidation. The skin papillomagenesis studies demonstrated a significant decrease (p<0.05 ) in the percentage of mice with papillomas, average number of papillomas per mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse when the animals received a topical application of the extract at a dose of 5mg/ kg body weight in the peri-initiation phase 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application, Group II ), promotional phase (from the day of croton oil application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group III ) and both peri and post initiation stages (from 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group IV) compared to the control group (Group I ). The percentage inhibition of tumor multiplicity has been recorded to be 27, 72, and 81 in Groups II, III, and IV, respectively. These findings are suggestive of a possible chemopreventive potential of Moringa oliefera drumstick extract against chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:12875626

  2. How Is LAM Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

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  3. The Synergic Anti-inflammatory Impact of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 on Intestinal Epithelial Cells in a DSS-induced Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younghoon; Oh, Sejong

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the synergic anti-inflammatory activity of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (GS) extract and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 both in vitro and in vivo. Western blot analysis and immunostaining showed that AKT phosphorylation that increased by the exposure of LPS were significantly decreased by the presence of either GS extract or L. brevis KY21. In addition, p65 intracellular transport was critically inhibited by GS extract and L. brevis KY21. We further studied these effects using an in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model. Body weight, food intake, and clinical scores were dramatically decreased after treatment with DSS, whereas these effects were palliated by the addition of GS extract and L. brevis KY21. Importantly, transcription of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1?, TNF-?, and IFN-? in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the spleen were increased by DSS treatment, whereas they were inhibited by the presence of GS extract and L. brevis KY21.

  4. Biochemical Aspects of a Serine Protease from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) Seeds: A Potential Tool to Access the Mobilization of Seed Storage Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Praxedes-Garcia, Priscila; Cruz-Silva, Ilana; Gozzo, Andrezza Justino; Abreu Nunes, Viviane; Torquato, Ricardo José; Tanaka, Aparecida Sadae; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Gonzalez, Yamile Gonzalez; Araújo, Mariana da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Several proteins have been isolated from seeds of leguminous, but this is the first report that a protease was obtained from seeds of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., a tree belonging to the Fabaceae family. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatographies and gel filtration. This 61-kDa serine protease (CeSP) hydrolyses H-D-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (Km 55.7??M) in an optimum pH of 7.1, and this activity is effectively retained until 50°C. CeSP remained stable in the presence of kosmotropic anions (PO4?3?, SO4?2?, and CH3COO?) or chaotropic cations (K+ and Na+). It is strongly inhibited by TLCK, a serine protease inhibitor, but not by E-64, EDTA or pepstatin A. The characteristics of the purified enzyme allowed us to classify it as a serine protease. The role of CeSP in the seeds cannot be assigned yet but is possible to infer that it is involved in the mobilization of seed storage proteins. PMID:22629147

  5. HPLC-UV/DAD and ESI-MS(n) analysis of flavonoids and antioxidant activity of an Algerian medicinal plant: Paronychia argentea Lam.

    PubMed

    Sait, Sabrina; Hamri-Zeghichi, Sabrina; Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Lila; Madani, Khodir; Rigou, Peggy; Brighenti, Virginia; Pio Prencipe, Francesco; Benvenuti, Stefania; Pellati, Federica

    2015-07-10

    Paronychia argentea Lam., belonging to the Caryophyllaceae family, is a perennial plant widely distributed in Algeria. Even though this plant is used in the Algerian popular medicine, its phytochemical characterization is incomplete. In this study, the flavonoid profile and the in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract, decoction and infusion of P. argentea aerial parts are reported. Flavonoids were analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven compounds were identified and six of them, including isorhamnetin-3-O-dihexoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetinmethylether-O-hexoside, quercetin, jaceosidin and isorhamnetin, were described in this plant for the first time. The ethanol extract showed the highest flavonoid content, followed by the decoction and the infusion (25.4 ± 0.8 mg/g of DM, 8.4 ± 0.5 mg/g of DM, 0.2 mg/g of DM, respectively), while the best antioxidant activity was shown by the decoction (RC0.5 = 178 ?g/mL for reducing power, 72.4% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, IC50 = 27.38? g/mL for DPPH radical scavenging activity and 59.7% of inhibition of NO radical). These results showed that P. argentea decoction could be considered as a valuable source of flavonoids and antioxidants that might contribute to the valorization of the phytotherapeutic potential of this plant. PMID:25910047

  6. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas].

    PubMed

    Khoury, Colin K; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Miller, Richard E; Scotland, Robert W; Wood, John R I; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Yencho, G C; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding. PMID:25954286

  7. Do Ecological Niche Model Predictions Reflect the Adaptive Landscape of Species?: A Test Using Myristica malabarica Lam., an Endemic Tree in the Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, Shivaprakash K.; Gudasalamani, Ravikanth; Barve, Narayani; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Narayanagowda, Ganeshaiah Kotiganahalli; Ramanan, Uma Shaanker

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models (ENM) have become a popular tool to define and predict the “ecological niche” of a species. An implicit assumption of the ENMs is that the predicted ecological niche of a species actually reflects the adaptive landscape of the species. Thus in sites predicted to be highly suitable, species would have maximum fitness compared to in sites predicted to be poorly suitable. As yet there are very few attempts to address this assumption. Here we evaluate this assumption. We used Bioclim (DIVA GIS version 7.3) and Maxent (version 3.3.2) to predict the habitat suitability of Myristica malabarica Lam., an economically important tree occurring in the Western Ghats, India. We located populations of the trees naturally occurring in different habitat suitability regimes (from highly suitable to poorly suitable) and evaluated them for their regeneration ability and genetic diversity. We also evaluated them for two plant functional traits, fluctuating asymmetry – an index of genetic homeostasis, and specific leaf weight – an index of primary productivity, often assumed to be good surrogates of fitness. We show a significant positive correlation between the predicted habitat quality and plant functional traits, regeneration index and genetic diversity of populations. Populations at sites predicted to be highly suitable had a higher regeneration and gene diversity compared to populations in sites predicted to be poor or unsuitable. Further, individuals in the highly suitable sites exhibited significantly less fluctuating asymmetry and significantly higher specific leaf weight compared to individuals in the poorly suitable habitats. These results for the first time provide an explicit test of the ENM with respect to the plant functional traits, regeneration ability and genetic diversity of populations along a habitat suitability gradient. We discuss the implication of these resultsfor designing viable species conservation and restoration programs. PMID:24312402

  8. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Berry Extract Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer but not Non-Tumorigenic Breast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liya; Adams, Lynn S.; Chen, Shiuan; Killian, Caroline; Ahmed, Aftab; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2009-01-01

    The ripe purple berries of the native Indian plant, Eugenia jambolana Lam., known as Jamun, are popularly consumed and available in the United States in Florida and Hawaii. Despite the growing body of data on the chemopreventive potential of edible berry extracts, there is paucity of such data for Jamun fruit. Therefore our laboratory initiated the current study with the following objectives:1) to prepare a standardized Jamun fruit extract (JFE) for biological studies and, 2) to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, and in a normal/non-tumorigenic (MCF-10A) breast cell line. JFE was standardized to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC50=27 µg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC50=40 µg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC50>100 µg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 µg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro (p?0.05) and the MDA-MB-231 (p?0.01) breast cancer cells, but not towards the normal MCF-10A breast cells. These studies suggest that JFE may have potential beneficial effects against breast cancer. PMID:19166352

  9. Phosphorus status and microbial community of paddy soil with the growth of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) under different phosphorus fertilizer treatments*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hai-chao; Wang, Guang-huo

    2009-01-01

    Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was grown in paddy soil in pots under different phosphorus (P) fertilizer treatments to investigate changes of P fractions and microbial community of the soil. The treatments included Kunyang phosphate rock (KPR) applications at 50 mg P/kg (KPR50) and 250 mg P/kg (KPR250), mono-calcium phosphate (MCP) application at 50 mg P/kg (MCP50), and the control without P application. The results showed that KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications significantly increased the dry weight of the ryegrass by 13%, 38%, and 55%, and increased P uptake by 19%, 135%, and 324%, respectively. Compared with MCP50, the relative effectiveness of KPR50 and KPR250 treatments in ryegrass production was about 23% and 68%, respectively. After one season of ryegrass growth, the KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications increased soil-available P by 13.4%, 26.8%, and 55.2%, respectively. More than 80% of the applied KPR-P remained as HCl-P fraction in the soil. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis showed that the total and bacterial PLFAs were significantly higher in the soils with KPR250 and MCP50 treatments compared with KPR50 and control. The latter had no significant difference in the total or bacterial PLFAs. The KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 treatments increased fungal PLFA by 69%, 103%, and 69%, respectively. Both the principal component analysis and the cluster analysis of the PLFA data suggest that P treatments altered the microbial community composition of the soils, and that P availability might be an important contributor to the changes in the microbial community structure during the ryegrass growth in the paddy soils. PMID:19817001

  10. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Miller, Richard E.; Scotland, Robert W.; Wood, John R. I.; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A.; Jarret, Robert L.; Yencho, G. C.; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding. PMID:25954286

  11. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of L-Dopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical formulations using a crude extract of sweet potato root [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] as enzymatic source.

    PubMed

    Fatibello-Filho, O; da Cruz Vieira, I

    1997-04-01

    A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of L-dopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical formulations. After selection of the extraction medium (e.g., buffer-to-tissue ratio, pH, buffer concentration, protective agents and/or stabilizers) and storage conditions, crude extract of sweet potato root [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was used as an enzymatic source of polyphenol oxidase (Tyrosinase; catechol oxidase; EC.1.14.18.1) directly in the carrier. This enzyme catalyses the oxidation of these catecholamines to the corresponding dopaquinone. Further, dopaquinone undergoes a rapid spontaneous auto-oxidation to leucodopachrome, which is in turn oxidized to dopachrome; this last compound has a strong absorption at 480 and 360 nm for L-dopa and carbidopa, respectively. For the optimum extraction conditions found the enzyme activity of the crude extract did not vary for at least 5 months when stored at 4 degrees C and decreased by only 4-5% during an 8 h working period at 25 degrees C. The results obtained for L-dopa and carbidopa by the proposed enzymatic FI method were in close agreement with the label values (r1 = 0.9699 and r2 = 0.9999) and also with those obtained using a pharmacopeial method (r3 = 0.9675). The throughput was 26 samples h-1, and 2.30 ml of crude extract were consumed in each determination, corresponding to only 72 mg of the original sweet potato root. The detection limit (three times the signal blank/slope) was 1.5 x 10(-5) and 2.0 x 10(-5) mol l-1 for L-dopa and carbidopa, respectively; the recovery of L-dopa and carbidopa from three samples ranged from 98.6 to 106.3% of the added amount. PMID:9177077

  12. A quick Chan-Lam C-N and C-S cross coupling at room temperature in the presence of square pyramidal [Cu(DMAP)4I]I as a catalyst.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subhasish; Sarma, Manas Jyoti; Kashyap, Bishwapran; Phukan, Prodeep

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and efficient protocol for C-N and C-S cross coupling has been developed using a new square pyramidal copper complex, [Cu(DMAP)4I]I. The complex was successfully synthesized via a disproportionation reaction of CuI and DMAP in DMSO. The catalytic activity of the complex was found to be excellent for Chan-Lam coupling reaction between aryl boronic acid and amine, amide, azide or thiol. The reaction could be carried out in the presence of only 2 mol% of the copper catalyst in methanol at room temperature within a short time. PMID:26601326

  13. In vitro analysis on bactericidal screening and antioxidant potentiality of leaf and root extracts of Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. An ethnobotanical plant

    PubMed Central

    Nusaiba, Saiba Abdul Wahab; Murugan, Kumaraswamy

    2013-01-01

    Objective Natural products of plant origin are potential source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidative agents. Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. (T. siliquosa). A medicinal herb used by local tribals for treating various ailments. The present study aims at the phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis, in vitro antibacterial activity and antioxidant potentiality of root and leaf extracts of T. siliquosa. Methods Hot continuous Soxhlet extraction, GC-MS analysis, antibacterial analysis by disc diffusion, microdilution assay and antioxidant potentialities by hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical scavenging. The data was statistically analyzed. Results Phytochemical screening of the ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of leaf and root revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins and saponin. The extract revealed a pool of phytochemicals by comparison with authentic standards from spectral library. Both the extracts has shown their broad spectrum of inhibition against the selected bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia compared with standard antibiotic drug streptomycin. The extracts showed antioxidant activity by scavenging of free radicals such as hydroxyl and nitric oxide. The IC50 values of the ethyl acetate extracts leaf and root and standard in this assay were 167.5±0.67, 99.4±1.2, 192±2.5 µg/mL respectively. Similarly those methanolic extracts of leaf and root were 269.5±0.89 and 289.1±2.66 µg/mL respectively. Similarly, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts also caused a moderate dose-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide with an IC50 range 65.5±1.55 to 148 ±3.09 µg/mL. The inhibitory activities were found to be dose dependent. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that ethyl acetate and methanol extract of leaf and root of T. siliquosa are potential source of natural antioxidants and bactericidal nature. It is essential that research should continue to isolate and purify the bio active components of this natural plant and use in drug discovery and development.

  14. Please cite this article in press as: Bradley, C.R., et al., Conservation genetics of Ireland's sole population of the River water crowfoot (Ranunculus fluitans Lam.). Aquat. Bot. (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2013.01.011

    E-print Network

    Provan, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Please cite this article in press as: Bradley, C.R., et al., Conservation genetics of Ireland.elsevier.com/locate/aquabot Conservation genetics of Ireland's sole population of the River water crowfoot (Ranunculus fluitans Lam's University Belfast, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom a r t i c l e i n f o

  15. Cryogenic Refractive Indices of S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14 Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Leviton, Doug

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is an explorer-class planet finder, whose principal goal is to detect small planets with bright host starts in the solar neighborhood. The TESS payload consists of four identical cameras with seven optical elements each that include various types of Ohara glass substrates. The successful implementation both panchromatic and thermal lens assembly designs for these cameras requires a fairly accurate (up to 1E-6) knowledge of the temperature and wavelength dependence of the refractive index in the wavelength and temperature range of operation. Hence, this paper is devoted to report on measurements of the refractive index over the wavelength range of 0.42-1.15 um and temperature range of 110-310 K for the following Ohara glasses: S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, SLAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14. The measurements were performed utilizing the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A dense coverage of the absolute refractive index for the title substrates in the aforementioned wavelength and temperature ranges was used to determine the thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) and dispersion relation (dn/d lambda) as a function of wavelength and temperature. A comparison of the measured indices with literature values, specifically the temperature-dependent refractive indices of S-PHM52 and S-TIH14, will be presented.

  16. Cryogenic refractive indices of S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14 Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Leviton, Douglas B.

    2015-09-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is an explorer-class planet finder whose principal goal is to detect small planets with bright host stars in the solar neighborhood. The TESS payload consists of four identical cameras with seven lens elements, each made from various Ohara glass. The successful implementation of both the panchromatic and the thermal aspect of these lens assemblies requires accurate knowledge of the thermal and spectral dependence of the refractive index in the wavelength and temperature ranges of operation. Hence, this paper reports measurements of the refractive index for the following Ohara glasses over the wavelength range 0.42 - 1.10 ?m and temperature range ~120 - 300 K: S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14. The measurements were performed using the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Dense coverage of absolute refractive indices of these glasses over the aforementioned wavelength and temperature ranges allowed accurate determination of spectral thermo-optic coefficients (dn/dT) and spectral dispersions (dn/d?) as a function of temperature. A comparison of measured, temperature-dependent indices to literature values is presented for S-PHM52 and S-TIH14. A comparison to Ohara's catalog indices at room temperature is presented for all of the materials.

  17. Cryogenic Refractive Indices of S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14 Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Leviton, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is an explorer-class planet finder, whose principal goal is to detect small planets with bright host starts in the solar neighborhood. The TESS payload consists of four identical cameras and a Data Handling Unit (DHU) fitted with CCD detectors and associated electronics. Each camera consist of a lens assembly with seven optical elements that include various types of Ohara glass substrates. The successful implementation of a panchromatic and a thermal lens assembly design for these cameras requires a fairly accurate (up to 0.000001 (1e-6)) knowledge of the temperature- and wavelength-dependent of the refractive index in the wavelength and temperature range of operation. Hence, this paper is devoted to report on measurements of the refractive index over the wavelength range of 0.42-1.15 micrometers and temperature range of 110-300 K for the following Ohara glasses: S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14. The measurements were performed utilizing the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A dense coverage of the absolute refractive index for all these substrates in the aforementioned wavelength and temperature ranges was used to determine the thermo-optic coefficient (dndT) and dispersion relation (dnd) as a function of wavelength and temperature. A comparison of the measured indices with literature values, specifically the temperature-dependent refractive indices of S-PHM52 and S-TIH14 reported by Yamamuro et al. [Yamamuro et al., Opt. Eng. 45(8), 083401 (2006)], will be presented.

  18. Partial replacement of dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves for noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake in the diet of highland sheep fed on wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Tesfay, Temesgen; Tesfay, Yayneshet

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake by dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves on feed intake, live weight gain, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen balance of highland sheep in Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Twenty intact yearling male highland sheep weighing 16.9 ± 1.62 kg were used in a randomized complete block design and included the following four treatments: T1 (control, wheat straw ad libitum + 200 g noug seed cake (NSC) + 150 g wheat bran (WB)); T2 (wheat straw ad libitum + 170 g NSC + 44.3 g dried L. leucocephala (DLL) + 150 g WB); T3 (wheat straw ad libitum + 140 g NSC + 87.3 g DLL + 150 g WB); and T4 (wheat straw ad libitum + 110 g NSC + 130.2 g DLL + 150 g WB). Sheep fed on T4 diet consumed higher total dry matter (658 g/head/day) and recorded the highest average daily weight gain (59 g/head/day). Sheep fed on T4 diet had higher dry matter (61 %), organic matter (63 %), and crude protein (75 %) digestibility values than the other treatments. Sheep fed on T3 diet demonstrated higher feed conversion ratio (11.93) than sheep kept on the other treatments. All sheep exhibited positive nitrogen balance, with the highest nitrogen retention being measured in T4 (12 g/head/day). It is concluded that partially replacing NSC by DLL can improve total dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients, and body weight gain in highland sheep fed on wheat straw as the basal diet. PMID:22820996

  19. Department: HIST/ LAMS Course No.: 3609 [282

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    of the basic purposes of general education as stated in the UConn General Education Guidelines. 1. Become of the production of knowledge.3. - 5. Acquire critical judgment; Acquire moral sensitivity; Acquire awareness to the present. Encouraged to develop an em pat hetic and moral sensitivity to the historical experiences

  20. Reduplication across Categories in Cantonese Charles Lam

    E-print Network

    - arguments) and return a collection of the el- ements. The surface difference across cat- egories-categorial behaviour of reduplication. It provides the advantage of a unified theory for lexical composition across-categorial behaviour 1 Introduction Reduplication is found across syntactic categories noun, verb and adjective

  1. The nucleolus Yun Wah Lam*, Laura Trinkle-

    E-print Network

    Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura

    'Christmas tree' model rDNA transcription rRNA processing Ribosome assembly Fluorescence microscopy Yun Wah knobs rRNA rDNA Fibrillar centre (FC) RPA39 Granular component (GC) B23 Large ribosomal subunit prominent structure in a cell nucleus. It is the site of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription, pre

  2. Antifungal, Antileishmanial, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Various Extracts of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and Its Active Principle Berberine.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Sepahvand, Asghar; Sharififar, Fariba; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Gorohi, Fatemeh; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in vitro antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum was studied by disk diffusion test and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using CLSI broth macrodilution method (M38-A2). Moreover, antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of B. vulgaris and berberine against promastigotes of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were evaluated by colorimetric MTT assay. The findings indicated that the various extracts of B. vulgaris particularly berberine showed high potential antidermatophytic against pathogenic dermatophytes tested with MIC values varying from 0.125 to >4?mg/mL. The results revealed that B. vulgaris extracts as well as berberine were effective in inhibiting L. major and L. tropica promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values varying from 2.1 to 26.6? ? g/mL. Moreover, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50% of cells) values varying from 27.3 to 362.6? ? g/mL. Results of this investigation were the first step in the search for new antidermatophytic and antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in animal models as well as volunteer human subjects. PMID:24977052

  3. Antifungal, Antileishmanial, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Various Extracts of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and Its Active Principle Berberine

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Sepahvand, Asghar; Sharififar, Fariba; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Gorohi, Fatemeh; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in vitro antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum was studied by disk diffusion test and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using CLSI broth macrodilution method (M38-A2). Moreover, antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of B. vulgaris and berberine against promastigotes of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were evaluated by colorimetric MTT assay. The findings indicated that the various extracts of B. vulgaris particularly berberine showed high potential antidermatophytic against pathogenic dermatophytes tested with MIC values varying from 0.125 to >4?mg/mL. The results revealed that B. vulgaris extracts as well as berberine were effective in inhibiting L. major and L. tropica promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values varying from 2.1 to 26.6??g/mL. Moreover, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50% of cells) values varying from 27.3 to 362.6??g/mL. Results of this investigation were the first step in the search for new antidermatophytic and antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in animal models as well as volunteer human subjects. PMID:24977052

  4. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products

    PubMed Central

    Limmatvapirat, C.; Limmatvapirat, S.; Charoenteeraboon, J.; Wessapan, C.; Kumsum, A.; Jenwithayaamornwech, S.; Luangthuwapranit, P.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health.

  5. Department: HIST/LAMS/PRLS Course No.: 1570

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    degrees, all of the basic purposes of general education as stated in the UConn General Education. Acquire critical judgment; Acquire moral sensitivity; Acquire awareness of their era and society. Encouraged to develop an empathetic and moral sensitivity to the historical experiences and actions of both

  6. Radical scavenging potential of phenolics from Bryophyllum pinnatum (LAM.) OKEN.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Suneel; Banerjee, Rintu

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of the extraction process of phenolics from Bryophyllum pinnatum was carried out using response-surface methodology (RSM). The effect of different variables such as ratio of solvents, plant material/solvent ratio, extraction time, and temperature were investigated. An optimal phenolics yield of 7.952 mg/g gallic acid equivalence (GAE) was achieved at reduced levels of methanol/water ratio (1:1, v/v). During optimization, the product yield was enhanced by ?2-fold at reduced extraction solvent (methanol/water) up to 37%. Validation of the RSM model for extraction of total phenolic content (TPC) was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The obtained experimental values were in good agreement with the predicted values, thereby indicating the appropriateness of the model generated. Phenolic extracts from B. pinnatum were further examined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods for determining the radical scavenging activities. EC(50) values of B. pinnatum extracts (BPEs) obtained by these methods were in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in the extract. Significant correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). PMID:21660869

  7. High Throughput Genetic Sequence Analysis Ham Ching Lam

    E-print Network

    Boley, Daniel

    influenza sequence datasets: (1) human A/H3N2, (2) avian H5, and (3) North American swine influenza H3N2 downloaded 239 human influenza A/H3N2, 288 avian influenza H5, and 883 North American swine influenza H3N2 virus. Interesting visual patterns observed in the A/H3N2 influenza virus led us to hypothesize

  8. Baseline Mechanical Characterization of J774 Macrophages Jonathan Lam,

    E-print Network

    Heinrich, Volkmar

    area during active deformation in phagocytosis. Scanning electron micrographs show how microscopic membrane wrinkles are smoothed out and recruited into the apparent surface area during phagocytosis the mechanistic underpinnings of phagocytosis (5­10). The biophysical analysis of phagocytosis mechanics (7

  9. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products.

    PubMed

    Limmatvapirat, C; Limmatvapirat, S; Charoenteeraboon, J; Wessapan, C; Kumsum, A; Jenwithayaamornwech, S; Luangthuwapranit, P

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health. PMID:26664066

  10. Updated 02-16-2014 Phoebe H. Lam

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Lucia

    · Emotional acceptance and mindfulness · Hedonic and eudaimonic happiness · Emotion regulation and forgiveness Goal Pursuit: Pursuing Happiness vs. Accepting one's Emotions" · Responsibilities: Data collection Pursuit: Pursuing Happiness vs. Accepting one's Emotions. Society for Personality and Social Psychology

  11. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of LAM?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines Resources Continuing Education Researchers Funding Training & Career Development Division of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites News & ...

  12. Interactive Event Search Through Transfer Antony Lam,1

    E-print Network

    Shelton, Christian R.

    subjective (e.g. what the user thinks are "nice basketball shots"), there would be no way to train a system data for "basketball" were scarce, the knowledge on classifying volleyball could be used to supplement the basketball training process. To deal with difficulties in training systems for the vast array of queries

  13. FTTH Look Ahead -Technologies & Architectures Cedric F. Lam

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    , Mountain View, CA 94043, clam@google.com Abstract We review the trade-offs, challenges and potentials Architectures & Challenges ­ Technology options ­ Network design considerations and challenges ­ Next generation ­ http://broadbandusa.sc.egov.usda.gov/ · Access infrastructure build out is extremely capital intensive

  14. Motion Editing with Data Glove Wai-Chun Lam

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Sriram

    with larger strides, it is possible to obtain a running motion. To achieve this goal, a method to map the hand-frame postures; the user needs to determine at which moment the posture must be edited and then change Permission-5, 2004, Singapore Copyright 2004 ACM 1-58113-882-2/04/0006 5.00 . the posture by methods such as inverse

  15. IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program Research Report Form

    E-print Network

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    (Results/Discussion) Berberis Phytotoxicity and Plant Growth. The Berberis plants in the control group, we conclude that F6875 0.3G is not safe over Berberis. Lobularia Phytotoxicity and Plant Growth not be registered for use on this plant. Ophiopogon Phytotoxicity and Plant Growth. Phytotoxicity index means

  16. Clinical role of a fixed combination of standardized Berberis aristata and Silybum marianum extracts in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic patients intolerant to statins

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Bellone, Iaele; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Putignano, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Background Statin intolerance is a medical condition often leading patients to nonadherence to the prescribed therapy or to a relevant reduction of the statin dosage. Both situations determine a totally or partially uncontrolled lipid profile, and these conditions unquestionably increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Methods We enrolled hypercholesterolemic, type 2 diabetic patients complaining of intolerance to statins. Some of them had reduced the statin dose ‘until the disappearance of symptoms’; others had opted for treatment with ezetimibe; and yet others were not undergoing any treatment at all. All patients of the three groups were then given a fixed combination of berberine and silymarin (Berberol®), known from previous papers to be able to control both lipidic and glycemic profiles. Results The tested product both as a single therapy and as add-on therapy to low-dose statin or to ezetimibe reduced triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin in a significant manner without inducing toxicity conditions that might be somehow ascribed to a statin-intolerant condition. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that use of Berberol®, administered as a single or add-on therapy in statin-intolerant subjects affected by diabetes and hypercholesterolemia is a safe and effective tool capable of improving the patients’ lipidic and glycemic profiles. PMID:25678808

  17. ManagementTactics PacificLink's Experience Speaker:Alvin Lam

    E-print Network

    IntegratedWeb, Mobile & Social Media Marketing Service Vision: · To be a World-Class Global Digital Agency2000: The Rise of Digital Marketing · The Trend: web mobile Social media Digital Everywhere #12Link iMedia Group #12;About PacificLink www.pacim.com #12;About PacificLink Core Services: · Professional

  18. Wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. leaf--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin

    2010-06-01

    The extract of K. pinnata was evaluated for its wound healing activity by using excision wound model in rats. On day 11, animals treated with the ethanolic leaf extract exhibited 86.33% reduction in the wound area, compared to petroleum jelly treated control (69.36%) and the mupirocin treated standard (85.49%). The hydroxyproline content of extract treated animals was higher, as compared to control and the standard groups. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that K. pinnata leaf extract exhibits significant wound healing potential. The increased rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content in the extract treated animals supports the claims made by traditional healers of the benefits obtained from the medicinal use of K. pinnata. PMID:20882759

  19. Due: two weeks before start of Quarter 499 form LAM -08/31/04

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    -15 cr., 15 max.) Undergraduate Research typically involves the student examining a hypothesis with my worksite supervisor or faculty sponsor immediately. Should I require emergency medical treatment as a result of accident or illness during a field/lab experience, I consent to such treatment and agree

  20. D-aspartate in the male and female reproductive system of Octopus vulgaris lam.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, A; Di Cosmo, A; Di Cristo, C; Fisher, G

    1995-10-01

    Free D-aspartate (D-Asp) has been previously found in the nervous system of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cepalopoda) and has recently also been found in many endocrine tissues of the rat. The present study examined whether this enantiomer also occurs in the reproductive system and the brain of the octopus. In this mollusk, D-aspartate was present in both the male and the female reproductive systems. In males, it was found at high concentrations in the prostate, vas deferens, Needham's sac, and testis. In females, a high concentration was found in the oviduct, accessory nidamental gland, and ovary. The concentration varied between 0.4 and 2.9 mumol/g wet tissue, which corresponds to a percentage of D-Asp/total D+L-Asp between 7 and 33%. No appreciable quantities of D-Asp were found in the digestive, excretory, circulatory, and muscular systems, indicating that in the octopus this enantiomer may play a role in both the nervous and the reproductive systems. PMID:8575661

  1. In Vitro and In Vivo Cytogenotoxic Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC.

    PubMed Central

    Cariddi, L. N.; Sabini, M. C.; Escobar, F. M.; Bacchetti, R.; Montironi, I.; Merckis, C.; Reinoso, E. B.; Núñez Montoya, S.; Zanon, S. M.; Comini, L. R.; Sabini, L. I.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we extend the toxicological studies of hot aqueous extract of A. satureioides (As-HAE) evaluating cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also determine genotoxic action of this extract in vivo. In addition, the extract was chemically characterized. Finally, we established a comparison with previous data of cold aqueous extract. The As-HAE induced cytotoxicity on PBMCs determined by trypan blue dye exclusion (CC50 = 653??g/mL) and MTT (CC50 = 588??g/mL) assays being more toxic than cold extract. However, As-HAE as well as cold extract did not induce apoptosis measured by Hoechst 33258 staining, TUNEL assay, and DNA fragmentation analysis. The in vivo micronucleus test showed that As-HAE exerted cytogenotoxic effects on bone marrow of mice, contrary to what was observed with cold extract. The chemical study of As-HAE allowed identifying the flavonoids found in cold extract: luteolin, quercetin, and 3-O-methylquercetin, but at higher concentrations. We suggest that toxic effects induced by As-HAE could be due to high concentrations of these flavonoids. Given that As-HAE is the most used in folkloric medicine, its administration should be controlled in order to prevent potential cell damage. PMID:26078941

  2. Hybridization and invasion: an experimental test with diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of studies have suggested a causative link between hybridization and invasion. In this study, we experimentally test for such a link through a greenhouse common garden study with artificially created Backcross 1 (BC1) diffuse knapweed hybrids. In comparison with diffuse knapweed plants of n...

  3. Discovery of an allosteric site in the caspases Jeanne A. Hardy, Joni Lam, Jack T. Nguyen

    E-print Network

    Hardy, Jeanne

    of biological control. Traditionally it has been difficult to identify and characterize novel allosteric sites an important class of drug targets for stroke, ischemia, cancer, and inflammatory diseases (2). The active that have frustrated drug discovery efforts (3­7), so despite their biological significance in cell death

  4. Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from the Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree.

    PubMed

    Lea, Michael

    2014-01-01

    An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a crude water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 33:1G.1-1G.8. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24789599

  5. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of Moringa oleifera Lam. callus and leaf extracts on Hela cells

    PubMed Central

    Jafarain, Abbas; Asghari, Gholamreza; Ghassami, Erfaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are considerable attempts worldwide on herbal and traditional compounds to validate their use as anti-cancer drugs. Plants from Moringaceae family including Moringa oleifera possess several activities such as antitumor effect on tumor cell lines. In this study we sought to determine if callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera possess any cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Ethanol-water (70-30) extracts of callus and leaf of M. oleifera were prepared by maceration method. The amount of phenolic compounds of the extracts was determined by Folin Ciocalteu method. The cytotoxicity of the extracts against Hela tumor cells was carried out using MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of the extract were added. Cells were incubated for 48 h and their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Cytotoxicity was considered when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Results: Callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera significantly decreased the viability of Hela cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, leaf extract of M. oleifera were more potent than that of callus extract. Conclusion: As the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extract was higher than that of callus extract, it can be concluded that phenolic compounds are involved in the cytotoxicity of M. oleifera. PMID:25337524

  6. Allelopathic effects of glucosinolate breakdown products in Hanza [Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam.] processing waste water

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J.; Krosse, Sebastian; de Graaf, Rob M.; Garvi, Josef; Garvi-Bode, Renate D.; van Dam, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    Boscia senegalensis is a drought resistant shrub whose seeds are used in West Africa as food. However, the seeds, or hanza, taste bitter which can be cured by soaking them in water for 4–7 days. The waste water resulting from the processing takes up the bitter taste, which makes it unsuitable for consumption. When used for irrigation, allelopathic effects were observed. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are the potential causes for both the bitter taste and the allelopathic effects. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify the glucosinolates present in processed and unprocessed hanza as well as different organs of B. senegalensis, to analyze the chemical composition of the processing water, and to pinpoint the causal agent for the allelopathic properties of the waste water. Hanza (seeds without testa), leaves, branches, unripe, and ripe fruits were collected in three populations and subjected to glucosinolate analyses. Methylglucosinolates (MeGSL) were identified in all plant parts and populations, with the highest concentrations being found in the hanza. The levels of MeGSLs in the hanza reduced significantly during the soaking process. Waste water was collected for 6 days and contained large amounts of macro- and micronutrients, MeGSL as well as methylisothiocyanate (MeITC), resulting from the conversion of glucosinolates. Waste water from days 1–3 (High) and 4–6 (Low) was pooled and used to water seeds from 11 different crops to weeds. The High treatment significantly delayed or reduced germination of all the plant species tested. Using similar levels of MeITC as detected in the waste water, we found that germination of a subset of the plant species was inhibited equally to the waste water treatments. This confirmed that the levels of methylisiothiocyanate in the waste water were sufficient to cause the allelopathic effect. This leads to the possibility of using hanza waste water in weed control programs. PMID:26236325

  7. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of ethanol extract of stem barks from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Filho, Edson Santos; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Moura, Lucas Henrique Porfírio; da Silva-Filho, José Couras; Paulino, Emanuel Tenório; Ribeiro, Eurica Adélia Nogueira; Chaves, Mariana Helena; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; de Oliveira, Aldeídia Pereira

    2013-08-01

    Administration of ethanol extract of stem bark from Z. rhoifolium (EEtOH-ZR) induced hypotension associated with a dual effect in heart rate in normotensive rats. This response was highlighted in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In rat superior mesenteric artery rings, the cumulative addition of EEtOH-ZR (0.1-750 microg/mL) on a phenylephrine-induced pre-contraction (10(-5) M) promoted a vasorelaxant effect by a concentration-dependent manner and independent of vascular endothelium. A similar effect was obtained on KCl-induced pre-contractions (80 mM). EEtOH-ZR attenuated contractions induced by cumulative addition of CaCl2 (10(-6)-3 x 10(-2) M) in depolarizing medium without Ca2+ only at 500 or 750 microg/mL. Likewise, on S-(-)-Bay K 8644-induced pre-contractions (10(-7) M), the EEtOH-ZR-induced vasorelaxant effect was attenuated. EEtOH-ZR (27, 81, 243 or 500 microg/mL) inhibited contractions induced by cumulative addition of phenylephrine (10(-9) - 10(-5) M) in endothelium-denuded preparations or by a single concentration (10(-5) M) in a Ca(2+)-free medium. The involvement of K+ channels was evaluated by tetraethylammonium (3 mM); the EEtOH-ZR-induced vasorelaxation was not attenuated. Thus, calcium influx blockade through voltage-operated calcium channels (CavL) and inhibition of calcium release from intracellular stores are probably underlying EEtOH-ZR-induced cardiovascular effects. PMID:24228390

  8. 75 FR 76952 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer Fabrication Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ...interest; Whereas, the City of San Jose, California, grantee of Foreign-Trade...Fremont, Newark, and Livermore, California, (FTZ Docket 36- 2010, filed...Fremont, Newark, and Livermore, California (Subzone 18F), as...

  9. Antibacterial activity of bark extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against some selected bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zaffer, Mudasser; Ahmad, Showkat; Sharma, Rajendra; Mahajan, Surabhi; Gupta, Ankur; Agnihotri, Rajneesh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous bark extracts of Moringa oleifera were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against four bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas fluorescens using erythromycin as positive control. The activity was analyzed using paper disc diffusion method at different concentration of the extract. The study revealed that all the bark extracts irrespective of their types, in different concentrations inhibited growth of the test pathogens to varying degrees. Ethyl acetate extract showed maximum activity against all the bacterial strains followed in descending order by chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts. The activity decreased with decrease in concentration of the extract. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most sensitive test organism to different extracts of Moringa oleifera. Looking to these results it may be concluded that M. oleifera may be a potential source for the treatment of different infections caused by the resistant microbes. PMID:25362592

  10. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.

    PubMed Central

    Agyare, Christian; Dwobeng, Anita Serwaa; Agyepong, Nicholas; Boakye, Yaw Duah; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Ayande, Patrick George; Adarkwa-Yiadom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl–hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5–7.5?mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25–7.5?mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5–7.5?mg/mL and 2.5–10?mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7??g/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1??g/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w) showed significant (P < 0.05) wound contraction at day 7 with 72% of wound closure whiles significant (P < 0.05) wound contractions were observed on day 11 for stem bark of K. africana, leaf and root extracts of S. hispidus. Wound tissues treated with the extracts showed improved collagenation, re-epitheliazition and rapid granulation formation compared with untreated wound tissues. The extracts were found to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these may justify the medicinal uses of the plants for treatment of microbial infections and wounds. PMID:23662099

  11. Publications for Andrew Holmes Lam, Y., Ha, C., Hoffmann, J., Oscarsson, J., Dinudom, A.,

    E-print Network

    Müller, Dietmar

    ., Wilson, K., Holmes, A., Raubenheimer, D., Robinson, K., Simpson, S. (2015). Macronutrients mediate., Holmes, A., Pichaud, N., Raubenheimer, D., Simpson, S., et al (2015). The influence of macronutrients

  12. Efficacy of Strychnos spinosa (Lam.) and Solanum incanum L. aqueous fruit extracts against cattle ticks.

    PubMed

    Madzimure, James; Nyahangare, Emmanuel T; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Hove, Thokozani; Belmain, Steve R; Stevenson, Philip C; Mvumi, Brighton M

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of Solanum incanum and Strychnos spinosa aqueous fruit extracts was evaluated against cattle ticks in on-station experiments and laboratory tick bioassays. In the on-station experiment using cattle, fruit extracts were applied at three concentrations 5, 10, and 20 % (w/v) and compared with a commercial acaricide, Tickbuster (amitraz) spray (positive control) and no treatment (negative control). The treatments were applied at weekly intervals for 6 weeks as surface sprays on 32 Mashona cattle in a completely randomized design experiment. Ticks on individual cattle were identified, counted, and recorded daily. Peripheral blood samples were collected for parasite screening. In the laboratory, tick bioassays were conducted at four concentrations, 5, 10, 20, and 40% (w/v) fruit extracts compared to Tickbuster (amitraz) spray (positive control) and distilled water (negative control). The extracts were incubated with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus tick larvae and mortalities for each treatment level recorded after 24 and 48 h. The 5% Solanum incanum treatment had higher efficacy ratio (P < 0.05) than the other fruit extract concentrations of the same plant species. Efficacy ratio was higher (P < 0.05) in the 5% S. spinosa-treated cattle than in the untreated control but lower (P < 0.05) than that for the amitraz treatment. The bioassays indicated that there was a high efficacy ratio for the lowest fruit extract concentrations when ticks were exposed to acaricidal treatments for 48 h compared to 24 h. Overall, the results indicate that Solanum incanum and Strychnos spinosa individually have some acaricidal effect. PMID:23456785

  13. AN EFFICIENT ITERATIVE METHOD FOR STOKES AND LAM ' EQUATIONS FOR NEARLY INCOMPRESSIBLE MEDIA WITH

    E-print Network

    , discontinuous coefficients, iterative methods, divergence­free vector functions, fictitious domain method, Cosserat problem AMS(MOS) subject classifications. 65F10, 65N12, 73C02, 76D07. Dedicated to Olof B. Widlund

  14. Does leaf manipulation affect leaf appearance in italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanical stimuli such as rubbing, shaking, or flexing plants can alter their growth rates and morphologies. Plant response to mechanical stress can result in delayed plant growth, reduced leaf size, shorten and thicken stems, and reduced yields. Repeated measurements, such as leaf counting or me...

  15. COX-2 inhibitors from stem bark of Bauhinia rufescens Lam. (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Aminu; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the stem bark of Bauhinia rufescens resulted in the isolation of a new cyanoglucoside and menisdaurin from methanol extract and oxepin from petroleum ether extract. The isolated compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory potentials based on the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX-2) model. Cyanoglucoside exhibited the highest activity among the compounds with an inhibition activity of 49.34 % at 100 µM (IC50 0.46 µM) compared to the positive control, indomethacin (79.20 %, IC50 0.24 µM).

  16. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical variations in thirteen Moringa oleifera Lam. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Mulaudzi, Rofhiwa; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Abdelgadir, Hafiz A; du Plooy, Christian P; Van Staden, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    A study was undertaken to assess variation in antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of thirteen Moringa oleifera cultivars obtained from different locations across the globe. Standard antioxidant methods including the DPPH scavenging, ferric reducing power (FRAP) and ?-carotene-linoleic acid model were used to evaluate the activity. Variation in the antioxidant activity was observed, with TOT4951 from Thailand being the most active, with activity five times higher than that of ascorbic acid (reference compound). A different trend was observed for the activity in the FRAP and ?-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae) strains using the microdilution method. Acetone extracts of all cultivars exhibited good antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae (MIC values of 0.78 mg/mL). The remaining extracts exhibited weak activity against the two microorganisms. For the antifungal activity, all the extracts exhibited low activity. Variations were observed in the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Cultivars TOT5169 (Thailand) and SH (South Africa) exhibited highest amounts of total phenolic compounds while TOT5028 (Thailand) exhibited the lowest amounts of five times lower than the highest. The information offer an understanding on variations between cultivars from different geographical locations and is important in the search for antioxidant supplementation and anti-ageing products. PMID:25045889

  17. Touch and Run with Near Field Communication (NFC) Ben Dodson Hristo Bojinov Monica S. Lam

    E-print Network

    Bejerano, Gill

    for contextual application invocation (CAI)--the execu- tion of code on the phone as a result of our environment. NFC, in the form factor of a credit card, has been used widely in Japan and Hong Kong for many years on the phone, facilitated by NFC's RTD architecture [12]. The ubiquity of mobile phones means that most

  18. Modular Multiset Rewriting in Focused Linear Logic Iliano Cervesato and Edmund S. L. Lam

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    15213 Carnegie Mellon University, Qatar campus. The author can be reached at iliano@cmu.edu or sllam@qatar possible by grant NPRP 09-667-1-100, Effective Programming for Large Distributed Ensembles, from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely

  19. Vital technology as a human right By Arthur Lerner-Lam, Leonardo Seeber, and Robert Chen

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    not allow for disaster preparedness. Persistent environmental stress, such as recurring natural disasters about natural disaster occurrence to identify vulnerable regions. Work by both the UN Development, N.Y. - The astounding tragedy in the Indian Ocean is not just a human disaster of unbearable

  20. Analysis of genetic diversity in Chinese sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] germplasm using DNA amplification fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; He, G; Prakash, C S; Lu, S

    1998-01-01

    The genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships in a representative sample of Chinese sweetpotato collection were assessed using the DNA amplification fingerprinting approach. DNA fingerprint profiles were developed for all 42 accessions tested. There were 19-26 bands for each accession and an average of 20.7 such bands were polymorphic. Chinese sweetpotato germplasm tested exhibited a high degree of genetic diversity. Phenetic analysis revealed five major clusters with the following components: (1) landraces from Guangdong Province, (2) landraces from Fujian province, (3) Chinese cultivars, (4) those closely related to Japanese sweetpotato cultivars, and (5) those closely related to the US sweetpotato cv. Nancy Hall. The genetic association observed between accessions was largely consistent with the known pedigree records. The DNA amplification fingerprinting may provide reliable insights into the domestication history of the sweetpotato crop and may be useful in germplasm enhancement. PMID:12296360

  1. Low Profile Rigid UHF RFID Tags K. V. S. Rao, Sander F. Lam, Pavel V. Nikitin

    E-print Network

    Hannaford, Blake

    single layer 60 mil FR4 PCB material. The boards were encapsulated in plastic cases with screw holes. Tag antenna structures etched on FR4. 60 mil FR4 board with tag antenna 112 mm Plastic body Screw is designed for operating on non-metal surfaces (such as plastic and wood) in both ETSI (865-870 MHz) and US

  2. 78 FR 3319 - Amendments to Existing Validated End User Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... FR 49699 (August 16, 2012), has continued the EAR in effect under the International Emergency... on June 19, 2007 (72 FR 33646) to create Authorization VEU. ] Amendment to Existing Validated End... (Mexico) and Reports,'' published July 2, 2012 (77 FR 39354). Former List of Eligible Items for SK...

  3. Benjamin Livshits and Monica S. Lam 1. PHPList Admin Page SQL Injection Vulnerability

    E-print Network

    Livshits, Ben

    Vulnerability 15. MySQL Eventum Multiple Cross-Site Scripting Vulnerabilities 16. MySQL Eventum Multiple SQL_opt_add Heap-Based Buffer Overflow Vulnerability 15. MySQL Eventum Multiple Cross-Site Scripting Vulnerabilities 16. MySQL Eventum Multiple SQL Injection Vulnerabilities 17. AderSoftware CFBB Index.CFM Cross

  4. Studies of sugar composition and starch morphology of baked sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).

    PubMed

    Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lien, Ching-Yi; Liao, Wayne C

    2013-12-01

    Sugar composition of seven sweet potato cultivars was successfully analyzed. Fresh CYY95-26 sweet potatoes had the highest (8.41%) total sugar content while TNG73 had the lowest (4.5%). For these fresh sweet potatoes, maltose content was very low (0?~?0.39%). Because 49.92?~?92.43% of total sugars were sucrose, sucrose was the major sugar composition of fresh sweet potatoes. After the baking treatment, the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes was dramatically increased due to the formation of maltose. The maltose content significantly increased from 0?~?0.39% to 8.81?~?13.97% on dry weight basis. Therefore, maltose should be included in calculating the total sugar content. Electronic micrographs of fresh sweet potato samples showed that the size of starch granules was generally less than 20 ?m. After the baking treatment, starch granules completely gelatinized. PMID:24426034

  5. Underwater Acoustic Modem Using Multi-Carrier Modulation Lam F. Yeung, and Robin S.

    E-print Network

    Bradbeer, Robin Sarah

    channel. Channel imperfections are numerous and, as well as multipaths and water motion, can be due the surface of the water and the sea or lake floor. Previous work at City University of Hong Kong [1-4] has Underwater Systems Laboratory Department of Electronic Engineering City University of Hong Kong Hong Kong

  6. Medicinal potential of Morella serata (Lam.) Killick (Myricaceae) root extracts: biological and pharmacological activities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Morella serata is a South African medicinal plant used in the treatment of microbial infections and to enhance male sexual performance. There is dearth of information in scientific literature on its efficacy and safety. Methods In the present study, the root extracts were investigated for the phytochemicals that may be present the antibacterial, anticandida activity using 96 wells microtitre plate method and cytotoxicity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay. Results The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids. All the extracts including water inhibited both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria strains at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.09 – 6.25 mgmL-1. The best activity was observed in the acetone extract inhibiting all the bacteria tested at MIC range of 0.09 – 0.78 mgmL-1 except Shigella flexneri KZN that was inhibited at 1.56 mgmL-1. Similarly, all the extracts suppressed the growth of all Candida species and Trichophyton mucoides at MIC ranging from 0.13 – 3.13 mgmL-1. The cytotoxicity assay revealed potent cytotoxic potential of M. serata methanol and ethanol root extracts by displaying LC50 of 0.26 and 0.18 ?gmL-1 respectively. Conclusion The results obtained from the present study indicated broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and justifies the use of the plant in the treatment of infectious diseases. Also the species could be a good natural source of antitumor compounds considering its lethality against brine shrimp nauplii. PMID:23829770

  7. Seeding rate and seed size as management techniques for ryegrass (Lolium Multiflorum, Lam) in winter wheat 

    E-print Network

    Cook, Casey Lee

    2005-08-29

    Higher seeding rates and larger seed sizes could enhance the competitiveness of wheat with ryegrass. Growth room and field research evaluated the effects of wheat seeding rates and seed size in competition with Italian ryegrass. Winter wheat seeds...

  8. Copper-catalyzed Chan-Lam coupling between sulfonyl azides and boronic acids at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Moon, Soo-Yeon; Nam, Jungsoo; Rathwell, Kris; Kim, Won-Suk

    2014-01-17

    A mild and efficient method for the synthesis of N-arylsulfonamides in the presence of 10 mol % of CuCl is demonstrated. The reaction proceeds readily at room temperature in an open flask using a variety of sulfonyl azides and boronic acids without any base, ligand, or additive. PMID:24404934

  9. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of genetic variation in Moringa oleifera Lam

    PubMed

    Muluvi; Sprent; Soranzo; Provan; Odee; Folkard; McNicol; Powell

    1999-03-01

    Moringa oleifera is an important multipurpose tree introduced to Africa from India at the turn of this century. Despite limited knowledge of the levels of genetic diversity and relatedness of introduced populations, their utilization as a source of seed for planting is widespread. In order to facilitate reasoned scientific decisions on its management and conservation and prepare for a selective breeding programme, genetic analysis of seven populations was performed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The four pairs of AFLP primers (PstI/MseI) generated a total of 236 amplification products of which 157 (66.5%) were polymorphic between or within populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant differences between regions and populations, even though outcrossing perennial plants are expected to maintain most variation within populations. A phenetic tree illustrating relationships between populations suggested at least two sources of germplasm introductions of Kenya. The high levels of population differentiation detected suggest that provenance source is an important factor in the conservation and exploitation of M. oleifera genetic resources. PMID:10199008

  10. Caihuan Ke K. N. Yu P. K. S. Lam Wen-Xiong Wang

    E-print Network

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    . The calculated uptake rate and initial sorption constant of Cs were directly pro- portional to the ambient Cs, 134 Cs (half-life of 2.1 years) and 137 Cs (half-life of 30.2 years) are the ®s- sion products which

  11. Identification, distribution, and control of triasulfuron-resistant Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in Central Texas 

    E-print Network

    Tucker, Kevin Patrick

    2002-01-01

    more than 60% in either year. Growth chamber studies were conducted to identify the presence of triasulfuron-resistant ryegrass populations in Texas and to identify alternative control measures for such populations. Ryegrass seed samples were collected...

  12. IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program Research Report Form

    E-print Network

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    of phytotoxicity represented is not likely to be an issue. Plant Growth. The growth measurements were quite variable due to the growth habit of this plant (Tables 2 and 6a, Figure 2a). There were no significant chlorosis and necrosis. BAS 656h EC is considered unsafe on Berberis. Plant Growth. Growth of Berberis

  13. Payroll & Records Management University of Delaware

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    of the LAM · Advantages of the LAM · Who is in the LAM LAM Process Flow: #12;Let's talk about Salary Contract Pay #12;Account / Class Chart Use this chart as a guide when entering LAM distributions or completing HR Webforms. (Full chart is in the LAM Procedural Manual) CLASS Ranges Position Types Personnel

  14. Juice of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) inhibits oxytocin-induced increase of the intracellular calcium concentration in human myometrial cells.

    PubMed

    Simões-Wüst, A P; Grãos, M; Duarte, C B; Brenneisen, R; Hamburger, M; Mennet, M; Ramos, M H; Schnelle, M; Wächter, R; Worel, A M; von Mandach, U

    2010-10-01

    The use of preparations from Bryophyllum pinnatum in tocolysis is supported by both clinical (retrospective comparative studies) and experimental (using uterus strips) evidence. We studied here the effect of B. pinnatum juice on the response of cultured human myometrial cells to stimulation by oxytocin, a hormone known to be involved in the control of uterine contractions by increasing the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). In this work, [Ca2+]i was measured online during stimulation of human myometrial cells (hTERT-C3 and M11) with oxytocin, which had been pre-incubated in the absence or in the presence of B. pinnatum juice. Since no functional voltage-gated Ca2+ channels could be detected in these myometrial cells, the effect of B. pinnatum juice was as well studied in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which are known to have such channels and can be depolarised with KCl. B. pinnatum juice prevented the oxytocin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in hTERT-C3 human myometrial cells in a dose-dependent manner, achieving a ca. 80% inhibition at a 2% concentration. Comparable results were obtained with M11 human primary myometrial cells. In hTERT-C3 cells, prevention of the oxytocin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was independent of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration and of voltage-dependent Ca2+-channels. B. pinnatum juice delayed, but did not prevent the depolarization-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, the data suggest a specific and concentration-dependent effect of B. pinnatum juice on the oxytocin signalling pathway, which seems to corroborate its use in tocolysis. Such a specific mechanism would explain the rare and minor side-effects in tocolysis with B. pinnatum as well as its high therapeutic index. PMID:20381326

  15. [Functional states of the antioxidant enzymatic complex of tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. under conditions of oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Soldatov, A A; Gostyukhina, O L; Golovina, I V

    2014-01-01

    There are generalized materials on reaction of enzymatic antioxidant (AO) complex of tissues of molluscs of the genus Mytilus to oxidative loading of different intensity. It is shown that with increase of level of oxidative stress, a rise of activity of glutathione peroxidase (GP) and glutathione reductase (GR) is observed, as well as the rate of glutathione (GSH) in tissues also increases. Then the toxic loading is compensated by a rise of activities of enzymes of low affinity to hydroperoxides, specifically of catalase. In the glutathione system, it is possible to identify several relatively steady states: of low, moderate, and highly intensive processes. In several tissues, functioning of the AO system seems to be directed not to rendering harmless, but to generation of reactive oxygen species (O2-, superoxide dismutase), which is likely to be determined by specificity of their running processes (destruction of damaged byssus theads). The molluscan AO complex is characterized by high lability and sensitivity both to physiological states (spawning) and to action of factors of anthropogenic nature (cationic detergents). Reactions of AO complex of the mussel to the natural states and to toxic action are comparable between each other, which is necessary to be taken into account at diagnostics of the aquatic medium. PMID:25775851

  16. HC-Search for Structured Prediction in Computer Vision Michael Lam, Janardhan Rao Doppa, Sinisa Todorovic, and Thomas G. Dietterich

    E-print Network

    Todorovic, Sinisa

    that function. At prediction time, this approach must solve an often-challenging optimization problem. Search problems; it has already shown the state-of-the-art performance on structured prediction prob- lems global energy function and then solving a global optimization problem, as is done in these approaches, HC

  17. Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam.

    PubMed

    Rathi Sre, P R; Reka, M; Poovazhagi, R; Arul Kumar, M; Murugesan, K

    2015-01-25

    Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines. PMID:25189525

  18. Toxic Ipomeamarone accumulation in healthy parts of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) storage roots upon infection by Rhizopus stolonifer.

    PubMed

    Wamalwa, Lydia N; Cheseto, Xavier; Ouna, Elizabeth; Kaplan, Fatma; Maniania, Nguya K; Machuka, Jesse; Torto, Baldwyn; Ghislain, Marc

    2015-01-14

    Furanoterpenoid accumulation in response to microbial attack in rotting sweetpotatoes has long been linked to deaths and lung edema of cattle in the world. However, it is not known whether furanoterpenoid ipomeamarone accumulates in the healthy-looking parts of infected sweetpotato storage roots. This is critical for effective utilization as animal feed and assessment of the potential negative impact on human health. Therefore, we first identified the fungus from infected sweetpotatoes as a Rhizopus stolonifer strain and then used it to infect healthy sweetpotato storage roots for characterization of furanoterpenoid content. Ipomeamarone and its precursor, dehydroipomeamarone, were identified through spectroscopic analyses, and detected in all samples and controls at varying concentrations. Ipomeamarone concentration was at toxic levels in healthy-looking parts of some samples. Our study provides fundamental information on furanoterpenoids in relation to high levels reported that could subsequently affect cattle on consumption and high ipomeamarone levels in healthy-looking parts. PMID:25418792

  19. Effect of heat–moisture treatment on digestibility of different cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam) starch

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K K D S; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Different heat–moisture levels were applied to native starches from different cultivars of sweet potatoes available in Sri Lanka (Wariyapola red, Wariyapola white, Pallepola variety, Malaysian variety and CARI 273) to study the digestibility level. Samples were treated with 20, 25, and 30% moisture at 85°C and 120°C for 6 h and in vitro starch digestibility was tested with porcine pancreatin enzyme. A range of 19.3–23.5% digestibility was shown by the native starches with no significant difference (P < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the digestibility level of the hydrothermally modified starches and the moisture content showed a positive impact on the digestibility. Heat–moisture treatment at 85°C brought an overall increase in digestibility and temperature beyond 85°C had a negative impact. No significant difference (P < 0.05) in the digestibility was observed with 20% and 25% moisture at 85°C and increased level were seen at 85°C and 30% moisture. PMID:25473497

  20. Genetic Dissection of New Genotypes of Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker

    PubMed Central

    Rufai, Shamsuddeen; Hanafi, M. M.; Rafii, M. Y.; Ahmad, S.; Arolu, I. W.; Ferdous, Jannatul

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of genetic diversity of tree crop is very important for breeding and improvement program for the purpose of improving the yield and quality of its produce. Genetic diversity study and analysis of genetic relationship among 20 Moringa oleifera were carried out with the aid of twelve primers from, random amplified polymorphic DNA marker. The seeds of twenty M. oleifera genotypes from various origins were collected and germinated and raised in nursery before transplanting to the field at University Agricultural Park (TPU). Genetic diversity parameter, such as Shannon's information index and expected heterozygosity, revealed the presence of high genetic divergence with value of 1.80 and 0.13 for Malaysian population and 0.30 and 0.19 for the international population, respectively. Mean of Nei's gene diversity index for the two populations was estimated to be 0.20. In addition, a dendrogram constructed, using UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance, grouped the twenty M. oleifera into five distinct clusters. The study revealed a great extent of variation which is essential for successful breeding and improvement program. From this study, M. oleifera genotypes of wide genetic origin, such as T-01, T-06, M-01, and M-02, are recommended to be used as parent in future breeding program. PMID:23862149

  1. Main extracts and hypolipidemic effects of the Bauhinia racemosa Lam. leaf extract in HFD-fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya P; Srivastava, Anuj; Puri, Anju

    2013-01-01

    The lipid lowering effects of ethanolic extract (BR) obtained from leaves of Bauhinia racemosa on hyperlipidemic hamsters were examined. BR showed significant lowering of lipid profile at a dose of 250 mg kg(-1) body-wt of hamster. Chloroform fraction (F2) obtained from BR showed pronounced activity at lower dose of 100 mg kg(-1). F2 gave two most active fractions (L and T) whose chromatographic separations led to the isolation of constituents 1-5, which are being reported for the first time from this natural source. The results of activity profile of the plant were found to be better than the standard drug lovastatin. PMID:22840186

  2. 75 FR 29722 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ...electrical transformers, electromagnetic couplings, batteries, induction equipment, electrothermic appliances, speakers, amplifiers, magnetic and optical media, monitors, electrical circuitry and components, lamps, wiring, cable, electrical...

  3. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status. PMID:24198710

  4. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivated as tuber or leafy vegetable supplier as affected by elevated tropospheric ozone.

    PubMed

    Keutgen, Norbert; Keutgen, Anna J; Janssens, Marc J J

    2008-08-13

    Sweet potato cultivars respond differently to elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations of ca. 130 mug m (-3), 8 h a day for 4 weeks, which affects their selection for cultivation. In the first cultivar presented here, an adequate leafy vegetable supplier, the ozone load resulted in a shift of biomass to maintain the canopy at the expense of tuber development. Starch content of leaves was reduced, indicating an impairment of quality, but carotenoid content remained stable. The second cultivar may be grown for tuber production. Although the ratio tuber/plant remained stable under ozone, tuber yield and its starch content were significantly reduced. The lower starch content indicated a worse quality for certain industrial processing, but it is desirable for chip production. Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations also influenced free amino acids and macronutrient contents of tubers, but these modifications were of minor significance for tuber quality in the second cultivar. PMID:18593180

  5. The Collective: A Cache-Based System Management Architecture Ramesh Chandra Nickolai Zeldovich Constantine Sapuntzakis Monica S. Lam

    E-print Network

    imposing little performance overhead. 1 Introduction With the transition from mainframe computing to per academically [15, 8] and commercially [2]. Reminis- cent of mainframe computing, computation is performed

  6. On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

    2013-01-01

    New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change. PMID:23531982

  7. Interacting with a Personal Cubic 3D Display Billy Lam, Ian Stavness, Ryan Barr, and Sidney Fels

    E-print Network

    British Columbia, University of

    simulation engine to show dynamic, reactive virtual objects that appear to behave with realistic physicsCubee by bouncing cows around inside the box. Therefore we have demonstrated and evaluated a number of interaction; the rolling ball is used to navigate through the scene. 3.1 Static Objects Inside Box A natural interaction

  8. Teapot: Language Support for Writing Memory Coherence Protocols Satish Chandra, Brad Richards, and James R.Lams

    E-print Network

    Richards, Brad

    an application's needs. An example of such an architecture, the one on which this work is based, is the Tempest at user-level, i.e., as unpriviledged code running in an applica- tion program [14, 23]. With Tempest, an

  9. Carotenoids gene markers for sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam): applications in genetic mapping, diversity evaluation and cross-species transference.

    PubMed

    Arizio, C M; Costa Tártara, S M; Manifesto, M M

    2014-04-01

    Carotenoids play essential biological roles in plants, and genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway are evolutionarily conserved. Orange sweetpotato is an important source of ?-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A. In spite of this, only a few research studies have focussed on the molecular aspects of carotenoid genes regarding their specific sequence and structure. In this study, we used published carotenoid gene sequences from Ipomoea and other species for "exon-primed intron-crossing" approaches. Fifteen pairs of primers representing six carotenoid genes were designed for different introns, eleven of which amplified scorable and reproducible alleles. The sequence of PCR products showed high homology to the original ones. Moreover, the structure and sequence of the introns and exons from five carotenoid structural genes were partially defined. Intron length polymorphism and intron single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in amplified sequences. Marker dosages and allelic segregations were analysed in a mapping population. The developed markers were evaluated in a set of Ipomoeas batatas accessions so as to analyse genetic diversity and conservation applicability. Using CG strategy combined with EPIC-PCR technique, we developed carotenoid gene markers in sweetpotato. We reported the first set of polymorphic Candidate Gene markers for I. batatas, and demonstrated transferability in seven wild Ipomoea species. We described the sequence and structure of carotenoid genes and introduced new information about genomic constitution and allele dosage. PMID:24384928

  10. Exchange-Correlation Energy Density from Virial Theorem Federico G. Cruz, Kin-Chung Lam, and Kieron Burke*

    E-print Network

    Burke, Kieron

    be approximated as a functional of the spin densities. The local spin density (LSD) approximation Exc LSD has long of exact exchange with GGA exchange-correlation. Typical bond energy errors are about 30 kcal/mol in LSD, 8, some have spurious extrema, and overall, look worse than their LSD counterparts. So how do they produce

  11. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on digestibility of different cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam) starch.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K K D S; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-07-01

    Different heat-moisture levels were applied to native starches from different cultivars of sweet potatoes available in Sri Lanka (Wariyapola red, Wariyapola white, Pallepola variety, Malaysian variety and CARI 273) to study the digestibility level. Samples were treated with 20, 25, and 30% moisture at 85°C and 120°C for 6 h and in vitro starch digestibility was tested with porcine pancreatin enzyme. A range of 19.3-23.5% digestibility was shown by the native starches with no significant difference (P < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the digestibility level of the hydrothermally modified starches and the moisture content showed a positive impact on the digestibility. Heat-moisture treatment at 85°C brought an overall increase in digestibility and temperature beyond 85°C had a negative impact. No significant difference (P < 0.05) in the digestibility was observed with 20% and 25% moisture at 85°C and increased level were seen at 85°C and 30% moisture. PMID:25473497

  12. Comparative analysis of nutritional quality of five different cultivars of sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas (L) Lam) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Suraji A; Ranaweera, K K D S; Gunaratne, Anil; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2013-07-01

    Nutritional attributes of flours obtained from five different cultivars of sweet potato roots commonly available in Sri Lanka showed significant differences in the tested parameters. The starch level ranged between 33% and 64% on the dry basis and the extractability from fresh tubers was governed by the quantity of starch. The crude fiber level ranged between 2.1% and 13.6% on dry basis and the highest level was observed in swp7 (CARI 273) and resistant starch ranged from 14.2% to 17.2%. Higher percentage of resistant starch from total starch was found in Wariyapola red (swp1) cultivar resulting in lower digestion level while higher levels of digestion was evident in cultivars with lower levels of resistant starch with high level of total starch. Low levels of calcium and significant levels of iron were found in the five cultivars studied. Crude protein level was in the range of 1.2-3.3% on dry basis and trypsin inhibitor activity level (TIA) was significantly different (P > 0.05) in the cultivars studied while heating resulted in a significantly high reduction in the TIA level than in unheated condition. Polygonal or round shaped starch granules were in the range of 16.8-23.5 ?m and low level of starch digestion was shown in cultivars containing larger granules. Total amylose content lies in the range 15.4-19.6% and cultivars having higher percentage of amylose showed higher level of in vitro pancreatic digestion (Pallepola [swp4] and swp7). The starch digestibility of sweet potato flour was in the range of 36-55% and the highest digestion was observed in swp7. Orange fleshed cultivars (swp4 and swp7) were comparatively rich in nutrients and digestibility than the other three studied cultivars. PMID:24804032

  13. Effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars.

    PubMed

    Dincer, Cuneyt; Karaoglan, Mert; Erden, Fidan; Tetik, Nedim; Topuz, Ayhan; Ozdemir, Feramuz

    2011-11-01

    The effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of three sweet potato cultivars (Beniazuma, Koganesengan, Kotobuki) cultivated in Turkey were investigated. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition, total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, ?-carotene, antiradical activity, and free sugars. The dry matter, protein, and starch contents of the sweet potatoes were significantly changed by the treatments while the ash and crude fiber contents did not differ as significantly. The ?-carotene contents of baked and boiled sweet potatoes were lower than those of fresh sweet potatoes; however, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of the baked and boiled sweet potatoes were higher than those of the fresh samples. Generally, the antiradical activity of the sweet potatoes increased with the treatments. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose were quantified as free sugars in all fresh sweet potatoes; however, maltose was determined in the treated samples. In terms of the analyzed parameters, there were no explicit differences among the sweet potato cultivars. PMID:22101780

  14. Toxic Ipomeamarone Accumulation in Healthy Parts of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Storage Roots upon Infection by Rhizopus stolonifer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Furanoterpenoid accumulation in response to microbial attack in rotting sweetpotatoes has long been linked to deaths and lung edema of cattle in the world. However, it is not known whether furanoterpenoid ipomeamarone accumulates in the healthy-looking parts of infected sweetpotato storage roots. This is critical for effective utilization as animal feed and assessment of the potential negative impact on human health. Therefore, we first identified the fungus from infected sweetpotatoes as a Rhizopus stolonifer strain and then used it to infect healthy sweetpotato storage roots for characterization of furanoterpenoid content. Ipomeamarone and its precursor, dehydroipomeamarone, were identified through spectroscopic analyses, and detected in all samples and controls at varying concentrations. Ipomeamarone concentration was at toxic levels in healthy-looking parts of some samples. Our study provides fundamental information on furanoterpenoids in relation to high levels reported that could subsequently affect cattle on consumption and high ipomeamarone levels in healthy-looking parts. PMID:25418792

  15. Environmental Hydraulics and Sustainable Water Management Lee & Lam (eds) 2005 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 04 1536 546 5

    E-print Network

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    . The airport is located at the upward discharge zone of the Lantau groundwater flow system. Based larger than the airport. The airport is located at the upward discharge zone of the Lantau groundwater Group, London, ISBN 04 1536 546 5 Preliminary numerical study on groundwater system at the Hong Kong

  16. Evaluation of seasonal chemical composition, antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Tenfen, Adrielli; Yamanaka, Celina Noriko; de Cordova, Caio Maurício Mendes; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Alberton, Michele Debiasi

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the seasonal composition and the antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis leaves. Analysis by using GC allowed the identification of 40 compounds. It was observed that the monoterpenes varied more (42%) than the sesquiterpenes (14%), and that the monoterpene hydrocarbons suffered the greatest variation throughout the year (64%). Major compounds were spathulenol in the spring (16.02 ± 0.44%) and summer (18.17 ± 0.41%), ?-cadinol in the autumn (12.83 ± 0.03%) and ?-pinene (15.94 ± 0.58%) in the winter. Essential oils were tested for their antibacterial activity, and the best result was obtained from the autumn oil, with MIC = 500 ?g mL(- 1) against Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, lipid peroxidation and iron-reducing power assays, as well as the anticholinesterase activity. Both tests showed a weak performance of the essential oils. PMID:25219800

  17. A synthetic approach to N-aryl carbamates via copper-catalyzed Chan-Lam coupling at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Moon, Soo-Yeon; Kim, U Bin; Sung, Dan-Bi; Kim, Won-Suk

    2015-02-01

    A mild and efficient synthesis of N-arylcarbamates was achieved by reacting azidoformates with boronic acids in the presence of 10 mol % of copper chloride catalyst. The reaction proceeds readily in an open flask at room temperature without additional base, ligand, or additive. Rapid access to urea analogues via a two-step one-pot procedure is enabled by reacting N-arylcarbamates with aluminum-amine complexes. In addition, among several boronic acid derivatives prepared, dimethylphenyl boronate was found to react rapidly in its reaction with benzyl azidoformate, invoking in situ generation of this species in the catalytic cycle. PMID:25584697

  18. UHF RFID TAG CHARACTERIZATION: OVERVIEW AND STATE-OF-THE-ART Pavel Nikitin, KVS Rao, Sander Lam

    E-print Network

    Hannaford, Blake

    wireless systems where active transceivers communicate with each other. RFID transceiver (reader) transmits isolation. In general, the stronger is the self-jammer, the worse is the reader sensitivity. #12;Note

  19. Effect of Growth Regulators on In Vitro Morphogenic Response of Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. Poir. Using Mature Zygotic Embryos Explants

    PubMed Central

    Daffalla, Hussien H.; Abdellatef, Eltayb; Elhadi, Elsadig A.; Khalafalla, Mutasim M.

    2011-01-01

    The percent study describes the in vitro responses of mature zygotic embryos of Boscia senegalensis to different concentrations (0.0–5.0?mg/L) of 6-benzyladnine (BA), Thidiazuron (TDZ), ?-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) supplemented on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS). The plant growth regulators (PGRs) were considerably affected the morphogenetic responses. BA produced adventitious shoots through two ways: direct organogenesis and auxiliary shoot formation. Both 2, 4-D and TDZ tend to produce callus, whereas NAA improve the development of embryos to seedlings. Maximum number of shoots/explant (14.8 ± 0.6) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 3.0?mg/L BA. 67.0% of excised shoots were rooted either on 1/2 MS medium augmented with or without 0.25?mg/L IBA. The highest number of roots (1.2 ± 0.4) and root length (0.5 ± 0.2?cm) was produced on 0.25?mg/L IBA-containing medium. Regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized and transferred to the green house with 70% survival rate. All the plants appeared morphologically uniform with normal growth pattern. A rapid (30 days), efficient and without subculturing protocol for in vitro regeneration of B. senegalensis was developed. PMID:21687567

  20. RESEARCH ARTICLE Rural housing is related to plant invasions in forests

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    strongly associated with rural housing and fragmentation. Berberis thumbergii and Rosa multiflora were asso,000 are a threat to the native flora and fauna (Morse et al. 1995; National Parks Service 2005). The ecological

  1. Marvell NanoLab Member login Lab Manual Contents MercuryWeb Berkeley Microlab Chapter 1.8

    E-print Network

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    required for chuck change) NO cpa CPA three-target sputterer See Note cpd Critical Point Drying" gnpcmp G&P Technology POLI-500 DC CMP machine See Note headway1 Headway spinner in Msink3 headway2 Note NO lam6 Lam 4526 Oxide Etch oxide and nitride films See Note NO lam7 Lam Research 9626 Aluminum

  2. Protective effects of friedelin isolated from Azima tetracantha Lam. against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats and possible underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Antonisamy, Paulrayer; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Aravinthan, Adithan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Choi, Ki Choon; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    The current study was aimed to investigate the gastroprotective effects of friedelin isolated from the hexane extract of leaves of Azima tetracantha. Ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model was used to investigate the gastroprotective effects of friedelin. Antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, gastric vascular permeability, pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis level have been investigated. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and friedelin pretreatment protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities, anti-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) and mucus weight have been increased significantly. However, the vascular permeability, pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3 and apoptosis level have significantly been decreased after friedelin ingestion. The present study has clearly demonstrated the anti-ulcer potential of friedelin, these findings suggested that friedelin could be a new useful natural gastroprotective tool against gastric ulcer. PMID:25617794

  3. Fungistatic activity of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. bark extracts against fungal plant pathogens and investigation on mechanism of action in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, Gennaro; Carrieri, Raffaele; Tarantino, Paola; Alfieri, Mariaevelina; Leone, Antonella; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Lahoz, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived compounds are emerging as an alternative choice to synthetic fungicides. Chloroform-methanol extract, obtained from the bark of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a member of Rutaceae, showed a fungistatic effect on Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Clonostachys rosea, when added to the growth medium at different concentrations. A fraction obtained by gel separation and containing the alkaloid O-Methylcapaurine showed significant fungistatic effect against B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, two of the most destructive phytopathogenic fungi. The underlying mechanism of such an inhibition was further investigated in B. cinerea, a fungus highly prone to develop fungicide resistance, by analysing the expression levels of a set of genes (BcatrB, P450, CYP51 and TOR). O-Methylcapaurine inhibited the expression of all the analysed genes. In particular, the expression of BcatrB gene, encoding a membrane drug transporter involved in the resistance to a wide range of xenobiotic compounds, was strongly inhibited (91%). PMID:25589008

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Artemisia umbelliformis Lam, an endangered aromatic species in Southern French Alps, influence plant P and essential oil contents.

    PubMed

    Binet, Marie-Noëlle; van Tuinen, Diederik; Deprêtre, Nicolas; Koszela, Nathalie; Chambon, Catherine; Gianinazzi, Silvio

    2011-08-01

    Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi of Artemisia umbelliformis, investigated in natural and cultivated sites in the Southern Alps of France, showed typical structures (arbuscules, vesicles, hyphae) as well as spores and mycelia in its rhizosphere. Several native AM fungi belonging to different Glomeromycota genera were identified as colonizers of A. umbelliformis roots, including Glomus tenue, Glomus intraradices, G. claroideum/etunicatum and a new Acaulospora species. The use of the highly mycorrhizal species Trifolium pratense as a companion plant impacted positively on mycorrhizal colonization of A. umbelliformis under greenhouse conditions. The symbiotic performance of an alpine microbial community including native AM fungi used as inoculum on A. umbelliformis was evaluated in greenhouse conditions by comparison with mycorrhizal responses of two other alpine Artemisia species, Artemisia glacialis and Artemisia genipi Weber. Contrary to A. genipi Weber, both A. umbelliformis and A. glacialis showed a significant increase of P concentration in shoots. Volatile components were analyzed by GC-MS in shoots of A. umbelliformis 6 months after inoculation. The alpine microbial inoculum increased significantly the percentage of E-?-ocimene and reduced those of E-2-decenal and (E,E)-2-4-decadienal indicating an influence of alpine microbial inoculum on essential oil production. This work provides practical indications for the use of native AM fungi for A. umbelliformis field culture. PMID:21243378

  5. African eggplant (Solanum anguivi Lam.) fruit with bioactive polyphenolic compounds exerts in vitro antioxidant properties and inhibits Ca2+-induced mitochondrial swelling

    PubMed Central

    Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Bolingon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Lopes, Seeger Rodrigo; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Kade, Ige Joseph; Adanlawo, Isaac Gbadura; Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of Solanum anguivi fruit (SAG) and its possible effect on mitochondrial permeability transition pore as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) isolated from rat liver. Methods Antioxidant activity of SAG was assayed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, iron chelation and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in both liver and brain homogenate of rats. Also, the effect of SAG on mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial swelling were determined. Identification and quantification of bioactive polyphenolics was done by HPLC-DAD. Results SAG exhibited potent and concentration dependent free radical-scavenging activity (IC50/DPPH=275.03±7.8 µg/mL). Reductive and iron chelation abilities also increase with increase in SAG concentration. SAG also inhibited peroxidation of cerebral and hepatic lipids subjected to iron oxidative assault. SAG protected against Ca2+ (110 µmol/L)-induced mitochondrial swelling and maintained the ??m. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid [(17.54±0.04) mg/g], chlorogenic acid (21.90±0.02 mg/g), caffeic acid (16.64±0.01 mg/g), rutin [(14.71±0.03) mg/g] and quercetin [(7.39±0.05) mg/g]. Conclusions These effects could be attributed to the bioactive polyphenolic compounds present in the extract. Our results suggest that SAG extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants that may be used not only in pharmaceutical and food industry but also in the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:24075339

  6. The Antidiabetic Effect of Low Doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; El Rabey, Haddad A.

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100?mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and ?-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100?mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group. PMID:25629046

  7. Production of 4-ipomeanol, an anticancer agent from the root tubers and rhizogenic callus of Ipomoea batatas Lam.: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mohanraj, Remya; Subha, S

    2015-05-01

    A comparative study was done on the production of 4-ipomeanol from root tubers of Ipomoea batatas and its rhizogenic callus. Best callusing response was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 11 ?M NAA (?-Naphthaleneacetic acid) and 1 ?M KIN (Kinetin). Effect of various elicitors (Fusarium solani, chitin and chitosan) on the production of 4-ipomeanol was studied. Methanol extract of the samples were purified by column chromatography and detected using TLC. Identification of 4-ipomeanol was confirmed using HPLC and quantified spectrophotometrically. A mass spectrum was recorded to confirm the presence of 4-ipomeanol. The calli grown under chitin produced highest (6.61mg g(-1)) amount of 4-ipomeanol. This is the first report on in vitro production of 4-ipomeanol from I. batatas. Since 4-ipomeanol is reported to be present only in I. batatas, this study would help in standardizing protocols for large scale production without affecting its natural flora. PMID:26040027

  8. Identification of low-Cd cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) after growing on Cd-contaminated soil: uptake and partitioning to the edible roots.

    PubMed

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Dai, Hongwen; Zhou, Wenjing; Peng, Lijing

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination in agricultural products presents a threat to humans when consumed. Sweet potato is the world's seventh most important food crop. The aims of this study were to screen for low-Cd sweet potato cultivars and clarify the mechanisms of low-Cd accumulation in edible roots. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the variation of Cd uptake and translocation among 30 sweet potato cultivars grown in contaminated soils with three different Cd concentrations. Cadmium concentrations in edible roots were significantly different among cultivars and were significantly affected by Cd treatment, and the interaction between cultivar and Cd treatment. High-Cd cultivars have higher ratios of edible root/shoot Cd concentration and edible root/feeder root Cd concentration than low-Cd cultivars; however, the ratio of shoot/feeder root Cd concentration seems unrelated to the ability of Cd accumulation in edible roots. Four sweet potato cultivars, Nan88 (No. 10), Xiang20 (No. 12), Ji78-066 (No. 15), and Ji73-427 (No. 16), were identified as low-Cd cultivars. Cadmium translocation from feeder roots to edible roots via the xylem, and from shoots to edible roots via the phloem, controls Cd accumulation in edible roots of sweet potato cultivars. PMID:25860549

  9. A Nonhost Peptidase Inhibitor of ~14?kDa from Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. Seeds Affects Negatively the Growth and Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Prabhash K.; Singh, Dushyant; Singh, Sangram; Khan, M. Y.; Jamal, Farrukh

    2014-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is one of the major devastating pests of crop plants. In this context a serine peptidase inhibitor purified from the seeds of Butea monosperma was evaluated for its effect on developmental physiology of H. armigera larvae. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor on 12% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis exhibited a single protein band of ~14?kDa with or without reduction. In vitro studies towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera and bovine trypsin indicated measurable inhibitory activity. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor dose for 50% mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 0.5% w/w and 0.10% w/w, respectively. The IC50 of B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor against total H. armigera gut proteinases activity was 2.0?µg/mL. The larval feeding assays suggested B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor to be toxic as reflected by its retarded growth and development, consequently affecting fertility and fecundity of pest and prolonging the larval-pupal duration of the insect life cycle of H. armigera. Supplementing B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor in artificial diet at 0.1% w/w, both the efficiencies of conversion of ingested as well as digested food were downregulated, whereas approximate digestibility and metabolic cost were enhanced. The efficacy of Butea monosperma peptidase inhibitor against progressive growth and development of H. armigera suggest its usefulness in insect pest management of food crops. PMID:24860667

  10. New furanoflavanoids, intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and free-radical (DPPH) scavenging, activity from antihyperglycemic root extract of Derris indica (Lam.).

    PubMed

    Ranga Rao, R; Tiwari, Ashok K; Prabhakar Reddy, P; Suresh Babu, K; Ali, Amtul Z; Madhusudana, K; Madhusudana Rao, J

    2009-07-15

    A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical examination of antihyperglycemic root extract of Derris indica resulted in isolation and characterization of two new furanoflavanoids (1, 2) along with thirteen known compounds (3-15). Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR) data analysis and by comparison with the literature data. All the compounds were tested in vitro for intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and DPPH radical activity. New compounds (1, 2) displayed moderate intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitory as well as free radical scavenging activity. Other compounds also displayed varying degrees of moderate intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Pongamol (6) displayed potent intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibition. PMID:19515570

  11. Effect Of Phonemic Cuing On Recall Of Personally Relevant Names Derived From Email Allyson C. Rosen 1 , Ankit Mathur 2; Monica Lam 2; Sudheendra Hangal 2

    E-print Network

    Lam, Monica

    Effect Of Phonemic Cuing On Recall Of Personally Relevant Names Derived From Email Abstract Everyone has had the experience of struggling to recall a proper name. Previous studies of proper name recall typically focus on recall of people's names

  12. The movement of air in and out of the lungs is accom-plished by the contraction of voluntary muscles (Lam-

    E-print Network

    of the mammalian fetus and newborn con- tains significant amounts of afferent input (Fifer & Moon, 1988; Gerhardt, 1992; Vince, Billing, Baldwin, Toner, & Weller, 1985). Around the time of birth, the fetus is ex- posed to the organization of postpartum behavior. During parturition, the fetus experiences repeated, strong uterine

  13. Butanolic fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) attenuates isoprotrenol-induced cardiac necrosis and oxidative stress in rats: an EPR study

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Sunanda

    2015-01-01

    The preventive effect of Moringa oleifera polyphenolic fraction (MOPF) on cardiac damage was evaluated in isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiotoxicity model of Wistar rats. Male rats in different groups were treated with MOPF orally at the dose of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day for 28 days and were subsequently administered (s.c.) with ISO (85 mg/kg body weight) for the last two days. At the end of the experiment levels of serum troponin-T, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, content of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities/levels of different cellular antioxidants were estimated in control and experimental groups. Additionally, scavenging potential to the hydroxyl radical of the fraction was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). ISO administered rats showed significant increase in the levels of serum troponin-I, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and heart tissue MDA content. Furthermore, marked reduction in the activities of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were observed. EPR study showed an increase in signal intensity in ISO-induced rats. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of heart section revealed a marked increase in infarcted area in ISO-induced rats. Histological features of the heart also indicated a disruption in the structure of cardiac myofibrils in these animals. MOPF (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment prevented all these adverse effects of ISO. Present results show that the rich polyphenolic content of Moringa oleifera significantly reduced the myocardial damage and decreased the oxidative stress, possibly through hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as evidenced from the EPR spectra. PMID:26417351

  14. Butanolic fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) attenuates isoprotrenol-induced cardiac necrosis and oxidative stress in rats: an EPR study.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sunanda

    2015-01-01

    The preventive effect of Moringa oleifera polyphenolic fraction (MOPF) on cardiac damage was evaluated in isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiotoxicity model of Wistar rats. Male rats in different groups were treated with MOPF orally at the dose of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day for 28 days and were subsequently administered (s.c.) with ISO (85 mg/kg body weight) for the last two days. At the end of the experiment levels of serum troponin-T, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, content of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities/levels of different cellular antioxidants were estimated in control and experimental groups. Additionally, scavenging potential to the hydroxyl radical of the fraction was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). ISO administered rats showed significant increase in the levels of serum troponin-I, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and heart tissue MDA content. Furthermore, marked reduction in the activities of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were observed. EPR study showed an increase in signal intensity in ISO-induced rats. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of heart section revealed a marked increase in infarcted area in ISO-induced rats. Histological features of the heart also indicated a disruption in the structure of cardiac myofibrils in these animals. MOPF (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment prevented all these adverse effects of ISO. Present results show that the rich polyphenolic content of Moringa oleifera significantly reduced the myocardial damage and decreased the oxidative stress, possibly through hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as evidenced from the EPR spectra. PMID:26417351

  15. The antidiabetic effect of low doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in male rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; El Rabey, Haddad A

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100?mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and ?-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100?mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group. PMID:25629046

  16. Chemical composition and general toxicity of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of Artemisia armeniaca Lam. and A. incana (L.) Druce growing in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mojarrab, M; Delazar, A; Esnaashari, S; Afshar, F Heshmati

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils of the aerial parts of A. armeniaca and A. incana, collected from Arasbaran area (East Azarbaijan province, Iran) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. In total, 16 and 40 constituents were identified and quantified in the oils of A. armeniaca and A. incana representing 80.5% and 84.6% of the oils, respectively. The essential oil of A. armeniaca was mainly composed of non-terpene hydrocarbons (24.8%). The major components of the oil were ?-pinene (10.7%), nonadecane (10.0%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (9.4%), spathulenol (7.8%) and Z-verbenol (5.8%). The essential oil of A. incana was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (41.6%), with camphor (20.4%), 1,8-cineol (10.3%), Z-verbenol (8.7%), ?-thujone (8.3%) and ?-thujone (5.6%), as major components. The essential oils were also subjected to general toxicity assay using brine shrimp lethality method. The toxicity profile of both oils indicated some degree of toxicity in comparison with podophyllotoxin. PMID:24459478

  17. Herbicidal activity of Brassicaceae seed meal on wild oat (Avena fatua), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an on-going need for the development of sustainable methods of weed control in crop production systems. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different Brassicaceae seed meals and application rates on the emergence of several weed species including wild oat, Italian rye grass, ...

  18. Phytoremediation potential of Cd and Zn by wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta L. Schott., Cyperus malaccensis Lam. and Typha angustifolia L. grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Chayapan, P; Kruatrachue, M; Meetam, M; Pokethitiyook, P

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium and zinc phytoremediation potential of wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta, Cyperus malaccensis, and Typha angustifolia, was investigated. Plants were grown for 15 days in nutrient solutions containing various concentrations of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg l(-1)) and Zn (0, 10, 20, 50, 100 mg l(-1)). T angustifolia was tolerant to both metals as indicated by high RGR when grown in 50 mg I(-1) Cd and 100 mg I(-1) Zn solutions. All these plants accumulated more metals in their underground parts and > 100 mg kg(-1) in their aboveground with TF values < 1. Only C. esculenta could be considered a Zn hyperaccumulator because it could concentrate > 10,000 mg kg(-1) in its aboveground parts with TF > 1. T angustifolia exhibited highest biomass production and highest Cd and Zn uptake, confirming that this plant is a suitable candidate for treating of Cd contaminated soil/sediments. PMID:26521563

  19. DCEG Award Recipients - Anand Pathak, MD, PhD, MPH, Olusegun Onabajo, PhD, Clara Lam, PhD, MPH

    Cancer.gov

    To understand the role of IFN-?4 during HCV infection, we performed detailed functional analysis of IFN-?4. We suggest that a pathogenic effect of IFN-?4 expression in human hepatic cells is associated with inhibition of cell proliferation causing increased cell death and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Chronic induction of IFN-?4 in HCV-infected hepatocytes leading to cell death and tissue repair may result in hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, which are relevant factors affecting clearance of HCV and, possibly progression to hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Parsing dimensional versus diagnostic category-related patterns of reward circuitry function in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study

    PubMed Central

    Bebko, Genna; Bertocci, Michele A.; Fournier, Jay C.; Hinze, Amanda K.; Bonar, Lisa; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Perlman, Susan B.; Versace, Amelia; Schirda, Claudiu; Travis, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Demeter, Christine; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Ciuffetelli, Gary; Rodriguez, Eric; Olino, Thomas; Forbes, Erika; Sunshine, Jeffrey L.; Holland, Scott K; Kowatch, Robert. A.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Fristad, Mary. A; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Context Pediatric disorders characterized by behavioral and emotional dysregulation pose diagnostic and treatment challenges because of high comorbidity, suggesting that they may be better conceptualized dimensionally rather than categorically. Identifying neuroimaging measures associated with behavioral and emotional dysregulation in youth may inform understanding of underlying dimensional vs. disorder-specific pathophysiology. Objective Identify, in a large cohort of behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth, neuroimaging measures that: 1) are associated with behavioral and emotional dysregulation pathological dimensions (behavioral and emotional dysregulation measured with the Parent General Behavior Inventory 10 Item Mania Scale [PGBI-10M], mania, depression, anxiety); or 2) differentiate diagnostic categories(BPSD, ADHD, anxiety, disruptive behavior disorders (DBD)). Design Multi-site neuroimaging study(February 2011–April 2012). Setting Academic medical centers: Case Western Reserve University, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, University of Pittsburgh. Patients Referred sample of behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth(n=85) from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms study and healthy youth (n=20). Main Outcome Measures Region-of-interest analyses examined relationships among prefrontal-ventral striatal reward circuitry during a reward paradigm (Win, Loss, control conditions), symptom dimensions, and diagnostic categories. Results Regardless of diagnosis, higher PGBI-10M scores were associated with greater left middle prefrontal cortical (mPFC; r=0.28), and greater levels of anxiety with greater right dorsal anterior cingulate cortical (dACC; r=0.27), activity to Win. The 20 highest (t=2.75) and 20 lowest (t=2.42) PGBI-10M scoring youth showed significantly greater left mPFC activity to Win than 20 healthy youth. DBD were associated with lower left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex(VLPFC) activity to Win (t=2.68) (all ps<0.05, corrected). Conclusions Greater PGBI-10M-related left mPFC activity, and greater anxiety-related right dACC activity, to Win may reflect heightened reward sensitivity and greater attention to reward in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth, regardless of diagnosis. Reduced left VLPFC activity to Win may reflect reward insensitivity in youth with DBD. Despite a distinct reward-related neurophysiology in DBD, findings generally support a dimensional approach to studying neural mechanisms in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth. PMID:24285346

  1. Self-Reseeding Potential and Herbage Production of Italian Ryegrass (Lolium Multiflorum Lam.) Affected by Date and Intensity of Initial Harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annually-sown cool-season small grain cereals can provide a valuable source of cool-season feeding for livestock in the southern Great Plains of the USA, but for many farmers limited access to field equipment for cultivation and planting is an obstacle to their use. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflo...

  2. Rb2Hg3Te4: A New Layered Compound Synthesized from Solvothermal Reactions Jing Li,*, Zhen Chen, and Kin-Chung Lam

    E-print Network

    Li, Jing

    -liquid-solid (VLS) growth,3 flux growth,4 and solution alloy growth,5 have been used to grow crystals of many and Science of Growing Crystals; Gilman, J. J., Ed.; Wiley: New York, 1963. Krucheanu, E.; Nikulesku, D the boiling point of ethylenediamine. Crystals of Rb2Hg3Te4 were grown from solvothermal reactions using

  3. Azido-Nitrene Is Probably the N4 Molecule Observed in Mass Spectrometric Experiments Minh Tho Nguyen,*, Thanh Lam Nguyen,, Alexander M. Mebel,*, and Robert Flammang*,

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    as the "nitrogen cycle"). In a cluster of nitrogen atoms, a transfer of the strong triple NtN bond of molecular not be reproduced easily, when changing even slightly the experimental conditions. 1. Introduction Nitrogen in view of the ubiquitous presence of nitrogen in the atmosphere and in biological systems (known

  4. Comparison of content and in vitro bioaccessibility of provitamin A carotenoids in home cooked and commercially processed orange fleshed sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Lam).

    PubMed

    Berni, Paulo; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G; De Moura, Fabiana F; Failla, Mark L

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) remains a public health problem in some regions of Brazil. Increased use of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) as a source of pro-vitamin A represents a potential strategy for prevention of VAD. We compared the pro-vitamin A content, vitamin A equivalency and bioaccessibility of ?-carotene (?C) of two varieties of home cooked OFSP and two commercial sources of processed OFSP. Pro-vitamin A carotenoid content in home cooked, Beauregard variety of OFSP exceeded that in Amelia variety and commercial products for babies. All-trans-?C was the most abundant carotenoid in raw, cooked and commercial OFSP. Boiling and frying OFSP generally decreased total ?C. A serving of 100 g FW Beauregard variety of cooked OFSP contained greater than 100% of the estimated average requirement (EAR) for children and women, and up to 92% EAR for lactating women. Although the efficiency of micellarization of all-trans-?C during simulated digestion of OFSP was relatively low (4-8%) and significantly less than for cis-isomers, the quantities of trans-?C incorporated into micelles from boiled Beauregard and fried Amelia varieties exceeded that in micelles generated by digesting commercial OFSP. The bioaccessibility of pro-vitamin A carotenoids in the micelle fraction of digested OFSP was confirmed with differentiated cultures of Caco-2 human intestinal cells. Continued development of OFSP such as the Amelia and Beauregard varieties that are rich in trans-?C and dissemination of best practices for home cooking are encouraged to increase consumption of this food to decrease the risk of vitamin A deficiency in Brazil. PMID:25575485

  5. Synthesis of Pyrazolo[5,1-d][1,2,3,5]tetrazine-4(3H)-ones Yaojun Gao and Yulin Lam*

    E-print Network

    Yao, Shao Q

    our investigation, benzyl hy- drazinocarboxylate 5 was prepared by treating benzyl alcohol 3EA instead resulted in no formation of 5. In addition, attempts to synthesize compound 5 from benzyl the temperature and found that the reaction proceeded very cleanly in ethanol at RT to provide benzyl 5-amino-4

  6. Stability of carotenoids, total phenolics and in vitro antioxidant capacity in the thermal processing of orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Donado-Pestana, Carlos M; Mastrodi Salgado, Jocelem; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro; dos Santos, Priscila Robertina; Jablonski, André

    2012-09-01

    Intervention strategies regarding the biofortification of orange-fleshed sweet potato, which is a rich source of carotenoids for combating vitamin A deficiency, are being developed in Brazil. This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of individual carotenoids, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in the roots of four biofortified sweet potato cultivars that were raw or processed by four common heat treatments. HPLC, Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH and ABTS assays were used. All cultivars showed high levels of carotenoids in raw roots, predominantly all-trans-?-carotene (79.1-128.5 mg.100 g(-1) DW), suggesting a high estimated vitamin A activity. The CNPH 1194 cultivar reported carotenoids values highest than those of other cultivars (p?

  7. A Feather-weight Virtual Machine for Windows Applications Yang Yu Fanglu Guo Susanta Nanda Lap-chung Lam Tzi-cker Chiueh

    E-print Network

    Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    A Feather-weight Virtual Machine for Windows Applications Yang Yu Fanglu Guo Susanta Nanda Lap to execute unsafe programs in a realistic environment with- out leaving permanent damages. Virtual machine realistic and isolated. In this paper, we intro- duce an OS level virtual machine architecture for Windows

  8. Using the Internet in Middle Schools: A Model for Success. A Collaborative Effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Los Alamos Middle School (LAMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addessio, Barbara K.; And Others

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a model for school networking using Los Alamos Middle School as a testbed. The project was a collaborative effort between the school and the laboratory. The school secured administrative funding for hardware and software; and LANL provided the network architecture, installation, consulting, and…

  9. 25 years of NWP at INM E. Rodriguez CaminoE. Rodriguez Camino

    E-print Network

    Vali, Gabor

    attempts (19671985).First attempts (19671985). ECMWF LAM + SMHI ANAL (19861995)ECMWF LAM + SMHI ANAL Anal (finite differences, 0.91ºx0.91 19L) + OI Anal (SMHI) (Hortal, DíazPabón, Jimeno) (SMHI) (Hortal

  10. 75 FR 29545 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ..., CA 91770. Officers: Tuong Q. Lam, CEO, (Qualifying Individual), Young H. Lam, Treasurer. Application..., TX 77032. Officers: Yalonda R. Henderson, Director, (Qualifying Individual), Walter Bandos, CEO... Individual). Scott McWilliams, CEO. Application Type: Business Structure Change. Reefco Logistics, Inc....

  11. IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program Research Report Form

    E-print Network

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    + prodiamine) applied over the top to Berberis, Euonymus, Hibiscus and Hydrangea Protocol #: 09-020 Narrative relatively minor), we conclude that Biathlon is not safe for over-the-top application on Euonymous. Hibiscus Lieth, UC Davis PRNumber(s): 28986, 29013, 29019, 29020 2 Phytotoxicity. Hibiscus plants in all groups

  12. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...eradicated rust-susceptible plants of the genera Berberis, Mahoberberis...found free of rust-susceptible plants. (f) The Administrator...through (3) of this section. A hearing will be held to resolve...

  13. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...eradicated rust-susceptible plants of the genera Berberis, Mahoberberis...found free of rust-susceptible plants. (f) The Administrator...through (3) of this section. A hearing will be held to resolve...

  14. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...eradicated rust-susceptible plants of the genera Berberis, Mahoberberis...found free of rust-susceptible plants. (f) The Administrator...through (3) of this section. A hearing will be held to resolve...

  15. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...eradicated rust-susceptible plants of the genera Berberis, Mahoberberis...found free of rust-susceptible plants. (f) The Administrator...through (3) of this section. A hearing will be held to resolve...

  16. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...eradicated rust-susceptible plants of the genera Berberis, Mahoberberis...found free of rust-susceptible plants. (f) The Administrator...through (3) of this section. A hearing will be held to resolve...

  17. 75 FR 44881 - Black Stem Rust; Additions of Rust-Resistant Varieties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    .... (See 75 FR 29191-29193.) The direct final rule notified the public of our intention to amend the black stem rust quarantine and regulations by adding 21 varieties to the list of rust-resistant Berberis... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Black Stem Rust; Additions of Rust-Resistant Varieties AGENCY: Animal...

  18. [Ability of typical greenery shrubs of Beijing to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 ].

    PubMed

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Yun-qi; Zhang, Hui-lan; Yang, Song-nan; Li, Ang

    2014-09-01

    Four typical types of green shrubs of Beijing (Euonymus japonicus, Buxus microphylla, Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea, Taxus cuspidate cv. nana) were selected to study their capacities in adsorbing and arresting PM2.5 using both field observations and air chamber simulations. Concurrently, in order to analyze the pollution characteristics of Beijing in winter and spring, the PM2.5 concentrations of December 2012 to May 2013 were collected. Experimental results showed that: From the gas chamber experiments, the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 was in the order of Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea > Buxus microphylla > Taxus cuspidate cv. nana > Euonymus japonicus, mainly due to the differences in leaf characteristics; Outside measurement results showed that the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 was ranked as Buxus microphylla > Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea > Taxus cuspidate cv. nana > Euonymus japonicus. Chamber simulation and outdoor observation showed that Buxus microphylla and Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea had strong ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5; Meanwhile, the slight differences between the chamber simulation and outdoor observation results might be related to plant structure. Compared to tree species, the planting condition of shrub species was loose, and it greened quickly; By analyzing the Beijing PM2.5 concentration values in winter and spring, it was found that the PM2.5 concentration was particularly high in the winter of Beijing, and evergreen shrubs maintained the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5. PMID:25518685

  19. 75 FR 29191 - Black Stem Rust; Additions of Rust-Resistant Varieties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...United States. The disease is caused by a fungus that reduces the quality and yield of...addition to infecting small grains, the fungus lives on a variety of alternate host plants...Berberis, Mahoberberis, and Mahonia. The fungus is spread from host to host by...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FLORAL ODOR OF OREGON GRAPE: POSSIBLE FEEDING ATTRACTANTS FOR MOTHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was hypothesized that flowers of Oregon grape, Berberis aquifolium Prursch., might release chemicals attractive to moths. Studies were conducted to determine what moths visit flowers of Oregon grape and to characterize the odor chemistry of those flowers in search of possible moth feeding attrac...

  1. IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program Research Report Form

    E-print Network

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    would not affect plant salability. Plant Growth. There were no significant differences in height on Abelia at any of the tested levels. Plant Growth. While the variability in height and width changes, Figure 3a). Mesotrione caused growth inhibition for Abelia. Berberis Phytotoxicity and Plant Growth

  2. Is Urinary Lipoarabinomannan the Result of Renal Tuberculosis? Assessment of the Renal Histology in an Autopsy Cohort of Ugandan HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Janneke A.; Lukande, Robert L.; Kalungi, Sam; Van Marck, Eric; Van de Vijver, Koen; Kambugu, Andrew; Nelson, Ann M.; Colebunders, Robert; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The detection of urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a mycobacterial cell wall component, is used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB). How LAM enters the urine is not known. To investigate if urinary LAM-positivity is the result of renal TB infection we correlated the outcomes of urinary LAM-antigen testing to renal histology in an autopsy cohort of hospitalized, Ugandan, HIV-infected adults. Methods We performed a complete autopsy, including renal sampling, in HIV-infected adults that died during hospitalization after written informed consent was obtained from the next of kin. Urine was collected postmortem through post-mortem catheterisation or by bladder puncture and tested for LAM with both a lateral flow assay (LFA) and an ELISA assay. Two pathologists assessed the kidney histology. We correlated the LAM-assay results and the histology findings. Results Of the 13/36 (36%) patients with a positive urinary LAM ELISA and/or LFA, 8/13 (62%) had renal TB. The remaining 5 LAM-positive patients had disseminated TB without renal involvement. Of the 23 LAM-negative patients, 3 had disseminated TB without renal involvement. The remaining LAM-negative patients had no TB infection and died mostly of fungal and bacterial infections. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 100% to diagnose TB at any location, and the LAM ELISA a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 100%. 54% (7/13) LAM LFA-positive patients were not on anti-TB treatment at the time of death. Conclusion Renal TB infection explained LAM-positivity in the majority of patients. Patients with disseminated TB without renal involvement can also be diagnosed with LAM. This suggests that other mechanisms that lead to urinary LAM-positivity exist in a minority of patients. PMID:25897661

  3. Comparison of Lipid Amphotericin B Preparations in Treating Murine Zygomycosis?

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Husseiny, Mohamed I.; Stevens, David A.; Fu, Yue; Edwards, John E.; Spellberg, Brad

    2008-01-01

    We compared the efficacies of liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) and an amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) in diabetic ketoacidotic (DKA) or neutropenic mice with disseminated zygomycosis. ABLC was as effective as LAmB in neutropenic but not DKA mice. Low-dose ABLC was less effective than LAmB at reducing brain fungal burdens in both models. PMID:18227182

  4. Detection of low-prevalence somatic TSC2 mutations in sporadic pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis tissues by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Atsushi; Ando, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Mitani, Keiko; Okudera, Koji; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Miyatake, Satoko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Seyama, Kuniaki; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) (MIM #606690) is a rare lung disorder leading to respiratory failure associated with progressive cystic destruction due to the proliferation and infiltration of abnormal smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells). LAM can occur alone (sporadic LAM, S-LAM) or combined with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC-LAM). TSC is caused by a germline heterozygous mutation in either TSC1 or TSC2, and TSC-LAM is thought to occur as a result of a somatic mutation (second hit) in addition to a germline mutation in TSC1 or TSC2 (first hit). S-LAM is also thought to occur under the two-hit model involving a somatic mutation and/or loss of heterozygosity in TSC2. To identify TSC1 or TSC2 changes in S-LAM patients, the two genes were analyzed by deep next-generation sequencing (NGS) using genomic DNA from blood leukocytes (n = 9), LAM tissue from lung (n = 7), LAM cultured cells (n = 4), or LAM cell clusters (n = 1). We identified nine somatic mutations in six of nine S-LAM patients (67 %) with mutant allele frequencies of 1.7-46.2 %. Three of these six patients (50 %) showed two different TSC2 mutations with allele frequencies of 1.7-28.7 %. Furthermore, at least five mutations with low prevalence (<20 % of allele frequency) were confirmed by droplet digital PCR. As LAM tissues are likely to be composed of heterogeneous cell populations, mutant allele frequencies can be low. Our results confirm the consistent finding of TSC2 mutations in LAM samples, and highlight the benefit of laser capture microdissection and in-depth allele analyses for detection, such as NGS. PMID:26563443

  5. Integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method into a family planning program in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Wade, K B; Sevilla, F; Labbok, M H

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a 12-month implementation study documenting the process of integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) into a multiple-method family planning service-delivery organization, the Céntro Médico de Orientación y Planificación Familiar (CEMOPLAF), in Ecuador. LAM was introduced as a family planning option in four CEMOPLAF clinics. LAM was accepted by 133 breastfeeding women during the program's first five months, representing about one-third of postpartum clients. Seventy-three percent of LAM acceptors were new to any family planning method. Follow-up interviews with a systematic sample of 67 LAM users revealed that the method was generally used correctly. Three pregnancies were reported, none by women who were following LAM as recommended. Service providers' knowledge of LAM resulted in earlier IUD insertions among breastfeeding women. Relationships with other maternal and child health organizations and programs were also established. PMID:7940621

  6. Incidental Nodal Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Is Not a Harbinger of Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: A Study of 19 Cases With Evaluation of Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, J Kenneth; Park, Kay J

    2015-10-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a proliferation of perivascular epithelioid cells typically affecting the lung as a low-grade, destructive and progressive disease but may also be found in lymph nodes and other organs. LAM is sometimes seen as an incidental finding in lymph node dissections performed for staging of gynecologic tumors. To our knowledge, no study has investigated the clinical significance of incidental nodal LAM in relation to subsequent development of pulmonary LAM. We identified 19 patients from our institution with LAM in lymph nodes. Follow-up was available for 100% of patients and ranged from 3 to 123 months (mean 33.8 mo). All were women, ranging in age from 35 to 71 years (mean 56.3 y). None had a history of tuberous sclerosis, renal angiomyolipoma, or pulmonary LAM. LAM involvement spanned 1 to 6 nodes (mean 2), ranging from 1% to 100% of the total excised lymph nodes. The single largest focus of nodal LAM ranged from 1 to 9 mm (mean 4.3 mm) in 18 patients without evidence of persistent or recurrent nodal LAM. In the 1 patient with persistent local nodal LAM, the greatest diameter was 25 mm. Affected lymph node sites were regional pelvic and retroperitoneal chains routinely sampled in staging operations. An immunohistochemical panel of HMB45, A103, and ?-catenin was evaluated in 18 cases. HMB45 showed strong but usually focal staining in every case compared with A103, which was very focally expressed (39%) or negative. ?-catenin showed strong, diffuse cytoplasmic and membranous (non-nuclear) reactivity in 100% of cases. At the last clinic visit, all 19 patients had no manifestations of pulmonary LAM. In an absence of signs of symptoms of extranodal LAM, patients with incidentally discovered nodal LAM smaller than 10 mm are not at risk of developing pulmonary LAM. PMID:26135558

  7. Properties of aqueous nitrate and nitrite from x-ray absorption spectroscopy Jacob W. Smith, Royce K. Lam, Orion Shih, Anthony M. Rizzuto, David Prendergast, and Richard J. Saykally

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    dichroism in the (Zn,Co)O diluted magnetic semiconductors from first principle calculations J. Appl. Phys-known applications in food preservation and similar antimicrobial roles, nitrite anions may prove useful in the

  8. Seed isotopic analysis as a tool to understand ecological processes influencing plant development and physiology: the case study of Quercus rotundifolia Lam. in a desertification gradient in Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Tatiana; Silva, Anabela; Rodrigues, Carla; Antunes Antunes, Cristina; Pinho, Pedro; Ramos, Alzira; João Pereira, Maria; Branquinho, Cristina; Máguas, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Plant responses to climate change highly depend on the temporal variability in precipitation events and on plant specific strategies, such as drought tolerance and resilience. Within the different plant organs, seeds have become an important research tool in the past years to study plant development and nutrients allocation. Key features of seeds such as the tendency to accumulate and store nutrient compounds open many possibilities to explore isotope analysis (13C, 15N and 18O), with many outcomes in fields from ecology to food traceability. The application of light stable isotopes to plant materials have been used to study both physiological (i.e. photosynthesis and stomatal conductance), nutrients uptake and metabolism (origin of nitrogen and symbiotic associations) as well as many ecological processes, which will produce a distinctive isotope fingerprint on the plant tissues. Thus, the isotopic composition of certain bio and geo-elements of seeds, yielding relevant information on plant ecophysiology, are able to relate the plant functioning with local climatic conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation). The application of isotope analysis in this way can be used as a proxy to understand complex environmental degradation processes such as land degradation in drylands resulting from various factors including climatic variations and human activities. In this study acorns of Quercus ilex plants were sampled during 2012-2013 in a region of southern Portugal, according to (i) soil land-use; (ii) aridity and desertification indexes. The approach developed combined plant seed analysis (seed morphology and compounds quantification) with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (?13C, ?15N and ?18O) as a "tool" to study changes in plant ecophysiology over time and space. Seeds allow studies at specific temporal scale (development period) which varies according to its biology and depends on the climatic conditions where the plant is grown (i.e, seed's biomass integrate climate variations information of several months). The results indicate a clear relationship between seed morphology and both temperature and precipitation as well a significant correlation between ?15N and precipitation, which indicate an influence of major climatic variables on seed carbon allocation and nitrogen uptake. These results may also contribute to future mitigation programmes in degraded areas where there are systematic problems with plant regeneration and ultimately to learn about the application of stable isotopes approaches in dryland ecosystems.

  9. Sulfated modification and anti-tumor activity of laminarin.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chen-Feng; Ji, Yu-Bin; Meng, DE-You

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sulfated modification of laminarin and the changes in structure and antitumor activity. The chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method was applied for sulfated modification. The molecular weights of laminarin and laminarin sulfate (LAMS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and IR and NMR spectra were also recorded. The surface conformations of laminarin and LAMS were observed with a scanning electron microscope. The antitumor activities of the two polysaccharides were also evaluated using an MTT assay. LAMS with a sulfate content of 45.92% and a molecular weight of 16,000 was synthesized. The IR spectra of laminarin and LAMS showed the characteristic absorption peaks of a polysaccharide, and LAMS also had the characteristic absorption peaks of sulfate moieties. The NMR spectra showed that laminarin and LAMS had ?-(1?3) glycosidic bonds forming the main chain, and sulfate substitution was at the hydroxyl groups of C2 and C6. Under the scanning electron microscope, there were clear differences in surface conformation between laminarin and LAMS; laminarin was cloud-like and spongy, while LAMS was block-like and flaky. The MTT results showed that laminarin and LAMS had inhibitory effects on LoVo cell growth, and the antitumor activity of LAMS was higher than that of laminarin at the same concentration. This suggests that sulfated modification was able to change the laminarin structure and markedly enhance the antitumor activity. PMID:24223655

  10. The neural crest lineage as a driver of disease heterogeneity in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Sean P.; Julian, Lisa M.; Stanford, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare neoplastic disease, best characterized by the formation of proliferative nodules that express smooth muscle and melanocytic antigens within the lung parenchyma, leading to progressive destruction of lung tissue and function. The pathological basis of LAM is associated with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), a multi-system disorder marked by low-grade tumors in the brain, kidneys, heart, eyes, lung and skin, arising from inherited or spontaneous germ-line mutations in either of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. LAM can develop either in a patient with TSC (TSC-LAM) or spontaneously (S-LAM), and it is clear that the majority of LAM lesions of both forms are characterized by an inactivating mutation in either TSC1 or TSC2, as in TSC. Despite this genetic commonality, there is considerable heterogeneity in the tumor spectrum of TSC and LAM patients, the basis for which is currently unknown. There is extensive clinical evidence to suggest that the cell of origin for LAM, as well as many of the TSC-associated tumors, is a neural crest cell, a highly migratory cell type with extensive multi-lineage potential. Here we explore the hypothesis that the types of tumors that develop and the tissues that are affected in TSC and LAM are dictated by the developmental timing of TSC gene mutations, which determines the identities of the affected cell types and the size of downstream populations that acquire a mutation. We further discuss the evidence to support a neural crest origin for LAM and TSC tumors, and propose approaches for generating humanized models of TSC and LAM that will allow cell of origin theories to be experimentally tested. Identifying the cell of origin and developing appropriate humanized models is necessary to truly understand LAM and TSC pathology and to establish effective and long-lasting therapeutic approaches for these patients. PMID:25505789

  11. Tisseel does not reduce postoperative drainage, length of stay, and transfusion requirements for lumbar laminectomy with noninstrumented fusion versus laminectomy alone

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Typically, fibrin sealants (FSs) and fibrin glues (FGs) are used to strengthen dural repairs during spinal surgery. In 2014, Epstein demonstrated that one FS/FG, Tisseel (Baxter International Inc., Westlake Village, CA, USA) equalized the average times to drain removal and length of stay (LOS) for patients with versus without excess bleeding (e.g. who did not receive Tisseel) undergoing multilevel laminectomies with 1-2 level noninstrumented fusions (LamF).[6] Methods: Here Tisseel was utilized to promote hemostasis for two populations; 39 patients undergoing average 4.4 level lumbar laminectomies with average 1.3 level noninstrumented fusions (LamF), and 48 patients undergoing average 4.0 level laminectomies alone (Lam). We compared the average operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), postoperative drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements for the LamF versus Lam groups. Results: The average operative times, EBL, postoperative drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements were all greater for LamF versus Lam patients; operative times (4.1 vs. 3.0 h), average EBL (192.3 vs. 147.9 cc), drainage (e.g. day 1; 199.6 vs. 167.4 cc; day 2; 172.9 vs. 63.9 cc), average LOS (4.6 vs. 2.5 days), and transfusion requirements (11 LamF patients; 18 Units [U] RBC versus 2 Lam patients; 3 U RBC). Conclusions: Utilizing Tisseel to facilitate hemostasis in LamF versus Lam still resulted in greater operative times, EBL, postoperative average drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements for patients undergoing the noninstrumented fusions. Although Tisseel decreases back bleeding within the spinal canal, it does not reduce blood loss from LamF decorticated transverse processes. PMID:26005579

  12. Animation of Flood Potential from Two Australian Tropical Cyclones - Duration: 6 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Merged precipitation data from NASA-JAXA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and other satellites was used to calculate flood potential withrainfall from Tropical Cyclone Lam and Tropical ...

  13. Long-term outcomes of two rescue therapies in lamivudine-refractory patients with chronic hepatitis B: combined lamivudine and adefovir, and 1-mg entecavir

    PubMed Central

    Ze, EunYoung; Baek, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, Han Wook; Ahn, Dae Geon; Cho, Hwan Jun; Kwon, Jae Cheol; Kim, Hyung Joon

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Adefovir (ADV) and lamivudine (LAM) combination therapy (ADV+LAM) has been a useful option for patients with LAM-resistant (LAM-r) chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, the long-term outcomes of LAM+ADV and 1-mg entecavir (ETV) rescue therapies have still been limited. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term outcomes of these two rescue therapies. Methods Sixty patients with LAM-r CHB underwent rescue therapy with LAM+ADV (n=36) or 1-mg ETV (n=24). We determined the duration of rescue therapy, timing and type of mutation, undetectable serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA by PCR (lower limitation of detection, < 140 copies/mL), biochemical response (alanine aminotransferase < 40 IU/mL), and the incidence of hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion and virologic breakthrough. Results Baseline characteristics did not differ between the two therapy groups. The duration of rescue therapy was 56 months (range, 14-100 months) in the ADV+LAM group and 42 months (range, 12-73 months) in the ETV group (P=0.036). The cumulative rates of HBV DNA undetectability and HBeAg seroconversion up to 6 years were 88.6% and 43.0%, respectively, in the ADV+LAM group, and 45.8% and 31.8% in the ETV group. The rate of virologic breakthrough and resistance was 14.4% in the ADV+LAM group and 71.9% in the ETV group (P=0.001). Conclusions Combination of LAM and ADV therapy for up to 6 years achieved modest rates of virological suppression and resistance. ETV is not an optimal therapy because the risk of viral breakthrough to ETV increases over time. PMID:25320730

  14. Uterine-Specific Loss of Tsc2 Leads to Myometrial Tumors in Both the Uterus and Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Prizant, Hen; Sen, Aritro; Light, Allison; Cho, Sung-Nam; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease characterized by proliferation of abnormal smooth-muscle cells in the lungs, leading to functional loss and sometimes lung transplantation. Although the origin of LAM cells is unknown, several features of LAM provide clues. First, LAM cells contain inactivating mutations in genes encoding Tsc1 or Tsc2, proteins that limit mTORC1 activity. Second, LAM tumors recur after lung transplantation, suggesting a metastatic pathogenesis. Third, LAM is found almost exclusively in women. Finally, LAM shares features with uterine leiomyomas, benign tumors of myometrial cells. From these observations, we proposed that LAM cells might originate from uterine leiomyomas containing Tsc mutations. To test our hypothesis, and to develop mouse models for leiomyoma and LAM, we targeted Tsc2 deletion primarily in uterine cells. In fact, nearly 100% of uteri from uterine-specific Tsc2 knockout mice developed myometrial proliferation and uterine leiomyomas by 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. Myometrial proliferation and mTORC1/S6 activity were abrogated by the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin or by elimination of sex steroid production through ovariectomy or aromatase inhibition. In ovariectomized Tsc2 null mice, mTORC1/S6 activity and myometrial growth were restored by estrogen but not progesterone. Thus, even without Tsc2, estrogen appears to be required for myometrial mTORC1/S6 signaling and proliferation. Finally, we found Tsc2 null myometrial tumors in lungs of older Tsc2 uterine-specific knockout females, suggesting that lung LAM-like myometrial lesions may indeed originate from the uterus. This mouse model may improve our understanding of LAM and leiomyomas and might lead to novel therapeutic strategies for both diseases. PMID:23820898

  15. On quantum multi-mode optical imaging Light-atom ensemble interactions

    E-print Network

    is reported in Chapter 10. The majority of the research was supervised by Prof. Ping Koy Lam (ANU), Prof. Hans by thanking my principal supervisor, Prof. Ping Koy Lam. I would not have made the decision to pursue my PhD research at the ANU, had Ping Koy not invited me over for a visit. It was Ping Koy who `snowballed' my

  16. 75 FR 69158 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Charlotte C. L Kwong Win Win Kwong Chun Chuan Labonville Jean Marc Lai Allan C. Lai Daniel Sai-Hong Lall Lyndon Lam Salina Sai Lin Lam Jada Wing Yan Lang Walter Otto Lassen Lianne Marie Lau Isaac Bok Man Kaleo... Panayotis Lombard Pamela Lawrence Long Gaye Lenore Louit Nicolas Paul Low Elizabeth Lowrie Marcia Lu...

  17. LprG-mediated surface expression of lipoarabinomannan is essential for virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Rajiv L; Ren, Kangning; Blumenthal, Antje; Bhamidi, Suresh; González-Nilo, Fernando D; Gibbs, Sara; Jackson, Mary; Zare, Richard N; Ehrt, Sabine; Ernst, Joel D; Banaei, Niaz

    2014-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis employs various virulence strategies to subvert host immune responses in order to persist and cause disease. Interaction of M. tuberculosis with mannose receptor on macrophages via surface-exposed lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is believed to be critical for cell entry, inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion, and intracellular survival, but in vivo evidence is lacking. LprG, a cell envelope lipoprotein that is essential for virulence of M. tuberculosis, has been shown to bind to the acyl groups of lipoglycans but the role of LprG in LAM biosynthesis and localization remains unknown. Using an M. tuberculosis lprG mutant, we show that LprG is essential for normal surface expression of LAM and virulence of M. tuberculosis attributed to LAM. The lprG mutant had a normal quantity of LAM in the cell envelope, but its surface was altered and showed reduced expression of surface-exposed LAM. Functionally, the lprG mutant was defective for macrophage entry and inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion, was attenuated in macrophages, and was killed in the mouse lung with the onset of adaptive immunity. This study identifies the role of LprG in surface-exposed LAM expression and provides in vivo evidence for the essential role surface LAM plays in M. tuberculosis virulence. Findings have translational implications for therapy and vaccine development. PMID:25232742

  18. MONITORING AND DECISION MAKING FOR CUCUMBER BEETLES ON MUSKMELON

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    MONITORING AND DECISION MAKING FOR CUCUMBER BEETLES ON MUSKMELON Frankie Lam and Ricky E. Foster) Striped cucumber beetle and (B) Spotted cucum- ber beetle or southern corn rootworm beetle. (Photo credit: Frankie Lam, Purdue University) Striped and spotted cucumber beetles (Figs. 1 A and B) are the most

  19. Posaconazole Mono- or Combination Therapy for Treatment of Murine Zygomycosis?

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Schwartz, Julie A.; Edwards, John E.; Spellberg, Brad

    2009-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of combination posaconazole-liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) therapy to monotherapy with either drug in diabetic ketoacidotic or neutropenic mice with disseminated zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae. Combination therapy was no better than LAmB alone, and posaconazole monotherapy did not improve survival or reduce fungal burden versus placebo. PMID:18936190

  20. SHARKS, SKATES, RAYS, AND CHIMAERAS

    E-print Network

    SHARKS, SKATES, RAYS, AND CHIMAERAS UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE of sharks Species Mucimum length Muimum length Scientific na.rr;e (measure 11 inches Porbeagle ·....... 1 LamTUl TUlSUS........... ... 10 feet 12 feet Sall10n shark. .... Lam

  1. Lymphatic manifestations of lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Kitaichi, M; Inoue, Y; Kotloff, R; McCormack, F X

    2014-09-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a slowly progressive, low grade, metastasizing neoplasm, associated with cellular invasion and cystic destruction of the pulmonary parenchyma. Although the source of LAM cells that infiltrate the lung is unknown, available evidence indicates that the disease spreads primarily through lymphatic channels, often involving abdominal, axial, and retroperitoneal nodes, suggestive of an origin in the pelvis. LAM cells harbor mutations in tuberous sclerosis genes and produce lymphangiogenic growth factors, which facilitate access to and movement through the lymphatic system and likely play an important role in destructive tissue remodeling in the lung. Lymphatic manifestations of LAM include thoracic duct wall invasion, lymphangioleiomyoma formation, chylous fluid collections in the peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial spaces, chyloptysis, chylocolporrheal chylometrorrhea, chyle leak from the umbilicus, chylous pulmonary congestion, and lower extremity lymphedema. LAM lesions express lymphangiogenic growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D; growth factor receptors, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3; and markers LYVE-1 and podoplanin, and are laced with chaotic lymphatic channels. Serum VEGF-D is elevated in 70% of patients with LAM and is a clinically useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. Molecular targeted therapy with sirolimus stabilizes lung function, is anti-lymphangiogenic, and is highly effective for the lymphatic and chylous complications of LAM. Future trials in patients with LAM who have lymphatic manifestations or elevated serum VEGF-D will likely focus on the VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGFR-3 axis. PMID:25507287

  2. Lymphatic manifestations of lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Kitaichi, M; Inoue, Y; Kotloff, R; McCormack, F X

    2014-09-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a slowly progressive, low grade, metastasizing neoplasm, associated with cellular invasion and cystic destruction of the pulmonary parenchyma. Although the source of LAM cells that infiltrate the lung is unknown, available evidence indicates that the disease spreads primarily through lymphatic channels, often involving abdominal, axial, and retroperitoneal nodes, suggestive of an origin in the pelvis. LAM cells harbor mutations in tuberous sclerosis genes and produce lymphangiogenic growth factors, which facilitate access to and movement through the lymphatic system and likely play an important role in destructive tissue remodeling in the lung. Lymphatic manifestations of LAM include thoracic duct wall invasion, lymphangioleiomyoma formation, chylous fluid collections in the peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial spaces, chyloptysis, chylocolporrheal chylometrorrhea, chyle leak from the umbilicus, chylous pulmonary congestion, and lower extremity lymphedema. LAM lesions express lymphangiogenic growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D; growth factor receptors, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3; and markers LYVE-1 and podoplanin, and are laced with chaotic lymphatic channels. Serum VEGF-D is elevated in 70% of patients with LAM and is a clinically useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. Molecular targeted therapy with sirolimus stabilizes lung function, is anti-lymphangiogenic, and is highly effective for the lymphatic and chylous complications of LAM. Future trials in patients with LAM who have lymphatic manifestations or elevated serum VEGF-D will likely focus on the VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGFR-3 axis. PMID:25420303

  3. Src Kinase is a Novel Therapeutic Target in Lymphangio-leiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Tyryshkin, Alexey; Bhattacharya, Abhisek; Eissa, N. Tony

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive cystic lung disease affecting some women with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Sporadic LAM can develop in women without TSC, owing to somatic mutations in TSC2 gene. Accumulating evidence supports the view of LAM as a low-grade, destructive, metastasizing neoplasm. The mechanisms underlying the metastatic capability of LAM cells remain poorly understood. The observed behavior of LAM cells with respect to their infiltrative growth pattern, metastatic potential, and altered cell differentiation bears similarity to cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Here we report increased levels of active Src kinase in LAM lungs and in TSC2?/? cells, caused by a reduction of autophagy. Further, increased Src kinase activation promoted migration, invasion and inhibition of E-cadherin expression in TSC2?/? cells by upregulating the transcription factor Snail. Notably, Src kinase inhibitors reduced migration and invasion properties of TSC2?/? cells and attenuated lung colonization of intravenously injected TSC2?/? cells in vivo to a greater extent than control TSC2+/+ cells. Our results reveal mechanistic basis for the pathogenicity of LAM cells and they rationalize Src kinase as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of LAM and TSC. PMID:24691995

  4. Evaluation of cloud-resolving and limited area model intercomparison simulations

    E-print Network

    Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre

    Evaluation of cloud-resolving and limited area model intercomparison simulations using TWP Ten 3-D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3-D limited area model (LAM) simulations reflectivity aloft in cloud-resolving model (CRM) and limited area model (LAM) simulations of the active

  5. 116 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO, SPEECH, AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 16, NO. 1, JANUARY 2008 Instrument-Specific Harmonic Atoms for

    E-print Network

    Richard, Gaël

    . P. Leveau was with the Institut Jean Le Rond d'Alembert, LAM team, Univer- sity Pierre et Marie is with the Institut Jean Le Rond d'Alembert, LAM team, Univer- sity Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, F-75015 Paris

  6. A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Torti, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The component technologies were developed required for an advanced control moment gyro (CMG) type of slewing actuator for large payloads. The key component of the CMG is a large-angle magnetic suspension (LAMS). The LAMS combines the functions of the gimbal structure, torque motors, and rotor bearings of a CMG. The LAMS uses a single superconducting source coil and an array of cryoresistive control coils to produce a specific output torque more than an order of magnitude greater than conventional devices. The designed and tested LAMS system is based around an available superconducting solenoid, an array of twelve room-temperature normal control coils, and a multi-input, multi-output control system. The control laws were demonstrated for stabilizing and controlling the LAMS system.

  7. Reasons for false-positive lipoarabinomannan ELISA results in a Tanzanian population.

    PubMed

    Kroidl, Inge; Clowes, Petra; Mwakyelu, Joshua; Maboko, Leonard; Kiangi, Abubakary; Rachow, Andrea; Reither, Klaus; Jung, Jutta; Nsojo, Anthony; Saathoff, Elmar; Hoelscher, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a cell wall component of mycobacteria, can be detected in the urine of tuberculosis (TB) patients. Advantages of this diagnostic include the ease of sample collection and test methods. However, as with most new TB diagnostics, LAM tests have been evaluated in well-controlled laboratory settings and subsequently need assessment under real working conditions. Our experience showed that the diagnosis of TB using the detection of LAM in urine under field conditions is prone to false-positive results due to contamination. Dust and soil, but also stool, seemed to lead to increased OD values and thus false-positive results of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for LAM; however, contamination with blood, as well as bacterial or fungal organisms, had no influence. The collection of urine for the detection of LAM should therefore follow strict collection criteria in order to avoid contamination. PMID:24274710

  8. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Lipoarabinomannan Test for Tuberculosis Screening in a South African Correctional Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hanifa, Yasmeen; Telisinghe, Lilanganee; Fielding, Katherine L.; Malden, Justin L.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Grant, Alison D.; Charalambous, Salome

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen detection assay (Clearview TB-ELISA) to screen for tuberculosis in a South African correctional facility. Methods Between September 2009 and October 2010, male offenders were screened for tuberculosis (symptoms, chest radiograph, two spot sputum specimens for microscopy and culture), and urine tested for LAM. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of LAM were calculated using definite and probable tuberculosis combined as our gold standard. Findings 33/871 (3.8%) participants (26% HIV-positive) had tuberculosis. Amongst HIV-positive vs. HIV-negative offenders the sensitivity and specificity of LAM was 7.1% vs. 0% and 98.5% vs. 99.8% respectively. Conclusion Urine LAM ELISA has inadequate sensitivity for TB screening in this population. PMID:26010840

  9. Linear atrophoderma of Moulin: an underrecognized entity.

    PubMed

    Zahedi Niaki, Omid; Sissons, Wendy; Nguyen, Van-Hung; Zargham, Ramin; Jafarian, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Linear atrophoderma of Moulin (LAM) is an acquired skin condition that manifests in early childhood and adolescence. It likely represents a form of cutaneous mosaicism that presents with linear, hyperpigmented and atrophic lesions appearing on the trunk and limbs. Its clinical appearance varies and may closely resemble that of atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini (APP) and linear scleroderma. LAM usually follows a benign course and no effective treatment options exist. We present a case of a young and healthy patient that developed such lesions on her upper and lower extremities over 5 years. The initial clinical impression of linear scleroderma was reviewed in favor of LAM following histological examination of the lesions which revealed no significant inflammatory changes. LAM remains a rare and possibly under recognized entity with reports confined only to the dermatologic literature. This case highlights the importance of recognizing LAM and distinguishing it from linear scleroderma given the significant differences in management and prognosis. PMID:26438123

  10. Mannose-capped Lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces IL-37 production via upregulating ERK1/2 and p38 in human type II alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Gao Wei; Gao, Chun Hai; Chi, Xiu Wen; Zeng, Tao; Hu, Yan Wei; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The major surface lipoglycan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), is an immunosuppressive epitope of M. tb. Interleukin (IL)-37, is a newly identified anti-inflammatory cytokine, which reduces systemic and local inflammation. However, the correlation between ManLAM and IL-37 remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the possible role and relative molecular mechanism of ManLAM in IL-37 production of human type II alveolar epithelial cells by using A549 cell line. Here, we report that M. tb induced IL-37 mRNA and protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We next fractionated components of M. tb using chloroform: methanol (C:M) and water. In sharp contrast to the C:M phase, water phase was mainly responsible for the production of IL-37. Since ManLAM is the major component of water phase, we found that ManLAM induced IL-37 mRNA and protein expression in a time and dose-dependent manner, while this activity was almost totally abolished by the ERK1/2 (U0126) and p38 (SB203580) inhibitor. ManLAM stimulation significantly induced ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation in A549 cells, as well as cell surface TLR2 expression. After interfering TLR2 expression, ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation levels were markedly decreased, and also IL-37 production. Though ManLAM also promoted TLR4 expression on A549 cells, TLR4 interference showed no influence on ManLAM-induced IL-37 production. Our results indicate that ManLAM induces IL-37 production in human type II alveolar epithelial cells via up-regulating TLR2/p38 or ERK1/2 pathway, and this provide an important evidence to explain the pathological role of ManLAM that contribute to the persistence of M. tb. PMID:26221267

  11. Estimation of D-Arabinose by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry as Surrogate for Mycobacterial Lipoarabinomannan in Human Urine.

    PubMed

    De, Prithwiraj; Amin, Anita G; Valli, Eloise; Perkins, Mark D; McNeil, Michael; Chatterjee, Delphi

    2015-01-01

    Globally, tuberculosis is slowly declining each year and it is estimated that 37 million lives were saved between 2000 and 2013 through effective diagnosis and treatment. Currently, diagnosis relies on demonstration of the bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), in clinical specimens by serial sputum microscopy, culture and molecular testing. Commercial immunoassay lateral flow kits developed to detect Mtb lipoglycan lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine as a marker of active TB exhibit poor sensitivity, especially in immunocompetent individuals, perhaps due to low abundance of the analyte. Our present study was designed to develop methods to validate the presence of LAM in a quantitative fashion in human urine samples obtained from culture-confirmed TB patients. Herein we describe, a consolidated approach for isolating LAM from the urine and quantifying D-arabinose as a proxy for LAM, using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. 298 urine samples obtained from a repository were rigorously analyzed and shown to contain varying amounts of LAM-equivalent ranging between ~10-40 ng/mL. To further substantiate that D-arabinose detected in the samples originated from LAM, tuberculostearic acid, the unique 10-methyloctadecanoic acid present at the phosphatidylinositol end of LAM was also analyzed in a set of samples and found to be present confirming that the D-arabinose was indeed derived from LAM. Among the 144 samples from culture-negative TB suspects, 30 showed presence of D-arabinose suggesting another source of the analyte, such as disseminated TB or from non-tuberculosis mycobacterium. Our work validates that LAM is present in the urine samples of culture-positive patients in small but readily detectable amounts. The study further substantiates LAM in urine as a powerful biomarker for active tuberculosis. PMID:26633829

  12. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: differential diagnosis and optimal management

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai-Feng; Lo, Bee Hong

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an uncommon disease presented as diffuse thin-walled cystic changes in the lung. The main differential diagnoses include pulmonary Langerhans’ histiocytosis (PLCH), Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD), lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), and amyloidosis. A combination of clinical, radiological, and pathological approaches as well as genetic testing will clarify the diagnosis in most cases. LAM is a disease almost exclusively in women. Dyspnea, pneumothorax, and hemoptysis are common presentations in LAM patients. LAM is also a lymphatic disorder affecting lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes. Chylothorax, chylous ascites, and lymphangiomyomas are frequently seen. LAM can present sporadically as a single entity or as part of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a characteristic extra-pulmonary lesion, either found in association with sporadic or TSC-related LAM. High-risk populations should be screened for LAM, including adult women with TSC and female patients with spontaneous pneumothorax, AMLs in the kidney, and diffuse cystic lung diseases. Definitive diagnosis of LAM is based on a high level of clinical suspicion on presentation supported by pathological findings or by a distinct feature, such as a history of TSC, AMLs in the kidney, chylothorax, or chylous ascites. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D) in serum is a noninvasive and reliable diagnostic biomarker. In experienced centers, trans-bronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) provides a convenient and safe way to obtain lung specimens for diagnostic purposes. An effective treatment for LAM is now available, namely using a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor such as sirolimus. Efficacy of sirolimus has been confirmed in clinical trials. Research in other molecular-targeted therapies is under investigation. A previously little-known rare disease with no cure is now better understood with regards to its pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. In this review, current knowledge in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of LAM will be discussed, followed by the discussion of therapy with mTOR inhibitors. PMID:25187723

  13. Organ-specific microenvironment modifies diverse functional and phenotypic characteristics of leukemia-associated macrophages in mouse T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sha-Yan; Yang, Xiao; Feng, Wen-Li; Liao, Jin-Feng; Wang, Li-Na; Feng, Li; Lin, Yong-Min; Ren, Qian; Zheng, Guo-Guang

    2015-03-15

    Tumor-associated macrophages are widely studied in solid tumors. The distribution of macrophages in lymph node samples was found to be associated with the prognosis of lymphoma patients. However, the role of macrophages in leukemia and their functional and phenotypic characteristics in hematopoietic malignancies have not been defined. In this study, we examined the distribution and functional and phenotypic characteristics of macrophages in a Notch1-induced mouse model of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). The distribution of macrophages in bone marrow (BM) and spleen, which are proposed as BM and spleen leukemia-associated macrophages (LAMs), were different during the development of leukemia. LAMs stimulated the proliferation of T-ALL cells and had higher migration activity. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that gene expression profiles of BM and spleen LAMs showed considerable differences. RT-PCR analysis showed that LAMs expressed both M1- and M2-associated phenotypic genes, but they expressed much lower levels of TGF-?1, VEGF-A, and CSF-1 than did tumor-associated macrophages from B16 melanoma. Furthermore, spleen LAMs more potently stimulated the proliferation of T-ALL cells compared with BM LAMs. Moreover, LAMs could be subdivided into M1-like (CD206(-)) and M2-like (CD206(+)) groups. Both CD206(+) and CD206(-) LAMs stimulated the proliferation of T-ALL cells, although CD206(+) LAMs expressed higher levels of most M1- and M2-associated genes. These results suggested the functional and phenotypic characteristics of LAMs, which were modified by organ specific microenvironments. Our results broaden our knowledge about macrophages in malignant microenvironments from solid tumors to leukemia. PMID:25662994

  14. Estimation of D-Arabinose by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry as Surrogate for Mycobacterial Lipoarabinomannan in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    De, Prithwiraj; Amin, Anita G.; Valli, Eloise; Perkins, Mark D.; McNeil, Michael; Chatterjee, Delphi

    2015-01-01

    Globally, tuberculosis is slowly declining each year and it is estimated that 37 million lives were saved between 2000 and 2013 through effective diagnosis and treatment. Currently, diagnosis relies on demonstration of the bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), in clinical specimens by serial sputum microscopy, culture and molecular testing. Commercial immunoassay lateral flow kits developed to detect Mtb lipoglycan lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine as a marker of active TB exhibit poor sensitivity, especially in immunocompetent individuals, perhaps due to low abundance of the analyte. Our present study was designed to develop methods to validate the presence of LAM in a quantitative fashion in human urine samples obtained from culture-confirmed TB patients. Herein we describe, a consolidated approach for isolating LAM from the urine and quantifying D-arabinose as a proxy for LAM, using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. 298 urine samples obtained from a repository were rigorously analyzed and shown to contain varying amounts of LAM-equivalent ranging between ~10–40 ng/mL. To further substantiate that D-arabinose detected in the samples originated from LAM, tuberculostearic acid, the unique 10-methyloctadecanoic acid present at the phosphatidylinositol end of LAM was also analyzed in a set of samples and found to be present confirming that the D-arabinose was indeed derived from LAM. Among the 144 samples from culture-negative TB suspects, 30 showed presence of D-arabinose suggesting another source of the analyte, such as disseminated TB or from non-tuberculosis mycobacterium. Our work validates that LAM is present in the urine samples of culture-positive patients in small but readily detectable amounts. The study further substantiates LAM in urine as a powerful biomarker for active tuberculosis. PMID:26633829

  15. Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: implications for diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N; Lee, Myungsun; Cho, Sang Nae; Barry, Clifton E; Via, Laura E; Swanson, Basil I; Mukundan, Harshini

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We have also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum, and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of 'monomeric' LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. This phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host-pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics. PMID:23507184

  16. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: differential diagnosis and optimal management.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai-Feng; Lo, Bee Hong

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an uncommon disease presented as diffuse thin-walled cystic changes in the lung. The main differential diagnoses include pulmonary Langerhans' histiocytosis (PLCH), Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD), lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), and amyloidosis. A combination of clinical, radiological, and pathological approaches as well as genetic testing will clarify the diagnosis in most cases. LAM is a disease almost exclusively in women. Dyspnea, pneumothorax, and hemoptysis are common presentations in LAM patients. LAM is also a lymphatic disorder affecting lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes. Chylothorax, chylous ascites, and lymphangiomyomas are frequently seen. LAM can present sporadically as a single entity or as part of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a characteristic extra-pulmonary lesion, either found in association with sporadic or TSC-related LAM. High-risk populations should be screened for LAM, including adult women with TSC and female patients with spontaneous pneumothorax, AMLs in the kidney, and diffuse cystic lung diseases. Definitive diagnosis of LAM is based on a high level of clinical suspicion on presentation supported by pathological findings or by a distinct feature, such as a history of TSC, AMLs in the kidney, chylothorax, or chylous ascites. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D) in serum is a noninvasive and reliable diagnostic biomarker. In experienced centers, trans-bronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) provides a convenient and safe way to obtain lung specimens for diagnostic purposes. An effective treatment for LAM is now available, namely using a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor such as sirolimus. Efficacy of sirolimus has been confirmed in clinical trials. Research in other molecular-targeted therapies is under investigation. A previously little-known rare disease with no cure is now better understood with regards to its pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. In this review, current knowledge in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of LAM will be discussed, followed by the discussion of therapy with mTOR inhibitors. PMID:25187723

  17. The Laminin Receptor Is a Cellular Attachment Receptor for Classical Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianing; He, Wen-Rui; Shen, Liang; Dong, Hong; Yu, Jiahui; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Shaoxiong; Li, Yongfeng; Li, Su; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious, economically important viral disease in many countries. The Erns and E2 envelope glycoproteins are responsible for the binding to and entry into the host cell by CSFV. To date, only one cellular receptor, heparan sulfate (HS), has been identified as being involved in CSFV attachment. HS is also present on the surface of various cells that are nonpermissive to CSFV. Hence, there must be another receptor(s) that has been unidentified to date. In this study, we used a set of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against a number of porcine cell membrane protein genes to screen cellular proteins involved in CSFV infection. This approach resulted in the identification of several proteins, and of these, the laminin receptor (LamR) has been demonstrated to be a cellular receptor for several viruses. Confocal analysis showed that LamR is colocalized with CSFV virions on the membrane, and a coimmunoprecipitation assay indicated that LamR interacts with the CSFV Erns protein. In inhibition assays, anti-LamR antibodies, soluble laminin, or LamR protein significantly inhibited CSFV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Transduction of PK-15 cells with a recombinant lentivirus expressing LamR yielded higher viral titers. Moreover, an attachment assay demonstrated that LamR functions during virus attachment. We also demonstrate that LamR acts as an alternative attachment receptor, especially in SK6 cells. These results indicate that LamR is a cellular attachment receptor for CSFV. IMPORTANCE Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), an economically important viral disease affecting the pig industry in many countries. To date, only heparan sulfate (HS) has been identified to be an attachment receptor for CSFV. Here, using RNA interference screening with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against a number of porcine membrane protein genes, we identified the laminin receptor (LamR) to be another attachment receptor. We demonstrate the involvement of LamR together with HS in virus attachment, and we elucidate the relationship between LamR and HS. LamR also serves as an attachment receptor for many viral pathogens, including dengue virus, a fatal human flavivirus. The study will help to enhance our understanding of the life cycle of flaviviruses and the development of antiviral strategies for flaviviruses. PMID:25694590

  18. Immunomodulation of host-protective immune response by regulating Foxp3 expression and Treg function in Leishmania-infected BALB/c mice: critical role of IRF1.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Bidisha Paul; Das, Shibali; Majumder, Saikat; Halder, Kuntal; Ghosh, Sweta; Biswas, Satabdi; Bandyopadhyay, Syamdas; Majumdar, Subrata

    2015-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by a protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, is still a threat to mankind due to treatment failure, drug resistance and coinfection with HIV. The limitations of first-line drugs have led to the development of new strategies to combat this dreaded disease. Recently, we have shown the immunomodulatory property of Ara-LAM, a TLR2 ligand, against leishmanial pathogenesis. In this study, we have extended our study to the effect of Ara-LAM on regulatory T cells in a murine model of VL. We observed that Ara-LAM-treated infected BALB/c mice showed a strong host-protective Th1 immune response due to reduced IL-10 and TGF-? production, along with marked decrease in CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) GITR(+) CTLA4(+) regulatory T cell (Treg) generation and activation. The reduction in Foxp3 expression was due to effective modulation of TGF-?-induced SMAD signaling in Treg cells by Ara-LAM. Moreover, we demonstrated that Ara-LAM-induced IRF1 expression in the Treg cells, which negatively regulated foxp3 gene transcription, resulting in the reduced immunosuppressive activity of Treg cells. Interestingly, irf1 gene knockdown completely abrogated the effect of Ara-LAM on Treg cells. Thus, these findings provide detailed mechanistic insight into Ara-LAM-mediated modulation of Treg cells, which might be helpful in combating VL. PMID:26297915

  19. Real-time Recognition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Lipoarabinomannan using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    PubMed Central

    Hiatt, Leslie A.; Cliffel, David E.

    2012-01-01

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor has been successfully employed to screen for both whole Mycobacteria tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli and a Mtb surface antigen, lipoarabinomannan (LAM). One of the most abundant components of the Mtb cell surface, LAM, may be detected without the presence of the entire bacterium. Using available antibodies with proven utility in enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs), a sensor was designed to measure Mtb bacilli and LAM. Equilibrium association constants (Ka) were determined for the interaction of Mtb with immobilized ?-LAM and anti-H37Rv antibodies, where avidity was seen to strengthen this interaction and provide for greater binding than might have otherwise been achieved. The binding of LAM to immobilized ?-LAM had a high associate rate constant (ka) allowing for rapid detection. Evaluating these binding constants helped the compare the sensitivity of these immunosensors to conventional ELISAs. The use of these assays with the better antibodies may allow for immunosensor use in determining LAM as a point-of-care (POC) diagnostic for Mtb. PMID:23175600

  20. The natural history of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: markers of severity, rate of progression and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Moss, Joel

    2010-03-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a multisystem disease of women, characterized by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells) that can metastasize, leading to the formation of lung cysts, fluid-filled cystic structures in the axial lymphatics (e.g., lymphangioleiomyomas), and angiomyolipomas, benign tumors usually involving the kidneys, comprising LAM cells and adipocytes, intermixed with incompletely developed vascular structures. LAM occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex, an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by hamartoma-like tumor growths. LAM may present with progressive dyspnea, recurrent pneumothorax, chylothorax, or abdominal hemorrhage. Computed tomography scans show thin-walled cysts scattered throughout the lungs, abdominal angiomyolipomas, and lymphangioleiomyomas. Pulmonary function tests show reduced flow rates (FEV(1)) and diffusion capacity (DL(CO)). Exercise testing may reveal gas exchange abnormalities, ventilatory limitation, and hypoxemia, which can occur with near-normal lung function. Methods used to grade the severity of disease are the LAM histology score, semiquantitative and quantitative computer tomography, pulmonary function testing, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Currently, progression of disease is best assessed by serial measurements of FEV(1), DL(CO), and exercise performance. New quantitative radiographic techniques that may offer advantages over physiologic testing are now available. Several potential biomarkers, such as LAM cells in peripheral blood, urine, and chyle and chemokines, vascular endothelial growth factors, and matrix metalloproteinases, may be useful as diagnostic tools or markers of organ involvement, disease severity, and progression. PMID:20235883

  1. Clinical and molecular insights into lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Steagall, Wendy K; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Moss, Joel

    2005-12-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease of women that is characterized by a proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells), which leads to cystic lung lesions, lymphatic abnormalities, and abdominal tumors (e.g., angiomyolipomas). LAM occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex, an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by hamartoma-like tumor growths. The tumor suppressor genes TSC1 and TSC2 have been implicated in the etiology of LAM, as mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in TSC2 have been detected in LAM cells. TSC1 encodes hamartin, with a postulated role in actin cytoskeleton reorganization. TSC2 encodes tuberin, a protein with roles in cell growth and proliferation, transcriptional activation, and endocytosis. LAM cells, as defined by TSC2 LOH, have been detected in blood and body fluids, and can metastasize. LAM presents insidiously with progressive breathlessness, or dramatically with recurrent pneumothorax, chylothorax, or sudden abdominal hemorrhage. CT scans show numerous thin-walled cysts throughout the lungs, abdominal angiomyolipomas, and lymphangioleiomyomas. Pulmonary function tests show reduced flow rates (FEV1) and diffusion capacity (DL(CO)). Twenty per cent of patients have positive bronchodilator responses. Exercise testing shows gas-exchange abnormalities, ventilatory limitation, and hypoxemia that may occur with near-normal lung function. Progression of disease is best assessed by measurements of DL(CO) and FEV1. In the proper clinical setting, LAM may be diagnosed by a thoraco-abdominal CT scan. Tissue biopsy with special stains (HMB-45) should be reserved for cases with atypical presentations. There is no effective treatment for LAM, but on-going therapeutic trials with rapamycin appear promising. PMID:16457017

  2. Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-D Prospectively Distinguishes Lymphangioleiomyomatosis From Other Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Young, Lisa R.; VanDyke, Rhonda; Gulleman, Peter M.; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Brown, Kevin K.; Schmidt, Laura S.; Linehan, W. Marston; Hajjar, Fuad; Kinder, Brent W.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Bissler, John J.; Franz, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of women with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) present with cystic lung disease, and most require lung biopsy for definitive diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prospective diagnostic usefulness of a serologic test for vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D), a lymphangiogenic growth factor. Methods: We prospectively measured serum VEGF-D levels by enzyme-linked immunoassay in 48 women presenting with cystic lung disease. Diagnostic test performance was determined from a cohort of 195 women, with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), TSC-LAM, sporadic LAM (S-LAM), and other cystic lung diseases in the differential diagnosis, including biopsy-proven or genetically proven pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, emphysema, Sjögren syndrome, or Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. Results: Serum VEGF-D levels were significantly greater in S-LAM (median 1,175 [interquartile range (IQR): 780-2,013] pg/mL; n = 56) than in other cystic lung diseases (median 281 [IQR 203-351] pg/mL; n = 44, P < .001). In the cohort evaluated prospectively, 12 of the 15 individuals ultimately diagnosed with LAM by biopsy had VEGF-D levels of > 800 pg/mL, whereas levels were < 600 pg/mL in all 18 subjects later diagnosed with other causes of cystic lung disease. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that VEGF-D effectively identified LAM, with an area under the curve of 0.961(95% CI, 0.923-0.992). A VEGF-D level of > 600 pg/mL was highly associated with a diagnosis of LAM (specificity 97.6%, likelihood ratio 35.2) and values > 800 pg/mL were diagnostically specific. Serum VEGF-D levels were significantly elevated in women with TSC-LAM (median 3,465 [IQR 1,970-7,195] pg/mL) compared with women with TSC only (median 370 [IQR 291-520] pg/mL), P < .001). Conclusions: A serum VEGF-D level of > 800 pg/mL in a woman with typical cystic changes on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan is diagnostically specific for S-LAM and identifies LAM in women with TSC. A negative VEGF-D result does not exclude the diagnosis of LAM. The usefulness of serum VEGF-D testing in men or in women who do not have cystic lung disease on HRCT scan is unknown. PMID:20382711

  3. Recovery of chylous pulmonary congestion in tuberous sclerosis complex-associated lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Sakamoto, Atsuhiko; Hidaka, Kouko

    2014-01-01

    Chyloptysis and chylous pulmonary congestion are extremely rare complications of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). We report a case of a 50-year-old woman with tuberous sclerosis complex-associated LAM, who presented with expectorating milky-white bronchial casts. She was diagnosed with chyloptysis and chylous pulmonary congestion by sputum analysis. Her symptoms and lung infiltration were improved by oral sirolimus therapy; moreover, serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) levels paralleled the symptoms and lung infiltration of these complications. We suggest that serum KL-6 may be a useful monitoring biomarker of chyloptysis and chylous pulmonary congestion in LAM. PMID:25326562

  4. A 4-year prospective evaluation of protocols to improve clinical outcomes for patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis in a national clinical centre.

    PubMed

    Bee, Janet; Bhatt, Rupesh; McCafferty, Ian; Johnson, Simon R

    2015-12-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare multisystem disease. Progressive airflow limitation, pneumothorax and angiomyolipoma-related bleeding are major morbidities. As treatments are available for these complications, we prospectively audited loss of FEV1 (?FEV1), pneumothorax and angiomyolipoma bleeding against clinical standards over 4?years at the UK Clinical Centre. ?FEV1 for these patients is lower than previously reported and rates of pneumothorax and angiomyolipoma haemorrhage are low. This suggests that real-time analysis of clinical data with targeted interventions can reduce morbidity in LAM. These measures could be applied as quality standards to compare the emerging LAM clinical networks worldwide. PMID:26123659

  5. Enantiomeric Free Radicals and Enzymatic Control of Stereochemistry in a Radical Mechanism: the Case of Lysine 2,3-aminomutases †

    PubMed Central

    Behshad, E.; Ruzicka, F.J; Mansoorabadi, S.; Chen, D.; Reed, G.H; Frey, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The product of yjeK in Escherichia coli is a homolog of lysine 2,3-aminomutase (LAM) from Clostridium subterminale SB4, and both enzymes catalyze the isomerization of (S)- but not (R)-?-lysine by radical mechanisms. The turnover number for LAM from E. coli is 5.0 min?1, 0.1% of the value for clostridial LAM. The reaction of E. coli LAM with (S)-?-[3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6- 2H8]lysine proceeds with a kinetic isotope effect of kH/kD = 1.4, suggesting that hydrogen transfer is not rate limiting. The product of the E. coli enzyme is (R)-?-lysine, the enantiomer of the clostridial product. ?-Lysine-related radicals are observed in the reactions of both enzymes by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The radical in the reaction of clostridial LAM has the (S)- configuration, whereas that in the reaction of E. coli LAM has the (R)-configuration. Moreover, the conformations of the ?-lysine-related radicals at the active sites of E. coli and clostridial LAM are different. The nuclear hyperfine splitting between the C3-hydrogen and the unpaired electron at C2 shows the dihedral angle to be 6°, unlike the 77° reported for the analogous radical bound to the clostridial enzyme. Reaction of (S)-4-thialysine produces a substrate-related radical in the steady state of E. coli LAM, as in the action of the clostridial enzyme. While (S)-?-lysine is not a substrate for E. coli LAM, it undergoes hydrogen abstraction to form an (S)-?-lysine-related radical with the same stereochemistry of hydrogen transfer from C2 of (S)-?-lysine to the 5?-deoxyadenosyl radical as in the action of the clostridial enzyme. The resulting ?-lysyl radical has a different conformation than that at the active site of clostridial LAM. All evidence indicates that the opposite stereochemistry displayed by the E. coli LAM is determined by the conformation of the lysine side chain in the active site. Stereochemical models for the actions of LAM from C. subterminale and E. coli are presented. PMID:17042480

  6. Attempted Growth of Single-Crystal LaPO4 and LaPO4-M+2Th(PO4)2 Solid Solutions: The Role of Flux Composition and La/(M+2+Th) Ratio, With Implications for Monazite Chemical Dating Standards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, J. M.; Cherniak, D. J.; Rakovan, J. F.

    2004-05-01

    The requirements of a standard for chemical dating of monazite are: 1) grain-scale homogeneity; 2) "monazite-like" matrix composition; 3) incorporation of known concentrations of Pb, Th, and U. Grain sizes > 500 ? m are also desirable. Homogeneous LnPO4 (La-Lu) and YPO4 crystals up to 5 mm in long dimension have been synthesized at 1 atm from a mixture of microcrystalline phosphate and (Li,Na) 2 CO3-MoO3 fluxes. Single-crystal structural refinements indicate that the run products possess the monazite (La-Gd) and xenotime (Tb-Lu, Y) structures. However, growth runs with M+2Th(PO4)2 or LaPO4-M+2Th(PO4)2 solid solutions (M+2 = Ca, Pb) yielded uncoarsened M+2ThMo oxide, or crystalline LaPO4 plus uncoarsened M+2ThMo oxide. In subsequent runs with microcrystalline LaPO4, PbTh(PO4)2, and La80Brb20 solid solution, a KF-K2MoO4 flux was employed. Synthesis runs with end-member phosphates yielded only coarsened La2O3, or coarsened ThO2 plus uncoarsened K-Pb-Th-Mo phosphate. However, the La80Brb20 synthesis yielded four homogeneous phases, each up to 6 mm in long dimension. These phases include LaPO4, LaK3 (PO4)2, a K-Ca-La oxyphosphate (K2O:P2O5 = 3:1, approximately K12Ca10La2(PO4)4O13), and a La-K-Th oxyphosphate (La2O3:P2O5 = 8:3, approximately La32K2Th(PO4)12O56). Theoretical yield ratio of the 4 phases (LaPO:KLaPO:KCaLaPO:LaKThPO) obtained from mass balance is 1.45:0.70:0.03:1.00, which is similar to modal estimates obtained from image analysis of the run products The last phase represents successful incorporation of Th in coarsely crystalline La-P matrix; ThO2 concentration in the La-K-Th oxyphosphate varies between 2.5 and 5.0 wt.%. However, this combination of starting composition, flux, and cooling rate (15 hr soak at 1270° C followed by 1270° C-870° C, 5° C/hr) did not produce a La-phosphate containing both M+2 and Th+4, the primary requirement (when M+2 = Pb) of a monazite chemical dating standard. The initial results suggest that coarsening of microcrystalline phosphate in a KF-K2MoO4 flux is optimized for a La50(M+2Th) 50 solid solution. This hypothesis will be tested for both La50(PbTh)50 and La50(CaTh)50 solid solutions, in conjunction with use of alternate fluxes and seeding of runs with crystalline LaPO4.

  7. MODULATION OF NF-kB IN RESCUED IRRADIATED CELLS R. K. K. Lam1, Y. K. Fung1, W. Han2, L. Li3, S. K. Chiu3, S. H. Cheng3,4 and K. N. Yu1,2,4,*

    E-print Network

    Yu, K.N.

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been regarded as one of the most fascinating discoveries-culturing with unirradiated bystander cells. This phenomenon was re- ferred to as the `rescue effect'. The effect was observed author: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk Studies by different groups on the rescue effect, where unirradiated

  8. The Internet as a Glocal Discourse Environment: A Commentary on "Second Language Socialization in a Bilingual Chat Room" by Wan Shun Eva Lam and "Second Language Cyberhetoric: A Study of Chinese L2 Writers in an Online Usenet Group" by Joel Bloch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsogiannis, Dimitris; Mitsikopoulou, Bessie

    2004-01-01

    The Internet as a worldwide literacy practice environment has created a new situation in communication, providing a new dynamic field for research. On the basis of the two articles under discussion, this commentary develops three main aspects of the Internet: as an informal learning environment for English as a second/foreign language; as a…

  9. Safety, Health & Environmental Exhibition and General Interest Lectures General Interest Lectures

    E-print Network

    's Occupational Health and Safety Speaker: Mr Pang Kok Lam, Chief Occupational Safety Theme: "Fire Safety & Prevention" - Occupational Safety and Health Council Main Theme: OccupationalSafety, Health & Environmental Exhibition and General Interest Lectures 2007 General Interest

  10. Galaxy alignment as a probe of large-scale filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    The orientations of the red galaxies in a filament are aligned with the orientation of the filament. We thus develop a location-alignment-method (LAM) of detecting filaments around clusters of galaxies, which uses both the alignments of red galaxies and their distributions in two-dimensional images. For the first time, the orientations of red galaxies are used as probes of filaments. We apply LAM to the environment of Coma cluster, and find four filaments (two filaments are located in sheets) in two selected regions, which are compared with the filaments detected with the method of Falco et al.. We find that LAM can effectively detect the filaments around a cluster, even with 3? confidence level, and clearly reveal the number and overall orientations of the detected filaments. LAM is independent of the redshifts of galaxies, and thus can be applied at relatively high redshifts and to the samples of red galaxies without the information of redshifts.

  11. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the first year of typical use of each contraceptive method. Condoms, sponge, withdrawal, spermicides: Use correctly every time ... Amenorrhea Method: LAM is a highly effective, temporary method of ... contraceptive pills or a copper IUD after unprotected intercourse ...

  12. Terahertz imaging and quantum cascade laser based devices

    E-print Network

    Lee, Alan Wei Min

    2010-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) frequency range (f=0.3-10 THz, [lambda]=30-1000 lam) is much less technologically developed that the adjacent microwave and infrared frequency ranges, but offers several advantages for imaging applications: ...

  13. 75 FR 62462 - Additions to the List of Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of China: Hynix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of China: Hynix Semiconductor China Ltd., Hynix Semiconductor (Wuxi) Ltd. and Lam...to add three end-users, Hynix Semiconductor (China) Ltd., Hynix Semiconductor (Wuxi) Ltd....

  14. Therapeutic targeting of autophagy in neurodegenerative and infectious diseases

    E-print Network

    Rubinsztein, David C.; Bento, Carla F.; Deretic, Vojo

    2015-06-22

    ) and in a mouse model of tuberculosis (Napier et al., 2011). Other antituber- culosis HDT autophagy-inducing candidate drugs include antiparasitic pharmaceuticals such as nitozoxanide (Lam et al., 2012) and cholesterol-lowering drugs, i.e., statins...

  15. Reflection Analysis for Java Benjamin Livshits John Whaley

    E-print Network

    Livshits, Ben

    Reflection Analysis for Java Benjamin Livshits John Whaley Monica S. Lam Computer Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2 Paper Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2 Overview of Reflection in Java 11 2.1 Reflection APIs in Java . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.1.1 Obtaining

  16. What Causes Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... such as pneumonia (nu-MO-ne-ah) and tuberculosis, and infections from fungi or parasites Pulmonary embolism , ... diseases may include COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), tuberculosis, and LAM. Surgery or a chest injury also ...

  17. ACM Transactions on Asian Language Information Processing, Vol. 9, No. 3, Article 8. The State of the Journal

    E-print Network

    Ng, Hwee Tou

    , Gina- Anne Levow, Hang Li, Xiaoqiang Luo, Yuji Matsumoto, Sung-Hyon Myaeng, Jian-Yun Nie, Richard-Lian Hsu, Hitoshi Isahara, Philipp Koehn, Sadao Kurohashi, Wai Lam, Gary Geunbae Lee, Chin-Yew Lin, Qun Liu

  18. Frodig natur, historiske byer, pomp og prakt og tradisjon! Bli med Universitetets Seniorforening til

    E-print Network

    Gerhardy, Philipp

    til SKOTTLAND M ILITARY TATTOO #12;Dag 1: Norge - Skottland Fra Oslo flyr vi direkte til Edinburgh førsteklasses skotske råvarer som biff, laks og lam. Dag 5: Edinburgh og Tattoo (frivillig utflukt) Idag tilbyr

  19. Effects of Combining Rapamycin and Resveratrol on Apoptosis and Growth of TSC2-Deficient Xenograft Tumors.

    PubMed

    Alayev, Anya; Salamon, Rachel S; Sun, Yang; Schwartz, Naomi S; Li, Chenggang; Yu, Jane J; Holz, Marina K

    2015-11-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare neoplastic metastatic disease affecting women of childbearing age. LAM is caused by hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) as a consequence of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1/2 inactivation. Clinically, LAM results in cystic lung destruction. mTORC1 inhibition using rapamycin analogs (rapalogs) is partially effective in reducing disease progression and improving lung function. However, cessation of treatment results in continued progression of the disease. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of the combination of rapamycin treatment with resveratrol, an autophagy inhibitor, in the TSC2-null xenograft tumor model. We determined that this combination inhibits phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 signaling and activates apoptosis. Therefore, the combination of rapamycin and resveratrol may be an effective clinical strategy for treatment of LAM and other diseases with mTORC1 hyperactivation. PMID:25844891

  20. Helichrysum sp. (Cultivated) 2 

    E-print Network

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10

    ’, ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) ‘Calico’, ‘Black Pearl’, ‘Purple Flash’, helenium (Helenium amarum Raf. H. Rock.), licorice plant (Helichrysum petiolatum L. DC.), plumbago (Plumbago auriculata Lam.), and vinca (Catharanthus roseus L.) ‘Rose...

  1. History of Has (Ha) Valley

    E-print Network

    Tshewang, Ven. Lam Pema

    2001-01-01

    . Lam Pema Tshewang * Has (Ha) is situated in the west of the sandalwood Kingdom near Sikkim or the Hidden-Land Rice Valley. It is blessed with the presence of the three Boddhisatvas-Manjusri, Avalokitesvara and Vajrapani - the manifestations...

  2. A Deferrable Scheduling Algorithm for Real-Time Transactions Maintaining Data Freshness

    E-print Network

    Chandy, John A.

    Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies xiong@research.bell-labs.com Song Han City University of Hong Kong han song@cs.cityu.edu.hk Kam-Yiu Lam City University of Hong Kong cskylam@cityu.edu.hk Abstract Periodic

  3. Announcement Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, Pupa Gelsomina De Stasio

    ................................................................................................ 116 William T. Baxter, Robert A. Grassucci, Haixiao Gao, Joachim Frank. Determination of signal.............................................................................................. 126 Elia Beniash, Rebecca A. Metzler, Raymond S.K. Lam, P.U.P.A. Gilbert. Transient amorphous calcium

  4. Zita Martins Astrobiloga portuguesa do Imperial College de Londres "Estamos mais perto

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    todos fa- lam de Marte, mas os candida- tos mais prováveis parecem ser os satélites de Júpiter e Saturno as agências espaciais não concentrem só as atenções em Marte para a procura de vida, mas também noutros sítios

  5. How Many Women Are Affected by or at Risk of Preeclampsia?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001892 [top] Zamorski, M. A., & Green, L. A. (2001). NHBPEP report on high ... 1476919-overview [top] Sanchez, S. E., Qiu, C., Williams, M. A., Lam, N., Sorensen, T. K. (2008). Headaches and ...

  6. What Is Writing? Student Practices and Perspectives on the Technologies of Literacy in College Composition 

    E-print Network

    Spring, Sarah Catherine

    2011-10-21

    computers and/or technology interact with gender (Wolfe), ethnicity (Monroe), or non-native speakers of English (Lam and Pennington). Joanna Wolfe in ?Gender, Ethnicity, and Classroom Discourse: Communication Patterns of Hispanic and White Students...

  7. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is superior to lamivudine plus adefovir in lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan-Hong; Xie, Yuan-Jun; Zhao, Nian-Feng; Pan, Hong-Ying; Li, Ming-Wei; Huang, Hai-Jun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in lamivudine (LAM)-resistant patients with a suboptimal response to LAM plus adefovir (ADV). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy of switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in suboptimal responders to lamivudine plus adefovir. Charts were reviewed for LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who visited the Zhejiang Province People’s Hospital and The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, from June 2009 to May 2013. Patients whose serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA remained detectable despite at least 6 mo of LAM plus ADV combination therapy were included. Patients with a suboptimal response to LAM plus ADV were randomized to switch to TDF monotherapy (300 mg/d orally; TDF group) or to continuation with LAM (100 mg/d orally) plus ADV (10 mg/d orally; LAM plus ADV group) and were followed for 48 wk. Serum HBV DNA was determined at baseline and weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48. HBV serological markers and biochemistry were assessed at baseline and weeks 12, 24, and 48. Resistance surveillance and side effects were monitored during therapy. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patient were randomized to switch to TDF (n = 28) or continuation with LAM plus ADV (n = 31). No significant differences were found between the groups at baseline. Prior to TDF therapy, all patients had been exposed to LAM plus ADV for a median of 11 mo (range: 6-24 mo). No difference was seen in baseline serum HBV DNA between the two groups [5.13 ± 1.08 log10 copies/mL (TDF) vs 5.04 ± 31.16 log10 copies/mL (LAM + ADV), P = 0.639]. There was no significant difference in the rates of achieving complete virological response (CVR) at week 4 between the TDF and LAM + ADV groups (17.86% vs 6.45%, P = 0.24). The rate of achieving CVR in the TDF and LAM plus ADV groups was 75% vs 16.13% at week 12, 82.14% vs 22.58% at week 24, 89.29% vs 25.81% at week 36, and 96.43% vs 29.03% at week 48, respectively (P < 0.001). The rate of alanine aminotransferase normalization was significantly higher in the TDF than in the LAM plus ADV group at week 12 (75% vs 17.86%, P < 0.001), but not at week 24 (78.57% vs 54.84%, P = 0.097) or 48 (89.26% vs 67.74%, P = 0.062). Patients were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive at baseline. There was no significant difference in HBeAg negativity between the TDF and LAM plus ADV groups at week 48 (4% vs 0%, P = 0.481). There were no drug-related adverse effects at week 48 in either group. CONCLUSION: Switching to TDF monotherapy was superior to continuous add-on therapy in patients with LAM-resistant CHB with a suboptimal response to LAM plus ADV. PMID:25759545

  8. Occurrence of periodic Lamé functions at bifurcations in chaotic Hamiltonian systems

    E-print Network

    M. Brack; M. Mehta; K. Tanaka

    2001-08-30

    We investigate cascades of isochronous pitchfork bifurcations of straight-line librating orbits in some two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with mixed phase space. We show that the new bifurcated orbits, which are responsible for the onset of chaos, are given analytically by the periodic solutions of the Lam\\'e equation as classified in 1940 by Ince. In Hamiltonians with C_${2v}$ symmetry, they occur alternatingly as Lam\\'e functions of period 2K and 4K, respectively, where 4K is the period of the Jacobi elliptic function appearing in the Lam\\'e equation. We also show that the two pairs of orbits created at period-doubling bifurcations of touch-and-go type are given by two different linear combinations of algebraic Lam\\'e functions with period 8K.

  9. 21 CFR 73.2190 - Henna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.). It may be identified by its characteristic odor and by characteristic plant histology. (b) Specifications. Henna shall conform to the following specifications: It shall not contain more than 10...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2190 - Henna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.). It may be identified by its characteristic odor and by characteristic plant histology. (b) Specifications. Henna shall conform to the following specifications: It shall not contain more than 10...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2190 - Henna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.). It may be identified by its characteristic odor and by characteristic plant histology. (b) Specifications. Henna shall conform to the following specifications: It shall not contain more than 10...

  12. 21 CFR 73.2190 - Henna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.). It may be identified by its characteristic odor and by characteristic plant histology. (b) Specifications. Henna shall conform to the following specifications: It shall not contain more than 10...

  13. PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [EBSCOHost EJS Content Distribution -Current

    E-print Network

    causing rot of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) in the USA (Halsted 1890, Halsted and Fairchild and rot of root crops such as sweet potato. Tree hosts include oak (Quercus spp.; Henry et al. 1944

  14. message from exco functions review

    E-print Network

    Kwok, Hoi S.

    ;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;SPORT TEAMS & ACHIEVEMENTS #12;BASKETBALL TEAM Wong Chun Sun Lam Martin Chi Ching Mou Qingqi Wong Kai Competition 2013-14 Basketball Champion Joint University Sports Competition 2014 Basketball Champion Special

  15. Faculty and Staff Activities and Accomplishments The Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (NJAES) now offers a portal for all of its

    E-print Network

    Vetriani, Costantino

    ­ child interactions and their effects on weight gain; and determination of behavior differences in low-sensitive camera system for epigenetics and gene expression to Eric Lam; and upgrades of existing facilities

  16. A comparison of eddy current effects in a single sided magnetic thrust bearing 

    E-print Network

    DeWeese, Randall Thomas

    1996-01-01

    finite element studies of magnetic thrust bearings using static bench testing procedures to investigate configurations that promote eddy current reduction. Several rotor/stator configurations, including solid metal, laminated washers, tapewound lam...

  17. Immunomodulatory role of arabinosylated lipoarabinomannan on Leishmania donovani infected murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Majumder, N; Bhattacharyya, P; Bhattacharyya, S; Majumdar, Subrata

    2007-10-01

    Arabinosylated lipoarabinomannan (Ara-LAM), a surface glycolipid antigen isolated from avirulent Mycobacterium smegmatis is involved in modulation of host cell signaling. In this study, we investigated Ara-LAM-mediated modulation of impaired immune responses during visceral leishmaniasis caused by protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Ara-LAM treatment at dose of 3 microg/ml in L. donovani infected murine peritoneal macrophages as well as J774A.1 macrophage cell line exhibited a distinct up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha and IL-12 both at the protein and transcriptional level. In addition, generation of nitric oxide and iNOS expression were also observed. The present study showed that Ara-LAM was significantly effective in elimination of L. donovani parasites from both peritoneal as well as J774A.1 macrophages. Thus, it could be utilized as an immunomodulatory agent in prevention of leishmanial pathogenesis. PMID:18341212

  18. Draft genome sequence of “Candidatus Liberibacter americanus” bacterium associated with citrus huanglongbing in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus of‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ belongs to Gram-negative, a-proteobacteria. There are four pathogenic Liberibacter species in this genus, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Candidatus Liberibacter africanus’ (Laf) and ‘Candidatus Liberibacter americanus’ (Lam), which are associated wi...

  19. SPISE2009 1 SPISE2009, the second symposium on sensory evaluation in ASEAN, was held on August 7

    E-print Network

    Abdi, Hervé

    evaluation in ASEAN, was held on August 7­ 9, 2009 at Ho Chi Minh-city University of Technology, Vietnam: Le Minh Tam, Phan Thuy Xuan Uyen, Nguyen Thi Hang, Vu Thi Thanh Phuong, Lam Minh Thuy, Truong Thi

  20. Optical tweezers Optical-Tweezers Study of Topoisomerase Inhibition**

    E-print Network

    Bielefeld, Universität

    are especially attractive targets for cancer therapy since their role in controlling DNA topology is crucial] we prepared a library of open lactone analogues of the natural product (open chain Lam-D, OCLam

  1. Time-domain simulation of flute-like instruments: Comparison of jet-drive and discrete-vortex models

    E-print Network

    Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

    , UMR 7190, Institut Jean le Rond d'Alembert, LAM, F-75005, Paris, France Pierre-Yves Lagreeb) CNRS, UMR 7190, Institut Jean le Rond d'Alembert, F-75005, Paris, France (Received 28 June 2013; revised 23 April

  2. On the Influence of the Q Factor on the Oscillating Frequency of Flue Organ Pipes

    E-print Network

    Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

    , Benoît Fabre Equipe LAM, Institut Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 11 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris, France. Pierre-Yves Lagrée CNRS, Institut Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Université Pierre

  3. Clinical Trials for Rare Lung Diseases: Lessons from Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Francis X.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, slowly progressive neoplasm that causes gradual but often life-threatening cystic destruction of the lung. Advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis have LAM have identified a number of promising targets for testing in therapeutic trials. However, the design, prioritization, organization, and implementation of clinical trials in rare lung diseases poses unique challenges, including geographically disperse populations, sluggish enrollment, off- label drug use, burdensome regulations, and paucity of validated surrogate endpoints. PMID:20235889

  4. Establishment of drug-resistant HBV small-animal models by hydrodynamic injection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Junjun; Han, Yanxing; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2014-01-01

    In antiviral therapy of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, drug resistance remains a huge obstacle to the long-term effectiveness of nucleoside/tide analogs (NAs). Primary resistance mutation (rtM204V) contributes to lamivudine (LAM)-resistance, and compensatory mutations (rtL180M and rtV173L) restore viral fitness and increase replication efficiency. The evaluation of new anti-viral agents against drug-resistant HBV is limited by the lack of available small-animal models. We established LAM-resistance HBV replication mice models based on clinical LAM-resistant HBV mutants. Double (rtM204V+rtL180M) or triple (rtM204V+rtL180M+rtV173L) lamivudine-resistant mutations were introduced into HBV expression vector, followed by hydrodynamic injection into tail vein of NOD/SCID mice. Viremia was detected on days 5, 9, 13 and 17 and liver HBV DNA was detected on day 17 after injection. The serum and liver HBV DNA levels in LAM-resistant model carrying triple mutations are the highest among the models. Two NAs, LAM and entecavir (ETV), were used to test the availability of the models. LAM and ETV inhibited viral replication on wild-type model. LAM was no longer effective on LAM-resistant models, but ETV retains a strong activity. Therefore, these models can be used to evaluate anti-viral agents against lamivudine-resistance, affording new opportunities to establish other drug-resistant HBV small-animal models.

  5. A Novel Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Glycoside Hydrolase from Ustilago esculenta Functions in ?-1,3-Glucan Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Masahiro; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Machiko; Nakano, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    A glycoside hydrolase responsible for laminarin degradation was partially purified to homogeneity from a Ustilago esculenta culture filtrate by weak-cation-exchange, strong-cation-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Three proteins in enzymatically active fractions were digested with chymotrypsin followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis, resulting in the identification of three peptide sequences that shared significant similarity to a putative ?-1,3-glucanase, a member of glucoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) from Sporisorium reilianum SRZ2. A gene encoding a laminarin-degrading enzyme from U. esculenta, lam16A, was isolated by PCR using degenerate primers designed based on the S. reilianum SRZ2 ?-1,3-glucanase gene. Lam16A possesses a GH16 catalytic domain with an N-terminal signal peptide and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor peptide. Recombinant Lam16A fused to an N-terminal FLAG peptide (Lam16A-FLAG) overexpressed in Aspergillus oryzae exhibited hydrolytic activity toward ?-1,3-glucan specifically and was localized both in the extracellular and in the membrane fractions but not in the cell wall fraction. Lam16A without a GPI anchor signal peptide was secreted extracellularly and was not detected in the membrane fraction. Membrane-anchored Lam16A-FLAG was released completely by treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. These results suggest that Lam16A is anchored in the plasma membrane in order to modify ?-1,3-glucan associated with the inner cell wall and that Lam16A is also used for the catabolism of ?-1,3-glucan after its release in the extracellular medium. PMID:22685137

  6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Biomarkers Linked to Lung Metastatic Potential and Cell Stemness

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz de Garibay, Gorka; Herranz, Carmen; Llorente, Alicia; Boni, Jacopo; Serra-Musach, Jordi; Mateo, Francesca; Aguilar, Helena; Gómez-Baldó, Laia; Petit, Anna; Vidal, August; Climent, Fina; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Cordero, Álex; González-Suárez, Eva; Sánchez-Mut, José Vicente; Esteller, Manel; Llatjós, Roger; Varela, Mar; López, José Ignacio; García, Nadia; Extremera, Ana I.; Gumà, Anna; Ortega, Raúl; Plà, María Jesús; Fernández, Adela; Pernas, Sònia; Falo, Catalina; Morilla, Idoia; Campos, Miriam; Gil, Miguel; Román, Antonio; Molina-Molina, María; Ussetti, Piedad; Laporta, Rosalía; Valenzuela, Claudia; Ancochea, Julio; Xaubet, Antoni; Casanova, Álvaro; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung-metastasizing neoplasm caused by the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells that commonly carry loss-of-function mutations in either the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 or 2 (TSC1 or TSC2) genes. While allosteric inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has shown substantial clinical benefit, complementary therapies are required to improve response and/or to treat specific patients. However, there is a lack of LAM biomarkers that could potentially be used to monitor the disease and to develop other targeted therapies. We hypothesized that the mediators of cancer metastasis to lung, particularly in breast cancer, also play a relevant role in LAM. Analyses across independent breast cancer datasets revealed associations between low TSC1/2 expression, altered mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway signaling, and metastasis to lung. Subsequently, immunohistochemical analyses of 23 LAM lesions revealed positivity in all cases for the lung metastasis mediators fascin 1 (FSCN1) and inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1). Moreover, assessment of breast cancer stem or luminal progenitor cell biomarkers showed positivity in most LAM tissue for the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), integrin-ß3 (ITGB3/CD61), and/or the sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) proteins. The immunohistochemical analyses also provided evidence of heterogeneity between and within LAM cases. The analysis of Tsc2-deficient cells revealed relative over-expression of FSCN1 and ID1; however, Tsc2-deficient cells did not show higher sensitivity to ID1-based cancer inhibitors. Collectively, the results of this study reveal novel LAM biomarkers linked to breast cancer metastasis to lung and to cell stemness, which in turn might guide the assessment of additional or complementary therapeutic opportunities for LAM. PMID:26167915

  7. Accuracy of Lipoarabinomannan and Xpert MTB/RIF Testing in Cerebrospinal Fluid To Diagnose Tuberculous Meningitis in an Autopsy Cohort of HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Cox, Janneke A; Lukande, Robert L; Kalungi, Sam; Van Marck, Eric; Lammens, Martin; Van de Vijver, Koen; Kambugu, Andrew; Nelson, Ann M; Colebunders, Robert; Manabe, Yukari C

    2015-08-01

    Point-of-care tests for tuberculous meningitis (TBM) are needed. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of the lipoarabinomannan (LAM) lateral flow assay (LFA), LAM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Xpert MTB/RIF in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in an autopsy cohort of Ugandan HIV-infected adults. We obtained written informed consent postmortem from the next of kin. A complete autopsy was done and CSF obtained. We performed LAM LFA (on unprepared and supernatant CSF after heating and spinning), LAM ELISA, and Xpert MTB/RIF on the CSF samples. Accuracy parameters were calculated for histopathological TBM and also for the composite standard, including Xpert MTB/RIF-positive cases. We tested CSF of 91 patients. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 75% for definite histopathological TBM, ELISA a sensitivity of 43%, and Xpert MTB/RIF a sensitivity of 100% and specificities of 87%, 91%, and 87%, respectively. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 50% for definite and probable histopathological TBM, ELISA a sensitivity of 38%, and Xpert MTB/RIF a sensitivity of 86% and specificities of 70%, 91%, and 87%, respectively. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 68% for the composite standard and ELISA a sensitivity of 48% and specificities of 78% and 98%, respectively. The rapid diagnostic tests detected TBM in 22% to 78% of patients not on anti-TB treatment. Point-of-care tests have high accuracy in diagnosis of TBM in deceased HIV-infected adults. LAM LFA in CSF is a useful additional diagnostic tool. PMID:26063865

  8. Insights into the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using spoligotyping and RDRio in a southeastern Brazilian prison unit.

    PubMed

    Huber, Fé Dagmar; Sánchez, Alexandra; Gomes, Harrison Magdinier; Vasconcellos, Sidra; Massari, Véronique; Barreto, Angela; Cesconi, Vanderci; de Almeida Machado, Silvia Maria; Gomgnimbou, Michel K; Sola, Christophe; Larouzé, Bernard; Suffys, Philip Noel; Saad, Maria Helena Féres

    2014-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a serious public health problem, continuing to be an important threat for confined populations. We used spoligotyping to estimate the genotypic clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from inmates in two blocks in a southeastern Brazilian prison unit, with TB incidence rate of 8185/100.000. The Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) clade is well represented in the country, and the LAM specific molecular markers, RD(Rio) large sequence polymorphism and the SNP on the Rv3062 [ligB(1212)], were used to characterize spoligotype signatures from prison isolates. Typing of RD(Rio) and ligB increase LAM clade from 66.7% (n=72/108) to 69.4% (n=75). The LAM2 SIT17 (n=23) and SIT179 (n=12) signatures comprised one third of all isolates, followed by Haarlem (11.5%, n=12), T (8.7%, n=9) and X (5.7%, n=6) clades. Strains with unknown signatures represented 5.5% (n=6), and four (3.7%) did not match any lineage. We observed RD(Rio) among 64 (59.2%) isolates, and 54 (50%) were of the LAM clade. In particular, the LAM2/RD(Rio) sub-lineage was significantly associated with clustering (p=0.02) and its frequency was higher (32%) when compared to that of the previous general TB cases in RJ (4.29%). Overall cluster frequency defined by spoligotyping/IS6110-RFLP was 62%. The two evolutionary markers helped to evaluate some LAM signature misconceptions and demonstrate that LAM2/RD(Rio) was found with high frequency, hitherto being unnoticed. All these data, allied to high clustering, imply that public health measures to minimize the escalation of TB in prison is essential, and both spoligotyping as well as RD(Rio) would be useful tools to monitor the effects of the measures with respect to M. tuberculosis lineage variation. PMID:24907670

  9. A Targeted and Adjuvanted Nanocarrier Lowers the Effective Dose of Liposomal Amphotericin B and Enhances Adaptive Immunity in Murine Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Daftarian, Pirouz M.; Stone, Geoffrey W.; Kovalski, Leticia; Kumar, Manoj; Vosoughi, Aram; Urbieta, Maitee; Blackwelder, Pat; Dikici, Emre; Serafini, Paolo; Duffort, Stephanie; Boodoo, Richard; Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Lemmon, Vance; Deo, Sapna; Alberola, Jordi; Perez, Victor L.; Daunert, Sylvia; Ager, Arba L.

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Amphotericin B (AmB), the most effective drug against leishmaniasis, has serious toxicity. As Leishmania species are obligate intracellular parasites of antigen presenting cells (APC), an immunopotentiating APC-specific AmB nanocarrier would be ideally suited to reduce the drug dosage and regimen requirements in leishmaniasis treatment. Here, we report a nanocarrier that results in effective treatment shortening of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a mouse model, while also enhancing L. major specific T-cell immune responses in the infected host. Methods.?We used a Pan-DR-binding epitope (PADRE)-derivatized-dendrimer (PDD), complexed with liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) in an L. major mouse model and analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose PDD/LAmB vs full dose LAmB. Results.?PDD was shown to escort LAmB to APCs in vivo, enhanced the drug efficacy by 83% and drug APC targeting by 10-fold and significantly reduced parasite burden and toxicity. Fortuitously, the PDD immunopotentiating effect significantly enhanced parasite-specific T-cell responses in immunocompetent infected mice. Conclusions.?PDD reduced the effective dose and toxicity of LAmB and resulted in elicitation of strong parasite specific T-cell responses. A reduced effective therapeutic dose was achieved by selective LAmB delivery to APC, bypassing bystander cells, reducing toxicity and inducing antiparasite immunity. PMID:23901083

  10. High-throughput monitoring of integration site clonality in preclinical and clinical gene therapy studies

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Frank A; Appelt, Jens-Uwe; Link, Barbara; Gerdes, Sebastian; Lehrer, Christina; Scholz, Simone; Paruzynski, Anna; Roeder, Ingo; Wenz, Frederik; Glimm, Hanno; von Kalle, Christof; Grez, Manuel; Schmidt, Manfred; Laufs, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Gene transfer to hematopoietic stem cells with integrating vectors not only allows sustained correction of monogenic diseases but also tracking of individual clones in vivo. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has been shown to be an accurate method to quantify individual stem cell clones, yet due to frequently limited amounts of target material (especially in clinical studies), it is not useful for large-scale analyses. To explore whether vector integration site (IS) recovery techniques may be suitable to describe clonal contributions if combined with next-generation sequencing techniques, we designed artificial ISs of different sizes which were mixed to simulate defined clonal situations in clinical settings. We subjected all mixes to either linear amplification–mediated PCR (LAM-PCR) or nonrestrictive LAM-PCR (nrLAM-PCR), both combined with 454 sequencing. We showed that nrLAM-PCR/454-detected clonality allows estimating qPCR-detected clonality in vitro. We then followed the kinetics of two clones detected in a patient enrolled in a clinical gene therapy trial using both, nrLAM-PCR/454 and qPCR and also saw nrLAM-PCR/454 to correlate to qPCR-measured clonal contributions. The method presented here displays a feasible high-throughput strategy to monitor clonality in clinical gene therapy trials is at hand. PMID:26052530

  11. Clostridium huakuii sp. nov., an anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium isolated from methanogenic consortia.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zhiyong; Wang, Yanwei; Zhang, Chi; Song, Jinlong; Zhai, Yi; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Huimin; Chen, Xiaorong; Li, Yanting; Zhao, Bingqiang; Zhao, Bin

    2014-12-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, spore-forming, obligately anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium, designated LAM1030(T), was isolated from methanogenic consortia enriched from biogas slurry collected from the large-scale anaerobic digester of Modern Farming Corporation in Hebei Province, China. Cells of strain LAM1030(T) were motile, straight or spiral-rod-shaped. Strain LAM1030(T) could utilize glucose, fructose, maltose, galactose, lactose, sucrose, cellobiose, mannitol, pyruvate, succinic acid and tryptophan as the sole carbon source. Acetic acid, isovaleric acid and butanoic acid were the main products of glucose fermentation. Sodium sulfite was used as an electron acceptor. Growth of strain LAM1030(T) was completely inhibited by the addition of ampicillin, tetracycline, gentamicin or erythromycin at a concentration of 20 µg ml(-1). The main polar lipids of strain LAM1030(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, 11 unknown glycolipids and two unknown phospholipids. No respiratory quinone was detected. The major fatty acids of strain LAM1030(T) were C16?:?0 (21.1?%), C14?:?0 (10.3?%), summed feature 9 (including C16:0 10-methyl and/or iso-C17:1 ?9c) (11.3% ), summed feature 3 (including C16:1 ?7c and/or C16:1 ?6c) (10.6% ) and iso-C15?:?0 (6.6?%). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain LAM1030(T) belonged to the genus Clostridium and was most closely related to Clostridium subterminale DSM 6970(T), Clostridium thiosulfatireducens DSM 13105(T) and Clostridium sulfidigenes DSM 18982(T), with 97.0, 96.9 and 96.8?% similarity, respectively. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain LAM1030(T) was 31.2±0.3 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characterization, strain LAM1030(T) is suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium huakuii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LAM1030(T) (?=?ACCC 00698(T)?=?JCM 19186(T)). PMID:25230767

  12. Long-term lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis: A real-life cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ming-Hua; Lu, Ai-Lian; Li, Shi-Hua; Zhong, Shao-Hua; Wang, Bao-Jian; Wu, Xiao-Li; Mo, Yan-Yan; Liang, Peng; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Xie, Rong; He, Li-Xia; Fu, Wu-Dao; Jiang, Jian-Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and liver cirrhosis (LC) patients under whole-course management with lamivudine (LAM). METHODS: This was a retrospective-prospective cohort study based on two nonrandom cohorts of Chinese patients (LAM group and history control group). Two hundred thirty-eight patients with LAM treatment for at least 12 mo under whole-course management were included in the LAM group. The management measures included regular follow-up and timely adjustment of the therapeutic regimen according to drug-resistance and relapse. Two hundred thirty-eight patients with CHB or LC without any antiviral treatment and with follow-up over 12 mo were included in the history control group. The LAM and control group patients were 1:1 matched by propensity score method to ensure both patients were similar in general datum, sex, age, E antigen, and diagnosis. The incidence rates of endpoint events [LC, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and death] were compared between the LAM and control groups. RESULTS: Hepatitis B virus-DNA < 1000 copies per mL rate and rate of alanine transaminase < 1.3 of the upper normal limit in LAM and control groups were 89.1% vs 18.5% (P < 0.05) and 89.8% vs 31.1% (P < 0.05), respectively. Viral breakthrough occurred in 77 patients (32.4%); the one-, three-, and five-year cumulative rates were 6.8%, 33.1%, and 41.3%, respectively. In total, 44.5% (106/238) of patients had once stopped LAM, and 63 (59.4%) of them developed virologic relapse; the relapse rate of patients with and without reaching Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver endpoint criteria were 52.4% and 69.8%, respectively. Six CHB patients in the LAM group developed LC compared to 47 patients in the control group; the three-, and five-year cumulative rates of CHB at baseline of LAM were lower than those of the control group: 0.7% vs 12.0% and 1.8% vs 23.8% (P < 0.01), respectively. The incidence of HCC in CHB at baseline of LAM was lower than that of the control group; the three-, and five-year cumulative rates were 0% vs 3.2% and 1.1% vs 3.2% (P = 0.05), respectively. The incidence of HCC in LC at baseline of LAM was lower than that of the control group: 9.8% (5/51) vs 25.0% (12/48), and the three-, and five-year cumulative rates were 4.5% vs 20.7% and 8.1% vs 37.5% (P < 0.01), respectively. The mortality rate in the LAM group was lower than the control group. CONCLUSION: Standardized long-term LAM treatment in combination with comprehensive management can reduce the incidence rates of LC and HCC as well as hepatitis B virus-related deaths. PMID:26673249

  13. Botanical features for identification of Gymnosporia arenicola dried leaf.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Gustavo; Serrano, Rita; Teixeira Gomes, Elsa; Silva, Olga

    2015-11-01

    Gymnosporia arenicola Jordaan (Celastraceae) is a shrub or small tree, which naturally occurs in coastal sand dunes of Southern Mozambique and South Africa. Its dried leaf is often used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Hereby, we present results of studies carried out according to the pharmacopoeia standards for the identification of herbal drugs, in the whole, fragmented, and powdered plant material. These results were complemented with scanning electron microscopy and histochemical techniques. The leaf microscopic analysis revealed a typical dorsiventral mesophyll with a corresponding spongy parenchyma-palisade parenchyma ratio of 0.60, anomocytic and paracytic stomata, papillate cells with a diameter of 4.00?±?0.40 µm, multicellular uniseriate nonglandular trichomes with a length of 27.00?±?4.10 µm and cristalliferous idioblasts containing calcium oxalate cluster crystals with a diameter of 23.04?±?5.84 µm. The present findings demonstrate that the G. arenicola leaf has both nonglandular trichomes and hypoderm, features not previously described in the corresponding botanical section (Gymnosporia sect. Buxifoliae Jordaan). The establishment of these new botanical markers for the identification of G. arenicola leaf is essential for quality, safety and efficacy reasons. Microsc. Res. Tech. 78:1001-1009, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26303860

  14. Management of lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a multisystem disease affecting almost exclusively women, is characterized by cystic lung destruction and presents with dyspnea, recurrent pneumothoraxes, chylous effusions, lymphangioleiomyomas, and angiomyolipomas. It is caused by the proliferation of a cancer-like LAM cell that possesses a mutation in either the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)1 or TSC2 genes. This article reviews current therapies and new potential treatments that are currently undergoing investigation. The major development in the treatment of LAM is the discovery of two mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, sirolimus and everolimus, as effective drugs. However, inhibition of mTOR increases autophagy, which may lead to enhanced LAM cell survival. Use of autophagy inhibitors, for example, hydroxychloroquine, in combination with sirolimus is now the subject of an ongoing drug trial (SAIL trial). Another consequence of mTOR inhibition by sirolimus is an increase in Rho activity, resulting in reduced programmed cell death. From these data, the concept evolved that a combination of sirolimus with disruption of Rho activity with statins (e.g. simvastatin) may increase TSC-null cell death and reduce LAM cell survival. A combined trial of sirolimus with simvastatin is under investigation (SOS trial). Since LAM occurs primarily in women and TSC-null cell survival and tumor growth is promoted by estrogens, the inhibition of aromatase to block estrogen synthesis is currently undergoing study (TRAIL trial). Other targets, for example, estrogen receptors, mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, vascular endothelial growth factor-D signaling pathway, and Src kinase, are also being studied in experimental model systems. As in the case of cancer, combination therapy may become the treatment of choice for LAM. PMID:25580270

  15. Inhibitor studies of leaf lamina hydraulic conductance in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Voicu, Mihaela C; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2010-02-01

    The present study investigated leaf water transport properties in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) leaves. Leaf lamina hydraulic conductance (K(lam)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were drastically suppressed by NaF (a general metabolic inhibitor). In leaves treated with 0.2 mM HgCl(2) (an aquaporin blocker), K(lam) declined by 22% when the leaves were sampled in June but the decline was not significant when the leaves were sampled in August. The leaves sampled in June that transpired 30 mM beta-mercaptoethanol following mercury application showed similar K(lam) as those in control leaves transpiring distilled water. When leaves were pressure-infiltrated with 0.1 mM HgCl(2), K(lam) significantly declined by 25%. Atrazine (a photosystem II inhibitor) drastically reduced leaf net CO(2) uptake by the leaves from seedlings and mature trees but did not have any effect on K(lam) regardless of the irradiance at the leaf level during the K(lam) measurements. When PTS(3) (trisodium 3-hydroxy-5,8,10-pyrenetrisulphonate) apoplastic tracer was pressure-infiltrated inside the leaves, its concentration in the leaf exudates did not change from ambient light to high irradiance treatment and declined in the presence of HgCl(2) in the treatment solution. Trembling aspen K(lam) appears to be linked to leaf metabolism and is uncoupled from the short-term variations in photosynthesis. Aquaporin-mediated water transport does not appear to constitute the dominant pathway for the pressure-driven water flow in the leaves of trembling aspen trees. PMID:20022867

  16. Identification of a novel mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan from Amycolatopsis sulphurea.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Kevin J C; Gilleron, Martine; Constant, Patricia; Puzo, Germain; Nigou, Jérôme; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2003-01-01

    The genus Amycolatopsis is a member of the phylogenetic group nocardioform actinomycetes, which also includes the genus Mycobacterium. Members of this group have a characteristic cell envelope structure, dominated by various complex lipids and polysaccharides. Amongst these, lipoglycans are of particular interest since mycobacterial lipoarabinomannans are important immunomodulatory molecules. In this study we report the isolation and structural characterization of Amycolatopsis sulphurea lipoarabinomannan, designated AsuLAM. SDS/PAGE analysis revealed that AsuLAM was of an intermediate size between Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan and lipomannan, confirmed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry that predicted an average molecular mass of 10 kDa. Using a range of chemical degradations, NMR experiments and capillary electrophoresis analysis, AsuLAM was revealed as an original structure. The mannosyl-phosphatidyl- myo -inositol anchor exhibits a single acyl-form, characterized by a diacylated glycerol moiety, and contains, as one of the main fatty acids, 14-methyl-pentadecanoate, a characteristic fatty acid of the Amycolatopsis genus. AsuLAM also contains a short mannan domain; and is dominated by a multi-branched arabinan domain, composed of an (alpha1-->5)-Ara f (arabinofuranose) chain substituted, predominately at the O -2 position, by a single beta-Ara f. The arabinan domain is further elaborated by manno-oligosaccharide caps, with around one per molecule. This is the first description of manno-oligosaccharide caps found in a non-mycobacterial LAM. AsuLAM was unable to induce the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha when tested with human or murine macrophage cell lines, reinforcing the paradigm that mannose-capped LAM are poor inducers of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:12620092

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of a point-of-care urine test for tuberculosis screening among newly-diagnosed hiv-infected adults: a prospective, clinic-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A rapid diagnostic test for active tuberculosis (TB) at the clinical point-of-care could expedite case detection and accelerate TB treatment initiation. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test for TB screening among HIV-infected adults in a TB-endemic setting. Methods We prospectively enrolled newly-diagnosed HIV-infected adults (?18 years) at 4 outpatient clinics in Durban from Oct 2011-May 2012, excluding those on TB therapy. A physician evaluated all participants and offered CD4 cell count testing. Trained study nurses collected a sputum sample for acid-fast bacilli smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing using Determine™ TB LAM in the clinic. The presence of a band regardless of intensity on the urine LAM test was considered positive. We defined as the gold standard for active pulmonary TB a positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diagnostic accuracy of urine LAM was assessed, alone and in combination with smear microscopy, and stratified by CD4 cell count. Results Among 342 newly-diagnosed HIV-infected participants, 190 (56%) were male, mean age was 35.6 years, and median CD4 was 182/mm3. Sixty participants had culture-positive pulmonary TB, resulting in an estimated prevalence of 17.5% (95% CI 13.7-22.0%). Forty-five (13.2%) participants were urine LAM positive. Mean time from urine specimen collection to LAM test result was 40 minutes (95% CI 34–46 minutes). Urine LAM test sensitivity was 28.3% (95% CI 17.5-41.4) overall, and 37.5% (95% CI 21.1-56.3) for those with CD4 count <100/mm3, while specificity was 90.1% (95% CI 86.0-93.3) overall, and 86.9% (95% CI 75.8-94.2) for those with CD4?LAM test had low sensitivity for TB screening among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected adults, but improved sensitivity when combined with sputum smear microscopy. PMID:24571362

  18. Effect of lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium avium subsp avium in Freund's incomplete adjuvant on the immune response of cattle

    PubMed Central

    Colavecchia, S.B.; Jolly, A.; Fernández, B.; Fontanals, A.M.; Fernández, E.; Mundo, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether lipoarabinomannan (LAM), in combination with Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), was able to improve cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA) in cattle. Twenty-three calves were assigned to four treatment groups, which were subcutaneously immunized with either OVA plus FIA, OVA plus FIA and LAM from Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, FIA plus LAM, or FIA alone. Lymphoproliferation, IFN-? production and cell subpopulations on peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and 15 days after treatment were evaluated. Delayed hypersensitivity was evaluated on day 57. Specific humoral immune response was measured by ELISA. Inoculation with LAM induced higher levels of lymphoproliferation and IFN-? production in response to ConA and OVA (P < 0.05). Specific antibody titers were similar in both OVA-immunized groups. Interestingly, our results showed that the use of LAM in vaccine preparations improved specific cell immune response evaluated by lymphoproliferation and IFN-? production by at least 50 and 25%, respectively, in cattle without interfering with tuberculosis and paratuberculosis diagnosis. PMID:22286534

  19. The Association between Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Genotype and Drug Resistance in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Louis; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Lithgow, Anna; Gilman, Robert H; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Noriko; Martin, Laura; Castillo, Edith; Alarcon, Valentina; Coronel, Jorge; Solano, Walter; Aminian, Minoo; Guezala, Claudia; Rastogi, Nalin; Couvin, David; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko; Moore, David AJ

    2015-01-01

    Background The comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterial genotypes with phenotypic, demographic, geospatial and clinical data improves our understanding of how strain lineage influences the development of drug-resistance and the spread of tuberculosis. Methods To investigate the association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterial genotype with drug-resistance. Drug susceptibility testing together with genotyping using both 15-loci MIRU-typing and spoligotyping, was performed on 2,139 culture positive isolates, each from a different patient in Lima, Peru. Demographic, geospatial and socio-economic data were collected using questionnaires, global positioning equipment and the latest national census. Results The Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) clade (OR 2.4, p<0.001) was significantly associated with drug-resistance and alone accounted for more than half of all drug resistance in the region. Previously treated patients, prisoners and genetically clustered cases were also significantly associated with drug-resistance (OR's 2.5, 2.4 and 1.8, p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively). Conclusions Tuberculosis disease caused by the LAM clade was more likely to be drug resistant independent of important clinical, genetic and socio-economic confounding factors. Explanations for this include; the preferential co-evolution of LAM strains in a Latin American population, a LAM strain bacterial genetic background that favors drug-resistance or the "founder effect" from pre-existing LAM strains disproportionately exposed to drugs. PMID:25984723

  20. Lipoarabinomannan-specific TNF-? and IFN-? as markers of protective immunity against tuberculosis: a cohort study in an endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Belay, Mulugeta; Legesse, Mengistu; Mihret, Adane; Bekele, Yonas; Bjune, Gunnar; Abebe, Fekadu

    2015-10-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a virulent factor used for entry and survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in macrophages. Although the role of LAM for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) has been extensively investigated, its cytokine response during natural Mtb infection in humans is largely unknown. In this study, LAM-specific IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-10 levels following whole blood assay were measured in untreated pulmonary TB patients, their contacts and community controls at baseline. In treated patients and contacts, cytokines were also measured at 6 and 12 months. At entry, 52.8% and 74.8% of controls and contacts were QFT-GIT positive, respectively. At baseline, untreated TB patients and contacts had significantly lower IFN-? and TNF-? response compared to community controls (p < 0.0001). Besides, untreated patients had significantly higher TNF-? and IL-10 response compared to their contacts (p < 0.0001). At 6 months, contacts and treated TB patients had significantly increased INF-? and TNF-? response (p < 0.0001). In TB patients, IFN-? increased 10-fold following chemotherapy suggesting its potential role for treatment monitoring. The data suggests that LAM might have an anti-inflammatory effect during clinical TB and early Mtb infection. The data also suggests that LAM-induced IFN-? and TNF-? could be used as biomarkers of protective immunity. PMID:26200933

  1. A nationwide survey of lymphangioleiomyomatosis in Korea: recent increase in newly diagnosed patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Yun; Nam, Hae-Seong; Chung, Man Pyo; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Yu Jin; Cha, Seung-Ick; Kim, Young Whan; Park, Jong Sun; Uh, Soo-Taek; Park, Choon-Sik; Park, Moo Suk; Moon, Ji Ae; Jung, Kyung Soo; Jegal, Yang Jin; Kim, Dong Soon; Song, Jin Woo; Yum, Ho-Kee; Park, Young Bum

    2010-08-01

    In 2007, the Korean Interstitial Lung Disease Society had collected clinical data of patients who have diagnosed as Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) since 1990 through nationwide survey, which showed that LAM patients had increased sharply after 2004. The present study was performed to show the clinical features of Korean patients with LAM, and to establish the reason for the recent increase in the diagnosis. All 63 patients were women and the mean age at diagnosis was 36 yr. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea and 8 patients had tuberous sclerosis complex. The survival rate at 5 yr after diagnosis was 84%. Compared with patients diagnosed after 2004 (n=34), the patients diagnosed before 2004 (n=29) complained with dyspnea more (P=0.016) and had lower FEV(1)% predicted (P=0.003), and DLco% predicted (P=0.042). The higher proportion of patients diagnosed after 2004 showed the normal chest radiography, and they were detected by routine chest CT screening (P=0.016). This study showed that clinical features of Korean patients with LAM were not different from those reported elsewhere. It is concluded that the reason for the increase of newly diagnosed patients is the result of increase in detection of the early stage LAM by the widespread use of chest CT screening. PMID:20676330

  2. The 37/67-Kilodalton Laminin Receptor Is a Receptor for Adeno-Associated Virus Serotypes 8, 2, 3, and 9

    PubMed Central

    Akache, Bassel; Grimm, Dirk; Pandey, Kusum; Yant, Stephen R.; Xu, Hui; Kay, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) is currently emerging as a powerful gene transfer vector, owing to its capability to efficiently transduce many different tissues in vivo. While this is believed to be in part due to its ability to uncoat more readily than other AAV serotypes such as AAV2, understanding all the processes behind AAV8 transduction is important for its application and optimal use in human gene therapy. Here, we provide the first report of a cellular receptor for AAV8, the 37/67-kDa laminin receptor (LamR). We document binding of LamR to AAV8 capsid proteins and intact virions in vitro and demonstrate its contribution to AAV8 transduction of cultured cells and mouse liver in vivo. We also show that LamR plays a role in transduction by three other closely related serotypes (AAV2, -3, and -9). Sequence and deletion analysis allowed us to map LamR binding to two protein subdomains predicted to be exposed on the AAV capsid exterior. Use of LamR, which is constitutively expressed in many clinically relevant tissues and is overexpressed in numerous cancers, provides a molecular explanation for AAV8's broad tissue tropism. Along with its robust transduction efficiency, our findings support the continued development of AAV8-based vectors for clinical applications in humans, especially for tumor gene therapy. PMID:16973587

  3. Reliability of brain-computer interface language sample transcription procedures.

    PubMed

    Hill, Katya; Kovacs, Thomas; Shin, Sangeun

    2014-01-01

    We tested the reliability of transcribing language samples of daily brain-computer interface (BCI) communication recorded as language activity monitoring (LAM) logfiles. This study determined interrater reliability and interjudge agreement for transcription of communication of veterans with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using a P300-based BCI as an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) system. KeyLAM software recorded logfiles in a universal logfile format during use of BCI-controlled email and word processing applications. These logfiles were encrypted and sent to our laboratory for decryption, transcription, and analysis. The study reports reliability results on transcription of 345 daily logfile samples. The procedure was found to be accurate across transcribers/raters. Frequency of agreement ratios of 97.6% for total number of words and 93.5% for total utterances were found as measures of interrater reliability. Interjudge agreement was 100% for both measures. The results indicated that transcribing language samples using LAM data is highly reliable and the fidelity of the process can be maintained. LAM data supported the transcription of a large number of samples that could not have been completed using audio and video recordings of AAC speakers. This demonstrated efficiency of LAM tools to measure language performance benefits to BCI research and clinical communities. PMID:25144171

  4. Eriophyoid mites from Qinghai Province, northwestern China with descriptions of nine new species (Acari, Eriophyoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao-Sen; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Eriophyoid mites from Qinghai Province, northwestern China were studied herein. Up to now, only six species have been reported from Qinghai Province. In field surveys, 17 eriophyoid mite species were collected, among which nine species were found new to science. The new species and their host plants are listed as follows: Acaphyllisa tuberculumae sp. n. on Populus sp. (Salicaceae); Proiectus xiningensis sp. n. on Pinus sp. (Pinaceae); Phyllocoptes beishaniensis sp. n. on Spiraea mongolica Maxim. (Rosaceae); Tetra pruniana sp. n. on Prunus tomentosa Thunb. (Rosaceae) Rupr. (Berberidaceae); Tetra pyriana sp. n. on Pyrus calleryana Decne. (Rosaceae); Tetra simonia sp. n. on Populus simonii Carr. (Salicaceae); Diptacus berberinus sp. n. on Berberis amurensis Rupr. (Berberidaceae); Diptacus mengdaensis sp. n. on Lonicera elisae Franch. (Caprifoliaceae); Rhyncaphytoptus spinus sp. n. on Lonicera rupicola Hook. f. et Thoms. (Caprifoliaceae). Aculops ulmi Hong & Xue, 2005 was re-described. PMID:22679390

  5. Genetic variation in Puccinia graminis collected from oats, rye, and barberry.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Anna; Djurle, Annika; Samils, Berit; Yuen, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Puccinia graminis, the causal agent of stem rust, was collected from its alternate host barberry (Berberis spp.) and two different uredinial hosts, oats (Avena sativa) and rye (Secale cereale). The samples were analyzed using 11 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. There were large differences between fungal populations on oats (P. graminis f. sp. avenae) and rye (P. graminis f. sp. secalis), and the genetic variation within the different formae speciales was also high. It was possible to distinguish between the two formae speciales on barberry. Additional genotypic groups not present in the field samples from oats and rye were also identified on barberry. Our results confirm the importance of barberry in maintaining the populations of P. graminis in Sweden and the importance of the sexual stage for the survival of the pathogen. PMID:22734559

  6. In vitro dissolution of gallbladder stone by edible leaves, fruits and homoeopathic medicines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ishwar; Singh, Yogendra; Ansari, Shoeb A.; Agrawal, Namita R.

    2005-10-01

    Gallbladder stone sample of a female patient was analysed by diagnostic, spectroscopic methods and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Besides cholesterol as the major constituent, bilirubin, creatinine and blood urea were also found to be present in the sample. Bile acid (ursodeoxycholic acid) was used to study its effect on the dissolution of cholestrol present in the stone. Extracts of edible leaves and fruits (amla, lemon and mausammi) and the homoeopathic medicines Berberis vulgaris Q. Dioscorea Q. and Calcarea carb 200 in the concentration range 0-3% (v/v) were found to be effective in the dissolution process in the following sequences: B. vulgaris Q. and Dioscorea Q.> C. carb 200, lemon>mausammi, amla was found to be more effective than jamun and tulsi leaf extracts in the given concentration range.

  7. Individual and combined effects of berberine and santonin on spore germination of some fungi.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Srivastava, J S; Khosa, R L; Singh, U P

    2001-01-01

    Berberine and santonin were isolated from rhizomes of Berberis aristata and unexpanded flower buds of Artemisia maritima, respectively. Efficacy of these two chemicals individually as well as of their mixtures, was tested against spore germination of some saprophytic and obligate fungi. While berberine individually was effective against most of the fungi, Helminthosporium spp. were least affected even at the highest dose (1500 ppm). Santonin was equally effective against several fungi. Mixture of both alkaloids found to be more effective than individual ones. Keeping the dose of berberine constant and santonin at two different concentrations (viz. 250 and 500 ppm) the spore germination of Helminthosporium oryzae was stimulated. Increasing concentration of santonin inhibited the spore germination of all other fungi tested, Colletotrichum capsici being affected only by 20 and 5% (at berberine concentration of 250 and 500 ppm, respectively). On the other hand, santonin being constant and berberine at different concentrations, the mixture was effective against all the fungi. PMID:11501401

  8. Historic Mining and Agriculture as Indicators of Occurrence and Abundance of Widespread Invasive Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Calinger, Kellen; Calhoon, Elisabeth; Chang, Hsiao-chi; Whitacre, James; Wenzel, John; Comita, Liza; Queenborough, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances often change ecological communities and provide opportunities for non-native species invasion. Understanding the impacts of disturbances on species invasion is therefore crucial for invasive species management. We used generalized linear mixed effects models to explore the influence of land-use history and distance to roads on the occurrence and abundance of two invasive plant species (Rosa multiflora and Berberis thunbergii) in a 900-ha deciduous forest in the eastern U.S.A., the Powdermill Nature Reserve. Although much of the reserve has been continuously forested since at least 1939, aerial photos revealed a variety of land-uses since then including agriculture, mining, logging, and development. By 2008, both R. multiflora and B. thunbergii were widespread throughout the reserve (occurring in 24% and 13% of 4417 10-m diameter regularly-placed vegetation plots, respectively) with occurrence and abundance of each varying significantly with land-use history. Rosa multiflora was more likely to occur in historically farmed, mined, logged or developed plots than in plots that remained forested, (log odds of 1.8 to 3.0); Berberis thunbergii was more likely to occur in plots with agricultural, mining, or logging history than in plots without disturbance (log odds of 1.4 to 2.1). Mining, logging, and agriculture increased the probability that R. multiflora had >10% cover while only past agriculture was related to cover of B. thunbergii. Proximity to roads was positively correlated with the occurrence of R. multiflora (a 0.26 increase in the log odds for every 1-m closer) but not B. thunbergii, and roads had no impact on the abundance of either species. Our results indicated that a wide variety of disturbances may aid the introduction of invasive species into new habitats, while high-impact disturbances such as agriculture and mining increase the likelihood of high abundance post-introduction. PMID:26046534

  9. Historic Mining and Agriculture as Indicators of Occurrence and Abundance of Widespread Invasive Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Calinger, Kellen; Calhoon, Elisabeth; Chang, Hsiao-Chi; Whitacre, James; Wenzel, John; Comita, Liza; Queenborough, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances often change ecological communities and provide opportunities for non-native species invasion. Understanding the impacts of disturbances on species invasion is therefore crucial for invasive species management. We used generalized linear mixed effects models to explore the influence of land-use history and distance to roads on the occurrence and abundance of two invasive plant species (Rosa multiflora and Berberis thunbergii) in a 900-ha deciduous forest in the eastern U.S.A., the Powdermill Nature Reserve. Although much of the reserve has been continuously forested since at least 1939, aerial photos revealed a variety of land-uses since then including agriculture, mining, logging, and development. By 2008, both R. multiflora and B. thunbergii were widespread throughout the reserve (occurring in 24% and 13% of 4417 10-m diameter regularly-placed vegetation plots, respectively) with occurrence and abundance of each varying significantly with land-use history. Rosa multiflora was more likely to occur in historically farmed, mined, logged or developed plots than in plots that remained forested, (log odds of 1.8 to 3.0); Berberis thunbergii was more likely to occur in plots with agricultural, mining, or logging history than in plots without disturbance (log odds of 1.4 to 2.1). Mining, logging, and agriculture increased the probability that R. multiflora had >10% cover while only past agriculture was related to cover of B. thunbergii. Proximity to roads was positively correlated with the occurrence of R. multiflora (a 0.26 increase in the log odds for every 1-m closer) but not B. thunbergii, and roads had no impact on the abundance of either species. Our results indicated that a wide variety of disturbances may aid the introduction of invasive species into new habitats, while high-impact disturbances such as agriculture and mining increase the likelihood of high abundance post-introduction. PMID:26046534

  10. Genes from Cellvibrio mixtus encoding. beta. -1,3 endoglucanase

    SciTech Connect

    Sakellaris, H.; Pemberton, J.M.; Manners, J.M. )

    1990-10-01

    Two genes encoding {beta}-1,3 glucanase activity were cloned from the gram-negative soil bacterium Cellvibrio mixtus. The two clones, designated cwd (cell wall degradation) and lam (laminarin degradation), had distinct endonuclease restriction patterns and encoded enzymes with distinct substrate specificities. The 3.7-kilobase cwd insert encoded an enzyme which degraded yeast cell walls as well as the soluble {beta}-1,3 glucan laminarin and the insoluble {beta}-1,3 glucans zymosan and pachyman. The 1.8-kilobase lam insert encoded an enzyme which degraded lamarin only. Both enzymes degraded laminarin in an endohydrolytic manner to yield laminarobiose, laminarotriose, and laminarotetraose as major end products. Radiolabeled translation products of the cwd and lam transcripts were identified.

  11. A Sensitive Urinary Lipoarabinomannan Test for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hamasur, Beston; Bruchfeld, Judith; van Helden, Paul; Källenius, Gunilla

    2015-01-01

    We have previously developed a diagnostic test for tuberculosis based on detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine. The method depended on a laborious concentration step. We have now developed an easy to perform test based on a magnetic immunoassay platform, utilizing high avidity monoclonal antibodies for the detection of LAM in urine. With this method the analytical sensitivity of the assay was increased 50-100-fold compared to conventional ELISA. In a pilot study of HIV-negative patients with microbiologically verified TB (n=17) and healthy controls (n=22) the sensitivity of the test was 82% and the specificity 100%. This is in stark positive contrast to a range of studies using available commercial tests with polyclonal anti-LAM Abs where the sensitivity of the tests in HIV-negative TB patients was very low. PMID:25905641

  12. Virtual Sensor Based Fault Detection and Classification on a Plasma Etch Reactor

    E-print Network

    Sofge, D A

    2007-01-01

    The SEMATECH sponsored J-88-E project teaming Texas Instruments with NeuroDyne (et al.) focused on Fault Detection and Classification (FDC) on a Lam 9600 aluminum plasma etch reactor, used in the process of semiconductor fabrication. Fault classification was accomplished by implementing a series of virtual sensor models which used data from real sensors (Lam Station sensors, Optical Emission Spectroscopy, and RF Monitoring) to predict recipe setpoints and wafer state characteristics. Fault detection and classification were performed by comparing predicted recipe and wafer state values with expected values. Models utilized include linear PLS, Polynomial PLS, and Neural Network PLS. Prediction of recipe setpoints based upon sensor data provides a capability for cross-checking that the machine is maintaining the desired setpoints. Wafer state characteristics such as Line Width Reduction and Remaining Oxide were estimated on-line using these same process sensors (Lam, OES, RFM). Wafer-to-wafer measurement of thes...

  13. Genes from Cellvibrio mixtus encoding beta-1,3 endoglucanase.

    PubMed Central

    Sakellaris, H; Pemberton, J M; Manners, J M

    1990-01-01

    Two genes encoding beta-1,3 glucanase activity were cloned from the gram-negative soil bacterium Cellvibrio mixtus. The two clones, designated cwd (cell wall degradation) and lam (laminarin degradation), had distinct endonuclease restriction patterns and encoded enzymes with distinct substrate specificities. The 3.7-kilobase cwd insert encoded an enzyme which degraded yeast cell walls as well as the soluble beta-1,3 glucan laminarin and the insoluble beta-1,3 glucans zymosan and pachyman. The 1.8-kilobase lam insert encoded an enzyme which degraded laminarin only. Both enzymes degraded laminarin in an endohydrolytic manner to yield laminarobiose, laminarotriose, and laminarotetraose as major end products. Radiolabeled translation products of the cwd and lam transcripts were identified. Images PMID:2285322

  14. Power-law scaling in protein synthesis of a stochastic regulon

    E-print Network

    Emily Chapman-McQuiston; Chuck Yeung; X. L. Wu

    2008-08-07

    We investigate the protein expression pattern of the lamB gene in Escherichia coli LE392. The gene product LamB is an important membrane protein for maltose transport into cells but it is also exploited by bacteriophage lambda for infection. Although our bacterial population is clonal, stochastic gene expression leads to a majority population with a large receptor number and a minority population with a small receptor number. We find that the LamB receptor distribution p(n) of the small-n population is scale invariant with the exponent depending on growth conditions. A heuristic model is proposed that relates the observed exponent to the protein production rate.

  15. A new proposal for a uniform treatment of internal motions in symmetrical and asymmetrical five-membered ring molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyka, Jan

    1992-02-01

    A system of curvilinear coordinates for five-membered ring molecules is introduced and discussed. In this system all internal motions of any (symmetric or asymmetric) five-membered ring molecule can be treated as Large Amplitude Motions (LAMs). Specific calculations of two-dimensional (ring-puckering, ring-twisting) potential functions for cyclopentene and silacyclopentene molecules are presented. As an example of an asymmetric five-membered ring molecule 2,3-dihydrofuran is discussed. All these calculations are based on the numerical construction of the Hamiltonian for internal motions. An adiabatic approach is used for separation of LAMs from Small Amplitude Vibrations (SAVs).

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Amphotericin B Emulsion versus Liposomal Formulation in Indian Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Randomized, Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Shyam; Pandey, Krishna; Thakur, Chandreshwar Prasad; Jha, Tara Kant; Das, Vidya Nand Ravi; Verma, Neena; Lal, Chandra Shekhar; Verma, Deepak; Alam, Shahnawaz; Das, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Background India is home to 60% of the total global visceral leishmaniasis (VL) population. Use of long-term oral (e.g. miltefosine) and parenteral drugs, considered the mainstay for treatment of VL, is now faced with increased resistance, decreased efficacy, low compliance and safety issues. The authors evaluated the efficacy and safety of an alternate treatment option, i.e. single infusion of preformed amphotericin B (AmB) lipid emulsion (ABLE) in comparison with that of liposomal formulation (LAmB). Methods In this multicentric, open-label study, 500 patients with VL were randomly assigned in a 3?1 ratio to receive 15 mg/kg single infusion of either ABLE (N?=?376) or LAmB (N?=?124). Initial cure (Day 30/45), clinical improvement (Day 30) and long term definitive cure (Day 180) were assessed. Findings A total of 326 (86.7%) patients in the ABLE group and 122 (98.4%) patients in the LAmB group completed the study. Initial cure was achieved by 95.9% of patients in the ABLE group compared to 100% in the LAmB group (p?=?0.028; 95% CI: ?0.0663, ?0.0150). Clinical improvement was comparable between treatments (ABLE: 98.9% vs. LAmB: 98.4%). Definitive cure was achieved in 85.9% with ABLE compared to 98.4% with LAmB. Infusion-related pyrexia (37.2% vs. 32.3%) and chills (18.4% vs. 18.5%) were comparable between ABLE and LAmB, respectively. Treatment-related serious adverse events were fewer in ABLE (0.3%) compared to LAmB (1.6%). Two deaths occurred in the ABLE group, of which one was probably related to the study drug. Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity was not observed in either group. Conclusions ABLE 15 mg/kg single infusion had favorable efficacy and was well tolerated. Considering the demographic profile of the population in this region, a single dose treatment offers advantages in terms of compliance, cost and applicability. Trial Registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00876824 PMID:25233346

  17. Management of refractory chylothorax in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, Claire M; Williams, Trevor J; Gooi, Julian; Snell, Gregory I; Whitford, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    This case reports the successful management of chylothorax in a non-transplanted patient with pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (pLAM). Prolonged initial therapy failed, including total parenteral nutrition, pleural drainage, surgical pleurodesis, and pleurectomy. Commencement of sirolimus 2?mg daily (2?mg alternating days had failed) led to resolution of chylothorax after 20 days. Discontinuation of sirolimus for abdominal surgery led to recurrence of the chylothorax. Reinstitution of sirolimus led to rapid resolution of the effusion, stabilization of lung function, and there has been no recurrence in the ensuing 4 years. We conclude that sirolimus should be considered in the management of pLAM-related chylothorax, perhaps before surgical intervention. PMID:26090116

  18. Ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in Malakand Valley, District Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Malakand valley of District Dir (Lower) is endowed with a diverse plant wealth. Ethnoveterinary knowledge provides the traditional medicines of livestock that are cheaper than standard treatment and are easily accessible. Methods The present study was conducted to document the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary practices in Malakand valley, District Dir (Lower). Data was collected from February 2012 to January 2013 by interviewing 120 inhabitants through semi-structured questionnaires. Different questions were asked to collect appropriate data regarding the use of plants for livestock treatment. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) was carried out to find out the use diversity of medicinal plants. Findings A total of 28 plants belonging to 23 families were collected and identified for the treatment of livestock in the study area. Majority of the plants were collected from wild (68%) habitat and very few from cultivated sources. The leaves (28%) were identified as the major plant part for herbal preparations. The most frequent ailments of livestocks in the study area were stomach disorders and Charmaikh (local disease name). Various ingredients were used along with ethnoveterinary medicines i.e. sugar, flour, milk etc. The elder people of the village had a rich knowledge as compared to the young generation. According to DMR output, Monotheca buxifolia ranked first and Dalbergia sisso and Melia azedarach ranked second due to high multipurpose uses among all species and was found most threatened in the study area. Conclusion It has been concluded that the native of the region heavily dependent on medicinal plants for the treatment of variety of livestock ailments. Traditional knowledge always provides a baseline for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation. The documentation of the ethnoveterinary practices in study area was necessary before this precious knowledge is lost forever due to rapid socioeconomic, environmental and technological changes. PMID:24580769

  19. ATMOSPHERIC LENSING AND OBLATENESS EFFECTS DURING AN EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY TRANSIT

    E-print Network

    Seager, Sara

    ATMOSPHERIC LENSING AND OBLATENESS EFFECTS DURING AN EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY TRANSIT Lam Hui1-precision photometric measurements of transiting extrasolar planets promise to tell us much about the characteristics of these systems. We examine how atmospheric lensing and (projected) planet oblateness/ellipticity modify transit

  20. Why Digital Data Collections Are Important

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Erik T.

    2012-01-01

    The silo is a well-worn metaphor in information systems used to illustrate separateness, isolation, and lack of connectivity. Through the many iterations of system development, libraries, archives, and museums (LAMs) have sought to avoid silos and find the sweet spot between interface design and metadata interoperability. This effort is being…

  1. Semantics and Pragmatics of Cantonese Polar Questions: an inquisitive approach

    E-print Network

    , HO2, ME1, AA4 and A-NOT- A questions in the framework of radical in- quisitive semantics (Groenendijk) and (2). Examples in (1) are taken from Lam (2014b,a). All of them encode a polar question meaning & Roelof- sen, 2010; Aher, 2012; Sano, 2014). HO2, ME1 and A-NOT-A questions have multi- dimensional

  2. Transient amorphous calcium phosphate in forming enamel Elia Beniash a,*, Rebecca A. Metzler b

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, Pupa Gelsomina De Stasio

    X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spec- tromicroscopy, transmission electron microscopy , Raymond S.K. Lam a , P.U.P.A. Gilbert b,*,1 a University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine reserved. 1. Introduction Dental enamel, the hardest and most mineralized tissue in the human body

  3. Matthias Zahn1,2 , Hans v. Storch1,2

    E-print Network

    Zahn, Matthias

    of a polar low development in the bear island region., Tellus, 44A, 81­99, 1991 können sich sehr plötzlichMatthias Zahn1,2 , Hans v. Storch1,2 , Stephan Bakan3 Simulation nordatlantischer Polar Lows im, Hamburg, #12;22 Polar Lows/ Hintergrund Polar Lows in LAMs Daten Ergebnisse Schlussfolgerungen

  4. Matthias Zahn1,2 , Hans v. Storch1,2

    E-print Network

    Zahn, Matthias

    in the bear island region., Tellus, 44A, 81­99, 1991 #12;Polar Low development instable atmospheric Polar Lows in a limited area model (1) University Hamburg, Meteorological Institute, Germany (2) GKSS), Germany #12;· Polar Lows/ Background · Polar Lows in LAMs · Data · Results · Conclusions · Example

  5. Copyright 2004 Auto-ID Labs, All Rights Reserved The Auto-ID Labs

    E-print Network

    Brock, David

    Reserved Harvest Analytics (Supply Chain Risk) · Understand how harvest operations can be optimized and the What Securing the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain RFID Workshop, Rutgers University Edmund W. Schuster, Auto-ID Labs · Ming Li ­ Supply Chain Analyst, Analog Devices · Indy Chackrabarti and Nhat-So Lam

  6. The Continental Margin is a Key Source of Iron to the HNLC North Pacific Ocean

    E-print Network

    and Fe from redox-mobilized labile sources at the continental shelf supplemented by a more variable #12;AGU Index Terms: 4875, Trace elements; 3002, Continental shelf and slope processes; 4808, ChemicalThe Continental Margin is a Key Source of Iron to the HNLC North Pacific Ocean Phoebe J. Lam1

  7. PhoneNet: a Phone-to-Phone Network for Group Communication within an Administrative Domain

    E-print Network

    Lam, Monica

    PhoneNet: a Phone-to-Phone Network for Group Communication within an Administrative Domain Te,yapkke,bjdodson,lam,nickm}@stanford.edu ABSTRACT This paper proposes PhoneNet, an application framework to support direct group communication among phones without relay nodes. PhoneNet presents the familiar abstraction of a multi-user chat service

  8. Roar of the Thunder Dragon: the Bhutanese Audio-visual Industry and the Shaping and Representation of Contemporary Culture

    E-print Network

    Dendup, Tshewang

    2006-01-01

    Bhutanese song coming out from the latest Motorola or Nokia phone tucked in the inner folds of the gho or a Gucci bag slung over a Hong Kong brocade tego. Walk along Thimphu's Norzin Lam and try not to notice the huge posters announcing the screening...

  9. Abstract Nanoparticles are rapidly emerging as promising vehicles for next-generation therapeutic delivery. These highly mobile nanomaterials exhibit

    E-print Network

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    biological studies and nanomanufacturing avenues through precise spatial control of dosing. Delivering them of the Nanofountain Probe and its application to functional nanodiamond-based biological studies and nanomanufacturing and Nanomanufacturing in Biology and Medicine Owen Loh, Robert Lam, Mark Chen, Dean Ho, and Horacio Espinosa D. Ho (ed

  10. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria c...

  11. First Report of Dodder Transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus to Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or “greening”, caused by the fastidious a-proteobacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. L. americanus (Lam) and Ca. L. africanus, is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide (1). Las was first detected in South Florida in 2005, and has spread throu...

  12. First report of Fusarium graminearum, F. asiaticum and F. cortaderiae as head blight pathogens of annual ryegrass in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grains and several grasses, including annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), an important forage crop, but also a common weed in wheat, rice and maize agroecosystem in southern Brazil. Although i...

  13. Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows

    E-print Network

    Hartmann, Ralf

    Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows Ralf Hartmann, Joachim Held-oriented mesh refinement for single and multiple aerodynamic force coefficients as well as residual-based mesh refinement applied to various three-dimensional lam- inar and turbulent aerodynamic test cases defined

  14. Educational Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The third session of IT@EDU98 consisted of five papers on educational software and was chaired by Tran Van Hao (University of Education, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam). "Courseware Engineering" (Nguyen Thanh Son, Ngo Ngoc Bao Tran, Quan Thanh Tho, Nguyen Hong Lam) briefly describes the use of courseware. "Machine Discovery Theorems in Geometry: A…

  15. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Feasibility of Rain Gardens

    E-print Network

    into the Feasibility of Rain Gardens as a Stormwater Management Solution Alfred Lam Raymond Tam Robert Young Sangpil Investigation into the Feasibility of Rain Gardens as a Stormwater Management Solution Applied Science 262 discharging into sensitive waterways, UBC is planning to include two rain-gardens in the construction

  16. Detection and classification of SPLCV isolates in the U.S. sweetpotato germplasm collection via a real-time PCR assay and phylogenetic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA/ARS sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] germplasm collection contains accessions that were initially collected from various countries worldwide. These materials have been maintained and distributed as in vitro plantlets since the 1980s. The status of viral infection by the emerging Swe...

  17. Beam rotation and shear in a large electron beam diode

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, C.R.; Oona, H.; Shurter, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The time averaged electron beam current distribution of one of the electron guns of the Large Aperture Module (LAM) of the Aurora laser was measured as part of a larger set of experiments designed to study the electron beam transport to and energy deposition in the LAM laser chamber. The LAM laser chamber has a 1-m {times} 1-m aperture and is pumped from two sides along a 2-m length. A 10 ga. stainless steel sheet was placed inside the laser chamber and served multiple purposes. First, it was used to convert high energy electrons into X-rays in order to make radiograms of the electron beam. Second, the sheet was used as a Faraday cup to measure the total beam current. Third, individual Faraday cups were mounted on the plate to sample the time history of the electron beam at various positions. Each of the LAM electron gun diodes produces a beam of 750 kV electrons with a total current of about 500 kA which is relatively uniform over the cathode area of 1 m {times} 2 m. An applied magnetic field of about 1300 Gauss is used to prevent pinch of the beam during beam transport.

  18. CA1 courses as of 4/12 Senate meeting 154 individual courses CA1 -Arts and Humanities

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Introduction to Asian American Studies CA1, CA4 40 AFAM 1 AASI 3531 Japanese Americans & World War II AASI 3531 LAMS 4 CLCS 1110 Introduction to Film Studies CA1 100 LAND 1 CLCS 2201 Intercult Competency Towards Introduction to the Theatre CA1 200 MUSI 8 DRAM 1110 Introduction to Film CA1 200 NRE 1 ECON 2101 Economic

  19. Review series 980 The Journal of Clinical Investigation http://www.jci.org Volume 123 Number 3 March 2013

    E-print Network

    Sabatini, David M.

    March 2013 Rapalogs and mTOR inhibitors as anti-aging therapeutics Dudley W. Lamming,1,2 Lan Ye,3 David to date as a potential anti-aging therapeutic in mammals. Unlike many other compounds that have been ultimately be beneficial in humans. This Review discusses the prospects for developing newer, safer anti-aging

  20. 75 FR 69160 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... T. Chan Chi Ming Chan Ching Chung Chan Dennis Kwok-Leung Chan Myles Po Loi Chang Chien-Hui Chang... Iwalani Lam Thomas Ying-Tai Lamare Joanne T. Langley Rhonda Elizabeth Langley Ronald Lao Man Bee Lao... Lim Lawrence Fengyuan Lin Ho-Ping Lin Jixan Liu Erh Fei Liu Xingxie Lo David Tai Wai Lo John Yen...

  1. The Value of Geographic Wikis A DISSERTATION

    E-print Network

    Priedhorsky, Reid

    Chen, Thomas Erickson, Benjamin Jordan, Shyong (Tony) K. Lam, Pamela J. Ludford, Michael Ludwig, Mikhil Masli, Katherine Panciera, Ken Reily, John Riedl, Shilad Sen, and, most importantly, my advisor, Loren, Michael Ludwig, Mikhil Masli, Katherine Panciera, Steve Schacht, Zach Schloss, S. Andrew Sheppard, Isaac

  2. Comparison of the validity of three dental methods for the estimation of age at death.

    PubMed

    Meinl, A; Huber, C D; Tangl, S; Gruber, G M; Teschler-Nicola, M; Watzek, G

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy, precision, and bias of two macroscopic and one histological age at death estimation methods on human teeth. The sample was comprised of 67 permanent teeth, obtained from 37 individuals aged 20-91 years. Age was predicted according to the methods proposed by Lamendin et al. (LAM), Bang and Ramm (BR), and the quantification of tooth cementum annulations (TCA). TCA was found to be most accurate in all age groups. Its mean absolute error of the estimated age was about half as high as the mean absolute error for both LAM and BR. BR achieved approximately the same mean absolute error as TCA for old adults only. LAM displayed the highest precision in the young and the old age group whereas TCA was more precise in the middle age group. TCA was found to be the most precise method when the precision was calculated for all ages. Considering the bias, all methods displayed a tendency to overestimate age in young and to underestimate it in old specimens. The exception to this rule was TCA, which provided unbiased estimates for young adults. The higher accuracy and precision recommends favouring TCA over LAM and BR, provided that the required know-how and equipment are available. PMID:18400432

  3. Geobiology (2008), 6, 303308 DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-4669.2008.00147.x 2008 The Authors

    E-print Network

    Konhauser, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    . In fact the very first time I was introduced to the concept of microbial biomineralization, it was by one-layers in mineral nucleation (Schultze-Lam et al., 1992), it was clear Terry and colleagues had discovered-link disparate areas of science, to view problems from novel angles and thus shed a bright new light on many

  4. Radioprotective properties of detoxified lipid A from Salmonella minnesota R595

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.L.; Walden, T.L.; Patchen, M.L.; MacVittie, T.J.; Fuchs, P.

    1986-07-01

    In the past, the toxicity of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or its principal bioactive component, lipid A, has detracted from their potential use as radioprotectants. Recently, a relatively nontoxic monophosphoryl Lipid A (LAM) that retains many of the immunobiologic properties of LPS has been isolated from a polysaccharide deficient Re mutant strain of Salmonella minnesota (R595). The ability of the native endotoxic glycolipid (GL) from S. minnesota (R595) as well as diphosphoryl lipid A (LAD) and nontoxic monophosphoryl lipid A (LAM) derived from GL to protect LPS responsive (CD2F1 or C3H/HeN) and nonresponsive (C3H/HeJ) mice from 60Co gamma irradiation has been studied. Administration of GL, LAD, or LAM to CD2F1 or C3H/HeN mice (400 micrograms/kg) 24 h prior to exposure provided significant radioprotection. No protection was afforded to C3H/HeJ mice. Experiments were also conducted to determine the relative abilities of GL, LAD, and LAM to stimulate hematopoiesis as reflected by the endogenous spleen colony (E-CFU) assay. Protection was not correlated with the ability of these substances to increase E-CFUs or to induce colony-stimulating activity (CSA).

  5. Online Deadline Scheduling with Bounded Energy Efficiency

    E-print Network

    Wong, Prudence W.H.

    Online Deadline Scheduling with Bounded Energy Efficiency Joseph Wun-Tat Chan1 , Tak-Wah Lam 2 concern when compared to throughput and the schedules targeted may be very poor in energy efficiency subject to a user-defined threshold of energy efficiency. We first show that all deterministic online

  6. Safetywise Page 1 S A F E T Y A N D E N V I R O N M E N T A L P R O T E C T I O N O F F I C E

    E-print Network

    at http://www.ab.ust.hk/sepo/sftywise.htm Dec 2000 Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Foods - A Brief Introduction SEPO requested this article on genetically modified foods from Dr. Hon-Ming Lam as evidenced by articles in newspapers and magazines. Genetically-modified food (GMF) was first introduced

  7. Advanced Biosensing DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006793

    E-print Network

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    Sensor Structure and Molecular Probe Design for Efficient mRNA Capture** Elizaveta Vasilyeva, Brian Lam,[8] mRNAs,[11] and micro- RNAs[12] when used in conjunction with an electrochemical reporter system (Figure 1).[13] Attomolar sensitivity was obtained with small oligonucleotides and microRNAs.[12] Higher

  8. Dynamic Scaling and Growth Behavior of Queuing Network Normalization Constants

    E-print Network

    Lam, Simon S.

    ~ction;queuingtheory General Terms: Performance, Theory AdditionalKey Words and Phrases: Queuing networks, productDynamic Scaling and Growth Behavior of Queuing Network Normalization Constants SIMON S. LAM of normalization constants of closed product-form queuing networks W~thdynamic scaling, normalizationconstants

  9. Copper-mediated synthesis of N-alkenyl-?,?-unsaturated nitrones and their conversion to tri- and tetrasubstituted pyridines

    PubMed Central

    Kontokosta, Dimitra; Mueller, Daniel S; Mo, Dong-Liang; Pace, Wiktoria H; Simpson, Rachel A

    2015-01-01

    Summary A Chan–Lam reaction has been used to prepare N-alkenyl-?,?-unsaturated nitrones, which undergo a subsequent thermal rearrangement to the corresponding tri- and tetrasubstituted pyridines. The optimization and scope of these transformations is discussed. Initial mechanistic experiments suggest a reaction pathway involving oxygen transfer followed by cyclization. PMID:26664630

  10. High spatial resolution mapping of deposition layers on plasma facing materials by laser ablation microprobe time-of-flight mass spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Qingmei; Li, Cong; Hai, Ran; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Chunlei; Ding, Hongbin; Zhou, Yan; Yan, Longwen; Duan, Xuru

    2014-05-15

    A laser ablation microprobe time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LAM-TOF-MS) system with high spatial resolution, ?20 nm in depth and ?500 ?m or better on the surface, is developed to analyze the composition distributions of deposition layers on the first wall materials or first mirrors in tokamak. The LAM-TOF-MS system consists of a laser ablation microprobe combined with a TOF-MS and a data acquisition system based on a LabVIEW program software package. Laser induced ablation combined with TOF-MS is an attractive method to analyze the depth profile of deposited layer with successive laser shots, therefore, it can provide information for composition reconstruction of the plasma wall interaction process. In this work, we demonstrate that the LAM-TOF-MS system is capable of characterizing the depth profile as well as mapping 2D composition of deposited film on the molybdenum first mirror retrieved from HL-2A tokamak, with particular emphasis on some of the species produced during the ablation process. The presented LAM-TOF-MS system provides not only the 3D characterization of deposition but also the removal efficiency of species of concern.

  11. A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, a parasitoid of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam....

  12. Response of Sweetpotato Genotypes to Southern Root-Knot Nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] genotypes were characterized for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in greenhouse tests. The following sweetpotato genotypes were evaluated: Beauregard, Sulfur, LSU 01-29, LSU 02-32, LSU 01-29, LSU 02-32, LSU 99-35, LSU 02-21, Bienville, Regal, Exce...

  13. NOTICE OF RELEASE OF W-311 AND W-361, MULTIPLE PEST-RESISTANT ORANGE-FLESHED SWEETPOTATO BREEDING LINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] breeding lines W-311 and W-361 were developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and Clemson University. Although there are several sweetpotato cultivars and breeding lines with multiple resistances to root ...

  14. Transmission of Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus by Bemisia tabaci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae), is an important world food crop, and Asia is the focal production region. Because it is vegetatively propagated, sweetpotato is especially prone to accumulate infections by several viruses. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) (ss...

  15. Whitefly transmission of Sweet potato leaf curl virus in sweetpotato germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is among an extensive number of plant species attacked by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Because this important world food crop is vegetatively propagated, it can conveniently accumulate infections by several viruses. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) (ssDNA...

  16. Effects of A Killed-Cover Crop Mulching System on Sweetpotato Production, Soil Pests, and Insect Predators in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is typically grown bare soils where weeds and erosion can be problematic before plants become established. Conservation tillage systems for sweetpotato may help alleviate these problems. Therefore, one insect-resistant (‘Ruddy’) and two insect-susceptible (‘...

  17. ‘Covington’ sweetpotato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Covington’ is an orange-fleshed, smooth-skinned, rose-colored, table-stock sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] developed by North Carolina State University (NCSU). ‘Covington’, named after the late Henry M. Covington an esteemed sweetpotato scientist at NC State, was evaluated as NC98-608 in mu...

  18. Insect Interactions in Sweetpotato Breeding Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), is a vital staple food crop in much of the developing world, and it is an important specialty crop in the United States. American consumers prefer sweetpotatoes with sweet, moist orange flesh. After many years of decline beginning in the 195...

  19. Management of sweet potato leaf curl virus in sweetpotatoes using insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), which is transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), can severely affect yields of commercial sweetpotatoes, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae). This virus occurs every year at the U.S. Vegetable Laborato...

  20. Identification of quantitative trait Loci for dry-matter, starch, and ß-carotene content in Sweetpotato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of orange-fleshed sweetpotatoes (OFSP) is essential for the improvement of the food supply and nutritional status of millions of people in developing countries, particularly in sub Saharan Africa. However, sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] breeding is challenging due to its genetic ...

  1. Differential Clomazone, Herbicide Tolerance among Sweetpotato Genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clomazone (Command 3ME) is a broad spectrum preemergence herbicide that is registered for use in sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam.)]. It controls several important annual weeds that are not controlled by the other sweetpotato herbicides. Following clomazone application for weed control in the ...

  2. NOTICE OF RELEASE OF CHARLESTON SCARLET, A VERY SWEET, ORANGE-FLESHED SWEETPOTATO WITH HIGH RESISTANCE TO INSECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] 'Charleston Scarlet' was developed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS). It is an attractive new cultivar that exhibits multiple resistances to root knot nematodes and insect pests like Diabrotica and Systena....

  3. JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, Jan. 2008, p. 743746 Vol. 190, No. 2 0021-9193/08/$08.00 0 doi:10.1128/JB.01135-07

    E-print Network

    Babu, M. Madan

    of Enterococcus faecalis V583, the agrD homologue fsrD is transcribed together and in frame with fsr Staphylococcus. In some cases they have dif- ferent names. For example, the agr-like system in Enterococcus faecalis is known as the fsr system (12) and the one in Lacto- bacillus plantarum is called the lam system

  4. Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy of Aminomalononitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motiyenko, Roman A.; Margules, Laurent; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    2013-06-01

    In low-temperature conditions of the interstellar medium pure HCN and mixtures of HCN with H_2O and NH_3 subjected to high-energy sources can be converted into different HCN polymers. In this context the HCN trimer -- aminomalononitrile (AMN, H_2NCH(CN)_2) is an interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. We measured the rotational spectrum of AMN using the Lille BWO-based fast scan spectrometer (120 -- 180 GHz) and the spectrometer based on solid state sources (225 -- 250 GHz). The spectroscopic work was supported by high level ab initio calculations. The spectra observed were assigned only to the asymmetric conformer. The first analysis revealed the regular doublet splittings of rotational lines indicating the possibility of large-amplitude motion (LAM) of amino group. Further examination of the spectra revealed the existence of additional splittings most probably due to the second LAM of amino group. Since the equilibrium structure of AMN has no symmetry, in the group theoretical formalism these two LAMs can be described using G_4 permutation-inversion group. Despite the complexity of the LAMs all the assigned rotational transitions were fitted within experimental accuracy using Pickett's SPFIT program. As a result, a reliable dataset for astrophysical observations was provided. This work is supported by the french program "Physique et Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire (PCMI, INSU-CNRS)" and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Gerakines, P.A., Moore, M.H, Hudson, R.L., Icarus, 2004, 170, 203

  5. Lattice QCD on a Beowulf Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kima, Seyong

    Using commodity component personal computers based on Alpha processor and commodity network devices and a switch, we built an 8-node parallel computer. GNU/Linux is chosen as an operating system and message passing libraries such as PVM, LAM, and MPICH have been tested as a parallel programming environment. We discuss our lattice QCD project for a heavy quark system on this computer.

  6. Characterization of steroidal saponins from Dioscorea villosa and D Cayennensis using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steroidal saponins were reported to be the major physiologically active constituents in yams. The structural characteristics of steroidal saponins in methanolic extracts from dried rhizomes of two Dioscorea species (D. villosa L. and D. cayenensis Lam.) and dietary supplements have analyzed using U...

  7. Propagation of Polarization in Elastodynamics with Residual Stress and Travel Times

    E-print Network

    Sonke Hansen; Gunther Uhlmann

    2002-01-17

    We show that knowing the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map (DN) associated to the equations of elastodynamics with residual stress we can determine the lens relations of presssure and shear waves. We derive several consequences of this for the inverse problem of determining the residual stress and the Lam\\'e parameters from the DN map.

  8. 88 Int. J. Business Intelligence and Data Mining, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2005 Copyright 2005 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

    E-print Network

    Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing

    '. Raymond Chi-Wing Wong received the BSc and MPhil degrees in Computer Science and Engineering and Security. Ada Wai-Chee Fu received her BSc degree in Computer Science from the Chinese University of Hong, Tsang Lam, Raymond Chi-Wing Wong and Ada Wai-Chee Fu* Department of Computer Science and Engineering

  9. L. W. G. Morgana, J. Shimwell, M. R. Gilbert CCFE-PR(15)13

    E-print Network

    as low activation structural materials (LAM). Most often, these materials have been designed in order-down activity after being irradiated by neutrons in a reactor environ- ment. To date, one of the fundamental disposal rating or shut-down dose. The economic implications of isotopically enriching elements

  10. Search for gravitational waves from low mass compact binary coalescence in 186 days of LIGO's fifth science run

    E-print Network

    Christensen, Nelson

    Search for gravitational waves from low mass compact binary coalescence in 186 days of LIGO's fifth. Kopparapu,37 S. Koranda,60 D. Kozak,17 B. Krishnan,1 R. Kumar,48 P. Kwee,16 P. K. Lam,4 M. Landry,18 B

  11. Field evaluation of yield effects on the U.S.A. heirloom sweet potato cultivars infected by sweet potato leaf curl virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), a Begomovirus, infection of sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae) in South Carolina, USA has increased rapidly in recent years. This is likely due to the use of infected propagating materials and the increasing population of it...

  12. Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; McEntire, R. W.; Cheng, A. F.; Green, W. J.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer for in situ planetary surface analysis is described. The laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) measures the regolith's elemental and isotopic composition without high-voltage source extraction or sample preparation. The compact size (< 2 x 10(exp 3) cubic cm) and low mass (approximately 2 kg) of LAMS, due to its fully coaxial design and two-stage reflectron, fall within the strict resource limitations of landed science missions to solar system bodies. A short-pulse laser focused to a spot with a diameter approximately 30-50 micrometers is used to obtain microscopic surface samples. Assisted by a microimager, LAMS can interactively select and analyze a range of compositional regions (with lateral motion) and with repeated pulses can access unweathered, subsurface materials. The mass resolution is calibrated to distinguish isotopic peaks at unit masses, and detection limits are on resolved to a few ppm. The design and calibration method of a prototype LAMS device is described, which include the development of preliminary relative sensitivity coefficients for major element bulk abundance measurements.

  13. Lattice QCD on a Beowulf Cluster

    E-print Network

    Seyong Kim

    1999-09-06

    Using commodity component personal computers based on Alpha processor and commodity network devices and a switch, we built an 8-node parallel computer. GNU/Linux is chosen as an operating system and message passing libraries such as PVM, LAM, and MPICH have been tested as a parallel programming environment. We discuss our lattice QCD project for a heavy quark system on this computer.

  14. A Novel Mechanism for Nitric Oxide Production in Nitroalkyl Radicals that Circumvents Nitro-Nitrite Isomerization

    E-print Network

    Butler, Laurie J.

    -Nitrite Isomerization Ryan S. Booth, Chow-Shing Lam, and Laurie J. Butler* The James Franck Institute and Department-energy nitro-nitrite isomerization. We characterize the intrinsic reaction coordinate at the B3LYP/6-311++g(3df in nitroalkanes (and other nitroalkyl species) is isomerization to a nitrite intermediate followed by O-N bond

  15. Comparative study of three Plumbago L. species (Plumbaginaceae) by microscopy, UPLC–UV and HPTLC analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a comparative study of anatomy of leaves, stems and roots of three species of Plumbago, namely P. auriculata Lam., P. indica L. and P. zeylanica L. by light microscopy. The paper also provides qualitative and quantitative analysis of the naphthoquinone, plumbagin, a major constit...

  16. Recent Progress Towards an Ecosystem of Structured Data on the Web

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    , Boulos Harb, Heidi Lam, Hongrae Lee, Jayant Madhavan, Fei Wu, Cong Yu Google Research U.S.A. Abstract--Google. The success of this trend is still dependent on improving our solutions to several long-standing data. The Google Fusion Tables project has been addressing some of these issues. At the core, we offer a cloud

  17. Counteracting Phishing Page Polymorphism: An Image Layout Analysis Approach

    E-print Network

    Wallach, Dan

    representation techniques to create visually similar phishing pages. We call this kind of countermeasure phishingCounteracting Phishing Page Polymorphism: An Image Layout Analysis Approach Ieng-Fat Lam1 , Wei,garry}@iis.sinica.edu.tw, wsc@niu.edu.tw, ktchen@iis.sinica.edu.tw Abstract. Many visual similarity-based phishing page

  18. Gibbs Sampling for Gene Cis-Regulatory Elements

    E-print Network

    Newberg, Heidi

    Gibbs Sampling for Gene Cis-Regulatory Elements Lee A. Newberg @GE 10/21/2011 #12;Lee A. Newberg 10/21/2011 Gibbs sampling for Gene Cis- Regulatory Elements 2 Acknowledgments Team: · Sean P. Conlan (NIH) · Travis" (CEL, LAM, LAN) E #12;Lee A. Newberg 10/21/2011 Gibbs sampling for Gene Cis- Regulatory Elements 3 #12

  19. Quantification of Skull Deformity for Craniofacial Research , Michael Cunningham2

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Linda

    Quantification of Skull Deformity for Craniofacial Research Irma Lam1 , Michael Cunningham2 , Craig fibrous joints of the skull fuse prematurely, causes skull mal- formation and may be associated. This paper addresses that need by proposing a set of features derived from CT scans of the skull that can

  20. Leaf Petiole and Stem Blight Disease of Sweet Potato Caused by Alternaria Bataticola in Uganda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternaria leaf petiole and stem blight is an important disease of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus (L.) Lam.) in tropical and sub-tropical regions. In surveys conducted in Uganda from 2001 to 2003, disease incidence ranged from 0-49%. Symptoms of Alternaria leaf and stem blight disease consisted of sm...

  1. DIFAS: Differential Item Functioning Analysis System. Computer Program Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2005-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) is an important consideration in assessing the validity of test scores (Camilli & Shepard, 1994). A variety of statistical procedures have been developed to assess DIF in tests of dichotomous (Hills, 1989; Millsap & Everson, 1993) and polytomous (Penfield & Lam, 2000; Potenza & Dorans, 1995) items. Some of these…

  2. COMPOSITIONAL AND SENSORY ANALYSES OF SWEET POTATOES AFTER X-RAY IRRADIATION QUARANTINE TREATMENT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] roots of two Hawaii-grown clones were treated with 100 to 600 Gy X-ray irradiation and evaluated for quality. Root moisture content, surface color, and glucose and fructose concentrations were not affected by irradiation treatment for either the red-skin, ye...

  3. Attentional, Associative, and Configural Mechanisms in Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrauri, Jose A.; Schmajuk, Nestor A.

    2008-01-01

    The participation of attentional and associative mechanisms in extinction, spontaneous recovery, external disinhibition, renewal, reinstatement, and reacquisition was evaluated through computer simulations with an extant computational model of classical conditioning (N. A. Schmajuk, Y. Lam, & J. A. Gray, 1996; N. A. Schmajuk & J. A. Larrauri,…

  4. Detection of visual signals by rats: A computational model

    EPA Science Inventory

    We applied a neural network model of classical conditioning proposed by Schmajuk, Lam, and Gray (1996) to visual signal detection and discrimination tasks designed to assess sustained attention in rats (Bushnell, 1999). The model describes the animals’ expectation of receiving fo...

  5. AcceptedArticle This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been

    E-print Network

    Sabatini, David M.

    , David M. Sabatini1,2,3,4,5 , David E. Harrison7 1 Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge@mail.med.upenn.edu; David M. Sabatini, sabatini@wi.mit.edu Running title: Rapamycin affects HET3 GTT, not ITT Keywords but insulin sensitive Authors Dudley W. Lamming, Lan Ye, C. Michael Astle, Adam B. Salmon, David M. Sabatini

  6. The effect of cyanobacteria on silica precipitation at neutral pH: implications for bacterial silicification in geothermal hot springs

    E-print Network

    Benning, Liane G.

    silicification in geothermal hot springs Nathan Yeea,*, Vernon R. Phoenixb , Kurt O. Konhauserc , Liane G. Introduction Cyanobacterial silicification is an important geo- logical process in modern geothermal in geothermal hot springs (Schultze-Lam et al., 1995; Jones et al., 1997; Konhauser et al., 2001). Field

  7. and 19% of the stomachs of late-lifted fish were Food of the striped bass at Holyoke Dam was

    E-print Network

    was dominated by the body parts of adult American shad, blueback herring, and sea lamprey when many in American shad, blueback herring, and sea lam- prey, although we were not able to confirm this by sampling Cited BELL, C. E., AND B. KYNARD. 1985. Mortality of adult American shad passing through a 17-megawatt

  8. A sensitive PCR-based assay to detect Neotyphodium fungi in seed and plant tissue of tall fescue and ryegrass spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for detection of Neotyphodium endophytes in seed and plant tissue from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), Italian (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and perennial (Lolium perenne L.) ryegrasses was developed. Based on DNA mixture tests and bulk seed anal...

  9. Differential predation of forage seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent field experiments we observed that the main invertebrate seed predators of overseeded tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) or Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) seed in unimproved pastures were harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex sp.) and common field crickets (Gryllus sp.) To determ...

  10. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Customer Awareness off and Participation in Sustainability

    E-print Network

    sustainability initiatives, working with UBC Food Services and AMS Food Services to develop and conduct marketUBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Customer Awareness off and Participation in Sustainability Mandy Cheng, Sara Harrison, Andria Lam, Cristina Machial, Lena Syrovy, Diana

  11. Analyze Influenza Virus Sequences Using Binary Encoding Approach

    E-print Network

    Boley, Daniel

    Analyze Influenza Virus Sequences Using Binary Encoding Approach Ham Ching Lam , Srinand Sreevatsan and Daniel Boley Abstract Capturing mutation patterns of each individual influenza virus sequence is often the influenza genetic sequences to a binary strings and form a binary sequence alignment matrix and then apply

  12. Building consensus spectral libraries for

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    increasing interest as an alternative to sequence-database searching in proteomics. We developedBuilding consensus spectral libraries for peptide identification in proteomics Henry Lam1,2, Eric W and validated an open-source software toolkit, SpectraST, to enable proteomics researchers to build spectral

  13. Modeling, Control and Identification of a Smart Guido Cavraro

    E-print Network

    Schenato, Luca

    for Optimal Power Flow Problem [12] A. Lam, B. Zhang, and D. N. Tse, (2012) Distributed Algorithms for Optimal for optimal reactive power flow with power constraints, IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC13), [4] S. Bolognani, R. Carli, G. Cavraro, S. Zampieri, (2013) A distributed control strategy for optimal reactive

  14. The effect of small gaps in California annual grassland on above-ground biomass production

    E-print Network

    Fehmi, Jeffrey S.

    The effect of small gaps in California annual grassland on above-ground biomass production J. S- mon in grasslands. In California annual grasslands, pat- ches of Lolium multi¯orum Lam. and Bromus resource use of these grasslands. The effect that differences in spatial aggre- gation, gap distribution

  15. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Applicability of the CIRS Solar Aquatic Wastewater Treatment

    E-print Network

    into the Applicability of the CIRS Solar Aquatic Wastewater Treatment System at UBC Farm Noah Joy Peter Lillos Steven Lam An Investigation into the Applicability of the CIRS Solar Aquatic Wastewater Treatment System at UBC Farm Authors the environmental, economic and social indicators. From an economic standpoint, the wastewater treatment system has

  16. ‘Liberty’ Dry-Fleshed Sweetpotato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivar, ‘Liberty’ was jointly developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and Clemson University, South Carolina Agriculture and Forestry Research System. This cultivar is a dry-fleshed type with attracti...

  17. High spatial resolution mapping of deposition layers on plasma facing materials by laser ablation microprobe time-of-flight mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qingmei; Li, Cong; Hai, Ran; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Chunlei; Zhou, Yan; Yan, Longwen; Duan, Xuru; Ding, Hongbin

    2014-05-01

    A laser ablation microprobe time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LAM-TOF-MS) system with high spatial resolution, ~20 nm in depth and ~500 ?m or better on the surface, is developed to analyze the composition distributions of deposition layers on the first wall materials or first mirrors in tokamak. The LAM-TOF-MS system consists of a laser ablation microprobe combined with a TOF-MS and a data acquisition system based on a LabVIEW program software package. Laser induced ablation combined with TOF-MS is an attractive method to analyze the depth profile of deposited layer with successive laser shots, therefore, it can provide information for composition reconstruction of the plasma wall interaction process. In this work, we demonstrate that the LAM-TOF-MS system is capable of characterizing the depth profile as well as mapping 2D composition of deposited film on the molybdenum first mirror retrieved from HL-2A tokamak, with particular emphasis on some of the species produced during the ablation process. The presented LAM-TOF-MS system provides not only the 3D characterization of deposition but also the removal efficiency of species of concern. PMID:24880373

  18. Lone Star 2000: Documenting Successful School or University Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Dennis M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a partnership between University of North Florida and Duval County Public Schools which led to Lone Star 2000. The project involved teachers and interns producing a method for multimedia electronic portfolios and assisting students in their creation. Much of the discussion focuses on the courseware used and outcomes of the program. (LAM)

  19. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 12 JUNE 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2021 Unconditional room-temperature

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    to be a necessary element of future optical quantum cryptographic networks4 and quantum logic-gate operations5-temperature quantum memory M. Hosseini, G. Campbell, B. M. Sparkes, P. K. Lam and B. C. Buchler* Just as classical information systems require buffers and memory, the same is true for quantum information systems

  20. Cell Host & Microbe Short Article

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Darren

    of the Microbicidal NADPH Oxidase to Promote Listeria monocytogenes Infection Grace Y. Lam,1,3 Ramzi Fattouh,1 Aleixo.chom.2011.11.005 SUMMARY The intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocy- togenes produces respiratory burst. INTRODUCTION Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that has adapted

  1. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    of these radionuclides in the aquatic food chain is essential for a realistic assessment of the risk of their potential bioaccumulation in a marine food chain Wen-Xiong Wang1,*, Caihuan Ke1, 2 , K. N. Yu2, 3 , Paul K. S. Lam2, 4 1 Kong ABSTRACT: We measured the transfer of radiocesium in a marine food chain from phytoplankton

  2. Identification of quantitative trait loci for seed trait and floral morphology in a field-grown Lolium perenne x Lolium multiflorum mapping population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lolium multiflorum Lam. and L. perenne L. differ in the requirements for initiation of flowering, and in other morphological traits. Generally, L. multiflorum spikes are larger than L. perenne spikes, and have more spikelets, more florets per spikelet, larger seeds, and awns. The greater number of s...

  3. Development of a DNA Sequence-Based Multiplex Test for Rapid Differentiation of Ryegrass Growth Types

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and perennial (Lolium perenne L.) ryegrasses are two common forage species in temperate regions. Identifying annual ryegrass contamination in perennial ryegrass seed lots has been of major interest in the seed industry for many years. The objective of our work over t...

  4. Using advances in plant genomics to develop a DNA-based test to benefit the ryegrass seed industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and perennial (Lolium perenne L.) ryegrasses are two common forage species in temperate regions. Identifying annual ryegrass contamination in perennial ryegrass seed lots has been of major interest in the seed industry for many years. The objective of our work over t...

  5. A general role for splicing enhancers in exon definition

    E-print Network

    Hertel, Klemens J.

    are alternatively spliced, sometimes leading to hundreds of different mRNA isoforms from a single gene+ HoweverREPORT A general role for splicing enhancers in exon definition BIANCA J. LAM and KLEMENS J. HERTEL, California 92697-4025, USA ABSTRACT Exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) facilitate exon definition by assisting

  6. BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC STRESS Expression of a metacaspase gene of Nicotiana benthamiana

    E-print Network

    Hsiang, Tom

    due to C. destructivum compared with leaves inoculated with the PVX vector without the cloned also occurs during plant development and the response of plants to different stresses (Beers et al. 2000). Although caspase-like proteinase activities have been identified in plants (del Pozo and Lam

  7. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 27, No. 10, pp. 20532063, 2008 Printed in the USA

    E-print Network

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    AND DIETARY DDT IN MARINE FISH RAYMOND W.M. KWONG, PETER K.N. YU, PAUL K.S. LAM,§ and WEN-XIONG WANG detectable in some remote areas, such as the Arctic Ocean and deep-sea environments [1,2]. China banned

  8. Date: 3/12/08 File Name: I:\\gis\\esri projects\\uva grounds-arcgis\\1353\\1353.mxd

    E-print Network

    Huang, Wei

    of Virginia Space & Real Estate Management 575 Alderman Road - P.O. Box 400884 Charlottesville, VA 22904-Ray Storage Bldg 1179 North Cemetery Section Confederate Cemetery East Cemetery Section Aero Research Quonset Hereford Drive Gordon Avenue Cemetery Road FauquierRoad Darden School Boulevard Lam beth Lane Cresap

  9. Drivers and Applications of Optical Technologies for Internet Data Center Networks

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    , Cedric Lam, Paul Schultz and Bikash Koley Google, 1600 Amphitheatre Pkwy, Mountain View, CA 94303 options and discusses technology building blocks for scaling inter-Datacenter connectivity. OCIS codes various architectural options for the design optimization of a network consisting of these two traffic

  10. "D i sea s e s 0 f F) s h ," edited by L.E. Mawdesley-Thomas. Academic Press Inc.

    E-print Network

    , Maryland 21613. $ 12.95 . LAMPREYS: VOLUME II "The Biology of Lam pre y s , " edited by M.W. Hardisty and I of the in -depth lamprey study, larvae to adult, begun in Vol- ume I. By employing data of many scientists who used to answer the question whether lamprey, whose simple state has remained almost unchanged over millions

  11. Registration of ‘Zenith' black bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Zenith’ black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, full-season cultivar with anthracnose [caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. et Magnus) Lams.-Scrib] resistance and excellent canning q...

  12. Premi ere partie Le volcanisme de la plaque Paci que

    E-print Network

    Clouard, Valerie

    passant du stade d'^ le haute #12;a celui d'atoll. En 1831, Charles Darwin embarque sur le Beagle, pour une croisi#12;ere qui dure 5 ans. Elle l'am#12;ene dans le Paci que et il constate que les atolls du

  13. COMPARISON OF AQUEOUS AND SOLID-PHASE UPTAKE FOR HEXACHLOROBENZENE IN THE TELLINID CLAM MACOMA NASUTA (CONRAD): A MASS BALANCE APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uptake of sediment-associated hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the deposit-feeding clam Macoma nasuta (Conrad) was determined using a clam ventilation chamber. lams were exposed to [14C]HCB-dosed sediment, and the 14C amounts were measured in inhalant and exhalant waters, fecal pel...

  14. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Food System Project: AMS Food and Beverage Service

    E-print Network

    : AMS Food and Beverage Service Vivian Chan, Francis Gomez, Julie Lam, Helen Racic, Hong Sy, Jonathan of a project/report". #12;AMS Food Services, Group 5 10/23/2012 1 UBC Food System Project: AMS Food Suzanne Woolley #12;AMS Food Services, Group 5 10/23/2012 2 Abstract Our analysis of the AMS Food Services

  15. 3Geochemistry Published by AGU and the Geochemical Society

    E-print Network

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    speciation and sources John Michael Trapp, Frank J. Millero, and Joseph M. Prospero Rosenstiel School 2009; Accepted 13 January 2010; Published 24 March 2010. Trapp, J. M., F. J. Millero, and J. M and from regeneration in continental shelf sediments [Johnson et al., 1999; Lam and Bishop, 2008], the vast

  16. Distinct pathways of genomic progression to benign and malignant tumors of the liver

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    **, and J. Michael Bishop* *G. W. Hooper Foundation and Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Michael Bishop, July 12, 2007 (sent for review May 29, 2007) We used several of the genetic lesions for the Study of Liver Disease, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road, Hong Kong, China Contributed by J

  17. Location errors in QPFs over the Calabria region: Does a multi-model poor man's ensemble over-perform each member?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglione, Nazario; Mariani, Stefano; Casaioli, Marco; Accadia, Christophe; Federico, Stefano; Lanciani, Alexandre

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the quality, in terms of location errors, of multi-model poor man's ensemble (PME) forecasts against the single model ones over the Calabria region. Several strategies were adopted to combine precipitation forecasts by three limited area models (LAMs), namely the mean, the median, and a probabilistic matching approach. The Contiguous Rain Area (CRA) analysis was the method selected to detect and quantify the location errors of the forecast precipitation patterns with respect to the corresponding rain gauge-based analyses. Two best-fit criteria, the minimization of mean squared error and the maximization of correlation coefficient, were chosen for matching forecast and observed features. The ability to forecast correctly the precipitation patterns was then quantified by means of a summary measure, the CRA mean shift (CMS). It condenses the outcomes of the twenty-month CRA analyses with a unique value. A bootstrap procedure was applied to test the statistical significance of differences among CMS indices of LAMs and PMEs. Despite the ensemble forecasts display a general improvement, which results in a lower CMS index, with respect to the single LAMs, such improvement was not statistically significant for most ensembles. When the best-fit criterion is the maximization of correlation coefficient, no ensemble was statistically significant better than single models. Instead when the minimization of mean squared error was chosen as best-fit criterion, two out of four PMEs were significantly better than at least a LAM.

  18. On the Access Pricing and Network Scaling Issues of Wireless Mesh Networks

    E-print Network

    Lui, John C.S.

    1 On the Access Pricing and Network Scaling Issues of Wireless Mesh Networks Ray K. Lam Dah. This paper studies the use of pricing as an incentive mechanism to stimulate participation and collaboration in public wireless mesh networks. Our focus is on the "economic behavior" of the network nodes-- the pricing

  19. A case of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis complicated with uterine and retroperitoneal tumors.

    PubMed

    Numata, Takanori; Araya, Jun; Mikami, Jiro; Hara, Hiromichi; Harada, Tohru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    A 39-year-old female experienced dyspnea on exertion for eight months. Chest CT demonstrated findings of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), including diffuse thin-walled cystic lesions. A surgical lung biopsy revealed human melanoma black-45-positive cell infiltration and aggregation, resulting in a diagnosis of sporadic LAM without tuberous sclerosis complex. Pelvic MRI showed two large tumors, one of which was in the myometrium and the other was in the retroperitoneal space. Because we were not able to exclude the presence of malignant tumors using MR imaging, the tumors were surgically resected. The histopathology demonstrated the resected tumors to be composed of LAM cells. The patient's symptoms worsened, and sirolimus was administered, which improved the dyspnea and pulmonary function. The adverse effect was mild liver damage. Following the initiation of treatment with sirolimus, transient elevation of the serum KL-6 level was detected without interstitial pneumonia. This LAM case complicated with large uterine and retroperitoneal tumors was successfully treated with surgical resection and sirolimus. PMID:26236608

  20. A case of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis complicated with uterine and retroperitoneal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Takanori; Araya, Jun; Mikami, Jiro; Hara, Hiromichi; Harada, Tohru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    A 39-year-old female experienced dyspnea on exertion for eight months. Chest CT demonstrated findings of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), including diffuse thin-walled cystic lesions. A surgical lung biopsy revealed human melanoma black-45-positive cell infiltration and aggregation, resulting in a diagnosis of sporadic LAM without tuberous sclerosis complex. Pelvic MRI showed two large tumors, one of which was in the myometrium and the other was in the retroperitoneal space. Because we were not able to exclude the presence of malignant tumors using MR imaging, the tumors were surgically resected. The histopathology demonstrated the resected tumors to be composed of LAM cells. The patient's symptoms worsened, and sirolimus was administered, which improved the dyspnea and pulmonary function. The adverse effect was mild liver damage. Following the initiation of treatment with sirolimus, transient elevation of the serum KL-6 level was detected without interstitial pneumonia. This LAM case complicated with large uterine and retroperitoneal tumors was successfully treated with surgical resection and sirolimus. PMID:26236608