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Sample records for berberis buxifolia lam

  1. Antimicrobial activities of Indian Berberis species.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Sharad; Rawat, A K S

    2007-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of four Berberis species viz. Berberis aristata, Berberis asiatica, Berberis chitria and Berberis lycium were tested against eleven bacterial and eight fungal strains. B. aristata root extract gave low MICs values against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus flavus while stem extract against B. cereus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:17583443

  2. Hepatotoxicity evaluation of aqueous extract from Scutia buxifolia.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Robson Borba; Rovani, Bruno Tomazele; Boligon, Aline Augusti; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Piana, Mariana; da Silva Jesus, Roberta; Veloso, Carolina Fantinel; Kober, Helena; Moresco, Rafael Noal; da Costa Araldi, Isabel Cristina; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays there is an increase in the number of people taking herbals worldwide. Scutia buxifolia is used for the treatment of hypertension, but little is known about its action on liver. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control and groups treated during 30 days with 100, 200 and 400 mg of lyophilized aqueous extract of S. buxifolia (SBSB)/kg of body weight. This study was planned to explore hepatotoxic effect of SBSB, which was assessed by serum transaminases (ALT and AST). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were determined in liver, along with thiols content (NPSH), catalase (CAT) activity and, superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Histopathological studies of liver tissue were performed. Flavonoids and phenolics were quantified in SBSB by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC/DAD). We did not observe alterations on redox status (TBARS, NPSH, CAT and, SOD) in the control and experimental groups. An increase on AST activity was only observed at 200 mg of SBSB, whereas ALT score was not affected by SBSB. Moreover, no morphological alterations were observed on the hepatocytes, matching the analysed biochemical parameters. This way, we conclude that SBSB was not toxic. PMID:23812249

  3. LAM (Lymphangioleiomyomatosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition. It usually requires treatment and might be life threatening. Normal Lungs and Lungs With LAM Figure A shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body. The inset image shows a cross-section of a healthy lung. ...

  4. First report of graft-transmission and PCR detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus from Atalantia buxifolia in Guangdong, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atalantia buxifolia (Jiubingle), syn. Severinia buxifolia, is a common landscape plant and a popular Chinese medicinal herb known as Dongfengjie. It is unclear if this Rutaceous plant is a host for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the pathogen of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) in Guangdong, P. R. Chin...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Scutia buxifolia against the honeybee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    PubMed

    Boligon, Aline Augusti; Brum, Thiele Faccim de; Zadra, Marina; Piana, Mariana; Alves, Camilla Filippi Dos Santos; Fausto, Viviane Pedroso; Júnior, Valdir Dos Santos Barboza; Vaucher, Rodrigo de Almeida; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2013-02-01

    The honeybee disease American foulbrood (AFB) is a serious problem since its causative agent (Paenibacillus larvae) has become increasingly resistant to conventional antibiotics. One of the feasible alternative treatments being used for control of this disease are plants extracts. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of crude extract and fractions of Scutia buxifolia against six Paenibacillus species, including P. larvae, and its potential use for the control of AFB. In vitro activity of S. buxifolia samples against Paenibacillus species were evaluated by the disk diffusion and microdilution methods, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were also determined. All Paenibacillus species were sensitive to crude extract and fractions of S. buxifolia. The dichloromethane (DC) fraction showed the better MIC (1.56 mg/mL), followed by ethyl acetate (EtAc) (6.25 mg/mL), n-butanol (BuOH) (25 mg/mL) and Crude extract (CE) (50 mg/mL). Toxic effect of S. buxifolia crude extracts and fractions against bees were also evaluated by the spraying application method of the same concentrations of MICs. The samples tested showed no toxic effects for the bees after 15 days of observation. These results are first time described for this species and showed that S. buxifolia presented a important activity against Paenibacillus species and proved to be a natural alternative for the prevention/control of AFB. PMID:23220240

  6. Scutia buxifolia Reissek essential oil: in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Boligon, Aline A; Piana, Mariana; Brum, Thiele F de; Froeder, Amanda L F; Belke, Bianca V; Schwanz, Thiago G; Mario, Débora N; Alves, Sydney H; Athayde, Margareth L

    2014-09-01

    The volatile oil from the stem bark of Scutia buxifolia (Rhamnaceae) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-one components were identified representing 99.93 % of the total oil composition, spathulenol (35.87%), β-cubebene (17.26%), germacrene D (6.43%), linalool (5.19%), carvacrol (4.05%) were the main components of S. buxifolia essential oil. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil were evaluated by free radical scavenging (DPPH) assay and micro broth dilution method, respectively. S. buxifolia essential oil presented interesting radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 15.03 ± 0.11 µg/mL). The antibacterial assay showed that S. buxifolia stem bark essential oil was moderately active against the Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus sp. (MIC = 500 µg/mL) and Escherichia coli (250 µg/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from the S. buxifolia collected from Brazil. PMID:25211114

  7. Antiulcerogenic activity of Scutia buxifolia on gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in rats

    PubMed Central

    Boligon, Aline Augusti; de Freitas, Robson Borba; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Klimaczewski, Cláudia Vargas; de Ávila, Daiana Silva; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and their development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. Scutia buxifolia, commonly known as coronilha, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its pharmacological properties and its potential therapeutic applications. In this study, the preventive effects of the crude extract of Scutia buxifolia (ceSb) against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol were evaluated in male Wistar rats. In addition, the composition of ceSb was clarified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). S. buxifolia extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) attenuated oxidative and histopathological features induced by ethanol. Moreover, all evaluated doses of ceSb caused significant (P<0.001 and P<0.0001) and dose-dependent increase in sulfhydryl groups (NPSH) levels, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Furthermore, the administration of ceSb reversed the increase in lipid peroxidation produced by ethanol. The protective effect of the extract could be attributed to antioxidant compounds present in the ceSb, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, which were quantified by HPLC. Thus, an antioxidant effect of the extract leads to a protection on gastric tissue. These results indicate that S. buxifolia could have a beneficial role against ethanol toxicity by preventing oxidative stress and gastric tissue injury. PMID:26579405

  8. Complete 1H and 13C NMR data assignment of new constituents from Severinia buxifolia.

    PubMed

    Bacher, Markus; Brader, Günter; Greger, Harald; Hofer, Otmar

    2010-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of different organs of the rutaceaeous plant Severinia buxifolia led to the isolation of a new limonoid, a new acridone alkaloid, and a new flavone. Structure elucidation and signal assignment were achieved by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments (selective 1D NOE, COSY, NOESY, HSQC, HMBC). PMID:19937908

  9. Phytochemical and antioxidant studies of Berberis lycium.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Shaista; Tahir, Kalim; Rashid, Naghmana; Naz, Sidra; Masood, Bilal; Shah, Muhammad Ajmal

    2013-11-01

    Six compounds have been isolated from methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Berberis lycium (Barberry). Four out of six isolated compounds are reported for the first time from this plant. Purification of different compounds has been accomplished by conventional extraction and chromatographic techniques. The compounds have been structurally characterized by IR, Low Resolution MS, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. All plant extracts and isolated compounds were assayed for the first time for their antioxidant activity. PMID:24191322

  10. Two new acridone alkaloids from the branch of Atalantia buxifolia and their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yin-Yu; Yang, Wei; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Liu, Shou-Bai; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Two new acridone alkaloids, 3-methoxy-1,4,5-trihydroxy-10-methylacridone (1) and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4,5-trihydroxy-10-methylacridone (2), were isolated from the ethanol extract of the branch of Atalantia buxifolia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and weak inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase. PMID:23796077

  11. Assessment of Antioxidant Potential, Total Phenolics and Flavonoids of Different Solvent Fractions of Monotheca Buxifolia Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shumaila; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Rashid, Umbreen; Bokhari, Jasia

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and aqueous) of fruits of Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) Dc., a locally used fruit in Pakistan. Methods Dried powder of the fruit of M. buxifolia was extracted with methanol and the resultant was fractionated with solvents having escalating polarity; n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and the residual soluble aqueous fraction. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were estimated for the methanol and various fractions. These fractions were also subjected to various in vitro assays to estimate the scavenging activity for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), superoxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide and reductive ability for ferric ions and phosphomolybdate assay. Results The n-butanol, aqueous and methanol fractions possessed high amount of phenolics and flavonoids compared with other fractions, and subsequently showed a pronounced scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, superoxide, hydroxyl and hydrogen peroxide radicals and had a potent reductive ability on ferric ion and phosphomolybdate assay. There was a found significant correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and EC50 of DPPH, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide radical and phosphomolybdate assays, whereas a nonsignificant correlation was found with the hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical assay. Conclusion M. buxifolia fruit can be used as natural antioxidant source to prevent damage associated with free radicals. PMID:24298440

  12. Ehretianone, a novel quinonoid xanthene from Ehretia buxifolia with antisnake venom activity.

    PubMed

    Selvanayagam, Z E; Gnanavendhan, S G; Balakrishna, K; Rao, R B; Sivaraman, J; Subramanian, K; Puri, R; Puri, R K

    1996-07-01

    Ehretianone (1), a new quinonoid xanthene, together with known sterols, was isolated from a MeOH extract of the root bark of Ehretia buxifolia. The structure of ehretianone was elucidated as 7-hydroxy-9a alpha-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-4a alpha,9 alpha-(2-methylprop-2-enyl)-4a, 9a-dihydro-1,4-dioxoxanthene on the basis of spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallographic analysis. The antisnake venom activity of ehretianone against Echis carinatus venom in mice is also reported. PMID:8759162

  13. Morphological comparison of aeciospores from rust fungi infecting Berberis spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently there are about 30 different species of rust fungi described that infect Berberis and/or Mahonia, and include both autoecious and heteroecious. Our current work is on the molecular phylogenetic and morphological characterization of macrocyclic, heteroecious rust fungi with cereal and grass...

  14. A review on biological and chemical diversity in Berberis (Berberidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sharad; Srivastava, Manjoosha; Misra, Ankita; Pandey, Garima; Rawat, AKS

    2015-01-01

    Berberis is an important genus and well known in the Indian as well as European systems of traditional medicine. It is used since ancient times for curing eye disease, fever, jaundice, rheumatism, vomiting during pregnancy, kidney and gall balder stones and various other ailments due to the presence of biologically active alkaloid berberine. Action of the root extracts of few species are believed to be as powerful as quinine in the treatment of malarial fever. A plethora of literature pertaining to the taxonomy, biology, chemistry, traditional and ethnic uses of Berberis in different countries and indigenous cultures was collected by both offline (library, journals, textbooks etc.) and online mode (electronic search of available databases). In addition to this, books on traditional medicine and ethno pharmacological knowledge were also referred to extract ancient uses of Berberis in different traditional medicine systems. Most of the folklore, traditional and ethno botanical claims about Berberis species were validated by broad spectrum in vitro and vivo pharmacological studies. The present article summarizes its usage in eye and liver disorder, fever, kidney and gall stones along with anticancer activity. This comprehensive review will not only help researchers for further evaluation but also provide substantial information for future exploitation of species to develop novel herbal formulations. PMID:26535033

  15. A review on biological and chemical diversity in Berberis (Berberidaceae).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sharad; Srivastava, Manjoosha; Misra, Ankita; Pandey, Garima; Rawat, Aks

    2015-01-01

    Berberis is an important genus and well known in the Indian as well as European systems of traditional medicine. It is used since ancient times for curing eye disease, fever, jaundice, rheumatism, vomiting during pregnancy, kidney and gall balder stones and various other ailments due to the presence of biologically active alkaloid berberine. Action of the root extracts of few species are believed to be as powerful as quinine in the treatment of malarial fever. A plethora of literature pertaining to the taxonomy, biology, chemistry, traditional and ethnic uses of Berberis in different countries and indigenous cultures was collected by both offline (library, journals, textbooks etc.) and online mode (electronic search of available databases). In addition to this, books on traditional medicine and ethno pharmacological knowledge were also referred to extract ancient uses of Berberis in different traditional medicine systems. Most of the folklore, traditional and ethno botanical claims about Berberis species were validated by broad spectrum in vitro and vivo pharmacological studies. The present article summarizes its usage in eye and liver disorder, fever, kidney and gall stones along with anticancer activity. This comprehensive review will not only help researchers for further evaluation but also provide substantial information for future exploitation of species to develop novel herbal formulations. PMID:26535033

  16. Some physical properties of sun-dried Berberis fruit (Berberis crataegina).

    PubMed

    Işıklı, Nursel Develi; Yılmaz, Ilkay

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate some physical properties of sun dried Berberis fruit as a function of moisture content, varying from 9.59% to 27.90% (w.b.). Dried fruit length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter and sphericity, increased nonlinearly from 7.19 to 7.53 mm; 3.42 to 4.03 mm; 2.78 to 3.02 mm; 4.05 to 4.51 mm and 0.56 to 0.62, respectively with increased moisture content. When we tested 1000-dried fruits, their mass increased linearly from 3.10 to 4.89 g, the true and bulk density increased nonlinearly from 769 to 845 kg m(-3) and 389 to 395 kg m(-3), respectively; with increased moisture content. Also, porosity values of dried fruits increased nonlinearly from 49.40% to 53.30%. The lowest static coefficient of friction was found on the steel surface. The angle of repose increased nonlinearly from 20.14° to 23.20° with the increasing in the moisture content. PMID:24426054

  17. Identification of Berberis spp. as alternate hosts of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is an important disease on wheat in China because of high virulence diversity. Since the discovery of sexual stage of P. striiformis on Berberis spp., especially B. chinesensis, our interests focused on identifying Berberis spec...

  18. Tyrosinase inhibition kinetic studies of standardized extract of Berberis aristata.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Chaudhary, Sushil K

    2016-06-01

    The stem bark and wood of Berberis aristata DC (Daruharidra) are one of the principal ingredients of traditional skin lighting and exfoliating scrub preparation in India. The standardised extract of B. aristata was screened to evaluate their in vitro antityrosinase activity and inhibition kinetics. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies were carried out with different solvent fractions of the methanol extract of B. aristata (MEBA). RP-HPLC analysis was used to determine the berberine content in extract and fractions of B. aristata. MEBA showed maximum berberine content. Extract and fractions of B. aristata contain the maximum amount of alkaloids than other constituents. In tyrosinase inhibition assay, MEBA was found to possess highest dose-dependent monophenolase and moderate diphenolase activity. The enzyme kinetic study revealed that MEBA possessed mixed type inhibition of monophenolase activity of tyrosinase. These bioactivities indicate that the MEBA has antihyperpigmentation potential in human skin. PMID:26212353

  19. Identification and characterization of microsatellites from calafate (Berberis microphylla, Berberidaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Varas, Benjamín; Castro, María H.; Rodriguez, Roberto; von Baer, Dietrich; Mardones, Claudia; Hinrichsen, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Southern barberry or calafate (Berberis microphylla) is a shrub species endemic to the Patagonian region of South America that is used for human consumption. The fruit is very rich in vitamin C and anthocyanins and has a very high antioxidant capacity. There have been only a few genetic studies of this and other closely related species. • Methods and Results: Here we present the first 18 microsatellite markers of B. microphylla that were characterized using 66 accessions of calafate from Patagonia. On average, they had 7.6 alleles per marker, with an expected heterozygosity of 0.688. The informativeness of these markers was also evaluated in another 15 Berberis species, including most of the native and endemic Chilean species. • Conclusions: The results confirm that these new simple sequence repeat markers are very polymorphic and potentially useful in genetic studies in any species of the genus Berberis. PMID:25202561

  20. Detailed pharmacognostical studies on Berberis aristata DC plant

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Bhawana; Sahu, Juhi; Koul, Sameksha; Kosha, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Berberis aristata DC (Berberidaceae) commonly known in Hindi as “Dāruhaldi” and “Citra,” is an important medicinal herb native to Northern Himalaya region. The plant is used traditionally in Indian system of medicine as an antibacterial, antiperiodic, antidiarrheal and anticancer and it is also used in the treatment of ophthalmic infections. Its root, stem and leaves also find their use in treatment of various ailments and hence is used extensively in Ayurveda. Materials and Methods: Samples of the whole plants of B. aristata were collected and identified. Hand and microtome sections were taken, stained and mounted and the cell content and cell wall structure were studied according to the method described by Kay and Johansen. Representative sketches were made with the help of camera Lucida. Methods for determining the quantitative values were the same as described elsewhere. For fluorescence analysis, the powder of the root, stem and leaf were examined under ultraviolet light. Total ash, acid insoluble ash and water-soluble ash values and water- and alcohol-soluble extractives were determined. Results: The detailed investigations carried on the pharmacognosy of the root; stem and leaf of B. aristata have brought out some salient diagnostic features, which allow one to differentiate it from other substitutes and or adulterants. The determination of quantitative values, fluorescence analysis and the use of lycopodium spore analysis has specifically contributed to this differentiation. Conclusion: From the foregoing observation on the pharmacognosy of root, stem and leaf of B. aristata DC, the salient diagnostic characters of three parts have been presented, which can allow one to differentiate it from other substitutes and or adulterants. PMID:24991073

  1. Effects of Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum association on metabolic parameters and adipocytokines in overweight dyslipidemic patients.

    PubMed

    Derosa, G; Bonaventura, A; Bianchi, L; Romano, D; D' Angelo, A; Fogari, E; Maffioli, P

    2013-01-01

    Nutraceuticals and functional foods have attracted considerable interest as potential alternative therapies for treatment of different cardiovascular disorders and insulin resistance. We evaluated the efficacy of a combination of Berberis Aristata/Silybum Marianum extract (Berberol®) in a sample of overweight, dyslipidemic patients at low cardiovascular risk. We enrolled 105 Caucasian, euglycemic, overweight, dyslipidemic patients, of either sex. At baseline all patients underwent a 6 months run-in period during which they followed an adequate diet and practiced physical activity. At the end of the run-in period, patients were randomised to take placebo or a combination of Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum, 1 tablet during the lunch and 1 tablet during the dinner, for three months, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum and placebo were then interrupted for 2 months (wash-out period), and all patients continued with only diet and physical activity. At the end of the wash-out period, patients re-started Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum or placebo twice a day for further 3 months. We evaluated during the run-in period, at randomisation, before and after the wash-out period these parameters: body weight and BMI, fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, insulin resistance, retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4), adiponectin (ADN), resistin. Total cholesterol, LDL-C, and Tg decreased, and HDL-C increase after 3 months of Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum, both compared to baseline and placebo. Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum decreased fasting plasma insulin, and HOMA-IR, both compared to baseline and to placebo. Moreover, there was a decrease of RBP-4, and resistin, and an increase of ADN after 3 months of Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum. All these positive effects disappeared after the wash-out period, and re-appeared after the re-introduction of the drug. We observed a significant correlation between HOMA-index decrease and resistin, and RBP-4 decrease, and between HOMA-index decrease and ADN increase in Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum group, but not in placebo group. Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum fixed combination seems to be safe and effective in improving lipid profile, but also in improving insulin resistance and adipocytokines levels. PMID:24152839

  2. Universal Plant DNA Barcode Loci May Not Work in Complex Groups: A Case Study with Indian Berberis Species

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sribash; Tyagi, Antariksh; Shukla, Virendra; Kumar, Anil; Singh, Uma M.; Chaudhary, Lal Babu; Datt, Bhaskar; Bag, Sumit K.; Singh, Pradhyumna K.; Nair, Narayanan K.; Husain, Tariq; Tuli, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Background The concept of DNA barcoding for species identification has gained considerable momentum in animals because of fairly successful species identification using cytochrome oxidase I (COI). In plants, matK and rbcL have been proposed as standard barcodes. However, barcoding in complex genera is a challenging task. Methodology and Principal Findings We investigated the species discriminatory power of four reportedly most promising plant DNA barcoding loci (one from nuclear genome- ITS, and three from plastid genome- trnH-psbA, rbcL and matK) in species of Indian Berberis L. (Berberidaceae) and two other genera, Ficus L. (Moraceae) and Gossypium L. (Malvaceae). Berberis species were delineated using morphological characters. These characters resulted in a well resolved species tree. Applying both nucleotide distance and nucleotide character-based approaches, we found that none of the loci, either singly or in combinations, could discriminate the species of Berberis. ITS resolved all the tested species of Ficus and Gossypium and trnH-psbA resolved 82% of the tested species in Ficus. The highly regarded matK and rbcL could not resolve all the species. Finally, we employed amplified fragment length polymorphism test in species of Berberis to determine their relationships. Using ten primer pair combinations in AFLP, the data demonstrated incomplete species resolution. Further, AFLP analysis showed that there was a tendency of the Berberis accessions to cluster according to their geographic origin rather than species affiliation. Conclusions/Significance We reconfirm the earlier reports that the concept of universal barcode in plants may not work in a number of genera. Our results also suggest that the matK and rbcL, recommended as universal barcode loci for plants, may not work in all the genera of land plants. Morphological, geographical and molecular data analyses of Indian species of Berberis suggest probable reticulate evolution and thus barcode markers may not work in this case. PMID:21060687

  3. Century-old Mystery of Puccinia striiformis Life History Solved with the Identification of Berberis as an Alternate Host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life history of Puccinia striiformis remains a mystery because the alternate host has never been found. Inoculation of grasses using aeciospores from naturally infected Berberis chinensis and B. koreana resulted in infection on Poa pratensis, producing uredinia typical of stripe rust caused by P...

  4. Aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root improves renal dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid; Ilkhanipoor, Minoo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Barberry root extract contains various alkaloids that are considered as antioxidants. Beneficial effect of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root (AEBIR) was evaluated for renal function in diabetic rats induced by STZ. Material and Methods: Diabetes was induced by i.p. injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg bw) to rats, after 15 h of fasting. Diabetic rats were randomly grouped and treated daily with AEBIR and glibenclamide by gavage for 42 days. After 6 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and some biochemical parameters of serum and urine were measured and their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy. Results: Streptozotocin induced a significant rise in fasting blood glucose, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urine glucose, urine protein, urine albumin, and water intake and a significant decrease in body weight, serum protein, urine urea, and urine creatinine. There was a significant restoration of these parameters to near normal after administration of the AEBIR and also by glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg bw). The activity of the extract at dose of 500 mg/kg in all parameters except blood glucose and urine glucose was more than that of the standard drug, glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg, p.o.). Histopathological changes of kidney samples were comparable with respective control. Conclusion: These results suggested that aqueous extract of Berberis Integerrima root improves renal dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through controlling blood glucose and renal protective effects. PMID:25050261

  5. Estimation of heavy metals in different berberis species and its market samples.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sharad Kumar; Rai, Vartika; Srivastava, Manjoosha; Rawat, A K S; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2006-05-01

    Popularity of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world because of lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. Besides, it costs less and easily available to poor people particularly in developing countries. But quality assurance of herbal drugs is very necessary prior to its use. Because in today's polluted environment, even herbal drugs are not safe. Berberis spp. is very important medicinal plant, having various medicinal properties. It is also included in Indian and British pharmacopoeias. Its demand is quite high in herbal drug market. So, to check the quality of market samples of this drug, ten different samples were procured from different drug markets of India for heavy metal estimation. Besides, genuine samples of four species of Berberis viz. B. aristata, B. chitria, B. lycium, B. asiatica were also collected from natural habitats to compare heavy metal concentration in both market and genuine samples. It was found that market samples were much more contaminated than genuine samples. Lead (Pb) concentration is far beyond from WHO permissible limit (10 ppm) for herbal drugs, reaching to maximum 49.75 ppm in Amritsar market sample. Likewise, concentration of all other metals like Cd, Cr and Ni were also very high in market samples as compared to genuine samples. PMID:16779598

  6. Therapeutic Strategies for Treatment of Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    PubMed Central

    Krymskaya, Vera P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare progressive lung disease affecting almost exclusively women. Neoplastic growth of atypical smooth muscle-like cells in the lung induces destruction of lung parenchyma leading to the formation of lung cysts, rupture of which results in spontaneous pneumothorax. LAM occurs sporadically or in association with inherited hamartoma syndrome tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Progression of LAM often results in loss of pulmonary function and death. Increasing understanding of neoplastic LAM cell growth is driving the development of therapeutic approaches targeting the disease progression. Areas covered This review provides background to understand the rationale for current treatments used in patients with LAM, to critically appraise the evidence for these treatments, and to discuss future treatment approaches. The literature review includes publications from PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov/. Expert Opinion Targeting mTOR activation with rapamycin analogs sirolimus and everolimus are awaiting approval by the FDA for treatment of LAM. A number of other treatment options have been investigated and are currently tested in clinical trials to target LAM cell survival and metastasis. Key remaining and poorly understood areas for development and validation of therapeutic targeting in LAM are destruction of lungs, pathological lymphangiogenesis, and hormonal regulation. Future will reveal whether they could be targeted therapeutically. PMID:26779398

  7. Male function for ensuring pollination and reproductive success in Berberis lycium Royle: A novel mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Supriya; Verma, Susheel

    2016-03-01

    In Berberis lycium anthers on alternate stamens dehisce, thus prolonging the male function so that pollination is affected and reproduction is ensured. The large pollen sac of each bithecous anther after the appearance of longitudinal dehiscence slit moves away from the filament while remaining attached at the tip of the connective and then orients in such a way that pollen-laden surface faces the stigma. No pollen is available to receptive stigma as pollen grains remain stuck to the anther sac. They do not get dispersed even by wind. Pollination and consequently reproduction is ensured through the intervention of insect, which does not affect pollen transfer to the stigma directly but by touching the base of the staminal filament while foraging nectar secreted by nectaries at the base of corolla, thus leading to staminal movement. This makes the dehisced anthers stick to the stigma and deposit pollen there. PMID:26949084

  8. Comparison of the Effects of Myrtus Communis L, Berberis Vulgaris and Metronidazole Vaginal Gel alone for the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Masoudi, Mansoureh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a growing tendency towards herbal medicines for treatment of vaginitis. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of Myrtus communis L and Berberis vulgaris have been demonstrated invitro and invivo. Aim This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of the vaginal gel of Berberis vulgaris 5% (in metronidazole base) and Myrtus communis L 2% (in metronidazole base) with only metronidazole vaginal gel 0.75% on bacterial vaginosis. Materials and Methods This study was a randomized clinical trial research on 120 married women aged 18-40 years affected by bacterial vaginosis attended for treatment to gynaecology clinic of Hajar Hospital (Shahrekord, Iran). They were randomly divided into three groups of 40 participants. Diagnostic criteria were Amsel’s criteria. Myrtus communis L, Berberis vulgaris vaginal gel or metronidazole vaginal gel for five-night usage were prescribed to each group, and after 7 days therapeutic effects were assessed. Data analysis was performed using ANOVA and Chi-square tests. Results A statistically significant difference was observed with regard to treatment response among the study groups (p<0.001), with Myrtus communis L and Berberis vulgaris groups having a better response than metronidazole gel alone. Moreover, there was no significant difference between Myrtus communis L and Berberis vulgaris groups (p= 0.18). The patients in groups of Myrtus communis L or Berberis vulgaris in metronidazole base did not experience any relapse, but in metronidazole group, 30% of patients experienced relapse during three weeks follow up. Conclusion Findings of the study showed that treatment with a combination of Myrtus communis L or Berberis vulgaris in metronidazole base improve the efficacy of bacterial vaginosis therapy. PMID:27134945

  9. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Root on Some Physiological Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid; Ilkhanipoor, Minoo

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder. Anti-diabetic agents from natural and synthetic sources are available for the treatment of this disease. Berberis integerrima is a medicinal shrub used in conventional therapy for a number of diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root (AEBI) on some physiological parameters in normal and streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced) diabetic male Wistar rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), creatinine (Cr), urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin while body weight, high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein levels were significantly decreased compared to normal rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with different doses of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root (250 and 500 mg/Kg bw) resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, creatinine and urea while HDL-cholesterol and total protein levels were markedly increased after six weeks compared to untreated diabetic rats. The effects of the AEBI at dose of 500 mg/Kg in all parameters except blood glucose (similar) is more than to the standard drug, glibenclamide (0.6 mg/Kg, p.o.). The results of this study indicate that the tested aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root possesses hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24250618

  10. Classical closure theory and Lam's interpretation of epsilon-RNG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    Lam's phenomenological epsilon-renormalization group (RNG) model is quite different from the other members of that group. It does not make use of the correspondence principle and the epsilon-expansion procedure. We demonstrate that Lam's epsilon-RNG model is essentially the physical space version of the classical closure theory in spectral space and consider the corresponding treatment of the eddy viscosity and energy backscatter.

  11. Preliminary study about the possible glycemic clinical advantage in using a fixed combination of Berberis aristata and Silybum marianum standardized extracts versus only Berberis aristata in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Putignano, Pietro; Villanova, Nicola; Montesi, Luca; Moscatiello, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Background Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid widely used to improve the glucidic and lipidic profiles of patients with hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. The limitation of berberine seems to be its poor oral bioavailability, which is affected by the presence, in enterocytes, of P-glycoprotein – an active adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-consuming efflux protein that extrudes berberine into the intestinal lumen, thus limiting its absorption. According to some authors, silymarin, derived from Silybum marianum, could be considered a P-glycoprotein antagonist. Aim The study aimed to evaluate the role played by a possible P-glycoprotein antagonist (silymarin), when added to a product containing Berberis aristata extract, in terms of benefits to patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study enrolled 69 patients with type 2 diabetes in suboptimal glycemic control who were treated with diet, hypoglycemic drugs, and in cases of concomitant alterations of the lipid profile, hypolipidemic agents. The patients received an add-on therapy consisting of either a standardized extract of Berberis aristata (titrated in 85% berberine) corresponding to 1,000 mg/day of berberine, or Berberol®, a fixed combination containing the same standardized extract of Berberis aristata plus a standardized extract of Silybum marianum (titrated as >60% in silymarin), for a total intake of 1,000 mg/day of berberine and 210 mg/day of silymarin. Results Both treatments similarly improved fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, and liver enzyme levels, whereas glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values were reduced to a greater extent by the fixed combination. Conclusion The association of berberine and silymarin demonstrated to be more effective than berberine alone in reducing HbA1c, when administered at the same dose and in the form of standardized extracts in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:24277991

  12. Optimization, characterization, and biological activity of polysaccharides from Berberis dasystachya Maxim.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijuan; Suo, Yourui; Yang, Yongjing; Meng, Jing; Hu, Na

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the extraction of water-soluble polysaccharides (BDPs) from Berberis dasystachya Maxim using dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) was discussed. A Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology has been employed to optimize extraction parameters of DMAE. The BDPs have been analyzed in order to identify a variety of chemical properties. Antioxidant and anti-tumor activities in vitro have been studied by DPPH, ABTS, reducing power assay, and MTT assay, respectively. The results obtained showed that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ratio of water to raw material (X1) 25.84mg/L, extraction power (X2) 433.13W, extraction time (X3) 35.18min, and the maximum yield of extraction was 6.472±0.384%, which was in good agreement with the predicted value. The physicochemical tests demonstrated that the BDPs mainly consist of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and lactose in a molar ratio of 1:17.3:1.33:7:2.33:1.78; the average molecular weight of the BDPs was estimated to be from 2.95×10(5) and 1.52×10(3)Da, respectively. Furthermore, the BDPs exhibited effective antioxidant and anti-proliferative properties in vitro. Such pharmaceutical activities could prove useful for potential future applications involving the berries of B. dasystachya Maxim. PMID:26484601

  13. Voltammetric determination of antioxidant character in Berberis lycium Royel, Zanthoxylum armatum and Morus nigra Linn plants.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Safeer; Shakeel, Faria

    2012-07-01

    The antioxidant activity potential of three different plant extracts was investigated against superoxide anion radical while employing cyclic voltammetry technique. The plants Berberis lyceum Royle, Morus nigra Linn and Zanthoxylum armatum were selected because of their potential use in the traditional medicine. The voltammetric response of the electrochemically generated superoxide anion radial in DMSO was monitored in the absence and presence of the plat extracts. The decrease in the current was interpreted in terms of antiradical activity of the added extract. The thermodynamic feasibility of the radical scavenging by extracts was accounted in terms of antioxidant activity coefficient (K(ao)) and standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG(o)). The values of K(ao) and ΔG(o) ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 57 x 102 L(-1) and -18 to -27 kJmol(-1), respectively. The possible mechanism of the antioxidant reaction was regarded as E(r)C(i) mechanism i.e. reversible electron transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer- an irreversible chemical reaction. PMID:22713934

  14. 1-methyl malate from Berberis integerrima fruits enhances the antibacterial activity of ampicillin against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Alimirzaee, P; Gohari, A R; Hajiaghaee, R; Mirzaee, S; Jamalifar, H; Monsef-Esfahani, H R; Amin, Gh; Saeidnia, S; Shahverdi, A R

    2009-06-01

    The enhancement of the antibacterial activity of ampicillin by different extracts of Berberis integerrima fruits was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus. Disk diffusion and agar dilution methods were used to determine the antibacterial activity of ampicillin in the absence and presence of different plant extracts or various fractions eluted by column chromatography. A clinical isolate of S. aureus was used as a test strain. The active component of B. integerrima fruits involved in the enhancement of ampicillin activity was purified and identified as 1-methyl malate using different spectroscopic methods. Both the ethanol extract of B. integerrima fruits and 1-methyl malate enhanced the antibacterial activity of ampicillin. The total extract as well as 1-methyl malate increased the antibacterial activity of ampicillin against the test strain. The potency of ampicillin against the test strain was increased 64-fold when tested with a sub-toxic concentration of total extract of B. integerrima fruits. Also, 1-methyl malate increased the bactericidal activity of ampicillin. In the presence of 2 mg/mL of 1-methyl malate the MIC of ampicillin for S. aureus decreased from 128 to 1 microg/mL (128-fold). PMID:19172582

  15. Amplicon pyrosequencing reveals the soil microbial diversity associated with invasive Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC.).

    PubMed

    Coats, V C; Pelletreau, K N; Rumpho, M E

    2014-03-01

    The soil microbial community acts as a reservoir of microbes that directly influences the structure and composition of the aboveground plant community, promotes plant growth, increases stress tolerance and mediates local patterns of nutrient cycling. Direct interactions between plants and rhizosphere-dwelling microorganisms occur at, or near, the surface of the root. Upon introduction and establishment, invasive plants modify the soil microbial communities and soil biochemistry affecting bioremediation efforts and future plant communities. Here, we used tag-encoded FLX amplicon 454 pyrosequencing (TEFAP) to characterize the bacterial and fungal community diversity in the rhizosphere of Berberis thunbergii DC. (Japanese barberry) from invasive stands in coastal Maine to investigate effects of soil type, soil chemistry and surrounding plant cover on the soil microbial community structure. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were the dominant bacterial phyla, whereas fungal communities were comprised mostly of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla members, including Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes. Bulk soil chemistry had more effect on the bacterial community structure than the fungal community. An effect of geographic location was apparent in the rhizosphere microbial communities, yet it was less significant than the effect of surrounding plant cover. These data demonstrate a high degree of spatial variation in the rhizosphere microbial communities of Japanese barberry with apparent effects of soil chemistry, location and canopy cover on the microbial community structure. PMID:24118303

  16. A quick overview on some aspects of endocrinological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Ali; Changizi-Ashtiyani, Saeed; Taheri, Soheila; Ramezani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Many herbaceous plants contain compounds that have biological effects in addition to their medicinal properties. They have compounds with numerous properties, including hypo lipidemic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and hepato protective ones, which have been analyzed at different levels. One of these plants, with the scientific name of Berberis vulgaris, is barberry. The most important compounds identified in this plant are berberine, oxycontin, palmatine, bervulcine, berbamine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, and berbamine. In addition to alkaloids, organic acids such as chelidonic acid, citric acid, malic acid, resin, tannin, pectinic, and mucilagic substances are among the ingredients of barberry. In this paper, it was attempted to determine the role and effect of the extract of barberry on various body organs. The results showed that berberine actually increases insulin sensitivity and is capable of inhibiting alpha glucosidase, adipogenesis, and thus acts as an anti-obesity and hypoglycemic agent. Berberine reduces the density of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and can improve the function of liver enzymes, therefore, it can be suggested as a hypo lipidemic and hepato protective plant extract. The hepato protective effects of this extract are probably due to its antioxidant properties. Studies showed that barberry have numerous health benefits, including anti-inflammatory ones. Moreover, it can be used as a medicinal herb to treat a variety of disorders, such as diabetes, liver disease, gallbladder pain, digestive, urinary tract diseases, and gallstones. However, more studies on this issue and doing more focused and intensive researches in this field are recommended. PMID:26693406

  17. Habitat-dependent variations in berberine content of Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex. DC. in Kumaon, Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Andola, Harish Chandra; Gaira, Kailash Singh; Rawal, Ranbeer Singh; Rawat, Mohan Singh Muniyari; Bhatt, Indra Dutt

    2010-02-01

    The variation of the berberine content in roots and stem bark of Berberis asiatica with altitude and edaphic conditions in the western Himalaya was estimated by HPLC. The comparative assessment revealed a significantly higher berberine content in roots than in stem barks. Moreover, the berberine content varied significantly with altitude and edaphic conditions both in root and stem bark samples. The populations growing at low altitude contained significantly more berberine than the ones growing at high altitude. Also the moisture and potassium (K) percentage of the soil significantly influenced the berberine content. PMID:20151388

  18. Sexual structures and recombination of the wheat rust fungus Puccinia striiformis on Berberis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Algaba, Julian; Walter, Stephanie; Sørensen, Chris K; Hovmøller, Mogens S; Justesen, Annemarie F

    2014-09-01

    An isolate of the basidiomycete Puccinia striiformis, which causes yellow (stripe) rust on wheat, was selfed on the newly discovered alternate host, Berberis vulgaris. This allowed a study of the segregation of molecular markers and virulence in the progeny isolates, and of the development of fungal sexual structures and spore forms. Pycnia and aecia were obtained after inoculation of B. vulgaris with basidiospores resulting from germinating teliospores from infected wheat leaves. Subsequent inoculation of wheat with aeciospores from bulked aecia resulted in 16 progeny isolates of the S1 generation. Genotyping with 42 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers confirmed a parental origin of progeny isolates. Of the 42 analyzed loci, 15 were heterozygous in the parental isolate and 14 revealed segregation in the progenies. This resulted in 11 new multilocus genotypes (MLGs), which confirmed segregation following sexual reproduction. Additionally, parental and progeny isolates were phenotyped using a genetic stock of wheat genotypes representing 21 resistance genes. All S1 progeny isolates had virulence for 14 out of 15 loci where the parental isolate was virulent. This was consistent with the hypothesis that virulence in plant pathogens is often recessive to avirulence, i.e., only expressed in a homozygous state. Furthermore, no segregation was observed for five out of six loci, for which the parental isolate had an avirulent phenotype. The results for one of the two segregating virulence/avirulence loci suggested that the parental isolate was heterozygous with Avr alleles resulting in different but clearly avirulent phenotypes. The other locus indicated that additional genes modifying the phenotypic expression of avirulence were involved. PMID:25042987

  19. Hypoglycaemic effect of Berberis vulgaris L. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Meliani, Nawel; Dib, Mohamed El Amine; Allali, Hocine; Tabti, Boufeldja

    2011-01-01

    Objective To achieve a primary pharmacological screening contained in the aqueous extract of Berberis vulgaris (B. vulgaris) and to examine the hypoglycaemic effect and biochemical parameters of aqueous and saponins extract on groups of rats rendered diabetic by injection of streptozotocin. Methods The phytochemical tests to detect the presence of different compounds were based on the visual observation of color change or formation of precipitate after the addition of specific reagents. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 65 mg/kg bw. The fasting blood glucose levels were estimated by glucose oxidase-peroxidase reactive strips (Dextrostix, Bayer Diagnostics). Blood samples were taken by cutting the tip of the tail. Serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides were estimated by enzymatic DHBS colorimetric method. Results Administration of 62.5 and 25.0 mg/kg of saponins and aqueous extract respectively in normal rats group shows a significant hypoglycemic activity (32.33% and 40.17% respectively) during the first week. However, diabetic group treated with saponin extract produced a maximum fall of 73.1% and 76.03% at day 1 and day 21 compared to the diabetics control. Also, blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract showed decrease of 78.79% on the first day and the effect remains roughly constant during 3 week. Both extracts also declined significantly biochemical parameters (20.77%-49.00%). The control in the loss of body weight was observed in treated diabetic rats as compared to diabetic controls. Conclusions These results demonstrated significant antidiabetic effects and showed that serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were decreased, significantly, consequently this plant might be of value in diabetes treatment. PMID:23569815

  20. Lam6 Regulates the Extent of Contacts between Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz-Alon, Yael; Eisenberg-Bord, Michal; Shinder, Vera; Stiller, SebastianBerthold; Shimoni, Eyal; Wiedemann, Nils; Geiger, Tamar; Schuldiner, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Summary Communication between organelles is crucial for eukaryotic cells to function as one coherent unit. Animportant means of communication is through membrane contact sites, where two organelles come into close proximity allowing the transport of lipids and small solutes between them. Contact sites are dynamic in size and can change in response to environmental or cellular stimuli; however, how this is regulated has been unclear. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lam6 resides in several central contact sites: ERMES (ER/mitochondria encounter structure), vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch), and NVJ (nuclear vacuolar junction). Weshow that Lam6 is sufficient for expansion of contact sites under physiological conditions and necessary for coordination of contact site size. Given that Lam6 is part of a large protein family and is conserved in vertebrates, our work opens avenues for investigating the underlying principles of organelle communication. PMID:26119743

  1. Legitimate seed dispersal by lizards in an alpine habitat: The case of Berberis empetrifolia (Berberidaceae) dispersed by Liolaemus belii (Tropiduridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celedón-Neghme, Constanza; San Martin, Leonardo A.; Victoriano, Pedro F.; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

    2008-05-01

    In this study we determined the effect of seed passage through Liolaemus bellii lizard digestive tracts on germination of fleshy-fruited Andean shrub species Berberis empetrifolia (Berberidaceae), and evaluated the effect of this passage on seed coat characteristics. In addition, we assessed the spatial patterns of fecal deposition by lizards onto various microhabitats available in the Andean environments of central Chile. The germination rate and the final percentage of lizard-ingested B. empetrifolia seeds was greater than control seeds. Comparing photographs and seed coat histological cuts, we suggest that the cutine wax present on seed coats from lizard-ingested seeds was probably removed by abrasion inside the lizards' digestive tract. Sixty-two percent of the lizard's feces was deposited on bare soil near rocks commonly inhabited by lizards. However, this microhabitat represents only 29% of the available ground cover at the study site. By enhancing seed germination and depositing seeds onto potential safe sites for recruitment, the lizard Liolaemus bellii is acting, at least qualitatively, as an effective disperser of Berberis empetrifolia.

  2. Hepatoprotective Effects of Berberis vulgaris L. Extract/? Cyclodextrin on Carbon TetrachlorideInduced Acute Toxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hermenean, Anca; Popescu, Cristina; Ardelean, Aurel; Stan, Miruna; Hadaruga, Nicoleta; Mihali, Ciprian-Valentin; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the capacity of formulated Berberis vulgaris extract/?-cyclodextrin to protect liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Formulated and non-formulated extracts were given orally (50 mg/kg/day) to mice for 7 days and were then intra-peritoneally injected with 1.0 mL/kg CCl4 on the 8th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration, an increase in the levels of apartate-amino-transferase (AST), alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was found and a significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) levels could be detected. This was accompanied by extended centrilobular necrosis, steatosis, fibrosis and an altered ultrastructure of hepatocytes. Pre-treatment with formulated or non-formulated extract suppressed the increase in ALT, AST and MDA levels and restored the level of antioxidant enzymes at normal values. Histopathological and electron-microscopic examination showed milder liver damage in both pre-treated groups and the protective effect was more pronounced after the formulated extract was administered. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation induced by CCl4 was reduced in the group which received non-formulated extract and absent in the group which received formulated extract. Taken together, our results suggest that Berberis vulgaris/?-cyclodextrin treatment prevents hepatic injury induced by CCl4 and can be considered for further nutraceutical studies. PMID:22942749

  3. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Fruit Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Use of medicinal plants for attenuation of hyperglycemia and restoration of lipids disorder to normal level is clinically very important. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of Berberis integerrima Bge. fruit aqueous extract (BIFAE) on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetic rats. The STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated by fruit aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. at doses (250 and 500 mg/Kg bw) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/Kg bw) for 42 days by gavage. Blood glucose levels and body weights of rats were measured on weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6. Total lipid levels were determined in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats after administration of the BIFAE and glibenclamide for 42 days. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed a significant (P<0.001) increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) while body weight and high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterolan (HDL-C) were significantly(P<0.001) decreased compared to normal rats. Daily administration of BIFAE did not possess the hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic activity in STZ- diabetic rats during 6-week treatment period. Results indicate the usage of BIFAE in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes may need more investigation. PMID:25587320

  4. Optimization extraction conditions for improving phenolic content and antioxidant activity in Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Belwal, Tarun; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer Singh; Pande, Veena

    2016-09-15

    This study for the first time designed to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM). Solvent selection was done based on the preliminary experiments and a five-factors-three-level, Central Composite Design (CCD). Extraction temperature (X1), sample to solvent ratio (X3) and solvent concentration (X5) significantly affect response variables. The quadratic model well fitted for all the responses. Under optimal extraction conditions, the dried fruit sample mixed with 80% methanol having 3.0 pH in a ratio of 1:50 and the mixture was heated at 80°C for 30min; the measured parameters was found in accordance with the predicted values. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis at optimized condition reveals 6 phenolic compounds. The results suggest that optimization of the extraction conditions is critical for accurate quantification of phenolics and antioxidants in Berberis asiatica fruits, which may further be utilized for industrial extraction procedure. PMID:27080887

  5. Development of ITS sequence-based markers to distinguish Berberis aristata DC. from B. lycium Royle and B. asiatica Roxb.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Goraya, Gurinder Singh; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2011-07-01

    The stems of Berberis aristata DC. (Berberidaceae) are used in the South Asian traditional medicine as a key ingredient in formulations for eye care, skin diseases, jaundice, rheumatism and also in diabetes. B. lycium Royle and B. asiatica Roxb. are traded as equivalents of B. aristata. Conventional macro-morphology and microscopic examination does not aid in critically distinguishing the three species. DNA markers were developed by amplifying and sequencing the complete internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS2) from the genomic DNA, using universal primers. The markers developed are efficient and reliable in authenticating B. aristata, B. asiatica and B. lycium. These are useful as molecular pharmacognostic tool in quality control of raw drugs. PMID:22558531

  6. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2lam discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (540-965nm) was obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  7. TSC2 epigenetic defect in primary LAM cells. Evidence of an anchorage-independent survival.

    PubMed

    Lesma, Elena; Ancona, Silvia; Sirchia, Silvia M; Orpianesi, Emanuela; Grande, Vera; Colapietro, Patrizia; Chiaramonte, Eloisa; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) can be sporadic or associated with TSC and is characterized by widespread pulmonary proliferation of abnormal ?-smooth muscle (ASM)-like cells. We investigated the features of ASM cells isolated from chylous thorax of a patient affected by LAM associated with TSC, named LAM/TSC cells, bearing a germline TSC2 mutation and an epigenetic defect causing the absence of tuberin. Proliferation of LAM/TSC cells is epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent and blockade of EGF receptor causes cell death as we previously showed in cells lacking tuberin. LAM/TSC cells spontaneously detach probably for the inactivation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Akt/mTOR pathway and display the ability to survive independently from adhesion. Non-adherent LAM/TSC cells show an extremely low proliferation rate consistent with tumour stem-cell characteristics. Moreover, LAM/TSC cells bear characteristics of stemness and secrete high amount of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Anti-EGF receptor antibodies and rapamycin affect proliferation and viability of non-adherent cells. In conclusion, the understanding of LAM/TSC cell features is important in the assessment of cell invasiveness in LAM and TSC and should provide a useful model to test therapeutic approaches aimed at controlling their migratory ability. PMID:24606538

  8. TSC2 epigenetic defect in primary LAM cells. Evidence of an anchorage-independent survival

    PubMed Central

    Lesma, Elena; Ancona, Silvia; Sirchia, Silvia M; Orpianesi, Emanuela; Grande, Vera; Colapietro, Patrizia; Chiaramonte, Eloisa; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) can be sporadic or associated with TSC and is characterized by widespread pulmonary proliferation of abnormal α-smooth muscle (ASM)-like cells. We investigated the features of ASM cells isolated from chylous thorax of a patient affected by LAM associated with TSC, named LAM/TSC cells, bearing a germline TSC2 mutation and an epigenetic defect causing the absence of tuberin. Proliferation of LAM/TSC cells is epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent and blockade of EGF receptor causes cell death as we previously showed in cells lacking tuberin. LAM/TSC cells spontaneously detach probably for the inactivation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Akt/mTOR pathway and display the ability to survive independently from adhesion. Non-adherent LAM/TSC cells show an extremely low proliferation rate consistent with tumour stem-cell characteristics. Moreover, LAM/TSC cells bear characteristics of stemness and secrete high amount of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Anti-EGF receptor antibodies and rapamycin affect proliferation and viability of non-adherent cells. In conclusion, the understanding of LAM/TSC cell features is important in the assessment of cell invasiveness in LAM and TSC and should provide a useful model to test therapeutic approaches aimed at controlling their migratory ability. PMID:24606538

  9. Transcending Silence: The Limitations of the Theme of Betrayal in the Novels of George Lamming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Harrell, Elizabeth

    1986-01-01

    This critical study of West Indian novelist George Lamming's work finds a preoccupation in his earlier works with British colonizers' betrayal of the West Indian people and its appearance as a father-son relationship. Lamming's latest work creates a less limited West Indian identity in the context of pre-colonial cultural history. (DMM)

  10. High-sensitivity detection of newly induced LamB protein on the Escherichia coli cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Vos-Scheperkeuter, G H; Hofnung, M; Witholt, B

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of the appearance at the cell surface of the outer membrane LamB protein after induction were determined by using specific antibodies and radioiodinated protein A as a probe. This was done in two different induction systems. First, LamB protein was induced in a wild-type strain by the simultaneous addition of cyclic AMP and maltose. Second, an operon fusion strain in which the lamB gene is expressed under lac promoter control was used; in this system, LamB protein can be induced by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. When uninduced cells were grown in glucose minimal medium, background expression of the lamB gene was found to be ca. 10-fold lower in lac-lamB cells than in wild-type cells. The level of LamB protein present in uninduced wild-type cells could, however, be reduced by supplementing the growth medium with Casamino Acids. After induction, the LamB protein appeared at the cell surface of both strains within a few minutes, and then the LamB level per cell increased linearly. The time lag in cell surface exposure of LamB protein differed slightly under both induction conditions: the LamB protein appeared at the surface of lac-lamB cells within 3 min of induction, whereas in wild-type cells it could not be detected earlier than after 4 to 5 min of induction. PMID:6204968

  11. Histopathological evaluation of gastro protective effect of Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk) seeds against aspirin induced ulcer in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Wafa; Aslam, Bilal; Javed, Ijaz; Khaliq, Tanweer; Muhammad, Faqir; Ali, Asghar; Raza, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antiulcer activity of Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk) seeds in albino mice. After acclimatization, animals were divided into six equal groups. Aspirin 150 mg/kg was used to induce gastric ulcer in all groups except normal control. Omeprazole 20mg/kg was used as synthetic anti ulcer drug in study. Three dose levels of B. vulgaris seed powder 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg were used respectively orally. Histopathological analysis was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of B. vulgaris seed powder. Results of the study showed that in case of aspirin treated mice gastric luminal mucosa villi were decreased in height or were absent. In the glandular region there was connective tissue proliferation and also infiltration of cells. Similar infiltration of cells was present on muscularis mucosa. In esophageal region tumor cells were present. However three dose levels of B. vulgaris significantly reduced the tissue proliferation, infiltration of cells and sloughing induced by aspirin. Highest dose of B. vulgaris (900 mg/kg) showed similar results as synthetic antiulcer drug omeprazole. PMID:26639472

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Alkaloid Fractions from Berberis microphylla G. Forst and Study of Synergism with Ampicillin and Cephalothin.

    PubMed

    Manosalva, Loreto; Mutis, Ana; Urzúa, Alejandro; Fajardo, Victor; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Berberis microphylla is a native plant that grows in Patagonia and is commonly used by aboriginal ethnic groups in traditional medicine as an antiseptic for different diseases. The present study evaluated the antibacterial and synergistic activity of alkaloid extracts of B. microphylla leaves, stems and roots used either individually or in combination with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root alkaloid extracts had significant activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. Disc diffusion tests demonstrated that the root extract showed similar activity against B. cereus and S. epidermidis compared to commercial antibiotics, namely ampicillin and cephalothin, and pure berberine, the principal component of the alkaloid extracts, was found to be active only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis with similar activity to that of the root extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the alkaloid extracts ranged from 333 to 83 μg/mL, whereas minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) varied from 717 to 167 μg/mL. In addition, synergistic or indifferent effects between the alkaloid extracts and antibiotics against bacterial strains were confirmed. PMID:26760994

  13. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  14. Berberis vulgaris root extract alleviates the adverse effects of heat stress via modulating hepatic nuclear transcription factors in quails.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Kazim; Orhan, Cemal; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Borawska, Maria H; Jabłonski, Jakub; Guler, Osman; Sahin, Nurhan; Hayirli, Armagan

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the action mode of Berberis vulgaris root extract in the alleviation of oxidative stress, female Japanese quails (n 180, aged 5 weeks) were reared, either at 22°C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or 34°C for 8 h/d (heat stress, HS), and fed one of three diets: diets containing 0, 100 or 200 mg of B. vulgaris root extract per kg for 12 weeks. Exposure to HS depressed feed intake by 8·5% and egg production by 12·1%, increased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level by 98·0% and decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities by 23·5, 35·4 and 55·7%, respectively (P<0·001 for all). There were also aggravations in expressions of hepatic NF-κB and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) by 42 and 43%, respectively and suppressions in expressions of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and haeme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) by 57 and 61%, respectively, in heat-stressed quails (P<0·001 for all). As supplemental B. vulgaris extract increased, there were linear increases in performance parameters, activities of antioxidant enzymes and hepatic Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions (P<0·001 for all) and linear decreases in hepatic MDA level and NF-κB and HSP70 expressions at a greater extent in quails reared under TN condition and those reared under HS condition. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of B. vulgaris root extract to quails reduces the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation resulting from HS via activating the host defence system at the cellular level. PMID:23312115

  15. Anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of Berberis aristata DC. in experimental models of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rohit; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar; Singh, Surender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Berberis aristata (Berberidaceae) is an important medicinal plant used in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disorders. The aim of the present study is to scientifically validate the traditional use of BA in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of BA hydroalcoholic extract (BAHE) were evaluated in experimental models, viz., carrageenan-induced paw edema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation, and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced stimulation of peritoneal macrophages in rats. Expression of inflammatory mediators, viz., tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, TNF-R1, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was carried out in serum and peritoneal macrophages to derive the plausible mechanism of BAHE in activated peritoneal macrophages. Results: Pretreatment with BAHE produced a dose-dependent reduction (P < 0.01) in carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. BAHE treatment produced significant (P < 0.01) reduction in serum inflammatory cytokine levels as compared to control. Protein expression of pro-inflammatory markers, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-R1, and COX-2, was found to be reduced in stimulated macrophages whereas anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, was upregulated in peritoneal macrophages. Conclusion: The result of the present study thus demonstrates the anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of BAHE which may be attributed to its inhibitory activity on macrophage-derived cytokine and mediators. PMID:27114638

  16. Protective effect of methanolic extract of Berberis integerrima Bunge. root on carbon tetrachloride-induced testicular injury in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Fereshteh; Nejati, Vahid; Heidari, Reza; Ashraf, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tissue protective effect of compounds with antioxidant properties has been demonstrated. The alkaloids found in barberry root are considered as antioxidants. Objective: According to barberry protective effects in different tissues, in this study, the protective effect of Berberis integerrima Bge. root )MEBIR) was evaluated against CCl4-induced testicular damages in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: 40 mature male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: 1: Normal control, 2: Sham: received CCl4 diluted in olive oil (50% v/v; 1ml/kg bw), intraperitoneally, twice a week for 4 weeks, 3 and 4: Sham rats treated with MEBIR (250 and 500 mg/kg bw) for 28 days, 5: Sham rats treated with silymarin (50 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. After 28 days, serum testosterone level, absolute testis weight, catalase activity, malondialdehyde level, and histological parameters were investigated. Results: In the treated rats with MEBIR (250 and 500 mg/kg bw) or silymarin (50 mg/kg bw), there was a significant increase in the absolute testis weight, testosterone level, seminiferous tubules diameter (p<0.001), thickness of the epithelium, tubule differentiation index) p<0.001), spermiogenesis index (p<0.001), the activity of catalase, and a significant decrease in interstitial tissue thickness (p<0.001) and malondialdehyde level in comparison with CCl4-treated group. The effect of the MEBIR at dose of 500 mg/kg bw is more than that of the standard drug, silymarin (50 mg/kg bw). Conclusion: From the results, it is suggested that the protective effects of MEBIR is possibly due to antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds. PMID:27200428

  17. Phytochemical Investigations on Chemical Constituents of Achillea tenuifolia Lam

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdol Majid

    2014-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a methanolic extract from which after fractionation in solvents with different polarities, two known flavones 3’, 5- dihydroxy- 4’, 6, 7- trimethoxy flavone (eupatorine, compound 3), 5- hydroxy- 3’,4’, 6, 7- tetramethoxyflavone (compound 4), besides stearic acid (compound 1), lupeol (compound 2), daucosterol (β- sitosterol 3-O- β- D- glucopyranoside, compound 5), 2, 4- dihydroxy methyl benzoate (compound 6) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by means of different spectroscopic methods such as UV, IR, Mass and 1H- NMR (1D and 2D) and 13C-NMR. For further confirming the structures of isolated compounds, comparison of the spectral data of them with those reported in the litratures have been done. PMID:25276207

  18. Combinatorial approach to Mathieu and Lamé equations

    SciTech Connect

    He, Wei

    2015-07-15

    Based on some recent progress on a relation between four dimensional super Yang-Mills gauge theory and quantum integrable system, we study the asymptotic spectrum of the quantum mechanical problems described by the Mathieu equation and the Lamé equation. The large momentum asymptotic expansion of the eigenvalue is related to the instanton partition function of supersymmetric gauge theories which can be evaluated by a combinatorial method. The electro-magnetic duality of gauge theory indicates that in the parameter space, there are three asymptotic expansions for the eigenvalue, and we confirm this fact by performing the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) analysis in each asymptotic expansion region. The results presented here give some new perspective on the Floquet theory about periodic differential equation.

  19. Overview of Sustainability Studies of CNC Machining and LAM of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamekye, Patricia; Leino, Maija; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM), known also as 3D printing, is a powder bed fusion (PBF) type of additive manufacturing (AM) technology used to fabricate metal parts out of metal powder. The development of the technology from building prototype parts to functional parts has increased remarkably in 2000s. LAM of metals is promising technology that offers new opportunities to manufacturing and to resource efficiency. However, there is only few published articles about its sustainability. Aim in this study was to create supply chain model of LAM and CNC machining and create a methodology to carry out a life cycle inventory (LCI) data collection for these techniques. The methodology of the study was literature review and scenario modeling. The acquisition of raw material, production phase and transportations were used as basis of comparison. The modelled scenarios were fictitious and created for industries, like aviation and healthcare that often require swift delivery as well as customized parts. The results of this study showed that the use of LAM offers a possibility to reduce downtime in supply chains of spare parts and reduce part inventory more effectively than CNC machining. Also the gap between customers and business is possible to be shortened with LAM thus offering a possibility to reduce emissions due to less transportation. The results also indicated weight reduction possibility with LAM due to optimized part geometry which allow lesser amount of metallic powder to be used in making parts.

  20. [Application of HATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with cluster analysis to identification of Cuscuta chinensis lam and its unofficial varieties].

    PubMed

    Hong, Qing-hong; Cheng, Ze-feng; Li, Qun-li

    2008-08-01

    Horizontal attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to identify Cuscuta chinensis lam. samples directly and their chemical differences were compared. In addition to FTIRS/cluster analysis, the kindredship between the different varieties of official and unofficial Cuscuta chinensis lam was studied. As shown by the results of cluster analysis, the four samples mentioned above were separated to three groups. The proposed method can be effectively applied to analyse the qualitify of Cuscuta chinensis lam. PMID:18975807

  1. Stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB, an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, K; Cheng, C H; Nikaido, H; Jap, B K

    1991-01-01

    We have directly measured the stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB. Scatchard plots and computer fitting of flow dialysis (rate-of-dialysis) experiments clearly establish three independent binding sites per LamB trimer, with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 microM for maltoheptaose. The current model for LamB's function as a specific pore is discussed with respect to the symmetry in LamB's kinetic properties and the implications of our results. Images PMID:2001992

  2. A novel Vibrio beta-glucosidase (LamN) that hydrolyzes the algal storage polysaccharide laminarin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Robertson, Kelly L; Liu, Charles; Liu, Jinny L; Johnson, Brandy J; Leary, Dagmar H; Compton, Jaimee R; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Legler, Patricia M; Vora, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    The metabolic versatility, tractability and rapid growth potential of the Vibrio spp. have made them increasingly attractive systems for investigating carbon cycling in the marine environment. In this study, an in silico subtractive proteomic strategy was used to identify a novel 101 kDa GH3 family β-glucosidase (LamN) that was found in bioluminescent Vibrio campbellii strains capable of utilizing the algal storage glucan laminarin. A heterologous overexpression system verified the sequence-predicted function of LamN as it enabled the growth of Escherichia coli on laminarin as a sole carbon source. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR analyses revealed that V. campbellii grown on laminarin demonstrated a 4- to 314-fold induction of lamN gene expression when compared to the same strains grown on glucose or glycerol. Corresponding tandem mass spectrometric analyses detected LamN protein expression only in cells grown on laminarin. Heterologous expression, purification and biochemical characterization identified LamN as a heat stable laminarinase with β-1,3, β-1,4 and β-1,6 glucosidase activity. Collectively, these data identify an enzyme that may allow V. campbellii to exploit some of the most abundant polysaccharides associated with deteriorating phytoplankton blooms and provide support for the potential involvement of V. campbellii in the formation of bioluminescent milky seas. PMID:26207048

  3. Estradiol and mTORC2 cooperate to enhance prostaglandin biosynthesis and tumorigenesis in TSC2-deficient LAM cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenggang; Lee, Po-Shun; Sun, Yang; Gu, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Erik; Guo, Yanan; Wu, Chin-Lee; Auricchio, Neil; Priolo, Carmen; Li, Jing; Csibi, Alfredo; Parkhitko, Andrey; Morrison, Tasha; Planaguma, Anna; Kazani, Shamsah; Israel, Elliot; Xu, Kai-Feng; Henske, Elizabeth Petri; Blenis, John; Levy, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive neoplastic disorder that leads to lung destruction and respiratory failure primarily in women. LAM is typically caused by tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) mutations resulting in mTORC1 activation in proliferative smooth musclelike cells in the lung. The female predominance of LAM suggests that estradiol contributes to disease development. Metabolomic profiling identified an estradiol-enhanced prostaglandin biosynthesis signature in Tsc2-deficient (TSC?) cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Estradiol increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, which was also increased at baseline in TSC-deficient cells and was not affected by rapamycin treatment. However, both Torin 1 treatment and Rictor knockdown led to reduced COX-2 expression and phospho-Akt-S473. Prostaglandin production was also increased in TSC-deficient cells. In preclinical models, both Celecoxib and aspirin reduced tumor development. LAM patients had significantly higher serum prostaglandin levels than healthy women. 15-epi-lipoxin-A4 was identified in exhaled breath condensate from LAM subjects and was increased by aspirin treatment, indicative of functional COX-2 expression in the LAM airway. In vitro, 15-epi-lipoxin-A4 reduced the proliferation of LAM patientderived cells in a dose-dependent manner. Targeting COX-2 and prostaglandin pathways may have therapeutic value in LAM and TSC-related diseases, and possibly in other conditions associated with mTOR hyperactivation. PMID:24395886

  4. 75 FR 29722 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 18--San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research... Research Corporation (Lam), located in Fremont, California. The application was submitted pursuant to the... Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230-0002, and in the ``Reading Room'' section of the Board's Web...

  5. A Sacrificial Lam: A Divided School Board, a Beleaguered Superintendent, and an Urgent Need to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossey, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This case describes the confrontational relationship between four trustees on the San Antonio School Board and the San Antonio School District's superintendent Diana Lam, a nationally recognized school reformer, who came to San Antonio in 1994. The case includes a dramatic board meeting where a closely divided board meets to buy out Lam's…

  6. Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer (LAMS) as a Standoff Analyzer in Space Missions for Airless Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; Pugel, D. E.; Corrigan, C. M.; Doty, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) based on a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer with adjustable drift length is proposed as a standoff elemental composition sensor for space missions to airless bodies. It is found that the use of a retarding potential analyzer in combination with a two-stage reflectron enables LAMS to be operated at variable drift length. For field-free drift lengths between 33 cm to 100 cm, at least unit mass resolution can be maintained solely by adjustment of internal voltages, and without resorting to drastic reductions in sensitivity. Therefore, LAMS should be able to be mounted on a robotic arm and analyze samples at standoff distances of up to several tens of cm, permitting high operational flexibility and wide area coverage of heterogeneous regolith on airless bodies.

  7. Complete genome sequence of strain Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens LAM0015(T) isolated from saline sediment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Li; Li, Yan-Bin; Ruan, Zhi-Yong; You, Yang; Wang, Lu-Shan; Qin, Han; Liu, Song; Shui, Zong-Xia; Wang, Yan-Wei; Tan, Fu-Rong; Wu, Bo; Dai, Li-Chun; Hu, Guo-Quan; Ma, Ke-Dong; He, Ming-Xiong

    2016-02-20

    The type strain Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens LAM0015(T) with considerably highly NaCl tolerance is a member of halophiles. Here we report its genome sequence, the first to publish complete genome sequence of the Lentibacillus genus. It contains 3,858,520bp with an average GC content of 42.12%, encoding multiple valuable proteins academically and industrially. The genome sequence of strain LAM0015(T) provides basic information for further elucidation of halophilic mechanism and wider exploitation of functional genes. PMID:26806488

  8. 78 FR 3319 - Amendments to Existing Validated End User Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ...., Room 424-2, Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Shanghai, China 200131. Lam Research Service Co., Ltd. (Beijing...., Room specially 424-2, Waigaoqiao designed Free Trade Zone, components and Shanghai, China accessories..., Export 12. Processing Zone, 78 FR [INSERT FR Wuxi, Jiangsu, PAGE NUMBER] 1/16/ China 214028.......

  9. Fatty acid, flavonol, and mineral composition variability among seven macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) verdc. accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horse gram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] seeds containing high concentrations of fatty acids, flavonols and minerals will provide government, public and private organizations with a nutritious and healthy food for use by malnourished and food deprived people worldwide. Seeds from seven horse...

  10. [Determination of ten metal elements in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam by microwave digestion-FAAS].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shu-Ge; Zhou, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Tun-Hai; Ding, Jian-Bing; Shan, Li-Juan; Shi, Yang

    2009-07-01

    Comprehensive utilization of traditional Uighur medicine has been increasingly emphasized, and the relationship between metal elements and traditional Uighur medicine has attracted great attention, so it is quite important to determine the contents of traditional Uighur medicine. The Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam powder was digested with HNO3 by microwave digestion before determination. Ten metal elements in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam were determined by FAAS. The work conditions, accuracy and precision of the method were studied. The linear correlations of standard curves are good (r = 0.999 0-0.999 8). The recovery (n = 6) is 95%-108%, and the RSD(n = 6) is 0.45%-1.53%. The results showed that there were comparatively rich metal elements, among which are comparatively high calcium, magnesium and potassium in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. The method offers traits of low detection limit, high sensitivity, speediness and exactness, and wasapplied to the determination of metal elements in samples with satisfactory results. It provided useful data for discussing the relationship between the content of the metal elements in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam and clinical application of the Uighur medicine. PMID:19798990

  11. Evaluating educational media using traditional folk songs ('lam') in Laos: a health message combined with oral tradition.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Itsuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Sapkota, Sabitri; Akkhavong, Kongsap

    2012-03-01

    In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), health education is clearly a core aspect of the health service and is vital in improving people's lives through good health. However, there are many obstacles to conducting effective health education. The development of effective educational media is one solution to these problems. In Laos, traditional folk songs (lam) are preserved as part of the local communication media, and recently this communication medium has been used for health education. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational media using lam. For this purpose, we conducted focus group discussions with 48 participants. The reactions of the participants towards a lam, developed for preventing HIV/AIDS, were analysed using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) method. The analysis showed there were eight areas of concern: (1) interest in a lam talking about HIV/AIDS; (2) knowledge and perception related to HIV infection routes; (3) expressing a willingness for preventing HIV/AIDS; (4) togetherness with people living with HIV/AIDS; (5) HIV/AIDS education for children; (6) improving educational methods; (7) characteristics and effectiveness of the lam and (8) song preferences. The reactions of the participants, such as gaining knowledge and expressing individual attitudes and community actions for preventing HIV/AIDS, were promoted by the characteristics and effectiveness of the lam such as oral tradition, artistry and cultural values. In particular, the oral tradition represented by lam is useful for the Lao people in memorizing and communicating information. PMID:22100506

  12. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies against mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), a surface antigen of BCG vaccine produced in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taghikhani, Mohammad; Moukhah, Rasul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG) vaccine is the only vaccine that is used against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its efficacy is limited in mycobacterium-endemic regions. One of the major antigens present on the cell envelope of the vaccine that suppresses the immune system is mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM). Materials and Methods: In this study, we immunized 4-week-old mice with sonicated BCG vaccine injected intraperitoneally two times at an interval of 2 weeks and with ManLAM antigen injected intravenously and then extracted the spleen cells of the immunized mice. They were fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells. Results: Five cell line clones producing antibody against ManLAM antigens were prepared and each clone was tested for immunoreactivity against sonicated BCG and purified ManLAM by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. The clones designated H13F33E11 and H23D91G4 reacted strongly with ManLAM. Immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) H13F33E11 and H23D91G4 showed that these MAbs bind to ManLAM with a molecular weight of 35 kDa. Conclusions: In this study, we produced a monoclonal antibody of immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) subclass. This MAb can be used for purification of ManLAM in culture media and detection of the antigen in patient's urine and for increasing the efficacy of BCG vaccine. PMID:26962517

  13. Laser-assisted Microdissection (LAM) as a Tool for Transcriptional Profiling of Individual Cell Types.

    PubMed

    Florez Rueda, Ana Marcela; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Schmidt, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of developmental processes at the molecular level requires insights into transcriptional regulation, and thus the transcriptome, at the level of individual cell types. While the methods described here are generally applicable to a wide range of species and cell types, our research focuses on plant reproduction. Plant cultivation and seed production is of crucial importance for human and animal nutrition. A detailed understanding of the regulatory networks that govern the formation of the reproductive lineage (germline) and ultimately of seeds is a precondition for the targeted manipulation of plant reproduction. In particular, the engineering of apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) into crop plants promises great improvements, as it leads to the formation of clonal seeds that are genetically identical to the mother plant. Consequently, the cell types of the female germline are of major importance for the understanding and engineering of apomixis. However, as the corresponding cells are deeply embedded within the floral tissues, they are very difficult to access for experimental analyses, including cell-type specific transcriptomics. To overcome this limitation, sections of individual cells can be isolated by laser-assisted microdissection (LAM). While LAM in combination with transcriptional profiling allows the identification of genes and pathways active in any cell type with high specificity, establishing a suitable protocol can be challenging. Specifically, the quality of RNA obtained after LAM can be compromised, especially when small, single cells are targeted. To circumvent this problem, we have established a workflow for LAM that reproducibly results in high RNA quality that is well suitable for transcriptomics, as exemplified here by the isolation of cells of the female germline in apomictic Boechera. In this protocol, procedures are described for tissue preparation and LAM, also with regard to RNA extraction and quality control. PMID:27213843

  14. On the neural network calculation of the Lamé coefficients through eigenvalues of the elasticity operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossandón, Sebastián; Reyes, Camilo

    2016-02-01

    A new numerical method is presented with the purpose to calculate the Lamé coefficients, associated with an elastic material, through eigenvalues of the elasticity operator. The finite element method is used to solve repeatedly, using different Lamé coefficients values, the direct problem by training a direct radial basis neural network. A map of eigenvalues, as a function of the Lamé constants, is then obtained. This relationship is later inverted and refined by training an inverse radial basis neural network, allowing calculation of mentioned coefficients. A numerical example is presented to prove the effectiveness of this novel method.

  15. A PROSPECTIVE PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW OF MEDICINAL HERBS, CUCUMIS MELO AND BERBERIS VULGARIS, COMMONLY USED IN THE TREATMENT OF RENAL DISEASES IN PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Naveed; Khan, Salimullah; Khan, Abad; Ahmad, Waqar; Shah, Yasar; Ahmad, Lateef; Ullah, Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    The kidneys are important organs which have many functions in the body, including the production of hormones, absorbtion of minerals and the filtration of blood, producing urine. Their failure can be fatal, therefore, to focus the study of such herbs which may be useful in treating renal disease is the need of hour. In Pakistan, Cucumis melo and Berberis vulgaris has been commonly used for renal problems. In both of these plants were found flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenes, which may stand for their renal protective properties. Their reported vitamin E contents and antioxidant potentials also provide a base for their defensive mechanism, may be due to their free radical scavenging properties. Further, their diuretic and urinary tract anti-ulcer properties also support their traditional use in renal diseases. Their anti-histaminic and anti-cholinergic properties also provide symptomatic treatment by decreasing prostaglandin level and due to antispasmodic properties. Concluding, both of these plants can be used for renal problems, especially Cucumis melo, which have both the nutritive and medicinal properties. Therefore, the renal disease patients are advised to take much of this particular fruit, especially their seeds to make their kidneys healthy. PMID:26647620

  16. Heterologous expression of two FAD-dependent oxidases with (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase activity from Arge mone mexicana and Berberis wilsoniae in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Gesell, Andreas; Chávez, Maria Luisa Díaz; Kramell, Robert; Piotrowski, Markus; Macheroux, Peter; Kutchan, Toni M

    2011-06-01

    Berberine, palmatine and dehydrocoreximine are end products of protoberberine biosynthesis. These quaternary protoberberines are elicitor inducible and, like other phytoalexins, are highly oxidized. The oxidative potential of these compounds is derived from a diverse array of biosynthetic steps involving hydroxylation, intra-molecular C-C coupling, methylenedioxy bridge formation and a dehydrogenation reaction as the final step in the biosynthesis. For the berberine biosynthetic pathway, the identification of the dehydrogenase gene is the last remaining uncharacterized step in the elucidation of the biosynthesis at the gene level. An enzyme able to catalyze these reactions, (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase (STOX, EC 1.3.3.8), was originally purified in the 1980s from suspension cells of Berberis wilsoniae and identified as a flavoprotein (Amann et al. 1984). We report enzymatic activity from recombinant STOX expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells. The coding sequence was derived successively from peptide sequences of purified STOX protein. Furthermore, a recombinant oxidase with protoberberine dehydrogenase activity was obtained from a cDNA library of Argemone mexicana, a traditional medicinal plant that contains protoberberine alkaloids. The relationship of the two enzymes is discussed regarding their enzymatic activity, phylogeny and the alkaloid occurrence in the plants. Potential substrate binding and STOX-specific amino acid residues were identified based on sequence analysis and homology modeling. PMID:21327819

  17. Clonal expansion and seedling recruitment of Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa) in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests: comparisons with salal (Gaultheria shallon)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, D.; Tappeiner, J. C., II

    1997-01-01

    Seedling regeneration and morphology of Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa Pursh) and salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh) were studied in thinned and unthinned Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in the central Coast Range, Oregon. Above- and below-ground growth of both species were significantly and negatively correlated with stand density. Oregon grape appears to have less potential for vegetative spread than does salal. It produced two to three times fewer rhizome extensions, and rhizome extensions were only half as long as those of salal. Oregon grape seedlings were common in areas of moss ground cover among patches of the two species. Salal seedlings were restricted to decaying logs. Seedling densities of Oregon grape in thinned stands were more than six times those in unthinned stands. For Oregon grape, understory establishment is accomplished by seedling establishment and recruitment of new genets. In contrast, salal maintains itself in forest understories primarily through vegetative growth, since its seedling establishment is restricted mainly to decayed wood. Continual recruitment of new aerial stems or ramets enables Oregon grape to maintain a dense cover once it is established in the understory.

  18. In vitro and in vivo antimutagenic effects of DIG, a herbal preparation of Berberis vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa, against mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, C; Boyer, L; De Meo, M; Laurant, C; Elias, R; Ollivier, E

    2015-07-01

    DIG, a liquid herbal preparation made from a mixture of diluted mother tinctures of Berberis vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa, was assessed for its antimutagenic properties against mitomycin C. The micronucleus assay on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells was used to evaluate the in vitro anticlastogenic activity of DIG compared to those of separately diluted mother tinctures. The micronucleus assay was performed on mouse erythrocytes and the comet assay was performed on mouse liver, kidney, lung, brain and testicles to assess the protective effects of DIG (0.2 and 2 % at libitum) against an intraperitoneal injection of mitomycin C (1 mg Kg(-1)) in mice. DIG exerted a powerful anticlastogenic activity, under both pretreatment and simultaneous treatment conditions as assessed by the micronucleus assay in CHO-K1 cells. Its protective activity was greater than that observed for each mother tincture. DIG reduced micronuclei levels in mouse erythrocytes and suppressed >80 % of DNA strand breaks in the liver, kidney, lung, brain and testicles of mice exposed to mitomycin C. PMID:25666712

  19. A model of maltodextrin transport through the sugar-specific porin, LamB, based on deletion analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Klebba, P E; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    1994-01-01

    LamB facilitates the uptake of maltose and maltodextrins across the bacterial outer membrane and acts as a general porin for small molecules. Using directed deletion mutagenesis we removed several regions of the LamB polypeptide and identified a polypeptide loop that both constricts the maltoporin channel and binds maltodextrins. In conjunction with a second sugar binding site that we identified at the rim of the channel, these data clarify, for the first time, the mechanism of transport through a substrate-specific porin. Furthermore, unlike the transverse loops of general porins, which originate from a central location in their primary structure, the loop that regulates LamB permeability originates from a C-terminal site. Thus LamB represents a second distinct class of porins in the bacterial outer membrane that is differently organized and separately evolved from OmpF-type, general porins. Images PMID:7925308

  20. A model of maltodextrin transport through the sugar-specific porin, LamB, based on deletion analysis.

    PubMed

    Klebba, P E; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    1994-10-01

    LamB facilitates the uptake of maltose and maltodextrins across the bacterial outer membrane and acts as a general porin for small molecules. Using directed deletion mutagenesis we removed several regions of the LamB polypeptide and identified a polypeptide loop that both constricts the maltoporin channel and binds maltodextrins. In conjunction with a second sugar binding site that we identified at the rim of the channel, these data clarify, for the first time, the mechanism of transport through a substrate-specific porin. Furthermore, unlike the transverse loops of general porins, which originate from a central location in their primary structure, the loop that regulates LamB permeability originates from a C-terminal site. Thus LamB represents a second distinct class of porins in the bacterial outer membrane that is differently organized and separately evolved from OmpF-type, general porins. PMID:7925308

  1. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates) and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates) from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database), this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8%) strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains). By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321). Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family. PMID:26517715

  2. Rapid Urine LAM Testing Improves Diagnosis of Expectorated Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in an HIV-endemic Region.

    PubMed

    Drain, Paul K; Gounder, Lilishia; Sahid, Faieza; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine if urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) would improve diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We enrolled consecutive adults presenting with ≥2 TB-related symptoms, obtained one induced sputum sample for smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing (Determine(TM) TB LAM, Alere). We used culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as the gold standard, and compared accuracy with area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Among 90 participants, 82 of 88 tested (93%) were HIV-infected with a median CD4 168/mm(3) (IQR 89-256/mm(3)). Diagnostic sensitivities of urine LAM and sputum AFB were 42.1% (95% CI 29.1-55.9%) and 21.1% (95% CI 11.4-33.9%), and increased to 52.6% (95% CI 39.0-66.0%) when combined. Sensitivity of LAM increased significantly among participants with a lower Karnofsky Performance score, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and higher C-reactive protein. Combining LAM with AFB had an AUROC = 0.68 (95% CI 0.59-0.77), significantly better than AFB alone (AUROC=0.58; 95% CI 0.51-0.64). The combination of LAM and AFB was significantly better than AFB alone among patients with Karnofsky Performance score ≤90, hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL, albumin ≤25 g/L, C-reactive protein ≥25 mg/L, or CD4 <200/mm(3). Urine LAM testing may be most beneficial among patients with functional impairment, elevated inflammatory markers, or greater immunosuppression. PMID:26865526

  3. Rapid Urine LAM Testing Improves Diagnosis of Expectorated Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in an HIV-endemic Region

    PubMed Central

    Drain, Paul K.; Gounder, Lilishia; Sahid, Faieza; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine if urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) would improve diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We enrolled consecutive adults presenting with ≥2 TB-related symptoms, obtained one induced sputum sample for smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing (DetermineTM TB LAM, Alere). We used culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as the gold standard, and compared accuracy with area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Among 90 participants, 82 of 88 tested (93%) were HIV-infected with a median CD4 168/mm3 (IQR 89–256/mm3). Diagnostic sensitivities of urine LAM and sputum AFB were 42.1% (95% CI 29.1–55.9%) and 21.1% (95% CI 11.4–33.9%), and increased to 52.6% (95% CI 39.0–66.0%) when combined. Sensitivity of LAM increased significantly among participants with a lower Karnofsky Performance score, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and higher C-reactive protein. Combining LAM with AFB had an AUROC = 0.68 (95% CI 0.59–0.77), significantly better than AFB alone (AUROC=0.58; 95% CI 0.51–0.64). The combination of LAM and AFB was significantly better than AFB alone among patients with Karnofsky Performance score ≤90, hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL, albumin ≤25 g/L, C-reactive protein ≥25 mg/L, or CD4 <200/mm3. Urine LAM testing may be most beneficial among patients with functional impairment, elevated inflammatory markers, or greater immunosuppression. PMID:26865526

  4. Bionic lightweight design by laser additive manufacturing (LAM) for aircraft industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmelmann, Claus; Petersen, Maren; Kranz, Jannis; Wycisk, Eric

    2011-05-01

    Today many challenges lie ahead of the aircraft industry. The increasing competition and shortage of resources raise a challenge for future manufacturing technologies and lightweight design. A possibility to cope with these circumstances is the manufacturing technology of Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM). However there are still challenges to cope with due to the processes novelty, such as the development of further materials, especially lightweight alloys, and new design approaches. Therefore innovative approaches for material development and lightweight design were created in order to fully exploit the processes potentials. The material development process is based on an analytical calculation of temperature distribution versus effective process factors in order to identify acceptable operating conditions for the LAM process. A novel approach to extreme lightweight design was realized by incorporating structural optimization tools and bionic structures into one design process. By consequently following these design principles, designers can achieve lightweight savings in designing new aircraft structure and push lightweight design to new limits.

  5. Antisickling properties of divanilloylquinic acids isolated from Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Ouattara, B; Jansen, O; Angenot, L; Guissou, I P; Frédérich, M; Fondu, P; Tits, M

    2009-03-01

    Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (syn. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides) (Rutaceae) is the most cited Fagara species for the treatment and the prevention of sickle cell disease crisis. Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a public health problem in many countries particularly in Africa. The present study was designed to evaluate the antisickling properties of three isomeric divanilloylquinic acids (3,4-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin A; 3,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin B and 4,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin C) identified previously by LC/MS/NMR analysis in the root bark of F. zanthoxyloides [Ouattara et al., 2004. LC/MS/NMR analysis of isomeric divanilloylquinic acids from the root bark of Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. Phytochemistry 65, 1145-1151]. The three isomers showed interesting antisickling properties which increased from burkinabins A to C. PMID:19110407

  6. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

  7. A reconstructive surgeon's taste in art: Dr Peter Parker and the Lam Qua oil paintings.

    PubMed

    Chang, J

    1993-05-01

    Hidden within the basement archives of Yale University's Historical Medical Library lie the original oil painting collection and personal papers of the first American surgeon to practice in China. The Reverend Dr Peter Parker, a graduate of Yale, established the first American hospital in Guangzhou (formerly Canton) in 1835 and successfully introduced Western surgical techniques including amputation, anesthesia, and reconstructive surgery. In addition to this distinguished career of medical missionary service, Parker commissioned the Chinese artist Lam Qua to paint a fascinating series of portraits depicting patients with extreme tumor growths. In this article, Parker's own journals are examined to reveal both his missionary zeal and his frustrations working in China. Selected examples of the Lam Qua paintings are presented along with Parker's corresponding patient descriptions. These detailed patient reports give insight into the extent of surgical pathology as well as the relative brutality of surgical techniques in the early to mid-1800s. The historical significance of the Peter Parker-Lam Qua collaboration within the context of the Western transformation of Chinese art and medicine is also discussed. PMID:8342936

  8. Negative dominance in gene lamB: random assembly of secreted subunits issued from different polysomes.

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, C; Hofnung, M

    1983-01-01

    lamB is the structural gene for the lambda receptor, an oligomeric outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli K12 involved in phage lambda adsorption. We show that, under certain conditions, in a strain diploid for gene lamB, all the missense lamB mutations conferring lambda resistance that we have tested are dominant with respect to wild-type. We propose a model which allows a quantitative interpretation of the data. It is based on negative complementation at the level of oligomerisation. Wild-type and mutant subunits would assemble at random forming homo- and hetero-oligomers. Only wild-type homo-oligomers would be efficient for phage inactivation. For some classes of missense mutations the hetero-oligomers would have the capacity to bind, but not to inactivate the phage. The model confirms that active lambda receptor is a trimer and implies that for this secreted protein there is no preferential assembly of subunits originating from the same polysome. Images Fig. 2. PMID:11894914

  9. PREDICTING WATER ACTIVITY IN ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS WITH THE CISTERNAS-LAM MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    REYNOLDS JG; GREER DA; DISSELKAMP RL

    2011-03-01

    Water activity is an important parameter needed to predict the solubility of hydrated salts in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. A number of models available in the scientific literature predict water activity from electrolyte solution composition. The Cisternas-Lam model is one of those models and has several advantages for nuclear waste application. One advantage is that it has a single electrolyte specific parameter that is temperature independent. Thus, this parameter can be determined from very limited data and extrapolated widely. The Cisternas-Lam model has five coefficients that are used for all aqueous electrolytes. The present study aims to determine if there is a substantial improvement in making all six coefficients electrolyte specific. The Cisternas-Lam model was fit to data for six major electrolytes in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. The model was first fit to all data to determine the five global coefficients, when they were held constant for all electrolytes it yielded a substantially better fit. Subsequently, the model was fit to each electrolyte dataset separately, where all six coefficients were allowed to be electrolyte specific. Treating all six coefficients as electrolyte specific did not make sufficient difference, given the complexity of applying the electrolyte specific parameters to multi-solute systems. Revised water specific parameters, optimized to the electrolytes relevant to Hanford waste, are also reported.

  10. Differentially methylated obligatory epialleles modulate context-dependent LAM gene expression in the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Wedd, Laura; Kucharski, Robert; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    Differential intragenic methylation in social insects has been hailed as a prime mover of environmentally driven organismal plasticity and even as evidence for genomic imprinting. However, very little experimental work has been done to test these ideas and to prove the validity of such claims. Here we analyze in detail differentially methylated obligatory epialleles of a conserved gene encoding lysosomal α-mannosidase (AmLAM) in the honeybee. We combined genotyping of progenies derived from colonies founded by single drone inseminated queens, ultra-deep allele-specific bisulfite DNA sequencing, and gene expression to reveal how sequence variants, DNA methylation, and transcription interrelate. We show that both methylated and non-methylated states of AmLAM follow Mendelian inheritance patterns and are strongly influenced by polymorphic changes in DNA. Increased methylation of a given allele correlates with higher levels of context-dependent AmLAM expression and appears to affect the transcription of an antisense long noncoding RNA. No evidence of allelic imbalance or imprinting involved in this process has been found. Our data suggest that by generating alternate methylation states that affect gene expression, sequence variants provide organisms with a high level of epigenetic flexibility that can be used to select appropriate responses in various contexts. This study represents the first effort to integrate DNA sequence variants, gene expression, and methylation in a social insect to advance our understanding of their relationships in the context of causality. PMID:26507253

  11. Evaluation of the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Berberis vulgaris root on the activity of liver enzymes in male hypercholesterolemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Soheila; Zarei, Ali; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Rezaei, Azam; Zaheiri, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Hyperlipidemia can cause a variety of diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and fatty liver which is followed by increased liver enzymes. Since Berberis vulgaris (B. vulgaris) root possesses antioxidant properties, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of its extract on the activity of liver enzymes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sixty Wistar rats were selected and allocated to six groups of ten each. The control group received a normal diet and the sham group received a fatty diet while the other groups including experimental groups received a fatty diet and the alcoholic extract of B. vulgaris at minimum (75 mg/kg), moderate (150 mg/kg), and maximum (300 mg/kg) doses by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) or oral atorvastatin (10 mg /kg) with a fatty diet. At the end of this 21-day period, blood samples were drawn and the levels of the intended factors were measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.5. Results: The comparison of the obtained results showed that the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes in the sham group that only received fatty food increased (p≤0.05), whereas in the treatment groups receiving B. vulgaris extract as well as in the group receiving Atorvastatin, these enzymes significantly decreased; however, no significant changes were observed in aspartate transaminase (AST) levels. Conclusion: Noticing the antioxidant properties of B. vulgaris root extract and its effects on reducing the activity of liver enzymes, the extract of this plant can be a good choice for improving the function of liver. PMID:25050245

  12. Biosynthesis, characterization, and acute toxicity of Berberis tinctoria-fabricated silver nanoparticles against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the mosquito predators Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lo Iacono, Annalisa; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Aedes albopictus is an important arbovirus vector, including dengue. Currently, there is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized using a cheap leaf extract of Berberis tinctoria as reducing and stabilizing agent and tested against Ae. albopictus and two mosquito natural enemies. AgNPs were characterized by using UV–vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. In laboratory conditions, the toxicity of AgNPs was evaluated on larvae and pupae of Ae. albopictus. Suitability Index/Predator Safety Factor was assessed on Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides. The leaf extract of B. tinctoria was toxic against larval instars (I–IV) and pupae of Ae. albopictus; LC50 was 182.72 ppm (I instar), 230.99 ppm (II), 269.65 ppm (III), 321.75 ppm (IV), and 359.71 ppm (pupa). B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs were highly effective, with LC50 of 4.97 ppm (I instar), 5.97 ppm (II), 7.60 ppm (III), 9.65 ppm (IV), and 14.87 ppm (pupa). Both the leaf extract and AgNPs showed reduced toxicity against the mosquito natural enemies M. thermocyclopoides and T. splendens. Overall, this study firstly shed light on effectiveness of B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs as an eco-friendly nanopesticide, highlighting the concrete possibility to employ this newer and safer tool in arbovirus vector control programs. PMID:26499804

  13. Berberis libanotica extract targets NF-κB/COX-2, PI3K/Akt and mitochondrial/caspase signalling to induce human erythroleukemia cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Diab, Saada; Fidanzi, Chloe; Léger, David Y; Ghezali, Lamia; Millot, Marion; Martin, Frédérique; Azar, Rania; Esseily, Fadi; Saab, Antoine; Sol, Vincent; Diab-Assaf, Mona; Liagre, Bertrand

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and understand the relationship between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and apoptosis rate in erythroleukemia cells after apoptosis induction by Berberis libanotica (Bl) extract. To achieve this goal we used erythroleukemia cell lines expressing COX‑2 (HEL cell line) or not (K562 cell line). Moreover, we made use of COX‑2 cDNA to overexpress COX‑2 in K562 cells. In light of the reported chemopreventive and chemosensitive effects of natural products on various tumor cells and animal models, we postulated that our Bl extract may mediate their effects through apoptosis induction with suppression of cell survival pathways. Our study is the first report on the specific examination of intrinsic apoptosis and Akt/NF-κB/COX‑2 pathways in human erythroleukemia cells upon Bl extract exposure. Even if Bl extract induced apoptosis of three human erythroleukemia cell lines, a dominant effect of Bl extract treatment on K562 cells was observed resulting in activation of the late markers of apoptosis with caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Whereas, we showed that Bl extract reduced significantly expression of COX‑2 by a dose-dependent manner in HEL and K562 (COX‑2+) cells. Furthermore, in regard to our results, it is clear that the simultaneous inhibition of Akt and NF-κB signalling can significantly contribute to the anticancer effects of Bl extract in human erythroleukemia cells. We observed that the Bl extract is clearly more active than the berberine alone on the induction of DNA fragmentation in human erythro-leukemia cells. PMID:25997834

  14. Berberine and a Berberis lycium extract inactivate Cdc25A and induce alpha-tubulin acetylation that correlate with HL-60 cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Musa; Giessrigl, Benedikt; Vonach, Caroline; Madlener, Sibylle; Prinz, Sonja; Herbaceck, Irene; Hölzl, Christine; Bauer, Sabine; Viola, Katharina; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Quereshi, Rizwana Aleem; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Grusch, Michael; Kopp, Brigitte; Krupitza, Georg

    2010-01-01

    Berberis lycium Royle (Berberidacea) from Pakistan and its alkaloids berberine and palmatine have been reported to possess beneficial pharmacological properties. In the present study, the anti-neoplastic activities of different B. lycium root extracts and the major constituting alkaloids, berberine and palmatine were investigated in p53-deficient HL-60 cells. The strongest growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects were found in the n-butanol (BuOH) extract followed by the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-, and the water (H(2)O) extract. The chemical composition of the BuOH extract was analyzed by TLC and quantified by HPLC. 11.1 microg BuOH extract (that was gained from 1mg dried root) contained 2.0 microg berberine and 0.3 microg/ml palmatine. 1.2 microg/ml berberine inhibited cell proliferation significantly, while 0.5 microg/ml palmatine had no effect. Berberine and the BuOH extract caused accumulation of HL-60 cells in S-phase. This was preceded by a strong activation of Chk2, phosphorylation and degradation of Cdc25A, and the subsequent inactivation of Cdc2 (CDK1). Furthermore, berberine and the extract inhibited the expression of the proto-oncogene cyclin D1. Berberine and the BuOH extract induced the acetylation of alpha-tubulin and this correlated with the induction of apoptosis. The data demonstrate that berberine is a potent anti-neoplastic compound that acts via anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic mechanisms independent of genotoxicity. PMID:19909759

  15. Determination of color, pigment, and phenolic stability in yogurt systems colored with nonacylated anthocyanins from Berberis boliviana L. as compared to other natural/synthetic colorants.

    PubMed

    Wallace, T C; Giusti, M M

    2008-05-01

    Anthocyanins are of interest to the food industry because of their antioxidant power, attractive color, and stability in high acid foods. Powder from the Peruvian berry Berberis boliviana Lechler, rich in nonacylated anthocyanins (7% to 8% dry weight), was incorporated into yogurt samples containing 3 different fat levels. Color (CIE L, a, b, chroma, and hue angle), pigment (monomeric anthocyanin and polymeric color), and total phenolics were monitored over 8 wk of storage and compared to yogurt treatments containing purple carrot acylated anthocyanins, red beet betalaines, or FD&C Red nr 40. Anthocyanin profiles were analyzed by HPLC coupled to photodiode array and mass detectors. Color of yogurt containing B. boliviana anthocyanins at 20 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (cy-3-glu) equivalents/100 g yogurt (L*= 65, chroma = 14, and hue angle = 335 degrees ) was similar to commercial blueberry yogurt (L*= 65, chroma = 10.5, and hue angle = 341 degrees ). High color, pigment, and phenolic stability were observed in yogurts colored with B. boliviana, independent of the fat matrix. Acylated anthocyanins from purple carrot extracts exhibited increased stability with higher fat content. Anthocyanin degradation followed 1st-order kinetics. Pigment half-lives were 125 and 104 d for nonacylated anthocyanins at 10 and 20 mg cy-3-glu equivalents/100 g yogurt and 550.2, 232.6, and 128.9 d for acylated anthocyanins at 20 mg of cy-3-glu equivalents/100 g of 4%, 2%, and 0% fat yogurt. Addition of B. boliviana whole berry powder to yogurt matrices produced an attractive, stable anthocyanin-rich product, eliminating the need for industrial colorant extraction. PMID:18460117

  16. Preventive Effects of Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. Root on Liver Injury Induced by Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hossein; Zare, Samad

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assessthe preventive effect of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. root (AEBIR) on liver damage and oxidative stress induced by diabetes mellitus in rats. Forty male rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1- normal (N); 2- normal + barberry (N+B) (they received barberry root extract for 6 weeks); 3- diabetic (D) (they received Streptozotocin (STZ), 65 mg/Kg BW /i.p.); 4- diabetic +barberry before (D+Bb) (they received barberry root extract for 3 weeks before STZ injection and continued for another three weeks); and 5- diabetic + barberry after (D+Ba) (three days after STZ injection, they received barberry root extract for 3 weeks). The experimental groups received barberry root extract (500 mg/Kg bw) intra gastric by gavage for 6 weeks. The treatment of diabetic rats with AEBIR showed a significant decreases(p<0.001) in levels of blood glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin while body weight, total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase(CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) increased (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control rats. Consumption of AEBIR in group D+Bb caused significant improvement in all these factors, compared to the group D+Ba. Also in this study, for the first time, we demonstrated that administration of AEBIR before diabetes induction resulted in enhanced amelioration of liver complications compared to the group receiving it after induction, indicating that AEBIR can play a preventive role in such patients. PMID:25561940

  17. Virulence and Simple Sequence Repeat Marker Segregation in a Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Population Produced by Selfing a Chinese Isolate on Berberis shensiana.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Zhan, Gangming; Chen, Xianming; Tungruentragoon, Angkana; Lu, Xia; Zhao, Jie; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2016-02-01

    Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stripe rust, frequently produces new races overcoming resistance in wheat cultivars. A recently identified race, V26 with virulence to Yr26 and many other stripe rust resistance genes, has a high potential to cause epidemics in China. In this study, teliospores from a single-urediniospore isolate of V26 (Pinglan 17-7) produced on the wheat line 92R137 (Yr26) were used to produce a sexual population through selfing by infecting Berberis shensiana plants under controlled conditions. One hundred and eighteen progeny isolates and the parental isolate were phenotyped for virulence/avirulence on 24 Yr gene lines of wheat. These progeny isolates were all avirulent to Yr5, Yr8, Yr15, and YrTr1 and virulent to Yr1, Yr2, Yr7, Yr9, Yr10, Yr17, Yr24, Yr25, Yr26, YrA, YrExp2, and YrV23, indicating that the parental isolate is homozygous avirulent or homozygous virulent at these loci. The progeny population segregated for avirulence to Yr6, Yr43, and YrSP at one locus (3 avirulent:1 virulent ratio); for virulence to Yr27 and Yr28 at one locus (3 virulent:1 avirulent); and for Yr4, Yr32, and Yr44 at two loci (15 virulent:1 avirulent). Among the eight segregating avirulence/virulence loci, association was found between virulence to Yr4 and Yr32, as well as between virulence to Yr6 and Yr43 based on ?(2) tests. From 82 genotypically different progeny isolates, 24 pathotypes and 82 multilocus genotypes were identified. The results show that a highly diverse population can be produced from a single isolate by selfing on a barberry plant and sexually produced population can be used to genetically characterize virulence of the stripe rust pathogen. PMID:26551448

  18. Anthelmintic effects of Salix babylonica L. and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. extracts in growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Pablo Mejia; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas; Camacho, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Twenty Katahdin × Pelibuey crossbreed male lambs, 3 to 4 months of age and 24 ± 0.3 kg of body weight, were used to study the anthelmintic effects of administering extracts of Salix babylonica L. (SB) and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (LL). Lambs had not been treated with anthelmintics previously and were randomly allocated into four groups of five lambs each in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: control (lambs fed on total mixed ration without extracts), SB (as control plus S. babylonica L. extract at 30 ml/day), LL (as control plus L. leucocephala Lam. extract at 30 ml/day), and SBLL (as control plus 30 ml/day of S. babylonica L. and L. leucocephala Lam. extracts in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture) for 63 days. Extracts were orally administered before the 8:00 a.m. feeding to each lamb. Rectal fecal samples were collected from each lamb at day 22 (P1), day 43 (P2), and day 63 (P3) of the experiment. Adult worm and egg counts were determined in each fecal sample immediately after collection. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins, and the aqueous fraction were 50 % lower in the SB versus LL extracts. Overall, the oral administration of extracts has improved the egg and worm count reductions in lamb feces by 54, 47, and 40 % for LL, SB, and SBLL, respectively, versus the control lambs. Reductions of worm egg counts in lamb feces were higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 versus P1. Extracts of SB and LL or possibly isolated bioactive compounds could be a promising alternative to conventional anthelmintics to treat gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. Such treatments could be used in control strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional production systems. PMID:24077919

  19. A Job Pause Service under LAM/MPI+BLCR for Transparent Fault Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Mueller, Frank; Engelmann, Christian; Scott, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Checkpoint/restart (C/R) has become a requirement for long-running jobs in large-scale clusters due to a meantime- to-failure (MTTF) in the order of hours. After a failure, C/R mechanisms generally require a complete restart of an MPI job from the last checkpoint. A complete restart, however, is unnecessary since all but one node are typically still alive. Furthermore, a restart may result in lengthy job requeuing even though the original job had not exceeded its time quantum. In this paper, we overcome these shortcomings. Instead of job restart, we have developed a transparent mechanism for job pause within LAM/MPI+BLCR. This mechanism allows live nodes to remain active and roll back to the last checkpoint while failed nodes are dynamically replaced by spares before resuming from the last checkpoint. Our methodology includes LAM/MPI enhancements in support of scalable group communicationwith fluctuating number of nodes, reuse of network connections, transparent coordinated checkpoint scheduling and a BLCR enhancement for job pause. Experiments in a cluster with the NAS Parallel Benchmark suite show that our overhead for job pause is comparable to that of a complete job restart. A minimal overhead of 5.6% is only incurred in case migration takes place while the regular checkpoint overhead remains unchanged. Yet, our approach alleviates the need to reboot the LAM run-time environment, which accounts for considerable overhead resulting in net savings of our scheme in the experiments. Our solution further provides full transparency and automation with the additional benefit of reusing existing resources. Executing continues after failures within the scheduled job, i.e., the application staging overhead is not incurred again in contrast to a restart. Our scheme offers additional potential for savings through incremental checkpointing and proactive diskless live migration, which we are currently working on.

  20. Purification and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Junchen; Liu, Yuan; An, Tianchen; Liu, Yujun; Wang, Manchuriga; Song, Yanting; Zheng, Feifei; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yingxia; Deng, Shiming

    2015-05-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor against trypsin was isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. by successive ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, and gel-filtration chromatography. The trypsin inhibitor, named as AHLTI (A. heterophyllus Lam. trypsin inhibitor), consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 28.5 kDa, which was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel-filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of AHLTI was DEPPSELDAS, which showed no similarity to other known trypsin inhibitor sequence. AHLTI completely inhibited bovine trypsin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (AHLTI:trypsin) analyzed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, inhibition activity assay, and gel-filtration chromatography. Moreover, kinetic enzymatic studies were carried out to understand the inhibition mechanism of AHLTI against trypsin. Results showed that AHLTI was a competitive inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) of 3.7 × 10(-8) M. However, AHLTI showed weak inhibitory activity toward chymotrypsin and elastase. AHLTI was stable over a broad range of pH 4-8 and temperature 20-80°C. The reduction agent, dithiothreitol, had no obvious effect on AHLTI. The trypsin inhibition assays of AHLTI toward digestive enzymes from insect pest guts in vitro demonstrated that AHLTI was effective against enzymes from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). These results suggested that AHLTI might be a novel trypsin inhibitor from A. heterophyllus Lam. belonging to Kunitz family, and play an important role in protecting from insect pest. PMID:25851516

  1. Topology of the membrane protein LamB by epitope tagging and a comparison with the X-ray model.

    PubMed Central

    Newton, S M; Klebba, P E; Michel, V; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    1996-01-01

    We previously developed a genetic approach to study, with a single antibody, the topology of the outer membrane protein LamB, an Escherichia coli porin with specificity towards maltodextrins and a receptor for bacteriophage lambda. Our initial procedure consisted of inserting at random the same reporter epitope (the C3 neutralization epitope from poliovirus) into permissive sites of LamB (i.e., sites which tolerate insertions without deleterious effects on the protein activities or the cell). A specific monoclonal antibody was then used to examine the position of the inserted epitope with respect to the protein and the membrane. In the present work, we set up a site-directed procedure to insert the C3 epitope at new sites in order to distinguish between two-dimensional folding models. This allowed us to identify two new surface loops of LamB and to predict another periplasmic exposed region. The results obtained by random and directed epitope tagging are analyzed in light of the recently published X-ray structure of the LamB protein. Study of 23 hybrid LamB-C3 proteins led to the direct identification of five of the nine external loops (L4, L5, L6, L7, and L9) and led to the prediction of four periplasmic loops (I1, I4, I5, and I8) of LamB. Nine of the hybrid proteins did not lead to topological conclusions, and none led to the wrong predictions or conclusions. The comparison indicates that parts of models based on secondary structure predictions alone are not reliable and points to the importance of experimental data in the establishment of outer membrane protein topological models. The advantages and limitations of genetic foreign epitope insertion for the study of integral membrane proteins are discussed. PMID:8655540

  2. Topology of the membrane protein LamB by epitope tagging and a comparison with the X-ray model.

    PubMed

    Newton, S M; Klebba, P E; Michel, V; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    1996-06-01

    We previously developed a genetic approach to study, with a single antibody, the topology of the outer membrane protein LamB, an Escherichia coli porin with specificity towards maltodextrins and a receptor for bacteriophage lambda. Our initial procedure consisted of inserting at random the same reporter epitope (the C3 neutralization epitope from poliovirus) into permissive sites of LamB (i.e., sites which tolerate insertions without deleterious effects on the protein activities or the cell). A specific monoclonal antibody was then used to examine the position of the inserted epitope with respect to the protein and the membrane. In the present work, we set up a site-directed procedure to insert the C3 epitope at new sites in order to distinguish between two-dimensional folding models. This allowed us to identify two new surface loops of LamB and to predict another periplasmic exposed region. The results obtained by random and directed epitope tagging are analyzed in light of the recently published X-ray structure of the LamB protein. Study of 23 hybrid LamB-C3 proteins led to the direct identification of five of the nine external loops (L4, L5, L6, L7, and L9) and led to the prediction of four periplasmic loops (I1, I4, I5, and I8) of LamB. Nine of the hybrid proteins did not lead to topological conclusions, and none led to the wrong predictions or conclusions. The comparison indicates that parts of models based on secondary structure predictions alone are not reliable and points to the importance of experimental data in the establishment of outer membrane protein topological models. The advantages and limitations of genetic foreign epitope insertion for the study of integral membrane proteins are discussed. PMID:8655540

  3. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. PMID:19854235

  4. Antineoplastic potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum lam. on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Afzal, Muhammad; Kazmi, Imran; Anwar, Firoz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. used in folk medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China and Australia contains a wide range of active compounds, well known for their haemostatic and wound-healing properties. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. on N-diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced hepatic injury in rats. Material and Methods: The aerial part of B. pinnatum aqueous and ethanolic extract was prepared in doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Hepatic injury was induced by DENA. Acute toxicity was also carried out. Result: Treatment with different doses of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum (250 mg/kg, p.o.) was not significantly able to treat the liver injury induced by DENA, but 500 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum protects the liver slightly. Treatment with different doses of aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P*<0.05; P**<0.01 and P***<0.001) treated the liver injury induced by DENA. Conclusion: It may be inferred from the present study that the hepatoprotective activities of the aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum leaves in DENA-induced hepatotoxicity may involve its antioxidant or oxidative free radical scavenging activities by alleviating lipid peroxidation through scavenging of free radicals, or by enhancing the activity of antioxidants. PMID:24174817

  5. Identifying and selecting for genetic diversity in Papua New Guinea sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. germplasm collected as botanical seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic analysis was conducted on 141 "Ipomoea batatas" L. (Lam.) Genotypes derived from botanical seed originally collected from 26 sites in 4 provinces in Papua New Guinea. Relatedness among accessions was estimated by analysis of the AFLP data using the Dice coefficient of similarity and UPGMA. ...

  6. Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B. K.; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity. PMID:24250136

  7. Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B K; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V J

    2013-04-01

    Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity. PMID:24250136

  8. Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-02-15

    The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp. PMID:25236202

  9. Predicting weed migration from soil and climate maps. [Centaurea maculosa Lam

    SciTech Connect

    Chicoine, T.K.; Fay, P.K.; Nielsen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Soil characteristics, elevation, annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, length of frost-free season, and mean maximum July temperature were estimated for 116 established infestations of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam. number/sup 3/ CENMA) in Montana using basic land resource maps. Areas potentially vulnerable to invasion by the plant were delineated on the basis of representative edaphic and climatic characteristics. No single environmental variable was an effective predictor of sites vulnerable to invasion by spotted knapweed. Only a combination of variables was effective, indicating that the factors that regulate adaptability of this plant are complex. This technique provides a first approximation map of the regions most similar environmentally to infested sites and; therefore, most vulnerable to further invasion. This weed migration prediction technique shows promise for predicting suitable habitats of other invader species. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  10. Biological monitoring of organochlorides using the limnic bivalves Anodontites trapesialis (Lam., 1819).

    PubMed

    Avelar, W E; Nather, F C; de Figueiredo, M C; Casanova, I C; Lopes, J L

    1991-12-01

    The mussel Anodontites trapesialis (Lam, 1819) was used as an indicator of organochloride pollutants in the Canoas River, located in the municipality of Mococa (21 degrees 25'08''S and 47 degrees W), State of São Paulo, Brazil. Biological monitoring was performed for one year at the site of an orange grove on the left bank of the river. Forty-five animals were placed in aluminum enclosures on the river bottom at this site and 4 animals were sacrificed for pesticide analysis at 3-month intervals, each corresponding to one season of the year. Pesticides were extracted by the method of Bedford et al., (1968), modified, and the analyses were performed by gas phase chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. The animals were found to have been exposed to DDT, Lindane and Heptachlor. Variation in Aldrin and Dieldrin levels was not significant enough to permit inferences. Endrin was not detected in any of the analyses. PMID:1811433

  11. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of M. oleifera. This assembly represents 91.78% of the estimated genome size and contains 19,465 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis between M. oleifera and related woody plant genomes helps clarify the general evolution of this species, while the identification of several species-specific gene families and positively selected genes in M. oleifera may help identify genes related to M. oleifera's high protein content, fast-growth, heat and stress tolerance. This reference genome greatly extends the basic research on M. oleifera, and may further promote applying genomics to enhanced breeding and improvement of M. oleifera. PMID:26032590

  12. Biosystematic studies on Enicostema axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal subsp. Axillare (Gentianaceae) in peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Shahina, P M; Nampy, Santhosh

    2014-05-01

    The pantropical genus Enicostema (Gentianaceae) has three species and two sub species world over, namely, E. verticillatum (L.) Engl. (America), E. elizabethae Veldkamp (Madagascar) and E. axillare having 3 subsp. viz., subsp. axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal (India), subsp. latilobum (N.E. Br.) A. Raynal (East Africa) and subsp. littorale (Blume) A. Raynal (Indonesia). The present study aims to delimit the Indian taxa based on field and herbarium studies. Comparative morphology is studied using live as well as consulting wide range of specimens housed at various herbaria. The anatomy of leaf, stem, and root is studied using free hand sections and from epidermal peelings. The seed and pollen morphology are studied under SEM. Information on anatomy, palynology and seed micromorphology of E. axillare subsp. axillare is provided for the first time. PMID:26031003

  13. Screening antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties of extracts isolated from Jackfruit pulp (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Burgos-Hernández, A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; López-Saiz, C M; Velázquez-Contreras, C A; Navarro-Ocaña, A; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A

    2015-05-15

    The present focused on the study of the antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of pulp Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) extract, using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line M12.C3.F6 (murine B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Jackfruit pulp extract was sequentially fractionated by chromatography (RP-HPLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. The organic extracts obtained from Jackfruit pulp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and proliferation of cells M12.C3.F6; a dose-response relationship was showed. Sequential RP-HPLC fractionation of the active extracts produced both antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the Jackfruit contained compounds with chemoprotective properties to reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1, also proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:25577099

  14. Generation and application of ssDNA aptamers against glycolipid antigen ManLAM of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for TB diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Shi-Min; Xie, Yan; Song, Neng; Guan, Qing; Yuan, Chunhui; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Lian

    2016-05-01

    The development of effective Mycobacterial antigen diagnostic reagents remains a high priority. Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) is a lipoglycan serving as a major cell wall component. ManLAM is also an early released antigen in the blood circulation system during Mycobacteria tuberculosis (M.tb) infection and is a perfect target antigen for TB diagnosis. In this study, ssDNA aptamers "antibodies" against ManLAM of the predominant clinical epidemic M.tb Beijing genotype strains were generated by the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) technique. The selected single aptamer T9 demonstrated the highest specificity and binding affinity, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 668 ± 159 nmol/L. We further detected ManLAM antigens in serum and sputum samples from active pulmonary tuberculosis (aPTB) patients, extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) patients and healthy donors by using a T9 based enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA). The results showed that the specificity and sensitivity were 95.31% and 83.00% (for 100 aPTB serum samples), 98.70% and 92.71% (for 96 aPTB sputum samples), and 94.44% and 88.71% (for 62 EPTB serum samples), respectively. A good correlation was observed between the T9 aptamer-based ELONA and the clinical T-SPOT.TB. Thus, T9 based ELONA has potentials for diagnosis of TB, including inactive TB, smear-negative TB, EPTB, and TB with immunodeficiency, and assist the diagnosis of LTBI albeit it could not distinguish LTBI and active TB. PMID:26850356

  15. The C-Terminal Portion of the Tail Fiber Protein of Bacteriophage Lambda Is Responsible for Binding to LamB, Its Receptor at the Surface of Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiang; Hofnung, Maurice; Charbit, Alain

    2000-01-01

    Bacteriophage λ adsorbs to its Escherichia coli K-12 host by interacting with LamB, its cell-surface receptor. We fused C-terminal portions of J, the tail fiber protein of λ, to maltose-binding protein. Solid-phase binding assays demonstrated that a purified fusion protein comprising only the last 249 residues of J could bind to LamB trimers and inhibited recognition by anti-LamB antibodies. Electron microscopy further demonstrated that the fusion protein could also bind to LamB at the surface of intact cells. This interaction prevented λ adsorption but affected only partially maltose uptake. PMID:10629200

  16. The C-terminal portion of the tail fiber protein of bacteriophage lambda is responsible for binding to LamB, its receptor at the surface of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    2000-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda adsorbs to its Escherichia coli K-12 host by interacting with LamB, its cell-surface receptor. We fused C-terminal portions of J, the tail fiber protein of lambda, to maltose-binding protein. Solid-phase binding assays demonstrated that a purified fusion protein comprising only the last 249 residues of J could bind to LamB trimers and inhibited recognition by anti-LamB antibodies. Electron microscopy further demonstrated that the fusion protein could also bind to LamB at the surface of intact cells. This interaction prevented lambda adsorption but affected only partially maltose uptake. PMID:10629200

  17. A role for residue 151 of LamB in bacteriophage lambda adsorption: possible steric effect of amino acid substitutions.

    PubMed Central

    Charbit, A; Werts, C; Michel, V; Klebba, P E; Quillardet, P; Hofnung, M

    1994-01-01

    LamB is the cell surface receptor for bacteriophage lambda. LamB missense mutations yielding resistance to lambda have been previously grouped in two classes. Class I mutants block growth of lambda with wild-type host range (lambda h+) but support growth of one-step extended-host-range mutants (lambda h). Class II mutants block lambda h but support growth of two-step extended host range mutants (lambda hh*). While Class I mutations occur at 11 different amino acid sites, in five distinct portions of LamB, all the Class II mutations analyzed previously correspond to the same G-to-D change at amino acid 151. We generated by in vitro mutagenesis four different new substitutions at site 151 (to S, V, R, and C). Two of the mutants (G-151-->V [G151V] and G151R) were of Class II, while the two others (G151S and G151C) were of Class I, demonstrating that not only the site but also the nature of the substitutions at residue 151 was critical for the phage sensitivity phenotypes. The introduction of a negatively charged, a positively charged, or an aliphatic nonpolar residue at site 151 of LamB prevented both lambda h+ and lambda h adsorption, indicating that the block is not due to a charge effect. In contrast to G151D, which was sensitive to all the lambda hh* phages, G151V and G151R conferred sensitivity to only four of the five lambda hh* phages. Thus, G151V and G151R represent a new subclass of Class II LamB mutations that is more restrictive with respect to the growth of lambda hh*. Our results agree with the hypothesis that residue 151 belongs to an accessibility gate controlling the access to the phage tight-binding site and that substitutions at this residue affect the access of the phage to the binding site in relation to the size of the substitute side chain (surface area): the most restrictive changes are G151V and G151R, followed to a lesser extent by G151D and they by G151S and G151C. Images PMID:8195074

  18. A role for residue 151 of LamB in bacteriophage lambda adsorption: possible steric effect of amino acid substitutions.

    PubMed

    Charbit, A; Werts, C; Michel, V; Klebba, P E; Quillardet, P; Hofnung, M

    1994-06-01

    LamB is the cell surface receptor for bacteriophage lambda. LamB missense mutations yielding resistance to lambda have been previously grouped in two classes. Class I mutants block growth of lambda with wild-type host range (lambda h+) but support growth of one-step extended-host-range mutants (lambda h). Class II mutants block lambda h but support growth of two-step extended host range mutants (lambda hh*). While Class I mutations occur at 11 different amino acid sites, in five distinct portions of LamB, all the Class II mutations analyzed previously correspond to the same G-to-D change at amino acid 151. We generated by in vitro mutagenesis four different new substitutions at site 151 (to S, V, R, and C). Two of the mutants (G-151-->V [G151V] and G151R) were of Class II, while the two others (G151S and G151C) were of Class I, demonstrating that not only the site but also the nature of the substitutions at residue 151 was critical for the phage sensitivity phenotypes. The introduction of a negatively charged, a positively charged, or an aliphatic nonpolar residue at site 151 of LamB prevented both lambda h+ and lambda h adsorption, indicating that the block is not due to a charge effect. In contrast to G151D, which was sensitive to all the lambda hh* phages, G151V and G151R conferred sensitivity to only four of the five lambda hh* phages. Thus, G151V and G151R represent a new subclass of Class II LamB mutations that is more restrictive with respect to the growth of lambda hh*. Our results agree with the hypothesis that residue 151 belongs to an accessibility gate controlling the access to the phage tight-binding site and that substitutions at this residue affect the access of the phage to the binding site in relation to the size of the substitute side chain (surface area): the most restrictive changes are G151V and G151R, followed to a lesser extent by G151D and they by G151S and G151C. PMID:8195074

  19. Transcriptome and selected metabolite analyses reveal points of sugar metabolism in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.).

    PubMed

    Hu, Lisong; Wu, Gang; Hao, Chaoyun; Yu, Huan; Tan, Lehe

    2016-07-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly known as jackfruit, produces the largest tree-borne fruit known thus far. The edible part of the fruit develops from the perianths, and contains many sugar-derived compounds. However, its sugar metabolism is poorly understood. A fruit perianth transcriptome was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, producing 32,459 unigenes with an average length of 1345nt. Sugar metabolism was characterized by comparing expression patterns of genes related to sugar metabolism and evaluating correlations with enzyme activity and sugar accumulation during fruit perianth development. During early development, high expression levels of acid invertases and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for the rapid utilization of imported sucrose for fruit growth. The differential expression of starch metabolism-related genes and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for starch accumulated before fruit ripening but decreased during ripening. Sucrose accumulated during ripening, when the expression levels of genes for sucrose synthesis were elevated and high enzyme activity was observed. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis presents fundamental information on sugar metabolism and will be a useful reference for further research on fruit perianth development in jackfruit. PMID:27181946

  20. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    PubMed

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970

  1. Disentangling the Origins of Cultivated Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970

  2. In vitro wound healing potential and identification of bioactive compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Pauzi, Nur Aimi Syarina; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro. PMID:24490175

  3. The Effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. Extracts on In Vitro Dengue Replication

    PubMed Central

    Husin, Fitrien; Chan, Yean Yean; Gan, Siew Hua; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Shueb, Rafidah Hanim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the potential effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. (H. sibthorpioides) extracts against in vitro dengue viral replication. Methods. The cytotoxicity of H. sibthorpioides was evaluated using a cell viability assay. Cells were pre- and posttreated with water and methanol extracts of H. sibthorpioides, and the viral inhibitory effect was investigated by observing the morphological changes, which were further confirmed by plaque assay. Results. The methanolic extract cytotoxicity was higher in Vero and C6/36 cells than the cytotoxicity of the water extract. Preincubation of the cells with H. sibthorpioides extract showed nonexistent to mild prophylactic effects. The posttreatment of Vero cells with H. sibthorpioides methanolic extract presented higher antidengue activities when compared with the water extract. Surprisingly, posttreatment of C6/36 cells resulted in an enhancement of viral replication. Conclusion. H. sibthorpioides had variable effects on dengue viral replication, depending on the treatment, cell lines, and solvent types. This study provides important novel insights on the phytomedicinal properties of H. sibthorpioides extracts on dengue virus. PMID:25767554

  4. Light Attenuation Method for 3D data acquisition (LAM3D) of bottom particle deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er, Jenn Wei; Law, Adrian W. K.; Adams, E. Eric; Yang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a novel experimental technique, Light Attenuation Method for 3D data acquisition (LAM3D), to acquire three-dimensional spatial characteristics and temporal development of bottom particle deposits. The new technique performs data acquisition with higher spatial and temporal resolution than existing approaches with laser and ultrasonic 3D profilers, and is therefore ideal for laboratory investigations with fast varying changes in the sediment bed, such as the developing deposition profile from sediment clouds commonly formed during dredging or land reclamation projects and the dynamic evolution in movable bed processes in rivers. The principle of the technique is based on the analysis of the light attenuation due to multiple light scattering through the particle deposits layer compared to the clear water column. With appropriate calibration, the particles size and distribution thickness can be quantified by the transmitted light spectrum. In the presentation, we will first show our measurement setup with a light panel for calibrated illumination and a system of DSLR cameras for the light capturing. Subsequently, we shall present the experimental results of fast evolving deposition profile of a barge-disposed sediment cloud upon its bottom impact on the sea bed.

  5. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Barioni, Eric Diego; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes de Paula; Ferraz-de-Paula, Viviane; Wagner, Theodoro Marcel; Cogliati, Bruno; Corrêa dos Santos, Matheus; Machado, Marina da Silva; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Niero, Rivaldo; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli

    2013-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA-) stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, β2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity. PMID:23476704

  6. Preliminary Assessment of the Chemical Stability of Dried Extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Gisely C.; Longhini, Renata; dos Santos, Paulo Victor P.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano; de Mello, João Carlos P.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a preliminary estimation of the stability of the dried extract from bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (“Mutamba”), with and without added colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD). The physical and chemical properties and the compatibility of CSD in the extract were evaluated for 21 days of storage under stress conditions of temperature (45 ± 2°C) and humidity (75 ± 5%). Thermogravimetry (TG) was supplemented using selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of stability of the characteristic constituents (chemical markers), namely, procyanidin B2 (PB2) and epicatechin (EP). The results showed that PB2 is an appropriate compound to be used as a chemical marker in the quality control of dried extracts of G. ulmifolia. The stress study showed that there was no significant difference between the two formulations. However, considering the TG data and the high temperatures involved, the results suggest that CSD increases the stability of the dried extract of G. ulmifolia. PMID:22291706

  7. Preliminary Assessment of the Chemical Stability of Dried Extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lopes, Gisely C; Longhini, Renata; Dos Santos, Paulo Victor P; Araújo, Adriano A S; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano; de Mello, João Carlos P

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a preliminary estimation of the stability of the dried extract from bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. ("Mutamba"), with and without added colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD). The physical and chemical properties and the compatibility of CSD in the extract were evaluated for 21 days of storage under stress conditions of temperature (45 ± 2°C) and humidity (75 ± 5%). Thermogravimetry (TG) was supplemented using selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of stability of the characteristic constituents (chemical markers), namely, procyanidin B2 (PB2) and epicatechin (EP). The results showed that PB2 is an appropriate compound to be used as a chemical marker in the quality control of dried extracts of G. ulmifolia. The stress study showed that there was no significant difference between the two formulations. However, considering the TG data and the high temperatures involved, the results suggest that CSD increases the stability of the dried extract of G. ulmifolia. PMID:22291706

  8. Hybridization and invasion: an experimental test with diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.)

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Amy C; Blumenthal, Dana; Hufbauer, Ruth A

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have suggested a link between hybridization and invasion. In this study, we experimentally test the potential for hybridization to influence invasion through a greenhouse common garden study. Diffuse knapweed (DK) (Centaurea diffusa Lam.) was introduced to North America with admixture from spotted knapweed (SK) (Centaurea stoebe subsp. stoebe L.). Comparisons between North American DK (including hybrid phenotypes) and native (European) DK in a common garden did not reveal enhanced performance or increased phenotypic variance, suggesting that pre-introduction hybridization or, more generally, post-introduction evolutionary change has not significantly contributed to the invasion of DK. In contrast, early generation hybrids [artificially created Backcross 1 (BC1) plants] exhibited increased variance for eight of the examined traits, and greater leaf and reproductive shoot production when compared to North American DK. Individual BC1 lines differed for several traits, suggesting the importance of the cross for drawing conclusions from such comparisons. When compared to the parental species (DK and SK), the BC1 plants were not transgressive for any of the measured traits. Overall, these findings suggest that if diploid SK is introduced to North America, interspecific hybridization has the potential to result in even more aggressive invaders. PMID:25568026

  9. Identification of Ellagitannins and Flavonoids from Eugenia brasilienses Lam. (Grumixama) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luciane de Lira; Bertoldi, Fabiano Cleber; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto

    2015-06-10

    The grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.), also known as Brazilian cherry, is a fruit native to Brazil. This study identified the flavonoids in the flesh and seeds and ellagitannin in the flesh of purple and yellow varieties. The physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity of these fruits were also evaluated. Anthocyanins and flavonols were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (32-180 mg 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (13-41 mg 100 g(-1) FW), respectively. The major flavonoids identified were cyanidin 3-glucoside and quercetin aglycone. Furthermore, ellagitannins were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (82-243 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (92 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and seeds (2220-2905 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW). The ellagitannin profiles of both varieties were first characterized in which pedunculagin isomers, strictinin isomers, and ellagic acid galloyl hexoside were the major ellagitannins identified. In summary, both varieties of the grumixama fruit as well as the seeds could be good sources of bioactive compounds, mainly ellagitannins. PMID:25990484

  10. Frying stability of sunflower oil blended with jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-11-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted extraction with solvent extraction method on antioxidant activities of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extracts in stability of sunflower oil during deep frying. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was the most effective method on antioxidant activities of extracts and extraction yield of phenolic compounds compared to other extraction techniques. Protective effect of methanol-water extract of jujube leaf obtained with ultrasound-assisted extraction (ULMW) at 500 and 700 ppm in stability of sunflower oil was compared to synthetic antioxidants by measuring total polar compounds (TPC), carbonyl value (CV), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), oxidative stability index (OSI), conjugated dienes (CD), and trienes values (CT). Results showed ULMW at 700 ppm had higher stabilization efficiency than synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26788296

  11. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Methods Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. Results It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity. PMID:25183111

  12. Gene Expression Rhythms in the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.) across an Annual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Banni, Mohamed; Negri, Alessandro; Mignone, Flavio; Boussetta, Hamadi; Viarengo, Aldo; Dondero, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal environmental changes may affect the physiology of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.), an intertidal filter-feeder bivalve occurring commonly in Mediterranean and Atlantic coastal areas. We investigated seasonal variations in relative transcript abundance of the digestive gland and the mantle (gonads) of males and females. To identify gene expression trends – in terms of relative mRNA abundance- we used a medium-density cDNA microarray (1.7 K probes) in dual-color competitive hybridization analyses. Hierarchical clustering of digestive gland microarray data showed two main branches, distinguishing profiles associated with the “hot” months (May–August) from the other months. Genes involved in chitin metabolism, associated with mussel nutrition and digestion showed higher mRNA levels during summer. Moreover, we found different gene transcriptomic patterns in the digestive glands of males when compared to females, during the four stages of mussel gonadal development. Microarray data from gonadal transcripts also displayed clear patterns during the different developmental phases respect to the resting period (stage I) with peak relative mRNA abundance at the ripe phase (stage III) for both sexes. These data showed a clear temporal pattern in transcriptomic profiles of mussels sampled over an annual cycle. Physiological response to thermal variation, food availability, and reproductive status across months may contribute to variation in relative mRNA abundance. PMID:21573210

  13. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Pauzi, Nur Aimi Syarina; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro. PMID:24490175

  14. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Moringa oleifera Lam. flower targeting Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Joydeep; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    Leishmaniases is a group of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. At least 20 species of Leishmania are known to infect humans transmitted by female sandflies, Phlebotomus spp. Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis, considered most lethal among the common three forms of leishmaniasis. Lack of appropriate vaccines, emergence of drug resistance and side effects of currently used drugs stress the need for better alternative drugs, particularly from natural sources. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the efficacy of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The flower extract of M. oliefera (MoF) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial agent when compared to other parts of the plant like leaf, root, bark and stem. It imparted significant reduction in parasite number in infected macrophages. The bioactivity guided fractionation of MoF showed ethyl acetate fraction (MoE) as the most active and gave significant parasite reduction in the infected macrophages. Further, growth kinetics studies revealed loss of L. donovani promastigotes viability in the presence of MoE in both time and dose dependent manner. In vivo experiment in Balb/c mouse model of leishmaniasis supported the in vitro findings with a remarkable reduction of the parasite burden in both liver and spleen. PMID:26669018

  15. Simultaneous HPLC quantitative analysis of active compounds in leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2014-08-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. A simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of the contents of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, the primary antioxidative compounds, in M. oleifera leaves. HPLC analysis was successfully conducted by using a Hypersil BDS C18 column, eluted with a gradient of methanol-1% acetic acid with a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and detected at 334 nm. Parameters for the validation included linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation. The developed HPLC method was precise, with relative standard deviation < 2%. The recovery values of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in M. oleifera leaf extracts were 98.50, 98.47 and 98.59%, respectively. The average contents of these compounds in the dried ethanolic extracts of the leaves of M. oleifera collected from different regions of Thailand were 0.081, 0.120 and 0.153% (w/w), respectively. The developed HPLC method was appropriate and practical for the simultaneous analysis of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in the leaf extract of M. oleifera. This work is valuable as guidance for the standardization of the leaf extracts and pharmaceutical products of M. oleifera. PMID:23828911

  16. Lamé parameters of common rocks in the Earth's crust and upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shaocheng; Sun, Shengsi; Wang, Qian; Marcotte, Denis

    2010-06-01

    Lamé parameter (λ) and shear modulus (μ) are the most important, intrinsic, elastic properties of rocks. The Lamé parameter λ, which relates stresses and strains in perpendicular directions, is closely related to the incompressibility and contains a high proportion of information about the resistance to a change in volume caused by a change in pressure. Recent studies have emphasized the roles played by λ in the discrimination of gas sands from carbonates and shale in sedimentary basins and in the seismic reflection of crustal fault zones. Here we analyze the equivalent isotropic elastic data of 475 natural rocks in order to characterize λ values for common types of crystalline rocks in the Earth's crust and upper mantle and their variations with pressure (P), temperature (T), and mineralogical composition. When no partial melting, metamorphic reaction, dehydration, or phase transformation occurs, λ of a crystalline rock as a function of P and T can be described by λ = a + (dλ/dP)P - c exp(- kP) - (dλ/dT)T, where a is the projected λ value at zero pressure if microcracks were fully closed; dλ/dP is the pressure derivative in the linear elastic regime; c is the initial λ drop caused by the presence of microcracks at zero pressure; k is a decay constant of the λ drop in the nonlinear poroelastic regime; and dλ/dT is the temperature derivative. The parameter λ increases nonlinearly and linearly with increasing pressure at low (<˜300 MPa) and high (>˜300 MPa) pressures, respectively. In the regime of high pressures, λ decreases quasi-linearly with increasing temperature with dλ/dT values in the range of 1-10 × 10-3 GPa/°C. Approaching the α-β quartz transition temperature, quartzite displays negative λ values. In the λ-ρ (density) and μ-λ plots, the main categories of lithology can be clearly distinguished. The ultramafic rocks display systematic decreases in both μ and λ with increasing the degree of serpentinization. Eclogites, mafic rocks (gabbro, diabase, mafic granulite, and mafic gneiss), and felsic rocks (granite, diorite, felsic gneiss, intermediate gneiss, and metasediments) are characterized by high, moderate, and low μ and λ values, respectively. For pyroxene and olivine, both λ and ρ increase, but μ decreases with increasing the Fe/Mg ratios. In the plagioclase series, both λ and μ increases with increasing the anorthite content. Increases in the contents of garnets, sillimanite, rutile, zircon, ilmenite, and spinel result systematically in an increase in rock's λ and μ values. The present results provide improved constraints on the discrimination of composition for crustal and upper mantle rocks in terms of λ and μ.

  17. Inhibitory Action of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. On Systemic and Local Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2007-10-01

    The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the seed extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) decreases the mast cell-mediated immediate type hypersensitivity reaction. The immediate type hypersensitivity reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Moringa oleifera, a shrub widely used in the traditional medicine in India, has been reported to possess anti-cancer, hypotensive, anti-arthritic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the effects of the ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE-herbal remedy) on systemic and local anaphylaxis were investigated. The potential anti-anaphylactic effect of MOEE was studied in a mouse model of Compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti IgE-antibody was also used to assess the effect of MOEE. In addition, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were used to investigate the effect of MOEE on histamine release induced by compound 48/80. When administered 1 hr before 48/80 injection, MOEE at doses of 0.001-1.000 g/kg completely inhibited the inducible induced anaphylactic shock. MOEE significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-IgE antibody at a dose of 1 g/kg. When MOEE extract was given as pretreatment at concentrations ranging 0.1-100 mg/ml, the histamine release from the mast cells that was induced by the 48/80 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a potential role for MOEE as a source of anti-anaphylactic agents for use in allergic disorders. PMID:18958739

  18. Effect of crude extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. on human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chinni, Santhivardhan; Dubala, Anil; Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Satish Kumar, M N; Kannan, Elango

    2014-11-01

    The fruit of Eugenia jambolana Lam. is very popular for its anti-diabetic property. Previous studies on the crude extract of E. jambolana (EJE) have successfully explored the scientific basis for some of its traditional medicinal uses. Considering its wide use and consumption as a seasonal fruit, the present study investigates the ability of E. jambolana to interact with cytochrome P450 enzymes. The standardized EJE was incubated with pooled human liver microsomes to assess the CYP2C9-, CYP2D6-, and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of diclofenac, dextromethorphan, and testosterone, respectively. The metabolites formed after the enzymatic reactions were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. EJE showed differential effect on cytochrome P450 activities with an order of inhibitory potential as CYP2C9 > CYP3A4 > CYP2D6 having IC50 of 76.69, 359.02, and 493.05 µg/mL, respectively. The selectivity of EJE for CYP2C9 rather than CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 led to perform the enzyme kinetics to explicate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of CYP2C9-mediated diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation. EJE was notably potent in inhibiting the reaction in a non-competitive manner with Ki of 84.85 ± 5.27 µg/mL. The results revealed the CYP2C9 inhibitory potential of EJE with lower Ki value suggesting that EJE should be examined for its potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions when concomitantly administered with other drugs. PMID:24590863

  19. Analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the extract of Solanum sisymbriifolium (Lam.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Bhuyan, Shakhawat Hossan; Matin, Maima; Hossain, Faruq; Khatun, Farjana; Taiab, Abu; Jamaluddin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the ethanol extract of leaves of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Family: Solanaceae). Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was measured by acetic acid-induced writhing inhibition test. The neuropharmacological activities were evaluated using hole cross, hole board, and elevated plus-maze test and the anti-diarrheal activity was assessed using castor oil-induced diarrhea inhibition method. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay was carried out for assessing the cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract of the leaves. Except cytotoxic activity, all the tests were conducted on mice. Results: The extract at oral doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight showed highly significant (p<0.001) decrease in number of writhing, 52.1±0.66 and 4.4±0.64 compared with the control (78.6±0.29) with the percentage of inhibitions of writhing response were found to be 33.72% and 94.40%, respectively. Compare with the control, the extract at both doses showed significant sedative effect in hole cross test. In hole board test, the extract exhibited highly significant (p<0.001) anxiolytic activity at dose of (200 mg/kg), while the same activity was observed at dose of 400 mg/kg in elevated plus-maze test. The extract showed highly significant (p<0.001) anti-diarrheal activity in a dose-dependent manner. With the extract, significant lethality to brine shrimp was found with LC50 value of 61.66±0.9 μg/ml, which was comparable with the positive control (LC50: 11.89±0.8 µg/ml). Conclusion: The results from the present studies support the traditional uses of this plant part and could form the basis of further investigation including compound isolation. PMID:25050287

  20. Comparative Study of Erythrina indica Lam. (Febaceae) Leaves Extracts for Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sakat, SS; Juvekar, AR

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Erythrina indica Lam leaves by in vitro methods viz. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method on isolated rat liver tissues. Quantitative analysis of antioxidative components like total amount of phenolics, flavonoids, and flavonols were estimated using the spectrophotometric method. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate the IC50 value. Results showed that the aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited significant DPPH radicals scavenging activity with an IC50 value 342.59 ± 19.59, 283.24 ± 12.28 µg/mL respectively. Nitric oxide radicals were significantly scavenged by the aqueous and methanol extracts (IC50 = 250.12 ± 10.66; 328.29 ± 3.74 µg/mL). Lipid peroxidation induced by the Fe2+ was inhibited by the aqueous extract with low IC50 value (97.29 ± 2.05 µg/mL) as compared to methanol extract (IC50 = 283.74 ± 5.70 µg/mL). Both the extracts were exhibited similar quantities of total phenolics. Total flavonoids were found to be in higher quantities than total flavonols in aqueous extract as compared to methanol extract. From the results, it is concluded that the aqueous and methanol extracts of E. indica leaves possesses significant antioxidant activity that may be due to the presence of flavonoids and related polyphenolic compounds. PMID:21331194

  1. The aerial parts of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. protect against NSAID-induced gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, B; Trabadela, C; Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Quílez, A; Miño, P; De la Puerta, R; Martín-Calero, M J

    2007-11-01

    Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., a member of the Sterculiaceae family, is used in folk medicine because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial and antihypertensive properties. Most of the research work carried out on this plant has focused on the bark because of its high concentration of antioxidant proanthocyanidins. The flowers and leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia, though less studied, are also used as a remedy for different conditions, such as kidney and gastrointestinal diseases, fever and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the gastroprotective effects of an aqueous suspension of the ethanolic extract from leaves and flowers of Guazuma ulmifolia in a model of acute gastric ulcer induced by diclofenac as ulcerogenic agent, using the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole as a protection reference. Therefore, the extract was administered two times orally to three groups of Wistar rats at doses of 500, 250 and 125mg/kg, with a 24-h interval between doses. Diclofenac (100mg/kg) was given 1h after the last administration of the extract. Pretreatment with Guazuma ulmifolia or omeprazole decreased the ulcerated area in a dose-dependent way. Myeloperoxidase activity as a marker of neutrophil infiltration was slightly reduced in vivo, whereas in vitro, anti-inflammatory activity was clearly inhibited in a dose-dependent way. The lowest doses of the extract significantly decreased the levels of lipoperoxides, and superoxide dismuthase activity increased to a similar extent as with omeprazole (P<0.001). Examination of glutathione metabolism reflected a significant rise in glutathione peroxidase activity at the highest dose of Guazuma ulmifolia. Finally, there was a faint elevation in prostaglandin E(2) levels with all doses, though the depletion induced by diclofenac could not be reverted. We conclude that the aerial parts of Guazuma ulmifolia protect gastric mucosa against the injurious effect of NSAIDs mainly by anti-inflammatory and radical-scavenging mechanisms. PMID:17884315

  2. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons by using a freshwater fern species Azolla filiculoides Lam.

    PubMed

    Kösesakal, Taylan; Ünal, Muammer; Kulen, Oktay; Memon, Abdülrezzak; Yüksel, Bayram

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the phytoremediation capacity of Azolla filiculoides Lam. for the water resources contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated. The plants were grown in nitrogen-free Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5% crude oil under greenhouse conditions for 15 days. Although the growth rate of the plants were not negatively influenced by the presence of crude oil in the media for the concentration of 0.005% and 0.01% v/v, a gradual impeding effect of crude oil in the growth media has been observed at concentrations 0.05-0.1%. More than 0.1% crude oil in the growth medium ostensibly retarded the growth. For example, 0.2% oil in the media reduced growth approximately 50% relative to the control, and the presence of crude oil at concentrations 0.3% or more were lethal. The data about the percentage of plant growth, fresh weight increase and root growth clearly indicated that the tolerance level of A. filiculoides plants to crude oil ranges between 0.1% and 0.2%. In comparison to control samples, the biodegradation rate of total aliphatic and aromatic (phenathrene) hydrocarbons at 0.05-0.2% oil concentrations, was 94-73% and 81-77%, respectively. On the other hand, in case of further increases in oil concentration in media, i.e.; 0.3-0.5%, the biodegradation rate was still higher in the experimental samples, respectively 71-63% and 75-71%. The high biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons in the experimental samples suggested that A. filiculoides plants could be a promising candidate to be used for the phytoremediation of low crude oil contaminated precious freshwater resources. PMID:26588199

  3. Transcriptional Response of the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.) following Exposure to Heat Stress and Copper

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Alessandro; Oliveri, Catherina; Sforzini, Susanna; Mignione, Flavio; Viarengo, Aldo; Banni, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is a major factor that may affect biological organization, especially in marine ecosystems and in coastal areas that are particularly subject to anthropogenic pollution. We evaluated the effects of simultaneous changes in temperature and copper concentrations on lysosomal membrane stability (N-acetyl-hexosaminidase activity) and malondialdehyde accumulation (MDA) in the gill of the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.). Temperature and copper exerted additive effects on lysosomal membrane stability, exacerbating the toxic effects of metal cations present in non-physiological concentrations. Mussel lysosomal membrane stability is known to be positively related to scope for growth, indicating possible effects of increasing temperature on mussel populations in metal-polluted areas. To clarify the molecular response to environmental stressors, we used a cDNA microarray with 1,673 sequences to measure the relative transcript abundances in the gills of mussels exposed to copper (40 µg/L) and a temperature gradient (16°C, 20°C, and 24°C). In animals exposed only to heat stress, hierarchical clustering of the microarray data revealed three main clusters, which were largely dominated by down-regulation of translation-related differentially expressed genes, drastic up-regulation of protein folding related genes, and genes involved in chitin metabolism. The response of mussels exposed to copper at 24°C was characterized by an opposite pattern of the genes involved in translation, most of which were up-regulated, as well as the down-regulation of genes encoding heat shock proteins and “microtubule-based movement” proteins. Our data provide novel information on the transcriptomic modulations in mussels facing temperature increases and high copper concentrations; these data highlight the risk of marine life exposed to toxic chemicals in the presence of temperature increases due to climate change. PMID:23825565

  4. Chemical characteristics and fractionation of proteins from Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Estelamar Maria Borges; Carvalho, Maria Regina Barbieri; Neves, Valdir Augusto; Silva, Maraíza Apareci; Arantes-Pereira, Lucas

    2014-03-15

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a leguminous plant, originally from Asia, which is cultivated in Brazil because of its low production cost. Although some people have used this plant as food, there is little information about its chemical and nutritional characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterise the leaves of M. oleifera in terms of their chemical composition, protein fractions obtained by solubility in different systems and also to assess their nutritional quality and presence of bioactive substances. The whole leaf flour contained 28.7% crude protein, 7.1% fat, 10.9% ashes, 44.4% carbohydrate and 3.0mg 100g(-1) calcium and 103.1mg 100g(-1) iron. The protein profile revealed levels of 3.1% albumin, 0.3% globulins, 2.2% prolamin, 3.5% glutelin and 70.1% insoluble proteins. The hydrolysis of the protein from leaf flour employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) resulted in 39.5% and 29.5%, respectively. The total protein showed low in vitro digestibility (31.8%). The antinutritional substances tested were tannins (20.7 mg g(-1)), trypsin inhibitor (1.45TIU mg g(-1)), nitrate (17 mg g(-1)) and oxalic acid (10.5 mg g(-1)), besides the absence of cyanogenic compounds. β-Carotene and lutein stood out as major carotenoids, with concentrations of 161.0 and 47.0 μg g(-1) leaf, respectively. Although M. oleifera leaves contain considerable amount of crude protein, this is mostly insoluble and has low in vitro digestibility, even after heat treatment and chemical attack. In vivo studies are needed to better assess the use of this leaf as a protein source in human feed. PMID:24206684

  5. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells

    PubMed Central

    Adejumo, Olufunmilayo E.; Kolapo, Adelodun L.; Folarin, Akintomiwa O.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD). About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, pharmacological and pharmacognostical applications of Moringa oleifera have been reported. Objective: This study investigated the antisickling potential of polar and non-polar extracts of the seed, flower and leaf of Moringa oleifera for the first time. Materials and Methods: Using crude methanol extract, aqueous extract, ethyl acetate and butanol, the in vitro antisickling activities of Moringa oleifera fractions, were evaluated using erythrocyte cells deoxygenated with 2% sodium metabisulphite. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, free anthraquinones, and alkaloids. Extracts of the seed and flower demonstrated a higher (P<0.05) antisickling activity in comparison to the leaf extract. The leaf extract, as well as those of the seed and flower, equally demonstrated a (P<0.05) reversal of sickled erythrocytes. Discussions and Conclusions: These findings suggest that Moringa oleifera may play a role in the management of SCD, by incorporation of its fractions into recipes. More extensive biological evaluations and further studies will be necessary for the chemical characterization of the antisickling principles. PMID:22557922

  6. Comparison of two sampling methods when studying periphyton colonization in Lam Tsuen River, Hong Kong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Anping; Lam, Kwan-Sing Paul; Hu, Zhangli

    2011-01-01

    We used standard periphyton samplers to examine the colonization pattern of periphytic algae on artificial substrates (glass slides) in Lam Tsuen River, Hong Kong, in dry (winter) and wet (summer) seasons. In each season, six replicated slides were retrieved randomly and replaced by new slides at weekly intervals over a period of 6 weeks. We thus obtained two batches of slides, both with a series of different exposure times (1 to 6 weeks): one batch was set up at the same time (start of the sampling) and the other was harvested at the same time (end of the sampling). Changes in taxonomic composition, species diversity (Shannon-Wiener diversity index), standing crop (in terms of cell density and cell biovolume), and abundance of the abundant algal species were monitored and compared between the two batches of slides. The succession patterns of the periphytic algae were similar between the two batches in each season, while more remarkable differences were observed between the two seasons, suggesting that either batch would be suitable for a colonization study of periphytic algae. The cell density was dominated by diatoms in both seasons, while the cell biovolume was dominated by diatoms in winter and by green algae in summer. The cell density and biovolume attributed to blue green algae was relatively small. Most of the diatom species exhibited similar colonization patterns throughout the experiment, while green algae showed different succession patterns in different seasons or sampling methods, indicating that diatoms are better bio-indicators than green algae for a periphyton colonization study. In general, the diversity indices and the standing crops reached their maximums at around week 4, and they were higher in summer than in winter.

  7. In vitro antibacterial potency of Butea monosperma Lam. against 12 clinically isolated multidrug resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Mahesh Chandra; Padhy, Rabindra Nath

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity, using cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water to validate medicinal uses of Butea monosperma Lam (B. monosperma) in controlling infections; and to qualitatively estimate phytochemical constituents of leaf-extracts of the plant. Methods The antibacterial activity of leaf-extracts was evaluated by the agar-well diffusion method against clinically isolated 12 Gram-positive and -negative multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria in vitro. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of leaf-extracts against each bacterium were obtained in a 96-well micro-titre plate, by broth dilution micro-titre plate technique. Results The presence of tannins, flavonoids, starch, glycosides and carbohydrates in different leaf extracts was established. Pathogenic bacteria used were, Acinetobacter sp., Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sp., Enterococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), methicillin resistant S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus, along with standard bacterial strains. These MDR bacteria had been recorded to have significant inhibitions by leaf extracts, obtained by cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents. In addition, the hot aqueous extract against Enterococcus sp. had the highest inhibition zone-size (21 mm). Ciprofloxacin 30 µg/disc was the positive/reference control and the diluting solvent, 10% dimethyl sulphoxide was the negative control. Recorded MIC values of different extracts ranged between 0.23 and 13.30 mg/mL, and MBC values were 0.52 to 30.00 mg/mL, for these bacteria. Conclusions Leaf-extracts with hot water and ethanol had shown significant antibacterial activity against all bacteria. B. monosperma leaf-extract could be used in treating infectious diseases, caused by the range of tested bacteria, as complementary and alternate medicine.

  8. Oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in early developmental stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomšić, Sanja; Stanković, Suzana; Lucu, Čedomil

    2011-09-01

    Changes in oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity during early development were studied in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam. The oxygen consumption rate increased from 0.12 μmol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 in unfertilized eggs to 0.38 μmol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 25 min after fertilization. Specific activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase was significantly stimulated after fertilization, ranging up to 1.07 μmol Pi h-1 mg protein-1 in the late blastula stage and slightly lower values in the early and late pluteus stages.

  9. Frequency and intensity patterns of LAM progression in weakly coupled chains: The case of stearic acid and stearyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minoni, Giuseppe; Zerbi, Giuseppe; Rabolt, J. F.

    1984-12-01

    The coupled oscillator model previously described for the interpretation of longitudinal acoustical modes (LAM) of weakly coupled chain molecules has been extended in order to account for the observed frequency and intensity patterns in stearic acid and stearyl alcohol. The model and its general validity are discussed and a specific comparison is made with data obtained from Raman measurements on hexatriacontane (n-C36H74), stearic acid (n-C17H35-COOH), and stearyl alcohol (n-C18H37OH).

  10. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones revealed that both the plant extracts were rich sources of secondary metabolites and thus tested positive for the above tests. Various flavanoids and Phenolics were identified by paper chromatography based on their Rf values and significant colors. From the above study we conclude that Moringa and Ocimum are rich in natural antioxidants hence are potent source in pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26941531

  11. In vivo and in vitro functional alterations of the bacteriophage lambda receptor in lamB missense mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Braun-Breton, C; Hofnung, M

    1981-01-01

    lamB is the structural gene for the bacteriophage lambda receptor in Escherichia coli K-12. In vivo and in vitro studies of the lambda receptor from lamB missence mutants selected as resistant to phage lambda h+ showed the following. (i) Resistance was not due to a change in the amount of lambda receptor protein present in the outer membrane but rather to a change in activity. All of the mutants were still sensitive to phage lambda hh*, a two-step host range mutant of phage lambda h+. Some (10/16) were still sensitive to phage lambda h, a one-step host range mutant. (ii) Resistance occurred either by a loss of binding ability or by a block in a later irreversible step. Among the 16 mutations, 14 affected binding of lambda h+. Two (lamB106 and lamB110) affected inactivation but not binding; they represented the first genetic evidence for a role of the lambda receptor in more than one step of phage inactivation. Similarly, among the six mutations yielding resistance to lambda h, five affected binding and one (lamB109) did not. (iii) The pattern of interactions between the mutated receptors and lambda h+ and its host range mutants were very similar, although not identical, in vivo and in vitro. Defects were usually more visible in vitro than in vivo, the only exception being lamB109. (iv) The ability to use dextrins as a carbon source was not appreciably affected in the mutants. Possible working models and the relations between phage infection and dextrins transport were briefly discussed. Images PMID:6458594

  12. In vivo anticoccidial activity of berberine [18, 5,6-dihydro-9,10-dimethoxybenzo(g)-1,3-benzodioxolo(5,6-a) quinolizinium]--an isoquinoline alkaloid present in the root bark of Berberis lycium.

    PubMed

    Malik, Tauseef Ahmad; Kamili, Azra N; Chishti, M Z; Tanveer, Syed; Ahad, Shazia; Johri, R K

    2014-04-15

    Coccidiosis, caused by various Eimeria species, is a major parasitic disease in chicken. However the increasing resistance of these parasites to currently used anticoccidial drugs has stimulated the search for new methods of control. As part of this effort we investigated the root bark of Berberis lycium (barberry) as a potential source of compounds with anticoccidial activity. In the present study anticoccidial activity of different solvent extracts of the root bark of B. lycium and berberine was evaluated in vivo using broiler chicken. Results of the study demonstrated equipotent efficacy of pure berberine in comparison to that of standard drug amprolium on the basis of reduction in coccidian oocyst output, body weight gain of chicken and feed conversion ratio. Among the extracts crude methanolic extract showed highest anticoccidial activity tested at 300 mg/kg body weight which could be due to the presence of alcohol-soluble active ingredients in root bark of B. lycium. Toxicological studies revealed that B. lycium extracts as well as berberine were not lethal up to dosage of 2000 mg/kg body weight. LD(50) was not determined as mortalities were not recorded in any of the five groups of chicken. From the present study it can be concluded that root bark of B. lycium has the immense potential to contribute to the control of coccidian parasites of chicken. Our results corroborate the use of berberine for treatment of severe diarrhoea, amoebiasis and intestinal infections and could justify its use in folk medicine for treatment of haemorrhagic dysentery. PMID:24411651

  13. Performance Comparison of a Matrix Solver on a Heterogeneous Network Using Two Implementations of MPI: MPICH and LAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Jennifer K.

    1995-01-01

    Two of the current and most popular implementations of the Message-Passing Standard, Message Passing Interface (MPI), were contrasted: MPICH by Argonne National Laboratory, and LAM by the Ohio Supercomputer Center at Ohio State University. A parallel skyline matrix solver was adapted to be run in a heterogeneous environment using MPI. The Message-Passing Interface Forum was held in May 1994 which lead to a specification of library functions that implement the message-passing model of parallel communication. LAM, which creates it's own environment, is more robust in a highly heterogeneous network. MPICH uses the environment native to the machine architecture. While neither of these free-ware implementations provides the performance of native message-passing or vendor's implementations, MPICH begins to approach that performance on the SP-2. The machines used in this study were: IBM RS6000, 3 Sun4, SGI, and the IBM SP-2. Each machine is unique and a few machines required specific modifications during the installation. When installed correctly, both implementations worked well with only minor problems.

  14. The β-Glucanase ZgLamA from Zobellia galactanivorans Evolved a Bent Active Site Adapted for Efficient Degradation of Algal Laminarin*

    PubMed Central

    Labourel, Aurore; Jam, Murielle; Jeudy, Alexandra; Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Czjzek, Mirjam; Michel, Gurvan

    2014-01-01

    Laminarinase is commonly used to describe β-1,3-glucanases widespread throughout Archaea, bacteria, and several eukaryotic lineages. Some β-1,3-glucanases have already been structurally and biochemically characterized, but very few from organisms that are in contact with genuine laminarin, the storage polysaccharide of brown algae. Here we report the heterologous expression and subsequent biochemical and structural characterization of ZgLamAGH16 from Zobellia galactanivorans, the first GH16 laminarinase from a marine bacterium associated with seaweeds. ZgLamAGH16 contains a unique additional loop, compared with other GH16 laminarinases, which is composed of 17 amino acids and gives a bent shape to the active site cleft of the enzyme. This particular topology is perfectly adapted to the U-shaped conformation of laminarin chains in solution and thus explains the predominant specificity of ZgLamAGH16 for this substrate. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and two enzyme-substrate complexes, one with laminaritetraose and the other with a trisaccharide of 1,3–1,4-β-d-glucan, have been determined at 1.5, 1.35, and 1.13 Å resolution, respectively. The structural comparison of substrate recognition pattern between these complexes allows the proposition that ZgLamAGH16 likely diverged from an ancestral broad specificity GH16 β-glucanase and evolved toward a bent active site topology adapted to efficient degradation of algal laminarin. PMID:24337571

  15. Characterization of a Thermobifida fusca beta-1,3-glucanase (Lam81A) with a potential role in plant biomass degradation.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Colleen E; Wilson, David B

    2006-11-28

    Thermobifida fusca is a filamentous soil bacterium that plays a major role in the breakdown of plant biomass. In this paper, we report the cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of the T. fusca enzyme, Lam81A. The Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Database (http://afmb.cnrs-mrs.fr/CAZY/) indicates that Lam81A belongs to a relatively uncharacterized family of beta-1,3-glucanases, family GH-81 [Coutinho, P. M., and Henrissat, B. (1999) in Recent Advances in Carbohydrate Bioengineering (Gilbert, H. J., Davies, G., Henrissat, B., and Svensson, B., Eds.) pp 3-12, The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, U.K.]. Microarray analysis suggests that Lam81A plays a role in biomass degradation, where its natural substrate may be the plant cell wall polysaccharide, callose, which is a polymer of beta-1,3-linked glucose. Characterization of Lam81A has shown that the enzyme is specific for beta-1,3-linked glucose polysaccharides, is endohydrolytic, and utilizes an inverting mechanism for substrate hydrolysis. In addition, the enzyme has a broad pH optimum from 5.5 to 10, a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C, and demonstrates substrate inhibition, as well as showing a high basal level of expression. PMID:17115704

  16. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resources potential of crop wild relatives of sweeetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. I. series Batatas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, and the limited availability of germplasm wi...

  17. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling, simulation; G: Surface and interface; H: Mechanical properties and new materials; I: Quasicrystals; J: Industrial applications. The largest sessions were E, C, D and F with 53, 47, 43 and 40 reports, respectively. Posters were exhibited during the first (sessions A-E) or last (sessions F-J) three days of the conference. As usual, each oral session started with an invited talk. In accordance with contemporary tendencies the first invited talk of M Yao (Kyoto University) was devoted to interrelations between liquid metal studies and nanoscience. He pointed out that the physics of disordered matter, especially liquid metals, has provided nanoscience with basic ideas and theoretical tools such as ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. K Tamura (Kyoto University) reported experimental investigation results of expanded liquid rubidium, showing that observed structural features are originated from the instability of low-density electron gas. Modern theory has predicted that interacting electron gas suffers negative compressibility and the static dielectric function (DF) becomes negative when electron density is sufficiently reduced. Negative DF is of special interest when considering the possibility of new types of superconductors. In the next invited lecture, M I Mendelev and J R Morris (USA) described how MD simulations were performed to study phase transformations in supercooled liquid Al. The authors found that the widely used EAM potential for Al enables vitrification for cooling rates achievable in classical MD simulation, while other Al potentials enable crystallization under the same conditions. The reason for this difference was discussed, as well as features of vitrification in the EA Al. P Häussler (Chemnitz Univeristy) spoke about fundamental structure-forming processes in liquid and amorphous materials. He proposed the resonance model as an autonomous missing link between the microscopic description of atoms/molecules of Schrödinger's equation, and crystals, where global concepts such as planar resonances exist and Bloch's theorem is applied. D Holland-Moritz (Institut für Materialphysik, Köln) presented the first results of the quasielastic neutron scattering experiments on electromagnetically levitated metallic melts. The studies were indicative of Arrhenius behavior of the diffusion constants over the whole temperature regime investigated, ranging from temperatures above the melting temperature up to the metastable regime of an undercooled liquid. L Son (USPU) discussed the existing analytical theories of liquid-liquid phase transitions that have been assumed for a wide variety of liquids, but are poorly understood analytically. The application of these theories to liquid metal systems was also demonstrated. An approach to the study of dynamics and kinetics of cavitation in stretched liquid metals by the classical MD method was presented in the talk of G E Norman (Institute for High Temperatures, Moscow). Both quantitative and qualitative disagreements with the classic theory of homogeneous nucleation were found. Analytic extentions of MD results beyond the space and temporal limits accessible for the MD method were also discussed. G Wilde (University of Muenster) spoke about the experimental investigation into the impact of interface properties and, more specifically, of interface morphology in matrix-encased metallic nanoparticles on macroscopic properties, such as melting transition by a combination of microscopic, microanalytical and calorimetric measurements. The results were discussed with respect to the underlying mechanisms that lead to size dependent phase equilibria. In the invited talk of V Keryvin (University of Rennes) the indentation ability was proposed as a probe for pressure sensitivity in metallic glasses. The main conclusion was that the indentation test provides a good means to study the elasto-plastic behavior of these materials as well as being a relevant tool to subject metallic glasses to multiaxial loadings. The influence of changes in local ordering of precursor melt on the formation of the amorphous state and subsequent crystallization was the subject of a report presented by P Śvec (Institute of Physics, Bratislava). The effect was shown for a rapidly quenched Fe-Mo-B system with addition of Cu and substitution of Fe by Co prepared under varying conditions of planar flow casting and using master alloys with specific melt treatment. Approximately 320 abstracts were received and 180 manuscripts were finally submitted for publication. Papers from invited lectures and full-scale oral reports are published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for this special issue. All papers from brief oral reports and posters were collected for an issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. All were edited by staff from Ekaterinburg. It was decided during the joint meeting of both the International Advisory Board and International Program Committee that the next conference in the LAM series, LAM14, will be arranged by the groups of A Di Cicco (Camerino University) and T Scopigno (University of Rome 'La Sapienza'), and will take place in Rome, Italy, in 2010. It is no easy task to outline new scientific tendencies in the field of liquid and amorphous alloys just after the LAM conference. It takes one or two years to estimate the significance of the event. Only one conclusion is obvious: the LAM13 conference has opened a door between the global scientific community and Russian scientists, who have special expertise in the field but could not actively participate at the LAM conferences before because of the economic situation in Russia. We are grateful to the Advisory and Program Committees of the LAM12 conference in Metz and especially to Dr Monique Calvo-Dahlborg for the opportunity to manage such an event in Russia. In addition we would like to give our sincere thanks to: the authorities of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Ural State Pedagogical University who did their best to help us with all our problems, especially to Boris Igoshev and Nikolay Vatolin; all the sponsors who supported the conference: the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company headed by Andrey Kozicyn, the Open Joint Stock Company 'Uralsvjazinform' (Alexey Ufimkin), the A A Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, RAS (July Kovneristii), the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Alexandre Ephanov), the Nuclear Power Plant 'Beloyarskaya' (Nikolay Oshkanov), the South Ural State University (German Vjatkin), Ural Technical Institute of Communications and Informatics (Evgeny Subbotin), Physical-Technical Institute UB RAS (Vladimir Lad'yanov), Metallurgical Department of the Ural State Technical University (Victor Shimov), Academy of Sciences of Chechen Republic (Raikom Dadashev) and NETZSCH-Gerätebau GmbH; the invited lecturers who immediately answered positively to the invitation and contributed to the high level of success of LAM13; the colleagues who acted as chairmen in the various sessions; Graham Douglas and Richard Palmer who kindly answered our queries and tried to satisfy our requirements; the seniors of the LAM series who could not participate at the 13th conference but helped us to manage it in the best way, namely J Dupuy, M Silbert, F Sommer, W C Pilgrim, W Freyland, K Lu, J Brmejo and F Hensel. We dedicate the LAM13 conference to the 80 year jubilee of Professor Nikolay Vatolin who is one of the leaders of Russian investigation in the field of liquid and amorphous metals, and who managed 12 similar conferences in our country. One of us (PP) commemorates his father, Professor Stanislav Popel, who was a known specialist in high temperature capillarity and sadly left us six months before the event.

  18. Development of a rapid resolution liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the determination of three compounds in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam from different origins of Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuge; Yu, Qian; Wang, Dongdong; Upur, Halmuart

    2012-01-01

    Context: As a traditional Uygur medicinal plant, Z. clinopodioides Lam has various uses in Xinjiang. Aims: A reversed-phase rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RP-RRLC) method with diode array detector (DAD) was developed for simultaneous determination of diosmin, linarin, and pulegone from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam, a widely used in traditional Uygur medicine for treating heart disease, high blood pressure, and other diseases. Settings and Design: Compounds were separated on a XDB-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 1.8 μm) with gradient elution using methanol and 1% aqueous acetic acid (v/v) at 0.9 mL/min. he detection wavelength was set at 270 nm. Materials and Methods: Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. were collected from ten different origins in Xinjiang, including the Ban fang ditch, Tuoli, the Altay mountains, Terks, Xiata Road, Zhaosu Highway, Guozigou, Fukang, Jimsar, Wulabo. Statistical Analysis Used: The intra-day and inter-day precisions of all three compounds were less than 0.89% and the average recoveries ranged from 97.4 to 104.1%. There were highly significant linear correlations between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of three active components in Z. clinopodioides Lam. samples from different locations in Xinjiang. Conclusions: The proposed method is simple, consistent, accurate, and could be utilized as a quality control method for Z. clinopodioides Lam. PMID:24082631

  19. Genetic diversity and relationships in cultivars of Lolium multiflorum Lam. using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Huang, L K; Jiang, X Y; Huang, Q T; Xiao, Y F; Chen, Z H; Zhang, X Q; Miao, J M; Yan, H D

    2014-01-01

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to analyze and estimate the genetic variability, level of diversity, and relationships among 20 cultivars and strains of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Eighteen SRAP primer combinations generated 334 amplification bands, of which 298 were polymorphic. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.4715 (me10 + em1) to 0.5000 (me5 + em7), with an average of 0.4921. The genetic similarity coefficient ranged from 0.4304 to 0.8529, and coefficients between 0.65 and 0.90 accounted for 90.00%. The cluster analysis separated the accessions into five groups partly according to their germplasm resource origins. PMID:25501225

  20. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of total flavonoids from sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] leaf in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunguang; Zhang, Lianying

    2013-08-01

    The in vivo anti-fatigue activity of the total flavonoids from sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] leaf was investigated in male Kunming mice. The total flavonoids from sweet potato leaf (TFSL) were orally administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 4 weeks and the anti-fatigue effect was studied using a weight-loaded swimming test, along with the determination of serum urea nitrogen (SUN), blood lactic acid (BLA) and hepatic and muscle glycogen contents. The results showed that TFSL had significant anti-fatigue effects. TFSL extended the exhaustive swimming time, effectively inhibited the increase of BLA, decreased the level of SUN and increased the hepatic and muscle glycogen content of mice. Thus, TFSL may have potential as an anti-fatigue agent. PMID:24772953

  1. Medium alterations improve regrowth of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] lam.) shoot tips cryopreserved by vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration.

    PubMed

    Pennycooke, J C; Towill, L E

    2001-01-01

    In vitro grown sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved by both solution based and encapsulation-dehydration vitrification methods. Improved recovery medium enhanced recovery for both vitrification procedures. The effects of sucrose preculture, cryoprotectant preculture and post-warm recovery media on regrowth following LN exposure were investigated. Sucrose preculture was critical for the survival of sweet potato shoot tips cooled to ca. -200 degrees C. Cryoprotectant preculture with 2 M glycerol + 0.4 M sucrose before dehydration with PVS2 gave the highest recovery following LN exposure. The viability of cooled samples following culture on ammonium-free MS medium for 5 days was increased three-fold over those cultured on MS medium. The improvement in recovery by altering post-warming conditions suggests that cryoinjury is not always lethal and can be ameliorated by suitable culture conditions. PMID:11788880

  2. Suppressive effects of Moringa oleifera Lam pod against mouse colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Budda, Sirintip; Butryee, Chaniphun; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Wangnaithum, Supradit; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Kupradinun, Piengchai

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (horseradish tree; tender pod or fruits) is a major ingredient in Thai cuisine and has some medicinal properties. Previous studies have shown potentially antioxidant, antitumor promoter, anticlastogen and anticarcinogen activities both in vitro and in vivo. The present study was conducted to investigate chemopreventive effects on azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-promoted colon carcinogenesis in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into 8 groups: Group 1 served as a negative control; Group 2 received AOM/DSS as a positive control; Groups 3-5 were fed boiled freeze-dried M. oleifera (bMO) at 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0%, respectively supplemented in basal diets for 5 weeks; Groups 6-8 were fed with bMO diets at the designed doses above for 2 weeks prior to AOM, during and 1 week after DSS administration. At the end of the study, colon samples were processed for histopathological examination. PCNA indices, and iNOS and COX-2 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated the incidences and multiplicities of tumors in Groups 6-8 to be decreased when compared to Group 2 in a dose dependent manner, but this was significant only in Group 8. The PCNA index was also significantly decreased in Group 8 whereas iNOS and COX-2 protein expression were significantly decreased in Groups 7 and 8. The findings suggest that M. oleifera Lam pod exerts suppressive effects in a colitis-related colon carcinogenesis model induced by AOM/DSS and could serve as a chemopreventive agent. PMID:22471457

  3. Anthelmintic efficacy of aqueous extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze against Haemonchus contortus of sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Singh, Rajeev; Verma, P K; Singh, R; Anand, A

    2015-06-01

    Infection with Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important economic problems in small ruminants worldwide. Resistance development by parasites, drug residues in meat, toxicity, non-availability and high cost limit the usefulness of currently used synthetic drugs. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of aqueous extract of seeds of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze against H. contortus. Phytochemical analysis of extract showed high concentration of phenolic (11.93 ± 0.64 mg of GAE/g of extract), flavonoids (238.17 ± 19.14 mg of quercetin/g extract) and tannin (10.80 ± 0.70 mg of GAE/g of extract) content. The observations revealed that parasites were sluggish and movement was little at 4 h post exposure of 25, 50 mg/ml and very sluggish in 100 mg/ml concentration. The extract showed complete mortality of the adult H. contortus worms at the concentrations of 100 mg/ml at the time exposure of 6 h and with the concentration of 50 mg/ml at the post exposure of 8 h. At 25 mg/ml concentration 50 % mortality was recorded at 6 h and complete at 8 h post exposure. The LC50 at 6 and 8 h were 45.20 and 17.50 mg/ml respectively. Levamisole at concentration of 0.5 mg/ml caused 50 % mortality at 2 h post exposure and full mortality at 4 h post exposure. These cidal effects may be due to presence of high phenolic, flavonoids and tannin content in the extract. The results confirm the aqueous extract of B. monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze on adult H. contortus worms. PMID:26064000

  4. Adsorption of bacteriophage lambda on the LamB protein of Escherichia coli K-12: point mutations in gene J of lambda responsible for extended host range.

    PubMed Central

    Werts, C; Michel, V; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    1994-01-01

    LamB is the cell surface receptor for bacteriophage lambda. LamB missense mutations yielding resistance to lambda group in two classes. Class I mutants block the growth of lambda with the wild-type host range (lambda h+) but support the growth of one-step host range mutants (lambda h). Class II mutants block lambda h but support the growth of two-step host range mutant (lambda hh*) phages. To identify amino acid residues in the J protein (the tail fiber of phage lambda) responsible for the extended host range phenotype of mutants of phage (lambda h+), we selected a series of one-step (lambda h) and two-step (lambda hh*) host range mutants and analyzed their corresponding J genes. Three different class I LamB missense mutants (mutations at sites 247, 245, and 148) were used to select 11 independent, new, one-step host range mutants (lambda h phages). DNA sequence analysis revealed a single-amino-acid change in each case. The 11 alterations affected only three residues in the distal part of J, corresponding to a Val-->Ala change at site 1077 in five cases, a Thr-->Met change at site 1040 in three cases, and a Leu-->Pro change at site 1127 in three cases. Recombination experiments confirmed that in the cases tested, the mutations identified were indeed responsible for the extended host range phenotype. The class II LamB mutant (Gly-->Asp at site 151) was used to select two-step extended host range mutants (lambda hh* phages) from three new lambda h phages, corresponding to different amino acid modifications in the J protein (at sites 1040, 1077, and 1127). The new lambda hh* phages analyzed corresponded to either double or triple point mutations located at the distal end of the J protein. In all, seven residues involved in the extended host range properties of lambda mutants were identified in the distal part of the J protein, suggesting that the last C-terminal portion of the J protein participates directly in the adsorption of the phage onto LamB. In agreement with the fact that the lambda h mutants (and the lambda hh* mutants) could grow on all of the lamB class I mutations tested, we found tha the nature of the J mutations did not depend on the LamB class I mutant used to select them. This is interpreted as meaning that the mutated residues in the J protein and in the LamB mutants are not involved in allele-specific protein-protein interactions. Rather, the LamB mutations would block a step in phage adsorption, and this block would be overcome by the mutations in the J protein. PMID:8106335

  5. The Effects of Berberis vulgaris Fruit Extract on Serum Lipoproteins, apoB, apoA-I, Homocysteine, Glycemic Control and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shidfar, Farzad; Ebrahimi, Shima Seyyed; Hosseini, Sharieh; Heydari, Iraj; Shidfar, Shahrzad; Hajhassani, Giti

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a well-known endocrine and metabolic disorder which has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and represents a serious public health concern. Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are two major abnormalities which are major cardiovascular risk factors. Berberine is a major alkaloid in Berberis vulgaris fruit extract (BVFE) which have important role in regulation of serum glucose and fat metabolism in-vivo and in-vitro but its role in type 2 diabetes have not been extensively examined. The aim of this study was the effect of BVFE on serum lipoproteins, apoB, apoA-I, homocysteine, glycemic control and total antioxidant capacity in type 2 diabetic patients. In a double-blind randomised clinical trial, 31 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to 3 g/d BVFE or placebo for 3 months. Serum glucose, lipoproteins, apoB, apoA-I, insulin, homocysteine and HbA1c were measured at the baseline and also at the end of the 3rd month. At the beginning and end of 1st, 2nd and 3rd months, a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire about each patients was completed. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. There were significant decreases in serum TG, TC, LDL-c, apo B, glucose, and insulin and also a significant increase in TAC at the end of the study in BVFE group compared to the control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.01 and p = 0.0001 respectively). There were significant differences in serum TG (p = 0.0001), TC (p = 0.001), LDL-c (p = 0.001), apoB (p = 0.001), glucose (p = 0.002), insulin (p = 0.01), TAC (p = 0.005), and insulin resistance (p = 0.01) between the two groups at the end of the study; but homocysteine, HbA1c and HDL-c showed no significant changes between the two groups at the end of study. The intake of 3 g/d BVFE for 3 months may have benefical effects on lipoproteins, apoproteins, glycemic control and TAC in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:24250489

  6. (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of the LAM-RRM1 N-terminal module of La protein from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Chasapis, Christos T; Argyriou, Aikaterini I; Apostolidi, Maria; Konstantinidou, Parthena; Bentrop, Detlef; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2015-10-01

    The N-terminal half of La protein consists of two concatenated motifs: La motif (LAM) and the N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM1) both of which are responsible for poly(U) RNA binding. Here, we present the backbone and side-chain assignments of the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonances of the 191-residue LAM-RRM1 region of the La protein from the lower eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum and its secondary structure prediction. PMID:25687647

  7. Detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine is indicative of disseminated TB with renal involvement in patients living with HIV and advanced immunodeficiency: evidence and implications

    PubMed Central

    Lawn, Stephen D.; Gupta-Wright, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    TB is the leading cause of HIV/AIDS-related deaths globally. New diagnostic tools are urgently needed to avert deaths from undiagnosed HIV-associated TB. Although simple assays that detect lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine have been commercially available for years, their specific role and utility were initially misunderstood, such that they have been slower to emerge from the diagnostics pipeline than otherwise might have been expected. In this article, we review and explain how urine-LAM assays should be understood as diagnostics for disseminated TB in HIV-positive patients with advanced immunodeficiency, in whom haematogenous TB dissemination to the kidneys serves as the primary mechanism by which LAM enters the urine. These insights are critical for the appropriate design of studies to evaluate these assays and to understand how they might be most usefully implemented. This understanding also supports the 2015 WHO recommendations on the restricted use of these assays in sick HIV-positive patients with advanced immunodeficiency. PMID:26884498

  8. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected. PMID:24344977

  9. Resurgence and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit: connecting weak and strong coupling in the Mathieu and Lamé systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basar, Gökçe; Dunne, Gerald V.

    2015-02-01

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit for the low-energy behavior of and supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theories is encoded in the spectrum of the Mathieu and Lamé equations, respectively. This correspondence is usually expressed via an all-orders Bohr-Sommerfeld relation, but this neglects non-perturbative effects, the nature of which is very different in the electric, magnetic and dyonic regions. In the gauge theory dyonic region the spectral expansions are divergent, and indeed are not Borel-summable, so they are more properly described by resurgent trans-series in which perturbative and non-perturbative effects are deeply entwined. In the gauge theory electric region the spectral expansions are convergent, but nevertheless there are non-perturbative effects due to poles in the expansion coefficients, and which we associate with worldline instantons. This provides a concrete analog of a phenomenon found recently by Drukker, Mariño and Putrov in the large N expansion of the ABJM matrix model, in which non-perturbative effects are related to complex space-time instantons. In this paper we study how these very different regimes arise from an exact WKB analysis, and join smoothly through the magnetic region. This approach also leads to a simple proof of a resurgence relation found recently by Dunne and Ünsal, showing that for these spectral systems all non-perturbative effects are subtly encoded in perturbation theory, and identifies this with the Picard-Fuchs equation for the quantized elliptic curve.

  10. Purification and structural characterization of an α-glucosidase inhibitory polysaccharide from apricot (Armeniaca sibirica L. Lam.) pulp.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Gu, Xin; Wang, Fengjun; Ouyang, Jie; Wang, Jianzhong

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the crude polysaccharide (APPS) from the fruiting bodies of apricot (Armeniaca sibirica L. Lam.) was isolated and fractionated by ultrafiltration and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography. The hypoglycemic activities of all fractions were determined by α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. The fraction APPS1-2 showed the best activity with an IC50 of 6.06 mg/mL. The properties and chemical compositions of this fraction were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography, gel permeation chromatography-eighteen angle laser light scattering instrument, UV spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy ((1)H). The results demonstrated that APPS1-2 was a neutral glycoconjugate with a molecular weight of 25.93 kDa. It comprised rhamnose, glucose, mannose, and galactose, with a relative molar ratio of 1.34:2.01:0.48:0.35. The backbone of APPS1-2 may consist of rhamnose and glucose, but its branches may consist of mannose and galactose. The IR and UV spectrum of APPS1-2 revealed the typical characteristics of heteropolysaccharide. (1)H NMR spectrum showed that APPS1-2 contained α-configurations. PMID:25659703

  11. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP "Tainung 73," which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. PMID:26509161

  12. Inhibitory effects of dried longan (Euphoria longana Lam.) seed extract on invasion and matrix metalloproteinases of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Panyathep, Atita; Chewonarin, Teera; Taneyhill, Khanittha; Vinitketkumnuen, Usanee; Surh, Young-Joon

    2013-04-17

    The critical step in colorectal cancer progression and associated mortality is cancer invasion, which depends on two key gelatinase enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Dried longan ( Euphoria longana Lam.) seed is a rich natural source of antioxidant polyphenols.This study evaluated the effect of dried longan seeds on colon cancer cell invasion via gelatinase function and expression. Three dried longan seed fractions were collected by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. They showed a potent inhibitor on colorectal cancer cell invasion and gelatinase activity. The antigelatinase activities of fractions 1 and 2 were a direct effect via Zn²⁺ chelation, whereas fraction 3 modulated indirectly through suppression of zymogen activators. Among the fractions, only fraction 3 reduced the gelatinase expression, which was correlated with the levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and may as well involve the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways. This primary research has manifested and encouraged the anticancer properties of dried longan seed extracts with potential inhibitory effects on cancer cell invasion as well as antigelatinase activity and expression in colon cancer cells. PMID:23527961

  13. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP “Tainung 73,” which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. PMID:26509161

  14. An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Pankla Sranujit, Rungnapa; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)—induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage. PMID:24553063

  15. Aculeatin, a coumarin derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Akio; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshida, Izumi; Harada, Teppei; Mishima, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Aculeatin promoted adipocyte differentiation. • Aculeatin improved glucose uptake. • Aculeatin enhanced adipocyte lipolysis. - Abstract: Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. asiatica) has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of anti-diabetic agents, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigated the effects of fractionated T. asiatica extracts on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and identified aculeatin as a potential active agent. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with aculeatin isolated from T. asiatica in the presence of insulin, aculeatin increased cellular triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. This indicated that aculeatin could enhance the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Further analyses using a DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed an increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ target genes (Pparg, Ap2, Cd36, Glut4 and Adipoq) by aculeatin, suggesting that aculeatin enhances the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by modulating the expression of genes critical for adipogenesis. Interestingly, after treatment of differentiated adipocytes with aculeatin, glucose uptake and lipolysis were enhanced. Overall, our results suggested that aculeatin is an active compound in T. asiatica for enhancing both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes, which are useful for the treatment of lipid abnormalities as well as diabetes.

  16. In vitro screening and evaluation of antivenom phytochemicals from Azima tetracantha Lam. leaves against Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snakebites are considered a neglected tropical disease that affects thousands of people worldwide. Although antivenom is the only treatment available, it is associated with several side effects. As an alternative, plants have been extensively studied in order to obtain an alternative treatment. In folk medicine, Azima tetracantha Lam. is usually used to treat snakebites. The present study aims to provide a scientific explanation for the use of this plant against snakebite. The extracts of shade dried leaves of A. tetracantha were tested for in vitro inhibitory activity on toxic venom enzymes like phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, acetylcholinesterase, hyaluronidase etc. from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venoms. Results The ethylacetate extract rendered a significant inhibitory effect on the phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, phospholipase A2 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes. Conclusions The present study suggests that ethylacetate extract of A. tetracantha leaves possesses compounds that inhibit the activity of toxic enzymes from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venom. Further pharmacological and in vivo studies would provide evidence that this substance may lead to a potential treatment against these venoms. PMID:24690426

  17. Immunogenicity of viral B-cell epitopes inserted into two surface loops of the Escherichia coli K12 LamB protein and expressed in an attenuated aroA strain of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Michel, V; Leclerc, C; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    1999-01-01

    We previously developed a general procedure which allows the genetic coupling of a chosen foreign linear epitope in different 'permissive' sites of a carrier protein. By using the outer membrane protein LamB of Escherichia coli K12 as a carrier, we were able to express a number of different foreign epitopes at the bacterial surface. In the present work, taking advantage of the recent determination of the crystal structure of LamB, we inserted two model B-cell epitopes i.e.--the C3 epitope from poliovirus (residues 93 to 103 of VP1) and the preS2 epitope from hepatitis B virus, (residues 132 to 145)--at the tip of the most distal and largest surface exposed region of LamB (after residues 386, into loop L9). We also used two previously constructed LamB hybrids, corresponding to the insertion of the C3B or preSB epitope into permissive site 153 (lying in the middle of the fourth surface loop of LamB), to construct two LamB proteins corresponding to the simultaneous insertion of the two different epitopes (with one epitope per site). The LamB hybrids were placed under the control of the anaerobically inducible pnirB promoter and expressed in a LamB-negative derivative of the aroA attenuated strain of S. typhimurium, SL3261. In vitro, the recombinant proteins were expressed at a high level (up to 10% of whole cell proteins) and in vivo the recombinant plasmids were stably maintained. For both epitopes, genetic coupling at site 386 appeared to be more favorable for the induction of anti-epitope antibodies than coupling at site 153. Moreover, the LamB hybrid corresponding to the simultaneous insertion of the preSB epitope at site 153 and of the C3B epitope at site 386 allowed the induction of both anti-poliovirus and anti-hepatitis B antibodies. PMID:10078601

  18. Validation of turbulence and convective schemes on western Africa; comparison of LAM and CRM simulations on an AMMA case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, David; Gueremy, Jean-Francois; Beau, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse the behaviour of turbulence and convective parameterizations included in the Météo-France ALADIN-CLIMAT Limited Area Model in the frame of a 48 hour simulation of an AMMA case study, in comparison to observations and to a CRM (Méso-NH, with a 5 km horizontal grid-mesh) simulation carried out under the same boundary forcings. This framework provides an intermediate step of parameterization validation between the Single Column Model and Global Climate Model simulation studies. The chosen case study is the 26-27th July 2006 over a 43° x 40° region centred over Burkina Faso, in continuation to a previous work done with a HAPEX-Sahel case-study. During this 2 day period, two successive mesoscale convective systems are located ahead and in phase with the trough of an African easterly Wave (AEW). Both LAM and CRM simulations have been performed over the same considered domain, using the same ECMWF boundary forcings. Sensitivity tests to resolution (both horizontal and vertical) have been first carried out with ALADIN-CLIMAT. Second, the two different convection schemes used in ALADIN-CLIMAT show two kinds of response mainly due to their different formulations of triggering (no constraints in the dry layer under the convective cloud versus continuous treatment of convection including this dry layer) and closure (moisture convergence versus CAPE). Third, the impact of convective downdrafts will be shown. Fourth, the impact of different boundary forcing fields will also be presented.

  19. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fernanda Fraga; Sales, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro José; Araújo, Márcio SS; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Resende, Jarbas M; Alves, Tânia MA; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; dos Santos, Vera Lúcia; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania Barros

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae). We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL) and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL), Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL). Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM) in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay. PMID:25742265

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Asghari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Diana; Saeidi, Mozhgan; Nasr-Esfahani, Salar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4%) and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg) and normal saline (1 ml/kg) were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6) and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm) as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg) were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg) was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive. PMID:25050310

  1. Anti-apoptosis effect of polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam on cardiomyocytes in aging rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shou-Li; Guo, Li; Ren, Ya-Chao; Wang, Bing; Li, Rong-Hui; Qi, Yu-Shan; Yu, Hui; Chang, Nai-Dan; Li, Ming-Hui; Peng, Hai-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the mechanism of apoptosis in myocardial cells of aging rats induced by D-galactose and to study the effect of the Polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam (PCCL) on apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and its corresponding machinasim in aging rat model. Fifty male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Normal control group (NC). D-galactose (100 mg · kg(-1)d(-1) for 56 day) indued aging group (MC), D-galactose plus 100 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (ML), D-galactose plus 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MM), and D-galactose plus 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MH). Same volume of solution (water, or PCCL aqueous solution) was given by gavage for 56 days. Then the hearts were collected and apoptosis parameters were evaluated. Caspase-3 and Cyt c were determined by fluorescence spectrometer, the apoptosis rate was assessed by AnnexinV-FITC method by Flow-Cytometry, [Ca(2+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i overloaded by KCL were observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM); Bcl-2 and Bax were examined by immunohistochemistry. The content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3, Bax expression level in D-galactose induced aging group were higher than NC (p < 0.05). The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was decreased in D-galactose induced aging group compared to NC. On the other hand, the content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3 and apoptosis rate, as well as Bax expression level in all three PCCL groups were decreased compared to galactose induced group (p < 0.05). Bcl-2/Bax ratio was increased in all PCCL groups compared to galactose induced aging group. PCCL could decrease the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by the mitochondria apoptosis pathway. PMID:24972571

  2. Efficient embryogenic suspension culturing and rapid transformation of a range of elite genotypes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Bi, Hui-Ping; Fan, Wei-Juan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was developed using embryogenic suspension cell cultures of elite sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) cultivars, including Ayamurasaki, Sushu2, Sushu9, Sushu11, Wanshu1, Xushu18 and Xushu22. Embryogenic suspension cultures were established in LCP medium using embryogenic calli induced from apical or axillary buds on an induction medium containing 2 mg l(-1) 2,4-D. Suspension cultures were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the binary plasmid pCAMBIA1301 with the hpt gene as a selectable marker and an intron-interrupted uidA gene as a visible marker. Several key steps of the sweet potato transformation system have been investigated and optimized, including the appropriate antibiotics and their concentrations for suppressing Agrobacterium growth and the optimal doses of hygromycin for transformant selection. A total of 485 putative transgenic plant lines were produced from the transformed calli via somatic embryogenesis and germination to plants under 10 mg l(-1) hygromycin and 200 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. PCR, GUS and Southern blot analyses of the regenerated plants showed that 92.35% of them were transgenic. The number of T-DNA insertions varied from one to three in most transgenic plant lines. Plants showed 100% survival when 308 transgenics were transferred to soil in the greenhouse and then to the field. Most of them were morphologically normal, with the production of storage roots after 3 months of cultivation in the greenhouse or fields. The development of such a robust transformation method suitable to a range of sweet potato genotypes not only provides a routine tool for genetic improvement via transgenesis but also allows us to conduct a functional verification of endogenous genes in sweet potato. PMID:21958713

  3. Improvement of the coagulation/flocculation process using a combination of Moringa oleifera lam with anionic polymer in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Bongiovani, Milene Carvalho; Camacho, Franciele Pereira; Nishi, Letícia; Coldebella, Priscila Ferri; Valverde, Karina Cardoso; Vieira, Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of anionic polymer as a flocculant aid on the coagulation/flocculation performance with a saline solution of Moringa oleifera as a coagulant to provide larger flocs and decrease the time sedimentation. For the tests, raw water was used from Pirapó River Basin (Maringá, Paraná, Brazil). Optimization of coagulation/flocculation tests was initially performed in a jar-test with a dosage of M. oleifera Lam (crude extract--MO, oil-extracted with ethanol--MO (et) and hexane--MO (hex) 1% m/v) as the coagulant that ranged from 10 to 60 mg L(-1) and of the anionic polymer 0.1% as a flocculant aid with a dosage that ranged from 0 to 0.4 mg L(-1). The parameters analysed were colour, turbidity and compounds with absorption in UV254nm. In view of the statistical analysis results, MO (hex) with a dosage of 30 mg L(-1) was chosen as a coagulant for the next tests of coagulation/flocculation. When anionic polymer was used alone (0.0 mg L(-1) of MO (hex)), parameters were not removed and there was no generation of heavy flocs as compared with the combination of MO (hex) with the anionic polymer. Statistical analysis showed that MO (hex) obtained the highest removals of the parameters analysed in lower dosages and no significant increase in parameters removal was observed when the polymer dosage was increased. The efficacy of the coagulant +/- anionic polymer was optimal when 30mg L(-1) of MO (hex) was used as a coagulant and 0.1 mg L(-1) of the anionic polymer was used as a flocculant aid, decreasing the time sedimentation from 1 h to 15 min. PMID:25145175

  4. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fernanda Fraga; Sales Junior, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro José; Araújo, Márcio S S; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Resende, Jarbas M; Alves, Tânia M A; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Santos, Vera Lúcia dos; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania Barros

    2015-02-01

    Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae). We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL) and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL), Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL). Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM) in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay. PMID:25742265

  5. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, S.; Raghavendra, K. M.; Biswas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  6. A comparative study of proteomic differences between pencil and storage roots of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeung Joo; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kwak, Youn-Sig; An, Jae Young; Kim, Pil Joo; Lee, Byung Hyun; Kumar, Vikranth; Park, Kee Woong; Chang, Eun Sil; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-02-01

    Fibrous roots of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) usually develop into both pencil and storage roots. To understand protein function in root development, a proteomic analysis was conducted on the pencil and storage roots of the light orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivar, Yulmi. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that expression of 30 protein spots differed between pencil and storage roots: 15 proteins were up-regulated or expressed in pencil roots and 15 in storage roots. Differentially expressed proteins spots were investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, and 10 proteins from pencil roots were identified as binding protein isoform A, catechol oxidase, peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, endochitinase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and unknown proteins. Of the proteins up-regulated in, or restricted to, storage roots, 13 proteins were identified as protein disulfide isomerase, anionic peroxidase, putative ripening protein, sporamin B, sporamin A and sporamin A precursor. An analysis of enzyme activity revealed that catechol oxidase and peroxidase as the first and last enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway, and ascorbate peroxidase had higher activities in pencil than in storage roots. The total concentration of phenolic compounds was also far higher in pencil than in storage roots, and lignin accumulated only in pencil roots. These results provide important insight into sweetpotato proteomics, and imply that lignin biosynthesis and stress-related proteins are up-regulated or uniquely expressed in pencil roots. The results indicate that the reduction of carbon flow toward phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and its delivery to carbohydrate metabolism is a major event in storage root formation. PMID:25562766

  7. The Saharan heat low and moisture transport pathways in the central Sahara—Multiaircraft observations and Africa-LAM evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelstaedter, S.; Washington, R.; Flamant, C.; Parker, D. J.; Allen, C. J. T.; Todd, M. C.

    2015-05-01

    We present a characterization of the Saharan heat low (SHL) based on dropsonde observations made on 22 June 2011 by two simultaneously flying aircraft during the Fennec project. The observations are used to identify moisture transport pathways and to validate the UK Met Office limited area model for northern Africa (Africa-LAM). The observations capture the SHL, harmattan, and monsoon surge. The SHL has a northeast-southwest orientated elongated shape centered over northern Mauritania. The SHL core is associated with a 950 hPa temperature minimum (36.4°C) in the morning caused by the monsoon surge and a maximum (42.6°C) in the afternoon. The monsoon surge east of the SHL core splits into two transport pathways: (a) curving around the SHL core in the north, especially pronounced in a morning near-surface layer, and (b) northeastward transport within the ~2 km deep monsoon surge (afternoon observations only). In the morning the model forecasts the harmattan, monsoon surge, and the SHL geographic location and northeast-southwest orientation well but the model represents the SHL flatter and more spatially extended and overestimates the convective boundary layer (CBL) by up to ~0.3 km. The simulated afternoon SHL location appears shifted westward by up to ~1°. The model overestimates the shallow afternoon monsoon surge CBL depth of ~1.8 km by >2 km resulting in southwestward transport of vertically mixed moisture above ~2.5 km contrasting observed northeastward-only transport at lower levels. This moisture distribution model error is likely to have consequences for simulations of Saharan thermodynamics and dust emissions caused by convection-driven cold pools.

  8. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial evaluation of a novel compound N-octacosan 7? ol, from Fumaria parviflora Lam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumaraceae) is widely used in traditional as well as folkloric system of medicine from ancient. It is commonly known as Pitpapra or Shahtrah in Indian traditional system of medicine and used for treating numerous ailments like diarrhea, fever, influenza, blood purifier and other complications. The object of the present study was to evaluate the Antileishmanial, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic potential of isolated compound. Methods Methanolic extract of whole plant of Fumaria parviflora was dried under reduced pressure to obtain a dark brown residue which was adsorbed on silica gel column grade (60120mesh) to obtain a slurry and chromatographed over silica gel loaded column in petroleum ether chloroform (3:1, 1:1 and 1:3?v/v). The in vitro antileishmanial evaluation of isolated compound against Leishmania donovani promastigotes was investigated by growth kinetics assay, reversibility assay, analysis of cellular morphology, adverse toxicity and determination of 50% growth inhibitory concentration (GI50). Disc diffusion and broth micro dilution methods were used to study the antibacterial (Gram?+?Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis; Gram - Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) and antifungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) potential in vitro. Results Structure elucidation by spectral data analysis revealed a novel compound, n-octacosan-7?-ol (OC), yield (0.471%), having significant antimicrobial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger in vitro with GI50?=?5.35, MIC 250, MIC 250 and MFC 500 and MIC 250?gml-1 respectively. The isolated compound did not show adverse effect against mammalian macrophages. Conclusions The available evidence of compound suggested that it may be used as antimicrobial agent in future and may provide new platform for drug discovery programmes for leishmaniasis. PMID:24621260

  9. Genetic and molecular characterization of pathogenic isolates of Pyricularia grisea from wheat (Triticum aestivum Lam.) and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Busso, Cleverson; Nobuyoshi Kaneshima, Edilson; Franco, Francisco de Assis; de Castro-Prado, Marialba Avezum Alves

    2007-06-01

    Isolates of Pyricularia grisea from wheat (Triticum aestivum Lam.) and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) spikes with blast symptoms were analyzed by classical (VCG) and molecular (RAPD) techniques. P. grisea mutants, unable to use sodium nitrate (nit) as nitrogen source, were obtained with potassium chlorate. For vegetative compatibility (VCG) tests, genetically complementary nit mutant pairs were inoculated in a medium with sodium nitrate as a single nitrogen source. P. grisea isolates were divided into two vegetative compatibility groups and two RAPD groups. Since vegetative compatible strains may mutually exchange genetic and cytoplasmatic material, the contribution of the parasexual cycle in the genetic variability of Brazilian P. grisea isolates is discussed. PMID:17604441

  10. Application of Chan-Lam cross coupling for the synthesis of N-heterocyclic carbene precursors bearing strong electron donating or withdrawing groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liliang; He, Chengxiang; Sun, Zhihua

    2015-07-01

    Chan-Lam cross coupling allowed efficient synthesis of N,N’-disubstituted ortho-phenylene diamines bearing strong electron donating or withdrawing groups, such as nitro or methoxy groups, with moderate to high yields. These diamines can then be turned into N-heterocyclic carbene precursors after condensation with trimethyl orthoformate. The same strategy can also be utilized for the synthesis of N-monosubstituted aniline derivatives containing a functionalized ortho-aminomethyl group as intermediates for chiral 6-membered ring carbene precursors.

  11. Toddaculin, Isolated from of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., Inhibited Osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264 Cells and Enhanced Osteoblastogenesis in MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Akio; Kumagai, Momochika; Mishima, Takashi; Ito, Junya; Otoki, Yurika; Harada, Teppei; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Mikihiko; Suzuki, Misora; Yoshida, Izumi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis with bone loss is widely recognized as a major health problem. Bone homeostasis is maintained by balancing bone formation and bone resorption. The imbalance caused by increased bone resorption over bone formation can lead to various bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoclasts are the principal cells responsible for bone resorption and the main targets of anti-resorptive therapies. However, excessive inhibition of osteoclast differentiation may lead to inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. Therefore, it is important to screen for new compounds capable of inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of rheumatism. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of pharmacological agents for the treatment of bone-related diseases, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. We investigated whether toddaculin, derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., affects both processes by inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Towards this end, we used pre-osteoclastic RAW 264 cells and pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. We found that toddaculin not only inhibited the differentiation of osteoclasts via activation of the NF-κB, ERK 1/2, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, but it also induced differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts by regulating differentiation factors. Thus, toddaculin might be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25993011

  12. Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Rupjyoti; Tabassum, Jawahira; Azad, Mohammed Rekibul Haque

    2003-01-01

    The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the activities of hepatic cytochrome b(5), cytochrome p(450), catalase, glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ), glutathione reductase (GR), acid soluble sulfhydryl content (-SH ) and a significant decrease ( p<0.01 ) in the hepatic MDA level were observed at both dose levels of treatment when compared with the control values. Glutathione-S- transferase ( GST )activity was found to be significantly increased (p<0.01 ) only at the higher dose level. Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA ) fed at a dose of 0.75% in the diet for 7 and 14 days (positive control ) caused a significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the levels of hepatic phase I and phase II enzymes, anti- oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and a decrease in lipid peroxidation. The skin papillomagenesis studies demonstrated a significant decrease (p<0.05 ) in the percentage of mice with papillomas, average number of papillomas per mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse when the animals received a topical application of the extract at a dose of 5mg/ kg body weight in the peri-initiation phase 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application, Group II ), promotional phase (from the day of croton oil application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group III ) and both peri and post initiation stages (from 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group IV) compared to the control group (Group I ). The percentage inhibition of tumor multiplicity has been recorded to be 27, 72, and 81 in Groups II, III, and IV, respectively. These findings are suggestive of a possible chemopreventive potential of Moringa oliefera drumstick extract against chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:12875626

  13. Correlations among attributes of senescence and antioxidative status of leaf discs during epiphyllous bud differentiation in Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. (Pers.).

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sarita; Chawla, Raman; Sawhney, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Leaf detachment is a common signal that triggers both the differentiation of dormant epiphyllous buds as well as the onset of foliar senescence in Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. (Pers.). The present study looked for any probable correlations among selected attributes of foliar senescence, e.g. soluble proteins, chlorophylls a and b (Chl(a+b)), and membrane stability index (MSI), and the antioxidative status, e.g. phenolics, ferric reducing ability in plasma equivalence (FRAP(eq)), and membrane protection index (MPI), during epiphyllous bud differentiation. The experimental system comprised 0.75-cm leaf discs, with or without a dormant epiphyllous bud, cultured in vitro and exposed for ten days to continuous light or dark. A steady depletion of soluble proteins and Chl(a+b), and lowering of MSI in the leaf discs were observed, the decline being relatively faster and of higher magnitude in discs exposed to dark rather than to light. The pigment loss in discs with differentiating epiphyllous buds was greater and faster than in those lacking buds, a somewhat reverse situation was observed in case of soluble proteins. Simultaneously, a time-dependent decrease in the level of phenolics was also observed. Their content was found to be lower in discs exposed to dark as compared to light, pointing to a relationship with a higher rate of senescence-related degradative processes in the dark. The change in the content of Chl(a+b) was found to be significantly correlated with the variation in the level of phenolics. The average FRAP(eq) after ten days was one half that of the initial level, which could be correlated with the decreasing levels of phenolics (intra-correlation) and maximally correlated with variations in Chl(a+b) and protein contents (inter-correlation). Aqueous alcohol foliar extracts significantly (p < 0.05) protected membranes against peroxidative stress, although the pattern was not found to be in line with that of the phenolics content or FRAP(eq). The diminishing Chl(a+b) content was found to be maximally correlated with alterations in the membrane protection. PMID:23016282

  14. Fast analysis of volatile components of Achillea tenuifolia Lam with microwave distillation followed by headspace single-drop microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    This article investigates the effect of microwaves on the amount of volatile compounds Achillea tenuifolia Lam with two methods, headspace single-drop microextraction and microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextraction (MA-SDME), for the analysis of essential oil. Solvent selection, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time and sample mass were optimised by the simplex method. PMID:26329700

  15. How Is LAM Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung and chest wall together. This removes the space for leakage. Your doctor may do this procedure at your bedside in the hospital. You will be given medicine to prevent pain. The procedure also can be ...

  16. Determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by enhanced chemiluminescence of CdTe quantum dots on calcein/K3Fe(CN)6 system.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jing; Li, Xuwen; Geng, Jiayang; Han, Lu; Tang, Jieli; Jin, Yongri; Zhang, Yihua

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, 3-mercaptocarboxylic acid (MPA) modified CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were used as sensitizers, to enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system. A new CL system of CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was developed. The effects of reactant concentrations and the particle sizes of CdTe QDs on the CL emission were investigated in detail. The possible enhancement mechanism of the CL was also further investigated based on the photoluminescence (PL) and CL spectra. Polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid, quercetin, hyperin, catechin and kaempferol, were observed to inhibit the CL signal of the CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system and determined by the proposed method. The proposed method was applied to the determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and the results obtained were satisfactory. PMID:23442699

  17. High-Q energy trapping of temperature-stable shear waves with Lamé cross-sectional polarization in a single crystal silicon waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizian, R.; Daruwalla, A.; Ayazi, F.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-port electrostatically driven silicon acoustic cavity is implemented that efficiently traps the energy of a temperature-stable eigen-mode with Lamé cross-sectional polarization. Dispersive behavior of propagating and evanescent guided waves in a ⟨100⟩-aligned single crystal silicon waveguide is used to engineer the acoustic energy distribution of a specific shear eigen-mode that is well known for its low temperature sensitivity when implemented in doped single crystal silicon. Such an acoustic energy trapping in the central region of the acoustic cavity geometry and far from substrate obviates the need for narrow tethers that are conventionally used for non-destructive and high quality factor (Q) energy suspension in MEMS resonators; therefore, the acoustically engineered waveguide can simultaneously serve as in-situ self-oven by passing large uniformly distributed DC currents through its body and without any concern about perturbing the mode shape or deforming narrow supports. Such a stable thermo-structural performance besides large turnover temperatures than can be realized in Lamé eigen-modes make this device suitable for implementation of ultra-stable oven-controlled oscillators. 78 MHz prototypes implemented in arsenic-doped single crystal silicon substrates with different resistivity are transduced by in- and out-of-plane narrow-gap capacitive ports, showing high Q of ˜43k. The low resistivity device shows an overall temperature-induced frequency drift of 200 ppm over the range of -20 °C to 80 °C, which is ˜15× smaller compared to overall frequency drift measured for the similar yet high resistivity device in the same temperature range. Furthermore, a frequency tuning of ˜2100 ppm is achieved in high resistivity device by passing 45 mA DC current through its body. Continuous operation of the device under such a self-ovenizing current over 10 days did not induce frequency instability or degradation in Q.

  18. Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, Sunday E; Atawodi, Joy C; Idakwo, Gabriel A; Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Wurtele, Gerd; Bartsch, Helmut; Owen, Robert W

    2010-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been shown to have both chemopreventive and/or therapeutic effects on cancer and other diseases related to oxidative damage. Moringa oleifera Lam., known in the Hausa and Igala languages of Nigeria as "Zogale" and "Gergedi," respectively, and drumstick in English, is a plant that is used both as food and in folkloric medicine in Nigeria and elsewhere. Different parts of the plant were analyzed for polyphenol content as well as in vitro antioxidant potential. The methanol extract of the leaves of M. oleifera contained chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, whereas in the root and stem barks, several procyanidin peaks were detected. With the xanthine oxidase model system, all the extracts exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 16, 30, and 38 microL for the roots, leaves, and stem bark, respectively. Similarly, potent radical scavenging capacity was observed when extracts were evaluated with the 2-deoxyguanosine assay model system, with IC(50) values of 40, 58, and 72 microL for methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks, respectively. The high antioxidant/radical scavenging effects observed for different parts of M. oleifera appear to provide justification for their widespread therapeutic use in traditional medicine in different continents. The possibility that this high antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity may impact on the cancer chemopreventive potential of the plant must be considered. PMID:20521992

  19. Validation of turbulence and convective schemes on western Africa; comparison of LAM and CRM simulations on a HAPEX-Sahel case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, D.; Gueremy, J. F.; Beau, I.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse the behaviour of turbulence and convective parameterizations included in the Météo-France ALADIN-CLIMAT Limited Area Model in the frame of a 24 hour simulation of a HAPEX-Sahel case study, in comparison to observations and to a CRM (Méso-NH, with a 5 km horizontal grid-mesh) simulation carried out under the same boundary forcings. This framework provides an intermediate step of parameterization validation between the Single Column Model and Global Climate Model simulation studies. The chosen case study is the 21st August 1992 over a 12° x 12° region centred over SW Niger. It is characterised by the life cycle of a westward propagating convective system associated to an African Easterly Wave. Both LAM and CRM simulations have been performed over the same considered domain, using the same ERA40 boundary forcings. Sensitivity tests to resolution (both horizontal and vertical) have been first carried out with ALADIN-CLIMAT. Second, the two different convection schemes used in ALADIN-CLIMAT show two kinds of response mainly due to their different formulations of triggering (no constraints in the dry layer under the convective cloud versus continuous treatment of convection including this dry layer) and closure (moisture convergence versus CAPE). Third, the impact of entrainment at the top of the PBL (included in the turbulence scheme) and of convective downdrafts will be shown. Fourth, the impact of different boundary forcing fields will also be presented.

  20. Evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity in the early successional Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. compared to the late successional Hymenaea courbaril L. grown in contrasting light environments.

    PubMed

    Portes, M T; Damineli, D S C; Ribeiro, R V; Monteiro, J A F; Souza, G M

    2010-02-01

    The present study investigated changes in photosynthetic characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (early successional species) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (late successional species) grown in contrasting light conditions as a way of assessing photosynthetic plasticity. Early successional species typically inhabit gap environments being exposed to variability in multiple resources, hence it is expected that these species would show higher photosynthetic plasticity than late successional ones. In order to test this hypothesis, light and CO2 response curves and chlorophyll content (Chl) were measured in plants grown in high and low light environments. G. ulmifolia presented the highest amounts of both Chl a and b, especially in the low light, and both species presented higher Chl a than b in both light conditions. The Chl a/b ratio was higher in high light leaves of both species and greater in G. ulmifolia. Taken together, these results evidence the acclimation potential of both species, reflecting the capacity to modulate light harvesting complexes according to the light environment. However, G. ulmifolia showed evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity, as indicated by the greater amplitude of variation on photosynthetic characteristics between environments shown by more significant shade adjusted parameters (SAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Thus, the results obtained were coherent with the hypothesis that the early successional species G. ulmifolia exhibits higher photosynthetic plasticity than the late successional species H. courbaril. PMID:20231962

  1. Antifeedant activity of aqueous extract of Gnidia glauca Gilg. and Toddalia asiatica Lam. on the gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hbn).

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, G; Kumuthakalavalli, R

    2001-01-01

    Aqueous leaf extracts of two plants namely Gnidia glauca Gilg. and Toddalia asiatica Lam., have been screened for their antifeedant activity against the sixth instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hbn) by applying the aqueous leaf extracts at various concentrations viz., 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 percent on young tomato leaves. The larval mortality of more than 50 percent at higher concentrations (0.8 and 1.0 percent) was observed in the aqueous extracts. Among the two aqueous leaf extracts tested, T. asiatica was found to show higher rate of mortality (86.1%) at 1.0 percent concentration. A reduction in the rate of food consumption and growth was observed in the larvae of H. armigera after 48 hours of treatments in both the aqueous extracts. Since this insect pest species have developed resistance and resurgence to synthetic insecticides, the only alternate is the usage of bio-pesticides for they are eco-friendly, pollution free and easily degradable. PMID:11480344

  2. Activation of Cellular Immunity in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-Infected Mice by the Oral Administration of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Masahiko; Wadhwani, Ashish; Kai, Hisahiro; Hidaka, Muneaki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Sugita, Chihiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Matsuno, Koji; Hagiwara, Akinori

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is used as a nutritive vegetable and spice. Its ethanol extract has been previously shown to be significantly effective in alleviating herpetic skin lesions in mice. In this study, we evaluated the alleviation by the aqueous extract (AqMOL) and assessed the mode of its anti-herpetic action in a murine cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection model. AqMOL (300 mg/kg) was administered orally to HSV-1-infected mice three times daily on days 0 to 5 after infection. AqMOL significantly limited the development of herpetic skin lesions and reduced virus titers in the brain on day 4 without toxicity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to inactivated HSV-1 antigen was significantly stronger in infected mice administered AqMOL and AqMOL augmented interferon (IFN)-γ production by HSV-1 antigen from splenocytes of HSV-1-infected mice at 4 days post-infection. AqMOL administration was effective in elevating the ratio of CD11b(+) and CD49b(+) subpopulations of splenocytes in infected mice. As DTH is a major host defense mechanism for intradermal HSV infection, augmentation of the DTH response by AqMOL may contribute to their efficacies against HSV-1 infection. These results provided an important insights into the mechanism by which AqMOL activates cellular immunity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26814058

  3. Evaluation of In Vitro Antimalarial Activity of Different Extracts of Artemisia aucheri Boiss. and A. armeniaca Lam. and Fractions of the Most Potent Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Shiravand, Ali; Delazar, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Ten extracts with different polarity from two Iranian Artemisia species, A. armeniaca Lam. and A. aucheri Boiss, were screened for their antimalarial properties by in vitro???-hematin formation assay. Dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of both plants showed significant antimalarial activities with IC50 values of 1.36 0.01 and 1.83 0.03?mg/mL and IC90 values of 2.12 0.04 and 2.62 0.09?mg/mL for A. armeniaca and A. aucheri, respectively. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of DCM extracts of both plants by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) over silica gel with solvent mixtures of increasing polarities afforded seven fractions. Two fractions from DCM extract of A. armeniaca and four fractions from DCM extract of A. aucheri showed potent antimalarial activity with reducing IC50 and IC90 values compared to extracts. The most potent fraction belonged to DCM extract of A. armeniaca with IC50 and IC90 values of 0.47 0.006 and 0.71 0.006?mg/mL, respectively. PMID:24558335

  4. The Synergic Anti-inflammatory Impact of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 on Intestinal Epithelial Cells in a DSS-induced Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younghoon; Oh, Sejong

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the synergic anti-inflammatory activity of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (GS) extract and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 both in vitro and in vivo. Western blot analysis and immunostaining showed that AKT phosphorylation that increased by the exposure of LPS were significantly decreased by the presence of either GS extract or L. brevis KY21. In addition, p65 intracellular transport was critically inhibited by GS extract and L. brevis KY21. We further studied these effects using an in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model. Body weight, food intake, and clinical scores were dramatically decreased after treatment with DSS, whereas these effects were palliated by the addition of GS extract and L. brevis KY21. Importantly, transcription of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the spleen were increased by DSS treatment, whereas they were inhibited by the presence of GS extract and L. brevis KY21. PMID:26761887

  5. Leaf morphological and physiological adaptations of a deciduous oak (Quercus faginea Lam.) to the Mediterranean climate: a comparison with a closely related temperate species (Quercus robur L.).

    PubMed

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sisó, Sergio; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Díaz-Espejo, Antonio; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-03-01

    'White oaks'-one of the main groups of the genus Quercus L.-are represented in western Eurasia by the 'roburoid oaks', a deciduous and closely related genetic group that should have an Arcto-Tertiary origin under temperate-nemoral climates. Nowadays, roburoid oak species such as Quercus robur L. are still present in these temperate climates in Europe, but others are also present in southern Europe under Mediterranean-type climates, such as Quercus faginea Lam. We hypothesize the existence of a coordinated functional response at the whole-shoot scale in Q. faginea under Mediterranean conditions to adapt to more xeric habitats. The results reveal a clear morphological and physiological segregation between Q. robur and Q. faginea, which constitute two very contrasting functional types in response to climate dryness. The most outstanding divergence between the two species is the reduction in transpiring area in Q. faginea, which is the main trait imposed by the water deficit in Mediterranean-type climates. The reduction in leaf area ratio in Q. faginea should have a negative effect on carbon gain that is partially counteracted by a higher inherent photosynthetic ability of Q. faginea when compared with Q. robur, as a consequence of higher mesophyll conductance, higher maximum velocity of carboxylation and much higher stomatal conductance (gs). The extremely high gs of Q. faginea counteracts the expected reduction in gs imposed by the stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit, allowing this species to diminish water losses maintaining high net CO2 assimilation values along the vegetative period under nonlimiting soil water potential values. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Q. faginea can be regarded as an example of adaptation of a deciduous oak to Mediterranean-type climates. PMID:26496958

  6. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas].

    PubMed

    Khoury, Colin K; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Miller, Richard E; Scotland, Robert W; Wood, John R I; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Yencho, G C; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding. PMID:25954286

  7. Do Ecological Niche Model Predictions Reflect the Adaptive Landscape of Species?: A Test Using Myristica malabarica Lam., an Endemic Tree in the Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, Shivaprakash K.; Gudasalamani, Ravikanth; Barve, Narayani; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Narayanagowda, Ganeshaiah Kotiganahalli; Ramanan, Uma Shaanker

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models (ENM) have become a popular tool to define and predict the “ecological niche” of a species. An implicit assumption of the ENMs is that the predicted ecological niche of a species actually reflects the adaptive landscape of the species. Thus in sites predicted to be highly suitable, species would have maximum fitness compared to in sites predicted to be poorly suitable. As yet there are very few attempts to address this assumption. Here we evaluate this assumption. We used Bioclim (DIVA GIS version 7.3) and Maxent (version 3.3.2) to predict the habitat suitability of Myristica malabarica Lam., an economically important tree occurring in the Western Ghats, India. We located populations of the trees naturally occurring in different habitat suitability regimes (from highly suitable to poorly suitable) and evaluated them for their regeneration ability and genetic diversity. We also evaluated them for two plant functional traits, fluctuating asymmetry – an index of genetic homeostasis, and specific leaf weight – an index of primary productivity, often assumed to be good surrogates of fitness. We show a significant positive correlation between the predicted habitat quality and plant functional traits, regeneration index and genetic diversity of populations. Populations at sites predicted to be highly suitable had a higher regeneration and gene diversity compared to populations in sites predicted to be poor or unsuitable. Further, individuals in the highly suitable sites exhibited significantly less fluctuating asymmetry and significantly higher specific leaf weight compared to individuals in the poorly suitable habitats. These results for the first time provide an explicit test of the ENM with respect to the plant functional traits, regeneration ability and genetic diversity of populations along a habitat suitability gradient. We discuss the implication of these resultsfor designing viable species conservation and restoration programs. PMID:24312402

  8. Effects of Elevated CO2 and N Addition on Growth and N2 Fixation of a Legume Subshrub (Caragana microphylla Lam.) in Temperate Grassland in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Wu, Dongxiu; Shi, Huiqiu; Zhang, Canjuan; Zhan, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Shuangxi

    2011-01-01

    It is well demonstrated that the responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration are species-specific and dependent on environmental conditions. We investigated the responses of a subshrub legume species, Caragana microphylla Lam., to elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition using open-top chambers in a semiarid temperate grassland in northern China for three years. Measured variables include leaf photosynthetic rate, shoot biomass, root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity, and leaf N content. Symbiotic nitrogenase activity was determined by the C2H2 reduction method. Elevated CO2 enhanced photosynthesis and shoot biomass by 83% and 25%, respectively, and the enhancement of shoot biomass was significant only at a high N concentration. In addition, the photosynthetic capacity of C. microphylla did not show down-regulation under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 had no significant effect on root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity and leaf N content. Under elevated CO2, N addition stimulated photosynthesis and shoot biomass. By contrast, N addition strongly inhibited symbiotic nitrogenase activity and slightly increased leaf N content of C. microphylla under both CO2 levels, and had no significant effect on root biomass. The effect of elevated CO2 and N addition on C. microphylla did not show interannual variation, except for the effect of N addition on leaf N content. These results indicate that shoot growth of C. microphylla is more sensitive to elevated CO2 than is root growth. The stimulation of shoot growth of C. microphylla under elevated CO2 or N addition is not associated with changes in N2-fixation. Additionally, elevated CO2 and N addition interacted to affect shoot growth of C. microphylla with a stimulatory effect occurring only under combination of these two factors. PMID:22046376

  9. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of L-Dopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical formulations using a crude extract of sweet potato root [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] as enzymatic source.

    PubMed

    Fatibello-Filho, O; da Cruz Vieira, I

    1997-04-01

    A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of L-dopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical formulations. After selection of the extraction medium (e.g., buffer-to-tissue ratio, pH, buffer concentration, protective agents and/or stabilizers) and storage conditions, crude extract of sweet potato root [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was used as an enzymatic source of polyphenol oxidase (Tyrosinase; catechol oxidase; EC.1.14.18.1) directly in the carrier. This enzyme catalyses the oxidation of these catecholamines to the corresponding dopaquinone. Further, dopaquinone undergoes a rapid spontaneous auto-oxidation to leucodopachrome, which is in turn oxidized to dopachrome; this last compound has a strong absorption at 480 and 360 nm for L-dopa and carbidopa, respectively. For the optimum extraction conditions found the enzyme activity of the crude extract did not vary for at least 5 months when stored at 4 degrees C and decreased by only 4-5% during an 8 h working period at 25 degrees C. The results obtained for L-dopa and carbidopa by the proposed enzymatic FI method were in close agreement with the label values (r1 = 0.9699 and r2 = 0.9999) and also with those obtained using a pharmacopeial method (r3 = 0.9675). The throughput was 26 samples h-1, and 2.30 ml of crude extract were consumed in each determination, corresponding to only 72 mg of the original sweet potato root. The detection limit (three times the signal blank/slope) was 1.5 x 10(-5) and 2.0 x 10(-5) mol l-1 for L-dopa and carbidopa, respectively; the recovery of L-dopa and carbidopa from three samples ranged from 98.6 to 106.3% of the added amount. PMID:9177077

  10. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Berry Extract Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer but not Non-Tumorigenic Breast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liya; Adams, Lynn S.; Chen, Shiuan; Killian, Caroline; Ahmed, Aftab; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2009-01-01

    The ripe purple berries of the native Indian plant, Eugenia jambolana Lam., known as Jamun, are popularly consumed and available in the United States in Florida and Hawaii. Despite the growing body of data on the chemopreventive potential of edible berry extracts, there is paucity of such data for Jamun fruit. Therefore our laboratory initiated the current study with the following objectives:1) to prepare a standardized Jamun fruit extract (JFE) for biological studies and, 2) to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, and in a normal/non-tumorigenic (MCF-10A) breast cell line. JFE was standardized to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC50=27 µg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC50=40 µg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC50>100 µg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 µg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro (p≤0.05) and the MDA-MB-231 (p≤0.01) breast cancer cells, but not towards the normal MCF-10A breast cells. These studies suggest that JFE may have potential beneficial effects against breast cancer. PMID:19166352

  11. Development of a validated HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of flavonoids in Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by ultra-violet detection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cuscuta species known as dodder, have been used in traditional medicine of eastern and southern Asian countries as liver and kidney tonic. Flavonoids are considered as the main biologically active constituents in Cuscuta plants especially in C. chinensis Lam. Objective In the present study, a fast, simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination and quantization of C. chinensis flavonols including hyperoside, rutin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol has been developed. Materials and methods The chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase ACE 5 C18 with eluting at a flow rate of 1 ml/min using a gradient with O-phosphoric acid 0.25% : acetonitrile for 42 min. UV spectra were collected across the range of 200–900 nm, extracting 360 nm for the chromatograms. The method was validated according to linearity, selectivity, precision, recovery, LOD and LOQ. Results The method was selective for determination of rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin and kampferol. The calibration graphs of flavonols were linear with r2 > 0.999. RSDs% of intra- and inter-day precisions were found 1.3&3.4 for rutin, 1.5&2.8 for hyperoside, 1.3&3.3 for isorhamnetin and 1.7 & 2.9 for kaempferol which were satisfactory. LODs and LOQs were calculated as 1.73 & 8.19 for rutin, 0.09 & 4.19 for hyperoside, 2.09 & 6.3 for isorhamnetin and 0.18 & 0.56 for kaempferol. The recovery averages of above-mentioned flavonols were 90.3%, 97.4%, 98.7% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusion The simplicity of the method makes it highly valuable for quality control of C. chinensis according to quantization of flavonols. PMID:23352257

  12. Sveconorwegian crustal underplating in southwestern Fennoscandia: LAM-ICPMS U Pb and Lu Hf isotope evidence from granites and gneisses in Telemark, southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, T.; Griffin, W. L.; Sylvester, A. G.

    2007-02-01

    Laser ablation ICPMS U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope data on granitic-granodioritic gneisses of the Precambrian Vråvatn complex in central Telemark, southern Norway, indicate that the magmatic protoliths crystallized at 1201 ± 9 Ma to 1219 ± 8 Ma, from magmas with juvenile or near-juvenile Hf isotopic composition ( 176Hf/ 177Hf = 0.2823 ± 11, epsilon-Hf > + 6). These data provide supporting evidence for the depleted mantle Hf-isotope evolution curve in a time period where juvenile igneous rocks are scarce on a global scale. They also identify a hitherto unknown event of mafic underplating in the region, and provide new and important limits on the crustal evolution of the SW part of the Fennoscandian Shield. This juvenile geochemical component in the deep crust may have contributed to the 1.0-0.92 Ga anorogenic magmatism in the region, which includes both A-type granite and a large anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite intrusive complex. The gneisses of the Vråvatn complex were intruded by a granitic pluton with mafic enclaves and hybrid facies (the Vrådal granite) in that period. LAM-ICPMS U-Pb data from zircons from granitic and hybrid facies of the pluton indicates an intrusive age of 966 ± 4 Ma, and give a hint of ca. 1.46 Ga inheritance. The initial Hf isotopic composition of this granite ( 176Hf/ 177Hf = 0.28219 ± 13, epsilon-Hf = - 5 to + 6) overlaps with mixtures of pre-1.7 Ga crustal rocks and juvenile Sveconorwegian crust, lithospheric mantle and/or global depleted mantle. Contributions from ca. 1.2 Ga crustal underplate must be considered when modelling the petrogenesis of late Sveconorwegian anorogenic magmatism in the region.

  13. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Miller, Richard E.; Scotland, Robert W.; Wood, John R. I.; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A.; Jarret, Robert L.; Yencho, G. C.; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding. PMID:25954286

  14. Effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on growth and N2 fixation of a legume subshrub (Caragana microphylla Lam.) in temperate grassland in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Wu, Dongxiu; Shi, Huiqiu; Zhang, Canjuan; Zhan, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Shuangxi

    2011-01-01

    It is well demonstrated that the responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration are species-specific and dependent on environmental conditions. We investigated the responses of a subshrub legume species, Caragana microphylla Lam., to elevated CO(2) and nitrogen (N) addition using open-top chambers in a semiarid temperate grassland in northern China for three years. Measured variables include leaf photosynthetic rate, shoot biomass, root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity, and leaf N content. Symbiotic nitrogenase activity was determined by the C(2)H(2) reduction method. Elevated CO(2) enhanced photosynthesis and shoot biomass by 83% and 25%, respectively, and the enhancement of shoot biomass was significant only at a high N concentration. In addition, the photosynthetic capacity of C. microphylla did not show down-regulation under elevated CO(2). Elevated CO(2) had no significant effect on root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity and leaf N content. Under elevated CO(2), N addition stimulated photosynthesis and shoot biomass. By contrast, N addition strongly inhibited symbiotic nitrogenase activity and slightly increased leaf N content of C. microphylla under both CO(2) levels, and had no significant effect on root biomass. The effect of elevated CO(2) and N addition on C. microphylla did not show interannual variation, except for the effect of N addition on leaf N content. These results indicate that shoot growth of C. microphylla is more sensitive to elevated CO(2) than is root growth. The stimulation of shoot growth of C. microphylla under elevated CO(2) or N addition is not associated with changes in N(2)-fixation. Additionally, elevated CO(2) and N addition interacted to affect shoot growth of C. microphylla with a stimulatory effect occurring only under combination of these two factors. PMID:22046376

  15. Cryogenic Refractive Indices of S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14 Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Leviton, Doug

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is an explorer-class planet finder, whose principal goal is to detect small planets with bright host starts in the solar neighborhood. The TESS payload consists of four identical cameras with seven optical elements each that include various types of Ohara glass substrates. The successful implementation both panchromatic and thermal lens assembly designs for these cameras requires a fairly accurate (up to 1E-6) knowledge of the temperature and wavelength dependence of the refractive index in the wavelength and temperature range of operation. Hence, this paper is devoted to report on measurements of the refractive index over the wavelength range of 0.42-1.15 um and temperature range of 110-310 K for the following Ohara glasses: S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, SLAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14. The measurements were performed utilizing the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A dense coverage of the absolute refractive index for the title substrates in the aforementioned wavelength and temperature ranges was used to determine the thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) and dispersion relation (dn/d lambda) as a function of wavelength and temperature. A comparison of the measured indices with literature values, specifically the temperature-dependent refractive indices of S-PHM52 and S-TIH14, will be presented.

  16. [Studies on the chemical constituents of rutaceous plants. LXVII. The chemical constituents of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. aculeata Pers). Examination of coumarins using supercritical fluid and soxhlet extraction. Is toddalolactone a genuine natural coumarin?].

    PubMed

    Ishii, H; Tan, S; Wang, J P; Chen, I S; Ishikawa, T

    1991-07-01

    It is well known that toddalolactone (1) is a main component of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. aculeata Pers.) (Rutaceae). However, supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction of the plant by using CO2 showed that a main component of the extract was not 1, but aculeatin (2), a coumarin having an epoxy ring on the side chain. The same result was obtained from Soxhlet extraction by using aprotic solvents. On the other hand, Soxhlet extraction by using methanol yielded 13, corresponding to a methanol adduct of 2, as an additional component, which was able to be also produced in 50.2% yield only by heating pure 2 in methanol, indicating that the epoxy ring in 2 can be easily attacked by a weak nucleophile like methanol. These facts strongly suggested that 1, corresponding to the hydrate of 2, was an artefact derived from 2 during extraction. SCF extraction under various conditions was examined in detail by quantitative analyses of 1 and 2 by high performance liquid chromatography and the optimum condition extracting the both components was found to be at 40 degrees C and at 300 kg/cm2. The condition was applied to the plant treated with aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate in order to remove any acidic substances and 1 was still detected in the extract. Thus, it is conclude that 1 should be a genuine natural coumarin but that previous isolation of 1 as a main component resulted in an isolation of an artefact derived from 2. SCF extraction was suggested to be a useful extraction method. PMID:1783986

  17. Cryogenic Refractive Indices of S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14 Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Leviton, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is an explorer-class planet finder, whose principal goal is to detect small planets with bright host starts in the solar neighborhood. The TESS payload consists of four identical cameras and a Data Handling Unit (DHU) fitted with CCD detectors and associated electronics. Each camera consist of a lens assembly with seven optical elements that include various types of Ohara glass substrates. The successful implementation of a panchromatic and a thermal lens assembly design for these cameras requires a fairly accurate (up to 0.000001 (1e-6)) knowledge of the temperature- and wavelength-dependent of the refractive index in the wavelength and temperature range of operation. Hence, this paper is devoted to report on measurements of the refractive index over the wavelength range of 0.42-1.15 micrometers and temperature range of 110-300 K for the following Ohara glasses: S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14. The measurements were performed utilizing the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A dense coverage of the absolute refractive index for all these substrates in the aforementioned wavelength and temperature ranges was used to determine the thermo-optic coefficient (dndT) and dispersion relation (dnd) as a function of wavelength and temperature. A comparison of the measured indices with literature values, specifically the temperature-dependent refractive indices of S-PHM52 and S-TIH14 reported by Yamamuro et al. [Yamamuro et al., Opt. Eng. 45(8), 083401 (2006)], will be presented.

  18. Triterpenoid saponins from Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam.

    PubMed

    Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the under-ground parts of Hydrocotyle bonariensis led to the isolation of five oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, 3-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl}-21-O-(2-methylbutyroyl)-22-O-acetyl-R(1)-barrigenol, 3-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl}-21-O-(2-methylbutyroyl)-28-O-acetyl-R(1)-barrigenol, 3-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl}-21-O-acetyl-R(1)-barrigenol, 3-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl}-R(1)-barrigenol, and 3-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl}-22-O-(2-methylbutyroyl)-A(1)-barrigenol, together with the known saniculoside-R1. Their structures were established by 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. Six compounds were evaluated against two human colon cancer cell lines, HCT 116 and HT-29. Two compounds showed weak cytotoxicity with IC(50) 24.1 and 24.0, 83.0 and 83.6 μM against HT-29 and HCT 116, respectively. PMID:22019087

  19. Composition and antioxidant activity of the anthocyanins of the fruit of Berberis heteropoda Schrenk.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Li; Gao, Wan; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Li, Cheng; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun; Ji, Teng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    In present study, the anthocyanin composition and content of the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk were determined for the first time. The total anthocyanins were extracted from the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk using 0.5% HCl in 80% methanol and were then purified using an AB-8 macroporous resin column. The purified anthocyanin extract (PAE) was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-high resolution-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-HR-ESI-MS) under the same experimental conditions. The results revealed the presence of seven different anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins purified by preparative HPLC were confirmed to be delphinidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (30.3%), cyanidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (33.5%), petunidin-3-Ο-glucopyranoside (10.5%), peonidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (8.5%) and malvidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (13.8%) using HPLC-HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The total anthocyanin content was 2036.6 ± 2.2 mg/100 g of the fresh weight of B. heteropoda Schrenk fruit. In terms of its total reducing capacity assay, DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS radical cation-scavenging activity assay, the PAE also showed potent antioxidant activity. The results are valuable for illuminating anthocyanins composition of B. heteropoda Schrenk and for further utilising them as a promising anthocyanin pigment source. This research enriched the chemical information of B. heteropoda Schrenk. PMID:25415473

  20. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products

    PubMed Central

    Limmatvapirat, C.; Limmatvapirat, S.; Charoenteeraboon, J.; Wessapan, C.; Kumsum, A.; Jenwithayaamornwech, S.; Luangthuwapranit, P.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health. PMID:26664066

  1. Antimicrobial isothiocyanates from the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Padla, Eleanor P; Solis, Ludivina T; Levida, Ruel M; Shen, Chien-Chang; Ragasa, Consolacion Y

    2012-01-01

    4-(alpha-L-Rhamnosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (1) and 4-(4'-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2) isolated from Moringa oleifera seeds were screened for their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for their antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum using the disk diffusion method. Isothiocyanates 1 and 2 were found active at the lowest inhibitory concentration of 1 mg/ml against all Gram-positive bacteria tested (S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis) and against the dermatophytic fungi E. floccosum and T. rubrum. Statistically significant differences were found between the mean inhibition zones (IZ) of 1 and 2 and the standard drugs, ofloxacin and clotrimazole. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values confirmed the good antimicrobial activity of 1 and 2 against S. aureus, good to moderate activity against S. epidermidis, moderate activity against B. subtilis, and weak activity against E. floccosum and T. rubrum. The in vitro bactericidal effect of 1 and 2 against the Gram-positive bacterial strains tested is suggested by MBC:MIC ratios of 2:1. PMID:23413749

  2. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of LAM?

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor. He or she can help find the cause of your symptoms. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: December 26, 2013 Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA ...

  3. Generalized Lamé functions. II. Hyperbolic and trigonometric specializations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruijsenaars, S. N. M.

    1999-03-01

    In Part I [J. Math. Phys. 40, 1595 (1999)] we studied eigenfunctions of the quantum dynamics that defines the two-particle relativistic Calogero-Moser system with elliptic interaction. In the present paper we consider the same system with hyperbolic and trigonometric interactions. In these special regimes the eigenfunctions are shown to admit an elementary representation that is far more explicit than the "zero representation" of Part I. In particular, the new representation can be exploited to prove that the hyperbolic eigenfunctions can be chosen to be symmetric under interchanging position and momentum variables (self-duality). In the trigonometric case duality properties are derived, too, and several orthogonality and completeness results are obtained.

  4. Radical scavenging potential of phenolics from Bryophyllum pinnatum (LAM.) OKEN.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Suneel; Banerjee, Rintu

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of the extraction process of phenolics from Bryophyllum pinnatum was carried out using response-surface methodology (RSM). The effect of different variables such as ratio of solvents, plant material/solvent ratio, extraction time, and temperature were investigated. An optimal phenolics yield of 7.952 mg/g gallic acid equivalence (GAE) was achieved at reduced levels of methanol/water ratio (1:1, v/v). During optimization, the product yield was enhanced by ∼2-fold at reduced extraction solvent (methanol/water) up to 37%. Validation of the RSM model for extraction of total phenolic content (TPC) was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The obtained experimental values were in good agreement with the predicted values, thereby indicating the appropriateness of the model generated. Phenolic extracts from B. pinnatum were further examined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods for determining the radical scavenging activities. EC(50) values of B. pinnatum extracts (BPEs) obtained by these methods were in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in the extract. Significant correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). PMID:21660869

  5. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products.

    PubMed

    Limmatvapirat, C; Limmatvapirat, S; Charoenteeraboon, J; Wessapan, C; Kumsum, A; Jenwithayaamornwech, S; Luangthuwapranit, P

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health. PMID:26664066

  6. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade

    PubMed Central

    Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Materials and Methods: Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Results: Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. Conclusions: These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing. PMID:22224061

  7. Phytotoxic compounds from roots of Centaurea diffusa Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Naira; El Kassis, Elie G; Stermitz, Frank R

    2009-01-01

    An extract of roots of Centaurea diffusa (diffuse knapweed) yielded caryophyllene oxide and linoleic acid which were shown to be phytotoxic. Also isolated were germacrene B, a previously-known phytotoxin as well as the inactive polyene aplotaxene. A combination of these compounds, if transferred to the soil, could be one factor in the invasive behavior of this weed. Contrary to a literature report, 8-hydroxyquinoline was not detected in root exudates of in vitro grown C. diffusa nor could it be identified in the root extract. However, a recent report from a different group maintains that 8-hydroxyquinoline can be released from roots of C. diffusa following a diurnal rhythm. PMID:19568334

  8. Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) as potential wound dressing materials.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Monica; Parwani, Laxmi; Sharma, Vinay; Ganguli, Jhuma; Bhatnagar, Ashish

    2013-10-01

    Acacia arabica and Moringa oleifera are credited with a number of medicinal properties. Traditionally gum of Acacia plant is used in the treatment of skin disorders to soothe skin rashes, soreness, inflammation and burns while Moringa seed extracts are known to have antibacterial activity. In the present study the potential of the polymeric component of aqueous extracts of gum acacia (GA) and the seeds of M. oleifera (MSP) in wound management was evaluated. The results revealed that both biopolymers were hemostatic and hasten blood coagulation. They showed shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and were non-cytotoxic in nature. Both showed antibacterial activity against organisms known to be involved in wound infections with MIC ranging from 500-600 microg mL(-1) for GA and 300-700 microg mL(-1) for MSP. They were biodegradable and exhibited water absorption capacity in the range of 415 to 935%. The hemostatic character coupled to these properties envisions their potential in preparation of dressings for bleeding and profusely exuding wounds. The biopolymers have been further analysed for their composition by Gas chromatography. PMID:24266104

  9. Virulence variations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates sexually produced on Berberis spp. under natural conditions in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), frequently causes significant yield losses in China, due to rapid development of new races that overcome resistance in wheat cultivars. Indirect evidence suggests that sexual reproduction occurs in the Pst population in China, but...

  10. Clinical role of a fixed combination of standardized Berberis aristata and Silybum marianum extracts in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic patients intolerant to statins

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Bellone, Iaele; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Putignano, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Background Statin intolerance is a medical condition often leading patients to nonadherence to the prescribed therapy or to a relevant reduction of the statin dosage. Both situations determine a totally or partially uncontrolled lipid profile, and these conditions unquestionably increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Methods We enrolled hypercholesterolemic, type 2 diabetic patients complaining of intolerance to statins. Some of them had reduced the statin dose ‘until the disappearance of symptoms’; others had opted for treatment with ezetimibe; and yet others were not undergoing any treatment at all. All patients of the three groups were then given a fixed combination of berberine and silymarin (Berberol®), known from previous papers to be able to control both lipidic and glycemic profiles. Results The tested product both as a single therapy and as add-on therapy to low-dose statin or to ezetimibe reduced triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin in a significant manner without inducing toxicity conditions that might be somehow ascribed to a statin-intolerant condition. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that use of Berberol®, administered as a single or add-on therapy in statin-intolerant subjects affected by diabetes and hypercholesterolemia is a safe and effective tool capable of improving the patients’ lipidic and glycemic profiles. PMID:25678808

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub.- a potential medicinal legume tree.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, Amit; Jehan, Tabassum; Lakhanpaul, Suman

    2013-07-01

    Three molecular marker systems, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) and Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) were employed to investigate the genetic structure and diversity among the 14 natural populations of Butea monosperma collected from different geographical regions of India. Detected by 17 RAPD, 15 ISSR and 11 SRAP primer combinations, the proportions of polymorphic bands were 84.2 %, 77.2 % and 91.9 %, respectively, and the mean Nei's genetic distances among the populations were 0.13, 0.10 and 0.13, respectively. Partitioning of genetic variability by Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the high genetic diversity was distributed within the populations. AMOVA also revealed that the coefficient of gene differentiation among populations based on FST was very high irrespective of markers used. The overall gene flow among populations (Nm) was very low. Cophenetic correlation coefficients of Nei's distance values and clustering pattern by Mental test were statistically significant for all three marker systems used but poor fit for ISSR data than for RAPD, SRAP and combined data set of all three markers. For all markers, a high similarity in dendrogram topologies was obtained, although some differences were observed with ISSR. The dendrogram obtained by RAPD, SRAP and combined data set of all three markers reflect relationship of most of the populations according to their geographic distribution. PMID:24431507

  12. Flocculent activity of a recombinant protein from Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds.

    PubMed

    Broin, M; Santaella, C; Cuine, S; Kokou, K; Peltier, G; Joët, T

    2002-10-01

    Seeds of the tropical tree Moringa oleifera contain small storage proteins able to flocculate particles in suspension in water. The cDNA encoding one of these flocculent proteins, MO(2.1), was cloned and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The flocculent activity of the purified recombinant MO(2.1)was assayed on clays and bacteria using light and confocal microscopy and GFP-overexpressing bacteria. We show that MO(2.1)is able to aggregate montmorillonite clay particles as well as gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. We discuss the use of recombinant proteins to study flocculating properties and improve water purification processes. PMID:12382051

  13. Establishment of an in vitro micropropagation protocol for Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. ex Poir.

    PubMed Central

    Khalafalla, Mutasim M.; Daffalla, Hussien M.; Abdellatef, Eltayb; Agabna, Elsadig; El-Shemy, Hany A.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes in vitro micropropagation of Boscia senegalensis, so-called famine foods, that helped the people in Darfur and Kordofan, Sudan survive during the 1984–1985 famine. Four types of explants prepared from green mature zygotic embryos were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with 1–5 mg/L 6-benzyladenine (BA). The highest number of shoots per explant (14.3±0.9) was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BA, while the highest shoot length [(3.5±0.4) cm] was obtained with 1 mg/L BA. The shoot cluster, when subcultured to its same medium, significantly increased the rate of shoot multiplication by the end of the third subculture. The maximum mean number of shoots per explant (86.5±3.6) was produced after three multiplication cycles on 3 mg/L BA-supplemented medium. In vitro induced shoots were excised and rooted on half strength MS medium fortified with 0.25 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) to obtain complete plantlets. B. senegalensis-regenerated plantlets obtained in vitro for the first time, were hardened and 95% survived under greenhouse conditions. PMID:21462387

  14. Does leaf manipulation affect leaf appearance in italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanical stimuli such as rubbing, shaking, or flexing plants can alter their growth rates and morphologies. Plant response to mechanical stress can result in delayed plant growth, reduced leaf size, shorten and thicken stems, and reduced yields. Repeated measurements, such as leaf counting or me...

  15. Lysozyme and antiprotease activity in the lesser octopus Eledone cirrhosa (Lam.) (Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Malham, S K; Runham, N W; Secombes, C J

    1998-01-01

    Antiprotease and lysozyme activities were detected in various tissue samples including the haemocytes and haemolymph of Eledone cirrhosa. Injection of live Vibrio anguillarum caused an increase in lysozyme activity in the branchial heart over 48 hours and a decrease in the lysozyme activity of haemocytes over 24 hours. Haemocytes from control PBS injected animals demonstrated increased lysozyme levels 4 hours after injection whereas it decreased after the injection of live bacteria in PBS. The lysozyme activity of the haemolymph was not affected by these procedures. Bacteria injections had no effect on the antiprotease activity of the organ samples but increased the antiprotease activity of the haemocytes compared to controls in the 4 h samples. Haemolymph antiprotease activity decreased at a greater rate following bacteria injection than in control PBS injected animals. Haemocyte numbers/ml increased for both the control and bacteria injected animals with a greater increase demonstrated for the bacteria injected animals in the 4 h sample. Concomittant with the increase in the numbers of circulating haemocytes live V. anguillarum were cleared from the circulation of E. cirrhosa in less than 4 hours. PMID:9617581

  16. 3-O-Acetyl-narcissidine, a bioactive alkaloid from Hippeastrum puniceum Lam. (Amaryllidaceae).

    PubMed

    Santana, Omar; Reinab, Matías; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Hernández, Fidel; Izquierdo, M Elena; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2008-01-01

    In the context of the study on plant defensive compounds we have isolated the main alkaloid from Hippeastrum puniceum (Amaryllidaceae), 3-O-acetyl-narcissidine (1), and its biological activities tested against two divergent insect species and several plant species. 1 was isolated from the bioactive alkaloidal fraction of H. puniceum. Its chemical structure was established by spectroscopic analysis. The biological activity tests showed that 1 is an antifeedant against the polyphagous insect Spodoptera littoralis but not against the olyphage Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Furthermore, the root growth of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Rottboellia cochinchinensis, Panicum maximum and Solanum lycopersicum was significantly affected by 1. These results suggest a plant protective role for H. puniceum alkaloids. PMID:19040099

  17. Integrating LMSs in the Educational Process: Greek Teachers' Initial Perceptions about LAMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadakis, Spyros; Dovros, Nikos; Paschalis, Giorgos; Rossiou, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    E-learning with the use of Learning Management Systems, has been increasingly adopted in Primary, Secondary and Higher Education with the expectation to increase students' motivation and infuse activity-centred learning strategies with various educational benefits. This study has investigated the initial perceptions of Greek teachers about the…

  18. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Dracaena reflexa Lam. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Abha; Vats, Swati; Shukla, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the antioxidant activity of successive leaf extracts of Dracaena reflexa was investigated using the scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Methanol extract was found potent in both the assays. IC50 values of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay for methanol extract was 0.97 mg/ml and ferric reducing antioxidant power value for the same is 1.19. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and total phenolic content were also determined. Qualitative screening for phytochemical showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and saponins. Highest phenolic content was shown by methanol extract (49.69 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight). Proximate analysis showed moisture content (3.31%), ash content (8.02%), crude fibre (1.31%), crude fat (0.97%), total protein (3.70%), total carbohydrate (86.01) and nutritive value (367.56 kcal/100 g), which would make it a potential nutraceutical. This study suggested that Dracaena reflexa, a potential natural free radical scavenger, which could find use as an antioxidative. PMID:26798184

  19. Hybridization and invasion: an experimental test with diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of studies have suggested a causative link between hybridization and invasion. In this study, we experimentally test for such a link through a greenhouse common garden study with artificially created Backcross 1 (BC1) diffuse knapweed hybrids. In comparison with diffuse knapweed plants of n...

  20. FROM THE EARLY SIMS TO RECENT LAM DATA: THE ALPINE-APENNINE OPHIOLITIC PERIDOTITES REVISITED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardo, G. B.; Vannucci, R.; Tribuzio, R.; Guarnieri, L.

    2009-12-01

    Early ion-microprobe data on minerals of the Alpine-Apennine (AA) mantle peridotites from the ophiolite sequences exposed in the Central and Western Alps, Ligurian Alps, Northern Apennine and Corsica were obtained about twenty years ago. These data provided basic chemical information that highlighted their evolution, with special emphasis to melt extraction processes and sub-solidus re-equilibration that preceded and accompanied the exposure of mantle peridotites at the sea-floor of the Jurassic Ligurian-Piedmontese (or Western Tethys) oceanic basin. In more recent years a wealth of field, structural-petrographic, petrological and geochemical studies allowed to track a more comprehensive petrogenetic scenario of the Ligurian-Piedmontese upper mantle, in the frame of the geodynamic evolution of the Europe-Adria lithosphere during Mesozoic continental extension and rifting. These investigations evidenced that sectors of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle were exposed on the sea-floor at marginal settings of the basin (e.g. North Lanzo and External Ligurides ophiolites) Isotope data and related model ages revealed that they became isolated by the convective mantle and accreted to the sub-continental lithosphere long time before Mesozoic extension. Conversely, peridotites exposed at more distal settings show extreme compositional heterogeneity recognized as effects of melt-peridotite interaction during reactive percolation of melt though the lithospheric mantle during continental extension and rifting. Isotope data pointed to MORB-type signatures and Jurassic ages for gabbroic intrusions and melt percolated peridotites from both marginal and distal settings. Structural and compositional characteristics suggested that peridotite-melt reactions had a crucial role in modifying texture, mode and chemistry of mantle assemblages and highlighted the need of a re-consideration of the evolutionary processes recorded by the ophiolitic peridotites from the Alpine-Apennine orogenic belt. With this aim, in the last ten years early ion-microprobe data were progressively integrated by extensive texture-related LA-ICPMS studies that provided a huge dataset for a complete series of trace elements in AA ophiolitic peridotite minerals and, particularly, clinopyroxene. The whole dataset confirm that clinopyroxenes from most AA ophiolitic peridotites have REE signatures resulting from other processes than batch or fractional melting. These features result from a complex history of depletion and melt-peridotite reaction events, with the latter largely overprinting pristine signatures recorded by the lithospheric sub-continental mantle before melt percolation. Although old melting episodes under garnet-facies conditions are recorded in places, most REE signatures of AA clinopyroxenes can be explained by reaction of variously depleted melting residua with MORB-like infiltrating melts (either single fractional increments or aggregate melts) and, eventually, later chemical modification due to interaction with trapped melts. The whole dataset is re-considered here with the aim of providing an updated scenario for the evolution of the AA ophiolitic mantle peridotites.

  1. Studies of sugar composition and starch morphology of baked sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).

    PubMed

    Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lien, Ching-Yi; Liao, Wayne C

    2013-12-01

    Sugar composition of seven sweet potato cultivars was successfully analyzed. Fresh CYY95-26 sweet potatoes had the highest (8.41%) total sugar content while TNG73 had the lowest (4.5%). For these fresh sweet potatoes, maltose content was very low (0 ~ 0.39%). Because 49.92 ~ 92.43% of total sugars were sucrose, sucrose was the major sugar composition of fresh sweet potatoes. After the baking treatment, the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes was dramatically increased due to the formation of maltose. The maltose content significantly increased from 0 ~ 0.39% to 8.81 ~ 13.97% on dry weight basis. Therefore, maltose should be included in calculating the total sugar content. Electronic micrographs of fresh sweet potato samples showed that the size of starch granules was generally less than 20 μm. After the baking treatment, starch granules completely gelatinized. PMID:24426034

  2. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.

    PubMed Central

    Agyare, Christian; Dwobeng, Anita Serwaa; Agyepong, Nicholas; Boakye, Yaw Duah; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Ayande, Patrick George; Adarkwa-Yiadom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl–hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5–7.5 mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25–7.5 mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5–7.5 mg/mL and 2.5–10 mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7 μg/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1 μg/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w) showed significant (P < 0.05) wound contraction at day 7 with 72% of wound closure whiles significant (P < 0.05) wound contractions were observed on day 11 for stem bark of K. africana, leaf and root extracts of S. hispidus. Wound tissues treated with the extracts showed improved collagenation, re-epitheliazition and rapid granulation formation compared with untreated wound tissues. The extracts were found to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these may justify the medicinal uses of the plants for treatment of microbial infections and wounds. PMID:23662099

  3. Effects of thermal stress and nickel exposure on biomarkers responses in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam).

    PubMed

    Attig, Hajer; Kamel, Naouel; Sforzini, Susanna; Dagnino, Alessandro; Jamel, Jebali; Boussetta, Hamadi; Viarengo, Aldo; Banni, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    The present work aimed to assess the Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland biomarkers responses to nickel (Ni) exposure along with a heat stress gradient. Mussels were exposed to a sublethal dose of nickel (13 μM) along with a temperature gradient (18 °C, 20 °C, 22 °C, 24 °C and 26 °C) for 4 days. Metallothionein (MTs) content was assessed as specific response to metals. Catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The cholinergic system was monitored using the acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE). Moreover, Ni uptakes along with the exposure temperatures were assessed. A correlation matrix (CM) between the investigated biomarkers and the exposure temperatures and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were achieved. Our data showed a negative effect of temperature increase on mussel's antioxidant and detoxification response to Ni exposure being more pronounced in animals exposed to the 24 °C and 26 °C. PMID:24424117

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Cytogenotoxic Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC.

    PubMed Central

    Cariddi, L. N.; Sabini, M. C.; Escobar, F. M.; Bacchetti, R.; Montironi, I.; Merckis, C.; Reinoso, E. B.; Núñez Montoya, S.; Zanon, S. M.; Comini, L. R.; Sabini, L. I.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we extend the toxicological studies of hot aqueous extract of A. satureioides (As-HAE) evaluating cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also determine genotoxic action of this extract in vivo. In addition, the extract was chemically characterized. Finally, we established a comparison with previous data of cold aqueous extract. The As-HAE induced cytotoxicity on PBMCs determined by trypan blue dye exclusion (CC50 = 653 μg/mL) and MTT (CC50 = 588 μg/mL) assays being more toxic than cold extract. However, As-HAE as well as cold extract did not induce apoptosis measured by Hoechst 33258 staining, TUNEL assay, and DNA fragmentation analysis. The in vivo micronucleus test showed that As-HAE exerted cytogenotoxic effects on bone marrow of mice, contrary to what was observed with cold extract. The chemical study of As-HAE allowed identifying the flavonoids found in cold extract: luteolin, quercetin, and 3-O-methylquercetin, but at higher concentrations. We suggest that toxic effects induced by As-HAE could be due to high concentrations of these flavonoids. Given that As-HAE is the most used in folkloric medicine, its administration should be controlled in order to prevent potential cell damage. PMID:26078941

  5. [Textual research on Amara (Mangifera Indica Linn), Butea monsperma (Lam) Kuntze, and Ferula asatoitida L].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaohua; Wang, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    In the Buddhist canons, there are lots of medicines imported from abroad recorded. The dictionary works of such Buddhist canons give detailed annotations and explanations to all these foreign medicines, from which we can investigate the features of all these medicines. It is also clear that these three medicines were imported into China no later than the Tang Dynasty. Amara was originally grown in the xi yu (Western Region) , now called Mango. Its form and connotation appeared no later than the eastern Han Dynasty, and the explanation of this medicine appears in the A Great Modern Dictionary of Chinese is wrong. While its explanation for Butea monsperma should be supplemented. There are two kinds of asafoitida, herbaceous and woody. Only the former one is used for medical purpose, and the annotation appeared in A Great Modern Dictionary of Chinese is problematic. PMID:26268251

  6. Simplified cryopreservation of sweet potato [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] by optimizing conditions for osmoprotection.

    PubMed

    Hirai, D; Sakai, A

    2003-06-01

    Shoot tips of sweet potato were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation vitrification method. Encapsulated shoot tips were pre-incubated in liquid Murashige-Skoog medium containing 30 g/l sucrose for 24 h, then precultured in sucrose-enriched medium (0.3 M sucrose) for 16 h. Shoot tips were osmoprotected with a mixture of 2 M glycerol and 1.6 M sucrose for 3 h before being dehydrated with a highly concentrated vitrification solution (PVS2) for 1 h at 25 degrees C. The encapsulated and dehydrated shoot tips were transferred to a 2 ml cryotube, suspended in 0.5 ml PVS2, and plunged directly into liquid nitrogen. Rapidly warmed shoot tips developed normal shoots and roots in 21 days without any morphological abnormalities after plating on a recovery medium. High levels (average of about 80%) of shoot formation were obtained for three cultivars of sweet potato. This encapsulation vitrification method appears promising for cryopreservation of sweet potato germplasm. PMID:12835905

  7. Physio-anatomic aspects on the initial growth of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Pereira, Heloisa H G; Glaeser, Daniele F; Silva, Jocemar J; Betoni, Roseli; Mussury, Rosilda M

    2011-06-01

    This paper aimed to evaluate the initial growth of "mutambo" seedlings in different conditions of light intensity and treatments with gibberellic acid (GA). The seedlings were kept under full sun and 50% of shading. Sixty days after the emergence, seedlings were sprayed with: 1) 100 mg L(-1) GA(3); 2) 200 mg L(-1) GA(3); 3) control. At the end of the appraisals, seedlings height under 50% of shading was compared to the height that were growing under full sun with 200 mg L(-1) GA. Stem diameter was lower under shading. Leaf area did not vary among the treatments, but the root system growth was higher under full sun and did not vary among GA levels. The number of stomata, trichomes and epidermal cells on adaxial and abaxial sides was higher under full sun. Total dry masses of leaf and root were highe runder full sun and with 200 mg L(-1) GA application. "Mutambo" seedlings presented a higher initial growth under full sun, although with a lower height, diameter, and lenght of the largest root and total dry masses of leaf and root were higher. A concentration with 200 mg L(-1) promoted a higher growth. PMID:21670888

  8. Wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. leaf--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin

    2010-06-01

    The extract of K. pinnata was evaluated for its wound healing activity by using excision wound model in rats. On day 11, animals treated with the ethanolic leaf extract exhibited 86.33% reduction in the wound area, compared to petroleum jelly treated control (69.36%) and the mupirocin treated standard (85.49%). The hydroxyproline content of extract treated animals was higher, as compared to control and the standard groups. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that K. pinnata leaf extract exhibits significant wound healing potential. The increased rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content in the extract treated animals supports the claims made by traditional healers of the benefits obtained from the medicinal use of K. pinnata. PMID:20882759

  9. Antibacterial activity of bark extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against some selected bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zaffer, Mudasser; Ahmad, Showkat; Sharma, Rajendra; Mahajan, Surabhi; Gupta, Ankur; Agnihotri, Rajneesh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous bark extracts of Moringa oleifera were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against four bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas fluorescens using erythromycin as positive control. The activity was analyzed using paper disc diffusion method at different concentration of the extract. The study revealed that all the bark extracts irrespective of their types, in different concentrations inhibited growth of the test pathogens to varying degrees. Ethyl acetate extract showed maximum activity against all the bacterial strains followed in descending order by chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts. The activity decreased with decrease in concentration of the extract. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most sensitive test organism to different extracts of Moringa oleifera. Looking to these results it may be concluded that M. oleifera may be a potential source for the treatment of different infections caused by the resistant microbes. PMID:25362592

  10. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of Moringa oleifera Lam. callus and leaf extracts on Hela cells

    PubMed Central

    Jafarain, Abbas; Asghari, Gholamreza; Ghassami, Erfaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are considerable attempts worldwide on herbal and traditional compounds to validate their use as anti-cancer drugs. Plants from Moringaceae family including Moringa oleifera possess several activities such as antitumor effect on tumor cell lines. In this study we sought to determine if callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera possess any cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Ethanol-water (70-30) extracts of callus and leaf of M. oleifera were prepared by maceration method. The amount of phenolic compounds of the extracts was determined by Folin Ciocalteu method. The cytotoxicity of the extracts against Hela tumor cells was carried out using MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of the extract were added. Cells were incubated for 48 h and their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Cytotoxicity was considered when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Results: Callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera significantly decreased the viability of Hela cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, leaf extract of M. oleifera were more potent than that of callus extract. Conclusion: As the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extract was higher than that of callus extract, it can be concluded that phenolic compounds are involved in the cytotoxicity of M. oleifera. PMID:25337524

  11. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Bauhinia racemosa Lam. and Chemical Content

    PubMed Central

    Rashed, Khaled; Butnariu, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Methanol 70% extract of Bauhinia racemosa aerial parts was tested for antimicrobial activity against different bacterial and fungal strains and for antioxidant activity and also total content of polyphenols with phytochemical analysis of the extract was determined. The results have showed that the extract has a significant antimicrobial activity, it inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and also it was highly active against Candida albicans suggesting that it can be used in the treatment of fungal infections. The extract has a good antioxidant activity, it has shown high values of the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content while it has shown a lower value of oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Phytochemical analysis has shown that it has interesting phytochemical bioconstituents, include flavonoids, tannins and others, and the deep phytochemical study results in the isolation of methyl gallate, gallic, kaempferol, quercetin, querection 3O?rhamnoside, kaempferol 3O?glucoside, myricetin3O? glucoside, querection3Orutinoside (Rutin). All compounds were identified by different spectroscopic analyses (UV, 1HNMR, 13CNMR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS). PMID:25276210

  12. Integration and test activities for the SUMIRE prime focus spectrograph at LAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madec, F.; Jaquet, Marc; Pascal, Sandrine; Bozier, A.; Le Mignant, David; Vives, S.; Ferrand, D.; Pegot-Ogier, T.; Arthaud, G.; Golebiowski, M.; Sugai, H.; Tamura, N.; Gunn, J.; Smee, S.; Oliveira, L.

    2014-07-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) of the Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe) project for Subaru telescope consists in four identical spectrographs feed by 600 fibers each. Each spectrograph is composed by an optical entrance unit that creates a collimated beam and distributes the light to three channels, two visible and one near infrared. We present here the integration process of the first spectrograph channel. The verification requirements, the specific integration requirements and the product tree are the main drivers from the top plan for the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) development process. We then present the AIT flow-down, the details for the AIT processes as well as opto-mechanical alignment procedures and tests setup. In parallel, we are developing and validating dedicated tools to secure and facilitate the AIT activities, as we have to assemble eight visible cameras, integrate and align four fiber slits, integrate and align the components of four spectrographs.

  13. Two ellagic acid glycosides from Gleditsia sinensis Lam. with antifungal activity on Magnaporthe grisea.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Zhou L; Li D; Jiang W; Qin Z; Zhao S; Qiu M; Wu J

    2007-04-01

    Two ellagic acid glycosides were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the antimicrobial ethyl acetate fraction of the ethanol extract from Gleditsia sinensis spines, and identified as 3-O-methylellagic acid-4'-(5''-acetyl)-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside (1) and 3-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2). Both compounds were isolated from this plant species for the first time, and 1 is a new compound. The two compounds showed significant antifungal activity against the spore germination of rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, with an IC(50) value of 13.56 microg mL(-1) for 1 and 16.14 microg mL(-1) for 2.

  14. Triterpenes and Steroids from Euphorbia denticulata Lam. With Anti-Herpes Symplex Virus Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shamsabadipour, Sara; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Saeedi, Hojjatollah; Rahimnejad, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi-Kamalabadi, Marzieh; Ayatollahi, Seyed Majid; Salimzadeh, Loghman

    2013-01-01

    In this research, dried acetone:chloroform extract of aerial parts of E. denticulata as one of the endemic plants to Iran, afforded a number of triterpenes and steroids including: betulin, 24-methylene-cycloart-3-ol, cycloart-23Z-ene-3β,25-diol, cycloart-23E-ene-3β,25- diol, ergosta-8,24-dien-3-ol (obtusifoliol) and beta-sitosterol which were reported for the first time from this plant. The structure of these compounds was elucidated by NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. The MTS assay was used to determine the toxicity and antiviral activity of betulin and (3β,23E)-cycloarta-23-ene-3,25-diol. Betulin showed anti-HSV-1 activity with EC50 value of 84.37±0.02 μg/mL, and toxicity on normal vero cells with CC50 value of 660.718±0.072 μg/mL. (3β,23E)-Cycloarta-23-ene-3,25-diol showed antiviral effect with EC50 value of 86.63±0.03 μg/mL, and toxicity with CC50 value of 1089.21±0.25 μg/mL. The results revealed that these two compounds have the antiviral activity far below the CC50 value with selectivity index (CC50/EC50) values of 7.83, and 12.57, respectively. PMID:24523756

  15. Anticancer property of Bryophyllum pinnata (Lam.) Oken. leaf on human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bryophyllum pinnata (B. pinnata) is a common medicinal plant used in traditional medicine of India and of other countries for curing various infections, bowel diseases, healing wounds and other ailments. However, its anticancer properties are poorly defined. In view of broad spectrum therapeutic potential of B. pinnata we designed a study to examine anti-cancer and anti-Human Papillomavirus (HPV) activities in its leaf extracts and tried to isolate its active principle. Methods A chloroform extract derived from a bulk of botanically well-characterized pulverized B. pinnata leaves was separated using column chromatography with step- gradient of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate. Fractions were characterized for phyto-chemical compounds by TLC, HPTLC and NMR and Biological activity of the fractions were examined by MTT-based cell viability assay, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, Northern blotting and assay of apoptosis related proteins by immunoblotting in human cervical cancer cells. Results Results showed presence of growth inhibitory activity in the crude leaf extracts with IC50 at 552 μg/ml which resolved to fraction F4 (Petroleum Ether: Ethyl Acetate:: 50:50) and showed IC50 at 91 μg/ml. Investigations of anti-viral activity of the extract and its fraction revealed a specific anti-HPV activity on cervical cancer cells as evidenced by downregulation of constitutively active AP1 specific DNA binding activity and suppression of oncogenic c-Fos and c-Jun expression which was accompanied by inhibition of HPV18 transcription. In addition to inhibiting growth, fraction F4 strongly induced apoptosis as evidenced by an increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, suppression of the anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, and activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP-1. Phytochemical analysis of fraction F4 by HPTLC and NMR indicated presence of activity that resembled Bryophyllin A. Conclusions Our study therefore demonstrates presence of anticancer and anti-HPV an activity in B. pinnata leaves that can be further exploited as a potential anticancer, anti-HPV therapeutic for treatment of HPV infection and cervical cancer. PMID:22405256

  16. Gastroprotective effect of aqueous extract and mucilage from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abhishek L.; Bhot, Meeta A.; Chandra, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bryophyllum pinnatum is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Tropical America and China for treatment of various diseases. B. pinnatum contains different groups of phytoconstituents viz., flavonoid, terpenoids, alkaloid, phenolic compounds. Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of B. pinnatum whole plant aqueous extract, and mucilage (MUC) isolated from the whole plant against ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract at dose level of 500 and 750 mg/kg b.w., MUC at 500 mg/kg dose level and standard drug Rabeprazole at dose level of 20 mg/kg b.w. where given for 7 days. Results: The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg p.o. and MUC at dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. markedly decrease the incidence of ulcers in ethanol induced ulcer rats. In ethanol induced ulcer rats, there was a decrease in the gastric volume, free and total acidity and ulcerative index as compared to the control group. Total carbohydrate content was found to be an increase as compare to control the group. The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in the above parameters which was comparable to the standard drug rabeprazole (20 mg/kg). B. pinnatum extract and MUC showed protection index 72.69 and 69.65% respectively, whereas standard drug rabeprazole showed protection index 75.49%. Conclusions: Whole plant extracts of B. pinnatum and MUC has potent gastroprotective effect which can be further clinically studied for new drug development. PMID:25593406

  17. Allelopathic effects of glucosinolate breakdown products in Hanza [Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam.] processing waste water.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J; Krosse, Sebastian; de Graaf, Rob M; Garvi, Josef; Garvi-Bode, Renate D; van Dam, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    Boscia senegalensis is a drought resistant shrub whose seeds are used in West Africa as food. However, the seeds, or hanza, taste bitter which can be cured by soaking them in water for 4-7 days. The waste water resulting from the processing takes up the bitter taste, which makes it unsuitable for consumption. When used for irrigation, allelopathic effects were observed. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are the potential causes for both the bitter taste and the allelopathic effects. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify the glucosinolates present in processed and unprocessed hanza as well as different organs of B. senegalensis, to analyze the chemical composition of the processing water, and to pinpoint the causal agent for the allelopathic properties of the waste water. Hanza (seeds without testa), leaves, branches, unripe, and ripe fruits were collected in three populations and subjected to glucosinolate analyses. Methylglucosinolates (MeGSL) were identified in all plant parts and populations, with the highest concentrations being found in the hanza. The levels of MeGSLs in the hanza reduced significantly during the soaking process. Waste water was collected for 6 days and contained large amounts of macro- and micronutrients, MeGSL as well as methylisothiocyanate (MeITC), resulting from the conversion of glucosinolates. Waste water from days 1-3 (High) and 4-6 (Low) was pooled and used to water seeds from 11 different crops to weeds. The High treatment significantly delayed or reduced germination of all the plant species tested. Using similar levels of MeITC as detected in the waste water, we found that germination of a subset of the plant species was inhibited equally to the waste water treatments. This confirmed that the levels of methylisiothiocyanate in the waste water were sufficient to cause the allelopathic effect. This leads to the possibility of using hanza waste water in weed control programs. PMID:26236325

  18. In vitro toxicity, antiplatelet and acetylcholinesterase inhibition of Buddleja thyrsoides Lam. leaves.

    PubMed

    Mahlke, Janaína Dorneles; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Machado, Michel Mansur; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting in impaired memory and behaviour of remarkable socio-economic impact. A decrease in cholinergic activity is a key event in the biochemical of AD. Buddleja thyrsoides is a plant widely distributed in Southern parts of South America. In Brazilian traditional medicine, the infusion of its leaves and flowers is used for the treatment of bronchitis and cough. Crude ethanolic (70%) extract and fractions (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanolic) were investigated regarding their toxicities in vitro and antiplatelet action. The enzyme acetylcholinesterase inhibition was evaluated to study the crude extract. The crude extract and fractions were evaluated by means of Brine Shrimp Lethality test and they showed low activities with LC(50) values 1698, 2818, 2187 and 3672 µg mL(-1) for dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic fractions and crude extract, respectively. Buddleja thyrsoides presented great antiplatelet action. The IC(50) values obtained for crude extract and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanolic fractions were 361.29, 354.23, 368.75 and 344.30, respectively, while the IC(50) for the standard AAS was 257.01 µg mL(-1). The crude extract showed an inhibition of 22.8% of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme in 24 h. PMID:22181835

  19. COX-2 inhibitors from stem bark of Bauhinia rufescens Lam. (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Aminu; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the stem bark of Bauhinia rufescens resulted in the isolation of a new cyanoglucoside and menisdaurin from methanol extract and oxepin from petroleum ether extract. The isolated compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory potentials based on the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX-2) model. Cyanoglucoside exhibited the highest activity among the compounds with an inhibition activity of 49.34 % at 100 µM (IC50 0.46 µM) compared to the positive control, indomethacin (79.20 %, IC50 0.24 µM). PMID:26600739

  20. Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from the Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree.

    PubMed

    Lea, Michael

    2014-01-01

    An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a crude water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. PMID:24789599

  1. Allelopathic effects of glucosinolate breakdown products in Hanza [Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam.] processing waste water

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J.; Krosse, Sebastian; de Graaf, Rob M.; Garvi, Josef; Garvi-Bode, Renate D.; van Dam, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    Boscia senegalensis is a drought resistant shrub whose seeds are used in West Africa as food. However, the seeds, or hanza, taste bitter which can be cured by soaking them in water for 4–7 days. The waste water resulting from the processing takes up the bitter taste, which makes it unsuitable for consumption. When used for irrigation, allelopathic effects were observed. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are the potential causes for both the bitter taste and the allelopathic effects. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify the glucosinolates present in processed and unprocessed hanza as well as different organs of B. senegalensis, to analyze the chemical composition of the processing water, and to pinpoint the causal agent for the allelopathic properties of the waste water. Hanza (seeds without testa), leaves, branches, unripe, and ripe fruits were collected in three populations and subjected to glucosinolate analyses. Methylglucosinolates (MeGSL) were identified in all plant parts and populations, with the highest concentrations being found in the hanza. The levels of MeGSLs in the hanza reduced significantly during the soaking process. Waste water was collected for 6 days and contained large amounts of macro- and micronutrients, MeGSL as well as methylisothiocyanate (MeITC), resulting from the conversion of glucosinolates. Waste water from days 1–3 (High) and 4–6 (Low) was pooled and used to water seeds from 11 different crops to weeds. The High treatment significantly delayed or reduced germination of all the plant species tested. Using similar levels of MeITC as detected in the waste water, we found that germination of a subset of the plant species was inhibited equally to the waste water treatments. This confirmed that the levels of methylisiothiocyanate in the waste water were sufficient to cause the allelopathic effect. This leads to the possibility of using hanza waste water in weed control programs. PMID:26236325

  2. D-aspartate in the male and female reproductive system of Octopus vulgaris lam.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, A; Di Cosmo, A; Di Cristo, C; Fisher, G

    1995-10-01

    Free D-aspartate (D-Asp) has been previously found in the nervous system of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cepalopoda) and has recently also been found in many endocrine tissues of the rat. The present study examined whether this enantiomer also occurs in the reproductive system and the brain of the octopus. In this mollusk, D-aspartate was present in both the male and the female reproductive systems. In males, it was found at high concentrations in the prostate, vas deferens, Needham's sac, and testis. In females, a high concentration was found in the oviduct, accessory nidamental gland, and ovary. The concentration varied between 0.4 and 2.9 mumol/g wet tissue, which corresponds to a percentage of D-Asp/total D+L-Asp between 7 and 33%. No appreciable quantities of D-Asp were found in the digestive, excretory, circulatory, and muscular systems, indicating that in the octopus this enantiomer may play a role in both the nervous and the reproductive systems. PMID:8575661

  3. Anatomy and ultrastructure alterations of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi in response to arsenic-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jerusa; Labory, Claudia Regina Gontijo; Rangel, Wesley Melo; Alves, Eduardo; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto Guimares

    2013-11-15

    Many studies demonstrate the potential application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for remediation purposes, but little is known on AMF potential to enhance plant tolerance to arsenic (As) and the mechanisms involved in this process. We carried anatomical and ultrastructural studies to examine this symbiotic association and the characteristics of shoots and roots of Leucaena leucocephala in As-amended soils (35 and 75 mg As dm(-3)). The experiment used 3 AMF isolates from uncontaminated soils: Acaulospora morrowiae, Glomus clarum, and Gigaspora albida; a mixed inoculum derived from combining these 3 isolates (named Mix AMF); and, 3 AMF isolates from As-contaminated areas: A. morrowiae, G. clarum and Paraglomus occultum. Phytotoxicity symptoms due to arsenic contamination appeared during plant growth, especially in treatments without AMF application. Inoculation with G. clarum and the mixture of species (A. morrowiae, G. albida, and G. clarum) resulted in better growth of L. leucocephala in soils with high As concentrations, as well as significant As removal from the soil, showing a potential for using AMF in phytoextraction. Light microscopy (LS), transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) studies showed the colonization of the AMF in plant tissues and damage in all treatments, with ultrastructural changes being observed in leaves and roots of L. leucocephala, especially with the addition of 75 mg dm(-3) of As. PMID:22704769

  4. Toxic Ipomeamarone Accumulation in Healthy Parts of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Storage Roots upon Infection by Rhizopus stolonifer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Furanoterpenoid accumulation in response to microbial attack in rotting sweetpotatoes has long been linked to deaths and lung edema of cattle in the world. However, it is not known whether furanoterpenoid ipomeamarone accumulates in the healthy-looking parts of infected sweetpotato storage roots. This is critical for effective utilization as animal feed and assessment of the potential negative impact on human health. Therefore, we first identified the fungus from infected sweetpotatoes as a Rhizopus stolonifer strain and then used it to infect healthy sweetpotato storage roots for characterization of furanoterpenoid content. Ipomeamarone and its precursor, dehydroipomeamarone, were identified through spectroscopic analyses, and detected in all samples and controls at varying concentrations. Ipomeamarone concentration was at toxic levels in healthy-looking parts of some samples. Our study provides fundamental information on furanoterpenoids in relation to high levels reported that could subsequently affect cattle on consumption and high ipomeamarone levels in healthy-looking parts. PMID:25418792

  5. Effect of heat–moisture treatment on digestibility of different cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam) starch

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K K D S; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Different heat–moisture levels were applied to native starches from different cultivars of sweet potatoes available in Sri Lanka (Wariyapola red, Wariyapola white, Pallepola variety, Malaysian variety and CARI 273) to study the digestibility level. Samples were treated with 20, 25, and 30% moisture at 85°C and 120°C for 6 h and in vitro starch digestibility was tested with porcine pancreatin enzyme. A range of 19.3–23.5% digestibility was shown by the native starches with no significant difference (P < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the digestibility level of the hydrothermally modified starches and the moisture content showed a positive impact on the digestibility. Heat–moisture treatment at 85°C brought an overall increase in digestibility and temperature beyond 85°C had a negative impact. No significant difference (P < 0.05) in the digestibility was observed with 20% and 25% moisture at 85°C and increased level were seen at 85°C and 30% moisture. PMID:25473497

  6. Leaf development in Xylopia aromatica (Lam) Mart. (Annonaceae): implications for palatability to Stenoma scitiorella Walker 1864 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae).

    PubMed

    Varanda, E M; Costa, A A; Barosela, J R

    2008-11-01

    Variations in specific foliar mass and water content, nitrogen, soluble carbohydrates and tannins were studied during the growth and maturation processes of the Xylopia aromatica leaves, to determine the effects of such alterations on the herbivory of Stenoma scitiorella caterpillars. This work was carried out in the physiognomy of the typical cerrado of the Parque Estadual de Vassununga, Gleba Pé-de Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, Brazil. While nutritional quality (water and nitrogen) decreases during expansion and maturation of Xylopia aromatica leaves, the chemical (tannins) and physical (sclerophylly) defenses are raised. In agreement with the observations on herbivory, the results support the hypothesis that the reduction in palatability and increase in chemical defenses of Xylopia aromatica leaves account for the caterpillars' preference for young expanding leaves. PMID:19197502

  7. Simultaneous analysis of eight vitamin E isomers in Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves by ultra performance convergence chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ningli; Gong, Xiao; Feng, Cuiping; Wang, Xiaoxi; Xu, Yongwei; Lin, Lijing

    2016-09-15

    A new method for simultaneous determination of eight vitamin E isomers including α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol by ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC(2)) equipped with a diode array detector was reported. They were separated on a BEH 2-EP column (3.0mm×100mm, 1.7μm) using gradient elution (95:5-80:20) with a mobile phase consisted of CO2 and methanol:isopropanol (1:1, v/v), back pressure of 1800psi, flow rate of 1.5ml/min and detection at 294nm. The results showed good linearity (R(2)=0.9990-0.9998) and high resolution (1.48-7.67). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranged from 23-49ng/L and 70-150ng/L, respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSD) for repeatability and reproducibility were 0.62-3.16% and 0.82-3.34%, respectively. Moreover, this method was successfully applied to analysis the vitamin E isomers in Moringa oleifera leaf samples. PMID:27080892

  8. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on digestibility of different cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam) starch.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K K D S; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-07-01

    Different heat-moisture levels were applied to native starches from different cultivars of sweet potatoes available in Sri Lanka (Wariyapola red, Wariyapola white, Pallepola variety, Malaysian variety and CARI 273) to study the digestibility level. Samples were treated with 20, 25, and 30% moisture at 85°C and 120°C for 6 h and in vitro starch digestibility was tested with porcine pancreatin enzyme. A range of 19.3-23.5% digestibility was shown by the native starches with no significant difference (P < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the digestibility level of the hydrothermally modified starches and the moisture content showed a positive impact on the digestibility. Heat-moisture treatment at 85°C brought an overall increase in digestibility and temperature beyond 85°C had a negative impact. No significant difference (P < 0.05) in the digestibility was observed with 20% and 25% moisture at 85°C and increased level were seen at 85°C and 30% moisture. PMID:25473497

  9. Comparative analysis of nutritional quality of five different cultivars of sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas (L) Lam) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Suraji A; Ranaweera, K K D S; Gunaratne, Anil; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2013-07-01

    Nutritional attributes of flours obtained from five different cultivars of sweet potato roots commonly available in Sri Lanka showed significant differences in the tested parameters. The starch level ranged between 33% and 64% on the dry basis and the extractability from fresh tubers was governed by the quantity of starch. The crude fiber level ranged between 2.1% and 13.6% on dry basis and the highest level was observed in swp7 (CARI 273) and resistant starch ranged from 14.2% to 17.2%. Higher percentage of resistant starch from total starch was found in Wariyapola red (swp1) cultivar resulting in lower digestion level while higher levels of digestion was evident in cultivars with lower levels of resistant starch with high level of total starch. Low levels of calcium and significant levels of iron were found in the five cultivars studied. Crude protein level was in the range of 1.2-3.3% on dry basis and trypsin inhibitor activity level (TIA) was significantly different (P > 0.05) in the cultivars studied while heating resulted in a significantly high reduction in the TIA level than in unheated condition. Polygonal or round shaped starch granules were in the range of 16.8-23.5 μm and low level of starch digestion was shown in cultivars containing larger granules. Total amylose content lies in the range 15.4-19.6% and cultivars having higher percentage of amylose showed higher level of in vitro pancreatic digestion (Pallepola [swp4] and swp7). The starch digestibility of sweet potato flour was in the range of 36-55% and the highest digestion was observed in swp7. Orange fleshed cultivars (swp4 and swp7) were comparatively rich in nutrients and digestibility than the other three studied cultivars. PMID:24804032

  10. Effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars.

    PubMed

    Dincer, Cuneyt; Karaoglan, Mert; Erden, Fidan; Tetik, Nedim; Topuz, Ayhan; Ozdemir, Feramuz

    2011-11-01

    The effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of three sweet potato cultivars (Beniazuma, Koganesengan, Kotobuki) cultivated in Turkey were investigated. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition, total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, antiradical activity, and free sugars. The dry matter, protein, and starch contents of the sweet potatoes were significantly changed by the treatments while the ash and crude fiber contents did not differ as significantly. The β-carotene contents of baked and boiled sweet potatoes were lower than those of fresh sweet potatoes; however, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of the baked and boiled sweet potatoes were higher than those of the fresh samples. Generally, the antiradical activity of the sweet potatoes increased with the treatments. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose were quantified as free sugars in all fresh sweet potatoes; however, maltose was determined in the treated samples. In terms of the analyzed parameters, there were no explicit differences among the sweet potato cultivars. PMID:22101780

  11. Chemical composition, pretreatments and saccharification of Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby: An efficient biomass producing tree legume.

    PubMed

    Mund, Nitesh K; Dash, Debabrata; Barik, Chitta R; Goud, Vaibhav V; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Mishra, Prasannajit; Nayak, Nihar R

    2016-05-01

    Protocols were developed for efficient release of glucose from the biomass of Senna siamea, one of the highly efficient biomass producing tree legumes. Composition of mature, 1year and 2years coppice biomass were analysed. For the hydrolysis of the glucan, two pretreatments, cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation (COSLIF) and alkali (sodium hydroxide) were used; COSLIF (85% phosphoric acid, 45min incubation at 50°C) pretreated mature biomass exhibited best result in which 88.90% glucose released after 72h of incubation with the use of 5 filter paper units (FPU) of cellulase and 10 international units (IU) of β-glucosidase per gram of glucan. Of the biomass of different particle sizes (40-200mesh) used for saccharification, 40-60mesh shown the maximum glucose release. COSLIF pretreated mature, 1year and 2years coppice biomass showed equivalent glucose release profiles. PMID:26890795

  12. Rapid screening and identification of phenolic antioxidants in Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sima; Elancheran, R; Kotoky, Jibon; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-07-15

    The aim of the study was to identify the phenolic compounds present in Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides (HS), Centella asiatica (CA) and Amaranthus viridis (AV) extracts and investigate their respective antioxidant activities. Herein, an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) analytical method has been developed for the separation, and systematic characterization of the phenolic compounds in HS, CA and AV extracts and was compared along with ten standard phenolic compounds. Additionally, in vitro antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds was also determined. The HS extract revealed excellent antioxidant activity such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (IC50=19.7±1.2μg/mL), total reduction capability (0.169±0.003 at 100μg/mL), nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (IC50=39.33±3.2μg/mL), metal chelating activity (IC50=56.51±3.6μg/mL) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC50=12.34±2.3μg/mL) as compared to CA and AV extracts. Furthermore, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin and chlorogenic acid were found to be the major components responsible for the antioxidant activity of the HS extract as evidenced from UPLC-MS/MS. Taken together, this study demonstrates the promising antioxidant properties of the HS extract, which can further be utilized in various pharmaceutical, food, and agricultural applications. PMID:26948646

  13. On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

    2013-01-01

    New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change. PMID:23531982

  14. Evaluation of seasonal chemical composition, antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Tenfen, Adrielli; Yamanaka, Celina Noriko; de Cordova, Caio Maurício Mendes; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Alberton, Michele Debiasi

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the seasonal composition and the antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis leaves. Analysis by using GC allowed the identification of 40 compounds. It was observed that the monoterpenes varied more (42%) than the sesquiterpenes (14%), and that the monoterpene hydrocarbons suffered the greatest variation throughout the year (64%). Major compounds were spathulenol in the spring (16.02 ± 0.44%) and summer (18.17 ± 0.41%), τ-cadinol in the autumn (12.83 ± 0.03%) and α-pinene (15.94 ± 0.58%) in the winter. Essential oils were tested for their antibacterial activity, and the best result was obtained from the autumn oil, with MIC = 500 μg mL(- 1) against Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, lipid peroxidation and iron-reducing power assays, as well as the anticholinesterase activity. Both tests showed a weak performance of the essential oils. PMID:25219800

  15. Pharmacological evaluation of Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell.-Arg. fruit hair extract for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypnotic activity

    PubMed Central

    Gangwar, Mayank; Gautam, Manish Kumar; Ghildiyal, Shivani; Nath, Gopal; Goel, Raj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recently, we observed wound healing activity of 50% ethanol extract of Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg (MP) fruit hairs extract (MPE). In several intestinal infections, localized inflammation is of common occurrence and hence we evaluated the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypnotic activity of MPE in different rat experimental models. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan (acute) and turpentine oil induced formalin (subacute) induced paw edema and while granuloma pouch (subacute) in rats. Analgesic and hypnotic activity of MPE was undertaken by tail-flick, hot-plate, and acetic acid-induced writhing tests while pentobarbitone-induced hypnotic potentiation in rats. Results: MPE at a dose of 200 mg/kg at 3 h after their administration showed inhibition of formalin-induced paw edema by 41.60% (P < 0.001) and carrageenan-induced paw edema by 55.30% (P < 0.001). After 7 days of treatments, MPE showed 38.0% (P < 0.001) inhibition against formalin-induced paw edema and reduced weight of turpentine-induced granuloma pouch by 29.6% (P < 0.01) and volume of exudates by 26.1% (P < 0.01), respectively. MPE (200 mg/kg) showed dose-dependent elevation in pain threshold and peak analgesic effect at 120 min as evidenced by increased latency period in tail flick method and increased reaction time in the hot-plate test while the reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhes by 45.7% (P < 0.001). The pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis model showed potentiation, as defined by increased duration of sleep in treated group rats as compared to control. Conclusion: Thus, the study revealed MPE is effective in reducing acute and subacute inflammation and showed effective and similar analgesic activity. This seemed to be safe in the treatment of pain and inflammation. PMID:27069718

  16. LC/MS/NMR analysis of isomeric divanilloylquinic acids from the root bark of Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Badioré; Angenot, Luc; Guissou, Pierre; Fondu, Pierre; Dubois, Jacques; Frédérich, Michel; Jansen, Olivia; van Heugen, Jean-Claude; Wauters, Jean-Noël; Tits, Monique

    2004-04-01

    Gradient HPLC coupled to DAD/UV, MS/MS and NMR has been applied to the rapid structure determination of three new isomeric divanilloylquinic acids from Fagara zanthoxyloides collected in Burkina Faso: 3,4-O-divanilloylquinic acid, 3,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid and 4,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid. Furthermore these new compounds named burkinabins A-C could play a useful role in sickle cell disease, as the active agents of Fagara zanthoxyloïdes are said to be unidentified aromatic compounds with carboxylic acid grouping (Adesanya, S.A., Sofowora, A., 1983. Biological standardisation of Zanthoxylum roots for antisickling activity. Planta Med. 48, 27-33). PMID:15110696

  17. Herpes virus inhibitory substances from Hypericum connatum Lam., a plant used in southern Brazil to treat oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Daniela; Venturi, Caroline Rita; Cargnin, Simone; Schripsema, Jan; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Montanha, Jarbas Alves; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2007-09-25

    Hypericum connatum (Guttiferae) is used in southern Brazil in the treatment of lesions in the mouth, often related to acute herpetic gingivo-stomatitis. The chemical investigation of the plant revealed the presence of phloroglucinol derivatives and flavonoids. From the n-hexane extract of the aerial parts a phloroglucinol derivative, hyperbrasilol B, was isolated, while the methanolic extract afforded four flavonoids: amentoflavone, hyperoside, guaijaverine and luteoforol. The crude methanolic extract and fractions (n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol) as well as the isolated compounds were tested for antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Among the tested samples, luteoforol was the most active inhibiting the cytopathic effect (CPE) and reducing the viral titer of HSV-1 DNA viral strains KOS and VR733 (ATCC). PMID:17719731

  18. Effect of Growth Regulators on In Vitro Morphogenic Response of Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. Poir. Using Mature Zygotic Embryos Explants.

    PubMed

    Daffalla, Hussien H; Abdellatef, Eltayb; Elhadi, Elsadig A; Khalafalla, Mutasim M

    2011-01-01

    The percent study describes the in vitro responses of mature zygotic embryos of Boscia senegalensis to different concentrations (0.0-5.0 mg/L) of 6-benzyladnine (BA), Thidiazuron (TDZ), α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) supplemented on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS). The plant growth regulators (PGRs) were considerably affected the morphogenetic responses. BA produced adventitious shoots through two ways: direct organogenesis and auxiliary shoot formation. Both 2, 4-D and TDZ tend to produce callus, whereas NAA improve the development of embryos to seedlings. Maximum number of shoots/explant (14.8 ± 0.6) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L BA. 67.0% of excised shoots were rooted either on 1/2 MS medium augmented with or without 0.25 mg/L IBA. The highest number of roots (1.2 ± 0.4) and root length (0.5 ± 0.2 cm) was produced on 0.25 mg/L IBA-containing medium. Regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized and transferred to the green house with 70% survival rate. All the plants appeared morphologically uniform with normal growth pattern. A rapid (30 days), efficient and without subculturing protocol for in vitro regeneration of B. senegalensis was developed. PMID:21687567

  19. Phylogenetic relationships among morphotypes of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpinioideae: Leguminosae) evidenced by trnL intron sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juchum, Fabrício Sacramento; Costa, Marco Antônio; Amorim, André Márcio; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier

    2008-11-01

    Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood or Pernambuco wood) comprises a complex of three morphological leaf variants, characterized by differences in the number and size of the pinnae and leaflets, and occurring in allopatric and sympatric populations. The present study evaluates the utility of the chloroplast DNA trnL intron in a phylogenetic analysis of the three leaf variants along with other species of Caesalpinia and generic relatives. Our study supports the hypothesis that the name C. echinata designates a species complex and provides evidence that one of the forms, the highly divergent C. echinata large-leafleted variant, represents a distinct taxon.

  20. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra; Arya, Priya Vrat; Aggarwal, Ved Prakash; Gupta, Radhey Shyam

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated against CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatotoxic rats were treated with ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera for a period of 60 days at the following three dose levels; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day, orally. The activities were studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ALP, ACP, as well as total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum concomitantly with the activities of LPO, SOD, CAT, GSH, GR and GPx in liver. The activities of all parameters registered a significant (p ≤ 0.001) alteration in CCl₄ treated rats, which were significantly recovered towards an almost normal level in rats co-administered with M. oleifera extract in a dose-dependent manner. All the biochemical investigations were confirmed by the histopathological observations and compared with the standard drug. silymarin. Results suggest that the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of M. oleifera leaves are possibly related to the free radical scavenging activity which might be due to the presence of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extract and/or the purified compounds β-sitosterol, quercetin and kaempferol, which were isolated from the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves. PMID:26785072

  1. Genetic Dissection of New Genotypes of Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker

    PubMed Central

    Rufai, Shamsuddeen; Hanafi, M. M.; Rafii, M. Y.; Ahmad, S.; Arolu, I. W.; Ferdous, Jannatul

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of genetic diversity of tree crop is very important for breeding and improvement program for the purpose of improving the yield and quality of its produce. Genetic diversity study and analysis of genetic relationship among 20 Moringa oleifera were carried out with the aid of twelve primers from, random amplified polymorphic DNA marker. The seeds of twenty M. oleifera genotypes from various origins were collected and germinated and raised in nursery before transplanting to the field at University Agricultural Park (TPU). Genetic diversity parameter, such as Shannon's information index and expected heterozygosity, revealed the presence of high genetic divergence with value of 1.80 and 0.13 for Malaysian population and 0.30 and 0.19 for the international population, respectively. Mean of Nei's gene diversity index for the two populations was estimated to be 0.20. In addition, a dendrogram constructed, using UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance, grouped the twenty M. oleifera into five distinct clusters. The study revealed a great extent of variation which is essential for successful breeding and improvement program. From this study, M. oleifera genotypes of wide genetic origin, such as T-01, T-06, M-01, and M-02, are recommended to be used as parent in future breeding program. PMID:23862149

  2. Effect of Growth Regulators on In Vitro Morphogenic Response of Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. Poir. Using Mature Zygotic Embryos Explants

    PubMed Central

    Daffalla, Hussien H.; Abdellatef, Eltayb; Elhadi, Elsadig A.; Khalafalla, Mutasim M.

    2011-01-01

    The percent study describes the in vitro responses of mature zygotic embryos of Boscia senegalensis to different concentrations (0.0–5.0 mg/L) of 6-benzyladnine (BA), Thidiazuron (TDZ), α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) supplemented on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS). The plant growth regulators (PGRs) were considerably affected the morphogenetic responses. BA produced adventitious shoots through two ways: direct organogenesis and auxiliary shoot formation. Both 2, 4-D and TDZ tend to produce callus, whereas NAA improve the development of embryos to seedlings. Maximum number of shoots/explant (14.8 ± 0.6) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L BA. 67.0% of excised shoots were rooted either on 1/2 MS medium augmented with or without 0.25 mg/L IBA. The highest number of roots (1.2 ± 0.4) and root length (0.5 ± 0.2 cm) was produced on 0.25 mg/L IBA-containing medium. Regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized and transferred to the green house with 70% survival rate. All the plants appeared morphologically uniform with normal growth pattern. A rapid (30 days), efficient and without subculturing protocol for in vitro regeneration of B. senegalensis was developed. PMID:21687567

  3. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status. PMID:24198710

  4. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status. PMID:24198710

  5. Comparative analysis of nutritional quality of five different cultivars of sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas (L) Lam) in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, Suraji A; Ranaweera, K K D S; Gunaratne, Anil; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional attributes of flours obtained from five different cultivars of sweet potato roots commonly available in Sri Lanka showed significant differences in the tested parameters. The starch level ranged between 33% and 64% on the dry basis and the extractability from fresh tubers was governed by the quantity of starch. The crude fiber level ranged between 2.1% and 13.6% on dry basis and the highest level was observed in swp7 (CARI 273) and resistant starch ranged from 14.2% to 17.2%. Higher percentage of resistant starch from total starch was found in Wariyapola red (swp1) cultivar resulting in lower digestion level while higher levels of digestion was evident in cultivars with lower levels of resistant starch with high level of total starch. Low levels of calcium and significant levels of iron were found in the five cultivars studied. Crude protein level was in the range of 1.2–3.3% on dry basis and trypsin inhibitor activity level (TIA) was significantly different (P > 0.05) in the cultivars studied while heating resulted in a significantly high reduction in the TIA level than in unheated condition. Polygonal or round shaped starch granules were in the range of 16.8–23.5 μm and low level of starch digestion was shown in cultivars containing larger granules. Total amylose content lies in the range 15.4–19.6% and cultivars having higher percentage of amylose showed higher level of in vitro pancreatic digestion (Pallepola [swp4] and swp7). The starch digestibility of sweet potato flour was in the range of 36–55% and the highest digestion was observed in swp7. Orange fleshed cultivars (swp4 and swp7) were comparatively rich in nutrients and digestibility than the other three studied cultivars. PMID:24804032

  6. Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi Sre, P. R.; Reka, M.; Poovazhagi, R.; Arul Kumar, M.; Murugesan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines.

  7. Serum type III procollagen peptide and laminin (Lam-P1) detect alcoholic hepatitis in chronic alcohol abusers.

    PubMed

    Annoni, G; Colombo, M; Cantaluppi, M C; Khlat, B; Lampertico, P; Rojkind, M

    1989-05-01

    The diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis is difficult to establish by conventional clinical and laboratory methods, and a firm diagnosis relies on liver histology. Since there are severe limitations in following patients with repeated liver biopsies, noninvasive procedures are needed to assess the presence of alcoholic hepatitis in chronic alcohol abusers. It has been suggested that serum Type III procollagen peptide levels correlates with the degree of inflammation in chronic liver disease. Since inflammation is a major histological finding in alcoholic hepatitis, we therefore studied the usefulness of measuring serum Type III procollagen peptide and laminin values in 45 consecutive chronic alcohol abusers, with or without cirrhosis, in detecting those with alcoholic hepatitis. The results showed that both Type III procollagen peptide and laminin values were elevated in all of the patients with established liver damage. However, the values were highest in those with liver cirrhosis plus alcoholic hepatitis (Type III procollagen peptide 50.4 +/- 36.4 ng per ml vs. 8.1 +/- 2.6 in controls, p less than 0.01; laminin 4.50 +/- 1.49 units per liter vs. 1.24 +/- 0.26 units per liter in controls, p less than 0.01), followed by subjects with alcoholic hepatitis alone (Type III procollagen peptide 23.5 +/- 17.6 ng per ml, p less than 0.01; laminin 2.60 +/- 1.09 units per liter, p less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2707736

  8. Juice of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) inhibits oxytocin-induced increase of the intracellular calcium concentration in human myometrial cells.

    PubMed

    Simões-Wüst, A P; Grãos, M; Duarte, C B; Brenneisen, R; Hamburger, M; Mennet, M; Ramos, M H; Schnelle, M; Wächter, R; Worel, A M; von Mandach, U

    2010-10-01

    The use of preparations from Bryophyllum pinnatum in tocolysis is supported by both clinical (retrospective comparative studies) and experimental (using uterus strips) evidence. We studied here the effect of B. pinnatum juice on the response of cultured human myometrial cells to stimulation by oxytocin, a hormone known to be involved in the control of uterine contractions by increasing the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). In this work, [Ca2+]i was measured online during stimulation of human myometrial cells (hTERT-C3 and M11) with oxytocin, which had been pre-incubated in the absence or in the presence of B. pinnatum juice. Since no functional voltage-gated Ca2+ channels could be detected in these myometrial cells, the effect of B. pinnatum juice was as well studied in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which are known to have such channels and can be depolarised with KCl. B. pinnatum juice prevented the oxytocin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in hTERT-C3 human myometrial cells in a dose-dependent manner, achieving a ca. 80% inhibition at a 2% concentration. Comparable results were obtained with M11 human primary myometrial cells. In hTERT-C3 cells, prevention of the oxytocin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was independent of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration and of voltage-dependent Ca2+-channels. B. pinnatum juice delayed, but did not prevent the depolarization-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, the data suggest a specific and concentration-dependent effect of B. pinnatum juice on the oxytocin signalling pathway, which seems to corroborate its use in tocolysis. Such a specific mechanism would explain the rare and minor side-effects in tocolysis with B. pinnatum as well as its high therapeutic index. PMID:20381326

  9. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharmendra; Arya, Priya Vrat; Aggarwal, Ved Prakash; Gupta, Radhey Shyam

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatotoxic rats were treated with ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera for a period of 60 days at the following three dose levels; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day, orally. The activities were studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ALP, ACP, as well as total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum concomitantly with the activities of LPO, SOD, CAT, GSH, GR and GPx in liver. The activities of all parameters registered a significant (p ≤ 0.001) alteration in CCl4 treated rats, which were significantly recovered towards an almost normal level in rats co-administered with M. oleifera extract in a dose-dependent manner. All the biochemical investigations were confirmed by the histopathological observations and compared with the standard drug. silymarin. Results suggest that the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of M. oleifera leaves are possibly related to the free radical scavenging activity which might be due to the presence of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extract and/or the purified compounds β-sitosterol, quercetin and kaempferol, which were isolated from the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves. PMID:26785072

  10. Carotenoids gene markers for sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam): applications in genetic mapping, diversity evaluation and cross-species transference.

    PubMed

    Arizio, C M; Costa Trtara, S M; Manifesto, M M

    2014-04-01

    Carotenoids play essential biological roles in plants, and genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway are evolutionarily conserved. Orange sweetpotato is an important source of ?-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A. In spite of this, only a few research studies have focussed on the molecular aspects of carotenoid genes regarding their specific sequence and structure. In this study, we used published carotenoid gene sequences from Ipomoea and other species for "exon-primed intron-crossing" approaches. Fifteen pairs of primers representing six carotenoid genes were designed for different introns, eleven of which amplified scorable and reproducible alleles. The sequence of PCR products showed high homology to the original ones. Moreover, the structure and sequence of the introns and exons from five carotenoid structural genes were partially defined. Intron length polymorphism and intron single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in amplified sequences. Marker dosages and allelic segregations were analysed in a mapping population. The developed markers were evaluated in a set of Ipomoeas batatas accessions so as to analyse genetic diversity and conservation applicability. Using CG strategy combined with EPIC-PCR technique, we developed carotenoid gene markers in sweetpotato. We reported the first set of polymorphic Candidate Gene markers for I. batatas, and demonstrated transferability in seven wild Ipomoea species. We described the sequence and structure of carotenoid genes and introduced new information about genomic constitution and allele dosage. PMID:24384928

  11. Antimicrobial, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities of defensin from sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. 'Tainong 57'] storage roots.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Lu, Te-Ling; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2008-05-14

    A cDNA encoding a small cysteine-rich protein designated defensin (SPD1) was isolated from sweet potato storage roots. On the basis of the amino acid sequence similarity and conserved residues, it is suggested that SPD1 is a member of the plant defensin family. Recombinant SPD1 protein overproduced in Escherichia coli was purified by Ni (2+)-chelated affinity chromatography. A recombinant protein from the storage root cDNA clone effectively inhibited the trypsin activity in a dose-dependent manner. Both the corresponding mRNA and protein level were found to be highest in the storage roots, followed by sprout. SPD1 reduced dehydroascorbate (DHA) in the presence of glutathione to regenerate l-ascorbic acid (AsA). However, without glutathione, SPD1 has very low DHA reductase activity, and AsA was oxidized by AsA oxidase to generate monodehydroascorbate (MDA) free radical. MDA was also reduced by SPD1 to AsA in the presence of NADH, mimicking the MDA reductase catalyzed reaction. These data suggest that SPD1 has both DHA reductase and MDA reductase activities. SPD1 was also shown to inhibit the growth of both fungi and bacteria. SPD1 is apparently the first reported plant defensin exhibiting DHA and MDA activities in vitro. PMID:18393437

  12. Toxic Ipomeamarone accumulation in healthy parts of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) storage roots upon infection by Rhizopus stolonifer.

    PubMed

    Wamalwa, Lydia N; Cheseto, Xavier; Ouna, Elizabeth; Kaplan, Fatma; Maniania, Nguya K; Machuka, Jesse; Torto, Baldwyn; Ghislain, Marc

    2015-01-14

    Furanoterpenoid accumulation in response to microbial attack in rotting sweetpotatoes has long been linked to deaths and lung edema of cattle in the world. However, it is not known whether furanoterpenoid ipomeamarone accumulates in the healthy-looking parts of infected sweetpotato storage roots. This is critical for effective utilization as animal feed and assessment of the potential negative impact on human health. Therefore, we first identified the fungus from infected sweetpotatoes as a Rhizopus stolonifer strain and then used it to infect healthy sweetpotato storage roots for characterization of furanoterpenoid content. Ipomeamarone and its precursor, dehydroipomeamarone, were identified through spectroscopic analyses, and detected in all samples and controls at varying concentrations. Ipomeamarone concentration was at toxic levels in healthy-looking parts of some samples. Our study provides fundamental information on furanoterpenoids in relation to high levels reported that could subsequently affect cattle on consumption and high ipomeamarone levels in healthy-looking parts. PMID:25418792

  13. Anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities and HPLC-MS analysis of polyphenol from extracts of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Nabèrè; Meda, Roland Nâg-Tiero; Hilou, Adama; Guenné, Samson; Konaté, Kiessoum; Coulibaly, Ahmed Y; Kiendrébeogo, Martin; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities and to evaluate the major polyphenolic compounds of Nelsonia canescens extracts. Methods The anti-acetylcholinesterase activity was assessed using a kinetic inhibition standard method. Two methods, ABTS and lipid peroxidation, were used to estimate the antioxidant capacity. Polyphenols profile of the plant extract has been determined with a HPLC-MS method. Results The results showed that butanol extract exhibited the best anti-acetylcholinesterase activity with inhibition percentage of (55.62±1.49)%. The best 3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate radical cation scavenging capacity was found for ethyl acetate extract with a value of (56.20±0.77) mg equivalent trolox/g while the crude extract showed the highest inhibition of the rat liver lipid peroxidation (52.57±1.20)%. Polyphenols profile revealed the presence of five phenol acids (p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and gentisic acid) and three flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, quercetin). Conclusions All the extracts of Nelsonia canescens exhibited antioxidant and AChE inhibition capacities. The active compounds identified and quantified in this species are mainly responsible for these in vitro biological activities and allow to justify its widely use in Burkina Faso traditional medicine.

  14. Ocotea quixos Lam. essential oil: in vitro and in vivo investigation on its anti-inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Ballabeni, Vigilio; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Giorgio, Carmine; Bertoni, Simona; Bruni, Renato; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2010-06-01

    Here we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of Ocotea quixos essential oil and of its main components, trans-cinnamaldehyde and methyl cinnamate, in in vitro and in vivo models. Ocotea essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde but not methyl cinnamate significantly reduced LPS-induced NO release from J774 macrophages at non-toxic concentrations, inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 expression and increased forskolin-induced cAMP production. The essential oil (30-100mg/kg os) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (10mg/kg os) in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema showed anti-inflammatory effect without damaging gastric mucosa. In conclusion we provide the first evidence of a significant anti-inflammatory gastro-sparing activity of O.quixos essential oil. PMID:19825398

  15. Antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of essential oil from wild Ocotea quixos (Lam.) Kosterm. (Lauraceae) calices from Amazonian Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ballabeni, Vigilio; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Bertoni, Simona; Bruni, Renato; Guerrini, Alessandra; Rueda, Gabriela Moreno; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2007-01-01

    Ocotea quixos essential oil was shown to possess significant inhibitory activity of platelet aggregation and clot retraction in rodent plasma. This study is aimed at fully characterizing the antiplatelet activity of the whole essential oil and its main components trans-cinnamaldehyde and methyl cinnamate also in human plasma, at investigating the mechanism underlying such activity and at evaluating the potential antithrombotic activity of subacute treatment of mice with Ocotea essential oil. In vitro Ocotea essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde inhibited arachidonic acid-, U46619-, ADP-, phorbol12-myristate13-alcetate-, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and thrombin-induced clot retraction in human and rodent plasma; Ocotea oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde competitively antagonized contractions induced by thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619 in rat isolated aortic ring (K(B) = 18 and 3.2 microg ml(-1), respectively). In vivo Ocotea oil, orally administered in a subacute treatment (30-100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 5 days) to mice, prevented acute thrombosis induced by collagen-epinephrine intravenous injection. This antithrombotic activity was not accompanied by pro-haemorragic side effect, as detected by the inactivity in bleeding test, thus showing a favourable safety profile compared to the conventional antiplatelet agent, acetylsalicylic acid. Present findings indicate that Ocotea essential oil possesses potent and safe antithrombotic activity attributable to its antiplatelet and vasorelaxant effects. The main constituent trans-cinnamaldehyde seems to be the primary responsible for this activity through a putative mechanism involving the inhibition of thromboxane A2 receptors. PMID:17079160

  16. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. cultivated in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Marrufo, Tatiana; Nazzaro, Filomena; Mancini, Emilia; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele; De Martino, Laura; Agostinho, Adelaide Bela; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) grown in Mozambique was investigated. The chemical composition was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. Hexacosane (13.9%), pentacosane (13.3%) and heptacosane (11.4%) were the main components. Ultra High Performance Chromatography-DAD analysis detected the flavonoids quercetin (126 μg/g) and luteolin (6.2 μg/g). The essential oil exhibited a relatively low free radical scavenging capacity. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against two Gram-positive strains (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and five fungal strains of agro-food interest (Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium digitatum, and Aspergillus niger spp.). B. cereus and P. aeruginosa, as well as the fungal strains were sensitive to the essential oil. PMID:24022760

  17. Constituents of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Moringa oleifera Lam., Heliotropium indicum L. and Bidens pilosa L. from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunbinu, Akinola O; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier L; Adebayo, Muritala A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2009-04-01

    The essential oils of four plant species from Nigeria have been extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of Cajanus cajan were comprised of sesquiterpenes (92.5%, 81.2% and 94.3% respectively in the leaves, stem and seeds). The major compounds identified were alpha-himachalene (9.0-11.5%), beta-himachalene (8.0-11.0%), gamma-himachalene (6.9-8.1%), alpha-humulene (7.1-8.7%) and alpha-copaene (4.5-5.6%). However, monoterpenoid compounds (81.8%) dominated the oil of Moringa oleifera with an abundance of alpha-phellandrene (25.2%) and p-cymene (24.9%). On the other hand, aldehydes (52.8%) occurred in the highest amount in Heliotropium indicum, represented by phenylacetaldehyde (22.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (8.3%) and (E, Z)-2-nonadienal (6.1%), with a significant quantity of hexahydrofarnesylacetone (8.4%). The leaf and stem oils of Bidens pilosa were dominated by sesquiterpenes (82.3% and 59.3%, respectively). The main compounds in the leaf oil were caryophyllene oxide (37.0%), beta-caryophyllene (10.5%) and humulene oxide (6.0%), while the stem oils had an abundance of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (13.4%), delta-cadinene (12.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.0%). The observed chemical patterns differ considerably from previous investigations. PMID:19476009

  18. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and apoptotic induction of an aqueous extract of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC.

    PubMed

    Sabini, M C; Cariddi, L N; Escobar, F M; Mañas, F; Comini, L; Reinoso, E; Sutil, S B; Acosta, A C; Núñez Montoya, S; Contigiani, M S; Zanon, S M; Sabini, L I

    2013-10-01

    Achyrocline satureioides is widely consumed as infusion or aperitif and shows important therapeutic properties. Previously, we reported absence of genotoxicity of cold aqueous extract (CAE) of A. satureioides by Allium test. However, one test cannot predict the genotoxic effects of a substance. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and apoptotic ability of CAE of A. satureioides. In addition, CAE was chemically characterized. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by Trypan blue and MTT assays. The apoptotic capacity was evaluated by Hoechst staining and DNA fragmentation-analysis. The genotoxicity was studied by comet assay (CA) and micronucleus test. The identification and quantification of flavonoids were performed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The cytotoxicity studies indicated low toxicity of CAE. In addition, CAE did not induce apoptotic effects on human PBMCs. CAE did not show genotoxicity in vitro against Vero cells, at 10-50 μg/mL. CAE did not induce in vivo genotoxic effects, but it showed at high concentrations cytotoxicity by micronucleus assay. CAE presented flavonoids such as quercetin, 3-O-methylquercetin and luteolin. In conclusion, A. satureioides at popularly concentrations used, in aperitif or infusion, can be consumed safely because did not show any cytotoxic or genotoxic effects. PMID:23948353

  19. Identification of eighteen Berberis species as alternate hosts of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and virulence variation in the pathogen isolates from natural infection of barberry plants in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst) population in China has been reported to be a distinct genetic group with higher diversity than those in many other countries. Genetic recombination in the Pst population has been identified with molecular markers, but whethe...

  20. Triterpenoids from Brazilian Ilex species and their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity.

    PubMed

    Taketa, Alexandre T C; Gnoatto, Simone C B; Gosmann, Grace; Pires, Viviane S; Schenkel, Eloir P; Guillaume, Dominique

    2004-10-01

    From the leaves of Ilex affinis and Ilex buxifolia, two adulterant species of "erva mate" (Ilex paraguariensis), three new triterpenoid glycosides were isolated. Affinoside 1 (3beta-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[2-O-acetyl-(1-->2

  1. Berberine.

    PubMed

    2000-04-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in both Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine. It is present in Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), Coptis chinensis (Coptis or goldenthread), Berberis aquifolium (Oregon grape), Berberis vulgaris (barberry), and Berberis aristata (tree turmeric). The berberine alkaloid can be found in the roots, rhizomes, and stem bark of the plants. Berberine extracts and decoctions have demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against a variety of organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, helminths, and chlamydia. Currently, the predominant clinical uses of berberine include bacterial diarrhea, intestinal parasite infections, and ocular trachoma infections. PMID:10767672

  2. Herbicidal activity of Brassicaceae seed meal on wild oat (Avena fatua), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an on-going need for the development of sustainable methods of weed control in crop production systems. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different Brassicaceae seed meals and application rates on the emergence of several weed species including wild oat, Italian rye grass, ...

  3. A Nonhost Peptidase Inhibitor of ~14 kDa from Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. Seeds Affects Negatively the Growth and Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Prabhash K.; Singh, Dushyant; Singh, Sangram; Khan, M. Y.; Jamal, Farrukh

    2014-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is one of the major devastating pests of crop plants. In this context a serine peptidase inhibitor purified from the seeds of Butea monosperma was evaluated for its effect on developmental physiology of H. armigera larvae. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor on 12% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis exhibited a single protein band of ~14 kDa with or without reduction. In vitro studies towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera and bovine trypsin indicated measurable inhibitory activity. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor dose for 50% mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 0.5% w/w and 0.10% w/w, respectively. The IC50 of B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor against total H. armigera gut proteinases activity was 2.0 µg/mL. The larval feeding assays suggested B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor to be toxic as reflected by its retarded growth and development, consequently affecting fertility and fecundity of pest and prolonging the larval-pupal duration of the insect life cycle of H. armigera. Supplementing B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor in artificial diet at 0.1% w/w, both the efficiencies of conversion of ingested as well as digested food were downregulated, whereas approximate digestibility and metabolic cost were enhanced. The efficacy of Butea monosperma peptidase inhibitor against progressive growth and development of H. armigera suggest its usefulness in insect pest management of food crops. PMID:24860667

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Artemisia umbelliformis Lam, an endangered aromatic species in Southern French Alps, influence plant P and essential oil contents.

    PubMed

    Binet, Marie-Noëlle; van Tuinen, Diederik; Deprêtre, Nicolas; Koszela, Nathalie; Chambon, Catherine; Gianinazzi, Silvio

    2011-08-01

    Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi of Artemisia umbelliformis, investigated in natural and cultivated sites in the Southern Alps of France, showed typical structures (arbuscules, vesicles, hyphae) as well as spores and mycelia in its rhizosphere. Several native AM fungi belonging to different Glomeromycota genera were identified as colonizers of A. umbelliformis roots, including Glomus tenue, Glomus intraradices, G. claroideum/etunicatum and a new Acaulospora species. The use of the highly mycorrhizal species Trifolium pratense as a companion plant impacted positively on mycorrhizal colonization of A. umbelliformis under greenhouse conditions. The symbiotic performance of an alpine microbial community including native AM fungi used as inoculum on A. umbelliformis was evaluated in greenhouse conditions by comparison with mycorrhizal responses of two other alpine Artemisia species, Artemisia glacialis and Artemisia genipi Weber. Contrary to A. genipi Weber, both A. umbelliformis and A. glacialis showed a significant increase of P concentration in shoots. Volatile components were analyzed by GC-MS in shoots of A. umbelliformis 6 months after inoculation. The alpine microbial inoculum increased significantly the percentage of E-β-ocimene and reduced those of E-2-decenal and (E,E)-2-4-decadienal indicating an influence of alpine microbial inoculum on essential oil production. This work provides practical indications for the use of native AM fungi for A. umbelliformis field culture. PMID:21243378

  5. Biochemical composition, antimicrobial activities,and anti-quorum-sensing activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from Hypericum connatum Lam. (Guttiferae).

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; Marandino, Aurelio; Fusco, Maria Del Rosario; Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura

    2013-05-01

    We studied the polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of Hypericum connatum (Guttiferae), in addition to their antimicrobial and antiquorum-sensing (AQS) properties. The extracts exhibited a similar polyphenol content and a notable antioxidant activity, which was stronger in the ethanolic extract (EC50=3.2 μg/mL). Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed different polyphenol profiles, with rutin and apigen being the main components of the ethanolic extract and caffeic acid, (-)-epicatechin and p-coumaric acid being abundant in the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited a more effective antimicrobial activity than the ethanolic extract against the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For the first time, AQS activity was detected in H. connatum: the ethanolic extract inhibited the production of violacein, a quorum-sensing-regulated pigment, in a Chromobacterium violaceum tester strain, without interfering with its growth. PMID:23631492

  6. Evaluation on two-port configuration of a Lamé-mode octagonal microelectromechanical systems resonator driven by sliding driving electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujishita, Katsuhiro; Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Furutsuka, Takashi; Suzuki, Kenichiro

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we report significant improvements for microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonators. In our previous work, the reduction in gap between a driving electrode (DE) and a resonant plate was achieved by sliding DEs, showing a clear resonance at 12 MHz. However, it needed a large pull-in voltage and an elaborate measurement technique. In this study, we design soft springs for DEs and evaluate a two-port configuration to cancel feedthrough current. Measurement results show that the pull-in voltage is successfully decreased by one-third that for the previous resonator and a resonance is observed in a fabricated two-port circuit. Such a pull-in voltage can be sufficiently generated from a 2.5 V source in combination with a charge pump circuit. These results are useful for adopting the MEMS resonators to real applications.

  7. Protective effects of friedelin isolated from Azima tetracantha Lam. against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats and possible underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Antonisamy, Paulrayer; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Aravinthan, Adithan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Choi, Ki Choon; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    The current study was aimed to investigate the gastroprotective effects of friedelin isolated from the hexane extract of leaves of Azima tetracantha. Ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model was used to investigate the gastroprotective effects of friedelin. Antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, gastric vascular permeability, pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis level have been investigated. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and friedelin pretreatment protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities, anti-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) and mucus weight have been increased significantly. However, the vascular permeability, pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3 and apoptosis level have significantly been decreased after friedelin ingestion. The present study has clearly demonstrated the anti-ulcer potential of friedelin, these findings suggested that friedelin could be a new useful natural gastroprotective tool against gastric ulcer. PMID:25617794

  8. Butanolic fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) attenuates isoprotrenol-induced cardiac necrosis and oxidative stress in rats: an EPR study.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sunanda

    2015-01-01

    The preventive effect of Moringa oleifera polyphenolic fraction (MOPF) on cardiac damage was evaluated in isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiotoxicity model of Wistar rats. Male rats in different groups were treated with MOPF orally at the dose of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day for 28 days and were subsequently administered (s.c.) with ISO (85 mg/kg body weight) for the last two days. At the end of the experiment levels of serum troponin-T, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, content of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities/levels of different cellular antioxidants were estimated in control and experimental groups. Additionally, scavenging potential to the hydroxyl radical of the fraction was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). ISO administered rats showed significant increase in the levels of serum troponin-I, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and heart tissue MDA content. Furthermore, marked reduction in the activities of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were observed. EPR study showed an increase in signal intensity in ISO-induced rats. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of heart section revealed a marked increase in infarcted area in ISO-induced rats. Histological features of the heart also indicated a disruption in the structure of cardiac myofibrils in these animals. MOPF (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment prevented all these adverse effects of ISO. Present results show that the rich polyphenolic content of Moringa oleifera significantly reduced the myocardial damage and decreased the oxidative stress, possibly through hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as evidenced from the EPR spectra. PMID:26417351

  9. Identification of low-Cd cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) after growing on Cd-contaminated soil: uptake and partitioning to the edible roots.

    PubMed

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Dai, Hongwen; Zhou, Wenjing; Peng, Lijing

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination in agricultural products presents a threat to humans when consumed. Sweet potato is the world's seventh most important food crop. The aims of this study were to screen for low-Cd sweet potato cultivars and clarify the mechanisms of low-Cd accumulation in edible roots. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the variation of Cd uptake and translocation among 30 sweet potato cultivars grown in contaminated soils with three different Cd concentrations. Cadmium concentrations in edible roots were significantly different among cultivars and were significantly affected by Cd treatment, and the interaction between cultivar and Cd treatment. High-Cd cultivars have higher ratios of edible root/shoot Cd concentration and edible root/feeder root Cd concentration than low-Cd cultivars; however, the ratio of shoot/feeder root Cd concentration seems unrelated to the ability of Cd accumulation in edible roots. Four sweet potato cultivars, Nan88 (No. 10), Xiang20 (No. 12), Ji78-066 (No. 15), and Ji73-427 (No. 16), were identified as low-Cd cultivars. Cadmium translocation from feeder roots to edible roots via the xylem, and from shoots to edible roots via the phloem, controls Cd accumulation in edible roots of sweet potato cultivars. PMID:25860549

  10. Self-Reseeding Potential and Herbage Production of Italian Ryegrass (Lolium Multiflorum Lam.) Affected by Date and Intensity of Initial Harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annually-sown cool-season small grain cereals can provide a valuable source of cool-season feeding for livestock in the southern Great Plains of the USA, but for many farmers limited access to field equipment for cultivation and planting is an obstacle to their use. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflo...

  11. Stability of carotenoids, total phenolics and in vitro antioxidant capacity in the thermal processing of orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Donado-Pestana, Carlos M; Mastrodi Salgado, Jocelem; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro; dos Santos, Priscila Robertina; Jablonski, André

    2012-09-01

    Intervention strategies regarding the biofortification of orange-fleshed sweet potato, which is a rich source of carotenoids for combating vitamin A deficiency, are being developed in Brazil. This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of individual carotenoids, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in the roots of four biofortified sweet potato cultivars that were raw or processed by four common heat treatments. HPLC, Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH and ABTS assays were used. All cultivars showed high levels of carotenoids in raw roots, predominantly all-trans-β-carotene (79.1-128.5 mg.100 g(-1) DW), suggesting a high estimated vitamin A activity. The CNPH 1194 cultivar reported carotenoids values highest than those of other cultivars (p < 0.05). The total phenolic compounds varied among cultivars and heat treatments (0.96-2.05 mg.g(-1) DW). In most cases, the heat treatments resulted in a significant decrease in the carotenoids and phenolic compounds contents as well as antioxidant capacity. Processing of flour presented the greatest losses of major carotenoids and phenolics. The phenolic compounds showed more stability than carotenoids after processing. There were significant correlations between the carotenoids and phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity. PMID:22802046

  12. Rapid analysis of Achillea tenuifolia Lam essential oils by polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite coating as a solid-phase microextraction fibre.

    PubMed

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a highly porous fibre coated with polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite (PT/SBA-15) was prepared and used for extraction of essential oils with microwave-assisted distillation headspace solid phase microextraction (MA-HS-SPME) method. The prepared nanomaterials were immobilised on a stainless steel wire for fabrication of the SPME fibre. Using MA-HS-SPME followed by GC-MS, 24 compounds were separated and identified in Achillea tenuifolia, which mainly included limonene (28.6%), α-cadinol (12.7%), borneol (6.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.2%), bornyl acetate (4.3%), camphene (3.2%) and para-cymene (2.3%). The experimental results showed that the polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite fibres were suitable for the semi-quantitative study of the composition of essential oils in plant materials and for monitoring the variations in the volatile components of the plants. PMID:25613724

  13. African eggplant (Solanum anguivi Lam.) fruit with bioactive polyphenolic compounds exerts in vitro antioxidant properties and inhibits Ca2+-induced mitochondrial swelling

    PubMed Central

    Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Bolingon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Lopes, Seeger Rodrigo; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Kade, Ige Joseph; Adanlawo, Isaac Gbadura; Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of Solanum anguivi fruit (SAG) and its possible effect on mitochondrial permeability transition pore as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) isolated from rat liver. Methods Antioxidant activity of SAG was assayed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, iron chelation and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in both liver and brain homogenate of rats. Also, the effect of SAG on mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial swelling were determined. Identification and quantification of bioactive polyphenolics was done by HPLC-DAD. Results SAG exhibited potent and concentration dependent free radical-scavenging activity (IC50/DPPH=275.03±7.8 µg/mL). Reductive and iron chelation abilities also increase with increase in SAG concentration. SAG also inhibited peroxidation of cerebral and hepatic lipids subjected to iron oxidative assault. SAG protected against Ca2+ (110 µmol/L)-induced mitochondrial swelling and maintained the ΔΨm. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid [(17.54±0.04) mg/g], chlorogenic acid (21.90±0.02 mg/g), caffeic acid (16.64±0.01 mg/g), rutin [(14.71±0.03) mg/g] and quercetin [(7.39±0.05) mg/g]. Conclusions These effects could be attributed to the bioactive polyphenolic compounds present in the extract. Our results suggest that SAG extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants that may be used not only in pharmaceutical and food industry but also in the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:24075339

  14. The antidiabetic effect of low doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in male rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; El Rabey, Haddad A

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group. PMID:25629046

  15. Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract prevents fat diet induced oxidative stress in mice and protects liver cell-nuclei from hydroxyl radical mediated damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjan; Ganguli, Debdutta; Dey, Sanjit

    2015-12-01

    High fat diet (HFD) prompts metabolic pattern inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria thereby triggering multitude of chronic disorders in human. Antioxidants from plant sources may be an imperative remedy against this disorder. However, it requires scientific validation. In this study, we explored if (i) Moringa oleifera seed extract (MoSE) can neutralize ROS generated in HFD fed mice; (ii) protect cell-nuclei damage developed by Fenton reaction in vitro. Swiss mice were fed with HFD to develop oxidative stress model (HFD group). Other groups were control, seed extract alone treated, and MoSE simultaneously (HS) treated. Treatment period was of 15 days. Antioxidant enzymes with tissue nitrite content (TNC) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated from liver homogenate. HS group showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) compared to only HFD fed group. Further, TNC and LPO decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in HS group compared to HFD fed group. MoSE also protected hepatocytes nuclei from the hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction. MoSE was found to be polyphenol rich with potent reducing power, free radicals and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity. Thus, MoSE exhibited robust antioxidant prospective to neutralize ROS developed in HFD fed mice and also protected the nuclei damage from hydroxyl radicals. Hence, it can be used as herbal medication against HFD induced ROS mediated disorders. PMID:26742324

  16. Butanolic fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) attenuates isoprotrenol-induced cardiac necrosis and oxidative stress in rats: an EPR study

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Sunanda

    2015-01-01

    The preventive effect of Moringa oleifera polyphenolic fraction (MOPF) on cardiac damage was evaluated in isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiotoxicity model of Wistar rats. Male rats in different groups were treated with MOPF orally at the dose of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day for 28 days and were subsequently administered (s.c.) with ISO (85 mg/kg body weight) for the last two days. At the end of the experiment levels of serum troponin-T, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, content of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities/levels of different cellular antioxidants were estimated in control and experimental groups. Additionally, scavenging potential to the hydroxyl radical of the fraction was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). ISO administered rats showed significant increase in the levels of serum troponin-I, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and heart tissue MDA content. Furthermore, marked reduction in the activities of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were observed. EPR study showed an increase in signal intensity in ISO-induced rats. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of heart section revealed a marked increase in infarcted area in ISO-induced rats. Histological features of the heart also indicated a disruption in the structure of cardiac myofibrils in these animals. MOPF (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment prevented all these adverse effects of ISO. Present results show that the rich polyphenolic content of Moringa oleifera significantly reduced the myocardial damage and decreased the oxidative stress, possibly through hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as evidenced from the EPR spectra. PMID:26417351

  17. The Antidiabetic Effect of Low Doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; El Rabey, Haddad A.

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group. PMID:25629046

  18. Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) leaves using ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Apexa Bhanuprasad; Mandavia, Divyesh Rasikbhai; Barvaliya, Manish Jasmatbhai; Baxi, Seema Natvarlal; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu Rajkishore

    2014-01-01

    Materials and Methods : Thirty-six Wistar male rats were randomly divided into six equal groups. Group A animals received distilled water for 28 days. Group B to group F animals received 1% v/v ethylene glycol in distilled water for 28 days and group B served as ethylene glycol control. Groups C and D (preventive groups) received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively for 28 days. Groups E and F (treatment groups) received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively from 15th to 28th day. On days 0 and 28, 24 hrs urine samples were collected for urinary volume and urinary oxalate measurement. On day 28, blood was collected for serum creatinine and blood urea level monitoring. All animals were sacrificed and kidneys were removed, weighed, and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate crystals deposition. Results: Administration of aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum reduced urine oxalate level ‎significantly, as compared with Group B (p<0.001). Serum creatinine and blood urea level were ‎improved significantly in all aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum-treated groups. Relative ‎kidney weight and calcium oxalate depositions were found significantly reduced in animals ‎received ABP as compared with Group B (p<0.001). ‎ Conclusions: B. pinnatum is effective in prevention and treatment of ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis. PMID:25050313

  19. Phytoremediation potential of Cd and Zn by wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta L. Schott., Cyperus malaccensis Lam. and Typha angustifolia L. grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Chayapan, P; Kruatrachue, M; Meetam, M; Pokethitiyook, P

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium and zinc phytoremediation potential of wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta, Cyperus malaccensis, and Typha angustifolia, was investigated. Plants were grown for 15 days in nutrient solutions containing various concentrations of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg l(-1)) and Zn (0, 10, 20, 50, 100 mg l(-1)). T angustifolia was tolerant to both metals as indicated by high RGR when grown in 50 mg I(-1) Cd and 100 mg I(-1) Zn solutions. All these plants accumulated more metals in their underground parts and > 100 mg kg(-1) in their aboveground with TF values < 1. Only C. esculenta could be considered a Zn hyperaccumulator because it could concentrate > 10,000 mg kg(-1) in its aboveground parts with TF > 1. T angustifolia exhibited highest biomass production and highest Cd and Zn uptake, confirming that this plant is a suitable candidate for treating of Cd contaminated soil/sediments. PMID:26521563

  20. Defensin protein from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam 'Tainong 57') storage roots exhibits antioxidant activities in vitro and ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Jhong; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Chen, Hsien-Jung; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Liao, Jung-Chun; Hou, Wen-Chi; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of sweet potato defensin (SPD1) in vitro and ex vivo. Antioxidant status [2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay], scavenging activity against DPPH (1,1-dipheny-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical method, reducing power method, Fe(2+)-chelating ability, FTC (ferric thiocyanate) method, and protection of calf thymus DNA against hydroxyl radical-induced damage were studied in vitro. The ex vivo experiments revealed that SPD1 could decrease the production of intracellular peroxide in HepG2 cells. Four peptides, namely GFR, GPCSR, CFCTKPC and MCESASSK for testing antioxidative activity, were synthesized according to tryptic hydrolysis simulation. In the TEAC assay CFCTKPC performed the best (13.5±0.3μmol TE/g dw), even better than reduced glutathione (7.3±0.2μmol TE/g dw). In the DPPH radical assay (%), [IC(50) (μM) (the concentration required for scavenging 50% activity)] CFCTKPC again had the highest antioxidant activity (IC(50) is 11.3±3.2μM) even better than reduced glutathione (IC(50) is 74.3±2.4μM). In the lipid peroxidation assay, once again CFCTKPC performed the best, with an IC(50) value of 0.5±0.0μM better than reduced glutathione (1.2±0.1μM). These findings mean that cysteine residue is most important in antioxidant activities. It was suggested that SPD1 might contribute its antioxidant activities against hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. PMID:22953797

  1. Production of 4-ipomeanol, an anticancer agent from the root tubers and rhizogenic callus of Ipomoea batatas Lam.: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mohanraj, Remya; Subha, S

    2015-05-01

    A comparative study was done on the production of 4-ipomeanol from root tubers of Ipomoea batatas and its rhizogenic callus. Best callusing response was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 11 μM NAA (α-Naphthaleneacetic acid) and 1 μM KIN (Kinetin). Effect of various elicitors (Fusarium solani, chitin and chitosan) on the production of 4-ipomeanol was studied. Methanol extract of the samples were purified by column chromatography and detected using TLC. Identification of 4-ipomeanol was confirmed using HPLC and quantified spectrophotometrically. A mass spectrum was recorded to confirm the presence of 4-ipomeanol. The calli grown under chitin produced highest (6.61mg g(-1)) amount of 4-ipomeanol. This is the first report on in vitro production of 4-ipomeanol from I. batatas. Since 4-ipomeanol is reported to be present only in I. batatas, this study would help in standardizing protocols for large scale production without affecting its natural flora. PMID:26040027

  2. Comparison of content and in vitro bioaccessibility of provitamin A carotenoids in home cooked and commercially processed orange fleshed sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Lam).

    PubMed

    Berni, Paulo; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G; De Moura, Fabiana F; Failla, Mark L

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) remains a public health problem in some regions of Brazil. Increased use of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) as a source of pro-vitamin A represents a potential strategy for prevention of VAD. We compared the pro-vitamin A content, vitamin A equivalency and bioaccessibility of β-carotene (βC) of two varieties of home cooked OFSP and two commercial sources of processed OFSP. Pro-vitamin A carotenoid content in home cooked, Beauregard variety of OFSP exceeded that in Amelia variety and commercial products for babies. All-trans-βC was the most abundant carotenoid in raw, cooked and commercial OFSP. Boiling and frying OFSP generally decreased total βC. A serving of 100 g FW Beauregard variety of cooked OFSP contained greater than 100% of the estimated average requirement (EAR) for children and women, and up to 92% EAR for lactating women. Although the efficiency of micellarization of all-trans-βC during simulated digestion of OFSP was relatively low (4-8%) and significantly less than for cis-isomers, the quantities of trans-βC incorporated into micelles from boiled Beauregard and fried Amelia varieties exceeded that in micelles generated by digesting commercial OFSP. The bioaccessibility of pro-vitamin A carotenoids in the micelle fraction of digested OFSP was confirmed with differentiated cultures of Caco-2 human intestinal cells. Continued development of OFSP such as the Amelia and Beauregard varieties that are rich in trans-βC and dissemination of best practices for home cooking are encouraged to increase consumption of this food to decrease the risk of vitamin A deficiency in Brazil. PMID:25575485

  3. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF NATIVE PLANTS AGAINST HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Nyla; Anwar, Sadaf; Mahmood, Qaisar; Zia, Muhammad Abid; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of two medicinally important plants against Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants. Fruit peel of Punica granatum Linn. (vern. Anar), leaves and roots of Berberis lycium Royle (vern. Sumbal) were tested for their anthelmintic efficacy. Methanolic extracts of the test plants from various plant parts were tested for anthelmintic efficacy against the Haemonchus contortous using albendazole as a reference standard. The results revealed that both the plant extracts exhibited potent anthelmintic activity at concentrations higher than 50 mg/mL when tested against their respective standard drug. In case of Berberis lycium Royle when the results were compared, methanolic roots extracts showed more potent activity as compared to leaves extracts at the same concentration. It was observed that the in vitro anthelmintic potential of Punica granatum Linn. fruit peel and Berberis lyceium Royale root can be used to treat helminth infections after in vivo trails. PMID:26665413

  4. Is Urinary Lipoarabinomannan the Result of Renal Tuberculosis? Assessment of the Renal Histology in an Autopsy Cohort of Ugandan HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Janneke A.; Lukande, Robert L.; Kalungi, Sam; Van Marck, Eric; Van de Vijver, Koen; Kambugu, Andrew; Nelson, Ann M.; Colebunders, Robert; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The detection of urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a mycobacterial cell wall component, is used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB). How LAM enters the urine is not known. To investigate if urinary LAM-positivity is the result of renal TB infection we correlated the outcomes of urinary LAM-antigen testing to renal histology in an autopsy cohort of hospitalized, Ugandan, HIV-infected adults. Methods We performed a complete autopsy, including renal sampling, in HIV-infected adults that died during hospitalization after written informed consent was obtained from the next of kin. Urine was collected postmortem through post-mortem catheterisation or by bladder puncture and tested for LAM with both a lateral flow assay (LFA) and an ELISA assay. Two pathologists assessed the kidney histology. We correlated the LAM-assay results and the histology findings. Results Of the 13/36 (36%) patients with a positive urinary LAM ELISA and/or LFA, 8/13 (62%) had renal TB. The remaining 5 LAM-positive patients had disseminated TB without renal involvement. Of the 23 LAM-negative patients, 3 had disseminated TB without renal involvement. The remaining LAM-negative patients had no TB infection and died mostly of fungal and bacterial infections. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 100% to diagnose TB at any location, and the LAM ELISA a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 100%. 54% (7/13) LAM LFA-positive patients were not on anti-TB treatment at the time of death. Conclusion Renal TB infection explained LAM-positivity in the majority of patients. Patients with disseminated TB without renal involvement can also be diagnosed with LAM. This suggests that other mechanisms that lead to urinary LAM-positivity exist in a minority of patients. PMID:25897661

  5. 76 FR 40804 - Technical Amendment to the Authorization Validated End-User Regulations of the Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Warehouse), No. 55, Fei la Road, Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China 200131. Lam... Processing Zone Wuxi, Jiangsu, PR China. Hynix 3B001.a, 3B001.b, Hynix Semiconductor 75 FR 62462, 10... Processing Zone, Wuxi, Jiangsu, PR, China. Lam Research 2B230, 2B350.c, Lam Research 75 FR 62462,...

  6. Chemical composition, larvicidal, and biting deterrent activity of essential oils of two subspecies of Tanacetum argenteum (Asterales: Asteraceae) and individual constituents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water distilled essential oils from the air dried aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (Lam.) and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. canum (C. Koch) Grierson were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-seven and 3...

  7. Wild Type Mesenchymal Cells Contribute to the Lung Pathology of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Debbie; Dongre, Arundhati; Krymskaya, Vera P.; Johnson, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease leading to lungs cysts and progressive respiratory failure. Cells of unknown origin accumulate in the lungs forming nodules and eventually resulting in lung cysts. These LAM cells are described as clonal with bi-allelic mutations in TSC-2 resulting in constitutive mTOR activation. However LAM nodules are heterogeneous structures containing cells of different phenotypes; we investigated whether recruited wild type cells were also present alongside mutation bearing cells. Cells were isolated from LAM lung tissue, cultured and characterised using microscopy, immunocytochemistry and western blotting. Fibroblast-like cells were identified in lung tissue using immunohistochemical markers. Fibroblast chemotaxis toward LAM cells was examined using migration assays and 3D cell culture. Fibroblast-like cells were obtained from LAM lungs: these cells had fibroblast-like morphology, actin stress fibres, full length tuberin protein and suppressible ribosomal protein S6 activity suggesting functional TSC-1/2 protein. Fibroblast Activation Protein, Fibroblast Specific Protein/S100A4 and Fibroblast Surface Protein all stained subsets of cells within LAM nodules from multiple donors. In a mouse model of LAM, tuberin positive host derived cells were also present within lung nodules of xenografted TSC-2 null cells. In vitro, LAM 621-101 cells and fibroblasts formed spontaneous aggregates over three days in 3D co-cultures. Fibroblast chemotaxis was enhanced two fold by LAM 621-101 conditioned medium (p=0.05), which was partially dependent upon LAM cell derived CXCL12. Further, LAM cell conditioned medium also halved fibroblast apoptosis under serum free conditions (p=0.03). Our findings suggest that LAM nodules contain a significant population of fibroblast-like cells. Analogous to cancer associated fibroblasts, these cells may provide a permissive environment for LAM cell growth and contribute to the lung pathology of LAM lung disease. PMID:25978616

  8. Detection of low-prevalence somatic TSC2 mutations in sporadic pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis tissues by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Atsushi; Ando, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Mitani, Keiko; Okudera, Koji; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Miyatake, Satoko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Seyama, Kuniaki; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) (MIM #606690) is a rare lung disorder leading to respiratory failure associated with progressive cystic destruction due to the proliferation and infiltration of abnormal smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells). LAM can occur alone (sporadic LAM, S-LAM) or combined with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC-LAM). TSC is caused by a germline heterozygous mutation in either TSC1 or TSC2, and TSC-LAM is thought to occur as a result of a somatic mutation (second hit) in addition to a germline mutation in TSC1 or TSC2 (first hit). S-LAM is also thought to occur under the two-hit model involving a somatic mutation and/or loss of heterozygosity in TSC2. To identify TSC1 or TSC2 changes in S-LAM patients, the two genes were analyzed by deep next-generation sequencing (NGS) using genomic DNA from blood leukocytes (n = 9), LAM tissue from lung (n = 7), LAM cultured cells (n = 4), or LAM cell clusters (n = 1). We identified nine somatic mutations in six of nine S-LAM patients (67 %) with mutant allele frequencies of 1.7-46.2 %. Three of these six patients (50 %) showed two different TSC2 mutations with allele frequencies of 1.7-28.7 %. Furthermore, at least five mutations with low prevalence (<20 % of allele frequency) were confirmed by droplet digital PCR. As LAM tissues are likely to be composed of heterogeneous cell populations, mutant allele frequencies can be low. Our results confirm the consistent finding of TSC2 mutations in LAM samples, and highlight the benefit of laser capture microdissection and in-depth allele analyses for detection, such as NGS. PMID:26563443

  9. Population diversity of Puccinia graminis is sustained through sexual cycle on alternate hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high degree of virulence diversity has been maintained in the population of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) in northwestern United States. Although Berberis vulgaris is present in the region and Pgt has been isolated from aecial infections on B. vulgaris, the population is too diverse to be...

  10. 75 FR 54461 - Black Stem Rust; Additions of Rust-Resistant Varieties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Berberis species or cultivars in the regulations. This action will allow for the interstate movement of... conterminous 48 States and the District of Columbia and govern the interstate movement of certain plants of the... `Velglozam' (Velvet Glow\\TM\\), `Grhozam' (Green Hornet\\TM\\), `Pyruzam' (Pygmy Ruby\\TM\\), and `24kagozam'...

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FLORAL ODOR OF OREGON GRAPE: POSSIBLE FEEDING ATTRACTANTS FOR MOTHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was hypothesized that flowers of Oregon grape, Berberis aquifolium Prursch., might release chemicals attractive to moths. Studies were conducted to determine what moths visit flowers of Oregon grape and to characterize the odor chemistry of those flowers in search of possible moth feeding attrac...

  12. Integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method into a family planning program in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Wade, K B; Sevilla, F; Labbok, M H

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a 12-month implementation study documenting the process of integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) into a multiple-method family planning service-delivery organization, the Céntro Médico de Orientación y Planificación Familiar (CEMOPLAF), in Ecuador. LAM was introduced as a family planning option in four CEMOPLAF clinics. LAM was accepted by 133 breastfeeding women during the program's first five months, representing about one-third of postpartum clients. Seventy-three percent of LAM acceptors were new to any family planning method. Follow-up interviews with a systematic sample of 67 LAM users revealed that the method was generally used correctly. Three pregnancies were reported, none by women who were following LAM as recommended. Service providers' knowledge of LAM resulted in earlier IUD insertions among breastfeeding women. Relationships with other maternal and child health organizations and programs were also established. PMID:7940621

  13. Seed isotopic analysis as a tool to understand ecological processes influencing plant development and physiology: the case study of Quercus rotundifolia Lam. in a desertification gradient in Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Tatiana; Silva, Anabela; Rodrigues, Carla; Antunes Antunes, Cristina; Pinho, Pedro; Ramos, Alzira; João Pereira, Maria; Branquinho, Cristina; Máguas, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Plant responses to climate change highly depend on the temporal variability in precipitation events and on plant specific strategies, such as drought tolerance and resilience. Within the different plant organs, seeds have become an important research tool in the past years to study plant development and nutrients allocation. Key features of seeds such as the tendency to accumulate and store nutrient compounds open many possibilities to explore isotope analysis (13C, 15N and 18O), with many outcomes in fields from ecology to food traceability. The application of light stable isotopes to plant materials have been used to study both physiological (i.e. photosynthesis and stomatal conductance), nutrients uptake and metabolism (origin of nitrogen and symbiotic associations) as well as many ecological processes, which will produce a distinctive isotope fingerprint on the plant tissues. Thus, the isotopic composition of certain bio and geo-elements of seeds, yielding relevant information on plant ecophysiology, are able to relate the plant functioning with local climatic conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation). The application of isotope analysis in this way can be used as a proxy to understand complex environmental degradation processes such as land degradation in drylands resulting from various factors including climatic variations and human activities. In this study acorns of Quercus ilex plants were sampled during 2012-2013 in a region of southern Portugal, according to (i) soil land-use; (ii) aridity and desertification indexes. The approach developed combined plant seed analysis (seed morphology and compounds quantification) with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (δ13C, δ15N and δ18O) as a "tool" to study changes in plant ecophysiology over time and space. Seeds allow studies at specific temporal scale (development period) which varies according to its biology and depends on the climatic conditions where the plant is grown (i.e, seed's biomass integrate climate variations information of several months). The results indicate a clear relationship between seed morphology and both temperature and precipitation as well a significant correlation between δ15N and precipitation, which indicate an influence of major climatic variables on seed carbon allocation and nitrogen uptake. These results may also contribute to future mitigation programmes in degraded areas where there are systematic problems with plant regeneration and ultimately to learn about the application of stable isotopes approaches in dryland ecosystems.

  14. Orientation to Employment in the U.S. for Refugees--Vietnamese = Cong an viec lam o Hoa Ky: Tap Huong Dan danh cho Nguoi Ti Nan moi toi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

    One of a series of refugee orientation materials, this guide to employment is intended to assist Vietnamese refugees in their understanding of the employment situation in the United States and to give them necessary information for obtaining work. The text is in Vietnamese followed by an English-language version, which is not an exact translation…

  15. Structural determinants for signal sequence function in the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, T; Nicchitta, C V

    1999-12-17

    Signal sequences function in protein targeting to and translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. To investigate the structural requirements for signal sequence function, chimeras of the Escherichia coli LamB signal peptide and prolactin were prepared. The LamB signal peptide was chosen by virtue of the extensive biophysical and biological characterization of its activity. In vitro, nascent prolactin chains bearing the LamB signal peptide (LamB) were targeted in a signal recognition particle (SRP)-dependent manner to rough microsomes but remained protease- and salt-sensitive and translocated at low efficiency. Full translocation activity was obtained in a gain of function mutant (LamB*) in which three hydrophobic residues in the LamB hydrophobic core were converted to leucine residues. Cross-linking studies demonstrated that the LamB* signal sequence displayed markedly enhanced interactions with SRP and integral membrane proteins. In contrast, chemically denatured LamB and LamB*-precursors bound with identical efficiencies and in a salt-resistant manner to rough microsomes, suggesting that during de novo synthesis the signal sequence of LamB-bearing precursors assumes a conformation refractory to translocation. These data indicate that a leucine-rich signal sequence is necessary for optimal interaction with SRP and suggest that SRP, by maintaining the signal sequence in a conformation suitable for membrane binding, performs a chaperone function. PMID:10593964

  16. Structural features of lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Determination of molecular mass by laser desorption mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Venisse, A; Berjeaud, J M; Chaurand, P; Gilleron, M; Puzo, G

    1993-06-15

    It was recently shown that mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) can be classified into two types (Chatterjee, D., Lowell, K., Rivoire B., McNeil M. R., and Brennan, P. J. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 6234-6239) according to the presence or absence of mannosyl residues (Manp) located at the nonreducing end of the oligoarabinosyl side chains. These two types of LAM were found in a pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain and in an avirulent M. tuberculosis strain, respectively, suggesting that LAM with Manp characterizes virulent and "disease-inducing strains." We now report the structure of the LAM from Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strain Pasteur, largely used throughout the world as vaccine against tuberculosis. Using an up-to-date analytical approach, we found that the LAM of M. bovis BCG belongs to the class of LAMs capped with Manp. By means of two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear scalar coupling NMR analysis and methylation data, the sugar spin system assignments were partially established, revealing that the LAM contained two types of terminal Manp and 2-O-linked Manp. From the following four-step process: (i) partial hydrolysis of deacylated LAM (dLAM), (ii) oligosaccharide derivatization with aminobenzoic ethyl ester, (iii) HPLC purification, (iv) FAB/MS-MS analysis; it was shown that the dimannosyl unit alpha-D-Manp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Manp is the major residue capping the termini of the arabinan of the LAM. In this report, LAM molecular mass determination was established using matrix-assisted UV-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry which reveals that the LAM molecular mass is around 17.4 kDa. The similarity of the LAM structures between M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis H37Rv is discussed in regard to their function in the immunopathology of mycobacterial infection. PMID:8509380

  17. Tisseel does not reduce postoperative drainage, length of stay, and transfusion requirements for lumbar laminectomy with noninstrumented fusion versus laminectomy alone

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Typically, fibrin sealants (FSs) and fibrin glues (FGs) are used to strengthen dural repairs during spinal surgery. In 2014, Epstein demonstrated that one FS/FG, Tisseel (Baxter International Inc., Westlake Village, CA, USA) equalized the average times to drain removal and length of stay (LOS) for patients with versus without excess bleeding (e.g. who did not receive Tisseel) undergoing multilevel laminectomies with 1-2 level noninstrumented fusions (LamF).[6] Methods: Here Tisseel was utilized to promote hemostasis for two populations; 39 patients undergoing average 4.4 level lumbar laminectomies with average 1.3 level noninstrumented fusions (LamF), and 48 patients undergoing average 4.0 level laminectomies alone (Lam). We compared the average operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), postoperative drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements for the LamF versus Lam groups. Results: The average operative times, EBL, postoperative drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements were all greater for LamF versus Lam patients; operative times (4.1 vs. 3.0 h), average EBL (192.3 vs. 147.9 cc), drainage (e.g. day 1; 199.6 vs. 167.4 cc; day 2; 172.9 vs. 63.9 cc), average LOS (4.6 vs. 2.5 days), and transfusion requirements (11 LamF patients; 18 Units [U] RBC versus 2 Lam patients; 3 U RBC). Conclusions: Utilizing Tisseel to facilitate hemostasis in LamF versus Lam still resulted in greater operative times, EBL, postoperative average drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements for patients undergoing the noninstrumented fusions. Although Tisseel decreases back bleeding within the spinal canal, it does not reduce blood loss from LamF decorticated transverse processes. PMID:26005579

  18. The neural crest lineage as a driver of disease heterogeneity in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Sean P.; Julian, Lisa M.; Stanford, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare neoplastic disease, best characterized by the formation of proliferative nodules that express smooth muscle and melanocytic antigens within the lung parenchyma, leading to progressive destruction of lung tissue and function. The pathological basis of LAM is associated with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), a multi-system disorder marked by low-grade tumors in the brain, kidneys, heart, eyes, lung and skin, arising from inherited or spontaneous germ-line mutations in either of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. LAM can develop either in a patient with TSC (TSC-LAM) or spontaneously (S-LAM), and it is clear that the majority of LAM lesions of both forms are characterized by an inactivating mutation in either TSC1 or TSC2, as in TSC. Despite this genetic commonality, there is considerable heterogeneity in the tumor spectrum of TSC and LAM patients, the basis for which is currently unknown. There is extensive clinical evidence to suggest that the cell of origin for LAM, as well as many of the TSC-associated tumors, is a neural crest cell, a highly migratory cell type with extensive multi-lineage potential. Here we explore the hypothesis that the types of tumors that develop and the tissues that are affected in TSC and LAM are dictated by the developmental timing of TSC gene mutations, which determines the identities of the affected cell types and the size of downstream populations that acquire a mutation. We further discuss the evidence to support a neural crest origin for LAM and TSC tumors, and propose approaches for generating humanized models of TSC and LAM that will allow cell of origin theories to be experimentally tested. Identifying the cell of origin and developing appropriate humanized models is necessary to truly understand LAM and TSC pathology and to establish effective and long-lasting therapeutic approaches for these patients. PMID:25505789

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility and heterogeneity in technological traits of lactobacilli isolated from Algerian goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Bousmaha-Marroki, Leila; Marroki, Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and study the heterogeneity of technological traits of lactobacilli from goat's milk of Algeria and to evaluate in vitro their safety aspect. Using API50 CHL system and 16S rDNA sequencing, 51 % of strains were assigned as Lactobacillus plantarum, 34 % as L. pentosus, 7 % as L. rhamnosus and 8 % as L. fermentum. A large variability was noted for the acidifying capacity in skim milk after 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation. All strains expressed aminopeptidase activity against alanine-ρ-NA and leucine-ρ-NA at different levels. All strains were resistant to vancomycin and most of strains showed more susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotic. High susceptibility toward the inhibitors of protein synthesis was also observed. Minimum inhibitory concentrations data obtained revealed that isolates were susceptible to penicillin and chloramphenicol, and resistant to gentamicin and vancomycin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations distribution of other antibiotics showed variability. The analysis of graphical representation of principal component analysis of technological properties of L. plantarum and L. pentosus strains showed diversity among the isolates. Finally, eight L. plantarum (LAM1, LAM3, LAM21, LAM25, LAM35, LF15, LAM34, and LAM35), four L. pentosus (LAM38, LAM39, LF9 and LF16) and two L. rhamnosus (LF3 and LF10) strains, could be good candidates as adjunct culture in dairy product in Algeria. PMID:26243893

  20. Animation of Flood Potential from Two Australian Tropical Cyclones - Duration: 6 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Merged precipitation data from NASA-JAXA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and other satellites was used to calculate flood potential withrainfall from Tropical Cyclone Lam and Tropical ...

  1. Women with TSC: Relationship between Clinical, Lung Function and Radiological Features in a Genotyped Population Investigated for Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Imeri, Gianluca; Palumbo, Giuseppina; La Briola, Francesca; Tresoldi, Silvia; Volpi, Angela; Gualandri, Lorenzo; Ghelma, Filippo; Alfano, Rosa Maria; Montanari, Emanuele; Gorio, Alfredo; Lesma, Elena; Peron, Angela; Canevini, Maria Paola; Centanni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The advent of pharmacological therapies for lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) has made early diagnosis important in women with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), although the lifelong cumulative radiation exposure caused by chest computer tomography (CT) should not be underestimated. We retrospectively investigated, in a cohort of TSC outpatients of San Paolo Hospital (Milan, Italy) 1) the role of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) for LAM diagnosis, 2) the association between LAM and other features of TSC (e.g. demography, extrapulmonary manifestations, genetic mutations, etc.), and 3) the characteristics of patients with multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia (MMPH). Eighty-six women underwent chest CT scan; pulmonary involvement was found in 66 patients (77%; 49% LAM with or without MMPH, and 28% MMPH alone). LAM patients were older, with a higher rate of pneumothorax, presented more frequently with renal and hepatic angiomyolipomas, and tended to have a TSC2 mutation profile. PFTs, assessed in 64% of women unaffected by cognitive impairments, revealed a lower lung diffusion capacity in LAM patients. In multivariate analysis, age, but not PFTs, resulted independently associated with LAM diagnosis. Patients with MMPH alone did not show specific clinical, functional or genetic features. A mild respiratory impairment was most common in LAM-TSC patients: In conclusions, PFTs, even if indicated to assess impairment in lung function, are feasible in a limited number of patients, and are not significantly useful for LAM diagnosis in women with TSC. PMID:27171001

  2. PDGF enhances IRES-mediated translation of Laminin B1 by cytoplasmic accumulation of La during epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Petz, Michaela; Them, Nicole C. C.; Huber, Heidemarie; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The extracellular matrix protein Laminin B1 (LamB1) regulates tumor cell migration and invasion. Carcinoma cells acquire invasive properties by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a fundamental step in dissemination of metastatic cells from the primary tumor. Recently, we showed that enhanced translation of LamB1 upon EMT of malignant hepatocytes is mediated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). We demonstrated that the IRES transacting factor La binds the minimal IRES motif and positively modulates IRES activity of LamB1. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) enhances IRES activity of LamB1 by the increasing cytoplasmic localization of La during EMT. Accordingly, cells expressing dominant negative PDGF receptor display reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of La and show no elevation of IRES activity or endogenous LamB1 levels after stimulation with PDGF. Furthermore, La-mediated regulation of LamB1 IRES activity predominantly depends on MAPK/ERK signaling downstream of PDGF. Notably, LamB1 expression is not significantly downregulated by the impairment of the translation initiation factor eIF4E. In vivo, knockdown of La associated with decreased LamB1 expression and reduced tumor growth. Together, these data suggest that PDGF is required for the cytoplasmic accumulation of La that triggers IRES-dependent translation of LamB1 during EMT. PMID:22904067

  3. Anti-hemolytic, hemagglutination inhibition and bacterial membrane disruptive properties of selected herbal extracts attenuate virulence of Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Pallavi; Chawla, Raman; Narula, Alka; Goel, Rajeev; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Expression of a multitude of virulence factors by multi-drug resistant microbial strains, e.g., Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli (Family: Enterobacteriaceae; Class: Gammaproteobacteria), is responsible for resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. Hemolysin production and induction of hemagglutination by bacterial surface receptors inflicts direct cytotoxicity by destroying host phagocytic and epithelial cells. We have previously reported that Berberis aristata, Camellia sinensis, Cyperus rotundus Holarrhena antidysenterica and Andrographis paniculata are promising herbal leads for targeting Carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli. These herbal leads were analyzed for their anti-hemolytic potential by employing spectrophotometric assay of hemoglobin liberation. Anti-hemagglutination potential of the extracts was assessed by employing qualitative assay of visible RBC aggregate formation. Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) exhibited anti-hemolytic potential of 73.97 ± 0.03%, followed by Holarrhena antidysenterica (PTRC-8111-A) i.e., 68.32 ± 0.05%, Berberis aristata (PTRC-2111-A) i.e., 60.26 ± 0.05% and Cyperus rotundus (PTRC-31811-A) i.e., 53.76 ± 0.03%. Comprehensive, visual analysis of hemagglutination inhibition revealed that only Berberis aristata (PTRC-2111-A) and Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) exhibited anti-hemagglutination activity. However, Andrographis paniculata (PTRC-11611-A) exhibited none of the inhibitory activities. Furthermore, the pair wise correlation analysis of the tested activities with quantitative phytochemical descriptors revealed that an increased content of alkaloid; flavonoids; polyphenols, and decreased content of saponins supported both the activities. Additionally, flow cytometry revealed that cell membrane structures of CRE were damaged by extracts of Berberis aristata (PTRC-2111-A) and Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) at their respective Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations, thereby confirming noteworthy antibacterial potential of both these extracts targeting bacterial membrane; hemolysin and bacterial hemagglutination. PMID:27057673

  4. Inferring the contribution of sexual reproduction, migration and off-season survival to the temporal maintenance of microbial populations: a case study on the wheat fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sajid; Gladieux, Pierre; Rahman, Hidayatur; Saqib, Muhammad S; Fiaz, Muhammad; Ahmad, Habib; Leconte, Marc; Gautier, Anglique; Justesen, Annemarie F; Hovmller, Mogens S; Enjalbert, Jrme; de Vallavieille-Pope, Claude

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the mode of temporal maintenance of plant pathogens is an important domain of microbial ecology research. Due to the inconspicuous nature of microbes, their temporal maintenance cannot be studied directly through tracking individuals and their progeny. Here, we suggest a series of population genetic analyses on molecular marker variation in temporally spaced samples to infer about the relative contribution of sexual reproduction, off-season survival and migration to the temporal maintenance of pathogen populations. We used the proposed approach to investigate the temporal maintenance of wheat yellow rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (PST), in the Himalayan region of Pakistan. Multilocus microsatellite genotyping of PST isolates revealed high genotypic diversity and recombinant population structure across all locations, confirming the existence of sexual reproduction in this region. The genotypes were assigned to four genetic groups, revealing a clear differentiation between zones with and without Berberis spp., the alternate host of PST, with an additional subdivision within the Berberis zone. The lack of any differentiation between samples across two sampling years, and the very infrequent resampling of multilocus genotypes over years at a given location was consistent with limited over-year clonal survival, and a limited genetic drift. The off-season oversummering population in the Berberis zone, likely to be maintained locally, served as a source of migrants contributing to the temporal maintenance in the non-Berberis zone. Our study hence demonstrated the contribution of both sexual recombination and off-season oversummering survival to the temporal maintenance of the pathogen. These new insights into the population biology of PST highlight the general usefulness of the analytical approach proposed. PMID:24354737

  5. Comparison of tenofovir plus lamivudine versus tenofovir monotherapy in patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Ho; Jung, Seok Won; Shin, Jung Woo; Bae, Mi Ae; Lee, Yoon Im; Park, Yong Tae; Chung, Hwa Sik; Park, Neung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) exhibits similar antiviral efficacy against treatment-naïve and lamivudine (LAM)-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, there are few clinical reports on the antiviral effects of TDF–LAM combination therapy compared to TDF monotherapy in patients with LAM-resistant CHB. Methods: We investigated the antiviral efficacy of TDF monotherapy vs. TDF–LAM combination therapy in 103 patients with LAM-resistant CHB. Results: The study subjects were treated with TDF alone (n=40) or TDF–LAM combination therapy (n=63) for ≥6 months. The patients had previously been treated with TDF-based rescue therapy for a median of 30.0 months (range, 8–36 months). A virologic response (VR) was achieved in 99 patients (96.1%): 95.0% (38/40) of patients in the TDF monotherapy group and 96.8% (61/63) of patients in the TDF–LAM combination therapy group. The VR rates were not significantly different between the TDF monotherapy and TDF–LAM combination therapy groups (88.9 vs. 87.3% at month 12, and 94.4 vs. 93.7% at month 24, log-rank p=0.652). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that none of the pretreatment factors were significantly associated with VR. Conclusions: TDF monotherapy was as effective as TDF–LAM combination therapy for maintaining viral suppression in the vast majority of patients with LAM-resistant CHB, which suggests that TDF add-on therapy with LAM is unnecessary. PMID:27044766

  6. Bronchial involvement in advanced stage lymphangioleiomyomatosis: histopathologic and molecular analyses.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuo; Kumasaka, Toshio; Mitani, Keiko; Okada, Yoshinori; Kondo, Takashi; Date, Hiroshi; Chen, Fengshi; Oto, Takahiro; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Akinori; Hara, Kieko; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Ando, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Gunji-Niitsu, Yoko; Kunogi, Makiko; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yao, Takashi; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2016-04-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare progressive disease that almost exclusively affects women, is characterized by pulmonary cysts and neoplastic proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells). Airflow obstruction is a physiologic consequence that is commonly observed in LAM and has been attributed to narrowing of peripheral airways. However, histopathologic examinations of the entire airway have been precluded by the limited availability of such specimens. Here, we used explanted lung tissues from 30 LAM patients for a thorough histologic analysis with a special emphasis on the bronchi. We found bronchial involvement by LAM cells and lymphatics in all patients examined. Furthermore, a moderate to severe degree of chronic inflammation (73%), goblet cell hyperplasia (97%), squamous cell metaplasia (83%) of the epithelium, and thickening of basal lamina (93%) were identified in the bronchi. Because LAM cells are transformed by the functional loss of the TSC genes leading to a hyperactivated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway, we confirmed the expression of phospho-p70S6K, phospho-S6, phospho-4E-BP1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D in LAM cells from all of the patients examined. In contrast, no protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, a downstream molecule indicative of mTORC1 activation and leading to VEGF production, was detected in any patient. Our study indicates that late-stage LAM patients commonly have bronchi involved by the proliferation of both LAM cells and lymphatics and that chronic inflammation complicated their disease. Furthermore, the up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, a common event in mTORC1-driven tumor cells, does not occur in LAM cells and plays no role in VEGF-D expression in LAM cells. PMID:26997436

  7. Quality evaluation of ayurvedic crude drug daruharidra, its allied species, and commercial samples from herbal drug markets of India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sharad; Rawat, A K S

    2013-01-01

    Berberis aristata known as "Daruharidra" in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India), the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata. PMID:23431340

  8. Quality Evaluation of Ayurvedic Crude Drug Daruharidra, Its Allied Species, and Commercial Samples from Herbal Drug Markets of India

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sharad; Rawat, A. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Berberis aristata known as “Daruharidra” in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India), the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata. PMID:23431340

  9. Laminin receptor is an interacting partner for viral outer capsid protein VP5 in grass carp reovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yu, Fei; Li, Jiale; Lu, Liqun

    2016-03-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is responsible for viral hemorrhagic disease in cultured grass carp Ctenopharyngon idellus. Through yeast two-hybrid screen, laminin receptor (LamR) was identified as a potential interacting partner for the outer capsid protein VP5 of GCRV. We cloned and sequenced the gene encoding grass carp LamR. Viral attachment assay demonstrated the involvement of membrane-associated LamR in GCRV infection. Solid-phase overlay assays demonstrated that GCRV interacted with GST-tagged LamR in vitro. In contrast to VP7, GST-tagged VP5 was shown to associate with LamR in both pull-down and solid-phase blot overlay assays. With the reduction of LamR expression in CIK cells achieved by RNAi, remarkably reduced infection efficiency of GCRV was observed. CIK cells pretreated with polyclonal antibody against LamR resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of GCRV infection. These results collectively indicated that grass carp LamR was involved in GCRV infection by interacting with viral outer capsid protein VP5. PMID:26848829

  10. Lipoarabinomannan Localization and Abundance during Growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Rakesh K.; Dinadayala, Premkumar; Ryan, Gavin J.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Schenkel, Alan R.; Crick, Dean C.

    2011-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a structurally heterogeneous amphipathic lipoglycan present in Mycobacterium spp. and other actinomycetes, which constitutes a major component of the cell wall and exhibits a wide spectrum of immunomodulatory effects. Analysis of Mycobacterium smegmatis subcellular fractions and spheroplasts showed that LAM and lipomannan (LM) were primarily found in a cell wall-enriched subcellular fraction and correlated with the presence (or absence) of the mycolic acids in spheroplast preparations, suggesting that LAM and LM are primarily associated with the putative outer membrane of mycobacteria. During the course of these studies significant changes in the LAM/LM content of the cell wall were noted relative to the age of the culture. The LAM content of the M. smegmatis cell wall was dramatically reduced as the bacilli approached stationary phase, whereas LM, mycolic acid, and arabinogalactan content appeared to be unchanged. In addition, cell morphology and acid-fast staining characteristics showed variations with growth phase of the bacteria. In the logarithmic phase, the bacteria were found to be classic rod-shaped acid-fast bacilli, while in the stationary phase M. smegmatis lost the characteristic rod shape and developed a punctate acid-fast staining pattern with carbolfuchsin. The number of viable bacteria was independent of LAM content and phenotype. Taken together, the results presented here suggest that LAM is primarily localized with the mycolic acids in the cell wall and that the cellular concentration of LAM in M. smegmatis is selectively modulated with the growth phase. PMID:21840972

  11. LprG-Mediated Surface Expression of Lipoarabinomannan Is Essential for Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Antje; Bhamidi, Suresh; Gibbs, Sara; Jackson, Mary; Zare, Richard N.; Ehrt, Sabine; Ernst, Joel D.; Banaei, Niaz

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis employs various virulence strategies to subvert host immune responses in order to persist and cause disease. Interaction of M. tuberculosis with mannose receptor on macrophages via surface-exposed lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is believed to be critical for cell entry, inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion, and intracellular survival, but in vivo evidence is lacking. LprG, a cell envelope lipoprotein that is essential for virulence of M. tuberculosis, has been shown to bind to the acyl groups of lipoglycans but the role of LprG in LAM biosynthesis and localization remains unknown. Using an M. tuberculosis lprG mutant, we show that LprG is essential for normal surface expression of LAM and virulence of M. tuberculosis attributed to LAM. The lprG mutant had a normal quantity of LAM in the cell envelope, but its surface was altered and showed reduced expression of surface-exposed LAM. Functionally, the lprG mutant was defective for macrophage entry and inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion, was attenuated in macrophages, and was killed in the mouse lung with the onset of adaptive immunity. This study identifies the role of LprG in surface-exposed LAM expression and provides in vivo evidence for the essential role surface LAM plays in M. tuberculosis virulence. Findings have translational implications for therapy and vaccine development. PMID:25232742

  12. Teacher Ratings of Evidence-Based Practices from the Field of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Christina M.; Bock, Stacey Jones; Szymanski, Christen

    2015-01-01

    Students who have a hearing loss and a comorbid diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have multiple obstacles to overcome. Using Gallaudet Research Institute data, Szymanski, Brice, Lam, and Hotto calculated 1 deaf student in 59 received services for both a hearing loss and an ASD (Szymanski, Brice, Lam, & Hotto, 2012). Teachers of…

  13. AAC Best Practice Using Automated Language Activity Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Katya; Romich, Barry

    This brief paper describes automated language activity monitoring (LAM), an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) methodology for the collection, editing, and analysis of language data in structured or natural situations with people who have severe communication disorders. The LAM function records each language event (letters, words,…

  14. SRC kinase is a novel therapeutic target in lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Tyryshkin, Alexey; Bhattacharya, Abhisek; Eissa, N Tony

    2014-04-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive cystic lung disease affecting some women with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Sporadic LAM can develop in women without TSC, owing to somatic mutations in the TSC2 gene. Accumulating evidence supports the view of LAM as a low-grade, destructive, metastasizing neoplasm. The mechanisms underlying the metastatic capability of LAM cells remain poorly understood. The observed behavior of LAM cells with respect to their infiltrative growth pattern, metastatic potential, and altered cell differentiation bears similarity to cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Here, we report increased levels of active Src kinase in LAM lungs and in TSC2(-/-) cells, caused by a reduction of autophagy. Furthermore, increased Src kinase activation promoted migration, invasion, and inhibition of E-cadherin expression in TSC2(-/-) cells by upregulating the transcription factor Snail. Notably, Src kinase inhibitors reduced migration and invasion properties of TSC2(-/-) cells and attenuated lung colonization of intravenously injected TSC2(-/-) cells in vivo to a greater extent than control TSC2(+/+) cells. Our results reveal mechanistic basis for the pathogenicity of LAM cells and they rationalize Src kinase as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of LAM and TSC. PMID:24691995

  15. Lymphatic Endothelial Differentiation in Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer M.; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Husain, Aliya N.; Shen, Le; Jones, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, low-grade neoplasm affecting almost exclusively women of childbearing age. LAM belongs to the family of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors, characterized by spindle and epithelioid cells with smooth muscle and melanocytic differentiation. LAM cells infiltrate the lungs, producing multiple, bilateral lesions rich in lymphatic channels and forming cysts, leading to respiratory insufficiency. Here we used antibodies against four lymphatic endothelial markers—podoplanin (detected by D2-40), prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1)—to determine whether LAM cells show lymphatic differentiation. Twelve of 12 diagnostic biopsy specimens (early-stage LAM) and 19 of 19 explants (late-stage LAM) showed immunopositivity for D2-40 in most neoplastic cells. PROX1, VEGFR-3, and LYVE1 immunoreactivity varied from scarce in the early stage to abundant in the late stage. Lymphatic endothelial, smooth muscle, and melanocytic markers were partially co-localized. These findings indicate that lymphatic endothelial differentiation is a feature of LAM and provide evidence of a previously unidentified third lineage of differentiation in this neoplasm. This study has implications for the histological diagnosis of LAM, the origin of the neoplastic cells, and potential future treatment with drugs targeting lymphangiogenesis. PMID:23609227

  16. Recurrence of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Nine years after a bilateral lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Khawaja S; Aryan, Zahra; Mehta, Atul C; Akindipe, Olufemi; Budev, Marie

    2016-03-24

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, slowly progressive lethal lung disease primary afflicting young women. LAM is characterized by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells that target the lungs, causing cystic destruction and eventual respiratory failure leading to death. Recent ten year mortality due to end stage LAM has been reported to be approximately 10%-20%, but may vary. The decline in lung function in LAM is gradual, occurring at a rate of about 3% to 15% per year but can vary from patient to patient. But recently therapy with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors such as sirolimus has shown promising results in the stabilization of lung function and reduction of chylous effusions in LAM. Lung transplantation is a viable option for patients who continue to have decline in lung function despite mTOR therapy. Unique issues that may occur post-transplant in a recipient with LAM include development of chylous effusion and a risk of recurrence. We describe a case of LAM recurrence in a bilateral lung transplant recipient who developed histological findings of LAM nine years after transplantation. PMID:27011924

  17. Recurrence of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Nine years after a bilateral lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Khawaja S; Aryan, Zahra; Mehta, Atul C; Akindipe, Olufemi; Budev, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, slowly progressive lethal lung disease primary afflicting young women. LAM is characterized by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells that target the lungs, causing cystic destruction and eventual respiratory failure leading to death. Recent ten year mortality due to end stage LAM has been reported to be approximately 10%-20%, but may vary. The decline in lung function in LAM is gradual, occurring at a rate of about 3% to 15% per year but can vary from patient to patient. But recently therapy with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors such as sirolimus has shown promising results in the stabilization of lung function and reduction of chylous effusions in LAM. Lung transplantation is a viable option for patients who continue to have decline in lung function despite mTOR therapy. Unique issues that may occur post-transplant in a recipient with LAM include development of chylous effusion and a risk of recurrence. We describe a case of LAM recurrence in a bilateral lung transplant recipient who developed histological findings of LAM nine years after transplantation. PMID:27011924

  18. Exposure of Monocytes to Lipoarabinomannan Promotes Their Differentiation into Functionally and Phenotypically Immature Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Galán, Leslie; Ocaña-Guzmán, Ranferi; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; García-de-Alba, Carolina; Sada-Ovalle, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a lipid virulence factor secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis. LAM can be measured in the urine or serum of tuberculosis patients (TB-patients). Circulating monocytes are the precursor cells of alveolar macrophages and might be exposed to LAM in patients with active TB. We speculated that exposing monocytes to LAM could produce phenotypically and functionally immature macrophages. To test our hypothesis, human monocytes were stimulated with LAM (24–120 hours) and various readouts were measured. The study showed that when monocytes were exposed to LAM, the frequency of CD68+, CD33+, and CD86+ macrophages decreased, suggesting that monocyte differentiation into mature macrophages was affected. Regarding functionality markers, TLR2+ and TLR4+ macrophages also decreased, but the percentage of MMR+ expression did not change. LAM-exposed monocytes generated macrophages that were less efficient in producing proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ; however, their phagocytic capacity was not modified. Taken together, these data indicate that LAM exposure influenced monocyte differentiation and produced poorly functional macrophages with a different phenotype. These results may help us understand how mycobacteria can limit the quality of the innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:26347897

  19. Increasing Interoperability of E-Learning Content in Moodle within a Franco-Arabo Educative Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Harrassi, Souad; Labour, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how Moodle, as an open-source Learning Management System, can be made more interoperable. The authors tested two software standards, LAMS and RELOAD, compatible with socio-constructivism norms. The analysis showed that pedagogic activities created with the LAMS-IMS Learning Design Level A Format are useable with Moodle but

  20. Increasing Interoperability of E-Learning Content in Moodle within a Franco-Arabo Educative Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Harrassi, Souad; Labour, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how Moodle, as an open-source Learning Management System, can be made more interoperable. The authors tested two software standards, LAMS and RELOAD, compatible with socio-constructivism norms. The analysis showed that pedagogic activities created with the LAMS-IMS Learning Design Level A Format are useable with Moodle but…

  1. A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Torti, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The component technologies were developed required for an advanced control moment gyro (CMG) type of slewing actuator for large payloads. The key component of the CMG is a large-angle magnetic suspension (LAMS). The LAMS combines the functions of the gimbal structure, torque motors, and rotor bearings of a CMG. The LAMS uses a single superconducting source coil and an array of cryoresistive control coils to produce a specific output torque more than an order of magnitude greater than conventional devices. The designed and tested LAMS system is based around an available superconducting solenoid, an array of twelve room-temperature normal control coils, and a multi-input, multi-output control system. The control laws were demonstrated for stabilizing and controlling the LAMS system.

  2. Estimation of D-Arabinose by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry as Surrogate for Mycobacterial Lipoarabinomannan in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    De, Prithwiraj; Amin, Anita G.; Valli, Eloise; Perkins, Mark D.; McNeil, Michael; Chatterjee, Delphi

    2015-01-01

    Globally, tuberculosis is slowly declining each year and it is estimated that 37 million lives were saved between 2000 and 2013 through effective diagnosis and treatment. Currently, diagnosis relies on demonstration of the bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), in clinical specimens by serial sputum microscopy, culture and molecular testing. Commercial immunoassay lateral flow kits developed to detect Mtb lipoglycan lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine as a marker of active TB exhibit poor sensitivity, especially in immunocompetent individuals, perhaps due to low abundance of the analyte. Our present study was designed to develop methods to validate the presence of LAM in a quantitative fashion in human urine samples obtained from culture-confirmed TB patients. Herein we describe, a consolidated approach for isolating LAM from the urine and quantifying D-arabinose as a proxy for LAM, using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. 298 urine samples obtained from a repository were rigorously analyzed and shown to contain varying amounts of LAM-equivalent ranging between ~10–40 ng/mL. To further substantiate that D-arabinose detected in the samples originated from LAM, tuberculostearic acid, the unique 10-methyloctadecanoic acid present at the phosphatidylinositol end of LAM was also analyzed in a set of samples and found to be present confirming that the D-arabinose was indeed derived from LAM. Among the 144 samples from culture-negative TB suspects, 30 showed presence of D-arabinose suggesting another source of the analyte, such as disseminated TB or from non-tuberculosis mycobacterium. Our work validates that LAM is present in the urine samples of culture-positive patients in small but readily detectable amounts. The study further substantiates LAM in urine as a powerful biomarker for active tuberculosis. PMID:26633829

  3. Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: Implications for diagnostics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N.; Lee, Myungsun; Cho, Sang Nae; Barry, Clifton E.; Via, Laura E.; Swanson, Basil I.; Mukundan, Harshini

    2013-02-14

    Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum,more » and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of ‘monomeric’ LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. Furthermore, this phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host–pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics.« less

  4. Effects of supplementing dietary laminarin and fucoidan on intestinal morphology and the immune gene expression in the weaned pig.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A M; Sweeney, T; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; O'Doherty, J V

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown the benefit of combining seaweed extracts laminarin (LAM) and fucoidan (FUC) on improving growth in piglets' performance after weaning. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the interaction between FUC (0 and 240 mg/kg) and LAM (0 and 300 mg/kg) levels on gut morphology and colonic cytokine gene expression in the weaned pig. Twenty-eight piglets (6.9 kg BW) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for 8 d after weaning and then sacrificed. The dietary treatments were as follows: (i) basal diet, (ii) basal diet + 240 mg/kg FUC, (iii) basal diet + 300 mg/kg LAM, and (iv) basal diet + 300 mg/kg LAM and 240 mg/kg FUC. There was an interaction (P < 0.01) between LAM and FUC supplementation on duodenal villous height and the villus height to crypt depth ratio. Pigs offered the LAM or FUC diet singularly had an increased villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio compared with pigs offered the basal diet. However, there was no effect of the LAM and FUC combination diet on morphology. Pigs offered the LAM-supplemented diets had a lower IL-6 (P < 0.05), IL-17 (P < 0.001), and IL-1β (P < 0.001) mRNA expression in the colon compared with pigs offered diets without LAM supplementation. In conclusion, the enhancement in intestinal structure and downregulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression obtained suggest that LAM may provide a dietary means to improve gut health in weaned pigs. PMID:23365357

  5. Progesterone and estradiol synergistically promote the lung metastasis of tuberin-deficient cells in a preclinical model of lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Erik; Lao, Taotao; Pereira, Ana M; Li, Chenggang; Xiong, Li; Morrison, Tasha; Haley, Kathleen J; Zhou, Xiaobo; Yu, Jane J

    2014-10-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a female-predominant lung disease that can lead to respiratory failure. LAM cells typically have inactivating tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) mutations, leading to mTORC1 hyperactivation. The gender specificity of LAM suggests that female hormones contribute to disease progression. Clinical findings indicate that estradiol exacerbates LAM behaviors and symptoms. Although hormonal therapy with progesterone has been employed, the benefit in LAM improvement has not been achieved. We have previously found that estradiol promotes the survival and lung metastasis of cells lacking tuberin in a preclinical model of LAM. In this study, we hypothesize that progesterone alone or in combination with estradiol promotes metastatic behaviors of TSC2-deficient cells. In cell culture models of TSC2-deficient LAM patient-derived and rat uterine leiomyoma-derived cells, we found that progesterone treatment or progesterone plus estradiol resulted in increased phosphorylation ofProtein Kinase B (Akt) andExtracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (ERK1/2), induced the proliferation, and enhanced the migration and invasiveness. In addition, treatment of progesterone plus estradiol synergistically decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species and enhanced cell survival under oxidative stress. In a murine model of LAM, treatment of progesterone plus estradiol promoted the growth of xenograft tumors; however, progesterone treatment did not affect the development of xenograft tumors of Tsc2-deficient cells. Importantly, treatment of progesterone plus estradiol resulted in alteration of lung morphology and significantly increased the number of lung micrometastases of Tsc2-deficient cells compared with estradiol treatment alone. Collectively, these data indicate that progesterone increases the metastatic potential of Tsc2-deficient LAM patient-derived cells in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. Thus, targeting progesterone-mediated signaling events may have therapeutic benefit for LAM and possibly other hormonally dependent cancers. PMID:25069840

  6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: differential diagnosis and optimal management.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai-Feng; Lo, Bee Hong

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an uncommon disease presented as diffuse thin-walled cystic changes in the lung. The main differential diagnoses include pulmonary Langerhans' histiocytosis (PLCH), Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD), lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), and amyloidosis. A combination of clinical, radiological, and pathological approaches as well as genetic testing will clarify the diagnosis in most cases. LAM is a disease almost exclusively in women. Dyspnea, pneumothorax, and hemoptysis are common presentations in LAM patients. LAM is also a lymphatic disorder affecting lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes. Chylothorax, chylous ascites, and lymphangiomyomas are frequently seen. LAM can present sporadically as a single entity or as part of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a characteristic extra-pulmonary lesion, either found in association with sporadic or TSC-related LAM. High-risk populations should be screened for LAM, including adult women with TSC and female patients with spontaneous pneumothorax, AMLs in the kidney, and diffuse cystic lung diseases. Definitive diagnosis of LAM is based on a high level of clinical suspicion on presentation supported by pathological findings or by a distinct feature, such as a history of TSC, AMLs in the kidney, chylothorax, or chylous ascites. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D) in serum is a noninvasive and reliable diagnostic biomarker. In experienced centers, trans-bronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) provides a convenient and safe way to obtain lung specimens for diagnostic purposes. An effective treatment for LAM is now available, namely using a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor such as sirolimus. Efficacy of sirolimus has been confirmed in clinical trials. Research in other molecular-targeted therapies is under investigation. A previously little-known rare disease with no cure is now better understood with regards to its pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. In this review, current knowledge in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of LAM will be discussed, followed by the discussion of therapy with mTOR inhibitors. PMID:25187723

  7. Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: Implications for diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N.; Lee, Myungsun; Cho, Sang Nae; Barry, Clifton E.; Via, Laura E.; Swanson, Basil I.; Mukundan, Harshini

    2013-02-14

    Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum, and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of ‘monomeric’ LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. Furthermore, this phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host–pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics.

  8. The Laminin Receptor Is a Cellular Attachment Receptor for Classical Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianing; He, Wen-Rui; Shen, Liang; Dong, Hong; Yu, Jiahui; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Shaoxiong; Li, Yongfeng; Li, Su; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious, economically important viral disease in many countries. The Erns and E2 envelope glycoproteins are responsible for the binding to and entry into the host cell by CSFV. To date, only one cellular receptor, heparan sulfate (HS), has been identified as being involved in CSFV attachment. HS is also present on the surface of various cells that are nonpermissive to CSFV. Hence, there must be another receptor(s) that has been unidentified to date. In this study, we used a set of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against a number of porcine cell membrane protein genes to screen cellular proteins involved in CSFV infection. This approach resulted in the identification of several proteins, and of these, the laminin receptor (LamR) has been demonstrated to be a cellular receptor for several viruses. Confocal analysis showed that LamR is colocalized with CSFV virions on the membrane, and a coimmunoprecipitation assay indicated that LamR interacts with the CSFV Erns protein. In inhibition assays, anti-LamR antibodies, soluble laminin, or LamR protein significantly inhibited CSFV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Transduction of PK-15 cells with a recombinant lentivirus expressing LamR yielded higher viral titers. Moreover, an attachment assay demonstrated that LamR functions during virus attachment. We also demonstrate that LamR acts as an alternative attachment receptor, especially in SK6 cells. These results indicate that LamR is a cellular attachment receptor for CSFV. IMPORTANCE Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), an economically important viral disease affecting the pig industry in many countries. To date, only heparan sulfate (HS) has been identified to be an attachment receptor for CSFV. Here, using RNA interference screening with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against a number of porcine membrane protein genes, we identified the laminin receptor (LamR) to be another attachment receptor. We demonstrate the involvement of LamR together with HS in virus attachment, and we elucidate the relationship between LamR and HS. LamR also serves as an attachment receptor for many viral pathogens, including dengue virus, a fatal human flavivirus. The study will help to enhance our understanding of the life cycle of flaviviruses and the development of antiviral strategies for flaviviruses. PMID:25694590

  9. Mannosylated lipoarabinomannans from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis alters the inflammatory response by bovine macrophages and suppresses killing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium organisms.

    PubMed

    Souza, Cleverson; Davis, William C; Eckstein, Torsten M; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Weiss, Douglas J

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the mechanisms through which pathogenic mycobacteria interfere with macrophage activation and phagosome maturation have shown that engagement of specific membrane receptors with bacterial ligands is the initiating event. Mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (Man-LAM) has been identified as one of the ligands that modulates macrophage function. We evaluated the effects of Man-LAM derived from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on bovine macrophages. Man-LAM induced a rapid and prolonged expression of IL-10 message as well as transient expression of TNF-α. Preincubation with Man-LAM for up to 16 h did not suppress expression of IL-12 in response to interferon-γ. Evaluation of the effect of Man-LAM on phagosome acidification, phagosome maturation, and killing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) showed that preincubation of macrophages with Man-LAM before addition of MAA inhibited phagosome acidification, phagolysosome fusion, and reduced killing. Analysis of signaling pathways provided indirect evidence that inhibition of killing was associated with activation of the MAPK-p38 signaling pathway but not the pathway involved in regulation of expression of IL-10. These results support the hypothesis that MAP Man-LAM is one of the virulence factors facilitating survival of MAP in macrophages. PMID:24098744

  10. Real-time Recognition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Lipoarabinomannan using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    PubMed Central

    Hiatt, Leslie A.; Cliffel, David E.

    2012-01-01

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor has been successfully employed to screen for both whole Mycobacteria tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli and a Mtb surface antigen, lipoarabinomannan (LAM). One of the most abundant components of the Mtb cell surface, LAM, may be detected without the presence of the entire bacterium. Using available antibodies with proven utility in enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs), a sensor was designed to measure Mtb bacilli and LAM. Equilibrium association constants (Ka) were determined for the interaction of Mtb with immobilized α-LAM and anti-H37Rv antibodies, where avidity was seen to strengthen this interaction and provide for greater binding than might have otherwise been achieved. The binding of LAM to immobilized α-LAM had a high associate rate constant (ka) allowing for rapid detection. Evaluating these binding constants helped the compare the sensitivity of these immunosensors to conventional ELISAs. The use of these assays with the better antibodies may allow for immunosensor use in determining LAM as a point-of-care (POC) diagnostic for Mtb. PMID:23175600

  11. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: A review.

    PubMed

    Hohman, Donald W; Noghrehkar, Dena; Ratnayake, Saman

    2008-07-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease, of unknown etiology, affecting women almost exclusively. Microscopically, LAM consists of a diffuse proliferation of smooth muscle cells. LAM can occur without evidence of other disease (sporadic LAM) or in conjunction with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). TSC is an autosomal dominant tumor suppressor gene syndrome characterized by seizures, mental retardation, and tumors in the brain, heart, skin, and kidney. LAM commonly presents with progressive breathlessness or with recurrent pneumothorax, chylothorax, or sudden abdominal hemorrhage. Computed tomography (CT) scans show numerous thin-walled cysts throughout the lungs, abdominal angiomyolipomas, and lymphangioleiomyomas. No effective treatment currently exists for this progressive disorder. The prevalence of lymphangioleiomyomatosis is probably underestimated based on its clinical latency and the absence of specific laboratory tests. With the utilization of international LAM data registries the "classical" picture of the disorder appears to be evolving as a larger number of patients are evaluated. An increased awareness of LAM and its common clinical presentation may advance the development of new therapeutic strategies and reduce the number of mistakenly diagnosed patients. PMID:18549932

  12. Laminarin modulates the chloroplast antioxidant system to enhance abiotic stress tolerance partially through the regulation of the defensin-like gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Ru; Lin, Yi-Chen; Chuang, Huey-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Algae wall polysaccharide, laminarin (Lam), has an established role on induction of plant disease resistance. In this study, application of Lam increased Arabidopsis fresh weight and enhanced tolerance to salt and heat stress by stabilizing chloroplast under adverse environment. Transcriptome analysis indicated that, in addition to induced a large number of genes associated with the host defense, genes involved in the regulation of abiotic stress tolerance mostly the heat stress response constituted the largest group of the up-regulated genes. Lam induced expression of IRT1, ZIP8, and copper transporters involved in transport of Fe, Zn, Cu ions associated with the activity of chloroplast antioxidant system. Lam also up-regulated genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoid, a plastidial-derived secondary metabolite with antioxidant activity. Overexpression of a Lam-induced defensin like 202 (DEFL202) resulted in increased chloroplast stability under salt stress and increased plant growth activity after heat stress. Expression of antioxidant enzymes including SOD and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), photosystem PsbA-D1 and ABA-dependent responsive to desiccation 22 (RD22) was induced to higher levels in the transgenic seedlings. In sum, our results suggest that Lam is an potent inducer for induction of chloroplastic antioxidant activity. Lam affect plant abiotic stress tolerance partially through regulation of the DEFL-mediated pathway. PMID:27095402

  13. Role of Prolactin Receptors in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Alkharusi, Amira; Lesma, Elena; Ancona, Silvia; Chiaramonte, Eloisa; Nyström, Thomas; Gorio, Alfredo; Norstedt, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung disease caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor genes encoding Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) 1 and TSC2. The protein product of the TSC2 gene is a well-known suppressor of the mTOR pathway. Emerging evidence suggests that the pituitary hormone prolactin (Prl) has both endocrine and paracrine modes of action. Here, we have investigated components of the Prl system in models for LAM. In a TSC2 (+/-) mouse sarcoma cell line, down-regulation of TSC2 using siRNA resulted in increased levels of the Prl receptor. In human LAM cells, the Prl receptor is detectable by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of Prl in these cells stimulates STAT3 and Erk phosphorylation, as well as proliferation. A high affinity Prl receptor antagonist consisting of Prl with four amino acid substitutions reduced phosphorylation of STAT3 and Erk. Antagonist treatment further reduced the proliferative and invasive properties of LAM cells. In histological sections from LAM patients, Prl receptor immuno reactivity was observed. We conclude that the Prl receptor is expressed in LAM, and that loss of TSC2 increases Prl receptor levels. It is proposed that Prl exerts growth-stimulatory effects on LAM cells, and that antagonizing the Prl receptor can block such effects. PMID:26765535

  14. A mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan specific monoclonal antibody and its F(ab′)2 fragment prolong survival of mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    HAMASUR, B; HAILE, M; PAWLOWSKI, A; SCHRÖDER, U; KÄLLENIUS, G; SVENSON, S B

    2004-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a major structural carbohydrate antigen of the outer surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. High antibody titres against LAM are often seen in active tuberculosis (TB). The role of such LAM-specific antibodies in the immune response against TB is unknown. Here we have investigated a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) SMITB14 of IgG1 subclass and its corresponding F(ab′)2 fragment directed against LAM from M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv. MoAb SMITB14 was shown by immunofluorescence to bind to whole cells of the clinical isolate M. tuberculosis strain Harlingen as well as to M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The binding of MoAb SMITB14 to LAM was inhibited by arabinomannan (AM) and oligosaccharides (5·2 kDa) derived from LAM, showing that the MoAb binds specifically to the AM carbohydrate portion of LAM. In passive protection experiments BALB/c mice were infected intravenously with M. tuberculosis Harlingen. MoAb SMITB14 was added intravenously either prior to, or together with, the bacteria. The antibody proved to be protective against the M. tuberculosis infection in terms of a dose-dependent reduction in bacterial load in spleens and lungs, reduced weight loss and, most importantly, increased long-term survival. PMID:15373902

  15. The Internet as a Glocal Discourse Environment: A Commentary on "Second Language Socialization in a Bilingual Chat Room" by Wan Shun Eva Lam and "Second Language Cyberhetoric: A Study of Chinese L2 Writers in an Online Usenet Group" by Joel Bloch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsogiannis, Dimitris; Mitsikopoulou, Bessie

    2004-01-01

    The Internet as a worldwide literacy practice environment has created a new situation in communication, providing a new dynamic field for research. On the basis of the two articles under discussion, this commentary develops three main aspects of the Internet: as an informal learning environment for English as a second/foreign language; as a…

  16. Cost-effectiveness comparison of lamivudine plus adefovir combination treatment and nucleos(t)ide analog monotherapies in Chinese chronic hepatitis B patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Ke, Weixia; Liu, Li; Gao, Yanhui; Yao, Zhenjiang; Ye, Xiaohua; Zhou, Shudong; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim Lamivudine (LAM) plus adefovir (ADV) combination therapy is clinically efficacious for treating chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in China, but no pharmacoeconomic evaluations of this strategy are available. The aim of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of LAM plus ADV combination treatment compared with five other nucleos(t)ide analog monotherapies (LAM, ADV, telbivudine [TBV], entecavir [ETV], and tenofovir [TDF]). Methods To simulate the lifetime (40-year time span) costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for different therapy options, a Markov model that included five initial monotherapies and LAM plus ADV combination as an initial treatment was developed. Two kinds of rescue combination strategies (base-case: LAM + ADV then ETV + ADV; alternative: direct use of ETV + ADV) were considered separately for treating patients refractory to initial therapy. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to explore model uncertainties. Results In base-case analysis, ETV had the lowest lifetime cost and served as the reference therapy. Compared to the reference, LAM, ADV, and TBV had higher costs and lower efficacy, and were completely dominated by ETV. LAM plus ADV combination therapy or TDF was more efficacious than ETV, but also more expensive. Although the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of combination therapy or TDF were both higher than the willingness-to-pay threshold of $20,466/QALY gained for the reference treatment, in an alternative scenario analysis LAM plus ADV combination therapy would be the preferable treatment option. Conclusion ETV and LAM plus ADV combination therapy are both cost-effective strategies for treating Chinese CHB patients. PMID:27041994

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Nakiyingi, Lydia; Moodley, V. Mischka; Manabe, Yukari C.; Nicol, Mark P.; Holshouser, Molly; Armstrong, Derek T.; Zemanay, Widaad; Sikhondze, Welile; Mbabazi, Olive; Nonyane, Bareng A.S.; Shah, Maunank; Joloba, Moses L.; Alland, David; Ellner, Jerrold J.; Dorman, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In settings of high HIV prevalence, tuberculosis control and patient management are hindered by lack of accurate, rapid tuberculosis diagnostic tests that can be performed at point-of-care. The Determine TB LAM Ag (‘TB LAM’) test is a lateral flow immunochromatographic test for detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine. Our objective was to determine sensitivity and specificity of the TB LAM test for tuberculosis diagnosis. Design Prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Setting Hospital and outpatient settings in Uganda and South Africa. Participants HIV-infected adults with tuberculosis symptoms and/or signs. Methods Participants provided a fresh urine specimen for TB LAM testing, blood for mycobacterial culture, and two respiratory specimens for smear microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Main outcome measures For the TB LAM test, sensitivity in participants with culture-positive tuberculosis and specificity in participants without tuberculosis. Results 1013 participants were enrolled. Among culture-positive tuberculosis patients, the TB LAM test identified 136/367 (37.1%) overall and 116/196 (59.2%) in the group with CD4≤100 cells/mm3. The test was specific in 559/573 (97.6%) of patients without tuberculosis. Sensitivity of the urine TB LAM test plus sputum smear microscopy was 197/367 (53.7%) overall and 133/196 (67.9%) among those with CD4≤100. CD4≤50 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 6.2, P<0.001) or 51–100 (AOR 7.1, P<0.001), mycobacteremia (AOR 6.1; P<0.01) and hospitalization (AOR 2.6, P=0.03) were independently associated with a positive TB LAM test. Conclusions In HIV-positive adults with CD4≤100, the TB LAM urine test detected over half of culture-positive tuberculosis patients, in less than 30 minutes and without the need for equipment or reagents. PMID:24675585

  18. Mannose-Capped Lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induces CD4+ T Cell Anergy via GRAIL.

    PubMed

    Sande, Obondo J; Karim, Ahmad F; Li, Qing; Ding, Xuedong; Harding, Clifford V; Rojas, Roxana E; Boom, W Henry

    2016-01-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall glycolipid, lipoarabinomannan, can inhibit CD4(+) T cell activation by downregulating the phosphorylation of key proximal TCR signaling molecules: Lck, CD3ζ, ZAP70, and LAT. Inhibition of proximal TCR signaling can result in T cell anergy, in which T cells are inactivated following an Ag encounter, yet remain viable and hyporesponsive. We tested whether mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (LAM)-induced inhibition of CD4(+) T cell activation resulted in CD4(+) T cell anergy. The presence of LAM during primary stimulation of P25 TCR-transgenic murine CD4(+) T cells with M. tuberculosis Ag85B peptide resulted in decreased proliferation and IL-2 production. P25 TCR-transgenic CD4(+) T cells primed in the presence of LAM also exhibited decreased response upon restimulation with Ag85B. The T cell anergic state persisted after the removal of LAM. Hyporesponsiveness to restimulation was not due to apoptosis, generation of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells, or inhibitory cytokines. Acquisition of the anergic phenotype correlated with upregulation of gene related to anergy in lymphocytes (GRAIL) protein in CD4(+) T cells. Inhibition of human CD4(+) T cell activation by LAM also was associated with increased GRAIL expression. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of GRAIL before LAM treatment abrogated LAM-induced hyporesponsiveness. In addition, exogenous IL-2 reversed defective proliferation by downregulating GRAIL expression. These results demonstrate that LAM upregulates GRAIL to induce anergy in Ag-reactive CD4(+) T cells. Induction of CD4(+) T cell anergy by LAM may represent one mechanism by which M. tuberculosis evades T cell recognition. PMID:26667170

  19. Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-D Prospectively Distinguishes Lymphangioleiomyomatosis From Other Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Young, Lisa R.; VanDyke, Rhonda; Gulleman, Peter M.; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Brown, Kevin K.; Schmidt, Laura S.; Linehan, W. Marston; Hajjar, Fuad; Kinder, Brent W.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Bissler, John J.; Franz, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of women with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) present with cystic lung disease, and most require lung biopsy for definitive diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prospective diagnostic usefulness of a serologic test for vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D), a lymphangiogenic growth factor. Methods: We prospectively measured serum VEGF-D levels by enzyme-linked immunoassay in 48 women presenting with cystic lung disease. Diagnostic test performance was determined from a cohort of 195 women, with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), TSC-LAM, sporadic LAM (S-LAM), and other cystic lung diseases in the differential diagnosis, including biopsy-proven or genetically proven pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, emphysema, Sjögren syndrome, or Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. Results: Serum VEGF-D levels were significantly greater in S-LAM (median 1,175 [interquartile range (IQR): 780-2,013] pg/mL; n = 56) than in other cystic lung diseases (median 281 [IQR 203-351] pg/mL; n = 44, P < .001). In the cohort evaluated prospectively, 12 of the 15 individuals ultimately diagnosed with LAM by biopsy had VEGF-D levels of > 800 pg/mL, whereas levels were < 600 pg/mL in all 18 subjects later diagnosed with other causes of cystic lung disease. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that VEGF-D effectively identified LAM, with an area under the curve of 0.961(95% CI, 0.923-0.992). A VEGF-D level of > 600 pg/mL was highly associated with a diagnosis of LAM (specificity 97.6%, likelihood ratio 35.2) and values > 800 pg/mL were diagnostically specific. Serum VEGF-D levels were significantly elevated in women with TSC-LAM (median 3,465 [IQR 1,970-7,195] pg/mL) compared with women with TSC only (median 370 [IQR 291-520] pg/mL), P < .001). Conclusions: A serum VEGF-D level of > 800 pg/mL in a woman with typical cystic changes on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan is diagnostically specific for S-LAM and identifies LAM in women with TSC. A negative VEGF-D result does not exclude the diagnosis of LAM. The usefulness of serum VEGF-D testing in men or in women who do not have cystic lung disease on HRCT scan is unknown. PMID:20382711

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean Family and Its Sublineages in the Light of Robust Evolutionary Markers

    PubMed Central

    Vyazovaya, Anna; Narvskaya, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a clonal population structure, and the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family is one of the largest and most widespread within this species, showing evidence for remarkable pathobiology and a confusing phylogeny. Here, we applied robust phylogenetic markers to study the evolution of the LAM family and its major sublineages circulating in Russia and neighboring countries. A total of 250 M. tuberculosis isolates were confirmed to belong to the LAM family based on the analysis of the LAM-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Rv3062 and Rv0129c genes. At this stage, the family status was rectified for 121 isolates misleadingly assigned by CRISPR spoligotyping to non-LAM families (T1- or T5-RUS1). Consequently, the reestimated LAM prevalence rate increased 2-fold in Russia and Kazakhstan and 4-fold in Belarus. The majority (91.8 to 98.7%) of the LAM isolates from all three countries belonged to the LAM-RUS sublineage. In contrast, the Ibero-American LAM RD-Rio sublineage was identified in only 7 Russian isolates. Taken together, our findings and further analyses suggest a monophyletic origin of LAM-RUS: at a historically distant time, in Russia, in a small founding bacterial/human population. Its dissemination pattern and high prevalence rate in Northern Eurasia may indicate a long-term coexistence of the LAM-RUS sublineage and local human populations hypothetically leading to coadaptation and reduced pathogenicity of the relatively more ancient clones, such as spoligotype international type 254 (SIT254), compared to the more recent SIT252 and SIT266 clones. In contrast, rare LAM RD-Rio isolates were likely brought to Russia through occasional human contact. The spread of RD-Rio strains is not as global as commonly claimed and is determined largely by human migration flows (rather than by pathobiological properties of these strains). Consequently, a host population factor appears to play a major role in shaping the in situ dissemination pattern of the imported strains in an autochthonous population. PMID:24584500

  1. A 4-year prospective evaluation of protocols to improve clinical outcomes for patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis in a national clinical centre.

    PubMed

    Bee, Janet; Bhatt, Rupesh; McCafferty, Ian; Johnson, Simon R

    2015-12-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare multisystem disease. Progressive airflow limitation, pneumothorax and angiomyolipoma-related bleeding are major morbidities. As treatments are available for these complications, we prospectively audited loss of FEV1 (ΔFEV1), pneumothorax and angiomyolipoma bleeding against clinical standards over 4 years at the UK Clinical Centre. ΔFEV1 for these patients is lower than previously reported and rates of pneumothorax and angiomyolipoma haemorrhage are low. This suggests that real-time analysis of clinical data with targeted interventions can reduce morbidity in LAM. These measures could be applied as quality standards to compare the emerging LAM clinical networks worldwide. PMID:26123659

  2. CT and MR Imaging Findings of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Involving the Uterus and Pelvic Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, You Sung; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon; Park, Jong Sup

    2011-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare idiopathic disease and this is characterized by a proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells in the lungs and in the lymphatic system of the thorax and retroperitoneum. The female genital tract is rarely affected by LAM. We report here on the CT and MR imaging findings of extensive LAM involving the uterus and pelvic cavity, and this was seen as multiple cystic uterine and parauterine masses with internal hemorrhage in a young female with tuberous sclerosis complex. PMID:21430946

  3. Indicator species of essential forest tree species in the Burdur district.

    PubMed

    Negiz, Mehmet Güvenç; Eser, Yunus; Kuzugüdenll, Emre; Izkan, Kürşad

    2015-01-01

    The forests of Burdur district for long have been subjected to over grazing and individual selection. As a result of this, majority of the forest areas in the district were degraded. In the district, afforestation efforts included majority of forestry implementations. It is well known that selecting suitable species plays an important role for achieving afforestation efforts. In this context, knowing the indicator species among the target species would be used in afforestation efforts, studies on the interrelationships between environmental factors and target species distribution is vital for selecting suitable species for a given area. In this study, Anatolian Black pine (Pinus nigra), Red pine (Pinus brutia), Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani), essential tree species, were considered as target species. The data taken from 100 sample plots in Burdur district was used. Interspecific correlation analysis was performed to determine the positive and negative indicator species among each of the target species. As a result of ICA, 2 positive (Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus), 2 negative (Phillyrea latifolia, Quercus coccifera) for Crimean Juniper, I positive (Juniperus oxycedrus), 3 negative (Onopordium acanthium, Fraxinus ornus, Phillyrea latifolia) for Anatolian black pine, 3 positive (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus coccifer, Crataegus orientalis), 2 negative (Berberis crataegina, Astragalus nanus) for Red pine and 3 positive (Berberis crataegina, Rhamnus oleoides, Astragalus prusianus) 2 negative (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus cerris) for Taurus cedarwere defined as indicator plant species. In this way, practical information was obtained for selecting the most suitable species, among the target species, for afforestation efforts in Burdur district. PMID:26591889

  4. Berberine Antifungal Activity in Fluconazole-Resistant Pathogenic Yeasts: Action Mechanism Evaluated by Flow Cytometry and Biofilm Growth Inhibition in Candida spp.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Anderson Ramos; de Andrade Neto, João Batista; da Silva, Cecília Rocha; Campos, Rosana de Sousa; Costa Silva, Rose Anny; Freitas, Daniel Domingues; do Nascimento, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires; de Andrade, Larissa Nara Dantas; Sampaio, Letícia Serpa; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Magalhães, Hemerson Iury Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Nobre Júnior, Hélio Vitoriano

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of fungal infections and, in particular, the incidence of fungal antibiotic resistance, which is associated with biofilm formation, have significantly increased, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Thus, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. In this context, natural products have emerged as a major source of possible antifungal agents. Berberine is a protoberberine-type isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the roots, rhizomes, and stem bark of natural herbs, such as Berberis aquifolium, Berberis vulgaris, Berberis aristata, and Hydrastis canadensis, and of Phellodendron amurense Berberine has been proven to have broad antibacterial and antifungal activity. In the present study, the potential antifungal effect of berberine against fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains, as well as against the biofilm form of Candida spp., was assessed. The antifungal effect of berberine was determined by a broth microdilution method (the M27-A3 method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) and flow cytometry techniques, in which the probable mechanism of action of the compound was also assessed. For biofilm assessment, a colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the susceptibility of sessile cells. The isolates used in the study belonged to the Laboratory of Bioprospection and Experiments in Yeast (LABEL) of the Federal University of Ceará. After 24 and 72 h, fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains showed berberine MICs equal to 8 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml, respectively. Cytometric analysis showed that treatment with berberine caused alterations to the integrity of the plasma and mitochondrial membranes and DNA damage, which led to cell death, probably by apoptosis. Assessment of biofilm-forming isolates after treatment showed statistically significant reductions in biofilm cell activity (P < 0.001). PMID:27021328

  5. Genetics Home Reference: facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... groups (consisting of one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms) attached to the DNA. The addition of ... a pLAM sequence, which is necessary for the production of the DUX4 protein. Some copies of chromosome ...

  6. Sensitivity study of heavy precipitation in Limited Area Model climate simulations: influence of the size of the domain and the use of the spectral nudging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Jeanne; Déqué, Michel; Radu, Raluca; Somot, Samuel

    2010-10-01

    We assess the impact of two sources of uncertainties in a limited area model (LAM) on the representation of intense precipitation: the size of the domain of integration and the use of the spectral nudging technique (driving of the large-scale within the domain of integration). We work in a perfect-model approach where the LAM is driven by a general circulation model (GCM) run at the same resolution and sharing the same physics and dynamics as the LAM. A set of three 50 km resolution simulations run over Western Europe with the LAM ALADIN-Climate and the GCM ARPEGE-Climate are performed to address this issue. Results are consistent with previous studies regarding the seasonal-mean fields. Furthermore, they show that neither the use of the spectral nudging nor the choice of a small domain are detrimental to the modelling of heavy precipitation in the present experiment.

  7. Organelle membrane proteomics reveals differential influence of mycobacterial lipoglycans on macrophage phagosome maturation and autophagosome accumulation.

    PubMed

    Shui, Wenqing; Petzold, Christopher J; Redding, Alyssa; Liu, Jun; Pitcher, Austin; Sheu, Leslie; Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Keasling, Jay D; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2011-01-01

    The mycobacterial cell wall component lipoarabinomannan (LAM) has been described as one of the key virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Modification of the terminal arabinan residues of this lipoglycan with mannose caps in M. tuberculosis or with phosphoinositol caps in Mycobacterium smegmatis results in distinct host immune responses. Given that M. tuberculosis typically persists in the phagosomal vacuole after being phagocytosed by macrophages, we performed a proteomic analysis of that organelle after treatment of macrophages with LAMs purified from the two mycobacterial species. The quantitative changes in phagosomal proteins suggested a distinct role for mannose-capped LAM in modulating protein trafficking pathways that contribute to the arrest of phagosome maturation. Enlightened by our proteomic data, we performed further experiments to show that only the LAM from M. tuberculosis inhibits accumulation of autophagic vacuoles in the macrophage, suggesting a new function for this virulence-associated lipid. PMID:21105745

  8. Optimizing treatments for lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Moss, Joel

    2012-06-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a multisystem disease predominantly affecting premenopausal women, is associated with cystic lung destruction and lymphatic and kidney tumors. LAM results from the proliferation of a neoplastic cell that has mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 or 2 genes, leading to activation of a critical regulatory protein, mammalian target of rapamycin. In this report, we discuss the molecular mechanisms regulating LAM cell growth and report the results of therapeutic trials employing new targeted agents. At present, inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin such as sirolimus appear to be the most promising therapeutic agents, although drug toxicity and development of resistance are potential problems. As the pathogenesis of LAM is being further recognized, other therapeutic agents such as matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, statins, interferon, VEGF inhibitors, chloroquine analogs and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, along with sirolimus or a combination of several of these agents, may offer the best hope for effective therapy. PMID:22788941

  9. mTOR treatment in lymphangioleiomyomatosis: the role of everolimus.

    PubMed

    Yates, Deborah H

    2016-03-01

    The orphan lung disease lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) has until recently been untreatable other than by lung transplantation. However, improved understanding of underlying disease mechanisms has revealed the central role of constitutive up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in this disease. Although other pathways exist and are under investigation for treatment, several mTOR inhibitors are currently available and emerging information suggests that these may have some efficacy in preventing loss of lung function in LAM. This paper summarizes current understanding of treatment with mTOR inhibitors in LAM, and everolimus in particular. It outlines pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics relevant to the clinician, recent clinical studies, and issues with potential side effects. mTOR treatment is not yet available in most countries for LAM, but current data for treatment efficacy are impressive, and it is hoped that mTOR inhibition will soon be recognised as an important treatment of this disease. PMID:26847859

  10. Effects of combining rapamycin and resveratrol on apoptosis and growth of TSC2-deficient xenograft tumors.

    PubMed

    Alayev, Anya; Salamon, Rachel S; Sun, Yang; Schwartz, Naomi S; Li, Chenggang; Yu, Jane J; Holz, Marina K

    2015-11-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare neoplastic metastatic disease affecting women of childbearing age. LAM is caused by hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) as a consequence of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1/2 inactivation. Clinically, LAM results in cystic lung destruction. mTORC1 inhibition using rapamycin analogs (rapalogs) is partially effective in reducing disease progression and improving lung function. However, cessation of treatment results in continued progression of the disease. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of the combination of rapamycin treatment with resveratrol, an autophagy inhibitor, in the TSC2-null xenograft tumor model. We determined that this combination inhibits phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 signaling and activates apoptosis. Therefore, the combination of rapamycin and resveratrol may be an effective clinical strategy for treatment of LAM and other diseases with mTORC1 hyperactivation. PMID:25844891

  11. Galaxy alignment as a probe of large-scale filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    The orientations of the red galaxies in a filament are aligned with the orientation of the filament. We thus develop a location-alignment-method (LAM) of detecting filaments around clusters of galaxies, which uses both the alignments of red galaxies and their distributions in two-dimensional images. For the first time, the orientations of red galaxies are used as probes of filaments. We apply LAM to the environment of Coma cluster, and find four filaments (two filaments are located in sheets) in two selected regions, which are compared with the filaments detected with the method of Falco et al.. We find that LAM can effectively detect the filaments around a cluster, even with 3σ confidence level, and clearly reveal the number and overall orientations of the detected filaments. LAM is independent of the redshifts of galaxies, and thus can be applied at relatively high redshifts and to the samples of red galaxies without the information of redshifts.

  12. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., within the meaning of section 409 of the act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source.... Clover Trifolium spp. Coca (decocainized) Erythroxylum coca Lam. and other spp. of Erythroxylum....

  13. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., within the meaning of section 409 of the act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source.... Clover Trifolium spp. Coca (decocainized) Erythroxylum coca Lam. and other spp. of Erythroxylum....

  14. What Causes Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... buildup of air or gas in the pleural space). Such lung diseases may include COPD (chronic obstructive ... effusion (a buildup of fluid in the pleural space) is heart failure . Lung cancer, LAM, pneumonia, tuberculosis, ...

  15. Bacteriophage Lambda as a Delivery Vector for Tn10-Derived Transposons in Xenorhabdus bovienii

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Matthew S.; Parker, Angela F.; Morona, Renato; Thomas, Connor J.

    1993-01-01

    Xenorhabdus bovienii wild-type strains lack a functional receptor protein (LamB) in the outer membrane and as a result are unable to adsorb coliphage lambda (λ). Introduction of plasmids encoding lamB into X. bovienii T228 results in constitutive expression of LamB in the outer membrane of this organism. LamB-expressing strains of X. bovienii adsorb lambda bacteriophage particles and can be used as hosts for lambda::Tn constructs. A Tn10-derived transposon, element 9 (J. C. Way, D. Davis, D. Morisato, D. E. Roberts, and N. Kleckner, Gene 32:369-379, 1984) was used to construct a variety of insertion mutants of X. bovienii. Mutants that had altered expression of protease, lipase, DNase, dye-binding capability, and hemolytic activity, in addition to a series of auxotrophic mutants, were isolated. Images PMID:16349047

  16. Modern propagation techniques- a conservaion tool for certain endemic medicinal plants in nilgiri biosphere reserve.

    PubMed

    Paulsamy, S; Arumugasamy, K

    2002-01-01

    There plant species of medicinal and vegatational fire break importance such as Berberis tinctoria, Elaegnus kologa and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa were identified in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and their eco-physiological behaviors were analysed. The study revealed that generally all the there species were having shorter period of seed dormacy, poor viability of seeds and higher mortality of saplings. These poor eco-physiological features are the major factors for their limited distribution, lesser population and weaker establishment. Hence to overcome these factors the modern reproductive strategies like tissue culture techniques are suggested. PMID:22557048

  17. MODERN PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES- A CONSERVAION TOOL FOR CERTAIN ENDEMIC MEDICINAL PLANTS IN NILGIRI BIOSPHERE RESERVE

    PubMed Central

    Paulsamy, S.; Arumugasamy, K.

    2002-01-01

    There plant species of medicinal and vegatational fire break importance such as Berberis tinctoria, Elaegnus kologa and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa were identified in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and their eco-physiological behaviors were analysed. The study revealed that generally all the there species were having shorter period of seed dormacy, poor viability of seeds and higher mortality of saplings. These poor eco-physiological features are the major factors for their limited distribution, lesser population and weaker establishment. Hence to overcome these factors the modern reproductive strategies like tissue culture techniques are suggested. PMID:22557048

  18. Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Khattak, S G; Gilani, S N; Ikram, M

    1985-09-01

    Significant oral antipyretic activity in rabbits was exhibited by hexane-, chloroform- and water-soluble extracts of Artemisia absinthium, Viola odorata, Melia azadirachta and Fumaria parviflora comparable in potency aspirin. Pyresis was induced by subcutaneous yeast injections. Antipyretic activity was more prominent in the hexane-soluble portions of these plants. Insignificant to no antipyretic effects were produced by extracts of Butea frondosa, Berberis lycium and Sisymbrium irio. No obvious toxic effects were noted for any of the plant extracts up to doses of 1.6 g/kg. PMID:3878916

  19. Sirolimus Decreases Circulating Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Cells in Patients With Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiong; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Haughey, Mary; Samsel, Leigh; Xu, Suowen; Wu, Hai-Ping; McCoy, J. Philip; Stylianou, Mario; Darling, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), sporadic or in women with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), is characterized by cystic lung destruction, lymphatic involvement (eg, chylous pleural effusions, lymphangioleiomyomas), and renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs). The multisystem manifestations of LAM appear to result from metastatic dissemination of LAM cells bearing inactivating mutations or having loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the tumor suppressor genes TSC1 or TSC2, which leads to hyperactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin. Sirolimus slows the decline of lung function, reduces chylous effusions, and shrinks the size of AMLs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sirolimus on circulating LAM cells. Methods: Cells from blood were isolated by a density-gradient fractionation system and from urine and chylous effusions by centrifugation. Blood cells were incubated with anti-CD45-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and anti-CD235a-R-phycoerythrin (PE) antibodies, and urine and chylous effusion cells were incubated with anti-CD44v6-FITC and anti-CD9-R-PE antibodies. Cells were sorted and analyzed for TSC2 LOH. Results: LAM cells with TSC2 LOH were identified in 100% of blood specimens and 75% of urine samples from patients before therapy. Over a mean duration of 2.2 ± 0.4 years of sirolimus therapy, detection rates of LAM cells were significantly decreased to 25% in blood (P < .001) and 8% in urine (P = .003). Following therapy, a greater loss of circulating LAM cells was seen in postmenopausal patients (P = .025). Conclusions: Patients receiving sirolimus had a progressive loss of circulating LAM cells that depended on time of treatment and menopausal status. PMID:24051985

  20. Expression of a long pentraxin, PTX3, by monocytes exposed to the mycobacterial cell wall component lipoarabinomannan.

    PubMed Central

    Vouret-Craviari, V; Matteucci, C; Peri, G; Poli, G; Introna, M; Mantovani, A

    1997-01-01

    PTX3 is a prototypic long pentraxin composed of a C-terminal domain similar to those of classical pentraxins (e.g., C reactive protein) and an unrelated N-terminal portion. PTX3 is expressed in a variety of cell types, notably mononuclear phagocytes and endothelial cells, after exposure to the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). The present study was designed to assess whether mycobacterial components were able to induce expression and production of PTX3. Mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) induced expression of PTX3 mRNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The non-mannose-capped version of lipoarabinomannan (AraLAM) was considerably more potent than the mannose-capped version ManLAM or the simpler version phosphatidylinositol mannoside. Among mononuclear cells, monocytes were responsible for LAM-induced PTX3 mRNA expression. Whole mycobacteria (Mycobacterium bovis BCG) strongly induced PTX3 expression. Pretreatment with actinomycin D abolished LAM-induced PTX3 expression, whereas cycloheximide only partially reduced the expression. LAM-induced PTX3 expression was associated with the production of immunoreactive PTX3. IL-10 and IL-13 did not inhibit the induction of PTX3 by LAM. Under the same conditions, these anti-inflammatory cytokines inhibited MCP-1 expression. In contrast, gamma interferon inhibited LAM-induced PTX3 expression. Thus, in addition to IL-1, TNF, and lipopolysaccharide, mycobacterial cell wall components also induce expression and production of the long pentraxin PTX3. The significance of PTX3 in the immunobiology of mycobacterial infection and its relevance in relation to clinical involvement remain to be determined. PMID:9119472

  1. Clinical Trials for Rare Lung Diseases: Lessons from Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Francis X.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, slowly progressive neoplasm that causes gradual but often life-threatening cystic destruction of the lung. Advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis have LAM have identified a number of promising targets for testing in therapeutic trials. However, the design, prioritization, organization, and implementation of clinical trials in rare lung diseases poses unique challenges, including geographically disperse populations, sluggish enrollment, off- label drug use, burdensome regulations, and paucity of validated surrogate endpoints. PMID:20235889

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in hospitalized patients in a high HIV prevalence setting

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Maunank; Variava, Ebrahim; Holmes, Charles B; Coppin, Alison; Golub, Jonathan E.; McCallum, Jeremy; Wong, Michelle; Luke, Binu; Martin, Desmond J.; Chaisson, Richard E.; Dorman, Susan E.; Martinson, Neil A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Effective tuberculosis (TB) control in HIV-prevalent settings is hindered by absence of accurate, rapid TB diagnostic tests. We evaluated the accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test for TB diagnosis in South Africa. Methods Hospitalized adults with signs and/or symptoms of active TB were enrolled. Sputum smear microscopy and mycobacterial culture, mycobacterial blood culture, and HIV testing were performed. A spot urine specimen was tested for LAM. Results 499 participants were enrolled; 422 (84.6%) were HIV-infected. In microbiologically-confirmed TB patients, the LAM test was positive in 114/193 (sensitivity 59%, [95% CI 52, 66]), including 112/167 (67% [59, 74]) who were HIV-infected. Among individuals classified as not TB, the LAM test was negative in 117/122 (specificity 96% [91, 99]), including 83/88 (94% [87, 98]) who were HIV-infected. In confirmed TB patients, the LAM test was more sensitive than sputum smear microscopy (42%, 82/193, p<0.001) and detected 56% (62/111) of those who were sputum smear-negative. HIV-infection (AOR 13.4), mycobacteremia (AOR 3.21), and positive sputum smear (AOR 2.42) were risk factors for a positive LAM test. Conclusions The urine LAM test detected a subset of HIV-infected patients with severe TB in whom sputum smear microscopy had suboptimal sensitivity. The combination of urine LAM testing and sputum smear microscopy is attractive for use in settings with high HIV burden. PMID:19692904

  3. Clinical features, epidemiology, and therapy of lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Moss, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a multisystem disease of women, characterized by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells, leading to the formation of lung cysts, fluid-filled cystic structures in the axial lymphatics (eg, lymphangioleiomyomas), and renal angiomyolipomas. LAM is caused by mutations of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which encode, respectively, hamartin and tuberin, two proteins with a major role in control of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. LAM occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex, an autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by widespread hamartomatous lesions. LAM may present with progressive dyspnea, recurrent pneumothorax, or chylothorax. Pulmonary function tests show reduced flow rates (forced expiratory volume in the first second) and diffusion capacity. Exercise testing may reveal gas exchange abnormalities, ventilatory limitation, and hypoxemia. The severity and progression of disease may be assessed by lung histology scores, quantification of computed tomography, pulmonary function testing, 6-minute walk tests, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and measurement of serum vascular endothelial growth factor D levels. Sirolimus and everolimus, two mTOR inhibitors, are effective in stabilizing lung function and reducing the size of chylous effusions, lymphangioleiomyo-mas, and angiomyolipomas. However, inhibition of mTOR complex 1 increases autophagy, possibly enhancing LAM cell survival. Inhibition of autophagy with hydroxychloroquine, in combination with sirolimus, has been proposed as a possible treatment for LAM. Deficiency of tuberin results in increased RhoA GTPase activity and cell survival, an effect that is mediated through mTOR complex 2 signaling. Because sirolimus and everolimus only affect the activity of mTOR complex 1, therapies targeting RhoA GTPases with simvastatin, which inhibits Rho GTPases and promotes apoptosis, are being investigated. As in the case of cancer, LAM may be best treated with multiple drugs targeting signaling pathways considered important in the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:25897262

  4. Accuracy of Lipoarabinomannan and Xpert MTB/RIF Testing in Cerebrospinal Fluid To Diagnose Tuberculous Meningitis in an Autopsy Cohort of HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lukande, Robert L.; Kalungi, Sam; Van Marck, Eric; Lammens, Martin; Van de Vijver, Koen; Kambugu, Andrew; Nelson, Ann M.; Colebunders, Robert; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2015-01-01

    Point-of-care tests for tuberculous meningitis (TBM) are needed. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of the lipoarabinomannan (LAM) lateral flow assay (LFA), LAM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Xpert MTB/RIF in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in an autopsy cohort of Ugandan HIV-infected adults. We obtained written informed consent postmortem from the next of kin. A complete autopsy was done and CSF obtained. We performed LAM LFA (on unprepared and supernatant CSF after heating and spinning), LAM ELISA, and Xpert MTB/RIF on the CSF samples. Accuracy parameters were calculated for histopathological TBM and also for the composite standard, including Xpert MTB/RIF-positive cases. We tested CSF of 91 patients. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 75% for definite histopathological TBM, ELISA a sensitivity of 43%, and Xpert MTB/RIF a sensitivity of 100% and specificities of 87%, 91%, and 87%, respectively. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 50% for definite and probable histopathological TBM, ELISA a sensitivity of 38%, and Xpert MTB/RIF a sensitivity of 86% and specificities of 70%, 91%, and 87%, respectively. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 68% for the composite standard and ELISA a sensitivity of 48% and specificities of 78% and 98%, respectively. The rapid diagnostic tests detected TBM in 22% to 78% of patients not on anti-TB treatment. Point-of-care tests have high accuracy in diagnosis of TBM in deceased HIV-infected adults. LAM LFA in CSF is a useful additional diagnostic tool. PMID:26063865

  5. Accuracy of Lipoarabinomannan and Xpert MTB/RIF Testing in Cerebrospinal Fluid To Diagnose Tuberculous Meningitis in an Autopsy Cohort of HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Cox, Janneke A; Lukande, Robert L; Kalungi, Sam; Van Marck, Eric; Lammens, Martin; Van de Vijver, Koen; Kambugu, Andrew; Nelson, Ann M; Colebunders, Robert; Manabe, Yukari C

    2015-08-01

    Point-of-care tests for tuberculous meningitis (TBM) are needed. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of the lipoarabinomannan (LAM) lateral flow assay (LFA), LAM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Xpert MTB/RIF in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in an autopsy cohort of Ugandan HIV-infected adults. We obtained written informed consent postmortem from the next of kin. A complete autopsy was done and CSF obtained. We performed LAM LFA (on unprepared and supernatant CSF after heating and spinning), LAM ELISA, and Xpert MTB/RIF on the CSF samples. Accuracy parameters were calculated for histopathological TBM and also for the composite standard, including Xpert MTB/RIF-positive cases. We tested CSF of 91 patients. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 75% for definite histopathological TBM, ELISA a sensitivity of 43%, and Xpert MTB/RIF a sensitivity of 100% and specificities of 87%, 91%, and 87%, respectively. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 50% for definite and probable histopathological TBM, ELISA a sensitivity of 38%, and Xpert MTB/RIF a sensitivity of 86% and specificities of 70%, 91%, and 87%, respectively. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 68% for the composite standard and ELISA a sensitivity of 48% and specificities of 78% and 98%, respectively. The rapid diagnostic tests detected TBM in 22% to 78% of patients not on anti-TB treatment. Point-of-care tests have high accuracy in diagnosis of TBM in deceased HIV-infected adults. LAM LFA in CSF is a useful additional diagnostic tool. PMID:26063865

  6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Biomarkers Linked to Lung Metastatic Potential and Cell Stemness

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz de Garibay, Gorka; Herranz, Carmen; Llorente, Alicia; Boni, Jacopo; Serra-Musach, Jordi; Mateo, Francesca; Aguilar, Helena; Gómez-Baldó, Laia; Petit, Anna; Vidal, August; Climent, Fina; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Cordero, Álex; González-Suárez, Eva; Sánchez-Mut, José Vicente; Esteller, Manel; Llatjós, Roger; Varela, Mar; López, José Ignacio; García, Nadia; Extremera, Ana I.; Gumà, Anna; Ortega, Raúl; Plà, María Jesús; Fernández, Adela; Pernas, Sònia; Falo, Catalina; Morilla, Idoia; Campos, Miriam; Gil, Miguel; Román, Antonio; Molina-Molina, María; Ussetti, Piedad; Laporta, Rosalía; Valenzuela, Claudia; Ancochea, Julio; Xaubet, Antoni; Casanova, Álvaro; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung-metastasizing neoplasm caused by the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells that commonly carry loss-of-function mutations in either the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 or 2 (TSC1 or TSC2) genes. While allosteric inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has shown substantial clinical benefit, complementary therapies are required to improve response and/or to treat specific patients. However, there is a lack of LAM biomarkers that could potentially be used to monitor the disease and to develop other targeted therapies. We hypothesized that the mediators of cancer metastasis to lung, particularly in breast cancer, also play a relevant role in LAM. Analyses across independent breast cancer datasets revealed associations between low TSC1/2 expression, altered mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway signaling, and metastasis to lung. Subsequently, immunohistochemical analyses of 23 LAM lesions revealed positivity in all cases for the lung metastasis mediators fascin 1 (FSCN1) and inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1). Moreover, assessment of breast cancer stem or luminal progenitor cell biomarkers showed positivity in most LAM tissue for the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), integrin-ß3 (ITGB3/CD61), and/or the sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) proteins. The immunohistochemical analyses also provided evidence of heterogeneity between and within LAM cases. The analysis of Tsc2-deficient cells revealed relative over-expression of FSCN1 and ID1; however, Tsc2-deficient cells did not show higher sensitivity to ID1-based cancer inhibitors. Collectively, the results of this study reveal novel LAM biomarkers linked to breast cancer metastasis to lung and to cell stemness, which in turn might guide the assessment of additional or complementary therapeutic opportunities for LAM. PMID:26167915

  7. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Biomarkers Linked to Lung Metastatic Potential and Cell Stemness.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Garibay, Gorka; Herranz, Carmen; Llorente, Alicia; Boni, Jacopo; Serra-Musach, Jordi; Mateo, Francesca; Aguilar, Helena; Gómez-Baldó, Laia; Petit, Anna; Vidal, August; Climent, Fina; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Cordero, Álex; González-Suárez, Eva; Sánchez-Mut, José Vicente; Esteller, Manel; Llatjós, Roger; Varela, Mar; López, José Ignacio; García, Nadia; Extremera, Ana I; Gumà, Anna; Ortega, Raúl; Plà, María Jesús; Fernández, Adela; Pernas, Sònia; Falo, Catalina; Morilla, Idoia; Campos, Miriam; Gil, Miguel; Román, Antonio; Molina-Molina, María; Ussetti, Piedad; Laporta, Rosalía; Valenzuela, Claudia; Ancochea, Julio; Xaubet, Antoni; Casanova, Álvaro; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung-metastasizing neoplasm caused by the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells that commonly carry loss-of-function mutations in either the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 or 2 (TSC1 or TSC2) genes. While allosteric inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has shown substantial clinical benefit, complementary therapies are required to improve response and/or to treat specific patients. However, there is a lack of LAM biomarkers that could potentially be used to monitor the disease and to develop other targeted therapies. We hypothesized that the mediators of cancer metastasis to lung, particularly in breast cancer, also play a relevant role in LAM. Analyses across independent breast cancer datasets revealed associations between low TSC1/2 expression, altered mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway signaling, and metastasis to lung. Subsequently, immunohistochemical analyses of 23 LAM lesions revealed positivity in all cases for the lung metastasis mediators fascin 1 (FSCN1) and inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1). Moreover, assessment of breast cancer stem or luminal progenitor cell biomarkers showed positivity in most LAM tissue for the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), integrin-ß3 (ITGB3/CD61), and/or the sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) proteins. The immunohistochemical analyses also provided evidence of heterogeneity between and within LAM cases. The analysis of Tsc2-deficient cells revealed relative over-expression of FSCN1 and ID1; however, Tsc2-deficient cells did not show higher sensitivity to ID1-based cancer inhibitors. Collectively, the results of this study reveal novel LAM biomarkers linked to breast cancer metastasis to lung and to cell stemness, which in turn might guide the assessment of additional or complementary therapeutic opportunities for LAM. PMID:26167915

  8. Clinical features, epidemiology, and therapy of lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Moss, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a multisystem disease of women, characterized by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells, leading to the formation of lung cysts, fluid-filled cystic structures in the axial lymphatics (eg, lymphangioleiomyomas), and renal angiomyolipomas. LAM is caused by mutations of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which encode, respectively, hamartin and tuberin, two proteins with a major role in control of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. LAM occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex, an autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by widespread hamartomatous lesions. LAM may present with progressive dyspnea, recurrent pneumothorax, or chylothorax. Pulmonary function tests show reduced flow rates (forced expiratory volume in the first second) and diffusion capacity. Exercise testing may reveal gas exchange abnormalities, ventilatory limitation, and hypoxemia. The severity and progression of disease may be assessed by lung histology scores, quantification of computed tomography, pulmonary function testing, 6-minute walk tests, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and measurement of serum vascular endothelial growth factor D levels. Sirolimus and everolimus, two mTOR inhibitors, are effective in stabilizing lung function and reducing the size of chylous effusions, lymphangioleiomyo-mas, and angiomyolipomas. However, inhibition of mTOR complex 1 increases autophagy, possibly enhancing LAM cell survival. Inhibition of autophagy with hydroxychloroquine, in combination with sirolimus, has been proposed as a possible treatment for LAM. Deficiency of tuberin results in increased RhoA GTPase activity and cell survival, an effect that is mediated through mTOR complex 2 signaling. Because sirolimus and everolimus only affect the activity of mTOR complex 1, therapies targeting RhoA GTPases with simvastatin, which inhibits Rho GTPases and promotes apoptosis, are being investigated. As in the case of cancer, LAM may be best treated with multiple drugs targeting signaling pathways considered important in the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:25897262

  9. Mono-lithocholated exendin-4-loaded glycol chitosan nanoparticles with prolonged antidiabetic effects.

    PubMed

    Son, Sohee; Lim, Sung Mook; Chae, Su Young; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Park, Eun Ji; Lee, Kang Choon; Na, Dong Hee

    2015-11-10

    Hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan (HGC) nanoparticles loaded with mono-lithocholic acid-conjugated exendin-4 at the Lys(27) residue (LAM1-Ex4) were prepared and characterized by particle size measurement, proteolytic stability, in vitro drug-release profile, and in vivo antidiabetic effects in a db/db diabetic mouse model. Compared with Ex-4-loaded HGC nanoparticles (Ex4/HGC NPs) prepared as a control, LAM1-Ex4-loaded HGC nanoparticles (LAM1-Ex4/HGC NPs) showed improved drug-loading efficiency, small particle size, enhanced resistance against proteolytic digestion, and an extended in vitro drug release profile. These findings may be attributable to the strong hydrophobic interaction between LAM1-Ex4 and the inner core of HGC. Furthermore, LAM1-Ex4/HGC NPs showed prolonged hypoglycemic efficacy in db/db mice, lasting 1 week after a single subcutaneous administration. The present study demonstrated that LAM1-Ex4/HGC NPs have considerable potential as a long-acting sustained-release antidiabetic system for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26325318

  10. High-throughput monitoring of integration site clonality in preclinical and clinical gene therapy studies

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Frank A; Appelt, Jens-Uwe; Link, Barbara; Gerdes, Sebastian; Lehrer, Christina; Scholz, Simone; Paruzynski, Anna; Roeder, Ingo; Wenz, Frederik; Glimm, Hanno; von Kalle, Christof; Grez, Manuel; Schmidt, Manfred; Laufs, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Gene transfer to hematopoietic stem cells with integrating vectors not only allows sustained correction of monogenic diseases but also tracking of individual clones in vivo. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has been shown to be an accurate method to quantify individual stem cell clones, yet due to frequently limited amounts of target material (especially in clinical studies), it is not useful for large-scale analyses. To explore whether vector integration site (IS) recovery techniques may be suitable to describe clonal contributions if combined with next-generation sequencing techniques, we designed artificial ISs of different sizes which were mixed to simulate defined clonal situations in clinical settings. We subjected all mixes to either linear amplification–mediated PCR (LAM-PCR) or nonrestrictive LAM-PCR (nrLAM-PCR), both combined with 454 sequencing. We showed that nrLAM-PCR/454-detected clonality allows estimating qPCR-detected clonality in vitro. We then followed the kinetics of two clones detected in a patient enrolled in a clinical gene therapy trial using both, nrLAM-PCR/454 and qPCR and also saw nrLAM-PCR/454 to correlate to qPCR-measured clonal contributions. The method presented here displays a feasible high-throughput strategy to monitor clonality in clinical gene therapy trials is at hand. PMID:26052530

  11. Biogenesis of the mycobacterial cell wall and the site of action of ethambutol.

    PubMed Central

    Mikusová, K; Slayden, R A; Besra, G S; Brennan, P J

    1995-01-01

    The effect of ethambutol (EMB) is primarily on polymerization steps in the biosynthesis of the arabinan component of cell wall arabinogalactan (AG) of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Inhibition of the synthesis of the arabinan of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) occurred later, and thus in the cases of AG and LAM, the polymerization of D-arabinofuranose apparently involves separate pathways. While the synthesis of these arabinans was normal in an EMB-resistant isogeneic strain, the addition of EMB to the resistant strain resulted in partial inhibition of the synthesis of the arabinan of LAM and the emergence of a novel, truncated form of LAM, indicating partial susceptibility of the resistant gene(s) and providing a new intermediate in the LAM biosynthetic sequence. A consequence of inhibition of AG arabinan biosynthesis is the lack of new sites for mycolate attachment and thus the channeling of mycolate residues into a variety of free lipids which then accumulate. The primary biochemical effects of EMB can be explained by postulating separate AG and LAM pathways catalyzed by a variety of extramembranous arabinosyl transferases with various degrees of sensitivity to EMB. PMID:8585730

  12. The role of the levator ani muscle in evacuation, sexual performance and pelvic floor disorders.

    PubMed

    Shafik, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of the levator ani muscle (LAM) in evacuation, sexual performance and pelvic floor disorders. The LAM fixes the vesical neck, anorectal junction and vaginal fornices to the side wall of the pelvis by means of the suspensory sling and hiatal ligament. On contraction it shares in the mechanism of evacuation (urination, defecation). During the sexual act vaginal distension by the erect penis evokes the vaginolevator and vaginopuborectalis reflexes, with a resulting LAM contraction. The LAM also contracts upon stimulation of the clitoris or cervix uteri, an action mediated through clitoromotor and cervicomotor reflexes. LAM contraction leads to upper vagina ballooning, which acts as receptacle for semen collection, to uterine elevation and straightening and to elongation and narrowing of the vagina. These actions enhance the sexual response and prepare the uterus and vagina for the reproductive process. During ejaculation LAM contraction facilitates semen ejection. Levator subluxation and sagging leads to levator dysfunction syndrome, which may present as pudendal canal syndrome. PMID:11147745

  13. Effects of interlamellar forces on longitudinal acoustic modes of n-alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Masamichi; Sakagami, Kouichi; Tadokoro, Hiroyuki

    1983-06-01

    Effects of the interlamellar interactions in n-alkane crystals on the longitudinal acoustic modes (LAM), including both the fundamental and the higher overtones, were investigated on the basis of the polarized Raman spectra of n-C28H58, n-C30H62, n-C34H70, and n-C36H74 crystallized in the orthorhombic II form (a double layer polytype of the monoclinic form). The LAM-1 bands of this crystal modification split into a doublet consisting of the (cc) and (bc) polarization components separated by about 6 cm-1. The frequency gaps of the LAM-m bands were found to decrease with m (approximately proportional to m-1). Theoretical considerations on the correlation field splitting and the scattering intensities of the LAM bands led to the conclusion that the observed band splitting was caused by the intermolecular force acting between the successive monomolecular layers. The intrinsic value of the Young modulus of the n-alkane molecules free from the external forces in the crystalline state and the strength of the interlayer force were evaluated from the observed frequencies of the two components of LAM using a simple dynamical model. By comparing the Raman spectra of n-C28H58 and n-C30H62 between the triclinic and orthohombic II modifications, it was concluded that the effect of the lateral force on the LAM was not so significant as that of the longitudinal force.

  14. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: New Treatment Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Radzikowska, Elżbieta

    2015-08-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare multisystem disease, occurs in women, usually premenopausal, caused by the proliferation of neoplastic smooth muscle-derived cells. Mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex genes, lead to the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin kinase (mTOR), results in proliferation of LAM cells, its increasing motility, and survival. Polycystic lung destruction, extensive involvement of lymphatic channels, chylothorax, chyloperitoneum, and renal angiomyolipomas can develop in LAM patients. The new, promising treatment strategies have been recently introduced due to discovery of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of LAM. Comprehension of the disease pathogenesis has resulted in the implementation of other therapeutic agents such as mTOR inhibitors, VEGF-D inhibitors, statins, interferon, chloroquine analogs, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, aromatase inhibitors, and their combinations. The mTOR inhibitors appear to be the most important, and the efficacy of sirolimus in LAM treatment has been proved. The article discussed the new control studies with mTOR inhibitors, doxycycline, simvastatin, and combination of them in LAM patients. PMID:25980593

  15. On Some Genetic Aspects of Phage λ Resistance in E. COLI K12

    PubMed Central

    Thirion, J. P.; Hofnung, M.

    1972-01-01

    Most mutations rendering E. coli K12 resistant to phage λ, map in two genetic regions malA and malB.—The malB region contains a gene lamB specifically involved in the λ receptor synthesis. Twenty-one independent lamB mutations studied by complementation belonged to a single cistron. This makes it very likely that lamB is monocistronic. Among the lamB mutants some are still sensitive to a host range mutant of phage λ. Mutations mapping in a proximal gene essential for maltose metabolism inactivate gene lamB by polarity confirming that both genes are part of the same operon. Because cases of intracistronic complementation have been found, the active lamB product may be an oligomeric protein.—Previously all λ resistant mutations in the malA region have been shown to map in the malT cistron. malT is believed to be a positive regulatory gene necessary for the induction of the "maltose operons" in the malA region and in the malB region of the E. coli K12 genetic map. No trans dominant malT mutation have been found. Therefore if they exist, they occur at a frequency of less than 10-8, or strongly reduce the growth rate of the mutants. PMID:4558324

  16. Poisoning of Mitochondrial Topoisomerase I by Lamellarin D

    PubMed Central

    Khiati, Salim; Seol, Yeonee; Agama, Keli; Rosa, Ilaria Dalla; Agrawal, Surbhi; Fesen, Katherine; Zhang, Hongliang; Neuman, Keir C.

    2014-01-01

    Lamellarin D (Lam-D) is a hexacyclic pyrole alkaloid isolated from marine invertebrates, whose biologic properties have been attributed to mitochondrial targeting. Mitochondria contain their own DNA (mtDNA), and the only specific mitochondrial topoisomerase in vertebrates is mitochondrial topoisomerase I (Top1mt). Here, we show that Top1mt is a direct mitochondrial target of Lam-D. In vitro Lam-D traps Top1mt and induces Top1mt cleavage complexes (Top1mtcc). Using single-molecule analyses, we also show that Lam-D slows down supercoil relaxation of Top1mt and strongly inhibits Top1mt religation in contrast to the inefficacy of camptothecin on Top1mt. In living cells, we show that Lam-D accumulates rapidly inside mitochondria, induces cellular Top1mtcc, and leads to mtDNA damage. This study provides evidence that Top1mt is a direct mitochondrial target of Lam-D and suggests that developing Top1mt inhibitors represents a novel strategy for targeting mitochondrial DNA. PMID:24890608

  17. Prognostic significance of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis histologic score.

    PubMed

    Matsui, K; Beasley, M B; Nelson, W K; Barnes, P M; Bechtle, J; Falk, R; Ferrans, V J; Moss, J; Travis, W D

    2001-04-01

    Correlations were made between clinical and follow-up data and histopathologic findings in 105 women (mean age +/- standard deviation, 38.3 +/- 9.0 years) with pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). The actuarial survival (to pulmonary transplantation or death) of the patients from the time of lung biopsy was 85.1% and 71.0% after 5 and 10 years respectively. The histologic severity of LAM, graded as a LAM histologic score (LHS), was determined on the basis of semiquantitative estimation of the percentage of tissue involvement by the two major features of LAM: the cystic lesions and the infiltration by abnormal smooth muscle cells (LAM cells) in each case: LHS-1, <25%; LHS-2, 25% to 50%; and LHS-3, >50%. Analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method revealed significant differences in survival for patients with LHS-1, -2, and -3 (p = 0.01). The 5-and 10-year survivals were 100% and 100% for LHS-1, 81.2% and 74.4% for LHS-2, and 62.8% and 52.4% for LHS-3. Increased degrees of accumulation of hemosiderin in macrophages also were associated with higher LHS scores (p = 0.029) and a worse prognosis (p = 0.0012). Thus, the current study suggests that the LHS may provide a basis for determining the prognosis of LAM. PMID:11257622

  18. Associations between dairy production indices and lipoarabinomannan enzyme-immunoassay results for paratuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    McNab, W B; Meek, A H; Martin, S W; Duncan, J R

    1991-01-01

    Data from an epidemiological study in Ontario, involving 304 dairy herds, were used to identify associations between selected production indices and lipoarabinomannan antigen serological test results for paratuberculosis (LAM-ELISA). Analyses were conducted at both the herd and individual cow levels of organization. After analytically controlling for management and cow factors in the respective regression models, positive serological paratuberculosis status (as defined by the LAM-ELISA test), was associated with higher milk somatic cell counts at both the herd average (p less than 0.01), and individual cow levels of organization (p less than 0.0001). In contrast, LAM-ELISA test results were consistently not associated with calving intervals in either the herd average or individual cow level analyses. Associations between LAM-ELISA results and milk production were inconsistent. No associations were found at the herd level of organization, and LAM-ELISA results were not associated with a change in breed class average (BCA) for milk, between the previous and the most recent lactations of individual cattle. However, at the individual cow level, LAM-ELISA results were positively associated with higher milk production as measured by the current BCA (p less than 0.05), and individual cow average kg of milk produced per year of life since two years of age (p less than 0.0001). PMID:1790492

  19. A Targeted and Adjuvanted Nanocarrier Lowers the Effective Dose of Liposomal Amphotericin B and Enhances Adaptive Immunity in Murine Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Daftarian, Pirouz M.; Stone, Geoffrey W.; Kovalski, Leticia; Kumar, Manoj; Vosoughi, Aram; Urbieta, Maitee; Blackwelder, Pat; Dikici, Emre; Serafini, Paolo; Duffort, Stephanie; Boodoo, Richard; Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Lemmon, Vance; Deo, Sapna; Alberola, Jordi; Perez, Victor L.; Daunert, Sylvia; Ager, Arba L.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Amphotericin B (AmB), the most effective drug against leishmaniasis, has serious toxicity. As Leishmania species are obligate intracellular parasites of antigen presenting cells (APC), an immunopotentiating APC-specific AmB nanocarrier would be ideally suited to reduce the drug dosage and regimen requirements in leishmaniasis treatment. Here, we report a nanocarrier that results in effective treatment shortening of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a mouse model, while also enhancing L. major specific T-cell immune responses in the infected host. Methods. We used a Pan-DR-binding epitope (PADRE)-derivatized-dendrimer (PDD), complexed with liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) in an L. major mouse model and analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose PDD/LAmB vs full dose LAmB. Results. PDD was shown to escort LAmB to APCs in vivo, enhanced the drug efficacy by 83% and drug APC targeting by 10-fold and significantly reduced parasite burden and toxicity. Fortuitously, the PDD immunopotentiating effect significantly enhanced parasite-specific T-cell responses in immunocompetent infected mice. Conclusions. PDD reduced the effective dose and toxicity of LAmB and resulted in elicitation of strong parasite specific T-cell responses. A reduced effective therapeutic dose was achieved by selective LAmB delivery to APC, bypassing bystander cells, reducing toxicity and inducing antiparasite immunity. PMID:23901083

  20. Extension of bacteriophage lambda host range: selection, cloning, and characterization of a constitutive lambda receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, G E; Raymond, C K; Ludwig, R A

    1984-01-01

    A set of plasmids has been constructed that carry a constitutive lamB gene (LamBc phenotype) from Escherichia coli and that confer functional phage lambda receptors to bacteria other than E. coli. This E. coli LamBc strain has been selected to escape both maltose-inducible and glucose-repressible control. Constitutivity results from an IS-3 insertion, carrying a mobile promoter, proximal to lamB. The LamBc DNA has been cloned into both broad and narrow host-range plasmids, and the resulting pTROY plasmids have been transferred to diverse bacteria. Both Salmonella typhimurium/pTROY and Klebsiella pneumoniae/pTROY strains efficiently adsorb phage lambda; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/pTROY strains do not. Introduction of a functional E. coli LamB protein into foreign bacterial will allow these bacteria carrying pTROY plasmids to be infected by phage lambda recombinant DNA libraries, phage lambda::Tn insertion mutagenesis vectors, and in vivo lambda-packaged cosmids. Images PMID:6091132

  1. Use of sirolimus in the treatment of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: favorable responses in patients with different extrapulmonary manifestations*

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Carolina Salim Gonçalves; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Araújo, Mariana Sponholz; Heiden, Glaucia Itamaro; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease that is currently considered a low-grade neoplasm with metastatic potential and variable progression. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as sirolimus and everolimus, have recently become a treatment option for LAM patients, especially those with extrapulmonary manifestations. The objective of the present study was to describe a case series of four patients with LAM in Brazil who showed significant improvement, particularly in their extrapulmonary manifestations, after treatment with sirolimus (at 1-4 mg/day). METHODS: We describe four cases of LAM patients with different extrapulmonary manifestations who were treated with sirolimus. RESULTS: After treatment with sirolimus for 12 months, one patient presented resolution of severe chylothorax; one had a significant reduction in renal angiomyolipoma volume; and one showed significant regression of retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyomas and abdominal lymph node enlargement. After treatment with sirolimus for 6 months, the remaining patient had a significant reduction in the volume of a massive retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyoma. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that mTOR inhibitors are beneficial for patients with LAM, especially those with extrapulmonary manifestations, such as renal angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyomas, and chylous effusions. However, certain aspects, such as the optimal dose, duration of treatment, and long-term adverse effects, have yet to be sufficiently clarified for mTOR inhibitors to be incorporated into LAM management protocols. PMID:26176526

  2. Rapamycin-Insensitive Up-Regulation of Adipocyte Phospholipase A2 in Tuberous Sclerosis and Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenggang; Zhang, Erik; Sun, Yang; Lee, Po-Shun; Zhan, Yongzhong; Guo, Yanan; Osorio, Juan C.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Xu, Kai-Feng; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Yu, Jane J.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis syndrome (TSC) is an autosomal dominant tumor suppressor gene syndrome affecting multiple organs, including renal angiomyolipomas and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). LAM is a female-predominant interstitial lung disease characterized by the progressive cyst formation and respiratory failure, which is also seen in sporadic patients without TSC. Mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 cause TSC, result in hyperactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and are also seen in LAM cells in sporadic LAM. We recently reported that prostaglandin biosynthesis and cyclooxygenase-2 were deregulated in TSC and LAM. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of plasma membrane phospholipids into prostaglandins. In this study, we identified upregulation of adipocyte AdPLA2 (PLA2G16) in LAM nodule cells using publicly available expression data. We showed that the levels of AdPLA2 transcript and protein were higher in LAM lungs compared with control lungs. We then showed that TSC2 negatively regulates the expression of AdPLA2, and loss of TSC2 is associated with elevated production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) in cell culture models. Mouse model studies also showed increased expression of AdPLA2 in xenograft tumors, estrogen-induced lung metastatic lesions of Tsc2 null leiomyoma-derived cells, and spontaneous renal cystadenomas from Tsc2+/? mice. Importantly, rapamycin treatment did not affect the expression of AdPLA2 and the production of PGE2 by TSC2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast (Tsc2?/?MEFs), rat uterine leiomyoma-derived ELT3 cells, and LAM patient-associated renal angiomyolipoma-derived mesenchymal cells. Furthermore, methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphate (MAFP), a potent irreversible PLA2 inhibitor, selectively suppressed the growth and induced apoptosis of TSC2-deficient LAM patient-derived cells relative to TSC2-addback cells. Our findings suggest that AdPLA2 plays an important role in promoting tumorigenesis and disease progression by modulating the production of prostaglandins and may serve as a potential therapeutic target in TSC and LAM. PMID:25347447

  3. Urine lipoarabinomannan to monitor antituberculosis therapy response and predict mortality in an HIV-endemic region: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Drain, Paul K; Gounder, Lilishia; Grobler, Anneke; Sahid, Faieza; Bassett, Ingrid V; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) may serve as a biomarker to monitor antituberculosis (TB) therapy response, and whether LAM results before and after treatment are predictive of patient outcomes. Design Prospective cohort. Setting Outpatient referral clinic and tertiary hospital in South Africa. Participants Adults (≥18 years) with ≥2 TB-related symptoms (cough, fever, weight loss, night sweats) for ≥2 weeks being initiated on anti-TB therapy. Interventions On enrolment, we obtained urine and nebulised sputum specimens, offered HIV testing and started participants on anti-TB therapy for ≥6 months. We collected urine samples after the 2-month intensive treatment phase and at the completion of anti-TB therapy. Positive LAM results were graded from 1 (low) to 5 (high). Participants were followed for >3 years. Outcome measures The primary outcome was change in urine LAM results during anti-TB therapy. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality. Results Among 90 participants, 57 (63%) had culture-confirmed pulmonary TB. Among the 88 participants tested, 82 (93%) were HIV-infected with median CD4 168/mm3 (IQR 89–256/mm3). During anti-TB therapy, the percentage of LAM-positive participants decreased from baseline to 2 months (32% to 16%), and from baseline to 6-months (32% to 10%) (p values <0.005). In multivariate longitudinal analyses, urine LAM positivity and grade decreased among those with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB (p<0.0001), and had no change in sputum culture-negative participants. At the 2-month visit, participants with positive laboratory-based LAM or rapid LAM with ≥2+ grade had a significantly greater risk of mortality. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, baseline Karnofsky score and HIV status, participants with a rapid LAM ≥2+ grade after 2 months of anti-TB therapy had a 5.6-fold (95% CI 1.2 to 25.2) greater risk of mortality. Conclusions Rapid urine LAM testing may be a valuable tool to monitor anti-TB therapy response and to assess prognosis of patients being treated for pulmonary TB in HIV-endemic regions. PMID:25877271

  4. Induction of early-response genes KC and JE by mycobacterial lipoarabinomannans: regulation of KC expression in murine macrophages by Lsh/Ity/Bcg (candidate Nramp).

    PubMed Central

    Roach, T I; Chatterjee, D; Blackwell, J M

    1994-01-01

    The murine chromosome 1 gene Lsh/Ity/Bcg (candidate Nramp) regulates macrophage activation for antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Leishmania donovani, and Mycobacterium spp. To determine early events in the activation pathway, the ability of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) to induce early gene (KC and JE) expression in macrophages from susceptible (S) C57BL/10ScSn (Lshs) and congenic resistant (R) B10.L-Lshr mice was investigated. Stimulation with 1.8 microgram of arabinofuranosyl-terminated LAM (AraLAM) per ml resulted in similar kinetics for KC or JE expression in S and R macrophages. However, whereas JE/glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA ratios remained equivalent, R macrophages consistently showed enhanced KC/GAPDH ratios within 30 to 40 min of stimulation compared with S macrophages. Significant differences in KC/GAPDH ratios were observed throughout the peak period (0.5 to 6 h) of the KC response and with doses of AraLAM ranging from 0.01 to 2.5 micrograms/ml. Heavily mannosylated LAM from virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman, in doses of up to 2.5 micrograms/ml, failed to stimulate KC or JE in S or R macrophages. Gamma interferon alone (25 U/ml) stimulated equivalent JE expression in S and R macrophages and synergized with AraLAM to enhance JE in both. In contrast, AraLAM-induced KC expression was inhibited in the presence of gamma interferon. Agonist/inhibitor studies were undertaken to determine the signal transduction pathways mediating KC expression. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Calphostin C (200 nM) inhibited AraLAM-induced KC by 34% +/- 4% in S macrophages and 43% +/- 5% in R macrophages; the cyclic AMP-dependent PKA inhibitor KT5720 (2 microM) inhibited AraLAM-induced KC by 33% +/- 4% (S) and 25% +/- 5% (R). A role for Ca2+ was indicated because ionophore alone stimulated KC expression and synergized with AraLAM to give a dramatically enhanced response. Induction of KC was also inhibited by (i) blocking constitutive nitric oxide (NO) production by preincubation of macrophages with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (400 microM) (48% +/- 8% [S] and 40% +/- 11% [R]) and (ii) incubation of macrophages with the cyclic GMP-dependent kinase inhibitor KT5823 (4 microM) (65% +/- 4% [S] and 72% +/- 6% [R]). The manner in which these PKC-, PKA-, and Ca(2+)-dependent, NO-mediated cyclic GMP-dependent kinase signal transduction pathways may relate to function of the candidate Lsh/Ity/Bcg gene Nramp is discussed. Images PMID:8132324

  5. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry combined with automated MetaboLynx analysis approach to screen the bioactive components and their metabolites in Wen-Xin-Formula.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Fang-mei; Wang, Qin-qin; Zhang, He; Song, Yan-hua; Zhou, Ying; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guang-li; Han, Ying; Wang, Xijun

    2014-12-01

    Wen-Xin-Formula (WXF), a famous traditional prescription, has been widely used to treat myocardial ischemia syndrome for thousands of years. However, the constituents absorbed into blood after oral administration of WXF remain unknown. Here, an integrative ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) combined with the MetaboLynx approach was established to investigate the absorbed constituents in rats after oral administration of WXF. A hyphenated electrospray ionization and quadrupole-time-of-flight analyzer was used for the determination of accurate mass of the molecule and fragment ions. With this rapid and automated analysis method, a total of 32 peaks were tentatively characterized in vivo based on MS and MS/MS data and comparison with available databasess, 26 of which were parent components and six metabolites. These components mainly were ginsenosides, paeoniflorin, galloyl glucose, berberis alkaloids, phenolic, phenolic glycosides and unsaturated fatty acids, glucuronide products of original berberis alkaloids. The present study demonstrates that integrative UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS technique and MetaboLynx data processing method were successfully applied for the rapid discovery of potentially bioactive components and metabolites from WXF, and proved that the established method could help to explore the effective substances for further research into WXF. PMID:24853889

  6. Long-term lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis: A real-life cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ming-Hua; Lu, Ai-Lian; Li, Shi-Hua; Zhong, Shao-Hua; Wang, Bao-Jian; Wu, Xiao-Li; Mo, Yan-Yan; Liang, Peng; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Xie, Rong; He, Li-Xia; Fu, Wu-Dao; Jiang, Jian-Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and liver cirrhosis (LC) patients under whole-course management with lamivudine (LAM). METHODS: This was a retrospective-prospective cohort study based on two nonrandom cohorts of Chinese patients (LAM group and history control group). Two hundred thirty-eight patients with LAM treatment for at least 12 mo under whole-course management were included in the LAM group. The management measures included regular follow-up and timely adjustment of the therapeutic regimen according to drug-resistance and relapse. Two hundred thirty-eight patients with CHB or LC without any antiviral treatment and with follow-up over 12 mo were included in the history control group. The LAM and control group patients were 1:1 matched by propensity score method to ensure both patients were similar in general datum, sex, age, E antigen, and diagnosis. The incidence rates of endpoint events [LC, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and death] were compared between the LAM and control groups. RESULTS: Hepatitis B virus-DNA < 1000 copies per mL rate and rate of alanine transaminase < 1.3 of the upper normal limit in LAM and control groups were 89.1% vs 18.5% (P < 0.05) and 89.8% vs 31.1% (P < 0.05), respectively. Viral breakthrough occurred in 77 patients (32.4%); the one-, three-, and five-year cumulative rates were 6.8%, 33.1%, and 41.3%, respectively. In total, 44.5% (106/238) of patients had once stopped LAM, and 63 (59.4%) of them developed virologic relapse; the relapse rate of patients with and without reaching Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver endpoint criteria were 52.4% and 69.8%, respectively. Six CHB patients in the LAM group developed LC compared to 47 patients in the control group; the three-, and five-year cumulative rates of CHB at baseline of LAM were lower than those of the control group: 0.7% vs 12.0% and 1.8% vs 23.8% (P < 0.01), respectively. The incidence of HCC in CHB at baseline of LAM was lower than that of the control group; the three-, and five-year cumulative rates were 0% vs 3.2% and 1.1% vs 3.2% (P = 0.05), respectively. The incidence of HCC in LC at baseline of LAM was lower than that of the control group: 9.8% (5/51) vs 25.0% (12/48), and the three-, and five-year cumulative rates were 4.5% vs 20.7% and 8.1% vs 37.5% (P < 0.01), respectively. The mortality rate in the LAM group was lower than the control group. CONCLUSION: Standardized long-term LAM treatment in combination with comprehensive management can reduce the incidence rates of LC and HCC as well as hepatitis B virus-related deaths. PMID:26673249

  7. Rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantification of lamotrigine in human plasma: application to a human pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Hotha, Kishore Kumar; Kumar, S Sirish; Bharathi, D Vijaya; Venkateswarulu, V

    2012-04-01

    A highly sensitive, specific and fully validated LC-MS/MS method as per general practices of industry has been developed for estimation of lamotrigine (LAM) with 100 μL of human plasma using flucanozole as an internal standard (IS). The API-4000 LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. A simple liquid-liquid extraction process was used to extract LAM and IS from human plasma. The total run time was 2.0 min and the elution of LAM and IS occurred at 1.25 and 1.45 min; this was achieved with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid-methanol (20:40:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.50 mL/min on a Discovery CN (50 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column. The developed method was validated in human plasma with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL for LAM. A linear response function was established for the range of concentrations 0.1-1500 ng/mL (r > 0.998) for LAM. The intra- and inter-day precision values for LAM met the acceptance as per Food and Drug Administration guidelines. LAM was stable in the set of stability studies, viz. bench-top, autosampler and freeze-thaw cycles. The developed assay method was applied to an oral bioequivalence study in humans. PMID:21905057

  8. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Panama Is Driven by Clonal Expansion of a Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain Related to the KZN Extensively Drug-Resistant M. tuberculosis Strain from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lanzas, Fedora; Karakousis, Petros C.; Sacchettini, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a significant health problem in Panama. The extent to which such cases are the result of primary or acquired resistance and the strain families involved are unknown. We performed whole-genome sequencing of a collection of 66 clinical MDR isolates, along with 31 drug-susceptible isolates, that were isolated in Panama between 2001 and 2010; 78% of the MDR isolates belong to the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family. Drug resistance mutations correlated well with drug susceptibility profiles. To determine the relationships among these strains and to better understand the acquisition of resistance mutations, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on a genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis. The phylogenetic tree shows that the isolates are highly clustered, with a single strain (LAM9-c1) accounting for nearly one-half of the MDR isolates (29/66 isolates). The LAM9-c1 strain was most prevalent among male patients of working age and was associated with high mortality rates. Members of this cluster all share identical mutations conferring resistance to isoniazid (KatG S315T mutation), rifampin (RpoB S531L mutation), and streptomycin (rrs C517T mutation). This evidence of primary resistance supports a model in which MDR-TB in Panama is driven by clonal expansion and ongoing transmission of several strains in the LAM family, including the highly successful MDR strain LAM9-c1. The phylogenetic analysis also shows that the LAM9-c1 strain is closely related to the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) extensively drug-resistant TB strain identified in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The LAM9-c1 and KZN strains likely arose from a recent common ancestor that was transmitted between Panama and South Africa and had the capacity to tolerate an accumulation of multiple resistance mutations. PMID:23884993

  9. Numerical modeling and experimental investigation of laser-assisted machining of silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinwei

    Laser-assisted machining (LAM) is a promising non-conventional machining technique for advanced ceramics. However, the fundamental machining mechanism which governs the LAM process is not well understood so far. Hence, the main objective of this study is to explore the machining mechanism and provide guidance for future LAM operations. In this study, laser-assisted milling (LAMill) of silicon nitride ceramics is focused. Experimental experience reveals that workpiece temperature in LAM of silicon nitride ceramics determines the surface quality of the machined workpiece. Thus, in order to know the thermal features of the workpiece in LAM, the laser-silicon nitride interaction mechanism is investigated via heating experiments. The trends of temperature affected by the key parameters (laser power, laser beam diameter, feed rate, and preheat time) are obtained through a parametric study. Experimental results show that high operating temperature leads to low cutting force, good surface finish, small edge chipping, and low residual stress. The temperature range for brittle-to-ductile transition should be avoided due to the rapid increase of fracture toughness. In order to know the temperature distribution at the cutting zone in the workpiece, a transient three-dimensional thermal model is developed using finite element analysis (FEA) and validated through experiments. Heat generation associated with machining is considered and demonstrated to have little impact on LAM. The model indicates that laser power is one critical parameter for successful operation of LAM. Feed and cutting speed can indirectly affect the operating temperatures. Furthermore, a machining model is established with the distinct element method (or discrete element method, DEM) to simulate the dynamic process of LAM. In the microstructural modeling of a beta-type silicon nitride ceramic, clusters are used to simulate the rod-like grains of the silicon nitride ceramic and parallel bonds act as the intergranular glass phase between grains. The resulting temperature-dependent synthetic materials for LAM are calibrated through the numerical compression, bending and fracture toughness tests. The machining model is also validated through experiments in terms of cutting forces, chip size and depth of subsurface damage.

  10. Histological outcome for chronic hepatitis B patients treated with entecavir vs lamivudine-based therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Li; Du, Xin-Fang; Chen, Shao-Long; Yu, Yi-Qi; Wang, Jing; Hu, Xi-Qi; Shao, Ling-Yun; Chen, Jia-Zhen; Weng, Xin-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the histological outcome of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with entecavir (ETV) or lamivudine (LAM)-based therapy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from 42 CHB patients with advanced fibrosis (baseline Ishak score ≥ 2) or cirrhosis who were treated with ETV or LAM-based therapy in Beilun People’s Hospital, Ningbo between January 2005 and May 2012. The patients enrolled were more than 16 years of age and underwent a minimum of 12 mo of antiviral therapy. We collected data on the baseline characteristics of each patient and obtained paired liver biopsies pre- and post-treatment. The Knodell scoring system and Ishak fibrosis scores were used to evaluate each example. An improvement or worsening of necroinflammation was defined as ≥ 2-point change in the Knodell inflammatory score. The progression or regression of fibrosis was defined as ≥ 1-point change in the Ishak fibrosis score. The continuous variables were compared using t-test or Mann-Whitney test, and the binary variables were compared using χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test. The results of paired liver biopsies were compared with a Wilcoxon signed rank test. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were treated with ETV and 23 patients were treated with LAM therapy for a mean duration of 39 and 42 mo, respectively. After long-term antiviral treatment, 94.74% (18/19) of the patients in the ETV arm and 95.65% (22/23) in the LAM arm achieved an HBV DNA level less than 1000 IU/mL. The majority of the patients (94.74% in the ETV arm and 73.91% in the LAM arm) had normalized ALT levels. The median Knodell necroinflammatory score decreased from 11 to 0 in the patients receiving ETV, and the median Knodell score decreased from 9 to 3 in the patients receiving LAM (P = 0.0002 and < 0.0001, respectively). The median Ishak fibrosis score showed a 1-point reduction in ETV-treated patients and a 2-point reduction in LAM-treated patients (P = 0.0019 and 0.0205, respectively). The patients receiving ETV showed a more significant improvement in necroinflammation than the LAM-treated patients (P = 0.0003). However, there was no significant difference in fibrotic improvement between the two arms. Furthermore, two patients in each arm achieved a fibrosis score of 0 post-treatment, which indicates a full reversion of fibrosis after antiviral therapy. CONCLUSION: CHB patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis benefit from antiviral treatment. ETV is superior to LAM therapy in improving necroinflammatory but not fibrotic outcome. PMID:26327767

  11. Botanical features for identification of Gymnosporia arenicola dried leaf.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Gustavo; Serrano, Rita; Gomes, Elsa Teixeira; Silva, Olga

    2015-11-01

    Gymnosporia arenicola Jordaan (Celastraceae) is a shrub or small tree, which naturally occurs in coastal sand dunes of Southern Mozambique and South Africa. Its dried leaf is often used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Hereby, we present results of studies carried out according to the pharmacopoeia standards for the identification of herbal drugs, in the whole, fragmented, and powdered plant material. These results were complemented with scanning electron microscopy and histochemical techniques. The leaf microscopic analysis revealed a typical dorsiventral mesophyll with a corresponding spongy parenchyma-palisade parenchyma ratio of 0.60, anomocytic and paracytic stomata, papillate cells with a diameter of 4.00 ± 0.40 µm, multicellular uniseriate nonglandular trichomes with a length of 27.00 ± 4.10 µm and cristalliferous idioblasts containing calcium oxalate cluster crystals with a diameter of 23.04 ± 5.84 µm. The present findings demonstrate that the G. arenicola leaf has both nonglandular trichomes and hypoderm, features not previously described in the corresponding botanical section (Gymnosporia sect. Buxifoliae Jordaan). The establishment of these new botanical markers for the identification of G. arenicola leaf is essential for quality, safety and efficacy reasons. PMID:26303860

  12. Effect of lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium avium subsp avium in Freund's incomplete adjuvant on the immune response of cattle

    PubMed Central

    Colavecchia, S.B.; Jolly, A.; Fernndez, B.; Fontanals, A.M.; Fernndez, E.; Mundo, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether lipoarabinomannan (LAM), in combination with Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), was able to improve cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA) in cattle. Twenty-three calves were assigned to four treatment groups, which were subcutaneously immunized with either OVA plus FIA, OVA plus FIA and LAM from Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, FIA plus LAM, or FIA alone. Lymphoproliferation, IFN-? production and cell subpopulations on peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and 15 days after treatment were evaluated. Delayed hypersensitivity was evaluated on day 57. Specific humoral immune response was measured by ELISA. Inoculation with LAM induced higher levels of lymphoproliferation and IFN-? production in response to ConA and OVA (P < 0.05). Specific antibody titers were similar in both OVA-immunized groups. Interestingly, our results showed that the use of LAM in vaccine preparations improved specific cell immune response evaluated by lymphoproliferation and IFN-? production by at least 50 and 25%, respectively, in cattle without interfering with tuberculosis and paratuberculosis diagnosis. PMID:22286534

  13. Roles of conserved proline and glycosyltransferase motifs of EmbC in biosynthesis of lipoarabinomannan.

    PubMed

    Berg, Stefan; Starbuck, James; Torrelles, Jordi B; Vissa, Varalakshmi D; Crick, Dean C; Chatterjee, Delphi; Brennan, Patrick J

    2005-02-18

    D-Arabinans, composed of D-arabinofuranose (D-Araf), dominate the structure of mycobacterial cell walls in two settings, as part of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and arabinogalactan, each with markedly different structures and functions. Little is known of the complexity of their biosynthesis. beta-D-Arabinofuranosyl-1-monophosphoryldecaprenol is the only known sugar donor. EmbA, EmbB, and EmbC, products of the paralogous genes embA, embB, and embC, the sites of resistance to the anti-tuberculosis drug ethambutol (EMB), are the only known implicated enzymes. EmbA and -B apparently contribute to the synthesis of arabinogalactan, whereas EmbC is reserved for the synthesis of LAM. The Emb proteins show no overall similarity to any known proteins beyond Mycobacterium and related genera. However, functional motifs, equivalent to a proline-rich motif of several bacterial polysaccharide co-polymerases and a superfamily of glycosyltransferases, were found. Site-directed mutagenesis in glycosyltransferase superfamily C resulted in complete ablation of LAM synthesis. Point mutations in three amino acids of the proline motif of EmbC resulted in marked reduction of LAM-arabinan synthesis and accumulation of an unknown intermediate and of the known precursor lipomannan. Yet the pattern of the differently linked d-Araf units observed in wild type LAM-arabinan was largely retained in the proline motif mutants. The results allow for the presentation of a unique model of arabinan synthesis. PMID:15546869

  14. Cost Estimation of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piili, Heidi; Happonen, Ari; Väistö, Tapio; Venkataramanan, Vijaikrishnan; Partanen, Jouni; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a layer wise fabrication method in which a laser beam melts metallic powder to form solid objects. Although 3D printing has been invented 30 years ago, the industrial use is quite limited whereas the introduction of cheap consumer 3D printers, in recent years, has familiarized the 3D printing. Interest is focused more and more in manufacturing of functional parts. Aim of this study is to define and discuss the current economic opportunities and restrictions of LAM process. Manufacturing costs were studied with different build scenarios each with estimated cost structure by calculated build time and calculating the costs of the machine, material and energy with optimized machine utilization. All manufacturing and time simulations in this study were carried out with a research machine equal to commercial EOS M series equipment. The study shows that the main expense in LAM is the investment cost of the LAM machine, compared to which the relative proportions of the energy and material costs are very low. The manufacturing time per part is the key factor to optimize costs of LAM.

  15. The Association between Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Genotype and Drug Resistance in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Louis; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Lithgow, Anna; Gilman, Robert H; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Noriko; Martin, Laura; Castillo, Edith; Alarcon, Valentina; Coronel, Jorge; Solano, Walter; Aminian, Minoo; Guezala, Claudia; Rastogi, Nalin; Couvin, David; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko; Moore, David AJ

    2015-01-01

    Background The comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterial genotypes with phenotypic, demographic, geospatial and clinical data improves our understanding of how strain lineage influences the development of drug-resistance and the spread of tuberculosis. Methods To investigate the association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterial genotype with drug-resistance. Drug susceptibility testing together with genotyping using both 15-loci MIRU-typing and spoligotyping, was performed on 2,139 culture positive isolates, each from a different patient in Lima, Peru. Demographic, geospatial and socio-economic data were collected using questionnaires, global positioning equipment and the latest national census. Results The Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) clade (OR 2.4, p<0.001) was significantly associated with drug-resistance and alone accounted for more than half of all drug resistance in the region. Previously treated patients, prisoners and genetically clustered cases were also significantly associated with drug-resistance (OR's 2.5, 2.4 and 1.8, p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively). Conclusions Tuberculosis disease caused by the LAM clade was more likely to be drug resistant independent of important clinical, genetic and socio-economic confounding factors. Explanations for this include; the preferential co-evolution of LAM strains in a Latin American population, a LAM strain bacterial genetic background that favors drug-resistance or the "founder effect" from pre-existing LAM strains disproportionately exposed to drugs. PMID:25984723

  16. Reliability of brain-computer interface language sample transcription procedures.

    PubMed

    Hill, Katya; Kovacs, Thomas; Shin, Sangeun

    2014-01-01

    We tested the reliability of transcribing language samples of daily brain-computer interface (BCI) communication recorded as language activity monitoring (LAM) logfiles. This study determined interrater reliability and interjudge agreement for transcription of communication of veterans with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using a P300-based BCI as an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) system. KeyLAM software recorded logfiles in a universal logfile format during use of BCI-controlled email and word processing applications. These logfiles were encrypted and sent to our laboratory for decryption, transcription, and analysis. The study reports reliability results on transcription of 345 daily logfile samples. The procedure was found to be accurate across transcribers/raters. Frequency of agreement ratios of 97.6% for total number of words and 93.5% for total utterances were found as measures of interrater reliability. Interjudge agreement was 100% for both measures. The results indicated that transcribing language samples using LAM data is highly reliable and the fidelity of the process can be maintained. LAM data supported the transcription of a large number of samples that could not have been completed using audio and video recordings of AAC speakers. This demonstrated efficiency of LAM tools to measure language performance benefits to BCI research and clinical communities. PMID:25144171

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lipoprotein LprG Binds Lipoarabinomannan and Determines Its Cell Envelope Localization to Control Phagolysosomal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Athman, Jaffre J.; Shi, Libin; Wearsch, Pamela A.; McDonald, David; Banaei, Niaz; Boom, W. Henry; Jackson, Mary; Harding, Clifford V.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) virulence is decreased by genetic deletion of the lipoprotein LprG, but the function of LprG remains unclear. We report that LprG expressed in Mtb binds to lipoglycans, such as lipoarabinomannan (LAM), that mediate Mtb immune evasion. Lipoglycan binding to LprG was dependent on both insertion of lipoglycan acyl chains into a hydrophobic pocket on LprG and a novel contribution of lipoglycan polysaccharide components outside of this pocket. An lprG null mutant (Mtb ΔlprG) had lower levels of surface-exposed LAM, revealing a novel role for LprG in determining the distribution of components in the Mtb cell envelope. Furthermore, this mutant failed to inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion, an immune evasion strategy mediated by LAM. We propose that LprG binding to LAM facilitates its transfer from the plasma membrane into the cell envelope, increasing surface-exposed LAM, enhancing cell envelope integrity, allowing inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion and enhancing Mtb survival in macrophages. PMID:25356793

  18. Diverse Molecular Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates Circulating in the Free State, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van der Spoel van Dijk, Anneke; Makhoahle, Pakiso M; Rigouts, Leen; Baba, Kamaldeen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious public health concern especially in Africa and Asia. Studies describing strain diversity are lacking in the Free State region of South Africa. The aim of the study was to describe the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strain families in the Free State province of South Africa. A total of 86 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping. A 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) typing was used to further characterize the resulting spoligotyping clusters. SITVITWEB identified 49 different patterns with allocation to six lineages including Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) (18 isolates), T (14 isolates), Beijing (five isolates), S (six isolates), Haarlem (one isolate), and X (five isolates), while 37 (43.0%) orphans were identified. Eight clusters included 37 isolates with identical spoligotypes (2 to 13/cluster). MIRU-VNTR typing further differentiated three spoligotyping clusters: SIT1/Beijing/MIT17, SIT33/LAM3/MIT213, and confirmed one SIT34/S/MIT311. In addition, SpolDB3/RIM assignment of the orphan strains resulted in a further 10 LAM and 13 T families. In total, LAM (28 isolates) and T (27 isolates) cause 63% of the individual cases of MTB in our study. The Free State has a highly diverse TB population with LAM being predominant. Further studies with inclusion of multidrug-resistant strains with larger sample size are warranted. PMID:27073397

  19. A 2-year randomised placebo-controlled trial of doxycycline for lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, William Y C; Cane, Jennifer L; Kumaran, Maruti; Lewis, Sarah; Tattersfield, Anne E; Johnson, Simon R

    2014-04-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is characterised by lung cysts and airflow obstruction. Matrix metalloproteinases have been implicated in lung destruction in LAM. We performed a randomised, double-blind trial, comparing the matrix metalloproteinases inhibitor doxycycline with placebo on the progression of LAM. 23 females with LAM were randomised to doxycycline 100 mg daily for 3 months followed by 200 mg daily for 21 months, or matched placebo. Lung function, exercise capacity, quality of life and matrix metalloproteinases levels were measured. 21 patients completed 6 months of treatment, 17 completed 1 year of treatment and 15 completed 2 years of treatment. Eight withdrew from the trial due, four due to a pneumothorax and four because of other reasons. The meansd decline in FEV1, the primary endpoint, did not differ between the groups being -90154 mLyear(-1) in the placebo group and -123246 mLyear(-1) in the doxycycline group (difference -32.5, 95% CI -213-148; p=0.35). Doxycycline had no effect upon vital capacity, gas transfer, shuttle walk distance or quality of life. Urine matrix metalloproteinases-9 measurements were lower with doxycycline treatment (p=0.03). Although with limited numbers we cannot completely exclude an effect of doxycycline, the lack of effect on any outcome makes it unlikely that doxycycline has a useful effect in LAM. PMID:24311763

  20. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: State-of-the-Art Review with a Focus on Pulmonary Involvement.

    PubMed

    von Ranke, Felipe Mussi; Zanetti, Gláucia; e Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto; Godoy, Myrna C B; Souza, Carolina A; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Souza, Arthur Soares; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-10-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal-dominant neurocutaneous disease with high phenotypic variability. The incidence is approximately one in 5000-10,000 births. TSC is characterized by widespread hamartomas and benign or rarely malignant neoplasms affecting various organs, most commonly the brain, skin, retinas, kidneys, heart, and lungs. The wide range of organs affected reflects the roles of TSC1 and TSC2 genes in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Clinical diagnostic criteria are important because genetic testing does not identify the mutation in up to 25% of patients. Imaging is pivotal, as it allows a presumptive diagnosis of TSC and definition of the extent of the disease. Common manifestations of TSC include cortical tubers, subependymal nodules, white matter abnormalities, retinal abnormalities, cardiac rhabdomyoma, lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), renal angiomyolipoma, and skin lesions. Pulmonary involvement consists of LAM and, less commonly, multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia (MMPH), which causes cystic and nodular diseases, respectively. Recent reports indicate that pulmonary LAM is found by computed tomography in up to 35% of the female patients with TSC. MMPH is rare and may be associated with LAM or, less frequently, occurs as an isolated pulmonary manifestation in women with TSC. Dyspnea and pneumothorax are common clinical presentations of LAM, whereas MMPH is usually asymptomatic. The aim of this review is to describe the main clinical, imaging, and pathological aspects of TSC, with a focus on pulmonary involvement. PMID:26104489

  1. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design.

    PubMed

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support. PMID:25710895

  2. Diverse Molecular Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates Circulating in the Free State, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rigouts, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious public health concern especially in Africa and Asia. Studies describing strain diversity are lacking in the Free State region of South Africa. The aim of the study was to describe the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strain families in the Free State province of South Africa. A total of 86 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping. A 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) typing was used to further characterize the resulting spoligotyping clusters. SITVITWEB identified 49 different patterns with allocation to six lineages including Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) (18 isolates), T (14 isolates), Beijing (five isolates), S (six isolates), Haarlem (one isolate), and X (five isolates), while 37 (43.0%) orphans were identified. Eight clusters included 37 isolates with identical spoligotypes (2 to 13/cluster). MIRU-VNTR typing further differentiated three spoligotyping clusters: SIT1/Beijing/MIT17, SIT33/LAM3/MIT213, and confirmed one SIT34/S/MIT311. In addition, SpolDB3/RIM assignment of the orphan strains resulted in a further 10 LAM and 13 T families. In total, LAM (28 isolates) and T (27 isolates) cause 63% of the individual cases of MTB in our study. The Free State has a highly diverse TB population with LAM being predominant. Further studies with inclusion of multidrug-resistant strains with larger sample size are warranted. PMID:27073397

  3. Infrared, Raman and INS studies of poly-ethylene oxide oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliardo, F.; Magazù, S.; Caccamo, M. T.

    2013-09-01

    In the present paper the experimental findings obtained by different spectroscopic techniques on water mixtures of a protein model system, i.e. PolyEthylene Oxide (PEO), are reported. By increasing the polymerization degree m, the D-LAM spectral contribution shows a behavior of the centre frequency and of linewidth which tends to reach a constant value. Also the intramolecular OH stretching contribution, by increasing m, shows a shift which tends to flatten for polymers with molecular weight higher than Mw = 600. These results can be connected with the oligomer-polymer transition, at m = 13. When in aqueous solutions the D-LAM frequency increases towards the value corresponding to that of the crystal phase; similarly one observes also a sharpening of the D-LAM spectral contribution. These evidences suggest the presence of a more ordered conformation of PEO in water in respect to the melt phase.

  4. Integrating Learning Styles and Personality Traits into an Affective Model to Support Learner's Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontidis, Makis; Halatsis, Constantin

    The aim of this paper is to present a model in order to integrate the learning style and the personality traits of a learner into an enhanced Affective Style which is stored in the learner’s model. This model which can deal with the cognitive abilities as well as the affective preferences of the learner is called Learner Affective Model (LAM). The LAM is used to retain learner’s knowledge and activities during his interaction with a Web-based learning environment and also to provide him with the appropriate pedagogical guidance. The proposed model makes use of an ontological approach in combination with the Bayesian Network model and contributes to the efficient management of the LAM in an Affective Module.

  5. Nematicity in stripe-ordered cuprates probed via resonant x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Achkar, A J; Zwiebler, M; McMahon, Christopher; He, F; Sutarto, R; Djianto, Isaiah; Hao, Zhihao; Gingras, Michel J P; Hücker, M; Gu, G D; Revcolevschi, A; Zhang, H; Kim, Y-J; Geck, J; Hawthorn, D G

    2016-02-01

    In underdoped cuprate superconductors, a rich competition occurs between superconductivity and charge density wave (CDW) order. Whether rotational symmetry-breaking (nematicity) occurs intrinsically and generically or as a consequence of other orders is under debate. Here, we employ resonant x-ray scattering in stripe-ordered superconductors (La,M)2CuO4 to probe the relationship between electronic nematicity of the Cu 3d orbitals, structure of the (La,M)2O2 layers, and CDW order. We find distinct temperature dependences for the structure of the (La,M)2O2 layers and the electronic nematicity of the CuO2 planes, with only the latter being enhanced by the onset of CDW order. These results identify electronic nematicity as an order parameter that is distinct from a purely structural order parameter in underdoped striped cuprates. PMID:26912696

  6. Nematicity in stripe-ordered cuprates probed via resonant x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achkar, A. J.; Zwiebler, M.; McMahon, Christopher; He, F.; Sutarto, R.; Djianto, Isaiah; Hao, Zhihao; Gingras, Michel J. P.; Hücker, M.; Gu, G. D.; Revcolevschi, A.; Zhang, H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Geck, J.; Hawthorn, D. G.

    2016-02-01

    In underdoped cuprate superconductors, a rich competition occurs between superconductivity and charge density wave (CDW) order. Whether rotational symmetry-breaking (nematicity) occurs intrinsically and generically or as a consequence of other orders is under debate. Here, we employ resonant x-ray scattering in stripe-ordered superconductors (La,M)2CuO4 to probe the relationship between electronic nematicity of the Cu 3d orbitals, structure of the (La,M)2O2 layers, and CDW order. We find distinct temperature dependences for the structure of the (La,M)2O2 layers and the electronic nematicity of the CuO2 planes, with only the latter being enhanced by the onset of CDW order. These results identify electronic nematicity as an order parameter that is distinct from a purely structural order parameter in underdoped striped cuprates.

  7. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation of long-anode magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Rajendra Kumar; Maurya, Shivendra; Singh, Vindhyavasini Prasad

    2016-03-01

    Long Anode Magnetron (LAM) is a design scheme adopted to attain greater thermal stability and higher power levels for the conventional magnetrons. So a LAM for 5MW Power level at 2.858 GHz was `Virtual Prototyped' using Admittance Matching field theory (AMT) andthen a PIC Study (Beam-wave interaction) was conducted using CST Particle Studio (CST-PS) which is explained in this paper. The convincing results thus obtained were - hot resonant frequency of 2.834 GHz. Output power of 5 MW at beam voltage of 58kV and applied magnetic field of 2200 Gauss with an overall efficiency of 45%. The simulated parameters values on comparison with the E2V LAM tube (M5028) were in good agreement which validates the feasibility of the design approach.

  8. Giant Bilateral Renal Angiomyolipomas and Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Presenting after Two Successive Pregnancies Successfully Treated with Surgery and Rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Peces, Ramón; Cuesta-López, Emilio; Peces, Carlos; Selgas, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old woman who presented with abdominal and flank pain with two successive pregnancies and was diagnosed of giant bilateral renal AMLs and pulmonary LAM associated with TSC in the post-partum of her second pregnancy. This case illustrates that in women with TSC rapid growth from renal AMLs and development of LAM may occur with successive pregnancies. It also stresses the potential for preservation of renal function despite successive bilateral renal surgery of giant AMLs. Moreover, the treatment with a low-dose rapamycin may be an option for LAM treatment. Finally, a low-dose rapamycin may be considered as an adjuvant treatment together to kidney-sparing conservative surgery for renal AMLs. PMID:22125460

  9. Development of a magnetic coagulant based on Moringa oleifera seed extract for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Santos, Tássia R T; Silva, Marcela F; Nishi, Leticia; Vieira, Angélica M S; Klein, Márcia R F; Andrade, Murilo B; Vieira, Marcelo F; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2016-04-01

    In this work, to evaluate the effectiveness of the coagulation/flocculation using a natural coagulant, using Moringa oleifera Lam functionalized with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, producing flakes that are attracted by an external magnetic field, thereby allowing a fast settling and separation of the clarified liquid, is proposed. The removal efficiency of the parameters, apparent color, turbidity, and compounds with UV254nm absorption, was evaluated. The magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant could effectively remove 90 % of turbidity, 85 % of apparent color, and 50 % for the compounds with absorption at UV254nm, in surface waters under the influence of an external magnetic field within 30 min. It was found that the coagulation/flocculation treatment using magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant was able to reduce the values of the physico-chemical parameters evaluated with reduced settling time. PMID:26743649

  10. Characterization of Effect of Support Structures in Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jrvinen, Jukka-Pekka; Matilainen, Ville; Li, Xiaoyun; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti; Mkel, Ismo; Nyrhil, Olli

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of stainless steel is a layer wisetechnology for fabricating 3D parts from metal powder via selectively melting powder with laser beam. Support structures play a significant role in LAM process as they help to remove heat away from the process and on the other hand hold the work piece in its place. A successful design of support structures can help to achievea building process fast and inexpensive with high quality. Aimof this study was to characterize the usability of two types of support structures: web and tube supports. Purpose of this studywas also to analyze how suitable they are in two industrial application cases: case for dental application and case for jewelry application. It was concluded that the removability of web supports was much better than tube supports. It was noticed that support structures are an important part of LAM process and they strongly affect the manufacturability and the end quality of the part.

  11. Nematicity in stripe ordered cuprates probed via resonant x-ray scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Achkar, A. J.; Zwiebler, M.; McMahon, Christopher; He, F.; Sutarto, R.; Dijianto, Isaiah; Hao, Zhihao; Gingras, Michael J.P.; Hucker, M.; Gu, G. D.; et al

    2016-02-05

    We found that in underdoped cuprate superconductors, a rich competition occurs between superconductivity and charge density wave (CDW) order. Whether rotational symmetry-breaking (nematicity) occurs intrinsically and generically or as a consequence of other orders is under debate. Here, we employ resonant x-ray scattering in stripe-ordered superconductors (La,M)2CuO4 to probe the relationship between electronic nematicity of the Cu 3d orbitals, structure of the (La,M)2O2 layers, and CDW order. We find distinct temperature dependences for the structure of the (La,M)2O2 layers and the electronic nematicity of the CuO2 planes, with only the latter being enhanced by the onset of CDW order. Ourmore » results identify electronic nematicity as an order parameter that is distinct from a purely structural order parameter in underdoped striped cuprates.« less

  12. Mode of operation and low-resolution structure of a multi-domain and hyperthermophilic endo-β-1,3-glucanase from Thermotoga petrophila.

    PubMed

    Cota, Junio; Alvarez, Thabata M; Citadini, Ana P; Santos, Camila Ramos; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Oliveira, Renata R; Pastore, Glaucia M; Ruller, Roberto; Prade, Rolf A; Murakami, Mario T; Squina, Fabio M

    2011-03-25

    1,3-β-Glucan depolymerizing enzymes have considerable biotechnological applications including biofuel production, feedstock-chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Here we describe a comprehensive functional characterization and low-resolution structure of a hyperthermophilic laminarinase from Thermotoga petrophila (TpLam). We determine TpLam enzymatic mode of operation, which specifically cleaves internal β-1,3-glucosidic bonds. The enzyme most frequently attacks the bond between the 3rd and 4th residue from the non-reducing end, producing glucose, laminaribiose and laminaritriose as major products. Far-UV circular dichroism demonstrates that TpLam is formed mainly by beta structural elements, and the secondary structure is maintained after incubation at 90°C. The structure resolved by small angle X-ray scattering, reveals a multi-domain structural architecture of a V-shape envelope with a catalytic domain flanked by two carbohydrate-binding modules. PMID:21352806

  13. Prediction of virologic response to tenofovir mono-rescue therapy for multidrug resistant chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangheun; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Beom Kyung; Kim, Seung Up; Song, Kijun; Ku, Hye Jin; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Most guidelines suggest combination therapy including nucleoside and nucleotide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with multidrug resistance (MD-R). However, long-term combination treatment can evoke high costs and safety problems. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) mono-rescue therapy for viral suppression in patients with CHB exhibiting MD-R. We reviewed patients with CHB exhibiting antiviral drug resistance treated by TDF mono-rescue therapy from December 2012 to June 2014. The patients were categorized into three groups: lamivudine-resistance (LAM-R) group (n = 290), and LAM-R + adefovir-resistance (ADV-R) group (n = 43), and LAM-R + entecavir-resistance (ETV-R) group (n = 113). We compared the virologic response rate according to the multiplicity of resistance and investigated the predictive factors of a virologic response. For a median of 15 months (range, 6-24 months) of TDF mono-rescue therapy, the cumulative virologic response rates were 82.8, 81.4, and 84.1% in the LAM-R, LAM-R + ADV-R, and LAM-R + ETV-R groups, respectively (P = 0.239). Multivariate analysis revealed that multiplicity of resistance did not influence the achievement of a virologic response (P = 0.218). However, the baseline HBV DNA level significantly influenced the achievement of a virologic response for the treatment of CHB with MD-R (P < 0.001). TDF mono-rescue therapy is an appropriate treatment for CHB with MD-R, and the baseline HBV DNA level is a significant predictive factor for a virologic response. These factors should be considered before treating CHB with MD-R. J. Med. Virol. 88:1027-1034, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26538234

  14. Strain Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Brazil Based on Genotypes Obtained by Spoligotyping, Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit Typing and the Presence of Large Sequence and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcellos, Sidra E. G.; Acosta, Chyntia Carolina; Gomes, Lia Lima; Conceição, Emilyn Costa; Lima, Karla Valéria; de Araujo, Marcelo Ivens; Leite, Maria de Lourdes; Tannure, Flávio; Caldas, Paulo Cesar de Souza; Gomes, Harrison M.; Santos, Adalberto Rezende; Gomgnimbou, Michel K.; Sola, Christophe; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Boechat, Neio; Suffys, Philip Noel

    2014-01-01

    Rio de Janeiro is endemic for tuberculosis (TB) and presents the second largest prevalence of the disease in Brazil. Here, we present the bacterial population structure of 218 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, derived from 186 patients that were diagnosed between January 2008 and December 2009. Genotypes were generated by means of spoligotyping, 24 MIRU-VNTR typing and presence of fbpC103, RDRio and RD174. The results confirmed earlier data that predominant genotypes in Rio de Janeiro are those of the Euro American Lineages (99%). However, we observed differences between the classification by spoligotyping when comparing to that of 24 MIRU-VNTR typing, being respectively 43.6% vs. 62.4% of LAM, 34.9% vs. 9.6% of T and 18.3% vs. 21.5% of Haarlem. Among isolates classified as LAM by MIRU typing, 28.0% did not present the characteristic spoligotype profile with absence of spacers 21 to 24 and 32 to 36 and we designated these conveniently as “LAM-like”, 79.3% of these presenting the LAM-specific SNP fbpC103. The frequency of RDRio and RD174 in the LAM strains, as defined both by spoligotyping and 24 MIRU-VNTR loci, were respectively 11% and 15.4%, demonstrating that RD174 is not always a marker for LAM/RDRio strains. We conclude that, although spoligotyping alone is a tool for classification of strains of the Euro-American lineage, when combined with MIRU-VNTRs, SNPs and RD typing, it leads to a much better understanding of the bacterial population structure and phylogenetic relationships among strains of M. tuberculosis in regions with high incidence of TB. PMID:25314118

  15. M. leprae components induce nerve damage by complement activation: identification of lipoarabinomannan as the dominant complement activator.

    PubMed

    Bahia El Idrissi, Nawal; Das, Pranab K; Fluiter, Kees; Rosa, Patricia S; Vreijling, Jeroen; Troost, Dirk; Morgan, B Paul; Baas, Frank; Ramaglia, Valeria

    2015-05-01

    Peripheral nerve damage is the hallmark of leprosy pathology but its etiology is unclear. We previously identified the membrane attack complex (MAC) of the complement system as a key determinant of post-traumatic nerve damage and demonstrated that its inhibition is neuroprotective. Here, we determined the contribution of the MAC to nerve damage caused by Mycobacterium leprae and its components in mouse. Furthermore, we studied the association between MAC and the key M. leprae component lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in nerve biopsies of leprosy patients. Intraneural injections of M. leprae sonicate induced MAC deposition and pathological changes in the mouse nerve, whereas MAC inhibition preserved myelin and axons. Complement activation occurred mainly via the lectin pathway and the principal activator was LAM. In leprosy nerves, the extent of LAM and MAC immunoreactivity was robust and significantly higher in multibacillary compared to paucibacillary donors (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively), with a highly significant association between LAM and MAC in the diseased samples (r = 0.9601, p = 0.0001). Further, MAC co-localized with LAM on axons, pointing to a role for this M. leprae antigen in complement activation and nerve damage in leprosy. Our findings demonstrate that MAC contributes to nerve damage in a model of M. leprae-induced nerve injury and its inhibition is neuroprotective. In addition, our data identified LAM as the key pathogen associated molecule that activates complement and causes nerve damage. Taken together our data imply an important role of complement in nerve damage in leprosy and may inform the development of novel therapeutics for patients. PMID:25772973

  16. Strain classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Brazil based on genotypes obtained by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit typing and the presence of large sequence and single nucleotide polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Sidra E G; Acosta, Chyntia Carolina; Gomes, Lia Lima; Conceição, Emilyn Costa; Lima, Karla Valéria; de Araujo, Marcelo Ivens; Leite, Maria de Lourdes; Tannure, Flávio; Caldas, Paulo Cesar de Souza; Gomes, Harrison M; Santos, Adalberto Rezende; Gomgnimbou, Michel K; Sola, Christophe; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Boechat, Neio; Suffys, Philip Noel

    2014-01-01

    Rio de Janeiro is endemic for tuberculosis (TB) and presents the second largest prevalence of the disease in Brazil. Here, we present the bacterial population structure of 218 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, derived from 186 patients that were diagnosed between January 2008 and December 2009. Genotypes were generated by means of spoligotyping, 24 MIRU-VNTR typing and presence of fbpC103, RDRio and RD174. The results confirmed earlier data that predominant genotypes in Rio de Janeiro are those of the Euro American Lineages (99%). However, we observed differences between the classification by spoligotyping when comparing to that of 24 MIRU-VNTR typing, being respectively 43.6% vs. 62.4% of LAM, 34.9% vs. 9.6% of T and 18.3% vs. 21.5% of Haarlem. Among isolates classified as LAM by MIRU typing, 28.0% did not present the characteristic spoligotype profile with absence of spacers 21 to 24 and 32 to 36 and we designated these conveniently as "LAM-like", 79.3% of these presenting the LAM-specific SNP fbpC103. The frequency of RDRio and RD174 in the LAM strains, as defined both by spoligotyping and 24 MIRU-VNTR loci, were respectively 11% and 15.4%, demonstrating that RD174 is not always a marker for LAM/RDRio strains. We conclude that, although spoligotyping alone is a tool for classification of strains of the Euro-American lineage, when combined with MIRU-VNTRs, SNPs and RD typing, it leads to a much better understanding of the bacterial population structure and phylogenetic relationships among strains of M. tuberculosis in regions with high incidence of TB. PMID:25314118

  17. [Effects of longevity-antihypertensive-mixture on essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Wei, M; Chen, K J

    1990-10-01

    A study which enrolled 65 middle-aged and elderly essential hypertensive patients with Kidney-deficiency pattern was carried out to evaluate the effects of Longevity-Antihypertensive-Mixture (LAM). As LAM was composed of Kidney-tonifying herbs, all the subjects chosen fell into the pattern of Kidney-deficiency in TCM. The subjects were randomized into two groups: The LAM group had 34, and the control group taking Apocyhum Venetum L. Fluid (AVLF) 31. The duration of medication was 12 weeks. The main results were as follows: (1) At the end of week 4, the supine systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean blood pressure (MBP) in LAM group declined from 171 +/- 16 (mmHg, the same below), 101 +/- 6 and 127 +/- 7 to 153 +/- 12, 93 +/- 7 and 113 +/- 7 respectively. At the end of week 12, the supine SBP, DBP and MBP were 151 +/- 14, 93 +/- 6 and 112 +/- 8. There was significance of difference in the reduction of supine blood pressure compared with baseline (P less than 0.001). AVLF produced similar changes in the reduction of supine SBP, DBP and MBP. However, the magnitude of reduction in SBP and MBP was smaller than those with LAM (P less than 0.001). (2) There was no significance of difference in attaining goal blood pressure between LAM and AVLF groups (P greater than 0.05). At the end of week 4, 79.41% and 77.42% were achieved respectively; at 12, 79.41% and 80.65%. (3) LAM had stronger effect on relieving symptoms of essential hypertension and Kidney-deficiency than AVLF (P less than 0.05). (4) In LAM group the left ventricular mass index (VMI) decreased from 114.75 +/- 42.40 g/m2 to 100.39 +/- 36.08 g/m2 (P less than 0.001). The LVMI in AVLF group increased from 117.27 +/- 36.90 g/m2 to 117.68 +/- 38.37 g/m2 (P greater than 0.05). The results supported the therapeutic principle of TCM: Treating patients according to their pathophysiological patterns. PMID:2148508

  18. Study of the levator ani muscle in the multipara: role of levator dysfunction in defecation disorders.

    PubMed

    Shafik, A; El-Sibai, O

    2002-03-01

    The levator ani muscle (LAM) shares in the mechanism of defecation and urination as well as in visceral support. Levator dysfunction occurs in conditions of chronic straining or increased intra-abdominal pressure. Studies have shown that the gravid uterus, by virtue of its weight and associated increased intraabdominal pressure, might disturb the levator function. It is postulated that this effect is augmented with repeated pregnancies. The current study investigated the functional activity of the LAM in 50 multipara, 30 primipara and 20 nullipara (controls). The 50 multipara (age 46.4 years, 4-7 deliveries) were divided into group A (28 women with normal deliveries) and group B (22 women with a prolonged 2nd stage of labour). Of the 30 primipara (age 44.2 years) 18 had normal delivery (group A) and 12 prolonged 2nd stage of labour (group B). The mean age of the nullipara was 45.3+/-7.6. The LAM activity at rest and on contraction was recorded. The rectal and anal canal pressure response to LAM stimulation was also registered. In group A of the multipara, the LAM EMG activity at rest was similar to (P>0.05), and on contraction lower (P<0.05) than the LAM EMG of the controls (nullipara). Group B exhibited a lower activity at rest and on contraction (P<0.01, both). Primipara group A had a resting and contractile EMG activity similar to the controls, while group B showed diminished activity in both conditions (P<0.05, both) which was significantly higher (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively) than that of group B multipara. The rectal pressure in the multipara and primipara did not differ from the nullipara (P>0.05, both). In groups A and B of multiparous women, the anal canal pressure at rest was significantly lower and on LAM contraction significantly higher than that of nullipara. Group A of the primipara showed no significant difference against the controls, while group B exhibited a decline at rest (P<0.05) and no difference on LAM contraction (P>0.05). In conclusion, levator dysfunction might occur in the parous women. It was more common in the multipara than the primipara and in particular those with a history of a prolonged 2nd stage of labour. Levator dysfunction may lead to constipation and faecal or urinary incontinence as a result of pudendal neuropathy and the development of pudendal canal syndrome. PMID:12521706

  19. Basic and Fluctuating Periodic Instantons in Quantum Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi-Kuo, Liu; Zun-Tao, Fu; Shi-Da, Liu; Qiang, Zhao

    2016-02-01

    Under condition of four potential fields, equations of motion and fluctuations in imaginary time are utilized to analytically derive the basic and fluctuating periodic instantons. It is shown that the basic instantons satisfy the elliptic or simple pendulum equations and their solutions are Jacobi elliptic functions, and fluctuating periodic instantons satisfy the Lamé equation and their solutions are Lamé functions. These results indicate that there exists the common solution family for different potential fields which are called the super-symmetry family. Supportted by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 40975027

  20. Permissive sites and topology of an outer membrane protein with a reporter epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Charbit, A; Ronco, J; Michel, V; Werts, C; Hofnung, M

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a genetic approach to study with a single antibody the folding and topology of LamB, an integral outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli K-12. This approach consists of inserting the same reporter foreign antigenic determinant (the C3 epitope from poliovirus) at different sites of LamB so that the resulting hybrid proteins have essentially kept the in vivo biological properties of LamB and therefore its cellular location and structure; the corresponding sites are called permissive sites. A specific monoclonal antibody can then be used to examine the position of the reporter epitope with respect to the protein and the membrane. We present an improved and efficient procedure that led us to identify eight new permissive sites in LamB. These sites appear to be distributed on both sides of the membrane. At one of them (after residue 253), the C3 epitope was detected on intact bacteria, providing the first direct argument for exposure of the corresponding LamB region at the cell surface. At this site as well as at four others (after residues 183, 219, 236, and 352), the C3 epitope could be detected with the C3 monoclonal antibody at the surface of the extracted trimeric LamB-C3 hybrid proteins. We provide a number of convergent arguments showing that the hybrid proteins are not strongly distorted with respect to the wild-type protein so that the conclusions drawn are also valid for this protein. These conclusions are essentially in agreement with the proposed folding model for the LamB protein. They agree, in particular, with the idea that regions 183 and 352 are exposed to the periplasm. In addition, they suggest that region 236 is buried at the external face of the outer membrane and that region 219 is exposed to the periplasm. Including the 3 sites previously determined, 11 permissive sites are now available in LamB, including 3 at the cell surface and most probably at least 3 in the periplasm. We discuss the nature of such sites, the generalization of this approach to other proteins, and possible applications. Images PMID:1702781

  1. Candidatus Liberibacter americanus induces significant reprogramming of the transcriptome of the susceptible citrus genotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease is caused by endogenous, phloem-restricted, Gram negative, uncultured bacteria named Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (CaLaf), Ca. L. asiaticus (CaLas), and Ca. L. americanus (CaLam), depending on the continent where the bacteria were first detected. The Asian citrus psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri, transmits CaLas and CaLam and both Liberibacter species are present in Brazil. Several studies of the transcriptional response of citrus plants manifesting HLB symptoms have been reported, but only for CaLas infection. This study evaluated the transcriptional reprogramming of a susceptible genotype of sweet orange challenged with CaLam, using a customized 385K microarray containing approximately 32,000 unigene transcripts. We analyzed global changes in gene expression of CaLam-infected leaves of sweet orange during the symptomatic stage of infection and compared the results with previously published microarray studies that used CaLas-infected plants. Twenty candidate genes were selected to validate the expression profiles in symptomatic and asymptomatic PCR-positive leaves infected with CaLas or CaLam. Results The microarray analysis identified 633 differentially expressed genes during the symptomatic stage of CaLam infection. Among them, 418 (66%) were upregulated and 215 (34%) were down regulated. Five hundred and fourteen genes (81%) were orthologs of genes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that several of the transcripts encoded transporters associated with the endomembrane system, especially zinc transport. Among the most biologically relevant gene transcripts in GSEA were those related to signaling, metabolism and/or stimulus to hormones, genes responding to stress and pathogenesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidative stress and transcription factors belonging to different families. Real time PCR of 20 candidate genes validated the expression pattern of some genes in symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves infected with CaLam or CaLas. Conclusions Many gene transcripts and biological processes are significantly altered upon CaLam infection. Some of them had been identified in response to CaLas infection, while others had not been previously reported. These data will be useful for selecting target genes for genetic engineering to control HLB. PMID:23586643

  2. Diffusion of Cu2+ in calcium alginate gel beads: further analyses.

    PubMed

    Chaiken, R F

    1995-03-01

    The diffusivity of Cu(2+), as determined by previous authors from analysis of experimental data in terms of the shrinking core (SCM) and linear absorption (LAM) models, is examined in light of the ability of the models to curve fit all the data. It is concluded from this further analysis that previous conclusions depicting the LAM to have an advantage over the SCM for predictive value are not justified. It is also shown that equally good curve fits can be obtained with a recent absorption/desorption model of diffusion which considers directly, through distribution theory, the effect of heterogeneity of material properties on the rate of diffusion. PMID:18623239

  3. In vitro Screening for Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Antidiabetic Properties of Some Korean Native Plants on Mt. Halla, Jeju Island.

    PubMed

    Hyun, T K; Kim, H C; Kim, J S

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Prunus padus, Lonicera caerulea, Berberis amurensis, and Ribes maximowiczianum, which are mainly distributed on Mt. Halla, Jeju Island, have been investigated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. The methanol extracts of R. maximowiczianum leaves and P. padus branches exhibited significant and dose-dependent antioxidant activity including electron-donation ability and reducing power. To analyze the antimicrobial activity, each extract was tested by a serial two-fold dilution method against five selected gram-positive bacteria and four gram-negative bacteria, and this suggested that P. padus branches possessed the maximum antimicrobial activity against most of the gram-positive bacteria tested. In addition, the methanol extracts of P. padus branches exhibited the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 1.0±0.1 μg/ml, indicating that P. padus is a promising source as a herbal medicine. PMID:26997693

  4. Sensitization of Candida albicans to terbinafine by berberine and berberrubine

    PubMed Central

    LAM, PIKLING; KOK, STANTON HON LUNG; LEE, KENNETH KA HO; LAM, KIM HUNG; HAU, DESMOND KWOK PO; WONG, WAI YEUNG; BIAN, ZHAOXIANG; GAMBARI, ROBERTO; CHUI, CHUNG HIN

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, particularly observed in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans accounts for 50–70% of cases of invasive candidiasis in the majority of clinical settings. Terbinafine, an allylamine antifungal drug, has been used to treat fungal infections previously. It has fungistatic activity against C. albicans. Traditional Chinese medicines can be used as complementary medicines to conventional drugs to treat a variety of ailments and diseases. Berberine is a quaternary alkaloid isolated from the traditional Chinese herb, Coptidis Rhizoma, while berberrubine is isolated from the medicinal plant Berberis vulgaris, but is also readily derived from berberine by pyrolysis. The present study demonstrates the possible complementary use of berberine and berberrubine with terbinafine against C. albicans. The experimental findings assume that the potential application of these alkaloids together with reduced dosage of the standard drug would enhance the resulting antifungal potency. PMID:27073630

  5. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles from root bark extract of Berberislycium Royle.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Ansar; Murtaza, Ghulam; Bhatti, Tariq Mahmood; Kausar, Rehana; Ahmed, Muhammad Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Various biological methods are being recognized for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles, which are used in several fields. The phytosynthesis of nanoparticles came out as a cost effective and enviro-friendly approach. When root bark extract of Berberis lycium was treated with silver ions, they reduced to silver nanoparticles, which were spherical, crystalline, size ranged from 10-100nm and capped by biomolecules. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The plant mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles showed pronounced antimicrobial activities against both Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). The plant mediated process proved to be non-toxic and low cost contender as reducing agent for synthesizing stable silver nanoparticles. PMID:26826826

  6. Eriophyoid mites from Qinghai Province, northwestern China with descriptions of nine new species (Acari, Eriophyoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao-Sen; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Eriophyoid mites from Qinghai Province, northwestern China were studied herein. Up to now, only six species have been reported from Qinghai Province. In field surveys, 17 eriophyoid mite species were collected, among which nine species were found new to science. The new species and their host plants are listed as follows: Acaphyllisa tuberculumae sp. n. on Populus sp. (Salicaceae); Proiectus xiningensis sp. n. on Pinus sp. (Pinaceae); Phyllocoptes beishaniensis sp. n. on Spiraea mongolica Maxim. (Rosaceae); Tetra pruniana sp. n. on Prunus tomentosa Thunb. (Rosaceae) Rupr. (Berberidaceae); Tetra pyriana sp. n. on Pyrus calleryana Decne. (Rosaceae); Tetra simonia sp. n. on Populus simonii Carr. (Salicaceae); Diptacus berberinus sp. n. on Berberis amurensis Rupr. (Berberidaceae); Diptacus mengdaensis sp. n. on Lonicera elisae Franch. (Caprifoliaceae); Rhyncaphytoptus spinus sp. n. on Lonicera rupicola Hook. f. et Thoms. (Caprifoliaceae). Aculops ulmi Hong & Xue, 2005 was re-described. PMID:22679390

  7. Diversity of Puccinia striiformis on cereals and grasses.

    PubMed

    Hovmøller, Mogens S; Sørensen, Chris K; Walter, Stephanie; Justesen, Annemarie F

    2011-01-01

    Yellow (stripe) rust is a common fungal disease on cereals and grasses. It is caused by Puccinia striiformis sensu lato, which is biotrophic and heteroecious. The pathogen is specialized on the primary host at both species and cultivar levels, whereas several Berberis spp. may serve as alternate hosts. One lineage infects mainly cereals and at least two lineages are restricted to grasses. P. striiformis on cereals has a typical clonal population structure in many areas, resulting from asexual reproduction, but high diversity, suggesting frequent recombination, has been observed in certain areas in Asia. Yellow rust is spreading by airborne spores potentially across long distances, which may contribute to sudden disease epidemics in new areas. This has been the case since 2000, where large-scale epidemics in warmer wheat-growing areas have been ascribed to the emergence of two closely related yellow rust strains with increased aggressiveness and tolerance to warm temperatures. PMID:21599494

  8. Low proton conductance of plant cuticles and its relevance to the acid-growth theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, S.A.; Seymour, V.; Cleland, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    Evidence obtained on the relation between the pH of the medium and the growth of intact stem sections is compatible with the acid-growth theory only if the proton conductance of the cuticle is an effective barrier to the entry or exit of protons from the tissue. By measuring the rate at which protons cross frozen-thawed epidermal strips of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) and soybean hypocotyls (Glycine max Morr.) and enzymically isolated cuticles of Berberis aquifolium Persh. and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) fruit, we have now demonstrated the low proton conductance of the cuticular layer. Unless the conductance is enhanced by abrasion of the cuticle or by removal of the cuticular waxes, proton movement into and out of a tissue across the cuticle will be significant only over long time periods.

  9. In vitro Screening for Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Antidiabetic Properties of Some Korean Native Plants on Mt. Halla, Jeju Island

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, T. K.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Prunus padus, Lonicera caerulea, Berberis amurensis, and Ribes maximowiczianum, which are mainly distributed on Mt. Halla, Jeju Island, have been investigated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. The methanol extracts of R. maximowiczianum leaves and P. padus branches exhibited significant and dose-dependent antioxidant activity including electron-donation ability and reducing power. To analyze the antimicrobial activity, each extract was tested by a serial two-fold dilution method against five selected gram-positive bacteria and four gram-negative bacteria, and this suggested that P. padus branches possessed the maximum antimicrobial activity against most of the gram-positive bacteria tested. In addition, the methanol extracts of P. padus branches exhibited the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 1.0±0.1 μg/ml, indicating that P. padus is a promising source as a herbal medicine. PMID:26997693

  10. Historic Mining and Agriculture as Indicators of Occurrence and Abundance of Widespread Invasive Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Calinger, Kellen; Calhoon, Elisabeth; Chang, Hsiao-chi; Whitacre, James; Wenzel, John; Comita, Liza; Queenborough, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances often change ecological communities and provide opportunities for non-native species invasion. Understanding the impacts of disturbances on species invasion is therefore crucial for invasive species management. We used generalized linear mixed effects models to explore the influence of land-use history and distance to roads on the occurrence and abundance of two invasive plant species (Rosa multiflora and Berberis thunbergii) in a 900-ha deciduous forest in the eastern U.S.A., the Powdermill Nature Reserve. Although much of the reserve has been continuously forested since at least 1939, aerial photos revealed a variety of land-uses since then including agriculture, mining, logging, and development. By 2008, both R. multiflora and B. thunbergii were widespread throughout the reserve (occurring in 24% and 13% of 4417 10-m diameter regularly-placed vegetation plots, respectively) with occurrence and abundance of each varying significantly with land-use history. Rosa multiflora was more likely to occur in historically farmed, mined, logged or developed plots than in plots that remained forested, (log odds of 1.8 to 3.0); Berberis thunbergii was more likely to occur in plots with agricultural, mining, or logging history than in plots without disturbance (log odds of 1.4 to 2.1). Mining, logging, and agriculture increased the probability that R. multiflora had >10% cover while only past agriculture was related to cover of B. thunbergii. Proximity to roads was positively correlated with the occurrence of R. multiflora (a 0.26 increase in the log odds for every 1-m closer) but not B. thunbergii, and roads had no impact on the abundance of either species. Our results indicated that a wide variety of disturbances may aid the introduction of invasive species into new habitats, while high-impact disturbances such as agriculture and mining increase the likelihood of high abundance post-introduction. PMID:26046534

  11. [A new herbs traceability method based on DNA barcoding-origin-morphology analysis--an example from an adulterant of 'Heiguogouqi'].

    PubMed

    Gu, Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-qin; Song, Xiao-na; Zang, Yi-mei; Li Yan-peng; Ma, Chang-hua; Zhao, Bai-xiao; Liu, Chun-sheng

    2014-12-01

    The fruit of Lycium ruthenicum is a common folk medicine in China. Now it is popular for its antioxidative effect and other medical functions. The adulterants of the herb confuse consumers. In order to identify a new adulterant of L. ruthenicum, a research was performed based on NCBI Nucleotide Database ITS Sequence, combined analysis of the origin and morphology of the adulterant to traceable varieties. Total genomic DNA was isolated from the materials, and nuclear DNA ITS sequences were amplified and sequenced; DNA fragments were collated and matched by using ContingExpress. Similarity identification of BLAST analysis was performed. Besides, the distribution of plant origin and morphology were considered to further identification and verification. Families and genera were identified by molecular identification method. The adulterant was identified as plant belonging to Berberis. Origin analysis narrowed the range of sample identification. Seven different kinds of plants in Berberis were potential sources of the sample. Adulterants variety was traced by morphological analysis. The united molecular identification-origin-morphology research proves to be a preceding way to medical herbs traceability with time-saving and economic advantages and the results showed the new adulterant of L. ruthenicum was B. kaschgarica. The main differences between B. kaschgarica and L. ruthenicum are as follows: in terms of the traits, the surface of B. kaschgarica is smooth and crispy, and that of L. ruthenicum is shrinkage, solid and hard. In microscopic characteristics, epicarp cells of B. aschgarica thickening like a string of beads, stone cells as the rectangle, and the stone cell walls of L. ruthenicum is wavy, obvious grain layer. In molecular sequences, the length of ITS sequence of B. kaschgarica is 606 bp, L. ruthenicum is 654 bp, the similarity of the two sequences is 53.32%. PMID:25898573

  12. Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy of Aminomalononitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motiyenko, Roman A.; Margules, Laurent; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    2013-06-01

    In low-temperature conditions of the interstellar medium pure HCN and mixtures of HCN with H_2O and NH_3 subjected to high-energy sources can be converted into different HCN polymers. In this context the HCN trimer -- aminomalononitrile (AMN, H_2NCH(CN)_2) is an interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. We measured the rotational spectrum of AMN using the Lille BWO-based fast scan spectrometer (120 -- 180 GHz) and the spectrometer based on solid state sources (225 -- 250 GHz). The spectroscopic work was supported by high level ab initio calculations. The spectra observed were assigned only to the asymmetric conformer. The first analysis revealed the regular doublet splittings of rotational lines indicating the possibility of large-amplitude motion (LAM) of amino group. Further examination of the spectra revealed the existence of additional splittings most probably due to the second LAM of amino group. Since the equilibrium structure of AMN has no symmetry, in the group theoretical formalism these two LAMs can be described using G_4 permutation-inversion group. Despite the complexity of the LAMs all the assigned rotational transitions were fitted within experimental accuracy using Pickett's SPFIT program. As a result, a reliable dataset for astrophysical observations was provided. This work is supported by the french program "Physique et Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire (PCMI, INSU-CNRS)" and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Gerakines, P.A., Moore, M.H, Hudson, R.L., Icarus, 2004, 170, 203

  13. Detection of visual signals by rats: A computational model

    EPA Science Inventory

    We applied a neural network model of classical conditioning proposed by Schmajuk, Lam, and Gray (1996) to visual signal detection and discrimination tasks designed to assess sustained attention in rats (Bushnell, 1999). The model describes the animals expectation of receiving fo...

  14. Attentional, Associative, and Configural Mechanisms in Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrauri, Jose A.; Schmajuk, Nestor A.

    2008-01-01

    The participation of attentional and associative mechanisms in extinction, spontaneous recovery, external disinhibition, renewal, reinstatement, and reacquisition was evaluated through computer simulations with an extant computational model of classical conditioning (N. A. Schmajuk, Y. Lam, & J. A. Gray, 1996; N. A. Schmajuk & J. A. Larrauri,

  15. QTL ANALYSIS OF FIBER COMPONENTS AND CRUDE PROTEIN IN AN ANNUAL X PERENNIAL RYEGRASS POPULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and perennial (Lolium perenne L.) ryegrass are two common forage species in temperate regions. Improving the digestibility of forage by decreasing fiber content is a major goal in forage crop breeding programs. An annual X perennial ryegrass population was used to ma...

  16. Development of a DNA Sequence-Based Multiplex Test for Rapid Differentiation of Ryegrass Growth Types

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and perennial (Lolium perenne L.) ryegrasses are two common forage species in temperate regions. Identifying annual ryegrass contamination in perennial ryegrass seed lots has been of major interest in the seed industry for many years. The objective of our work over t...

  17. Students' Perceptions and Designs of Simple Control Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mioduser, David; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a framework characterizing cognitive models generated by sixth-grade students for simple opening/closing control mechanisms, like the elevator door. The students' conceptions, missing conceptions, and misconceptions are analyzed at three levels: device knowledge; perception of the control process; and perceptions of information flow. (LAM)

  18. Flavonoid concentration diversity of 3 different species in the phaseoleae tribe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The functional vegetable species including Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc., and Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng are in the Phaseoleae tribe. Seeds from 10 L. purpureus and 7 M. uniflorum accessions originated from the field during 2009 and 2009 to 2010, respectively at...

  19. Using advances in plant genomics to develop a DNA-based test to benefit the ryegrass seed industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and perennial (Lolium perenne L.) ryegrasses are two common forage species in temperate regions. Identifying annual ryegrass contamination in perennial ryegrass seed lots has been of major interest in the seed industry for many years. The objective of our work over t...

  20. Use of Psychoactive Medications in Hong Kong Institutions for Adults with Severe to Profound Learning Disabilities: A Retrospective Study (1988-2003) and Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Winston Woon Chu

    2007-01-01

    Background: Little information is available about prescribing patterns for patients with severe learning disabilities in Asian institutions. Materials and methods: Prescription audits were performed at Siu Lam Hospital (SLH) and Tuen Mun Hospital (TMH), Hong Kong, between 1988 and 2003. Results: About 65% of patients were receiving psychoactive

  1. 78 FR 66713 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Lam, Member, Application Type: New NVO License. Altex US, LLC (NVO & OFF), 1 Saville Avenue, Eddystone... Type: New NVO & OFF License. Andes Logistics USA LLC (NVO & OFF) 7500 NW 25 Street, 7, Miami, FL 33122...: New NVO & OFF License. Ark Transportation Ltd. (NVO & OFF), 17830 Englewood Drive, Suite...

  2. ‘Charleston Scarlet’ Sweetpotato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivar, ‘Charleston Scarlet’ was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Charleston, SC. ‘Charleston Scarlet’ produces orange-fleshed, sweet storage roots with attractive scarlet-colored skin (periderm). Vine gro...

  3. A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, a parasitoid of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam....

  4. An Investigation of Visual Contour Integration Ability in Relation to Writing Performance in Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia W. P.; Wong, Agnes S. K.; Chan, Jackson Y.; Lee, Amos Y. T.; Lam, Miko C. Y.; Wong, C. W.; Lu, Zhonglin

    2012-01-01

    A previous study found a visual deficit in contour integration in English readers with dyslexia (Simmers & Bex, 2001). Visual contour integration may play an even more significant role in Chinese handwriting particularly due to its logographic presentation (Lam, Au, Leung, & Li-Tsang, 2011). The current study examined the relationship between…

  5. Detection of coliform bacteria in water by polymerase chain reaction and gene probes.

    PubMed

    Bej, A K; Steffan, R J; DiCesare, J; Haff, L; Atlas, R M

    1990-02-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and gene probe detection of regions of two genes, lacZ and lamB, were tested for their abilities to detect coliform bacteria. Amplification of a segment of the coding region of Escherichia coli lacZ by using a PCR primer annealing temperature of 50 degrees C detected E. coli and other coliform bacteria (including Shigella spp.) but not Salmonella spp. and noncoliform bacteria. Amplification of a region of E. coli lamB by using a primer annealing temperature of 50 degrees C selectively detected E. coli and Salmonella and Shigella spp. PCR amplification and radiolabeled gene probes detected as little as 1 to 10 fg of genomic E. coli DNA and as a few as 1 to 5 viable E. coli cells in 100 ml of water. PCR amplification of lacZ and lamB provides a basis for a method to detect indicators of fecal contamination of water, and amplification of lamB in particular permits detection of E. coli and enteric pathogens (Salmonella and Shigella spp.) with the necessary specificity and sensitivity for monitoring the bacteriological quality of water so as to ensure the safety of water supplies. PMID:2306085

  6. COMPARISON OF AQUEOUS AND SOLID-PHASE UPTAKE FOR HEXACHLOROBENZENE IN THE TELLINID CLAM MACOMA NASUTA (CONRAD): A MASS BALANCE APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uptake of sediment-associated hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the deposit-feeding clam Macoma nasuta (Conrad) was determined using a clam ventilation chamber. lams were exposed to [14C]HCB-dosed sediment, and the 14C amounts were measured in inhalant and exhalant waters, fecal pel...

  7. Aptamer Against Mannose-capped Lipoarabinomannan Inhibits Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mice and Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qin; Wang, Qilong; Sun, Xiaoming; Xia, Xianru; Wu, Shimin; Luo, Fengling; Zhang, Xiao-Lian

    2014-01-01

    The major surface lipoglycan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), is an immunosuppressive epitope of M. tb. We used systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) to generate an aptamer (ZXL1) that specifically bound to ManLAM from the virulent M. tb strain H37Rv. Aptamer ZXL1 had the highest binding affinity, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 436.3 ± 37.84 nmol/l, and competed with the mannose receptor for binding to ManLAM and M. tb H37Rv. ZXL1 significantly inhibited the ManLAM-induced immunosuppression of CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) and enhanced the M. tb antigen–presenting activity of DCs for naive CD4+ Th1 cell activation. More importantly, we demonstrated that injection of aptamer ZXL1 significantly reduced the progression of M. tb H37Rv infections and bacterial loads in lungs of mice and rhesus monkeys. These results suggest that the aptamer ZXL1 is a new potential antimycobacterial agent and tuberculosis vaccine immune adjuvant. PMID:24572295

  8. High spatial resolution mapping of deposition layers on plasma facing materials by laser ablation microprobe time-of-flight mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qingmei; Li, Cong; Hai, Ran; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Chunlei; Zhou, Yan; Yan, Longwen; Duan, Xuru; Ding, Hongbin

    2014-05-01

    A laser ablation microprobe time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LAM-TOF-MS) system with high spatial resolution, ~20 nm in depth and ~500 μm or better on the surface, is developed to analyze the composition distributions of deposition layers on the first wall materials or first mirrors in tokamak. The LAM-TOF-MS system consists of a laser ablation microprobe combined with a TOF-MS and a data acquisition system based on a LabVIEW program software package. Laser induced ablation combined with TOF-MS is an attractive method to analyze the depth profile of deposited layer with successive laser shots, therefore, it can provide information for composition reconstruction of the plasma wall interaction process. In this work, we demonstrate that the LAM-TOF-MS system is capable of characterizing the depth profile as well as mapping 2D composition of deposited film on the molybdenum first mirror retrieved from HL-2A tokamak, with particular emphasis on some of the species produced during the ablation process. The presented LAM-TOF-MS system provides not only the 3D characterization of deposition but also the removal efficiency of species of concern. PMID:24880373

  9. Lung Transplantation for Lymphangioleiomyomatosis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Okada, Yoshinori; Akiba, Miki; Kondo, Takashi; Kawamura, Tomohiro; Okumura, Meinoshin; Chen, Fengshi; Date, Hiroshi; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Akinori; Yamasaki, Naoya; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Chida, Masayuki; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Hirai, Toyohiro; Seyama, Kuniaki; Mishima, Michiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung transplantation has been established as the definitive treatment option for patients with advanced lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). However, the prognosis after registration and the circumstances of lung transplantation with sirolimus therapy have never been reported. Methods In this national survey, we analyzed data from 98 LAM patients registered for lung transplantation in the Japan Organ Transplantation Network. Results Transplantation was performed in 57 patients as of March 2014. Survival rate was 86.7% at 1 year, 82.5% at 3 years, 73.7% at 5 years, and 73.7% at 10 years. Of the 98 patients, 21 had an inactive status and received sirolimus more frequently than those with an active history (67% vs. 5%, p<0.001). Nine of twelve patients who remained inactive as of March 2014 initiated sirolimus before or while on a waiting list, and remained on sirolimus thereafter. Although the statistical analysis showed no statistically significant difference, the survival rate after registration tended to be better for lung transplant recipients than for those who awaited transplantation (p = 0.053). Conclusions Lung transplantation is a satisfactory therapeutic option for advanced LAM, but the circumstances for pre-transplantation LAM patients are likely to alter with the use of sirolimus. PMID:26771878

  10. Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; McEntire, R. W.; Cheng, A. F.; Green, W. J.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer for in situ planetary surface analysis is described. The laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) measures the regolith's elemental and isotopic composition without high-voltage source extraction or sample preparation. The compact size (< 2 x 10(exp 3) cubic cm) and low mass (approximately 2 kg) of LAMS, due to its fully coaxial design and two-stage reflectron, fall within the strict resource limitations of landed science missions to solar system bodies. A short-pulse laser focused to a spot with a diameter approximately 30-50 micrometers is used to obtain microscopic surface samples. Assisted by a microimager, LAMS can interactively select and analyze a range of compositional regions (with lateral motion) and with repeated pulses can access unweathered, subsurface materials. The mass resolution is calibrated to distinguish isotopic peaks at unit masses, and detection limits are on resolved to a few ppm. The design and calibration method of a prototype LAMS device is described, which include the development of preliminary relative sensitivity coefficients for major element bulk abundance measurements.

  11. Hydrolase and glycosynthase activity of endo-1,3-β-glucanase from the thermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Van Lieshout, J.; Faijes, M.; Nieto, J.; Van Der Oost, J.; Planas, A.

    2004-01-01

    Pyrococcus furiosus laminarinase (LamA, PF0076) is an endo-glycosidase that hydrolyzes β-1,3-gluco-oligosaccharides, but not β-1,4-gluco-oligosaccharides. We studied the specificity of LamA towards small saccharides by using 4-methylumbelliferyl β-glucosides with different linkages. Besides endo-activity, wild-type LamA has some exo-activity, and catalyzes the hydrolysis of mixed-linked oligosaccharides (Glcβ4Glcβ3Glcβ-MU (Glc = glucosyl, MU = 4-methylumbelliferyl)) with both β-1,4 and β-1,3 specificities. The LamA mutant E170A had severely reduced hydrolytic activity, which is consistent with Glu170 being the catalytic nucleophile. The E170A mutant was active as a glycosynthase, catalyzing the condensation of α-laminaribiosyl fluoride to different acceptors. The best condensation yields were found at pH 6.5 and 50 °C, but did not exceed 30%. Depending on the acceptor, the synthase generated either a β-1,3 or a β-1,4 linkage. PMID:15810439

  12. Leaf Petiole and Stem Blight Disease of Sweet Potato Caused by Alternaria Bataticola in Uganda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternaria leaf petiole and stem blight is an important disease of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus (L.) Lam.) in tropical and sub-tropical regions. In surveys conducted in Uganda from 2001 to 2003, disease incidence ranged from 0-49%. Symptoms of Alternaria leaf and stem blight disease consisted of sm...

  13. Why Digital Data Collections Are Important

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Erik T.

    2012-01-01

    The silo is a well-worn metaphor in information systems used to illustrate separateness, isolation, and lack of connectivity. Through the many iterations of system development, libraries, archives, and museums (LAMs) have sought to avoid silos and find the sweet spot between interface design and metadata interoperability. This effort is being…

  14. Hong Kong Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching, Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Phil, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Seven articles on linguistics and language teaching, two book reviews, and four conference summaries are included in this volume. The articles include: "Laying Down the Law? Reflecting on Course Design in Progress" (Desmond Allison, Robin Corcos, Agnes Lam); "Beyond (F)utilitarianism: English as an Academic Purpose" (Alastair Pennycook); "On the…

  15. Some Conservation Problems of Higher Degree Theses in Victorian University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Nirmolini V.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study of problems in preserving higher-degree theses in Victorian university libraries. Rates of deterioration varied according to type of paper, ink, glue, bindings, and photographic materials. The development of a detailed set of guidelines is recommended for improving thesis preservation. (LAM)

  16. Detecting DNA double-stranded breaks in mammalian genomes by linear amplification-mediated high-throughput genome-wide translocation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiazhi; Meyers, Robin M; Dong, Junchao; Panchakshari, Rohit A; Alt, Frederick W; Frock, Richard L

    2016-05-01

    Unbiased, high-throughput assays for detecting and quantifying DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) across the genome in mammalian cells will facilitate basic studies of the mechanisms that generate and repair endogenous DSBs. They will also enable more applied studies, such as those to evaluate the on- and off-target activities of engineered nucleases. Here we describe a linear amplification-mediated high-throughput genome-wide sequencing (LAM-HTGTS) method for the detection of genome-wide 'prey' DSBs via their translocation in cultured mammalian cells to a fixed 'bait' DSB. Bait-prey junctions are cloned directly from isolated genomic DNA using LAM-PCR and unidirectionally ligated to bridge adapters; subsequent PCR steps amplify the single-stranded DNA junction library in preparation for Illumina Miseq paired-end sequencing. A custom bioinformatics pipeline identifies prey sequences that contribute to junctions and maps them across the genome. LAM-HTGTS differs from related approaches because it detects a wide range of broken end structures with nucleotide-level resolution. Familiarity with nucleic acid methods and next-generation sequencing analysis is necessary for library generation and data interpretation. LAM-HTGTS assays are sensitive, reproducible, relatively inexpensive, scalable and straightforward to implement with a turnaround time of <1 week. PMID:27031497

  17. A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, a parasitoid of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Carrejo, Nancy; Diaz, Ana E; Woodley, Norman E

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam., in Colombia. Aspects of its biology are briefly discussed. PMID:25112737

  18. Insect Interactions in Sweetpotato Breeding Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), is a vital staple food crop in much of the developing world, and it is an important specialty crop in the United States. American consumers prefer sweetpotatoes with sweet, moist orange flesh. After many years of decline beginning in the 195...

  19. Field evaluation of yield effects on the U.S.A. heirloom sweet potato cultivars infected by sweet potato leaf curl virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), a Begomovirus, infection of sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae) in South Carolina, USA has increased rapidly in recent years. This is likely due to the use of infected propagating materials and the increasing population of it...

  20. Registration of ‘Zenith' black bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Zenith’ black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, full-season cultivar with anthracnose [caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. et Magnus) Lams.-Scrib] resistance and excellent canning q...