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Sample records for berberis buxifolia lam

  1. In vitro propagation of Berberis buxifolia Lam.

    PubMed

    Arena, M E; Martínez Pastur, G; Vater, G

    2000-04-01

    Berberis buxifolia is a native shrub of Patagonia with a great importance due to its crop production as soon its medicinal and tinctorial applications. The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for in vitro propagation of B. buxifolia, with special emphasys on the rooting stage. The culture of the explants on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium added with 0.55 microM BA allowed to attain a multiplication rate of 1:4.7 at day 63. Rooted shoots were obtained on Murashige and Skoog medium with half strength of macronutrient salts. The culture of the shoots with a period of 4 days of darkness at the beginning of the rooting, on a medium with 1.25 microM IBA for 7 days, followed by a IBA free medium until day 28, allowed to attain 80% rooting. These results show that B. buxifolia can be in vitro propagated. PMID:10893802

  2. Two-stage culture for producing berberine by cell suspension and shoot cultures of Berberis buxifolia Lam.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, María A; Eraso, Natalia Fernandez; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra I; Marconi, Patricia L

    2009-03-01

    In vitro cultures of Berberis buxifolia were established using thidiazuron (4.5, 23 and 45 mM) or picloram (4 and 40 mM) as plant growth regulators for sustaining growth. For producing berberine, a two-stage culture was performed. In the first step, thidiazuron or picloram were used for biomass production followed by the production stage where benzylaminopurine (4.4 mM) was added as a plant growth regulator. Berberine yields (102 mg g(-1) DW) and in vitro shoot cultures (200 mg g(-1) DW) were significantly lower than those of whole plants in the field (416 mg g(-1) DW). The highest productivity (0.18 mg 1(-1) day(-1)) was attained using picloram (either 4 on 40 mM) in the first stage for producing biomass. PMID:18979211

  3. LAM (Lymphangioleiomyomatosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lungs Work Lung Function Tests Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders Thoracentesis Send a link to NHLBI to someone ... 50 percent of women who have LAM develop pneumothorax (noo-mo-THOR-aks), or collapsed lung. In ...

  4. Hepatotoxicity evaluation of aqueous extract from Scutia buxifolia.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Robson Borba; Rovani, Bruno Tomazele; Boligon, Aline Augusti; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Piana, Mariana; da Silva Jesus, Roberta; Veloso, Carolina Fantinel; Kober, Helena; Moresco, Rafael Noal; da Costa Araldi, Isabel Cristina; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays there is an increase in the number of people taking herbals worldwide. Scutia buxifolia is used for the treatment of hypertension, but little is known about its action on liver. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control and groups treated during 30 days with 100, 200 and 400 mg of lyophilized aqueous extract of S. buxifolia (SBSB)/kg of body weight. This study was planned to explore hepatotoxic effect of SBSB, which was assessed by serum transaminases (ALT and AST). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were determined in liver, along with thiols content (NPSH), catalase (CAT) activity and, superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Histopathological studies of liver tissue were performed. Flavonoids and phenolics were quantified in SBSB by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC/DAD). We did not observe alterations on redox status (TBARS, NPSH, CAT and, SOD) in the control and experimental groups. An increase on AST activity was only observed at 200 mg of SBSB, whereas ALT score was not affected by SBSB. Moreover, no morphological alterations were observed on the hepatocytes, matching the analysed biochemical parameters. This way, we conclude that SBSB was not toxic. PMID:23812249

  5. First report of graft-transmission and PCR detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus from Atalantia buxifolia in Guangdong, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atalantia buxifolia (Jiubingle), syn. Severinia buxifolia, is a common landscape plant and a popular Chinese medicinal herb known as Dongfengjie. It is unclear if this Rutaceous plant is a host for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the pathogen of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) in Guangdong, P. R. Chin...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Scutia buxifolia against the honeybee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    PubMed

    Boligon, Aline Augusti; Brum, Thiele Faccim de; Zadra, Marina; Piana, Mariana; Alves, Camilla Filippi Dos Santos; Fausto, Viviane Pedroso; Júnior, Valdir Dos Santos Barboza; Vaucher, Rodrigo de Almeida; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2013-02-01

    The honeybee disease American foulbrood (AFB) is a serious problem since its causative agent (Paenibacillus larvae) has become increasingly resistant to conventional antibiotics. One of the feasible alternative treatments being used for control of this disease are plants extracts. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of crude extract and fractions of Scutia buxifolia against six Paenibacillus species, including P. larvae, and its potential use for the control of AFB. In vitro activity of S. buxifolia samples against Paenibacillus species were evaluated by the disk diffusion and microdilution methods, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were also determined. All Paenibacillus species were sensitive to crude extract and fractions of S. buxifolia. The dichloromethane (DC) fraction showed the better MIC (1.56 mg/mL), followed by ethyl acetate (EtAc) (6.25 mg/mL), n-butanol (BuOH) (25 mg/mL) and Crude extract (CE) (50 mg/mL). Toxic effect of S. buxifolia crude extracts and fractions against bees were also evaluated by the spraying application method of the same concentrations of MICs. The samples tested showed no toxic effects for the bees after 15 days of observation. These results are first time described for this species and showed that S. buxifolia presented a important activity against Paenibacillus species and proved to be a natural alternative for the prevention/control of AFB. PMID:23220240

  7. Scutia buxifolia Reissek essential oil: in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Boligon, Aline A; Piana, Mariana; Brum, Thiele F de; Froeder, Amanda L F; Belke, Bianca V; Schwanz, Thiago G; Mario, Débora N; Alves, Sydney H; Athayde, Margareth L

    2014-09-01

    The volatile oil from the stem bark of Scutia buxifolia (Rhamnaceae) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-one components were identified representing 99.93 % of the total oil composition, spathulenol (35.87%), β-cubebene (17.26%), germacrene D (6.43%), linalool (5.19%), carvacrol (4.05%) were the main components of S. buxifolia essential oil. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil were evaluated by free radical scavenging (DPPH) assay and micro broth dilution method, respectively. S. buxifolia essential oil presented interesting radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 15.03 ± 0.11 µg/mL). The antibacterial assay showed that S. buxifolia stem bark essential oil was moderately active against the Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus sp. (MIC = 500 µg/mL) and Escherichia coli (250 µg/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from the S. buxifolia collected from Brazil. PMID:25211114

  8. Antiulcerogenic activity of Scutia buxifolia on gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in rats

    PubMed Central

    Boligon, Aline Augusti; de Freitas, Robson Borba; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Klimaczewski, Cláudia Vargas; de Ávila, Daiana Silva; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and their development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. Scutia buxifolia, commonly known as coronilha, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its pharmacological properties and its potential therapeutic applications. In this study, the preventive effects of the crude extract of Scutia buxifolia (ceSb) against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol were evaluated in male Wistar rats. In addition, the composition of ceSb was clarified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). S. buxifolia extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) attenuated oxidative and histopathological features induced by ethanol. Moreover, all evaluated doses of ceSb caused significant (P<0.001 and P<0.0001) and dose-dependent increase in sulfhydryl groups (NPSH) levels, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Furthermore, the administration of ceSb reversed the increase in lipid peroxidation produced by ethanol. The protective effect of the extract could be attributed to antioxidant compounds present in the ceSb, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, which were quantified by HPLC. Thus, an antioxidant effect of the extract leads to a protection on gastric tissue. These results indicate that S. buxifolia could have a beneficial role against ethanol toxicity by preventing oxidative stress and gastric tissue injury. PMID:26579405

  9. Two new acridone alkaloids from the branch of Atalantia buxifolia and their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yin-Yu; Yang, Wei; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Liu, Shou-Bai; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Two new acridone alkaloids, 3-methoxy-1,4,5-trihydroxy-10-methylacridone (1) and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4,5-trihydroxy-10-methylacridone (2), were isolated from the ethanol extract of the branch of Atalantia buxifolia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and weak inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase. PMID:23796077

  10. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

    PubMed Central

    Mokhber-Dezfuli, Najmeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species), there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation. PMID:24600191

  11. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of berberis species.

    PubMed

    Mokhber-Dezfuli, Najmeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species), there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation. PMID:24600191

  12. Berberis spp., Barberry, Oregon Grape Holly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. The Berberidaceae contains many edible fruited species, predominantly in two genera: Mahonia and Berberis. The tremendous diversity within barberry makes it difficult to chara...

  13. Phytochemical and antioxidant studies of Berberis lycium.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Shaista; Tahir, Kalim; Rashid, Naghmana; Naz, Sidra; Masood, Bilal; Shah, Muhammad Ajmal

    2013-11-01

    Six compounds have been isolated from methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Berberis lycium (Barberry). Four out of six isolated compounds are reported for the first time from this plant. Purification of different compounds has been accomplished by conventional extraction and chromatographic techniques. The compounds have been structurally characterized by IR, Low Resolution MS, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. All plant extracts and isolated compounds were assayed for the first time for their antioxidant activity. PMID:24191322

  14. LAM cells biology and lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Grzegorek, Irmina; Drozdz, Katarzyna; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzenna; Szuba, Andrzej; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Progressive lung tissue destruction in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) occurs as a result of excessive proliferation of LAM cells caused by a mutation in one of the tuberous sclerosis complex suppressor genes, TSC1 or TSC2. These cells show constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and many of the mTOR-related kinases such as Akt, Erk, S6K1 and S6. Phenotype of LAM cells differs considerably depending on their microenvironment. LAM cells show differences in morphology, size and expression of various factors depending on their location in the tumor or body fluids. The presence of LAM cells in blood, urine, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and chyle proves their ability to metastasis. Antigens of smooth muscle cells are expressed in most LAM cells. Some of these cells are immunoreactive with HMB-45 antibody, which is used for the immunohistochemical diagnosis of LAM. Receptors for estrogen and progesterone may also be expressed in these cells, which probably is associated with the fact that LAM occurs almost exclusively in women of childbearing age. LAM cells via increased production of metalloproteinases are involved in the destruction of the extracellular matrix, as well as the remodeling and damage of lung tissue. Sporadic LAM occurs extremely rarely. Therefore a good experimental model of this disease is necessary. To date, several animal and human cell lines, which both genetically and phenotypically resemble LAM cells, have been obtained. These cell lines, derived from LAM nodule or an angiomyolipoma, are usually characterized by a mutation of the TSC2 gene, expression of smooth muscle cell antigens such as a-smooth muscle actin (aSMA) or S6K1 and S6 protein hyperphosphorylation. Presently, there is no commercially available cell line representing a good model of LAM. A better understanding of LAM cell biology is necessary for creating a useful model in vitro for further exploration of both LAM pathomechanisms and more

  15. A review on biological and chemical diversity in Berberis (Berberidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sharad; Srivastava, Manjoosha; Misra, Ankita; Pandey, Garima; Rawat, AKS

    2015-01-01

    Berberis is an important genus and well known in the Indian as well as European systems of traditional medicine. It is used since ancient times for curing eye disease, fever, jaundice, rheumatism, vomiting during pregnancy, kidney and gall balder stones and various other ailments due to the presence of biologically active alkaloid berberine. Action of the root extracts of few species are believed to be as powerful as quinine in the treatment of malarial fever. A plethora of literature pertaining to the taxonomy, biology, chemistry, traditional and ethnic uses of Berberis in different countries and indigenous cultures was collected by both offline (library, journals, textbooks etc.) and online mode (electronic search of available databases). In addition to this, books on traditional medicine and ethno pharmacological knowledge were also referred to extract ancient uses of Berberis in different traditional medicine systems. Most of the folklore, traditional and ethno botanical claims about Berberis species were validated by broad spectrum in vitro and vivo pharmacological studies. The present article summarizes its usage in eye and liver disorder, fever, kidney and gall stones along with anticancer activity. This comprehensive review will not only help researchers for further evaluation but also provide substantial information for future exploitation of species to develop novel herbal formulations. PMID:26535033

  16. A review on biological and chemical diversity in Berberis (Berberidaceae).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sharad; Srivastava, Manjoosha; Misra, Ankita; Pandey, Garima; Rawat, Aks

    2015-01-01

    Berberis is an important genus and well known in the Indian as well as European systems of traditional medicine. It is used since ancient times for curing eye disease, fever, jaundice, rheumatism, vomiting during pregnancy, kidney and gall balder stones and various other ailments due to the presence of biologically active alkaloid berberine. Action of the root extracts of few species are believed to be as powerful as quinine in the treatment of malarial fever. A plethora of literature pertaining to the taxonomy, biology, chemistry, traditional and ethnic uses of Berberis in different countries and indigenous cultures was collected by both offline (library, journals, textbooks etc.) and online mode (electronic search of available databases). In addition to this, books on traditional medicine and ethno pharmacological knowledge were also referred to extract ancient uses of Berberis in different traditional medicine systems. Most of the folklore, traditional and ethno botanical claims about Berberis species were validated by broad spectrum in vitro and vivo pharmacological studies. The present article summarizes its usage in eye and liver disorder, fever, kidney and gall stones along with anticancer activity. This comprehensive review will not only help researchers for further evaluation but also provide substantial information for future exploitation of species to develop novel herbal formulations. PMID:26535033

  17. Some physical properties of sun-dried Berberis fruit (Berberis crataegina).

    PubMed

    Işıklı, Nursel Develi; Yılmaz, Ilkay

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate some physical properties of sun dried Berberis fruit as a function of moisture content, varying from 9.59% to 27.90% (w.b.). Dried fruit length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter and sphericity, increased nonlinearly from 7.19 to 7.53 mm; 3.42 to 4.03 mm; 2.78 to 3.02 mm; 4.05 to 4.51 mm and 0.56 to 0.62, respectively with increased moisture content. When we tested 1000-dried fruits, their mass increased linearly from 3.10 to 4.89 g, the true and bulk density increased nonlinearly from 769 to 845 kg m(-3) and 389 to 395 kg m(-3), respectively; with increased moisture content. Also, porosity values of dried fruits increased nonlinearly from 49.40% to 53.30%. The lowest static coefficient of friction was found on the steel surface. The angle of repose increased nonlinearly from 20.14° to 23.20° with the increasing in the moisture content. PMID:24426054

  18. Identification of Berberis spp. as alternate hosts of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is an important disease on wheat in China because of high virulence diversity. Since the discovery of sexual stage of P. striiformis on Berberis spp., especially B. chinesensis, our interests focused on identifying Berberis spec...

  19. LAM actuated propellant flow control device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinicke, Robert H.; Cust, Kevin M.

    1992-02-01

    An advanced design LAM (limited angle motor) positions an integral flow control element for bi-level flow control of storable propellants. The LAM incorporates permanent magnet latching to maintain the flow control element in either the low or high flow position without continuous electrical energization. The LAM stator and rotor are fully sheathed within stainless steel. This construction method permits the LAM to control storable propellants without using dynamic seals to isolate the LAM from the propellants. All welded construction prevents external leakage. The design concept selection rationale and the computer FEA (finite element analysis) methods employed to optimize design characteristics are presented. Correlations of analyses to test results are described.

  20. Tyrosinase inhibition kinetic studies of standardized extract of Berberis aristata.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Chaudhary, Sushil K

    2016-06-01

    The stem bark and wood of Berberis aristata DC (Daruharidra) are one of the principal ingredients of traditional skin lighting and exfoliating scrub preparation in India. The standardised extract of B. aristata was screened to evaluate their in vitro antityrosinase activity and inhibition kinetics. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies were carried out with different solvent fractions of the methanol extract of B. aristata (MEBA). RP-HPLC analysis was used to determine the berberine content in extract and fractions of B. aristata. MEBA showed maximum berberine content. Extract and fractions of B. aristata contain the maximum amount of alkaloids than other constituents. In tyrosinase inhibition assay, MEBA was found to possess highest dose-dependent monophenolase and moderate diphenolase activity. The enzyme kinetic study revealed that MEBA possessed mixed type inhibition of monophenolase activity of tyrosinase. These bioactivities indicate that the MEBA has antihyperpigmentation potential in human skin. PMID:26212353

  1. Investigations into Seed Dormancy in Grevillea linearifolia, G. buxifolia and G. sericea: Anatomy and Histochemistry of the Seed Coat

    PubMed Central

    BRIGGS, C. L.; MORRIS, E. C.; ASHFORD, A. E.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Seeds of east Australian Grevillea species generally recruit post-fire; previous work showed that the seed coat was the controller of dormancy in Grevillea linearifolia. Former studies on seed development in Grevillea have concentrated on embryology, with little information that would allow testing of hypotheses about the breaking of dormancy by fire-related cues. Our aim was to investigate structural and chemical characteristics of the seed coat that may be related to dormancy for three Grevillea species. • Methods Seeds of Grevillea linearifolia, Grevillea buxifolia and Grevillea sericea were investigated using gross dissection, thin sectioning and histochemical staining. Water movement across the seed coat was tested for by determining the water content of embryos from imbibed and dry seeds of G. sericea. Penetration of intact seeds by Lucifer Yellow was used to test for internal barriers to diffusion of high-molecular-weight compounds. • Key Results Two integuments were present in the seed coat: an outer testa, with exo-, meso- and endotestal (palisade) layers, and an inner tegmen of unlignified sclerenchyma. A hypostase at the chalazal end was a region of structural difference in the seed coat, and differed slightly among the three species. An internal cuticle was found on each side of the sclerenchyma layer. The embryos of imbibed seeds had a water content six times that of dry seeds. Barriers to diffusion of Lucifer Yellow existed at the exotestal and the endotestal/hypostase layers. • Conclusions Several potential mechanisms of seed coat dormancy were identified. The embryo appeared to be completely surrounded by outer and inner barriers to diffusion of high-molecular-weight compounds. Phenolic compounds present in the exotesta could interfere with gas exchange. The sclerenchyma layer, together with strengthening in the endotestal and exotestal cells, could act as a mechanical constraint. PMID:16157632

  2. The antioxidant and chemical properties of Berberis vulgaris and its cytotoxic effect on human breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hoshyar, Reyhane; Mahboob, Zahra; Zarban, Asghar

    2016-08-01

    In this study we evaluated the biological activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts from the fruit of Berberis vulgaris. The total antioxidant capacity of Berberis was characterized by FRAP, DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu while the anthocyanins content was measured by pH differential method. Cell viability and apoptotic property were determined by MTT and DNA fragmentation assays, respectively. Alcoholic extract of Berberis was richer in antioxidants and anthocyanins compared to aqueous extract. Although both extracts significantly inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells (MCF-7); these changes were not observed in normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF10-A). The alcoholic extract was more effective in inducing apoptosis as detected by DNA fragmentation in treated cancer cells. Our results suggest that Berberis has potent antioxidant properties and cytotoxic effects that can induce apoptosis. Therefore, Berberis can potentially be exploited for the development of therapeutics to fight against human breast cancer. PMID:25916942

  3. Estimation of berberine in ayurvedic formulations containing Berberis aristata.

    PubMed

    Rout, Kedar Kumar; Pradhan, Subhalaxmi; Mishra, Sagar Kumar

    2008-01-01

    A sensitive, simple, rapid, and efficient high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed and validated for the analysis of berberine in marketed Ayurvedic formulations containing Berberis aristata DC for regulatory purposes. Chromatography of methanolic extracts of these formulations was performed on silica gel 60 F254 aluminum-backed TLC plates of 0.2 mm layer thickness. The plate was developed up to 66 mm with the ternary-mobile phase butanol-acetic acid-water (8 + 1 + 1, v/v/v) at 33 +/- 5 degrees C with 5 min of tank saturation. The marker, berberine, was quantified at its maximum absorbance of 350 nm. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation values were found to be 5 and 10 ng/spot. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed a good linear relationship with correlation coefficient = 0.9994 in the concentration range of 10 to 50 ng/spot for berberine with respect to peak area. The instrumental precision was found to be 0.49% coefficient of variation (CV), and repeatability of the method was 0.73% CV. Recovery values from 98.27 to 99.11% indicate excellent accuracy of the method. The developed HPTLC method is very accurate, precise, and cost-effective, and it has been successfully applied to the assay of marketed formulations containing B. aristata for determination of berberine. PMID:18980133

  4. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of LAM?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of LAM? The uncontrolled growth of ... their effect on nearby body tissues causes the signs and symptoms of LAM. The most common signs ...

  5. Detailed pharmacognostical studies on Berberis aristata DC plant

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Bhawana; Sahu, Juhi; Koul, Sameksha; Kosha, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Berberis aristata DC (Berberidaceae) commonly known in Hindi as “Dāruhaldi” and “Citra,” is an important medicinal herb native to Northern Himalaya region. The plant is used traditionally in Indian system of medicine as an antibacterial, antiperiodic, antidiarrheal and anticancer and it is also used in the treatment of ophthalmic infections. Its root, stem and leaves also find their use in treatment of various ailments and hence is used extensively in Ayurveda. Materials and Methods: Samples of the whole plants of B. aristata were collected and identified. Hand and microtome sections were taken, stained and mounted and the cell content and cell wall structure were studied according to the method described by Kay and Johansen. Representative sketches were made with the help of camera Lucida. Methods for determining the quantitative values were the same as described elsewhere. For fluorescence analysis, the powder of the root, stem and leaf were examined under ultraviolet light. Total ash, acid insoluble ash and water-soluble ash values and water- and alcohol-soluble extractives were determined. Results: The detailed investigations carried on the pharmacognosy of the root; stem and leaf of B. aristata have brought out some salient diagnostic features, which allow one to differentiate it from other substitutes and or adulterants. The determination of quantitative values, fluorescence analysis and the use of lycopodium spore analysis has specifically contributed to this differentiation. Conclusion: From the foregoing observation on the pharmacognosy of root, stem and leaf of B. aristata DC, the salient diagnostic characters of three parts have been presented, which can allow one to differentiate it from other substitutes and or adulterants. PMID:24991073

  6. Flavonols, alkaloids, and antioxidant capacity of edible wild berberis species from patagonia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Antonieta; Zapata, Moises; Sabando, Constanza; Bustamante, Luis; von Baer, Dietrich; Vergara, Carola; Mardones, Claudia

    2014-12-24

    There are 20 species of the Berberidaceae family described in Chile, whose fruits are edible and show high anthocyanin and hydroxycinnamic acid levels. Berberis microphylla G. Forst, commonly known as calafate, is the most extensively distributed. Flavonols and alkaloids in seed, pulp, skin, and whole calafate berry extracts and other Berberis were studied using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and HPLC with fluorescence detector. Berry samples from different locations in Chilean Patagonia, including different phenological stages, were systematically addressed. Results were compared with other organs of the plant and with other Berberis species. Total flavonol concentration in calafate (n = 65) was 1.33 ± 0.54 μmol/g. Glycosyl metabolites of quercetin and isorhamnetin were the most abundant. Similar profiles were observed in calafate from distinct locations, but important differences were observed for the other edible Berberis species. Calafate pulp and skin have higher flavonol concentrations than seeds, and the maturation process reduced its levels. TEACCUPRAC and TEACABTS of whole calafate extracts and fractions are also explored. Finally, only berberine was detected in the fruit (0.001%), mainly in seeds. Results contribute to the promotion of this berry as a superfruit from Patagonia. PMID:25495577

  7. Determination of the role of Berberis spp. in wheat stem rust in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies on the relationship of barberry (Berberis spp.) and wheat stem rust suggested that although some barberry species can serve as alternate hosts for the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), barberry plants play no role in wheat stem rust development and virulence v...

  8. BERBERIS VULGARIS FRUIT CRUDE EXTRACT AS A NOVEL ANTI-LEUKAEMIC AGENT.

    PubMed

    Saedi, T A; Ghafourian, S; Jafarlou, M; Sabariah, M N; Ismail, P; Eusni, R M T; Othman, F

    2015-01-01

    Tumor protein p53 encoded by the TP53 gene in humans is known as a cancer biomarker in patients diagnosed with cancer, and it plays an essential role in apoptosis, genomic stability, and inhibition of angiogenesis. Cancer therapies with common chemotherapy methods are effective, as known, but have some side effects. Berberis vulgaris is traditionally administrated as a cancer drug. The current research aims to evaluate p53 as a biomarker in WEHI-3 cell line and to demonstrate the Berberis vulgaris fruit crude extract (BVFCE) as a new anticancer drug. For this purpose, we evaluated the effect of BVFCE in different concentrations against WEHI-3cell line in vitro and determined the quantitative level of p53 gene in the treated WEHI-3 cells. The results demonstrated that even at only 1 mg/ml concentration of Berberis vulgaris crude extract, there was a low level of p53 biomarker expression on WEHI-3 cells in comparison with doxorubicin. Therefore, the current study suggests BVFCE as a reliable anti-leukaemic drug and candidate for anticancer therapy. However, further investigation need be carried out to confirm its efficiency in vivo. PMID:26122228

  9. Effects of Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum association on metabolic parameters and adipocytokines in overweight dyslipidemic patients.

    PubMed

    Derosa, G; Bonaventura, A; Bianchi, L; Romano, D; D' Angelo, A; Fogari, E; Maffioli, P

    2013-01-01

    Nutraceuticals and functional foods have attracted considerable interest as potential alternative therapies for treatment of different cardiovascular disorders and insulin resistance. We evaluated the efficacy of a combination of Berberis Aristata/Silybum Marianum extract (Berberol®) in a sample of overweight, dyslipidemic patients at low cardiovascular risk. We enrolled 105 Caucasian, euglycemic, overweight, dyslipidemic patients, of either sex. At baseline all patients underwent a 6 months run-in period during which they followed an adequate diet and practiced physical activity. At the end of the run-in period, patients were randomised to take placebo or a combination of Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum, 1 tablet during the lunch and 1 tablet during the dinner, for three months, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum and placebo were then interrupted for 2 months (wash-out period), and all patients continued with only diet and physical activity. At the end of the wash-out period, patients re-started Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum or placebo twice a day for further 3 months. We evaluated during the run-in period, at randomisation, before and after the wash-out period these parameters: body weight and BMI, fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, insulin resistance, retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4), adiponectin (ADN), resistin. Total cholesterol, LDL-C, and Tg decreased, and HDL-C increase after 3 months of Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum, both compared to baseline and placebo. Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum decreased fasting plasma insulin, and HOMA-IR, both compared to baseline and to placebo. Moreover, there was a decrease of RBP-4, and resistin, and an increase of ADN after 3 months of Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum. All these positive effects disappeared after the wash-out period, and re-appeared after the re-introduction of the drug. We observed a significant correlation between HOMA-index decrease

  10. Therapeutic Strategies for Treatment of Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    PubMed Central

    Krymskaya, Vera P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare progressive lung disease affecting almost exclusively women. Neoplastic growth of atypical smooth muscle-like cells in the lung induces destruction of lung parenchyma leading to the formation of lung cysts, rupture of which results in spontaneous pneumothorax. LAM occurs sporadically or in association with inherited hamartoma syndrome tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Progression of LAM often results in loss of pulmonary function and death. Increasing understanding of neoplastic LAM cell growth is driving the development of therapeutic approaches targeting the disease progression. Areas covered This review provides background to understand the rationale for current treatments used in patients with LAM, to critically appraise the evidence for these treatments, and to discuss future treatment approaches. The literature review includes publications from PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov/. Expert Opinion Targeting mTOR activation with rapamycin analogs sirolimus and everolimus are awaiting approval by the FDA for treatment of LAM. A number of other treatment options have been investigated and are currently tested in clinical trials to target LAM cell survival and metastasis. Key remaining and poorly understood areas for development and validation of therapeutic targeting in LAM are destruction of lungs, pathological lymphangiogenesis, and hormonal regulation. Future will reveal whether they could be targeted therapeutically. PMID:26779398

  11. [Toxocological study of Guiera senegalensis Lam (Combretaceae)].

    PubMed

    Diouf, A; Cisse, A; Gueye, S S; Mendes, V; Siby, T; Diouf Diop, R M; Bassene, E

    2000-01-01

    The study was based on an aqueous extract derived from a 60 degrees ethanolic tincture containing 0.032 g of dry matter per ml. The leaves of Guiera senegalensis Lam (Combretaceae) were collected in December 1991 at Nguekhokh a village within 20 km from Mbour (Senegal). The extract was administered for six months through daily forced-feeling at 2 g/kg to Wistar male and female rats whose weight at the beginning of the experiment tanged between 140 g and 180 g. The urine was analysed during the study and the animals were weighed every four weeks. At the end of the experiment, the animals were slaughtered and various analyses carried out. Haematological features in relation with erythropoiesis, haemoglobinogenesis and leucopoiesis, were studied in relation with renal and hepatic functions; biochemical features too. Some organs (heart, lungs, kidneys, brain, cerebellum, spleen and liver) were removed and examined in order to detect possible lesions following the experiment. Judging by the results, Guiera senegalensis Lam (Combretaceae), as used in the experiment, did not show any significant toxicity. PMID:14679980

  12. A new isoquinoline alkaloid with anti-microbial properties from Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid. var. jaeschkeana.

    PubMed

    Alamzeb, Muhammad; Khan, M Rafiullah; Mamoon-Ur-Rashid; Ali, Saqib; Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    One new isoquinoline alkaloid named berberidione (1) along with four new source alkaloids berberine (2), palmatine (3), jatrorrhizine (4) and chondrofoline (5) and three new source non-alkaloids syringic acid (6), β-sitosterol (7) and stigmasterol (8) was isolated and characterised from different fractions of Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid var. jaeschkeana. All the structures were determined from 1D and 2D spectroscopic data. Crude extract, sub-fractions and isolated compounds showed excellent anti-microbial properties. The toxicity level for the alkaloids was found to be very low on THP-1 cells. PMID:25424893

  13. (+)-Chenabinol (Revised NMR Data) and Two New Alkaloids from Berberis vulgaris and their Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Novák, Zdenĕk; Hošt'álková, Anna; Opletal, Lubomír; Nováková, Lucie; Hrabinová, Martina; Kuneš, Jiří; Cahlíková, Lucie

    2015-10-01

    A known alkaloid (+)-chenabinol (1) and two new secobisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids were isolated by standard chromatographic methods from the root bark of Berberis vulgaris L. The structures of the new alkaloids, named berkristine (2) and verfilline (3), were established by spectroscopic (including 2D NMR), and HRMS (ESI) methods. The alkaloids were tested for their inhibition activity of human cholinesterases and prolyl oligopeptidase. Compound 1 inhibited human butyrylcholinesterase with an IC50 value of 44.8 ± 5.4 μM. PMID:26669104

  14. Century-old Mystery of Puccinia striiformis Life History Solved with the Identification of Berberis as an Alternate Host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life history of Puccinia striiformis remains a mystery because the alternate host has never been found. Inoculation of grasses using aeciospores from naturally infected Berberis chinensis and B. koreana resulted in infection on Poa pratensis, producing uredinia typical of stripe rust caused by P...

  15. Role of Berberis spp. as alternate hosts in generating new races of Puccinia graminis and P. striiformis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common barberry and several other Berberis spp. serve as the alternate hosts to two important rust pathogens of small grains and grasses, Puccinia graminis and P. striiformis. Barberry eradication has been practiced for centuries as a means to control stem rust. Diverse virulence variations have...

  16. Antileishmanial compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Preet Kamal; Singh, Sushma; Singh, Inder Pal

    2014-01-01

    The antileishmanial activity of extracts and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera Lam. was investigated in vitro against promastigotes of Leishmania donavani. The 70% ethanolic extract of roots and the methanolic extract of leaves showed moderate inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 83.0 microg/ml and 47.5 microg/ml, respectively. Antileishmanial activity of the methanolic extract of leaves increased upon fractionation, as its ethyl acetate fraction was found to be more active with an IC50 value of 27.5 microg/ml. The most active antileishmanial compound niazinin, a thiocarbamate glycoside isolated from this fraction, showed an IC50 value of 5.25 microM. Results presented in this study indicate that extracts from M. oleifera may be developed as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:24873031

  17. Aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root improves renal dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid; Ilkhanipoor, Minoo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Barberry root extract contains various alkaloids that are considered as antioxidants. Beneficial effect of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root (AEBIR) was evaluated for renal function in diabetic rats induced by STZ. Material and Methods: Diabetes was induced by i.p. injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg bw) to rats, after 15 h of fasting. Diabetic rats were randomly grouped and treated daily with AEBIR and glibenclamide by gavage for 42 days. After 6 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and some biochemical parameters of serum and urine were measured and their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy. Results: Streptozotocin induced a significant rise in fasting blood glucose, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urine glucose, urine protein, urine albumin, and water intake and a significant decrease in body weight, serum protein, urine urea, and urine creatinine. There was a significant restoration of these parameters to near normal after administration of the AEBIR and also by glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg bw). The activity of the extract at dose of 500 mg/kg in all parameters except blood glucose and urine glucose was more than that of the standard drug, glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg, p.o.). Histopathological changes of kidney samples were comparable with respective control. Conclusion: These results suggested that aqueous extract of Berberis Integerrima root improves renal dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through controlling blood glucose and renal protective effects. PMID:25050261

  18. Anthocyanin profiling of Berberis lycium Royle berry and its bioactivity evaluation for its nutraceutical potential.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Prakash Chandra; Saha, Supradip

    2016-02-01

    Berberis lycium Royle (Kashmal) belongs to Berberidaceae family and it has a small edible purple berry. It is grown wildly grown in Himalaya. The berry anthocyanins were characterised by HPLC coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) and mass spectrophotometer (MS) detectors. Twelve anthocyanins were identified in the purified extract of berberis berry. Two anthocyanins delphinidin-3-glucoside (35.3 %) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (47.2 %) were characterized as major components. Ten minor anthocyanins were Cyanidin-3-lathyroside (0.08 %), Cyanidin-3-rutinoside (0.53 %), Cyanidin-3-galactoside (1.62 %), Pelargonidin-3-pentoxilhexoside (2.26 %), Malvidin-3,5-dihexoside (4.21 %), Pelargonidin-hexoside (0.58 %), Pelargonidin- 3,5-diglucoside (1.05 %), Cyanidin-3,5-dihexoside (6.12 %), peonidin-3-rutinoside (0.77 %), pelargonidin-3-rutinoside (0.22 %). Apart from anthocyanins, six phenolics were also identified as chlorogenic acid, coumaric acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid and quercetin. Antioxidant activity evaluated by DPPH assay revealed IC50 value of anthocyanin was 25.3 μg ml(-1). FRAP and CUPRAC assay also gave significant antioxidant activity. MTT assay gave the absorbance of 0.53 at 250 μg ml(-1). It may be concluded that the wild berry should be exploited as a source of nutraceuticals for its constitutive phenolics and its activity. PMID:27162400

  19. UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS SISTERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS SISTERED TO OLDER BEAMS, NEW STRINGERS AND COMPONENTS MAKE UP A NEARLY NEW SUPPORT SYSTEM - Short Bridge, Spanning South Santiam River at High Deck Road, Cascadia, Linn County, OR

  20. Classical closure theory and Lam's interpretation of epsilon-RNG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    Lam's phenomenological epsilon-renormalization group (RNG) model is quite different from the other members of that group. It does not make use of the correspondence principle and the epsilon-expansion procedure. We demonstrate that Lam's epsilon-RNG model is essentially the physical space version of the classical closure theory in spectral space and consider the corresponding treatment of the eddy viscosity and energy backscatter.

  1. A remarkable new species of Coeliccia from the Tuyen Lam Lake area, Lam Dong, southern Vietnam (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platycnemididae).

    PubMed

    Dow, Rory A

    2016-01-01

    Coeliccia suoitia sp. nov. (holotype ♂, from Suoi Tia, Tuyen Lam Lake, Da Lat, Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, deposited in RMNH) is described from males from southern Vietnam. It is a distinctive species that possess highly unusual characters in the thorax and anal appendages that make its ultimate generic placement questionable. Relationships between Coeliccia Kirby, Asthenocnemis Lieftinck and Indocnemis Laidlaw, and within Coeliccia, are briefly discussed. PMID:27394751

  2. Ethnopharmacological uses of Antidesma madagascariense Lam. (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Korumtollee, Housna Nazifah; Chady, Zaynab Zaina Banu Khan

    2015-01-01

    Antidesma madagascariense Lam. is an indigenous plant of the Mascarene Islands which has interestingly shined as a promising traditional medicinal plant. The ethnobotanical uses of this plant were geared toward the treatment and management of dysentery, albumin in the urine, jaundice, fever, diabetes, skin infections, rheumatic and body aches among others. Preliminary screening of this plant coupled with a plethora of in vitro and in vivo tests have furnished scientists with documented findings that have appraised its traditional use in the treatment and management of infectious diseases. The presence of antidesmin, a commonly characterized component of Antidesma species, might justify the medicinal virtues of this plant. The present monograph aims at providing the botanical description, traditional uses and latest findings documented on A. madagascariense. Nonetheless, continued research on this plant needs to be completed in order to rationalize the use of this promising plant as a potential source of beneficial constituents for the treatment and management of human diseases and hence set up promising optimism for drug development. PMID:26401391

  3. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Roots and Fruits of Berberis libanotica.

    PubMed

    El Hosry, Leina; Boyer, Laurent; Garayev, Elnur E; Mabrouki, Fathi; Bun, Sok-Siya; Debrauwer, Laurent; Auezova, Lizette; Cheble, Edmond; Elias, Riad

    2016-05-01

    Fourteen compounds belonging to different chemical classes were characterized in the roots and fruits extracts from Berberis libanotica, using the same HPLC-DAD-MS method. Thirteen were reported, for the first time, from the fruits whereas the roots contained mostly alkaloids of which 3 out of 5 are reported for the first time. Their structures were established on the basis of MS data as gallic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), delphinidin (3), oxyacanthine (4), rutin (5), hyperoside (6), berbamine (7), isoquercitrin (8), quercitrin (9), jatrorrhizine (10), palmatine (11), berberine (12), quercetin (13) and luteolin (14). Extracts containing compounds 4 and 7 showed significant cytotoxicity against the HT29 cell line with an IC50 of 12.2-26.1 μg/mL. Fruits extracts, due mostly to compounds 1 and 2, showed potent antioxidant activities with an EC50 of 0.0025-0.019 mg/mL. PMID:27319140

  4. Male function for ensuring pollination and reproductive success in Berberis lycium Royle: A novel mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Supriya; Verma, Susheel

    2016-03-01

    In Berberis lycium anthers on alternate stamens dehisce, thus prolonging the male function so that pollination is affected and reproduction is ensured. The large pollen sac of each bithecous anther after the appearance of longitudinal dehiscence slit moves away from the filament while remaining attached at the tip of the connective and then orients in such a way that pollen-laden surface faces the stigma. No pollen is available to receptive stigma as pollen grains remain stuck to the anther sac. They do not get dispersed even by wind. Pollination and consequently reproduction is ensured through the intervention of insect, which does not affect pollen transfer to the stigma directly but by touching the base of the staminal filament while foraging nectar secreted by nectaries at the base of corolla, thus leading to staminal movement. This makes the dehisced anthers stick to the stigma and deposit pollen there. PMID:26949084

  5. Windows of opportunity: historical and ecological controls on Berberis thunbergii invasions.

    PubMed

    DeGasperis, Brian G; Motzkin, Glenn

    2007-12-01

    Attempts to determine characteristics that render habitats invasible to nonnative species have met with limited success. This may be because most studies focus on modern habitat conditions and do not consider invasibility in the context of a historically dynamic landscape in which both the abundance of a species and the invasibility of a site may change. We surveyed 159 currently forested sites for the occurrence and abundance of Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), an invasive, nonnative shrub in forests of the northeastern United States, relative to modern environmental conditions, contemporary logging activity, and two periods of historical land use. Berberis thunbergii occurred more frequently and was more abundant in post-agricultural forests than in continuously wooded sites. This relationship was stronger for agricultural sites that were abandoned and reforested after B. thunbergii was introduced to the region than for sites that reforested prior to B. thunbergii introduction. In contrast, recent forest harvesting did not influence the occurrence or abundance of B. thunbergii. Modern soil fertility explained a significant portion of the variation in B. thunbergii occurrence, whereas site history considerably improved predictions of population density and helped evaluate potential invasion mechanisms. While land-use history covaries with soil fertility and distance to putative seed sources, the strong relationship between modern abundance patterns and historical agriculture suggests that B. thunbergii colonized recently abandoned agricultural lands in the early 20th century and then persisted and spread locally during subsequent reforestation. Our results indicate that interpretations of both native community composition and modern plant invasions must consider the importance of historical landscape changes and the timing of species introduction along with current environmental conditions. PMID:18229845

  6. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Root on Some Physiological Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid; Ilkhanipoor, Minoo

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder. Anti-diabetic agents from natural and synthetic sources are available for the treatment of this disease. Berberis integerrima is a medicinal shrub used in conventional therapy for a number of diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root (AEBI) on some physiological parameters in normal and streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced) diabetic male Wistar rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), creatinine (Cr), urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin while body weight, high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein levels were significantly decreased compared to normal rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with different doses of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root (250 and 500 mg/Kg bw) resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, creatinine and urea while HDL-cholesterol and total protein levels were markedly increased after six weeks compared to untreated diabetic rats. The effects of the AEBI at dose of 500 mg/Kg in all parameters except blood glucose (similar) is more than to the standard drug, glibenclamide (0.6 mg/Kg, p.o.). The results of this study indicate that the tested aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root possesses hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24250618

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Myrtus Communis L, Berberis Vulgaris and Metronidazole Vaginal Gel alone for the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Masoudi, Mansoureh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a growing tendency towards herbal medicines for treatment of vaginitis. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of Myrtus communis L and Berberis vulgaris have been demonstrated invitro and invivo. Aim This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of the vaginal gel of Berberis vulgaris 5% (in metronidazole base) and Myrtus communis L 2% (in metronidazole base) with only metronidazole vaginal gel 0.75% on bacterial vaginosis. Materials and Methods This study was a randomized clinical trial research on 120 married women aged 18-40 years affected by bacterial vaginosis attended for treatment to gynaecology clinic of Hajar Hospital (Shahrekord, Iran). They were randomly divided into three groups of 40 participants. Diagnostic criteria were Amsel’s criteria. Myrtus communis L, Berberis vulgaris vaginal gel or metronidazole vaginal gel for five-night usage were prescribed to each group, and after 7 days therapeutic effects were assessed. Data analysis was performed using ANOVA and Chi-square tests. Results A statistically significant difference was observed with regard to treatment response among the study groups (p<0.001), with Myrtus communis L and Berberis vulgaris groups having a better response than metronidazole gel alone. Moreover, there was no significant difference between Myrtus communis L and Berberis vulgaris groups (p= 0.18). The patients in groups of Myrtus communis L or Berberis vulgaris in metronidazole base did not experience any relapse, but in metronidazole group, 30% of patients experienced relapse during three weeks follow up. Conclusion Findings of the study showed that treatment with a combination of Myrtus communis L or Berberis vulgaris in metronidazole base improve the efficacy of bacterial vaginosis therapy. PMID:27134945

  8. Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) fruits and other native berries from Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Antonieta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Herlitz, Erika; Vega, Mario; Dorau, Carolin; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2010-05-26

    Calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) is a native berry grown in the Patagonian area of Chile and Argentina. In the present study the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied and also compared with data obtained for other berry fruits from southern Chile including maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murtilla ( Ugni molinae ). Polyphenolic compounds in calafate fruit were essentially present in glycosylated form, 3-glucoside conjugates being the most abundant anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content in calafate berries (17.81 +/- 0.98 micromol g(-1)) and flavonol level (0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1)) are comparable with those found in maqui (17.88 +/- 1.15 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1), respectively); however, maqui shows lower flavan-3-ol concentration than calafate (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1), respectively). Maqui and calafate show high antioxidant activity, which correlates highly with total polyphenol content and with anthocyanin concentration. PMID:20438111

  9. Spine production is induced by fire: a natural experiment with three Berberis species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, Juan; Raffaele, Estela

    2004-12-01

    Earlier studies indicate that some plant species allocate more mass to produce longer spines in shoots resprouting after browsing. Here we present, for the first time, evidence that fire induces a similar response. Many terrestrial herbivores may benefit from fire through the enhanced availability of fast growing species colonizing or re-sprouting in burned areas. It is less clear whether post-fire plant growth responds to the enhanced risk of herbivory by an increased investment in defensive traits. In this study, we tested whether the production of spines is influenced by the set of environmental conditions that result from fire events. We compared the resource allocation pattern of resprouting shoots from three Berberis species growing in two areas that burned 1999 with samples collected from unburned areas within the same plant communities. We divided the shoot into three main components: supporting tissue (twigs), assimilating tissue (leaves) and defensive structures (spines). We found that plants resprouting after fire allocated more mass to spines and leaves but not twigs. This resulted in a higher density of both spines and leaves. Spines were significantly longer in plants resprouting after fire. Leaves were shorter at the apical end of the shoot, but did not show any significant change in size following fire. We suggest that this type of post-fire response may be a general adaptation to pruning and leaf picking by browsing herbivores in arid and semi-arid regions. Changes in the browsing pressure following fire will determine the fitness value of this response.

  10. Amplicon pyrosequencing reveals the soil microbial diversity associated with invasive Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC.).

    PubMed

    Coats, V C; Pelletreau, K N; Rumpho, M E

    2014-03-01

    The soil microbial community acts as a reservoir of microbes that directly influences the structure and composition of the aboveground plant community, promotes plant growth, increases stress tolerance and mediates local patterns of nutrient cycling. Direct interactions between plants and rhizosphere-dwelling microorganisms occur at, or near, the surface of the root. Upon introduction and establishment, invasive plants modify the soil microbial communities and soil biochemistry affecting bioremediation efforts and future plant communities. Here, we used tag-encoded FLX amplicon 454 pyrosequencing (TEFAP) to characterize the bacterial and fungal community diversity in the rhizosphere of Berberis thunbergii DC. (Japanese barberry) from invasive stands in coastal Maine to investigate effects of soil type, soil chemistry and surrounding plant cover on the soil microbial community structure. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were the dominant bacterial phyla, whereas fungal communities were comprised mostly of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla members, including Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes. Bulk soil chemistry had more effect on the bacterial community structure than the fungal community. An effect of geographic location was apparent in the rhizosphere microbial communities, yet it was less significant than the effect of surrounding plant cover. These data demonstrate a high degree of spatial variation in the rhizosphere microbial communities of Japanese barberry with apparent effects of soil chemistry, location and canopy cover on the microbial community structure. PMID:24118303

  11. Possible mechanism of cardiac depressant activity of Berberis orthobotrys roots in isolated rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Alamgeer; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Jabeen, Qaiser; Bashir, Sajid; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Karim, Sabeha; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Rasool, Shahid; Latif, Fozia; Tabbasum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim; Javed, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Berberis orhob, otrvs Bien. ex Aitch. (B.o.) has been reported to have antihypertensive effect in different experimental models. The aim of present study was to evaluate the possible antihypertensive mechanism. Aqueous methanolic extract of B.o. roots and its various fractions namely (ethyl acetate, n-butanol or aqueous) in different concentrations (10 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, I pg/mL, 10 pg/mL, 100 pg/mL ) were evaluated in isolated perfused rabbit heart to assess their effect on force of contraction, HR and perfusion pressure. The crude extract of B.o. and its fractions exhibited a significant decrease in heart rate, contractility and perfusion pressure of isolated rabbit heart, however, butanolic fraction produced more prominent effect and was selected for further study. The effects of butanol fraction were not blocked by atropine (10' M) in isolated perfused heart. However, butanol fraction significantly blocked the effects of adrenaline (10' M). It is therefore conceivable that cardiac depressant activity of B.o. butanol fraction might be due to the presence of certain 3-blocking agents which might be responsible for antihypertensive effect However, further experiments are required to isolate the active compound(s) and elucidate exact mechanism of action. PMID:25272893

  12. Effect of different extraction protocols on anticancer and antioxidant activities of Berberis koreana bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Syed Abdul; Kwon, Min Chul; Han, Jae Gun; Ha, Ji He; Chung, Hyang Suk; Ahn, Juhee; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2009-03-01

    High-pressure extraction and ultrasonification extraction techniques were employed to extract bioactive compounds from Berberis koreana. This study aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonification in a high pressure process on the extraction yield, and the anticancer and antioxidant activities of the B. koreana bark extract. The effect of high-pressure extraction time when carried out for 5 and 15 min (HP5 and HP15) was also investigated. The best extraction yield with maximum percentage of phenolic compounds was obtained using high pressure with sonification (HPWS) extraction method. Experimental results indicated that HPWS altered the antioxidant activities, including the scavenging capacity of diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and xanthine oxidase. HP5 and HP15 with conventional extraction have almost similar bioactivity, but showed lower antioxidant and anticancer activities compared to HPWS. The results showed that the application of ultrasonification improved the extraction efficiency for bioactive compounds and, as deduced from chromatographic profiles, it may have allowed the release of new compounds. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed evidence of rupturing of the tissue surface treated with HPWS, in contrast to conventional extraction, HP5, and HP15. The HPWS extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active compounds of hard plant tissues. PMID:19269602

  13. Optimization, characterization, and biological activity of polysaccharides from Berberis dasystachya Maxim.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijuan; Suo, Yourui; Yang, Yongjing; Meng, Jing; Hu, Na

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the extraction of water-soluble polysaccharides (BDPs) from Berberis dasystachya Maxim using dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) was discussed. A Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology has been employed to optimize extraction parameters of DMAE. The BDPs have been analyzed in order to identify a variety of chemical properties. Antioxidant and anti-tumor activities in vitro have been studied by DPPH, ABTS, reducing power assay, and MTT assay, respectively. The results obtained showed that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ratio of water to raw material (X1) 25.84 mg/L, extraction power (X2) 433.13W, extraction time (X3) 35.18 min, and the maximum yield of extraction was 6.472 ± 0.384%, which was in good agreement with the predicted value. The physicochemical tests demonstrated that the BDPs mainly consist of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and lactose in a molar ratio of 1:17.3:1.33:7:2.33:1.78; the average molecular weight of the BDPs was estimated to be from 2.95×10(5) and 1.52×10(3)Da, respectively. Furthermore, the BDPs exhibited effective antioxidant and anti-proliferative properties in vitro. Such pharmaceutical activities could prove useful for potential future applications involving the berries of B. dasystachya Maxim. PMID:26484601

  14. A quick overview on some aspects of endocrinological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Ali; Changizi-Ashtiyani, Saeed; Taheri, Soheila; Ramezani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Many herbaceous plants contain compounds that have biological effects in addition to their medicinal properties. They have compounds with numerous properties, including hypo lipidemic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and hepato protective ones, which have been analyzed at different levels. One of these plants, with the scientific name of Berberis vulgaris, is barberry. The most important compounds identified in this plant are berberine, oxycontin, palmatine, bervulcine, berbamine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, and berbamine. In addition to alkaloids, organic acids such as chelidonic acid, citric acid, malic acid, resin, tannin, pectinic, and mucilagic substances are among the ingredients of barberry. In this paper, it was attempted to determine the role and effect of the extract of barberry on various body organs. The results showed that berberine actually increases insulin sensitivity and is capable of inhibiting alpha glucosidase, adipogenesis, and thus acts as an anti-obesity and hypoglycemic agent. Berberine reduces the density of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and can improve the function of liver enzymes, therefore, it can be suggested as a hypo lipidemic and hepato protective plant extract. The hepato protective effects of this extract are probably due to its antioxidant properties. Studies showed that barberry have numerous health benefits, including anti-inflammatory ones. Moreover, it can be used as a medicinal herb to treat a variety of disorders, such as diabetes, liver disease, gallbladder pain, digestive, urinary tract diseases, and gallstones. However, more studies on this issue and doing more focused and intensive researches in this field are recommended. PMID:26693406

  15. Alterations of Blood Pressure and ECG following Two-Week Consumption of Berberis integerrima Fruit Extract

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Naser

    2014-01-01

    In light of the popularity and also the various nutritional and medicinal properties of Berberis integerrima, this study was conducted to assess the influence of its aqueous extract on hemodynamic and electrocardiogram (ECG) indices of rat. Animals were divided to control (CTL), B50, B100, and B200 groups that orally received tap water, aqueous extracts of B. integerrima fruit 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively, for two weeks and on day 15, data were recorded. Different doses of barberry fruit extract had no significant effect on blood pressure, heart rate, RR interval, P duration, and Q wave amplitude of electrocardiogram. Extract administration was associated with an incremental trend in PR interval that was not statistically significant. Higher doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) of extract significantly increased the QRS interval (P < 0.01 versus CTL and B50 groups) but decreased the QTc interval (P < 0.01 versus CTL group and P < 0.001 versus B50 group), the JT interval, and TpTe interval (P < 0.001 versus CTL and B50 groups). The results suggest that high doses of barberry extract definitely prolong the depolarization phase and shorten the repolarization phase of ventricular muscle and hence induce alteration in heart electrical conductivity. PMID:27351000

  16. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated hairy root induction in endangered Berberis aristata DC.

    PubMed

    Brijwal, Latika; Tamta, Sushma

    2015-01-01

    An efficient protocol for hairy root induction in Berberis aristata DC. was established using two different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, MTCC 532 and 2364 from IMTECH (Institute of Microbial Technology), Chandigarh, India. The strain 532 was more effective than strain 2364 in hairy root induction and in vitro grown callus (61.11 ± 1.60 % transformation frequency) was found to be suitable explant in comparison to leaves (42.59 ± 0.92 % transformation frequency) and nodal segments (34.25 ± 0.92 % transformation frequency) of in vitro grown microshoots for hairy root induction. The presence of rol A and rol B genes during amplification confirmed the transgenic nature of hairy roots and transformed callus. Transformation frequency of callus was further enhanced (from 61.11 ± 1.60 % to 72.22 ± 1.60 %; when infection time was 1 h) by using acetosyringone (100 µM) during co-cultivation period (48 h) on semisolid MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium. In conclusion, this study describes the protocol for hairy root induction which could further be useful for the production of berberin and may reduce the overharvesting of this endangered species from its natural habitat. PMID:26312208

  17. Preliminary study about the possible glycemic clinical advantage in using a fixed combination of Berberis aristata and Silybum marianum standardized extracts versus only Berberis aristata in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Putignano, Pietro; Villanova, Nicola; Montesi, Luca; Moscatiello, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Background Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid widely used to improve the glucidic and lipidic profiles of patients with hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. The limitation of berberine seems to be its poor oral bioavailability, which is affected by the presence, in enterocytes, of P-glycoprotein – an active adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-consuming efflux protein that extrudes berberine into the intestinal lumen, thus limiting its absorption. According to some authors, silymarin, derived from Silybum marianum, could be considered a P-glycoprotein antagonist. Aim The study aimed to evaluate the role played by a possible P-glycoprotein antagonist (silymarin), when added to a product containing Berberis aristata extract, in terms of benefits to patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study enrolled 69 patients with type 2 diabetes in suboptimal glycemic control who were treated with diet, hypoglycemic drugs, and in cases of concomitant alterations of the lipid profile, hypolipidemic agents. The patients received an add-on therapy consisting of either a standardized extract of Berberis aristata (titrated in 85% berberine) corresponding to 1,000 mg/day of berberine, or Berberol®, a fixed combination containing the same standardized extract of Berberis aristata plus a standardized extract of Silybum marianum (titrated as >60% in silymarin), for a total intake of 1,000 mg/day of berberine and 210 mg/day of silymarin. Results Both treatments similarly improved fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, and liver enzyme levels, whereas glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values were reduced to a greater extent by the fixed combination. Conclusion The association of berberine and silymarin demonstrated to be more effective than berberine alone in reducing HbA1c, when administered at the same dose and in the form of standardized extracts in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:24277991

  18. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2lam discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (540-965nm) was obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  19. Hypoglycaemic effect of Berberis vulgaris L. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Meliani, Nawel; Dib, Mohamed El Amine; Allali, Hocine; Tabti, Boufeldja

    2011-01-01

    Objective To achieve a primary pharmacological screening contained in the aqueous extract of Berberis vulgaris (B. vulgaris) and to examine the hypoglycaemic effect and biochemical parameters of aqueous and saponins extract on groups of rats rendered diabetic by injection of streptozotocin. Methods The phytochemical tests to detect the presence of different compounds were based on the visual observation of color change or formation of precipitate after the addition of specific reagents. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 65 mg/kg bw. The fasting blood glucose levels were estimated by glucose oxidase-peroxidase reactive strips (Dextrostix, Bayer Diagnostics). Blood samples were taken by cutting the tip of the tail. Serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides were estimated by enzymatic DHBS colorimetric method. Results Administration of 62.5 and 25.0 mg/kg of saponins and aqueous extract respectively in normal rats group shows a significant hypoglycemic activity (32.33% and 40.17% respectively) during the first week. However, diabetic group treated with saponin extract produced a maximum fall of 73.1% and 76.03% at day 1 and day 21 compared to the diabetics control. Also, blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract showed decrease of 78.79% on the first day and the effect remains roughly constant during 3 week. Both extracts also declined significantly biochemical parameters (20.77%-49.00%). The control in the loss of body weight was observed in treated diabetic rats as compared to diabetic controls. Conclusions These results demonstrated significant antidiabetic effects and showed that serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were decreased, significantly, consequently this plant might be of value in diabetes treatment. PMID:23569815

  20. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb extract shows anti-neoplastic effects on prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    El-Merahbi, Rabih; Liu, Yen-Nien; Eid, Assaad; Daoud, Georges; Hosry, Leina; Monzer, Alissar; Mouhieddine, Tarek H; Hamade, Aline; Najjar, Fadia; Abou-Kheir, Wassim

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), including those of advanced prostate cancer, are a suggested reason for tumor resistance toward conventional tumor therapy. Therefore, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed for targeting CSCs. Despite the minimal understanding of their modes of action, natural products and herbal therapies have been commonly used in the prevention and treatment of many cancers. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb (BLE) is a plant rich in alkaloids which may possess anti-cancer activity and a high potential for eliminating CSCs. We tested the effect of BLE on prostate cancer cells and our data indicated that this extract induced significant reduction in cell viability and inhibited the proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3 and 22Rv1) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BLE extract induced a perturbation of the cell cycle, leading to a G0-G1 arrest. Furthermore, we noted 50% cell death, characterized by the production of high levels of reactive oxidative species (ROS). Inhibition of cellular migration and invasion was also achieved upon treatment with BLE extract, suggesting a role in inhibiting metastasis. Interestingly, BLE extract had a major effect on CSCs. Cells were grown in a 3D sphere-formation assay to enrich for a population of cancer stem/progenitor cells. Our results showed a significant reduction in sphere formation ability. Three rounds of treatment with BLE extract were sufficient to eradicate the self-renewal ability of highly resistant CSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest a high therapeutic potential of BLE extract in targeting prostate cancer and its CSCs. PMID:25380390

  1. Sexual structures and recombination of the wheat rust fungus Puccinia striiformis on Berberis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Algaba, Julian; Walter, Stephanie; Sørensen, Chris K; Hovmøller, Mogens S; Justesen, Annemarie F

    2014-09-01

    An isolate of the basidiomycete Puccinia striiformis, which causes yellow (stripe) rust on wheat, was selfed on the newly discovered alternate host, Berberis vulgaris. This allowed a study of the segregation of molecular markers and virulence in the progeny isolates, and of the development of fungal sexual structures and spore forms. Pycnia and aecia were obtained after inoculation of B. vulgaris with basidiospores resulting from germinating teliospores from infected wheat leaves. Subsequent inoculation of wheat with aeciospores from bulked aecia resulted in 16 progeny isolates of the S1 generation. Genotyping with 42 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers confirmed a parental origin of progeny isolates. Of the 42 analyzed loci, 15 were heterozygous in the parental isolate and 14 revealed segregation in the progenies. This resulted in 11 new multilocus genotypes (MLGs), which confirmed segregation following sexual reproduction. Additionally, parental and progeny isolates were phenotyped using a genetic stock of wheat genotypes representing 21 resistance genes. All S1 progeny isolates had virulence for 14 out of 15 loci where the parental isolate was virulent. This was consistent with the hypothesis that virulence in plant pathogens is often recessive to avirulence, i.e., only expressed in a homozygous state. Furthermore, no segregation was observed for five out of six loci, for which the parental isolate had an avirulent phenotype. The results for one of the two segregating virulence/avirulence loci suggested that the parental isolate was heterozygous with Avr alleles resulting in different but clearly avirulent phenotypes. The other locus indicated that additional genes modifying the phenotypic expression of avirulence were involved. PMID:25042987

  2. Aqueous extract of dried fruit of Berberis vulgaris L. in acne vulgaris, a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fouladi, Rohollah F

    2012-12-01

    Berberis vulgaris L. (barberry) is a very well-known herb in traditional medicine. Apart from its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, the antilipogenic effect of barberry on the sebaceous glands in animals may further suggest it could be employed as an anti-acne agent. This study examined the effect of oral aqueous extract of barberry on acne vulgaris. Adolescents aged 12-17 years with moderate to severe acne vulgaris were randomly given oral gelatin capsules containing either aqueous extract of dried barberry (600 mg daily for 4 weeks, n = 25) or placebo (n = 24). Counts of facial noninflamed, inflamed, and total acne lesions, as well as the Michaelson's acne severity score were documented at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Both groups were comparable in terms of the patients' characteristics and baseline variables. After 4 weeks, the mean number of noninflamed, inflamed, and total lesions as well as mean Michaelson's acne severity score declined significantly by 43.25 ± 10.88% (median: 42.11%), 44.53 ± 11.78% (median: 45.45%), 44.64 ± 8.46% (median: 46.15%), and 44.38 ± 8.25% (median: 44.07%), respectively, among the extract receivers (p <.001 for all the changes). Similar changes were not significant in the placebo group. No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to barberry. In conclusion, oral aqueous extract of dried barberry is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in teenagers with moderate to severe acne vulgaris. PMID:23038982

  3. TSC2 epigenetic defect in primary LAM cells. Evidence of an anchorage-independent survival

    PubMed Central

    Lesma, Elena; Ancona, Silvia; Sirchia, Silvia M; Orpianesi, Emanuela; Grande, Vera; Colapietro, Patrizia; Chiaramonte, Eloisa; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) can be sporadic or associated with TSC and is characterized by widespread pulmonary proliferation of abnormal α-smooth muscle (ASM)-like cells. We investigated the features of ASM cells isolated from chylous thorax of a patient affected by LAM associated with TSC, named LAM/TSC cells, bearing a germline TSC2 mutation and an epigenetic defect causing the absence of tuberin. Proliferation of LAM/TSC cells is epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent and blockade of EGF receptor causes cell death as we previously showed in cells lacking tuberin. LAM/TSC cells spontaneously detach probably for the inactivation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Akt/mTOR pathway and display the ability to survive independently from adhesion. Non-adherent LAM/TSC cells show an extremely low proliferation rate consistent with tumour stem-cell characteristics. Moreover, LAM/TSC cells bear characteristics of stemness and secrete high amount of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Anti-EGF receptor antibodies and rapamycin affect proliferation and viability of non-adherent cells. In conclusion, the understanding of LAM/TSC cell features is important in the assessment of cell invasiveness in LAM and TSC and should provide a useful model to test therapeutic approaches aimed at controlling their migratory ability. PMID:24606538

  4. Legitimate seed dispersal by lizards in an alpine habitat: The case of Berberis empetrifolia (Berberidaceae) dispersed by Liolaemus belii (Tropiduridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celedón-Neghme, Constanza; San Martin, Leonardo A.; Victoriano, Pedro F.; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

    2008-05-01

    In this study we determined the effect of seed passage through Liolaemus bellii lizard digestive tracts on germination of fleshy-fruited Andean shrub species Berberis empetrifolia (Berberidaceae), and evaluated the effect of this passage on seed coat characteristics. In addition, we assessed the spatial patterns of fecal deposition by lizards onto various microhabitats available in the Andean environments of central Chile. The germination rate and the final percentage of lizard-ingested B. empetrifolia seeds was greater than control seeds. Comparing photographs and seed coat histological cuts, we suggest that the cutine wax present on seed coats from lizard-ingested seeds was probably removed by abrasion inside the lizards' digestive tract. Sixty-two percent of the lizard's feces was deposited on bare soil near rocks commonly inhabited by lizards. However, this microhabitat represents only 29% of the available ground cover at the study site. By enhancing seed germination and depositing seeds onto potential safe sites for recruitment, the lizard Liolaemus bellii is acting, at least qualitatively, as an effective disperser of Berberis empetrifolia.

  5. Hepatoprotective Effects of Berberis vulgaris L. Extract/β Cyclodextrin on Carbon Tetrachloride–Induced Acute Toxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hermenean, Anca; Popescu, Cristina; Ardelean, Aurel; Stan, Miruna; Hadaruga, Nicoleta; Mihali, Ciprian-Valentin; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the capacity of formulated Berberis vulgaris extract/β-cyclodextrin to protect liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Formulated and non-formulated extracts were given orally (50 mg/kg/day) to mice for 7 days and were then intra-peritoneally injected with 1.0 mL/kg CCl4 on the 8th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration, an increase in the levels of apartate-amino-transferase (AST), alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was found and a significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) levels could be detected. This was accompanied by extended centrilobular necrosis, steatosis, fibrosis and an altered ultrastructure of hepatocytes. Pre-treatment with formulated or non-formulated extract suppressed the increase in ALT, AST and MDA levels and restored the level of antioxidant enzymes at normal values. Histopathological and electron-microscopic examination showed milder liver damage in both pre-treated groups and the protective effect was more pronounced after the formulated extract was administered. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation induced by CCl4 was reduced in the group which received non-formulated extract and absent in the group which received formulated extract. Taken together, our results suggest that Berberis vulgaris/β-cyclodextrin treatment prevents hepatic injury induced by CCl4 and can be considered for further nutraceutical studies. PMID:22942749

  6. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Fruit Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Use of medicinal plants for attenuation of hyperglycemia and restoration of lipids disorder to normal level is clinically very important. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of Berberis integerrima Bge. fruit aqueous extract (BIFAE) on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetic rats. The STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated by fruit aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. at doses (250 and 500 mg/Kg bw) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/Kg bw) for 42 days by gavage. Blood glucose levels and body weights of rats were measured on weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6. Total lipid levels were determined in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats after administration of the BIFAE and glibenclamide for 42 days. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed a significant (P<0.001) increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) while body weight and high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterolan (HDL-C) were significantly(P<0.001) decreased compared to normal rats. Daily administration of BIFAE did not possess the hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic activity in STZ- diabetic rats during 6-week treatment period. Results indicate the usage of BIFAE in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes may need more investigation. PMID:25587320

  7. Optimization extraction conditions for improving phenolic content and antioxidant activity in Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Belwal, Tarun; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer Singh; Pande, Veena

    2016-09-15

    This study for the first time designed to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM). Solvent selection was done based on the preliminary experiments and a five-factors-three-level, Central Composite Design (CCD). Extraction temperature (X1), sample to solvent ratio (X3) and solvent concentration (X5) significantly affect response variables. The quadratic model well fitted for all the responses. Under optimal extraction conditions, the dried fruit sample mixed with 80% methanol having 3.0 pH in a ratio of 1:50 and the mixture was heated at 80 °C for 30 min; the measured parameters was found in accordance with the predicted values. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis at optimized condition reveals 6 phenolic compounds. The results suggest that optimization of the extraction conditions is critical for accurate quantification of phenolics and antioxidants in Berberis asiatica fruits, which may further be utilized for industrial extraction procedure. PMID:27080887

  8. The antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of aqueous extract from Berberis vulgaris fruit on hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Fatehi-Hassanabad, Zahra; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Tarhini, Ahmad; Fatehi, Mohammad

    2005-03-01

    The aqueous extract from Berberis vulgaris fruit (B.V.) was tested to evaluate its antihypertensive effects on DOCA-induced hypertension in the rats. Hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) by DOCA-salt injection (20 mg/kg, twice weekly, for 5 weeks, s.c.) plus NaCl (1%) which was added to the animals' drinking water. Then 5 weeks later, the rats were anaesthetized with thiopental (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and the arterial blood pressure was measured. The mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were 231 +/- 6.4 (mmHg) and 506 +/- 12 (beats/min), respectively. Administration of B.V. extracts significantly reduced the rat arterial blood pressure. In in vitro studies, rings of descending aorta were cut and mounted for isometric tension recording in an organ chamber containing Krebs solution. Mesenteric beds were also removed and perfused with Krebs solution. After 1 h of stabilization, preparations (aortic rings or mesenteric beds) were precontracted with phenylephrine (10(-5) M), then different concentrations of B.V. (0.4, 2 and 4 mg/mL) were added which caused a relaxation in these vessels. To investigate the mechanism of action of the extract, the tissues were incubated with either L-NAME (10(-5) M) or indomethacin (10(-5) M) for 20 min. In the aortic rings L-NAME pretreatment could only reduce the vasodilatory effects of a low concentration of B.V. (0.4 mg/mL), but indomethacin was without effect. In isolated perfused mesenteric beds preincubation with either L-NAME or indomethacin did not modify the vasodilator effects of the aqueous extract from B.V. fruit. The present results suggest that the antihypertensive and vasodilatory effects of B.V. fruit extract are mainly endothelial-independent and it may be used to treat hypertension, a status with endothelial dysfunction. PMID:15934023

  9. Stiochiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB, an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Gehring, K.; Cheng, Chaohsiung; Jap, B.K. ); Nikaido, H. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors have directly measured the stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB. Scatchard plots and computer fitting of flow dialysis (rate-of-dialysis) experiments clearly establish three independent binding sites per LamB trimer, with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 {mu}M for maltoheptaose. The current model for LamB's function as a specific pore is discussed with respect to the symmetry in LamB's kinetic properties and the implications of their results.

  10. Isolation, structure elucidation and enzyme inhibition studies of a new hydroxy ester and other compounds from Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid stem.

    PubMed

    Alamzeb, Muhammad; Khan, M Rafiullah; Mamoon-Ur-Rashid; Ali, Saqib; Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation and fractionation of Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid var. jaeschkeana stem resulted in the isolation and characterisation of a new long chain hydroxy ester named as berberinol (1) along with six known compounds (2-7). All the structures were established from 1D and 2D spectroscopic data. Crude extract, sub-fractions and all the isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-fungal and urease enzyme inhibition properties. All of the sub-fractions and compounds showed good anti-fungal and urease enzyme inhibition properties. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were calculated for all active samples in case of urease enzyme inhibition. MICs values were found to be in the range of 39.03-49.78 μg/mL for urease enzyme inhibition. PMID:25604951

  11. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  12. Policy considerations for the introduction and promotion of the lactational amenorrhea method: advantages and disadvantages of LAM.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, K I; Kotelchuck, M

    1998-09-01

    Some attributes of LAM are unquestionably positive, such as the fact that it is effective. Clinical trials of LAM have upheld the Bellagio Consensus that the chance of pregnancy is less than 2% in the first 6 months postpartum in amenorrheic women who are fully or nearly fully breastfeeding. Secondary data analyses in numerous settings have drawn the same conclusion. Whether as a strategy or a method, used correctly or even if used imperfectly, LAM is a reliable way to avoid pregnancy. To the extent that LAM represents an additional contraceptive option, this is also clearly positive since a broad array of contraceptive options maximizes the likelihood of finding a good fit between user and method, and increases contraceptive use. Other characteristics of LAM represent potentially positive impacts. If LAM is shown to be an effective conduit to other modern methods, the implications are profoundly positive. If LAM is cost effective, for households and/or for programs, this will also make the method extraordinarily attractive. Conversely, some aspects of LAM are negative, such as the fact that it affords no protection against STDs, it requires counseling from a well-informed provider, and intensive breastfeeding can make heavy demands on the woman's time. Many of the remaining attributes of LAM may not be important to a policy decision about LAM promotion. For example, whether LAM is actualized as a strategy or a method may not be important to a decision to promote LAM, although it has a huge impact on how services are delivered. Some factors may be profound on a local or individual level. For example, one simple factor, such as the absence of full/nearly full breastfeeding, can rule out the method as an option, while another, such as the fact that it provides the needed waiting period during vasectomy counseling, can make LAM the method of choice. Although LAM seems unlikely to have widespread popularity in societies like the United States, within such settings are

  13. Therapeutic options for lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): where we are and where we are going

    PubMed Central

    Steagall, Wendy K; Moss, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a multisystem disease affecting predominantly premenopausal and middle-aged women, causes progressive respiratory failure due to cystic lung destruction and is associated with lymphatic and kidney tumors. In the past, the treatment of LAM comprised exclusively anti-estrogen and related hormonal therapies. These treatments, however, have not been proven effective. In this article, we discuss new findings regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of LAM cell growth, which may offer opportunities to develop effective and targeted therapeutic agents. PMID:20948684

  14. Quantitative determination of isoquinoline alkaloids and chlorogenic acid in Berberis species using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awantika; Bajpai, Vikas; Kumar, Sunil; Arya, Kamal Ram; Sharma, Kulwant Rai; Kumar, Brijesh

    2015-06-01

    Berberis species are well known and used extensively as medicinal plants in traditional medicine. They have many medicinal values attributable to the presence of alkaloids having different pharmacological activities. In this study, a method was developed and validated as per international conference on harmonization guidelines using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry operated in the multiple reaction monitoring mode for nine bioactive compounds, including protoberberine alkaloids, aporphine alkaloids and chlorogenic acid. This method was applied in different plant parts of eight Berberis species to determine variations in content of nine bioactive compounds. The separation was achieved on an ACQUITY UPLC CSH™ C18 column using a gradient mobile phase at flow rate 0.3 mL/min. Calibration curves for all the nine analytes provided optimum linear detector response (with R(2) ≥0.9989) over the concentration range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL. The precision and accuracy were within RSDs ≤2.4 and ≤2.3%, respectively. The results indicated significant variation in the total contents of the nine compounds in Berberis species. PMID:25847792

  15. A new tigliane-type diterpene from Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lin-Feng; Liang, Qian; Liu, Tie; He, Ming-Yu; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Wen-Hui

    2016-07-01

    One new tigliane-type diterpene, 4-deoxy-4(β)H-8-hydroperoxyphorbol-12-benzoate-13-isobutyrate (1), together with two known diterpenoids, 3-acetyl-5,8-dibenzoyl-14α-propanoyl-13,17-epoxy-7-myrsinaone diterpene with C9-C10 cyclised to form an additional lactone ring (2), Euphodendriane A (3) have been isolated from the whole plants of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis (NMR and HR-ESI-MS) and comparison with data reported in the literature. This is the first isolation of 8-hydroperoxy tigliane diterpene (1) from the genus of Euphorbia. All compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activities. PMID:26729599

  16. Combinatorial approach to Mathieu and Lamé equations

    SciTech Connect

    He, Wei

    2015-07-15

    Based on some recent progress on a relation between four dimensional super Yang-Mills gauge theory and quantum integrable system, we study the asymptotic spectrum of the quantum mechanical problems described by the Mathieu equation and the Lamé equation. The large momentum asymptotic expansion of the eigenvalue is related to the instanton partition function of supersymmetric gauge theories which can be evaluated by a combinatorial method. The electro-magnetic duality of gauge theory indicates that in the parameter space, there are three asymptotic expansions for the eigenvalue, and we confirm this fact by performing the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) analysis in each asymptotic expansion region. The results presented here give some new perspective on the Floquet theory about periodic differential equation.

  17. Phytochemical Investigations on Chemical Constituents of Achillea tenuifolia Lam

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdol Majid

    2014-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a methanolic extract from which after fractionation in solvents with different polarities, two known flavones 3’, 5- dihydroxy- 4’, 6, 7- trimethoxy flavone (eupatorine, compound 3), 5- hydroxy- 3’,4’, 6, 7- tetramethoxyflavone (compound 4), besides stearic acid (compound 1), lupeol (compound 2), daucosterol (β- sitosterol 3-O- β- D- glucopyranoside, compound 5), 2, 4- dihydroxy methyl benzoate (compound 6) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by means of different spectroscopic methods such as UV, IR, Mass and 1H- NMR (1D and 2D) and 13C-NMR. For further confirming the structures of isolated compounds, comparison of the spectral data of them with those reported in the litratures have been done. PMID:25276207

  18. Analysis of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) patent tomograms: Stereology and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, V.; Wing, G.M.; Winter, L.; Zahrt, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an insidious disease of young women which attacks the lungs and if untreated results in death. Treatment is radical. Currently a woman diagnosed as having LAM (usually by computed tomography (CT) of the lung) is run through an exhausting set of tests and exercises to determine the extent of the disease. Image processing techniques have been able to quantify the tomograms by providing a histogram of the number of cyst intercepts of a given area. The images are digital, so the data are discrete, and the areas are in terms of square pixels. It is hoped that by analyzing the data and by recovering the probability density of the cysts themselves one can provide a set of parameters that will aid in the early diagnosis of the disease and that will correlate well with the physiology. The desire to invert the data, that is to determine the probability density of the cysts from the probability density of the circular intersections of the cysts with the tomographic plane, led to a re-examination of the Wicksell equation. In Section 2, the authors transform Wicksell`s equation in diameter (a generalized Abel equation) into an equation in areas (the original Abel equation). In Section 3 they present the adjoint equation in several equivalent forms. Analytic solutions of the adjoint equation necessary for later use are developed in Section 4. Outside of the framework of integral equations they have done some modeling of the data. They find that, to a very high degree of reliability, the data follows a simple power law. The distribution of spheres likewise follows a simple power law. These considerations are given in Section 5. Then in Section 6 they explore the exponential model as an alternative. Section 7 solves the Wicksell equation and uses the Golberg device, via the adjoint, to solve a related problem. They finally get to the number of cysts and their average size in Section 8. Their conclusions are in Section 9.

  19. Overview of Sustainability Studies of CNC Machining and LAM of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamekye, Patricia; Leino, Maija; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM), known also as 3D printing, is a powder bed fusion (PBF) type of additive manufacturing (AM) technology used to fabricate metal parts out of metal powder. The development of the technology from building prototype parts to functional parts has increased remarkably in 2000s. LAM of metals is promising technology that offers new opportunities to manufacturing and to resource efficiency. However, there is only few published articles about its sustainability. Aim in this study was to create supply chain model of LAM and CNC machining and create a methodology to carry out a life cycle inventory (LCI) data collection for these techniques. The methodology of the study was literature review and scenario modeling. The acquisition of raw material, production phase and transportations were used as basis of comparison. The modelled scenarios were fictitious and created for industries, like aviation and healthcare that often require swift delivery as well as customized parts. The results of this study showed that the use of LAM offers a possibility to reduce downtime in supply chains of spare parts and reduce part inventory more effectively than CNC machining. Also the gap between customers and business is possible to be shortened with LAM thus offering a possibility to reduce emissions due to less transportation. The results also indicated weight reduction possibility with LAM due to optimized part geometry which allow lesser amount of metallic powder to be used in making parts.

  20. Chemotherapeutic effect of Berberis integerrima hydroalcoholic extract on colon cancer development in the 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine rat model.

    PubMed

    Malayeri, Mohammad R Mohammadi; Dadkhah, Abolfazl; Fatemi, Faezeh; Dini, Salome; Torabi, Fatemeh; Tavajjoh, Mohammad M; Rabiei, Javad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a Berberis integerrima hydroalcoholic extract as a chemotherapeutic agent in colon carcinogenesis in the rat induced by 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH). Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: a negative control group without DMH treatment; a control group injected DMH (20 mg/kg b.w); two groups receiving B. integerrima extract (50 and 100 mg/kg b.w), concomitant with injected DMH, as chemotherapeutic groups; a positive control group receiving 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) along with DMH. The effects of the extracts were determined by assessment of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and the activities of hepatic glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450 (GST and CYP450). Additionally, colon tissues were assessed for colonic β-catenin and histopathological analysis. In DMH-treated rats, the extracts partially normalized the levels of FRAP, CYP450, β-catenin, and GST. Likewise, formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in colon tissue of DMH-treated was reduced by the extracts. Thus, the extracts possess chemotherapeutic activity against colon carcinogenesis. PMID:27232632

  1. Effect of root bark extract of Berberis vulgaris L. on Leishmania major on BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Salehabadi, Alireza; Karamian, Mahdi; Farzad, Motevalli Haghi; Namaei, Mohammad Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most important diseases transmitted by arthropod. This disease is present in 88 countries. Approximately 400 million people are at risk, and 12 million are involved. We aimed to examine the application of ethanolic extract of the root bark of Berberis vulgaris L. for treatment of mice infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis. At first, 40 BALB/c mice were infected to Leishmania major promastigotes and were divided in two groups A and B. Then, each of A and B groups were divided to two subgroups. Mice from subgroup A1 were treated with 10% root bark alcoholic extract, and mice from subgroup A2 were treated with only alcohol (control). Mice from subgroup B1 were treated with 20% root bark alcoholic extract, and mice from subgroup B2 were treated with only alcohol (control). The 90% recovery was found in the mice treated with 20% root bark extract, and 55% recovery was found with 10% root bark extract, but in the control group, 0% recovery was found. The results of our study showed that the lotion of root bark extract has good suppression effects on parasites. Therefore, it might be a pro for developing new antileishmanial drugs. PMID:24337510

  2. Antioxidant properties of Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae) roots extract and protective effects on astroglial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Agata; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Bonfanti, Roberta; Raciti, Giuseppina; Amodeo, Andrea; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Ragusa, Salvatore; Iauk, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae) is a bushy-spiny shrub common on Mount Etna (Sicily). We demonstrated that the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl contains prevalently berberine and berbamine, possesses antimicrobial properties, and was able to counteract the upregulation evoked by glutamate of tissue transglutaminase in primary rat astroglial cell cultures. Until now, there are no reports regarding antioxidant properties of B. aetnensis C. Presl collected in Sicily. Air-dried, powdered roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl were extracted, identified, and quantified by HPLC. We assessed in cellular free system its effect on superoxide anion, radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants against free radicals like the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. In primary rat astroglial cell cultures, exposed to glutamate, we evaluated the effect of the extract on glutathione levels and on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species generated by glutamate. The alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis C. Presl inhibited superoxide anion, restored to control values, the decrease of GSH levels, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Potent antioxidant activities of the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl may be one of the mechanisms by which the extract is effective against health disorders associated to oxidative stress. PMID:25177720

  3. Histopathological evaluation of gastro protective effect of Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk) seeds against aspirin induced ulcer in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Wafa; Aslam, Bilal; Javed, Ijaz; Khaliq, Tanweer; Muhammad, Faqir; Ali, Asghar; Raza, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antiulcer activity of Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk) seeds in albino mice. After acclimatization, animals were divided into six equal groups. Aspirin 150 mg/kg was used to induce gastric ulcer in all groups except normal control. Omeprazole 20mg/kg was used as synthetic anti ulcer drug in study. Three dose levels of B. vulgaris seed powder 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg were used respectively orally. Histopathological analysis was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of B. vulgaris seed powder. Results of the study showed that in case of aspirin treated mice gastric luminal mucosa villi were decreased in height or were absent. In the glandular region there was connective tissue proliferation and also infiltration of cells. Similar infiltration of cells was present on muscularis mucosa. In esophageal region tumor cells were present. However three dose levels of B. vulgaris significantly reduced the tissue proliferation, infiltration of cells and sloughing induced by aspirin. Highest dose of B. vulgaris (900 mg/kg) showed similar results as synthetic antiulcer drug omeprazole. PMID:26639472

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Alkaloid Fractions from Berberis microphylla G. Forst and Study of Synergism with Ampicillin and Cephalothin.

    PubMed

    Manosalva, Loreto; Mutis, Ana; Urzúa, Alejandro; Fajardo, Victor; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Berberis microphylla is a native plant that grows in Patagonia and is commonly used by aboriginal ethnic groups in traditional medicine as an antiseptic for different diseases. The present study evaluated the antibacterial and synergistic activity of alkaloid extracts of B. microphylla leaves, stems and roots used either individually or in combination with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root alkaloid extracts had significant activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. Disc diffusion tests demonstrated that the root extract showed similar activity against B. cereus and S. epidermidis compared to commercial antibiotics, namely ampicillin and cephalothin, and pure berberine, the principal component of the alkaloid extracts, was found to be active only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis with similar activity to that of the root extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the alkaloid extracts ranged from 333 to 83 μg/mL, whereas minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) varied from 717 to 167 μg/mL. In addition, synergistic or indifferent effects between the alkaloid extracts and antibiotics against bacterial strains were confirmed. PMID:26760994

  5. Stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB, an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, K; Cheng, C H; Nikaido, H; Jap, B K

    1991-01-01

    We have directly measured the stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB. Scatchard plots and computer fitting of flow dialysis (rate-of-dialysis) experiments clearly establish three independent binding sites per LamB trimer, with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 microM for maltoheptaose. The current model for LamB's function as a specific pore is discussed with respect to the symmetry in LamB's kinetic properties and the implications of our results. Images PMID:2001992

  6. New phytoconstituents from the aerial parts of Fumaria parviflora Lam

    PubMed Central

    Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae) is an annual herb found throughout the world. Traditionally it has great significance in various disorders. In folk medicine of Turkey it is used against hepato-biliary dysfunction and imported from Iran. In Charaka and Sushruta, it is recommended for treatment of fevers, blood disorders, chronic skin diseases, urinary diseases and cough. The compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel (60-120 mesh) as stationary phase and structure of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of its aerial parts led to the isolation of five new compounds characterized as (5αH,11αH)-8-oxo-homoiridolide (1), n-docosanyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl salicylate (2), 2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylenedodecan-10-oyl-12, 15-olide14-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (3), 4-oxo-stigmast-5-en-3β-ol-D-glucopyranoside (4) and salicylic acid-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (5) along with the known compounds α-D-glucopyranosyl hexadecanoate (6) and α-D-glucopyranosyl- (2 → 1ʹ)-α-D-glucopyranoside (7). The isolated compounds are useful as they will provide essential data and information for the further researchers and development of effective analytical marker for identity, purity and quality control of this traditional plant in future. PMID:24959414

  7. Pharmacological investigations on Achyrocline satureioides (LAM.) DC., Compositae.

    PubMed

    Simões, C M; Schenkel, E P; Bauer, L; Langeloh, A

    1988-04-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. inflorescences have been used as remedies in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of human ailments, particularly those of the gastrointestinal tract. Different extracts of inflorescences have been tested for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, constipating and sedative activities. The aqueous extracts (maceration and decoction) and ethanolic macerate exhibited an inhibition of the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema at a dose range of 75-500 mg kg-1 i.p., and also showed analgesic effect with the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. The gastrointestinal propulsion of a charcoal suspension was not affected significantly by any extract, at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 p.o., in mice. The aqueous decoction increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, at doses of 200 and 500 mg kg-1 i.p. and p.o., in mice. The ethanolic macerate inhibited contractions induced by acetylcholine, histamine, noradrenaline and barium chloride in four different smooth muscle tissues. The antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory activities were reproduced with quercetin, luteolin and quercetin 3-methyl ether, flavonoids that have been isolated from this plant. A partial evaluation of the toxicity of the extracts was also performed. The pharmacological effects assayed are discussed in relation to the chemical constituents of this plant and its popular use in gastrointestinal disturbances, and inflammatory conditions could be related to the presence of the flavonoids. PMID:3393010

  8. Predictive and prognostic properties of TB-LAM among HIV-positive patients initiating ART in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    d'Elia, Alexander; Evans, Denise; McNamara, Lynne; Berhanu, Rebecca; Sanne, Ian; Lönnermark, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    While the diagnostic properties of the TB LAM urine assay (LAM) have been well-described, little is known about its predictive and prognostic properties at ART initiation in a routine clinic setting. We describe the predictive and prognostic properties of LAM in HIV-positive patients initiating ART at an urban hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Retrospective study of HIV-positive adults (>18 years) who initiated standard first-line ART between February 2012 and April 2013 and had a LAM test at initiation. In HIV-positive patients with no known TB at ART initiation, we assessed the sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative likelihood ratios of LAM to predict incident TB within 6 months of ART initiation. In addition, in patients with a TB diagnosis and on TB treatment <3 months at ART initiation, we measured the CD4 response at 6 months on ART. Of the 274 patients without TB at ART initiation, 65% were female with median CD4 count of 213 cells/mm3. Among the 14 (5.1%) patients who developed active TB, none were urine LAM +ve at baseline. LAM had poor sensitivity (0.0% 95% CI 0.00-23.2) to predict incident TB within 6 months of initiation. We analyzed 22 patients with a confirmed TB diagnosis at initiation separately. Of these, LAM +ve patients (27%) showed lower CD4 gains compared to LAM negative patients (median increase 103 vs 199 cells/mm3; p = 0.08). LAM has limited value for accurately predicting incident TB in patients with higher CD4 counts after ART initiation. LAM may help identify TB/HIV co-infected patients at ART initiation who respond more slowly to treatment and require targeted interventions to improve treatment outcomes. Larger studies with longer patient follow-up are needed. PMID:26600904

  9. A novel Vibrio beta-glucosidase (LamN) that hydrolyzes the algal storage polysaccharide laminarin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Robertson, Kelly L; Liu, Charles; Liu, Jinny L; Johnson, Brandy J; Leary, Dagmar H; Compton, Jaimee R; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Legler, Patricia M; Vora, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    The metabolic versatility, tractability and rapid growth potential of the Vibrio spp. have made them increasingly attractive systems for investigating carbon cycling in the marine environment. In this study, an in silico subtractive proteomic strategy was used to identify a novel 101 kDa GH3 family β-glucosidase (LamN) that was found in bioluminescent Vibrio campbellii strains capable of utilizing the algal storage glucan laminarin. A heterologous overexpression system verified the sequence-predicted function of LamN as it enabled the growth of Escherichia coli on laminarin as a sole carbon source. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR analyses revealed that V. campbellii grown on laminarin demonstrated a 4- to 314-fold induction of lamN gene expression when compared to the same strains grown on glucose or glycerol. Corresponding tandem mass spectrometric analyses detected LamN protein expression only in cells grown on laminarin. Heterologous expression, purification and biochemical characterization identified LamN as a heat stable laminarinase with β-1,3, β-1,4 and β-1,6 glucosidase activity. Collectively, these data identify an enzyme that may allow V. campbellii to exploit some of the most abundant polysaccharides associated with deteriorating phytoplankton blooms and provide support for the potential involvement of V. campbellii in the formation of bioluminescent milky seas. PMID:26207048

  10. A Sacrificial Lam: A Divided School Board, a Beleaguered Superintendent, and an Urgent Need to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossey, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This case describes the confrontational relationship between four trustees on the San Antonio School Board and the San Antonio School District's superintendent Diana Lam, a nationally recognized school reformer, who came to San Antonio in 1994. The case includes a dramatic board meeting where a closely divided board meets to buy out Lam's…

  11. Protective effect of methanolic extract of Berberis integerrima Bunge. root on carbon tetrachloride-induced testicular injury in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Fereshteh; Nejati, Vahid; Heidari, Reza; Ashraf, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tissue protective effect of compounds with antioxidant properties has been demonstrated. The alkaloids found in barberry root are considered as antioxidants. Objective: According to barberry protective effects in different tissues, in this study, the protective effect of Berberis integerrima Bge. root )MEBIR) was evaluated against CCl4-induced testicular damages in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: 40 mature male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: 1: Normal control, 2: Sham: received CCl4 diluted in olive oil (50% v/v; 1ml/kg bw), intraperitoneally, twice a week for 4 weeks, 3 and 4: Sham rats treated with MEBIR (250 and 500 mg/kg bw) for 28 days, 5: Sham rats treated with silymarin (50 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. After 28 days, serum testosterone level, absolute testis weight, catalase activity, malondialdehyde level, and histological parameters were investigated. Results: In the treated rats with MEBIR (250 and 500 mg/kg bw) or silymarin (50 mg/kg bw), there was a significant increase in the absolute testis weight, testosterone level, seminiferous tubules diameter (p<0.001), thickness of the epithelium, tubule differentiation index) p<0.001), spermiogenesis index (p<0.001), the activity of catalase, and a significant decrease in interstitial tissue thickness (p<0.001) and malondialdehyde level in comparison with CCl4-treated group. The effect of the MEBIR at dose of 500 mg/kg bw is more than that of the standard drug, silymarin (50 mg/kg bw). Conclusion: From the results, it is suggested that the protective effects of MEBIR is possibly due to antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds. PMID:27200428

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of Berberis aristata DC. in experimental models of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rohit; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar; Singh, Surender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Berberis aristata (Berberidaceae) is an important medicinal plant used in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disorders. The aim of the present study is to scientifically validate the traditional use of BA in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of BA hydroalcoholic extract (BAHE) were evaluated in experimental models, viz., carrageenan-induced paw edema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation, and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced stimulation of peritoneal macrophages in rats. Expression of inflammatory mediators, viz., tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, TNF-R1, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was carried out in serum and peritoneal macrophages to derive the plausible mechanism of BAHE in activated peritoneal macrophages. Results: Pretreatment with BAHE produced a dose-dependent reduction (P < 0.01) in carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. BAHE treatment produced significant (P < 0.01) reduction in serum inflammatory cytokine levels as compared to control. Protein expression of pro-inflammatory markers, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-R1, and COX-2, was found to be reduced in stimulated macrophages whereas anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, was upregulated in peritoneal macrophages. Conclusion: The result of the present study thus demonstrates the anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of BAHE which may be attributed to its inhibitory activity on macrophage-derived cytokine and mediators. PMID:27114638

  13. Berberis vulgaris root extract alleviates the adverse effects of heat stress via modulating hepatic nuclear transcription factors in quails.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Kazim; Orhan, Cemal; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Borawska, Maria H; Jabłonski, Jakub; Guler, Osman; Sahin, Nurhan; Hayirli, Armagan

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the action mode of Berberis vulgaris root extract in the alleviation of oxidative stress, female Japanese quails (n 180, aged 5 weeks) were reared, either at 22°C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or 34°C for 8 h/d (heat stress, HS), and fed one of three diets: diets containing 0, 100 or 200 mg of B. vulgaris root extract per kg for 12 weeks. Exposure to HS depressed feed intake by 8·5% and egg production by 12·1%, increased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level by 98·0% and decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities by 23·5, 35·4 and 55·7%, respectively (P<0·001 for all). There were also aggravations in expressions of hepatic NF-κB and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) by 42 and 43%, respectively and suppressions in expressions of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and haeme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) by 57 and 61%, respectively, in heat-stressed quails (P<0·001 for all). As supplemental B. vulgaris extract increased, there were linear increases in performance parameters, activities of antioxidant enzymes and hepatic Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions (P<0·001 for all) and linear decreases in hepatic MDA level and NF-κB and HSP70 expressions at a greater extent in quails reared under TN condition and those reared under HS condition. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of B. vulgaris root extract to quails reduces the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation resulting from HS via activating the host defence system at the cellular level. PMID:23312115

  14. Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer (LAMS) as a Standoff Analyzer in Space Missions for Airless Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; Pugel, D. E.; Corrigan, C. M.; Doty, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) based on a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer with adjustable drift length is proposed as a standoff elemental composition sensor for space missions to airless bodies. It is found that the use of a retarding potential analyzer in combination with a two-stage reflectron enables LAMS to be operated at variable drift length. For field-free drift lengths between 33 cm to 100 cm, at least unit mass resolution can be maintained solely by adjustment of internal voltages, and without resorting to drastic reductions in sensitivity. Therefore, LAMS should be able to be mounted on a robotic arm and analyze samples at standoff distances of up to several tens of cm, permitting high operational flexibility and wide area coverage of heterogeneous regolith on airless bodies.

  15. Complete genome sequence of strain Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens LAM0015(T) isolated from saline sediment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Li; Li, Yan-Bin; Ruan, Zhi-Yong; You, Yang; Wang, Lu-Shan; Qin, Han; Liu, Song; Shui, Zong-Xia; Wang, Yan-Wei; Tan, Fu-Rong; Wu, Bo; Dai, Li-Chun; Hu, Guo-Quan; Ma, Ke-Dong; He, Ming-Xiong

    2016-02-20

    The type strain Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens LAM0015(T) with considerably highly NaCl tolerance is a member of halophiles. Here we report its genome sequence, the first to publish complete genome sequence of the Lentibacillus genus. It contains 3,858,520bp with an average GC content of 42.12%, encoding multiple valuable proteins academically and industrially. The genome sequence of strain LAM0015(T) provides basic information for further elucidation of halophilic mechanism and wider exploitation of functional genes. PMID:26806488

  16. Chan-Evans-Lam Amination of Boronic Acid Pinacol (BPin) Esters: Overcoming the Aryl Amine Problem.

    PubMed

    Vantourout, Julien C; Law, Robert P; Isidro-Llobet, Albert; Atkinson, Stephen J; Watson, Allan J B

    2016-05-01

    The Chan-Evans-Lam reaction is a valuable C-N bond forming process. However, aryl boronic acid pinacol (BPin) ester reagents can be difficult coupling partners that often deliver low yields, in particular in reactions with aryl amines. Herein, we report effective reaction conditions for the Chan-Evans-Lam amination of aryl BPin with alkyl and aryl amines. A mixed MeCN/EtOH solvent system was found to enable effective C-N bond formation using aryl amines while EtOH is not required for the coupling of alkyl amines. PMID:27045570

  17. Mathematical Physics in the Style of Gabriel Lamé and the Treatise of Emile Mathieu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbin, Évelyne; Guitart, René

    The Treatise of Mathematical Physics of Emile Mathieu, published from 1873 to 1890, provided an exposition of the specific French "Mathematical Physics" inherited from Lamé, himself an heir of Poisson, Fourier, and Laplace. The works of all these authors had significant differences, but they were pursuing the same goal, described here with its relation to Theoretical Physics.

  18. Stochasticity in the Expression of LamB and its Affect on λ phage Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Emily; Wu, Xiao-Lun

    2006-03-01

    λ phage binds to E. Coli's lamB protein and injects its DNA into the cell. The phage quickly replicates and after a latent period the bacteria bursts, emitting mature phages. We developed a mathematical model based on the known physical events that occur when a λ phage infects an E.Coli cell. The results of these models predict that the bacteria and phage populations become extinct unless the parameters of the model are very finely tuned, which is untrue in the nature. The lamB protein is part of the maltose regulon and can be repressed to minimal levels when grown in the absence of inducer. Therefore, a cell that is not expressing any lamB protein at that moment is resistant against phage infection. We studied the dynamic relationship between λ phage and E. Coli when the concentration of phage greatly outnumbers the concentration of bacteria. We study how the stochasticity of the expression of lamB affects the percentage of cells that the λ phage infects. We show that even in the case when the maltose regulon is fully induced a percentage of cells continue to persist against phage infection.

  19. [Determination of ten metal elements in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam by microwave digestion-FAAS].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shu-Ge; Zhou, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Tun-Hai; Ding, Jian-Bing; Shan, Li-Juan; Shi, Yang

    2009-07-01

    Comprehensive utilization of traditional Uighur medicine has been increasingly emphasized, and the relationship between metal elements and traditional Uighur medicine has attracted great attention, so it is quite important to determine the contents of traditional Uighur medicine. The Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam powder was digested with HNO3 by microwave digestion before determination. Ten metal elements in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam were determined by FAAS. The work conditions, accuracy and precision of the method were studied. The linear correlations of standard curves are good (r = 0.999 0-0.999 8). The recovery (n = 6) is 95%-108%, and the RSD(n = 6) is 0.45%-1.53%. The results showed that there were comparatively rich metal elements, among which are comparatively high calcium, magnesium and potassium in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. The method offers traits of low detection limit, high sensitivity, speediness and exactness, and wasapplied to the determination of metal elements in samples with satisfactory results. It provided useful data for discussing the relationship between the content of the metal elements in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam and clinical application of the Uighur medicine. PMID:19798990

  20. Fatty acid, flavonol, and mineral composition variability among seven macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) verdc. accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horse gram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] seeds containing high concentrations of fatty acids, flavonols and minerals will provide government, public and private organizations with a nutritious and healthy food for use by malnourished and food deprived people worldwide. Seeds from seven horse...

  1. Evaluating educational media using traditional folk songs ('lam') in Laos: a health message combined with oral tradition.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Itsuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Sapkota, Sabitri; Akkhavong, Kongsap

    2012-03-01

    In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), health education is clearly a core aspect of the health service and is vital in improving people's lives through good health. However, there are many obstacles to conducting effective health education. The development of effective educational media is one solution to these problems. In Laos, traditional folk songs (lam) are preserved as part of the local communication media, and recently this communication medium has been used for health education. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational media using lam. For this purpose, we conducted focus group discussions with 48 participants. The reactions of the participants towards a lam, developed for preventing HIV/AIDS, were analysed using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) method. The analysis showed there were eight areas of concern: (1) interest in a lam talking about HIV/AIDS; (2) knowledge and perception related to HIV infection routes; (3) expressing a willingness for preventing HIV/AIDS; (4) togetherness with people living with HIV/AIDS; (5) HIV/AIDS education for children; (6) improving educational methods; (7) characteristics and effectiveness of the lam and (8) song preferences. The reactions of the participants, such as gaining knowledge and expressing individual attitudes and community actions for preventing HIV/AIDS, were promoted by the characteristics and effectiveness of the lam such as oral tradition, artistry and cultural values. In particular, the oral tradition represented by lam is useful for the Lao people in memorizing and communicating information. PMID:22100506

  2. Laser-assisted Microdissection (LAM) as a Tool for Transcriptional Profiling of Individual Cell Types.

    PubMed

    Florez Rueda, Ana Marcela; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Schmidt, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of developmental processes at the molecular level requires insights into transcriptional regulation, and thus the transcriptome, at the level of individual cell types. While the methods described here are generally applicable to a wide range of species and cell types, our research focuses on plant reproduction. Plant cultivation and seed production is of crucial importance for human and animal nutrition. A detailed understanding of the regulatory networks that govern the formation of the reproductive lineage (germline) and ultimately of seeds is a precondition for the targeted manipulation of plant reproduction. In particular, the engineering of apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) into crop plants promises great improvements, as it leads to the formation of clonal seeds that are genetically identical to the mother plant. Consequently, the cell types of the female germline are of major importance for the understanding and engineering of apomixis. However, as the corresponding cells are deeply embedded within the floral tissues, they are very difficult to access for experimental analyses, including cell-type specific transcriptomics. To overcome this limitation, sections of individual cells can be isolated by laser-assisted microdissection (LAM). While LAM in combination with transcriptional profiling allows the identification of genes and pathways active in any cell type with high specificity, establishing a suitable protocol can be challenging. Specifically, the quality of RNA obtained after LAM can be compromised, especially when small, single cells are targeted. To circumvent this problem, we have established a workflow for LAM that reproducibly results in high RNA quality that is well suitable for transcriptomics, as exemplified here by the isolation of cells of the female germline in apomictic Boechera. In this protocol, procedures are described for tissue preparation and LAM, also with regard to RNA extraction and quality control

  3. On the neural network calculation of the Lamé coefficients through eigenvalues of the elasticity operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossandón, Sebastián; Reyes, Camilo

    2016-02-01

    A new numerical method is presented with the purpose to calculate the Lamé coefficients, associated with an elastic material, through eigenvalues of the elasticity operator. The finite element method is used to solve repeatedly, using different Lamé coefficients values, the direct problem by training a direct radial basis neural network. A map of eigenvalues, as a function of the Lamé constants, is then obtained. This relationship is later inverted and refined by training an inverse radial basis neural network, allowing calculation of mentioned coefficients. A numerical example is presented to prove the effectiveness of this novel method.

  4. Identification of eighteen Berberis species as alternate hosts of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and virulence variation in the pathogen isolates from natural infection of barberry plants in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Long; Wang, Zhiyan; Chen, Xianming; Zhang, Hongchang; Yao, Juanni; Zhan, Gangming; Chen, Wen; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2013-09-01

    ABSTRACT The wheat stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) population in China has been reported to be a distinct genetic group with higher diversity than those in many other countries. Genetic recombination in the P. striiformis f. sp. tritici population has been identified with molecular markers but whether sexual reproduction occurs in China is unknown. In this study, we surveyed barberry plants for infection by rust fungi in the stripe rust "hotspot" regions in Gansu, Sichuan, and Shaanxi provinces; collected barberry plants and inoculated plants of 20 Berberis spp. with germinated teliospores under controlled greenhouse conditions for susceptibility to P. striiformis f. sp. tritici; and tested P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates obtained from aecia on naturally infected barberry plants on the wheat genotypes used to differentiate Chinese P. striiformis f. sp. tritici races to determine virulence variations. Different Berberis spp. were widely distributed and most surveyed plants had pycnia and aecia of rust fungi throughout the surveyed regions. In total, 28 Berberis spp. were identified during our study. From 20 Berberis spp. tested with teliospores of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici from wheat plants, 18 species were susceptible under greenhouse conditions. Among 3,703 aecia sampled from barberry plants of three species (Berberis shensiana, B. brachypoda, and B. soulieana) under natural infections in Gansu and Shaanxi provinces, four produced P. striiformis f. sp. tritici uredinia on susceptible wheat 'Mingxian 169'. Sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the four isolates from barberry shared 99% identity with the P. striiformis f. sp. tritici sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. The four isolates had virulence patterns different from all previously reported races collected from wheat plants. Furthermore, 82 single-uredinium isolates obtained from the four barberry isolates had

  5. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates) and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates) from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database), this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8%) strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains). By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321). Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family. PMID:26517715

  6. mTOR Activation, Lymphangiogenesis, and Estrogen-Mediated Cell Survival: The “Perfect Storm” of Pro-Metastatic Factors in LAM Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Research interest in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) has grown dramatically in the past decade, particularly among cancer biologists. There are at least two reasons for this: first, the discovery in the year 2000 that LAM cells carry TSC2 gene mutations, linking LAM with cellular pathways including the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis, and allowing the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)-regulated pathways that are believed to underlie LAM pathogenesis to be studied in cells, yeast, Drosophila, and mice. A second reason for the rising interest in LAM is the discovery that LAM cells can travel to the lung, including repopulating a donor lung after lung transplantation, despite the fact that LAM cells are histologically benign. This “benign metastasis” underpinning suggests that elucidating LAM pathogenesis will unlock a set of fundamental mechanisms that underlie metastatic potential in the context of a cell that has not yet undergone malignant transformation. Here, we will outline the data supporting the metastatic model of LAM, consider the biochemical and cellular mechanisms that may enable LAM cells to metastasize, including both cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous factors, and highlight a mouse model in which estrogen promotes the metastasis and survival of TSC2-deficient cells in a MEK-dependent manner. We propose a multistep model of LAM cell metastasis that highlights multiple opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Taken together, the metastatic behavior of LAM cells and the involvement of tumor-related signaling pathways lead to optimism that cancer-related paradigms for diagnosis, staging, and therapy will lead to therapeutic breakthroughs for women living with LAM. PMID:20235886

  7. A model of maltodextrin transport through the sugar-specific porin, LamB, based on deletion analysis.

    PubMed

    Klebba, P E; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    1994-10-01

    LamB facilitates the uptake of maltose and maltodextrins across the bacterial outer membrane and acts as a general porin for small molecules. Using directed deletion mutagenesis we removed several regions of the LamB polypeptide and identified a polypeptide loop that both constricts the maltoporin channel and binds maltodextrins. In conjunction with a second sugar binding site that we identified at the rim of the channel, these data clarify, for the first time, the mechanism of transport through a substrate-specific porin. Furthermore, unlike the transverse loops of general porins, which originate from a central location in their primary structure, the loop that regulates LamB permeability originates from a C-terminal site. Thus LamB represents a second distinct class of porins in the bacterial outer membrane that is differently organized and separately evolved from OmpF-type, general porins. PMID:7925308

  8. Rapid Urine LAM Testing Improves Diagnosis of Expectorated Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in an HIV-endemic Region

    PubMed Central

    Drain, Paul K.; Gounder, Lilishia; Sahid, Faieza; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine if urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) would improve diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We enrolled consecutive adults presenting with ≥2 TB-related symptoms, obtained one induced sputum sample for smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing (DetermineTM TB LAM, Alere). We used culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as the gold standard, and compared accuracy with area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Among 90 participants, 82 of 88 tested (93%) were HIV-infected with a median CD4 168/mm3 (IQR 89–256/mm3). Diagnostic sensitivities of urine LAM and sputum AFB were 42.1% (95% CI 29.1–55.9%) and 21.1% (95% CI 11.4–33.9%), and increased to 52.6% (95% CI 39.0–66.0%) when combined. Sensitivity of LAM increased significantly among participants with a lower Karnofsky Performance score, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and higher C-reactive protein. Combining LAM with AFB had an AUROC = 0.68 (95% CI 0.59–0.77), significantly better than AFB alone (AUROC=0.58; 95% CI 0.51–0.64). The combination of LAM and AFB was significantly better than AFB alone among patients with Karnofsky Performance score ≤90, hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL, albumin ≤25 g/L, C-reactive protein ≥25 mg/L, or CD4 <200/mm3. Urine LAM testing may be most beneficial among patients with functional impairment, elevated inflammatory markers, or greater immunosuppression. PMID:26865526

  9. Antisickling properties of divanilloylquinic acids isolated from Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Ouattara, B; Jansen, O; Angenot, L; Guissou, I P; Frédérich, M; Fondu, P; Tits, M

    2009-03-01

    Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (syn. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides) (Rutaceae) is the most cited Fagara species for the treatment and the prevention of sickle cell disease crisis. Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a public health problem in many countries particularly in Africa. The present study was designed to evaluate the antisickling properties of three isomeric divanilloylquinic acids (3,4-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin A; 3,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin B and 4,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin C) identified previously by LC/MS/NMR analysis in the root bark of F. zanthoxyloides [Ouattara et al., 2004. LC/MS/NMR analysis of isomeric divanilloylquinic acids from the root bark of Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. Phytochemistry 65, 1145-1151]. The three isomers showed interesting antisickling properties which increased from burkinabins A to C. PMID:19110407

  10. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam).

    PubMed

    Priya, P Sathiya; Sasikumar, J M; Gowsigan, G

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  11. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

  12. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    PubMed Central

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J.M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  13. Negative dominance in gene lamB: random assembly of secreted subunits issued from different polysomes.

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, C; Hofnung, M

    1983-01-01

    lamB is the structural gene for the lambda receptor, an oligomeric outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli K12 involved in phage lambda adsorption. We show that, under certain conditions, in a strain diploid for gene lamB, all the missense lamB mutations conferring lambda resistance that we have tested are dominant with respect to wild-type. We propose a model which allows a quantitative interpretation of the data. It is based on negative complementation at the level of oligomerisation. Wild-type and mutant subunits would assemble at random forming homo- and hetero-oligomers. Only wild-type homo-oligomers would be efficient for phage inactivation. For some classes of missense mutations the hetero-oligomers would have the capacity to bind, but not to inactivate the phage. The model confirms that active lambda receptor is a trimer and implies that for this secreted protein there is no preferential assembly of subunits originating from the same polysome. Images Fig. 2. PMID:11894914

  14. [Isolation of chemical constituents from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. with recycling preparative high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Li, Guozhu; Meng, Qingyan; Luo, Bi; Ge, Zhenghong; Liu, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    The combination of alternate recycling and direct recycling preparative liquid chromatography method was developed for the isolation of chemical constituents from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. The crude extract was obtained from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. by solvent extraction, column chromatography and reversed-phase (RP) flash chromatography. All the separations were performed with methanol and water as mobile phases and the developed recycling preparative method was used with twin RP columns switched by a two-position ten-way valve for the separation. The mobile phase was recycled in close loop with a two-position six-way valve. The fraction I and fraction II from reversed-phase flash chromatography were selected for the demonstration of separation power of the proposed protocol, and five compounds were obtained from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. The isolated five compounds were identified as pinocembrin-7-O-rutinoside, pinocembrin-7-O-rutinoside, acacetin-7-O-rutinoside, picein and protocatechuic acid with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The experimental results showed that the developed preparation method exhibited higher separation efficiency with less mobile phase used than the reported methods, and could be expected as an effective method for the separation of complex natural products, especially the compounds with similar structures. PMID:25958674

  15. Differentially methylated obligatory epialleles modulate context-dependent LAM gene expression in the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Wedd, Laura; Kucharski, Robert; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    Differential intragenic methylation in social insects has been hailed as a prime mover of environmentally driven organismal plasticity and even as evidence for genomic imprinting. However, very little experimental work has been done to test these ideas and to prove the validity of such claims. Here we analyze in detail differentially methylated obligatory epialleles of a conserved gene encoding lysosomal α-mannosidase (AmLAM) in the honeybee. We combined genotyping of progenies derived from colonies founded by single drone inseminated queens, ultra-deep allele-specific bisulfite DNA sequencing, and gene expression to reveal how sequence variants, DNA methylation, and transcription interrelate. We show that both methylated and non-methylated states of AmLAM follow Mendelian inheritance patterns and are strongly influenced by polymorphic changes in DNA. Increased methylation of a given allele correlates with higher levels of context-dependent AmLAM expression and appears to affect the transcription of an antisense long noncoding RNA. No evidence of allelic imbalance or imprinting involved in this process has been found. Our data suggest that by generating alternate methylation states that affect gene expression, sequence variants provide organisms with a high level of epigenetic flexibility that can be used to select appropriate responses in various contexts. This study represents the first effort to integrate DNA sequence variants, gene expression, and methylation in a social insect to advance our understanding of their relationships in the context of causality. PMID:26507253

  16. A reconstructive surgeon's taste in art: Dr Peter Parker and the Lam Qua oil paintings.

    PubMed

    Chang, J

    1993-05-01

    Hidden within the basement archives of Yale University's Historical Medical Library lie the original oil painting collection and personal papers of the first American surgeon to practice in China. The Reverend Dr Peter Parker, a graduate of Yale, established the first American hospital in Guangzhou (formerly Canton) in 1835 and successfully introduced Western surgical techniques including amputation, anesthesia, and reconstructive surgery. In addition to this distinguished career of medical missionary service, Parker commissioned the Chinese artist Lam Qua to paint a fascinating series of portraits depicting patients with extreme tumor growths. In this article, Parker's own journals are examined to reveal both his missionary zeal and his frustrations working in China. Selected examples of the Lam Qua paintings are presented along with Parker's corresponding patient descriptions. These detailed patient reports give insight into the extent of surgical pathology as well as the relative brutality of surgical techniques in the early to mid-1800s. The historical significance of the Peter Parker-Lam Qua collaboration within the context of the Western transformation of Chinese art and medicine is also discussed. PMID:8342936

  17. PREDICTING WATER ACTIVITY IN ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS WITH THE CISTERNAS-LAM MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    REYNOLDS JG; GREER DA; DISSELKAMP RL

    2011-03-01

    Water activity is an important parameter needed to predict the solubility of hydrated salts in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. A number of models available in the scientific literature predict water activity from electrolyte solution composition. The Cisternas-Lam model is one of those models and has several advantages for nuclear waste application. One advantage is that it has a single electrolyte specific parameter that is temperature independent. Thus, this parameter can be determined from very limited data and extrapolated widely. The Cisternas-Lam model has five coefficients that are used for all aqueous electrolytes. The present study aims to determine if there is a substantial improvement in making all six coefficients electrolyte specific. The Cisternas-Lam model was fit to data for six major electrolytes in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. The model was first fit to all data to determine the five global coefficients, when they were held constant for all electrolytes it yielded a substantially better fit. Subsequently, the model was fit to each electrolyte dataset separately, where all six coefficients were allowed to be electrolyte specific. Treating all six coefficients as electrolyte specific did not make sufficient difference, given the complexity of applying the electrolyte specific parameters to multi-solute systems. Revised water specific parameters, optimized to the electrolytes relevant to Hanford waste, are also reported.

  18. Purification and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Junchen; Liu, Yuan; An, Tianchen; Liu, Yujun; Wang, Manchuriga; Song, Yanting; Zheng, Feifei; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yingxia; Deng, Shiming

    2015-05-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor against trypsin was isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. by successive ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, and gel-filtration chromatography. The trypsin inhibitor, named as AHLTI (A. heterophyllus Lam. trypsin inhibitor), consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 28.5 kDa, which was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel-filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of AHLTI was DEPPSELDAS, which showed no similarity to other known trypsin inhibitor sequence. AHLTI completely inhibited bovine trypsin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (AHLTI:trypsin) analyzed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, inhibition activity assay, and gel-filtration chromatography. Moreover, kinetic enzymatic studies were carried out to understand the inhibition mechanism of AHLTI against trypsin. Results showed that AHLTI was a competitive inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) of 3.7 × 10(-8) M. However, AHLTI showed weak inhibitory activity toward chymotrypsin and elastase. AHLTI was stable over a broad range of pH 4-8 and temperature 20-80°C. The reduction agent, dithiothreitol, had no obvious effect on AHLTI. The trypsin inhibition assays of AHLTI toward digestive enzymes from insect pest guts in vitro demonstrated that AHLTI was effective against enzymes from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). These results suggested that AHLTI might be a novel trypsin inhibitor from A. heterophyllus Lam. belonging to Kunitz family, and play an important role in protecting from insect pest. PMID:25851516

  19. A Job Pause Service under LAM/MPI+BLCR for Transparent Fault Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Mueller, Frank; Engelmann, Christian; Scott, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Checkpoint/restart (C/R) has become a requirement for long-running jobs in large-scale clusters due to a meantime- to-failure (MTTF) in the order of hours. After a failure, C/R mechanisms generally require a complete restart of an MPI job from the last checkpoint. A complete restart, however, is unnecessary since all but one node are typically still alive. Furthermore, a restart may result in lengthy job requeuing even though the original job had not exceeded its time quantum. In this paper, we overcome these shortcomings. Instead of job restart, we have developed a transparent mechanism for job pause within LAM/MPI+BLCR. This mechanism allows live nodes to remain active and roll back to the last checkpoint while failed nodes are dynamically replaced by spares before resuming from the last checkpoint. Our methodology includes LAM/MPI enhancements in support of scalable group communicationwith fluctuating number of nodes, reuse of network connections, transparent coordinated checkpoint scheduling and a BLCR enhancement for job pause. Experiments in a cluster with the NAS Parallel Benchmark suite show that our overhead for job pause is comparable to that of a complete job restart. A minimal overhead of 5.6% is only incurred in case migration takes place while the regular checkpoint overhead remains unchanged. Yet, our approach alleviates the need to reboot the LAM run-time environment, which accounts for considerable overhead resulting in net savings of our scheme in the experiments. Our solution further provides full transparency and automation with the additional benefit of reusing existing resources. Executing continues after failures within the scheduled job, i.e., the application staging overhead is not incurred again in contrast to a restart. Our scheme offers additional potential for savings through incremental checkpointing and proactive diskless live migration, which we are currently working on.

  20. Transport solutions of the Lamé equations and shock elastic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeyeva, L. A.; Kaishybaeva, G. K.

    2016-07-01

    The Lamé system describing the dynamics of an isotropic elastic medium affected by a steady transport load moving at subsonic, transonic, or supersonic speed is considered. Its fundamental and generalized solutions in a moving frame of reference tied to the transport load are analyzed. Shock waves arising in the medium at supersonic speeds are studied. Conditions on the jump in the stress, displacement rate, and energy across the shock front are obtained using distribution theory. Numerical results concerning the dynamics of an elastic medium influenced by concentrated transport loads moving at sub-, tran- and supersonic speeds are presented.

  1. Topology of the membrane protein LamB by epitope tagging and a comparison with the X-ray model.

    PubMed

    Newton, S M; Klebba, P E; Michel, V; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    1996-06-01

    We previously developed a genetic approach to study, with a single antibody, the topology of the outer membrane protein LamB, an Escherichia coli porin with specificity towards maltodextrins and a receptor for bacteriophage lambda. Our initial procedure consisted of inserting at random the same reporter epitope (the C3 neutralization epitope from poliovirus) into permissive sites of LamB (i.e., sites which tolerate insertions without deleterious effects on the protein activities or the cell). A specific monoclonal antibody was then used to examine the position of the inserted epitope with respect to the protein and the membrane. In the present work, we set up a site-directed procedure to insert the C3 epitope at new sites in order to distinguish between two-dimensional folding models. This allowed us to identify two new surface loops of LamB and to predict another periplasmic exposed region. The results obtained by random and directed epitope tagging are analyzed in light of the recently published X-ray structure of the LamB protein. Study of 23 hybrid LamB-C3 proteins led to the direct identification of five of the nine external loops (L4, L5, L6, L7, and L9) and led to the prediction of four periplasmic loops (I1, I4, I5, and I8) of LamB. Nine of the hybrid proteins did not lead to topological conclusions, and none led to the wrong predictions or conclusions. The comparison indicates that parts of models based on secondary structure predictions alone are not reliable and points to the importance of experimental data in the establishment of outer membrane protein topological models. The advantages and limitations of genetic foreign epitope insertion for the study of integral membrane proteins are discussed. PMID:8655540

  2. Augmenting the potency of third-line antibiotics with Berberis aristata: In vitro synergistic activity against carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Pallavi; Chawla, Raman; Goel, Rajeev; Narula, Alka; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the in vitro synergistic antibacterial potential of an aquoethanolic extract of the stem bark of Berberis aristata (PTRC-2111-A) with third-line antibiotics against carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli. PTRC-2111-A was prepared and was characterised using phytochemical- and bioactivity-based fingerprinting. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses were performed, and superoxide and hydroxyl scavenging activities were assessed in conjunction with in vitro antimicrobial efficacy testing against the test micro-organism. Analysis of drug combinations of PTRC-2111-A and third-line antibiotics was performed using CompuSyn software. PTRC-2111-A from B. aristata was found to have seven common functional groups in comparison with the pre-identified marker compound quercetin, and phytochemical quantitation analysis revealed the presence of 25.44% alkaloids. Moreover, PTRC-2111-A was found to contain isoquinoline alkaloids, namely berbamine, berberine, reticuline, jatrorrhizine, palmatine and piperazine, as elucidated in the LC-MS analysis. Analysis of combinations of PTRC -2111-A and antibiotics revealed synergistic behaviour [fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI)<1] with colistin, tigecycline and amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin(®)), whereas antagonism (FICI>1) was seen with ertapenem and meropenem. PMID:27530832

  3. A PROSPECTIVE PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW OF MEDICINAL HERBS, CUCUMIS MELO AND BERBERIS VULGARIS, COMMONLY USED IN THE TREATMENT OF RENAL DISEASES IN PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Naveed; Khan, Salimullah; Khan, Abad; Ahmad, Waqar; Shah, Yasar; Ahmad, Lateef; Ullah, Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    The kidneys are important organs which have many functions in the body, including the production of hormones, absorbtion of minerals and the filtration of blood, producing urine. Their failure can be fatal, therefore, to focus the study of such herbs which may be useful in treating renal disease is the need of hour. In Pakistan, Cucumis melo and Berberis vulgaris has been commonly used for renal problems. In both of these plants were found flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenes, which may stand for their renal protective properties. Their reported vitamin E contents and antioxidant potentials also provide a base for their defensive mechanism, may be due to their free radical scavenging properties. Further, their diuretic and urinary tract anti-ulcer properties also support their traditional use in renal diseases. Their anti-histaminic and anti-cholinergic properties also provide symptomatic treatment by decreasing prostaglandin level and due to antispasmodic properties. Concluding, both of these plants can be used for renal problems, especially Cucumis melo, which have both the nutritive and medicinal properties. Therefore, the renal disease patients are advised to take much of this particular fruit, especially their seeds to make their kidneys healthy. PMID:26647620

  4. Rapid screening for the adulterants of Berberis aristata using direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry and principal component analysis for discrimination.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vikas; Singh, Awantika; Arya, Kamal Ram; Srivastava, Mukesh; Kumar, Brijesh

    2015-01-01

    Adulteration or substitution of commercial Berberis aristata and its herbal products with inferior-quality substituents is very common. Metabolic profiling of B. aristata, along with its common adulterants/contaminants/substituents such as B. asiatica, Mahonia borealis and Coscinium fenestratum, was rapidly carried out using direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART MS) to generate the chemical fingerprints for the differentiation of these species. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly alkaloids. The identified alkaloids were berberrubine, berberine, jatrorrhizine, ketoberberine, palmatine, dihydropalmatine or 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxyberberine, berbamine and pakistanamine. Berberine, which was mainly reported from the root and stem bark of B. aristata, was also identified in the leaf along with chlorogenic acid. The DART MS data have been subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). The resulting score plots showed clustering and clear differentiation of the species and plant parts. It is thus apparent that the technique of DART MS followed by PCA is a quick and reliable method for the direct profiling of B. aristata and its adulterant plants and plant parts. The study reports the rapid analytical method to identify the possibility of illegal adulteration/contamination/substitution in potential plant materials and herbal extracts. PMID:25739096

  5. High fat diet induced insulin resistance and elevated retinol binding protein 4 in female rats; treatment and protection with Berberis vulgaris extract and vitamin A.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mohamed Mohammed; Ghareeb, Doaa Ahmad; Talat, Heba Allah; Sarhan, Eman Mohammed

    2013-11-01

    This research was conducted to investigate two main aims; the first aim was to find if there is a relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4). The second aim was to use berberis vulgaris extract and vitamin A as protective and/or curative agents against insulin resistance. IR was developed by feeding the female rats a high fat diet (HFD) for six weeks then treating or protecting them with b. vulgaris extract (0.2 g/Kg body weight) or vitamin A (12.8μg/Kg/day) for two weeks. HFD intake elevated insulin level and RBP4 expression that associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Co-administration of vitamin A and B. vulgaris extracts reduced blood glucose level, insulin, body weight and RBP4 expression before, during and after HFD. Furthermore, vitamin A reduced the blood glucose, triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol levels. IR syndrome associated with the RBP 4 alteration that gives high indication about the role of RBP4 expression in the IR progression and development. Furthermore, the treatment with vitamin A and/or b. vulgaris alleviated the IR syndrome through the action on RBP4 and Insulin secretion. On the other hand, vitamin A must be avoided for the predisposed IR and prediabetic patients. PMID:24191325

  6. In vitro and in vivo antimutagenic effects of DIG, a herbal preparation of Berberis vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa, against mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, C; Boyer, L; De Meo, M; Laurant, C; Elias, R; Ollivier, E

    2015-07-01

    DIG, a liquid herbal preparation made from a mixture of diluted mother tinctures of Berberis vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa, was assessed for its antimutagenic properties against mitomycin C. The micronucleus assay on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells was used to evaluate the in vitro anticlastogenic activity of DIG compared to those of separately diluted mother tinctures. The micronucleus assay was performed on mouse erythrocytes and the comet assay was performed on mouse liver, kidney, lung, brain and testicles to assess the protective effects of DIG (0.2 and 2 % at libitum) against an intraperitoneal injection of mitomycin C (1 mg Kg(-1)) in mice. DIG exerted a powerful anticlastogenic activity, under both pretreatment and simultaneous treatment conditions as assessed by the micronucleus assay in CHO-K1 cells. Its protective activity was greater than that observed for each mother tincture. DIG reduced micronuclei levels in mouse erythrocytes and suppressed >80 % of DNA strand breaks in the liver, kidney, lung, brain and testicles of mice exposed to mitomycin C. PMID:25666712

  7. Clonal expansion and seedling recruitment of Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa) in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests: comparisons with salal (Gaultheria shallon)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, D.; Tappeiner, J. C., II

    1997-01-01

    Seedling regeneration and morphology of Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa Pursh) and salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh) were studied in thinned and unthinned Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in the central Coast Range, Oregon. Above- and below-ground growth of both species were significantly and negatively correlated with stand density. Oregon grape appears to have less potential for vegetative spread than does salal. It produced two to three times fewer rhizome extensions, and rhizome extensions were only half as long as those of salal. Oregon grape seedlings were common in areas of moss ground cover among patches of the two species. Salal seedlings were restricted to decaying logs. Seedling densities of Oregon grape in thinned stands were more than six times those in unthinned stands. For Oregon grape, understory establishment is accomplished by seedling establishment and recruitment of new genets. In contrast, salal maintains itself in forest understories primarily through vegetative growth, since its seedling establishment is restricted mainly to decayed wood. Continual recruitment of new aerial stems or ramets enables Oregon grape to maintain a dense cover once it is established in the understory.

  8. Antidiabetic Effect of Methanolic Extract from Berberis julianae Schneid. via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Ping; Wan, Dingrong; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Chao; Shu, Guangwen; Mei, Zhinan; Yang, Xinzhou

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the antidiabetic effect and mechanism of methanolic extract of Berberis julianae Schneid. (BJSME) in STZ induced Type 2 diabetes mellitus mice. T2DM mice were induced by high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ). BJSME was orally administrated at the doses of 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg/d, for 21 days. Metformin was used as positive control drug. Food intake, body weight, plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, insulin, and blood-lipid content were measured. The effects of BJSME on the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in L6 myotubes and the GLUT4 protein expression in skeletal muscle as well as phosphorylation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in liver and muscle were examined. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that BJSME increased GLUT4 translocation by 1.8-fold and BJSME significantly improved the oral glucose tolerance and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of serum and reduced body weight, glucose, and other related blood-lipid contents. The BJSME treatment also stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK. Thus, BJSME seems to possess promising beneficial effects for the treatment of T2DM with the possible mechanism via stimulating AMPK activity. PMID:25258641

  9. Folding-based suppression of extracytoplasmic toxicity conferred by processing-defective LamB.

    PubMed

    Cosma, C L; Crotwell, M D; Burrows, S Y; Silhavy, T J

    1998-06-01

    We have utilized processing-defective derivatives of the outer membrane maltoporin, LamB, to study protein trafficking functions in the cell envelope of Escherichia coli. Our model proteins contain amino acid substitutions in the consensus site for cleavage by signal peptidase. As a result, the signal sequence is cleaved with reduced efficiency, effectively tethering the precursor protein to the inner membrane. These mutant porins are toxic when secreted to the cell envelope. Furthermore, strains producing these proteins exhibit altered outer membrane permeability, suggesting that the toxicity stems from some perturbation of the cell envelope (J. H. Carlson and T. J. Silhavy, J. Bacteriol. 175:3327-3334, 1993). We have characterized a multicopy suppressor of the processing-defective porins that appears to act by a novel mechanism. Using fractionation experiments and conformation-specific antibodies, we found that the presence of this multicopy suppressor allowed the processing-defective LamB precursors to be folded and localized to the outer membrane. Analysis of the suppressor plasmid revealed that these effects are mediated by the presence of a truncated derivative of the polytopic inner membrane protein, TetA. The suppression mediated by TetA' is independent of the CpxA/CpxR regulon and the sigma E regulon, both of which are involved in regulating protein trafficking functions in the cell envelope. PMID:9620961

  10. Sirolimus Therapy for Patients With Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Leads to Loss of Chylous Ascites and Circulating LAM Cells.

    PubMed

    Harari, Sergio; Elia, Davide; Torre, Olga; Bulgheroni, Elisabetta; Provasi, Elena; Moss, Joel

    2016-08-01

    A young woman received a diagnosis of abdominal, sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and multiple abdominal lymphangioleiomyomas and was referred for recurrent chylous ascites responding only to a fat-free diet. On admission, pulmonary function test (PFT) results showed a moderate reduction in the transfer factor for carbon monoxide with normal exercise performance. The serum vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) level was 2,209 pg/mL. DNA sequences, amplified at loci kg8, D16S3395, D16S3024, D16S521, and D16S291 on chromosome 16p13.3, showed a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) only for kg8. Fat-free total parenteral nutrition in association with sirolimus (2 mg po daily) was initiated. Serum sirolimus levels were maintained at concentrations between 5 and 15 ng/mL. After 1 month, reintroduction of a low-fat oral feeding was achieved without recurrence of ascites. PFT results were stable. Interestingly, clinical improvement was associated with a reduction in the VEGF-D serum level (1,558 pg/mL). LOH at the kg8 biomarker in blood LAM cells was no longer detected. PMID:27502989

  11. Antineoplastic potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum lam. on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Afzal, Muhammad; Kazmi, Imran; Anwar, Firoz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. used in folk medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China and Australia contains a wide range of active compounds, well known for their haemostatic and wound-healing properties. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. on N-diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced hepatic injury in rats. Material and Methods: The aerial part of B. pinnatum aqueous and ethanolic extract was prepared in doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Hepatic injury was induced by DENA. Acute toxicity was also carried out. Result: Treatment with different doses of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum (250 mg/kg, p.o.) was not significantly able to treat the liver injury induced by DENA, but 500 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum protects the liver slightly. Treatment with different doses of aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P*<0.05; P**<0.01 and P***<0.001) treated the liver injury induced by DENA. Conclusion: It may be inferred from the present study that the hepatoprotective activities of the aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum leaves in DENA-induced hepatotoxicity may involve its antioxidant or oxidative free radical scavenging activities by alleviating lipid peroxidation through scavenging of free radicals, or by enhancing the activity of antioxidants. PMID:24174817

  12. Effect of different growth stages of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. on its chemical composition

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenhuan; Yang, Tao; Liu, Feng; Tian, Shuge

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to monitor the changes in the chemical composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. throughout nine different growth stages. Materials and Methods: Volatile components such as essential oils were analyzed using the gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry, and the contents of non-volatile components were determined by a visible spectrophotometer. Results: Hydro-distilled essential oil content ranged from a minimum of 1.1% (in the post-flowering stage) to a maximum of 1.8% (in the flowering stage). The essential oils included pulegone, which was the most abundant component (77.48-87.3%), p-menthanone (2.79-12.39%), trans-isopulegone (1.04-2.06%), d-limonene (0.51-3.03%) and eucarvone (1.5-4.48%). The contents of non-volatile components, such as that of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC), total triterpenoids content (TTC) and total free amino acids content (TFAAC) were measured using visible spectrophotometry. In the growing stage, TPC, TFC, TTC and TFAAC were 9.91-12.80 mg/g, 29.84-50.63 mg/g, 0.57-1.41 mg/g and 13.33-28.56 mg/g, respectively. Conclusion: These data can be used as a basis to determine the optimal harvest time of Z. clinopodioide Lam. PMID:24914287

  13. Chemical and biomolecular characterization of Artemisia umbelliformis Lam., an important ingredient of the alpine liqueur "Genepi".

    PubMed

    Rubiolo, Patrizia; Matteodo, Maura; Bicchi, Carlo; Appendino, Giovanni; Gnavi, Giorgio; Bertea, Cinzia; Maffei, Massimo

    2009-05-13

    Artemisia umbelliformis Lam., an important alpine plant used for the preparation of flavored beverages, showed a remarkable intraspecific variability, at both genomic and gene product (secondary metabolites) levels. The variability of A. umbelliformis Lam. currently cultivated in Piedmont (Italy, Au1) and in Switzerland (Au2) was investigated by combining the chemical analysis of essential oil and sesquiterpene lactones and the molecular characterization of the 5S-rRNA-NTS gene by PCR and PCR-RFLP. Marked differences were observed between the two plants. Au1 essential oil contained alpha- and beta-thujones as the main components, whereas Au2 contained 1,8-cineole, borneol, and beta-pinene. Au1 sesquiterpene lactone fractions contained cis-8-eudesmanolide derivatives and Au2 the trans-6-germacranolide costunolide. Specific A. umbelliformis Au1 and Au2 primers were designed on the sequence of the 5S-rRNA gene spacer region. Furthermore, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied using RsaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. Chemical and biomolecular data contributed to the characterization of A. umbeliformis chemotypes. PMID:19326948

  14. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. PMID:19854235

  15. 75 FR 29722 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 18--San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer Fabrication Equipment Manufacturing); Fremont, Newark, and Livermore, CA An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade...

  16. Biosynthesis, characterization, and acute toxicity of Berberis tinctoria-fabricated silver nanoparticles against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the mosquito predators Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lo Iacono, Annalisa; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Aedes albopictus is an important arbovirus vector, including dengue. Currently, there is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized using a cheap leaf extract of Berberis tinctoria as reducing and stabilizing agent and tested against Ae. albopictus and two mosquito natural enemies. AgNPs were characterized by using UV–vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. In laboratory conditions, the toxicity of AgNPs was evaluated on larvae and pupae of Ae. albopictus. Suitability Index/Predator Safety Factor was assessed on Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides. The leaf extract of B. tinctoria was toxic against larval instars (I–IV) and pupae of Ae. albopictus; LC50 was 182.72 ppm (I instar), 230.99 ppm (II), 269.65 ppm (III), 321.75 ppm (IV), and 359.71 ppm (pupa). B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs were highly effective, with LC50 of 4.97 ppm (I instar), 5.97 ppm (II), 7.60 ppm (III), 9.65 ppm (IV), and 14.87 ppm (pupa). Both the leaf extract and AgNPs showed reduced toxicity against the mosquito natural enemies M. thermocyclopoides and T. splendens. Overall, this study firstly shed light on effectiveness of B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs as an eco-friendly nanopesticide, highlighting the concrete possibility to employ this newer and safer tool in arbovirus vector control programs. PMID:26499804

  17. Berberis libanotica extract targets NF-κB/COX-2, PI3K/Akt and mitochondrial/caspase signalling to induce human erythroleukemia cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Diab, Saada; Fidanzi, Chloe; Léger, David Y; Ghezali, Lamia; Millot, Marion; Martin, Frédérique; Azar, Rania; Esseily, Fadi; Saab, Antoine; Sol, Vincent; Diab-Assaf, Mona; Liagre, Bertrand

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and understand the relationship between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and apoptosis rate in erythroleukemia cells after apoptosis induction by Berberis libanotica (Bl) extract. To achieve this goal we used erythroleukemia cell lines expressing COX‑2 (HEL cell line) or not (K562 cell line). Moreover, we made use of COX‑2 cDNA to overexpress COX‑2 in K562 cells. In light of the reported chemopreventive and chemosensitive effects of natural products on various tumor cells and animal models, we postulated that our Bl extract may mediate their effects through apoptosis induction with suppression of cell survival pathways. Our study is the first report on the specific examination of intrinsic apoptosis and Akt/NF-κB/COX‑2 pathways in human erythroleukemia cells upon Bl extract exposure. Even if Bl extract induced apoptosis of three human erythroleukemia cell lines, a dominant effect of Bl extract treatment on K562 cells was observed resulting in activation of the late markers of apoptosis with caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Whereas, we showed that Bl extract reduced significantly expression of COX‑2 by a dose-dependent manner in HEL and K562 (COX‑2+) cells. Furthermore, in regard to our results, it is clear that the simultaneous inhibition of Akt and NF-κB signalling can significantly contribute to the anticancer effects of Bl extract in human erythroleukemia cells. We observed that the Bl extract is clearly more active than the berberine alone on the induction of DNA fragmentation in human erythro-leukemia cells. PMID:25997834

  18. Virulence and Simple Sequence Repeat Marker Segregation in a Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Population Produced by Selfing a Chinese Isolate on Berberis shensiana.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Zhan, Gangming; Chen, Xianming; Tungruentragoon, Angkana; Lu, Xia; Zhao, Jie; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2016-02-01

    Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stripe rust, frequently produces new races overcoming resistance in wheat cultivars. A recently identified race, V26 with virulence to Yr26 and many other stripe rust resistance genes, has a high potential to cause epidemics in China. In this study, teliospores from a single-urediniospore isolate of V26 (Pinglan 17-7) produced on the wheat line 92R137 (Yr26) were used to produce a sexual population through selfing by infecting Berberis shensiana plants under controlled conditions. One hundred and eighteen progeny isolates and the parental isolate were phenotyped for virulence/avirulence on 24 Yr gene lines of wheat. These progeny isolates were all avirulent to Yr5, Yr8, Yr15, and YrTr1 and virulent to Yr1, Yr2, Yr7, Yr9, Yr10, Yr17, Yr24, Yr25, Yr26, YrA, YrExp2, and YrV23, indicating that the parental isolate is homozygous avirulent or homozygous virulent at these loci. The progeny population segregated for avirulence to Yr6, Yr43, and YrSP at one locus (3 avirulent:1 virulent ratio); for virulence to Yr27 and Yr28 at one locus (3 virulent:1 avirulent); and for Yr4, Yr32, and Yr44 at two loci (15 virulent:1 avirulent). Among the eight segregating avirulence/virulence loci, association was found between virulence to Yr4 and Yr32, as well as between virulence to Yr6 and Yr43 based on χ(2) tests. From 82 genotypically different progeny isolates, 24 pathotypes and 82 multilocus genotypes were identified. The results show that a highly diverse population can be produced from a single isolate by selfing on a barberry plant and sexually produced population can be used to genetically characterize virulence of the stripe rust pathogen. PMID:26551448

  19. Preventive Effects of Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. Root on Liver Injury Induced by Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hossein; Zare, Samad

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assessthe preventive effect of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. root (AEBIR) on liver damage and oxidative stress induced by diabetes mellitus in rats. Forty male rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1- normal (N); 2- normal + barberry (N+B) (they received barberry root extract for 6 weeks); 3- diabetic (D) (they received Streptozotocin (STZ), 65 mg/Kg BW /i.p.); 4- diabetic +barberry before (D+Bb) (they received barberry root extract for 3 weeks before STZ injection and continued for another three weeks); and 5- diabetic + barberry after (D+Ba) (three days after STZ injection, they received barberry root extract for 3 weeks). The experimental groups received barberry root extract (500 mg/Kg bw) intra gastric by gavage for 6 weeks. The treatment of diabetic rats with AEBIR showed a significant decreases(p<0.001) in levels of blood glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin while body weight, total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase(CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) increased (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control rats. Consumption of AEBIR in group D+Bb caused significant improvement in all these factors, compared to the group D+Ba. Also in this study, for the first time, we demonstrated that administration of AEBIR before diabetes induction resulted in enhanced amelioration of liver complications compared to the group receiving it after induction, indicating that AEBIR can play a preventive role in such patients. PMID:25561940

  20. Determination of color, pigment, and phenolic stability in yogurt systems colored with nonacylated anthocyanins from Berberis boliviana L. as compared to other natural/synthetic colorants.

    PubMed

    Wallace, T C; Giusti, M M

    2008-05-01

    Anthocyanins are of interest to the food industry because of their antioxidant power, attractive color, and stability in high acid foods. Powder from the Peruvian berry Berberis boliviana Lechler, rich in nonacylated anthocyanins (7% to 8% dry weight), was incorporated into yogurt samples containing 3 different fat levels. Color (CIE L, a, b, chroma, and hue angle), pigment (monomeric anthocyanin and polymeric color), and total phenolics were monitored over 8 wk of storage and compared to yogurt treatments containing purple carrot acylated anthocyanins, red beet betalaines, or FD&C Red nr 40. Anthocyanin profiles were analyzed by HPLC coupled to photodiode array and mass detectors. Color of yogurt containing B. boliviana anthocyanins at 20 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (cy-3-glu) equivalents/100 g yogurt (L*= 65, chroma = 14, and hue angle = 335 degrees ) was similar to commercial blueberry yogurt (L*= 65, chroma = 10.5, and hue angle = 341 degrees ). High color, pigment, and phenolic stability were observed in yogurts colored with B. boliviana, independent of the fat matrix. Acylated anthocyanins from purple carrot extracts exhibited increased stability with higher fat content. Anthocyanin degradation followed 1st-order kinetics. Pigment half-lives were 125 and 104 d for nonacylated anthocyanins at 10 and 20 mg cy-3-glu equivalents/100 g yogurt and 550.2, 232.6, and 128.9 d for acylated anthocyanins at 20 mg of cy-3-glu equivalents/100 g of 4%, 2%, and 0% fat yogurt. Addition of B. boliviana whole berry powder to yogurt matrices produced an attractive, stable anthocyanin-rich product, eliminating the need for industrial colorant extraction. PMID:18460117

  1. Preventive Effects of Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. Root on Liver Injury Induced by Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Hossein; Zare, Samad

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assessthe preventive effect of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. root (AEBIR) on liver damage and oxidative stress induced by diabetes mellitus in rats. Forty male rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1- normal (N); 2- normal + barberry (N+B) (they received barberry root extract for 6 weeks); 3- diabetic (D) (they received Streptozotocin (STZ), 65 mg/Kg BW /i.p.); 4- diabetic +barberry before (D+Bb) (they received barberry root extract for 3 weeks before STZ injection and continued for another three weeks); and 5- diabetic + barberry after (D+Ba) (three days after STZ injection, they received barberry root extract for 3 weeks). The experimental groups received barberry root extract (500 mg/Kg bw) intra gastric by gavage for 6 weeks. The treatment of diabetic rats with AEBIR showed a significant decreases(p<0.001) in levels of blood glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin while body weight, total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase(CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) increased (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control rats. Consumption of AEBIR in group D+Bb caused significant improvement in all these factors, compared to the group D+Ba. Also in this study, for the first time, we demonstrated that administration of AEBIR before diabetes induction resulted in enhanced amelioration of liver complications compared to the group receiving it after induction, indicating that AEBIR can play a preventive role in such patients. PMID:25561940

  2. Screening antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties of extracts isolated from Jackfruit pulp (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Burgos-Hernández, A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; López-Saiz, C M; Velázquez-Contreras, C A; Navarro-Ocaña, A; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A

    2015-05-15

    The present focused on the study of the antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of pulp Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) extract, using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line M12.C3.F6 (murine B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Jackfruit pulp extract was sequentially fractionated by chromatography (RP-HPLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. The organic extracts obtained from Jackfruit pulp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and proliferation of cells M12.C3.F6; a dose-response relationship was showed. Sequential RP-HPLC fractionation of the active extracts produced both antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the Jackfruit contained compounds with chemoprotective properties to reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1, also proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:25577099

  3. Predicting weed migration from soil and climate maps. [Centaurea maculosa Lam

    SciTech Connect

    Chicoine, T.K.; Fay, P.K.; Nielsen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Soil characteristics, elevation, annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, length of frost-free season, and mean maximum July temperature were estimated for 116 established infestations of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam. number/sup 3/ CENMA) in Montana using basic land resource maps. Areas potentially vulnerable to invasion by the plant were delineated on the basis of representative edaphic and climatic characteristics. No single environmental variable was an effective predictor of sites vulnerable to invasion by spotted knapweed. Only a combination of variables was effective, indicating that the factors that regulate adaptability of this plant are complex. This technique provides a first approximation map of the regions most similar environmentally to infested sites and; therefore, most vulnerable to further invasion. This weed migration prediction technique shows promise for predicting suitable habitats of other invader species. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  4. Biosystematic studies on Enicostema axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal subsp. Axillare (Gentianaceae) in peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Shahina, P M; Nampy, Santhosh

    2014-05-01

    The pantropical genus Enicostema (Gentianaceae) has three species and two sub species world over, namely, E. verticillatum (L.) Engl. (America), E. elizabethae Veldkamp (Madagascar) and E. axillare having 3 subsp. viz., subsp. axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal (India), subsp. latilobum (N.E. Br.) A. Raynal (East Africa) and subsp. littorale (Blume) A. Raynal (Indonesia). The present study aims to delimit the Indian taxa based on field and herbarium studies. Comparative morphology is studied using live as well as consulting wide range of specimens housed at various herbaria. The anatomy of leaf, stem, and root is studied using free hand sections and from epidermal peelings. The seed and pollen morphology are studied under SEM. Information on anatomy, palynology and seed micromorphology of E. axillare subsp. axillare is provided for the first time. PMID:26031003

  5. Isolation and characterization of a flocculating protein from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Gassenschmidt, U; Jany, K D; Tauscher, B; Niebergall, H

    1995-04-13

    A flocculating protein from the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. was isolated by extraction with phosphate buffer followed by cation exchange chromatography. The molecular mass of the protein determined by SDS-PAGE was about 6.5 kDa, the isoelectric point was above pH 10. Amino acid analysis and sequencing showed high contents of glutamine, arginine and proline, and a total of 60 residues. The amino terminus is blocked by pyroglutamate. The flocculant capacity, determined in glass powder suspension, is comparable to that of a cationic polymer on polyacrylamide basis. Flocculation activity may be explained by the patch charge mechanism due to low molecular weight and high charge density. PMID:7727523

  6. Cloning and characterization of the Rubisco activase gene from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; He, Bowen; Zhou, Shuang; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yizheng

    2010-02-01

    A full-length cDNA of Rubisco activase (IBrcaI) was cloned from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) using Rapid-Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). IBrcaI contains a 1,347 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 439 amino acids. The sequence alignment of multiple Rubisco activase genes from sweet potato and other plants showed high homology at two previously described ATP-binding sites. Western blot analysis indicated that there are two Rubisco activase proteins in sweet potato. Expression of IBrcaI was only detected in leaves. In the 14 h light and 10 h dark photoperiods, maximal and minimal IBrcaI mRNA expression levels were detected at 8:00 in the morning and at midnight, respectively. PMID:19296237

  7. Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-02-15

    The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp. PMID:25236202

  8. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of M. oleifera. This assembly represents 91.78% of the estimated genome size and contains 19,465 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis between M. oleifera and related woody plant genomes helps clarify the general evolution of this species, while the identification of several species-specific gene families and positively selected genes in M. oleifera may help identify genes related to M. oleifera's high protein content, fast-growth, heat and stress tolerance. This reference genome greatly extends the basic research on M. oleifera, and may further promote applying genomics to enhanced breeding and improvement of M. oleifera. PMID:26032590

  9. Berberis aristata Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis by Inhibition of NF-κB and Activating Nuclear Factor-E2-related Factor 2/hem Oxygenase (HO)-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar; Singh, Surender; Arunraja, S

    2016-08-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-arthritic activity of Berberis aristata hydroalcoholic extract (BAHE) in formaldehyde-induced arthritis and adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. Arthritis was induced by administration of either formaldehyde (2% v/v) or CFA into the subplantar surface of the hind paw of the animal. In formaldehyde-induced arthritis and AIA, treatment of BAHE at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg orally significantly decreased joint inflammation as evidenced by decrease in joint diameter and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in histopathological examination. BAHE treatment demonstrated dose-dependent improvement in the redox status of synovium (decrease in GSH, MDA, and NO levels and increase in SOD and CAT activities). The beneficial effect of BAHE was substantiated with decreased expression of inflammatory markers such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-R1, and VEGF by immunohistochemistry analysis in AIA model. BAHE increased HO-1/Nrf-2 and suppressed NF-κB mRNA and protein expression in adjuvant immunized joint. Additionally, BAHE abrogated degrading enzymes, as there was decreased protein expression of MMP-3 and -9 in AIA. In conclusion, we demonstrated the anti-arthritic activity of Berberis aristata hydroalcoholic extract via the mechanism of inhibition of NF-κB and activation of Nrf-2/HO-1. PMID:27294302

  10. Interaction of bacteriophage lambda with its cell surface receptor: an in vitro study of binding of the viral tail protein gpJ to LamB (Maltoporin).

    PubMed

    Berkane, Emir; Orlik, Frank; Stegmeier, Johannes F; Charbit, Alain; Winterhalter, Mathias; Benz, Roland

    2006-02-28

    The cell surface receptor for bacteriophage Lambda is LamB (maltoporin). Responsible for phage binding to LamB is the C-terminal part, gpJ, of phage tail protein J. To study the interaction between LamB and gpJ, a chimera protein composed of maltose binding protein (MBP or MalE) connected to the C-terminal part of J (gpJ, amino acids 684-1131) of phage tail protein J of bacteriophage Lambda was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The interaction of the MBP-gpJ chimera protein with reconstituted LamB and its mutants LamB Y118G and the loop deletion mutant LamB Delta4+Delta6+Delta9v was studied using planar lipid bilayer membranes on a single-channel and multichannel level. Titration with the MBP-gpJ chimera blocked completely the ion current through reconstituted LamB when it was added to the cis side, the extracellular side of LamB with a half-saturation constant of approximately 6 nM in 1 M KCl. Control experiments with LamB Delta4+Delta6+Delta9v from which all major external loops had been removed showed similar blocking, whereas MBP alone caused no visible effect. Direct conductance measurement with His(6)-gpJ that contained a hexahistidyl tag (His(6) tag) at the N-terminal end of the protein for easy purification revealed no blocking of the ion current, requiring other measurements for the binding constant. However, when maltoporin was preincubated with His-gpJ, MBP-gpJ could not block the channel, which indicated that also His(6)-gpJ bound to the channel. High-molecular mass bands on SDS-PAGE and Western blots, confirming the planar lipid bilayer experiment results, also demonstrated stable complex formation between His(6)-gpJ and LamB or LamB mutants. The results revealed that phage Lambda binding includes not only the extracellular loops. PMID:16489764

  11. Generation and application of ssDNA aptamers against glycolipid antigen ManLAM of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for TB diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Shi-Min; Xie, Yan; Song, Neng; Guan, Qing; Yuan, Chunhui; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Lian

    2016-05-01

    The development of effective Mycobacterial antigen diagnostic reagents remains a high priority. Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) is a lipoglycan serving as a major cell wall component. ManLAM is also an early released antigen in the blood circulation system during Mycobacteria tuberculosis (M.tb) infection and is a perfect target antigen for TB diagnosis. In this study, ssDNA aptamers "antibodies" against ManLAM of the predominant clinical epidemic M.tb Beijing genotype strains were generated by the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) technique. The selected single aptamer T9 demonstrated the highest specificity and binding affinity, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 668 ± 159 nmol/L. We further detected ManLAM antigens in serum and sputum samples from active pulmonary tuberculosis (aPTB) patients, extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) patients and healthy donors by using a T9 based enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA). The results showed that the specificity and sensitivity were 95.31% and 83.00% (for 100 aPTB serum samples), 98.70% and 92.71% (for 96 aPTB sputum samples), and 94.44% and 88.71% (for 62 EPTB serum samples), respectively. A good correlation was observed between the T9 aptamer-based ELONA and the clinical T-SPOT.TB. Thus, T9 based ELONA has potentials for diagnosis of TB, including inactive TB, smear-negative TB, EPTB, and TB with immunodeficiency, and assist the diagnosis of LTBI albeit it could not distinguish LTBI and active TB. PMID:26850356

  12. Uterine histoarchitecture during pre and post-implantation periods of rats treated with aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A O; Pathak, S; Shukla, S; Mathur, R

    1987-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (roots) has been studied on histoarchitecture of the uterus during pre and post-implantation stages in rats so as to elucidate its antifertility mode of action. The histoarchitecture of the uterus of control pregnant rat had revealed a clear-cut close apposition of the uterine endometrium with reduced lumen and loose stroma. There was a prominent appearance of deciduoma and the uterine glands were enlarged. Glandular cells showed hypertrophy and in the endometrium the leucocytic infiltration was increased. When the aqueous extract of M. oleifera Lam. was administered, no deciduoma was observed on day 5th of pregnancy and the luminal epithelium remained unstimulated. The lumen was enlarged and the uterus was non-oedematous. It has been concluded that the administration of aqueous extract of M. oleifera Lam. to pregnant rats could not stimulate the uterus which remained non-receptive throughout the period of treatment, therefore, the fertilized eggs may not be welcomed by the unprepared uterus. PMID:3630576

  13. The C-terminal portion of the tail fiber protein of bacteriophage lambda is responsible for binding to LamB, its receptor at the surface of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    2000-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda adsorbs to its Escherichia coli K-12 host by interacting with LamB, its cell-surface receptor. We fused C-terminal portions of J, the tail fiber protein of lambda, to maltose-binding protein. Solid-phase binding assays demonstrated that a purified fusion protein comprising only the last 249 residues of J could bind to LamB trimers and inhibited recognition by anti-LamB antibodies. Electron microscopy further demonstrated that the fusion protein could also bind to LamB at the surface of intact cells. This interaction prevented lambda adsorption but affected only partially maltose uptake. PMID:10629200

  14. A role for residue 151 of LamB in bacteriophage lambda adsorption: possible steric effect of amino acid substitutions.

    PubMed

    Charbit, A; Werts, C; Michel, V; Klebba, P E; Quillardet, P; Hofnung, M

    1994-06-01

    LamB is the cell surface receptor for bacteriophage lambda. LamB missense mutations yielding resistance to lambda have been previously grouped in two classes. Class I mutants block growth of lambda with wild-type host range (lambda h+) but support growth of one-step extended-host-range mutants (lambda h). Class II mutants block lambda h but support growth of two-step extended host range mutants (lambda hh*). While Class I mutations occur at 11 different amino acid sites, in five distinct portions of LamB, all the Class II mutations analyzed previously correspond to the same G-to-D change at amino acid 151. We generated by in vitro mutagenesis four different new substitutions at site 151 (to S, V, R, and C). Two of the mutants (G-151-->V [G151V] and G151R) were of Class II, while the two others (G151S and G151C) were of Class I, demonstrating that not only the site but also the nature of the substitutions at residue 151 was critical for the phage sensitivity phenotypes. The introduction of a negatively charged, a positively charged, or an aliphatic nonpolar residue at site 151 of LamB prevented both lambda h+ and lambda h adsorption, indicating that the block is not due to a charge effect. In contrast to G151D, which was sensitive to all the lambda hh* phages, G151V and G151R conferred sensitivity to only four of the five lambda hh* phages. Thus, G151V and G151R represent a new subclass of Class II LamB mutations that is more restrictive with respect to the growth of lambda hh*. Our results agree with the hypothesis that residue 151 belongs to an accessibility gate controlling the access to the phage tight-binding site and that substitutions at this residue affect the access of the phage to the binding site in relation to the size of the substitute side chain (surface area): the most restrictive changes are G151V and G151R, followed to a lesser extent by G151D and they by G151S and G151C. PMID:8195074

  15. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    PubMed Central

    Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Fosquiera, Eliana Cristina; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed. PMID:21716926

  16. Transcriptome and selected metabolite analyses reveal points of sugar metabolism in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.).

    PubMed

    Hu, Lisong; Wu, Gang; Hao, Chaoyun; Yu, Huan; Tan, Lehe

    2016-07-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly known as jackfruit, produces the largest tree-borne fruit known thus far. The edible part of the fruit develops from the perianths, and contains many sugar-derived compounds. However, its sugar metabolism is poorly understood. A fruit perianth transcriptome was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, producing 32,459 unigenes with an average length of 1345nt. Sugar metabolism was characterized by comparing expression patterns of genes related to sugar metabolism and evaluating correlations with enzyme activity and sugar accumulation during fruit perianth development. During early development, high expression levels of acid invertases and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for the rapid utilization of imported sucrose for fruit growth. The differential expression of starch metabolism-related genes and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for starch accumulated before fruit ripening but decreased during ripening. Sucrose accumulated during ripening, when the expression levels of genes for sucrose synthesis were elevated and high enzyme activity was observed. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis presents fundamental information on sugar metabolism and will be a useful reference for further research on fruit perianth development in jackfruit. PMID:27181946

  17. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Barioni, Eric Diego; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes de Paula; Ferraz-de-Paula, Viviane; Wagner, Theodoro Marcel; Cogliati, Bruno; Corrêa dos Santos, Matheus; Machado, Marina da Silva; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Niero, Rivaldo; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli

    2013-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA-) stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, β2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity. PMID:23476704

  18. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    PubMed

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970

  19. A proteomic analysis of storage stress responses in Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. tuberous root.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yusong; Chen, Cheng; Tao, Xiang; Wang, Jianxi; Zhang, Yizheng

    2012-08-01

    During post-harvest storage, tuberous roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) usually undergo a biotic and abiotic stress influencing protein expression pattern and substance contents. This research compared the change of total proteins and carbohydrate content in tuberous roots of sweet potato during the storage period. The result of the two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that there were 25 differentially expressed proteins between day 0 and day 75 during the storage. Among these proteins, 11 proteins were down-regulated and the other 14 were up-regulated. The results from MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS analyses and mascot database searching showed that 11 of the 25 differentially expressed proteins were identified as store-stress regulated proteins. It was also found that the proteins involved in the energy metabolism and the stress-response were drastically up-regulated, whereas those in biomacromolecule synthesis were markedly down-regulated. Meanwhile, under the experimental conditions, the content of the starch and the cellulose was decreased by more than a quarter and the amylase activity was increased moderately. PMID:22547271

  20. Phytochemical Analysis and Metal-chelation Activity of Achillea tenuifolia Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Ayatollahi, Abdul Majid; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Moin, Mohammad Reza; Razavizadeh, Masoud; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a dichloromethane fraction from which three known compounds β-sitosterol (compound1), 5-hydroxy, 4',6,7– trimethoxy flavone (salvigenin compound 2), and methyl-gallate (compound 3) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by different spectroscopic methods. Applying the molar-ratio method, the complexation of salvigenin with Fe (III), Cu(II) and Zn(II), the most abundant type of metal ions in the body, were then evaluated. It was determined that stoichiometric ratio of salvigenin with these cations were as Fe(Salvigenin)2 (H2O)2 and Cu(Salvigenin)2(H2O)2 in methanolic solution without pH control, while zinc ions didn`t form significant complexes. The results were confirmed more, by computational molecular modeling of the structure of proposed ligand-complexes by semi-imperical PM3 calculations, which determined negative heat of formation for the complexes Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions as -689.7 and -573.5, respectively and proposed chelating affinity of salvigenin in the following order: Fe(III) > Cu(II) >> Zn(II). PMID:24250440

  1. Spermidine Derivatives in Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) Fruit: Sensory (Taste) versus Biofunctional (ACE-Inhibition) Properties.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diana Paola; Masatani, Chieko; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Peterson, Devin G; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-07-01

    The bitterness in lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit is increased during processing (juicing or drying). To identify the bitter-active compounds, the ethanolic fruit pulp extract was subjected to RP-18 solid-phase extraction, and then sensory-guided fractionated by HPLC. Two spermidine derivatives, N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine and N(1),N(8)-bis(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine, were isolated and their structures confirmed by analysis of their HPLC-ESI/MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR data. The N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine was synthesized and used as an authentic sample to unequivocally confirm the structure of this compound and to quantitate it in both fresh and dried fruit. In silico analyses demonstrated that spermidine derivatives identified in lulo pulp exhibited a strong ACE-I (angiotensin I-converting enzyme) inhibitory activity. Subsequently, these results were confirmed by in vitro analyses and showed the potential use of lulo fruit pulp as an ingredient of functional foods related to the prevention of blood hypertension. PMID:27292771

  2. In vitro antioxidant activity of Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Sasikumar, J M; Maheshu, V; Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Darsini, D Teepica Priya

    2010-02-01

    The methanolic extract of the aerial part of Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (Rubiaceae) was screened for antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH) quenching assay, 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) cation decolorization test, ferric reducing power (FRP), scavenging capacity towards hydroxyl ion (OH*) radicals and nitric oxide (NO) radical inhibition activity using established assay procedures. Total phenolics and total flavonoid contents were, also determined. The plant yielded 210 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g phenolic content and 55 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g flavonoid content. The extract exhibited high antiradical activity against DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radicals with EC50 value of 82, 150, 130, and 170 microg/ml, respectively. The FRP increased with increasing concentration of the sample. The antioxidant activity of the extract was comparable with that of the standard butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). High correlation between total phenolic/flavonoid contents and scavenging potential of different reactive oxygen species (R2 = 0.785-0.998) indicated the polyphenols as the main antioxidants. PMID:21086755

  3. Anticancer, chemopreventive and radioprotective potential of black plum (Eugenia jambolana lam.).

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2011-01-01

    Despite good understanding of the molecular basis of the disease and advances in treatment, globally cancer is still a major cause of death. Estimates are that it will surpass cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death, with higher incidences in the developing countries that have minimal resources. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the two most commonly used treatment modalities, are associated with untoward side effects. This has necessitated the search for alternatives that are effective, non toxic and easily affordable for patients and traditional medicinal plants are an ideal source. Eugenia jambolana Lam., commonly known as black plum or 'jamun' is an important medicinal plant in various traditional systems of medicine. It is effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, inflammation, ulcers and diarrhea and preclinical studies have also shown it to possess antineoplastic, chemopreventive and radioprotective properties. Here, for the first time, the effects of jamun in treatment and prevention of cancer, and the mechanisms responsible for these effects are appraised. Additionally the drawbacks in existing knowledge are also stressed to emphasize the possible avenues that need to be investigated, so that maximum effects on both prevention and cure can be attained. PMID:21517226

  4. Light Attenuation Method for 3D data acquisition (LAM3D) of bottom particle deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er, Jenn Wei; Law, Adrian W. K.; Adams, E. Eric; Yang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a novel experimental technique, Light Attenuation Method for 3D data acquisition (LAM3D), to acquire three-dimensional spatial characteristics and temporal development of bottom particle deposits. The new technique performs data acquisition with higher spatial and temporal resolution than existing approaches with laser and ultrasonic 3D profilers, and is therefore ideal for laboratory investigations with fast varying changes in the sediment bed, such as the developing deposition profile from sediment clouds commonly formed during dredging or land reclamation projects and the dynamic evolution in movable bed processes in rivers. The principle of the technique is based on the analysis of the light attenuation due to multiple light scattering through the particle deposits layer compared to the clear water column. With appropriate calibration, the particles size and distribution thickness can be quantified by the transmitted light spectrum. In the presentation, we will first show our measurement setup with a light panel for calibrated illumination and a system of DSLR cameras for the light capturing. Subsequently, we shall present the experimental results of fast evolving deposition profile of a barge-disposed sediment cloud upon its bottom impact on the sea bed.

  5. Influence of growth phase on the essential oil composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Hamzeh

    2009-01-01

    Ziziphora clinopodioides belongs to the Lamiaceae family, that are widespread all over Iran. The leaves, flowers and stems of the plant are frequently used as wild vegetables or additives in food to offer aroma and flavour. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of Z. clinopodioides Lam. in different growth stages were analysed by GC and GC-MS, and 29 components were identified. Pulegone (30.1%), thymol (21.3%), p-mentha-3-en-8-ol (12.9%) and piperitenone (9.3%) were the main components in the pre-flowering stage. In the flowering stage, pulegone (44.6%), p-mentha-3-en-8-ol (10.5%), 1,8-cineoil (10.4%), piperitenone (8.7%) and thymol (6.7%) were identified as the main constituents and in the post-flowering stage, pulegone (41.3%), isomenthone (11.6%), p-mentha-3-en-8-ol (11%), p-mentha-3,8-diene (7.2%) and thymol (5.8%) were identified as the major components. PMID:19401912

  6. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Pietrovski, Evelise Fernandes; Magina, Michele Debiasi Alberton; Gomig, Franciane; Pietrovski, Caroline Fernandes; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Barcellos, Michele; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2008-04-01

    Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., a plant from the south of Brazil, is used in the popular medicine for rheumatism treatment. This study reports that topical application of hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and isolated compounds from E. brasiliensis caused an inhibition of ear oedema in response to topical application of croton oil on the mouse ear. For oedema inhibition, the estimated ID50 values (dose reducing the inflammatory response by 50% relative to the control value) for hydroalcoholic extract and fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane) were 0.17, 0.29, 0.13 and 0.14 mg/ear, respectively, with inhibition of 79+/-7%, 87+/-6%, 88+/-5% and 96+/-2%, respectively. Isolated phenolic compounds (quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin) were also effective in inhibiting the oedema (inhibition of 61+/-5%, 66+/-2% and 37+/-9%, respectively). Moreover, both extract and isolated compounds caused inhibition of polymorphonuclear cells influx (inhibition of 85+/-6%, 81+/-5%, 73+/-6% and 76+/-6%, respectively). The histological analysis of the ear tissue clearly confirmed that the extract and compounds of E. brasiliensis inhibited the influx of polymorphonuclear cells to mouse ear skin after application of croton oil. Furthermore, hydroalcoholic extract was also effective in inhibiting the arachidonic acid-mediated mouse ear oedema (ID50 value was 1.94 mg/ear and inhibition of 60+/-7%). Therefore, these results consistently support the notion that E. brasiliensis possesses topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:18380921

  7. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Moringa oleifera Lam. flower targeting Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Joydeep; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    Leishmaniases is a group of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. At least 20 species of Leishmania are known to infect humans transmitted by female sandflies, Phlebotomus spp. Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis, considered most lethal among the common three forms of leishmaniasis. Lack of appropriate vaccines, emergence of drug resistance and side effects of currently used drugs stress the need for better alternative drugs, particularly from natural sources. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the efficacy of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The flower extract of M. oliefera (MoF) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial agent when compared to other parts of the plant like leaf, root, bark and stem. It imparted significant reduction in parasite number in infected macrophages. The bioactivity guided fractionation of MoF showed ethyl acetate fraction (MoE) as the most active and gave significant parasite reduction in the infected macrophages. Further, growth kinetics studies revealed loss of L. donovani promastigotes viability in the presence of MoE in both time and dose dependent manner. In vivo experiment in Balb/c mouse model of leishmaniasis supported the in vitro findings with a remarkable reduction of the parasite burden in both liver and spleen. PMID:26669018

  8. Simultaneous HPLC quantitative analysis of active compounds in leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2014-08-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. A simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of the contents of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, the primary antioxidative compounds, in M. oleifera leaves. HPLC analysis was successfully conducted by using a Hypersil BDS C18 column, eluted with a gradient of methanol-1% acetic acid with a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and detected at 334 nm. Parameters for the validation included linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation. The developed HPLC method was precise, with relative standard deviation < 2%. The recovery values of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in M. oleifera leaf extracts were 98.50, 98.47 and 98.59%, respectively. The average contents of these compounds in the dried ethanolic extracts of the leaves of M. oleifera collected from different regions of Thailand were 0.081, 0.120 and 0.153% (w/w), respectively. The developed HPLC method was appropriate and practical for the simultaneous analysis of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in the leaf extract of M. oleifera. This work is valuable as guidance for the standardization of the leaf extracts and pharmaceutical products of M. oleifera. PMID:23828911

  9. Moringa oleifera Lam prevents acetaminophen induced liver injury through restoration of glutathione level.

    PubMed

    Fakurazi, S; Hairuszah, I; Nanthini, U

    2008-08-01

    Initiation of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicities is believed to be promoted by oxidative stress during the event of overdosage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of Moringa oleifera Lam (MO), an Asian plant of high medicinal value, against a single high dose of APAP. Groups of five male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-administered with MO (200 and 800 mg/kg) prior to a single dose of APAP (3g/kg body weight; p.o). Silymarin was used as an established hepatoprotective drug against APAP induced liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity of MO extract was observed following significant histopathological analysis and reduction of the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in groups pretreated with MO compared to those treated with APAP alone. Meanwhile, the level of glutathione (GSH) was found to be restored in MO-treated animals compared to the groups treated with APAP alone. These observations were comparable to the group pretreated with silymarin prior to APAP administration. Group that was treated with APAP alone exhibited high level of transaminases and ALP activities besides reduction in the GSH level. The histological hepatocellular deterioration was also evidenced. The results from the present study suggested that the leaves of MO can prevent hepatic injuries from APAP induced through preventing the decline of glutathione level. PMID:18514995

  10. In vitro wound healing potential and identification of bioactive compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Pauzi, Nur Aimi Syarina; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro. PMID:24490175

  11. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., "subabul" stem lignin: Isolation, structural characterization and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Yearla, Srinivasa Rao; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-06-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant renewable biopolymer on earth after cellulose. It is being used in many industrial applications due to its abundance. In the present study, lignin was isolated from the stems of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., a high biomass yielding plant using acidic dioxane under N2 atmosphere. Structural characterization of isolated dioxane lignin (DL) was performed by analytical techniques: UV, FT-IR, ¹H NMR and ¹³C NMR. Their monolignol content was determined by nitrobenzene oxidation followed by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The data was compared with commercial alkali lignin (AL). The results showed that DL is of hardwood guaiacyl-syringyl (GS) type, whereas AL is softwood type with more guaiacyl units and trace amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units (H). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of DL showed two stage thermal degradation profile similar to AL. The DTGmax for DL and AL were found in the second major loss event of second stage of TGA at 424°C and 404°C, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study exhibited the glass transition temperatures (Tg) at 132°C and 122°C for DL and AL, respectively. The results from thermal stability studies suggest that dioxane lignin isolated from the "miracle tree" (subabul) can be exploited in various thermoplastic industrial applications. PMID:27468468

  12. Drell-Yan production and Lam-Tung relation in the color glass condensate formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Gelis, Francois

    2007-10-01

    We study the Drell-Yan production cross section and structure functions in proton (deuteron)-nucleus collisions using the color glass condensate formalism. The nucleus is treated in the color glass condensate framework which includes both higher twist effects due to the inclusion of multiple scatterings and leading twist pQCD shadowing due to the small x resummation, while the proton (or deuteron) is treated within the DGLAP improved parton model. In particular, the Drell-Yan structure functions are used in order to investigate the Lam-Tung relation at small x, which is known to be identically zero at leading twist up to next-to-leading order, and is thus a good playground for studying higher twist effects. In agreement with this, we find that violations of this relation are more important for low momentum and invariant mass of the Drell-Yan pair, and also in the region of rapidity that corresponds to smaller values of x in the nucleus.

  13. Preliminary Assessment of the Chemical Stability of Dried Extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Gisely C.; Longhini, Renata; dos Santos, Paulo Victor P.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano; de Mello, João Carlos P.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a preliminary estimation of the stability of the dried extract from bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (“Mutamba”), with and without added colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD). The physical and chemical properties and the compatibility of CSD in the extract were evaluated for 21 days of storage under stress conditions of temperature (45 ± 2°C) and humidity (75 ± 5%). Thermogravimetry (TG) was supplemented using selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of stability of the characteristic constituents (chemical markers), namely, procyanidin B2 (PB2) and epicatechin (EP). The results showed that PB2 is an appropriate compound to be used as a chemical marker in the quality control of dried extracts of G. ulmifolia. The stress study showed that there was no significant difference between the two formulations. However, considering the TG data and the high temperatures involved, the results suggest that CSD increases the stability of the dried extract of G. ulmifolia. PMID:22291706

  14. Preliminary Assessment of the Chemical Stability of Dried Extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lopes, Gisely C; Longhini, Renata; Dos Santos, Paulo Victor P; Araújo, Adriano A S; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano; de Mello, João Carlos P

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a preliminary estimation of the stability of the dried extract from bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. ("Mutamba"), with and without added colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD). The physical and chemical properties and the compatibility of CSD in the extract were evaluated for 21 days of storage under stress conditions of temperature (45 ± 2°C) and humidity (75 ± 5%). Thermogravimetry (TG) was supplemented using selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of stability of the characteristic constituents (chemical markers), namely, procyanidin B2 (PB2) and epicatechin (EP). The results showed that PB2 is an appropriate compound to be used as a chemical marker in the quality control of dried extracts of G. ulmifolia. The stress study showed that there was no significant difference between the two formulations. However, considering the TG data and the high temperatures involved, the results suggest that CSD increases the stability of the dried extract of G. ulmifolia. PMID:22291706

  15. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Pauzi, Nur Aimi Syarina; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro. PMID:24490175

  16. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Methods Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. Results It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity. PMID:25183111

  17. Clinical Efficacy of Moringa oleifera Lam. Stems Bark in Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common problem in clinical practice. Usually they are asymptomatic and are commonly present with distressing symptoms like pain and burning sensation on urination. Antibiotics are widely used to treat UTIs; however, they have their own limitations like resistance, reinfection, and relapses. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the value of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark as a potential medicine for UTIs. Study Design. 30 patients with UTI were randomly divided into two groups with 15 patients in each group. Shigru bark was given to patients of the first group (trial group) and modern medicines were prescribed to the other group of patients. At least three follow-ups are taken in both groups at the end of every week of treatment. Results. After treatment 66.67 % were cured, 13.33 % improved, 13.33% patients have no change, and 6.67% relapsed in trial group and in control group 46.67% were cured, 26.66% improved, 6.67% patients have no change, and 20% relapsed. Interpretation and Conclusion. The trial drug is significant in the management of UTI. This study needs to be done on a large scale and for a long time. PMID:27437504

  18. Disentangling the Origins of Cultivated Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970

  19. Analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the extract of Solanum sisymbriifolium (Lam.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Bhuyan, Shakhawat Hossan; Matin, Maima; Hossain, Faruq; Khatun, Farjana; Taiab, Abu; Jamaluddin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the ethanol extract of leaves of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Family: Solanaceae). Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was measured by acetic acid-induced writhing inhibition test. The neuropharmacological activities were evaluated using hole cross, hole board, and elevated plus-maze test and the anti-diarrheal activity was assessed using castor oil-induced diarrhea inhibition method. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay was carried out for assessing the cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract of the leaves. Except cytotoxic activity, all the tests were conducted on mice. Results: The extract at oral doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight showed highly significant (p<0.001) decrease in number of writhing, 52.1±0.66 and 4.4±0.64 compared with the control (78.6±0.29) with the percentage of inhibitions of writhing response were found to be 33.72% and 94.40%, respectively. Compare with the control, the extract at both doses showed significant sedative effect in hole cross test. In hole board test, the extract exhibited highly significant (p<0.001) anxiolytic activity at dose of (200 mg/kg), while the same activity was observed at dose of 400 mg/kg in elevated plus-maze test. The extract showed highly significant (p<0.001) anti-diarrheal activity in a dose-dependent manner. With the extract, significant lethality to brine shrimp was found with LC50 value of 61.66±0.9 μg/ml, which was comparable with the positive control (LC50: 11.89±0.8 µg/ml). Conclusion: The results from the present studies support the traditional uses of this plant part and could form the basis of further investigation including compound isolation. PMID:25050287

  20. Effect of crude extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. on human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chinni, Santhivardhan; Dubala, Anil; Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Satish Kumar, M N; Kannan, Elango

    2014-11-01

    The fruit of Eugenia jambolana Lam. is very popular for its anti-diabetic property. Previous studies on the crude extract of E. jambolana (EJE) have successfully explored the scientific basis for some of its traditional medicinal uses. Considering its wide use and consumption as a seasonal fruit, the present study investigates the ability of E. jambolana to interact with cytochrome P450 enzymes. The standardized EJE was incubated with pooled human liver microsomes to assess the CYP2C9-, CYP2D6-, and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of diclofenac, dextromethorphan, and testosterone, respectively. The metabolites formed after the enzymatic reactions were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. EJE showed differential effect on cytochrome P450 activities with an order of inhibitory potential as CYP2C9 > CYP3A4 > CYP2D6 having IC50 of 76.69, 359.02, and 493.05 µg/mL, respectively. The selectivity of EJE for CYP2C9 rather than CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 led to perform the enzyme kinetics to explicate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of CYP2C9-mediated diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation. EJE was notably potent in inhibiting the reaction in a non-competitive manner with Ki of 84.85 ± 5.27 µg/mL. The results revealed the CYP2C9 inhibitory potential of EJE with lower Ki value suggesting that EJE should be examined for its potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions when concomitantly administered with other drugs. PMID:24590863

  1. Chemical characteristics and fractionation of proteins from Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Estelamar Maria Borges; Carvalho, Maria Regina Barbieri; Neves, Valdir Augusto; Silva, Maraíza Apareci; Arantes-Pereira, Lucas

    2014-03-15

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a leguminous plant, originally from Asia, which is cultivated in Brazil because of its low production cost. Although some people have used this plant as food, there is little information about its chemical and nutritional characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterise the leaves of M. oleifera in terms of their chemical composition, protein fractions obtained by solubility in different systems and also to assess their nutritional quality and presence of bioactive substances. The whole leaf flour contained 28.7% crude protein, 7.1% fat, 10.9% ashes, 44.4% carbohydrate and 3.0mg 100g(-1) calcium and 103.1mg 100g(-1) iron. The protein profile revealed levels of 3.1% albumin, 0.3% globulins, 2.2% prolamin, 3.5% glutelin and 70.1% insoluble proteins. The hydrolysis of the protein from leaf flour employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) resulted in 39.5% and 29.5%, respectively. The total protein showed low in vitro digestibility (31.8%). The antinutritional substances tested were tannins (20.7 mg g(-1)), trypsin inhibitor (1.45TIU mg g(-1)), nitrate (17 mg g(-1)) and oxalic acid (10.5 mg g(-1)), besides the absence of cyanogenic compounds. β-Carotene and lutein stood out as major carotenoids, with concentrations of 161.0 and 47.0 μg g(-1) leaf, respectively. Although M. oleifera leaves contain considerable amount of crude protein, this is mostly insoluble and has low in vitro digestibility, even after heat treatment and chemical attack. In vivo studies are needed to better assess the use of this leaf as a protein source in human feed. PMID:24206684

  2. Anti-nutritional factors in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera (Lam).

    PubMed

    Igwilo, I O; Ezeonu, F C; Ezekwesili-Ofili, J O; Igwilo, S N; Nsofor, C I; Abdulsalami, M S; Obi, E

    2014-01-01

    The evergreen plant, Moringa oleifera (Lam) has been known to have both medicinal and nutritional properties, thus its wide use in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia. The roots, in particular, have been reported to possess antibiotic, anti-tumour and anti-oxidative activities. This study therefore seeks to determine the levels of the anti-nutritional factors and other proximate analyses in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera which might be responsible for such activities. The concentrations of oxalates and phytates in the roots were determined using the methods of Munro and Bassir and Griffith and Thomas, respectively. The methods of Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were used to estimate the amount of tannins, saponins and cyanogenic glycosides while the Technicon sequential Multi-sample amino acid analyzer (TSM) was used determine the amino acid concentration in the roots. Tannins (45 mg 100 g(-1)) and oxalates (17.08 mg 100 g(-1)) were present in the roots at higher levels while saponins (4.20mg 100 g(-1)), cyanogenic glycosides (2.72 mg 100 g(-1)) and phytates (0.07 mg 100 g(-1)) occurred at much lower levels. The roots contained (Mean +/- Standard Error of mean) %crude lipid (6.33 +/- 1.64), %crude proteins (5.02 +/- 1.52), %carbohydrates (76.75), %ash (4.97 +/- 0.53) and %moisture (6.93 +/- 0.58). The roots lacked the water-soluble vitamins pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamine but contained ascorbic acid (48.13 mg 100 g(-1)) and niacin (5.83 mg 100 g(-1)). This study has shown that Moringa oleifera roots are rich in anti-nutritional factors and that is why they are widely used in traditional medicine in Africa, Asia and Americas for its medicinal importance. PMID:24783788

  3. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons by using a freshwater fern species Azolla filiculoides Lam.

    PubMed

    Kösesakal, Taylan; Ünal, Muammer; Kulen, Oktay; Memon, Abdülrezzak; Yüksel, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the phytoremediation capacity of Azolla filiculoides Lam. for the water resources contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated. The plants were grown in nitrogen-free Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5% crude oil under greenhouse conditions for 15 days. Although the growth rate of the plants were not negatively influenced by the presence of crude oil in the media for the concentration of 0.005% and 0.01% v/v, a gradual impeding effect of crude oil in the growth media has been observed at concentrations 0.05-0.1%. More than 0.1% crude oil in the growth medium ostensibly retarded the growth. For example, 0.2% oil in the media reduced growth approximately 50% relative to the control, and the presence of crude oil at concentrations 0.3% or more were lethal. The data about the percentage of plant growth, fresh weight increase and root growth clearly indicated that the tolerance level of A. filiculoides plants to crude oil ranges between 0.1% and 0.2%. In comparison to control samples, the biodegradation rate of total aliphatic and aromatic (phenathrene) hydrocarbons at 0.05-0.2% oil concentrations, was 94-73% and 81-77%, respectively. On the other hand, in case of further increases in oil concentration in media, i.e.; 0.3-0.5%, the biodegradation rate was still higher in the experimental samples, respectively 71-63% and 75-71%. The high biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons in the experimental samples suggested that A. filiculoides plants could be a promising candidate to be used for the phytoremediation of low crude oil contaminated precious freshwater resources. PMID:26588199

  4. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells

    PubMed Central

    Adejumo, Olufunmilayo E.; Kolapo, Adelodun L.; Folarin, Akintomiwa O.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD). About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, pharmacological and pharmacognostical applications of Moringa oleifera have been reported. Objective: This study investigated the antisickling potential of polar and non-polar extracts of the seed, flower and leaf of Moringa oleifera for the first time. Materials and Methods: Using crude methanol extract, aqueous extract, ethyl acetate and butanol, the in vitro antisickling activities of Moringa oleifera fractions, were evaluated using erythrocyte cells deoxygenated with 2% sodium metabisulphite. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, free anthraquinones, and alkaloids. Extracts of the seed and flower demonstrated a higher (P<0.05) antisickling activity in comparison to the leaf extract. The leaf extract, as well as those of the seed and flower, equally demonstrated a (P<0.05) reversal of sickled erythrocytes. Discussions and Conclusions: These findings suggest that Moringa oleifera may play a role in the management of SCD, by incorporation of its fractions into recipes. More extensive biological evaluations and further studies will be necessary for the chemical characterization of the antisickling principles. PMID:22557922

  5. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eupatilin, a lipophilic flavonoid from mountain wormwood ( Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.).

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Anna; Ponti, Cristina; Pollastro, Federica; Del Favero, Giorgia; Della Loggia, Roberto; Tubaro, Aurelia; Appendino, Giovanni; Sosa, Silvio

    2009-09-01

    Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) is the major lipophilic flavonoid from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber, two mountain wormwoods used for the production of the celebrated alpine liqueur genepy. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of eupatilin was investigated using the inhibition of the Croton-oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear as the end point. The oedematous response and the leukocyte infiltration were evaluated up to 48 h after the induction of phlogosis, comparing eupatilin with hydrocortisone and indomethacin as representatives of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. At maximum development, eupatilin significantly reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner (ID(50) = 0.28 micromol/cm(2)), showing an anti-inflammatory potency comparable to that of indomethacin (ID(50) = 0.26 micromol/cm(2)) and only 1 order of magnitude lower than that of hydrocortisone (ID(50) = 0.03 micromol/cm(2)). Within 48 h, eupatilin (0.30 micromol/cm(2)) caused a global inhibition of the oedematous response (42%) higher than that of an equimolar dose of indomethacin (18%) and fully comparable to that of 0.03 micromol/cm(2) of hydrocortisone (55%). Moreover, the effect of eupatilin on the granulocytes infiltrate (32% inhibition) was similar to that of indomethacin (35% inhibition) and comparable to that of hydrocortisone (42% reduction), as confirmed by histological analysis. When our results are taken together, they show that eupatilin is endowed with potent in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity, qualitatively similar to that of hydrocortisone and intermediate in terms of potency between those of steroid and non-steroid drugs. PMID:19663482

  6. In vitro antibacterial potency of Butea monosperma Lam. against 12 clinically isolated multidrug resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Mahesh Chandra; Padhy, Rabindra Nath

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity, using cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water to validate medicinal uses of Butea monosperma Lam (B. monosperma) in controlling infections; and to qualitatively estimate phytochemical constituents of leaf-extracts of the plant. Methods The antibacterial activity of leaf-extracts was evaluated by the agar-well diffusion method against clinically isolated 12 Gram-positive and -negative multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria in vitro. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of leaf-extracts against each bacterium were obtained in a 96-well micro-titre plate, by broth dilution micro-titre plate technique. Results The presence of tannins, flavonoids, starch, glycosides and carbohydrates in different leaf extracts was established. Pathogenic bacteria used were, Acinetobacter sp., Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sp., Enterococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), methicillin resistant S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus, along with standard bacterial strains. These MDR bacteria had been recorded to have significant inhibitions by leaf extracts, obtained by cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents. In addition, the hot aqueous extract against Enterococcus sp. had the highest inhibition zone-size (21 mm). Ciprofloxacin 30 µg/disc was the positive/reference control and the diluting solvent, 10% dimethyl sulphoxide was the negative control. Recorded MIC values of different extracts ranged between 0.23 and 13.30 mg/mL, and MBC values were 0.52 to 30.00 mg/mL, for these bacteria. Conclusions Leaf-extracts with hot water and ethanol had shown significant antibacterial activity against all bacteria. B. monosperma leaf-extract could be used in treating infectious

  7. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2008-08-01

    To determine the therapeutic potential of herbal medicine Moringa oleifera Lam. family: Moringaceae in the control of allergic diseases, the efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the seeds of the plant (MOEE) against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs was examined. During the experimental period, the test drugs (MOEE or dexamethasone) were administered by oral route prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% OVA. Bronchoconstriction tests were performed and respiratory parameters (i.e., tidal volume and respiratory rate) were measured. At the end of experiment, blood was collected from each animal to perform total and differential counts and serum was used for assay of IL-4, IL-6, and TNFalpha. Lung lavage fluid (BAL) was collected for estimation of cellular content and cytokine levels. Lung tissue histamine assays were performed using the homogenate of one lobe from each animal; a separate lobe and the trachea were subjected to histopathology to measure the degree of any airway inflammation. The results suggest that in OVA-sensitized control animals that did not receive either drug, tidal volume (V(t)) was decreased, respiration rate (f) was increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and BAL fluid were increased significantly. MOEE-treatment of sensitized hosts resulted in improvement in all parameters except BAL TNFalpha and IL-4. Moreover, MOEE-treatment also showed protection against acetylcholine-induced broncho-constriction and airway inflammation which was confirmed by histological observations. The results of these studies confirm the traditional claim for the usefulness of this herb in the treatment of allergic disorders like asthma. PMID:18686107

  8. Comparison of two sampling methods when studying periphyton colonization in Lam Tsuen River, Hong Kong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Anping; Lam, Kwan-Sing Paul; Hu, Zhangli

    2011-01-01

    We used standard periphyton samplers to examine the colonization pattern of periphytic algae on artificial substrates (glass slides) in Lam Tsuen River, Hong Kong, in dry (winter) and wet (summer) seasons. In each season, six replicated slides were retrieved randomly and replaced by new slides at weekly intervals over a period of 6 weeks. We thus obtained two batches of slides, both with a series of different exposure times (1 to 6 weeks): one batch was set up at the same time (start of the sampling) and the other was harvested at the same time (end of the sampling). Changes in taxonomic composition, species diversity (Shannon-Wiener diversity index), standing crop (in terms of cell density and cell biovolume), and abundance of the abundant algal species were monitored and compared between the two batches of slides. The succession patterns of the periphytic algae were similar between the two batches in each season, while more remarkable differences were observed between the two seasons, suggesting that either batch would be suitable for a colonization study of periphytic algae. The cell density was dominated by diatoms in both seasons, while the cell biovolume was dominated by diatoms in winter and by green algae in summer. The cell density and biovolume attributed to blue green algae was relatively small. Most of the diatom species exhibited similar colonization patterns throughout the experiment, while green algae showed different succession patterns in different seasons or sampling methods, indicating that diatoms are better bio-indicators than green algae for a periphyton colonization study. In general, the diversity indices and the standing crops reached their maximums at around week 4, and they were higher in summer than in winter.

  9. The aerial parts of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. protect against NSAID-induced gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, B; Trabadela, C; Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Quílez, A; Miño, P; De la Puerta, R; Martín-Calero, M J

    2007-11-01

    Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., a member of the Sterculiaceae family, is used in folk medicine because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial and antihypertensive properties. Most of the research work carried out on this plant has focused on the bark because of its high concentration of antioxidant proanthocyanidins. The flowers and leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia, though less studied, are also used as a remedy for different conditions, such as kidney and gastrointestinal diseases, fever and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the gastroprotective effects of an aqueous suspension of the ethanolic extract from leaves and flowers of Guazuma ulmifolia in a model of acute gastric ulcer induced by diclofenac as ulcerogenic agent, using the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole as a protection reference. Therefore, the extract was administered two times orally to three groups of Wistar rats at doses of 500, 250 and 125mg/kg, with a 24-h interval between doses. Diclofenac (100mg/kg) was given 1h after the last administration of the extract. Pretreatment with Guazuma ulmifolia or omeprazole decreased the ulcerated area in a dose-dependent way. Myeloperoxidase activity as a marker of neutrophil infiltration was slightly reduced in vivo, whereas in vitro, anti-inflammatory activity was clearly inhibited in a dose-dependent way. The lowest doses of the extract significantly decreased the levels of lipoperoxides, and superoxide dismuthase activity increased to a similar extent as with omeprazole (P<0.001). Examination of glutathione metabolism reflected a significant rise in glutathione peroxidase activity at the highest dose of Guazuma ulmifolia. Finally, there was a faint elevation in prostaglandin E(2) levels with all doses, though the depletion induced by diclofenac could not be reverted. We conclude that the aerial parts of Guazuma ulmifolia protect gastric mucosa against the injurious effect of NSAIDs mainly by anti-inflammatory and radical-scavenging mechanisms. PMID:17884315

  10. Catalytic Chan–Lam coupling using a ‘tube-in-tube’ reactor to deliver molecular oxygen as an oxidant

    PubMed Central

    Mallia, Carl J; Burton, Paul M; Smith, Alexander M R; Walter, Gary C

    2016-01-01

    Summary A flow system to perform Chan–Lam coupling reactions of various amines and arylboronic acids has been realised employing molecular oxygen as an oxidant for the re-oxidation of the copper catalyst enabling a catalytic process. A tube-in-tube gas reactor has been used to simplify the delivery of the oxygen accelerating the optimisation phase and allowing easy access to elevated pressures. A small exemplification library of heteroaromatic products has been prepared and the process has been shown to be robust over extended reaction times. PMID:27559412

  11. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids

  12. Catalytic Chan-Lam coupling using a 'tube-in-tube' reactor to deliver molecular oxygen as an oxidant.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Carl J; Burton, Paul M; Smith, Alexander M R; Walter, Gary C; Baxendale, Ian R

    2016-01-01

    A flow system to perform Chan-Lam coupling reactions of various amines and arylboronic acids has been realised employing molecular oxygen as an oxidant for the re-oxidation of the copper catalyst enabling a catalytic process. A tube-in-tube gas reactor has been used to simplify the delivery of the oxygen accelerating the optimisation phase and allowing easy access to elevated pressures. A small exemplification library of heteroaromatic products has been prepared and the process has been shown to be robust over extended reaction times. PMID:27559412

  13. Performance Comparison of a Matrix Solver on a Heterogeneous Network Using Two Implementations of MPI: MPICH and LAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Jennifer K.

    1995-01-01

    Two of the current and most popular implementations of the Message-Passing Standard, Message Passing Interface (MPI), were contrasted: MPICH by Argonne National Laboratory, and LAM by the Ohio Supercomputer Center at Ohio State University. A parallel skyline matrix solver was adapted to be run in a heterogeneous environment using MPI. The Message-Passing Interface Forum was held in May 1994 which lead to a specification of library functions that implement the message-passing model of parallel communication. LAM, which creates it's own environment, is more robust in a highly heterogeneous network. MPICH uses the environment native to the machine architecture. While neither of these free-ware implementations provides the performance of native message-passing or vendor's implementations, MPICH begins to approach that performance on the SP-2. The machines used in this study were: IBM RS6000, 3 Sun4, SGI, and the IBM SP-2. Each machine is unique and a few machines required specific modifications during the installation. When installed correctly, both implementations worked well with only minor problems.

  14. Petrologic composition model of the upper crust in Bohai Bay basin, China, based on Lamé impedances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Tsang, Louisa L. H.; Wang, Yanghua; Zhao, Bing

    2009-12-01

    Seismic attributes, such as P- and S-wave velocity, Poisson’s ratio, and acoustic impedances, all generally can be used for distinguishing different rock types. The non-uniqueness can be largely reduced using Lamé impedances instead of acoustic impedances as additional constraints. We have followed this method to constitute a petrologic composition model of the upper crust in the Bohai Bay basin, China. We briefly review the seismic parameters used for discrimination of rock types and focus our attention on the sensitivity of different combinations of parameters to determine the composition of materials. Corrections for pressure and temperature are performed in order to compare elastic wave velocities and densities measured at room temperature and surface pressure in laboratory with those for representative rock parameters. In a second step, we find the rock classes in the tested area by contrasting known data to laboratory measurements on a variety of rock samples extracted in the area. The basic field data are P-wave velocity values collected along a seismic profile conducted in the Bozhong Depression. The different rock types belonging to a particular rock class are finally constrained by the seismic velocities, Poisson’s ratio, density, acoustic impedance, and Lamé impedance related to the topmost 10 km of the Bohai Bay crust.

  15. Characterization of a Thermobifida fusca beta-1,3-glucanase (Lam81A) with a potential role in plant biomass degradation.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Colleen E; Wilson, David B

    2006-11-28

    Thermobifida fusca is a filamentous soil bacterium that plays a major role in the breakdown of plant biomass. In this paper, we report the cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of the T. fusca enzyme, Lam81A. The Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Database (http://afmb.cnrs-mrs.fr/CAZY/) indicates that Lam81A belongs to a relatively uncharacterized family of beta-1,3-glucanases, family GH-81 [Coutinho, P. M., and Henrissat, B. (1999) in Recent Advances in Carbohydrate Bioengineering (Gilbert, H. J., Davies, G., Henrissat, B., and Svensson, B., Eds.) pp 3-12, The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, U.K.]. Microarray analysis suggests that Lam81A plays a role in biomass degradation, where its natural substrate may be the plant cell wall polysaccharide, callose, which is a polymer of beta-1,3-linked glucose. Characterization of Lam81A has shown that the enzyme is specific for beta-1,3-linked glucose polysaccharides, is endohydrolytic, and utilizes an inverting mechanism for substrate hydrolysis. In addition, the enzyme has a broad pH optimum from 5.5 to 10, a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C, and demonstrates substrate inhibition, as well as showing a high basal level of expression. PMID:17115704

  16. The β-Glucanase ZgLamA from Zobellia galactanivorans Evolved a Bent Active Site Adapted for Efficient Degradation of Algal Laminarin*

    PubMed Central

    Labourel, Aurore; Jam, Murielle; Jeudy, Alexandra; Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Czjzek, Mirjam; Michel, Gurvan

    2014-01-01

    Laminarinase is commonly used to describe β-1,3-glucanases widespread throughout Archaea, bacteria, and several eukaryotic lineages. Some β-1,3-glucanases have already been structurally and biochemically characterized, but very few from organisms that are in contact with genuine laminarin, the storage polysaccharide of brown algae. Here we report the heterologous expression and subsequent biochemical and structural characterization of ZgLamAGH16 from Zobellia galactanivorans, the first GH16 laminarinase from a marine bacterium associated with seaweeds. ZgLamAGH16 contains a unique additional loop, compared with other GH16 laminarinases, which is composed of 17 amino acids and gives a bent shape to the active site cleft of the enzyme. This particular topology is perfectly adapted to the U-shaped conformation of laminarin chains in solution and thus explains the predominant specificity of ZgLamAGH16 for this substrate. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and two enzyme-substrate complexes, one with laminaritetraose and the other with a trisaccharide of 1,3–1,4-β-d-glucan, have been determined at 1.5, 1.35, and 1.13 Å resolution, respectively. The structural comparison of substrate recognition pattern between these complexes allows the proposition that ZgLamAGH16 likely diverged from an ancestral broad specificity GH16 β-glucanase and evolved toward a bent active site topology adapted to efficient degradation of algal laminarin. PMID:24337571

  17. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resources potential of crop wild relatives of sweeetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. I. series Batatas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, and the limited availability of germplasm wi...

  18. Site-directed mutagenesis of the greasy slide aromatic residues within the LamB (maltoporin) channel of Escherichia coli: effect on ion and maltopentaose transport.

    PubMed

    Denker, Katrin; Orlik, Frank; Schiffler, Bettina; Benz, Roland

    2005-09-23

    The 3D-structure of the maltooligosaccharide-specific LamB-channel of Escherichia coli (also called maltoporin) is known from X-ray crystallography. The 3D structure suggests that a number of aromatic residues (Y6, Y41, W74, F229, W358 and W420) within the channel lumen are involved in carbohydrate and ion transport. All aromatic residues were replaced by alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Furthermore, LamB mutants were created in which two, three, four, five and all six aromatic residues were replaced to study their effects on ion and maltopentaose transport through LamB. The purified mutant proteins were reconstituted into lipid bilayer membranes and the single-channel conductance of the mutants was studied in conductance experiments. The results suggest that all aromatic residues provide some steric hindrance for ion transport through LamB. Highest impact is provided by Y6 and Y41 that are localized opposite Y118, which form the central constriction of the LamB channel. Stability constants for binding of maltopentaose to the mutant channels were measured using titration experiments with the carbohydrate. The mutation of one or several aromatic residue(s) led to a substantial decrease of the stability constant of binding. The highest effect was observed when all aromatic residues were replaced by alanine because no binding of maltopentaose could be detected in such a case. However, binding was again possible when Y118 was replaced by tryptophan. The carbohydrate-induced block of the channel function could be used also for the study of current noise through the different mutant LamB-channels. The analysis of the power density spectra of some of the mutants allowed the evaluation of the on-rate and off-rate constants (k1 and k(-1)) of carbohydrate binding to the binding site inside the channels. The results suggest that both on-rate and off-rate constants were affected by the mutations. For most mutants, k1 decreased and k(-1) increased. The possible influence of the

  19. Development of a rapid resolution liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the determination of three compounds in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam from different origins of Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuge; Yu, Qian; Wang, Dongdong; Upur, Halmuart

    2012-01-01

    Context: As a traditional Uygur medicinal plant, Z. clinopodioides Lam has various uses in Xinjiang. Aims: A reversed-phase rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RP-RRLC) method with diode array detector (DAD) was developed for simultaneous determination of diosmin, linarin, and pulegone from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam, a widely used in traditional Uygur medicine for treating heart disease, high blood pressure, and other diseases. Settings and Design: Compounds were separated on a XDB-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 1.8 μm) with gradient elution using methanol and 1% aqueous acetic acid (v/v) at 0.9 mL/min. he detection wavelength was set at 270 nm. Materials and Methods: Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. were collected from ten different origins in Xinjiang, including the Ban fang ditch, Tuoli, the Altay mountains, Terks, Xiata Road, Zhaosu Highway, Guozigou, Fukang, Jimsar, Wulabo. Statistical Analysis Used: The intra-day and inter-day precisions of all three compounds were less than 0.89% and the average recoveries ranged from 97.4 to 104.1%. There were highly significant linear correlations between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of three active components in Z. clinopodioides Lam. samples from different locations in Xinjiang. Conclusions: The proposed method is simple, consistent, accurate, and could be utilized as a quality control method for Z. clinopodioides Lam. PMID:24082631

  20. The Loss of Lam2 and Npr2-Npr3 Diminishes the Vacuolar Localization of Gtr1-Gtr2 and Disinhibits TORC1 Activity in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Ma, Yan; Nakashima, Akio; Kikkawa, Ushio; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian cells, mTORC1 activity is regulated by Rag GTPases. It is thought that the Ragulator complex and the GATOR (GAP activity towards Rags) complex regulate RagA/B as its GDP/GTP exchange factor (GEF) and GTPase-activating protein (GAP), respectively. However, the functions of components in these complexes remain elusive. Using fission yeast as a model organism, here we found that the loss of Lam2 (SPBC1778.05c), a homolog of a Ragulator component LAMTOR2, as well as the loss of Gtr1 or Gtr2 phenocopies the loss of Npr2 or Npr3, homologs of GATOR components Nprl2 or Nprl3, respectively. These phenotypes were rescued by TORC1 inhibition using pharmacological or genetic means, and the loss of Lam2, Gtr1, Gtr2, Npr2 or Npr3 disinhibited TORC1 activity under nitrogen depletion, as measured by Rps6 phosphorylation. Consistently, overexpression of GDP-locked Gtr1S20L or GTP-locked Gtr2Q60L, which suppress TORC1 activity in budding yeast, rescued the growth defect of Δgtr1 cells or Δgtr2 cells, respectively, and the loss of Lam2, Npr2 or Npr3 similarly diminished the vacuolar localization and the protein levels of Gtr1 and Gtr2. Furthermore, Lam2 physically interacted with Npr2 and Gtr1. These findings suggest that Lam2 and Npr2-Npr3 function together as a tether for GDP-bound Gtr1 to the vacuolar membrane, thereby suppressing TORC1 activity for multiple cellular functions. PMID:27227887

  1. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling

  2. Transcriptomic effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug Ibuprofen in the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.

    PubMed

    Maria, Vera L; Amorim, Mónica J B; Bebianno, Maria João; Dondero, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    The transcriptomic effects of Ibuprofen (IBU) in the digestive gland tissue of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. specimens exposed at low environmental concentrations (250 ng L(-1)) are presented. Using a 1.7 K feature cDNA microarray along with linear models and empirical Bayes statistical methods 225 differentially expressed genes were identified in mussels treated with IBU across a 15-day period. Transcriptional dynamics were typical of an adaptive response with a peak of gene expression change at day-7 (177 features, representing about 11% of sequences available for analysis) and an almost full recovery at the end of the exposure period. Functional genomics by means of Gene Ontology term analysis unraveled typical mussel stress responses i.e. aminoglycan (chitin) metabolic processes but also more specific effects such as the regulation of NF-κB transcription factor activity. PMID:27209120

  3. In vivo Function and Membrane Binding Properties are Correlated for Escherichia coli LamB Signal Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Martha S.; Gierasch, Lila M.; Zlotnick, Adam; Lear, James D.; Degrado, William F.

    1985-05-01

    Wild-type and pseudorevertant signal peptides of the lamB gene product of Escherichia coli interact with lipid systems whereas a nonfunctional deletion mutant signal peptide does not. This conclusion is based on (i) interaction of synthetic signal peptides with a lipid monolayer-water surface, (ii) conformational changes induced by presence of lipid vesicles in an aqueous solution of signal peptide, and (iii) capacities of the peptides to promote vesicle aggregation. Analysis of the signal sequences and previous conformational studies suggest that these lipid interaction properties may be attributable to the tendency of the functional signal peptides to adopt α -helical conformations. Although the possibility of direct interaction between the signal peptide and membrane lipids during protein secretion is controversial, the results suggest that conformationally related amphiphilicity and consequent membrane affinity of signal sequences are important for function in vivo.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on the vitamins, phytochemicals, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Taj Ur

    2016-10-01

    Plant based food products and medicines are given more consideration for their efficacy, safety and synergistic effects. Radiation processing has been valuably used for microbial decontamination and value addition of the plant materials. The current study is about the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality attributes of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves. The leaves of the plant were irradiated at the dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 kGy. The irradiated and control samples were evaluated for vitamin, phytochemicals, antibacterial and DPPH scavenging activities. The results showed that gamma irradiation doses up to 12.5 kGy enhanced the levels of certain phytochemicals and augmented the biological activities.

  5. Expression of meningococcal epitopes in LamB of Escherichia coli and the stimulation of serosubtype-specific antibody responses.

    PubMed

    McCarvil, J; McKenna, A J; Grief, C; Hoy, C S; Sesardic, D; Maiden, M C; Feavers, I M

    1993-10-01

    The class 1 outer membrane protein (OMP), a major variable surface antigen of Neisseria meningitidis, is a component of novel meningococcal vaccines currently in field trials. Serological variants of the protein are also used to serosubtype meningococci. Most of the amino acid changes that give rise to antigenic variants of the protein occur in two variable regions (VR1 and VR2) that are thought to form loops on the cell surface. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the nucleotide sequences encoding VR1 and VR2 from the chromosomal DNA of N. meningitidis strain M1080. These were cloned in frame into the lamB gene of the Escherichia coli expression vector pAJC264. Whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), using monoclonal antibodies, and SDS-PAGE confirmed that, upon induction, strains of E. coli carrying these constructs expressed hybrid LamB proteins containing the N. meningitidis surface loops. These strains were used to immunize rabbits and the resultant polyclonal antisera reacted specifically with the class 1 OMP of reference strain M1080 (P1.7). Immunogold labelling of meningococcal cells and whole-cell dot-blot analyses with these antisera showed that the variable epitopes were exposed on the cell surface and confirmed that this approach could be used to obtain serosubtype-specific antisera. The binding profiles of the antisera were determined from their reactions with overlapping synthetic peptides and their reactivity compared with that of relevant serosubtype-specific monoclonal antibodies. This approach was used successfully to raise antisera against two other class 1 OMP VR2s. A fourth antiserum raised against a VR2, including the P1.1 epitope, was not subtype specific. PMID:7526119

  6. Anthelmintic efficacy of aqueous extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze against Haemonchus contortus of sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Singh, Rajeev; Verma, P K; Singh, R; Anand, A

    2015-06-01

    Infection with Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important economic problems in small ruminants worldwide. Resistance development by parasites, drug residues in meat, toxicity, non-availability and high cost limit the usefulness of currently used synthetic drugs. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of aqueous extract of seeds of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze against H. contortus. Phytochemical analysis of extract showed high concentration of phenolic (11.93 ± 0.64 mg of GAE/g of extract), flavonoids (238.17 ± 19.14 mg of quercetin/g extract) and tannin (10.80 ± 0.70 mg of GAE/g of extract) content. The observations revealed that parasites were sluggish and movement was little at 4 h post exposure of 25, 50 mg/ml and very sluggish in 100 mg/ml concentration. The extract showed complete mortality of the adult H. contortus worms at the concentrations of 100 mg/ml at the time exposure of 6 h and with the concentration of 50 mg/ml at the post exposure of 8 h. At 25 mg/ml concentration 50 % mortality was recorded at 6 h and complete at 8 h post exposure. The LC50 at 6 and 8 h were 45.20 and 17.50 mg/ml respectively. Levamisole at concentration of 0.5 mg/ml caused 50 % mortality at 2 h post exposure and full mortality at 4 h post exposure. These cidal effects may be due to presence of high phenolic, flavonoids and tannin content in the extract. The results confirm the aqueous extract of B. monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze on adult H. contortus worms. PMID:26064000

  7. (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of the LAM-RRM1 N-terminal module of La protein from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Chasapis, Christos T; Argyriou, Aikaterini I; Apostolidi, Maria; Konstantinidou, Parthena; Bentrop, Detlef; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2015-10-01

    The N-terminal half of La protein consists of two concatenated motifs: La motif (LAM) and the N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM1) both of which are responsible for poly(U) RNA binding. Here, we present the backbone and side-chain assignments of the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonances of the 191-residue LAM-RRM1 region of the La protein from the lower eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum and its secondary structure prediction. PMID:25687647

  8. In vivo anticoccidial activity of berberine [18, 5,6-dihydro-9,10-dimethoxybenzo(g)-1,3-benzodioxolo(5,6-a) quinolizinium]--an isoquinoline alkaloid present in the root bark of Berberis lycium.

    PubMed

    Malik, Tauseef Ahmad; Kamili, Azra N; Chishti, M Z; Tanveer, Syed; Ahad, Shazia; Johri, R K

    2014-04-15

    Coccidiosis, caused by various Eimeria species, is a major parasitic disease in chicken. However the increasing resistance of these parasites to currently used anticoccidial drugs has stimulated the search for new methods of control. As part of this effort we investigated the root bark of Berberis lycium (barberry) as a potential source of compounds with anticoccidial activity. In the present study anticoccidial activity of different solvent extracts of the root bark of B. lycium and berberine was evaluated in vivo using broiler chicken. Results of the study demonstrated equipotent efficacy of pure berberine in comparison to that of standard drug amprolium on the basis of reduction in coccidian oocyst output, body weight gain of chicken and feed conversion ratio. Among the extracts crude methanolic extract showed highest anticoccidial activity tested at 300 mg/kg body weight which could be due to the presence of alcohol-soluble active ingredients in root bark of B. lycium. Toxicological studies revealed that B. lycium extracts as well as berberine were not lethal up to dosage of 2000 mg/kg body weight. LD(50) was not determined as mortalities were not recorded in any of the five groups of chicken. From the present study it can be concluded that root bark of B. lycium has the immense potential to contribute to the control of coccidian parasites of chicken. Our results corroborate the use of berberine for treatment of severe diarrhoea, amoebiasis and intestinal infections and could justify its use in folk medicine for treatment of haemorrhagic dysentery. PMID:24411651

  9. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling

  10. Detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine is indicative of disseminated TB with renal involvement in patients living with HIV and advanced immunodeficiency: evidence and implications

    PubMed Central

    Lawn, Stephen D.; Gupta-Wright, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    TB is the leading cause of HIV/AIDS-related deaths globally. New diagnostic tools are urgently needed to avert deaths from undiagnosed HIV-associated TB. Although simple assays that detect lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine have been commercially available for years, their specific role and utility were initially misunderstood, such that they have been slower to emerge from the diagnostics pipeline than otherwise might have been expected. In this article, we review and explain how urine-LAM assays should be understood as diagnostics for disseminated TB in HIV-positive patients with advanced immunodeficiency, in whom haematogenous TB dissemination to the kidneys serves as the primary mechanism by which LAM enters the urine. These insights are critical for the appropriate design of studies to evaluate these assays and to understand how they might be most usefully implemented. This understanding also supports the 2015 WHO recommendations on the restricted use of these assays in sick HIV-positive patients with advanced immunodeficiency. PMID:26884498

  11. Cloning of the LamA3 gene encoding the alpha 3 chain of the adhesive ligand epiligrin. Expression in wound repair.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M C; Tizard, R; VanDevanter, D R; Carter, W G

    1994-09-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding the entire 170-kDa chain of epiligrin (alpha 3Ep) and a genomic clone encoding the alpha 3Ep gene (LamA3). Analysis of multiple cDNA clones revealed two distinct transcripts (alpha 3EpA and alpha 3EpB). Sequencing of the alpha 3EpA transcript indicated sequence and structural homology to laminin alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains that extend from domain IIIa through the carboxyl-terminal G domain. The alpha 3EpB transcript encodes a larger amino-terminal domain and contains additional epidermal growth factor repeats and sequences corresponding to domain IV of alpha 1 laminin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that the LamA3 gene is located on chromosome 18q11.2, a locus distinct from the LamA1 gene (18p11.3). The G domain of the epiligrin alpha 3 chain contains five subdomains that are individually related to the G subdomains reported for Drosophila and vertebrate laminin alpha chains. Sequence divergence within the G domain of alpha 3 epiligrin suggests that it is functionally distinct from laminin, consistent with our previous report showing that epiligrin interacts with different integrin adhesion receptors. Analysis of RNA from human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified multiple epiligrin transcripts that were down-regulated by viral transformation and differentiation. In contrast, epiligrin expression was up-regulated in wound sites of human skin. PMID:8077230

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of Lateral Flow Urine LAM Assay for TB Screening of Adults with Advanced Immunosuppression Attending Routine HIV Care in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hanifa, Yasmeen; Fielding, Katherine L.; Chihota, Violet N.; Adonis, Lungiswa; Charalambous, Salome; Karstaedt, Alan; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Nicol, Mark P.; Ndlovu, Nontobeko T.; Sahid, Faieza; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Grant, Alison D.

    2016-01-01

    Background We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of Determine TB-LAM (LF-LAM) to screen for tuberculosis among ambulatory adults established in HIV care in South Africa. Methods A systematic sample of adults attending for HIV care, regardless of symptomatology, were enrolled in the XPHACTOR study, which tested a novel algorithm for prioritising investigation with Xpert MTB/RIF. In this substudy, restricted to participants with enrolment CD4<200x106/l, urine was stored at enrolment for later testing with LF-LAM. Sputum was sent for immediate Xpert MTB/RIF if any of: current cough, fever ≥3 weeks, body mass index (BMI)<18.5kg/m2, CD4<100x106/l (or <200x106/l if pre-ART), weight loss ≥10% or strong clinical suspicion were present; otherwise, sputum was stored for Xpert testing at study completion. Participants were reviewed monthly, with reinvestigation if indicated, to 3 months, when sputum and blood were taken for mycobacterial culture. We defined tuberculosis as “confirmed” if Xpert, line probe assay or culture for M. tuberculosis within six months of enrolment were positive, and “clinical” if tuberculosis treatment started without microbiological confirmation. Results Amongst 424 participants, 61% were female and 57% were taking ART (median duration 22 months); median age, CD4 and BMI were 39 years, 111x106/l, and 23 kg/m2. 56/424 (13%) participants had tuberculosis (40 confirmed, 16 clinical). 24/424 (5.7%) vs. 8/424 (1.9%) were LAM-positive using grade 1 vs. grade 2 cut-off. Using grade 1 cut-off, sensitivity for confirmed TB (all clinical TB excluded) was 12.5% (95% CI 4.2%, 26.8%) and in CD4<100x106/l vs. CD4 ≥100x106/l was 16.7% (95% CI 4.7%, 37.4%) vs. 6.3% (95% CI 0.2%, 30.2%). Specificity was >95% irrespective of diagnostic reference standard, CD4 stratum, or whether grade 1 or grade 2 cut-off was used. Conclusion Sensitivity of LF-LAM is too low to recommend as part of intensified case finding in ambulatory patients established in HIV care

  13. Resurgence and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit: connecting weak and strong coupling in the Mathieu and Lamé systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basar, Gökçe; Dunne, Gerald V.

    2015-02-01

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit for the low-energy behavior of and supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theories is encoded in the spectrum of the Mathieu and Lamé equations, respectively. This correspondence is usually expressed via an all-orders Bohr-Sommerfeld relation, but this neglects non-perturbative effects, the nature of which is very different in the electric, magnetic and dyonic regions. In the gauge theory dyonic region the spectral expansions are divergent, and indeed are not Borel-summable, so they are more properly described by resurgent trans-series in which perturbative and non-perturbative effects are deeply entwined. In the gauge theory electric region the spectral expansions are convergent, but nevertheless there are non-perturbative effects due to poles in the expansion coefficients, and which we associate with worldline instantons. This provides a concrete analog of a phenomenon found recently by Drukker, Mariño and Putrov in the large N expansion of the ABJM matrix model, in which non-perturbative effects are related to complex space-time instantons. In this paper we study how these very different regimes arise from an exact WKB analysis, and join smoothly through the magnetic region. This approach also leads to a simple proof of a resurgence relation found recently by Dunne and Ünsal, showing that for these spectral systems all non-perturbative effects are subtly encoded in perturbation theory, and identifies this with the Picard-Fuchs equation for the quantized elliptic curve.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP "Tainung 73," which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. PMID:26509161

  15. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected. PMID:24344977

  16. An ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits human macrophage cytokine production induced by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage. PMID:24553063

  17. Aculeatin, a coumarin derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Akio; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshida, Izumi; Harada, Teppei; Mishima, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Aculeatin promoted adipocyte differentiation. • Aculeatin improved glucose uptake. • Aculeatin enhanced adipocyte lipolysis. - Abstract: Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. asiatica) has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of anti-diabetic agents, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigated the effects of fractionated T. asiatica extracts on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and identified aculeatin as a potential active agent. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with aculeatin isolated from T. asiatica in the presence of insulin, aculeatin increased cellular triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. This indicated that aculeatin could enhance the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Further analyses using a DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed an increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ target genes (Pparg, Ap2, Cd36, Glut4 and Adipoq) by aculeatin, suggesting that aculeatin enhances the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by modulating the expression of genes critical for adipogenesis. Interestingly, after treatment of differentiated adipocytes with aculeatin, glucose uptake and lipolysis were enhanced. Overall, our results suggested that aculeatin is an active compound in T. asiatica for enhancing both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes, which are useful for the treatment of lipid abnormalities as well as diabetes.

  18. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

  19. Effects of Oral Administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on Glucose Tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ndong, Moussa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2007-05-01

    Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam, Moringacea, on glucose tolerance in Wistar rats and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, modeled type 2 diabetes. Major polyphenols in MO powder were quercetin glucosides, rutin, kaempferol glycosides and chlorogenic acids by HPLC analysis. As the results of glucose tolerance test, MO significantly decreased the blood glucose at 20, 30, 45and 60 min for GK rats and at 10, 30 and 45 min for Wistar rats (p<0.05) compared to the both controls after glucose administration. The area under the curve of changes in the blood glucose was significantly higher in the GK control group than in the GK plus MO group (p<0.05) in the periods 30-60 min and 60-120 min. Furthermore, MO significantly decreased stomach emptying in GK rats (p<0.05). The results indicated that MO has an ameliorating effect for glucose intolerance, and the effect might be mediated by quercetin-3-glucoside and fiber contents in MO leaf powder. The action of MO was greater in GK rats than in Wistar rats. PMID:18398501

  20. In vitro screening and evaluation of antivenom phytochemicals from Azima tetracantha Lam. leaves against Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snakebites are considered a neglected tropical disease that affects thousands of people worldwide. Although antivenom is the only treatment available, it is associated with several side effects. As an alternative, plants have been extensively studied in order to obtain an alternative treatment. In folk medicine, Azima tetracantha Lam. is usually used to treat snakebites. The present study aims to provide a scientific explanation for the use of this plant against snakebite. The extracts of shade dried leaves of A. tetracantha were tested for in vitro inhibitory activity on toxic venom enzymes like phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, acetylcholinesterase, hyaluronidase etc. from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venoms. Results The ethylacetate extract rendered a significant inhibitory effect on the phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, phospholipase A2 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes. Conclusions The present study suggests that ethylacetate extract of A. tetracantha leaves possesses compounds that inhibit the activity of toxic enzymes from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venom. Further pharmacological and in vivo studies would provide evidence that this substance may lead to a potential treatment against these venoms. PMID:24690426

  1. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract.

    PubMed

    San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

  2. Purification and structural characterization of an α-glucosidase inhibitory polysaccharide from apricot (Armeniaca sibirica L. Lam.) pulp.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Gu, Xin; Wang, Fengjun; Ouyang, Jie; Wang, Jianzhong

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the crude polysaccharide (APPS) from the fruiting bodies of apricot (Armeniaca sibirica L. Lam.) was isolated and fractionated by ultrafiltration and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography. The hypoglycemic activities of all fractions were determined by α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. The fraction APPS1-2 showed the best activity with an IC50 of 6.06 mg/mL. The properties and chemical compositions of this fraction were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography, gel permeation chromatography-eighteen angle laser light scattering instrument, UV spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy ((1)H). The results demonstrated that APPS1-2 was a neutral glycoconjugate with a molecular weight of 25.93 kDa. It comprised rhamnose, glucose, mannose, and galactose, with a relative molar ratio of 1.34:2.01:0.48:0.35. The backbone of APPS1-2 may consist of rhamnose and glucose, but its branches may consist of mannose and galactose. The IR and UV spectrum of APPS1-2 revealed the typical characteristics of heteropolysaccharide. (1)H NMR spectrum showed that APPS1-2 contained α-configurations. PMID:25659703

  3. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP “Tainung 73,” which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. PMID:26509161

  4. Immunogenicity of viral B-cell epitopes inserted into two surface loops of the Escherichia coli K12 LamB protein and expressed in an attenuated aroA strain of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Michel, V; Leclerc, C; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    1999-01-01

    We previously developed a general procedure which allows the genetic coupling of a chosen foreign linear epitope in different 'permissive' sites of a carrier protein. By using the outer membrane protein LamB of Escherichia coli K12 as a carrier, we were able to express a number of different foreign epitopes at the bacterial surface. In the present work, taking advantage of the recent determination of the crystal structure of LamB, we inserted two model B-cell epitopes i.e.--the C3 epitope from poliovirus (residues 93 to 103 of VP1) and the preS2 epitope from hepatitis B virus, (residues 132 to 145)--at the tip of the most distal and largest surface exposed region of LamB (after residues 386, into loop L9). We also used two previously constructed LamB hybrids, corresponding to the insertion of the C3B or preSB epitope into permissive site 153 (lying in the middle of the fourth surface loop of LamB), to construct two LamB proteins corresponding to the simultaneous insertion of the two different epitopes (with one epitope per site). The LamB hybrids were placed under the control of the anaerobically inducible pnirB promoter and expressed in a LamB-negative derivative of the aroA attenuated strain of S. typhimurium, SL3261. In vitro, the recombinant proteins were expressed at a high level (up to 10% of whole cell proteins) and in vivo the recombinant plasmids were stably maintained. For both epitopes, genetic coupling at site 386 appeared to be more favorable for the induction of anti-epitope antibodies than coupling at site 153. Moreover, the LamB hybrid corresponding to the simultaneous insertion of the preSB epitope at site 153 and of the C3B epitope at site 386 allowed the induction of both anti-poliovirus and anti-hepatitis B antibodies. PMID:10078601

  5. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter.

    PubMed

    Nduwimana, André; Yang, Xiang-Long; Wang, Li-Ren

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture. The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter, to maintain acceptable levels of soil, water and air quality. In this study, two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems; recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation water in local communities with low income. In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation. It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen), 90% for NO2(-)-N, 64.8% for NO3(-)-N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN, 82% for NO2(-)-N and 60.5% for NO3(-)-N. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well, however, plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming. Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction, the treatment with L. perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality. A. viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge. The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves. PMID:17966513

  6. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentiality of Randia dumetorum Lam. Leaf and Bark via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Saikia, Bikas; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Singh, Yogendra P.; Kalita, Kasturi; Dash, Suvakanta; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Randia dumetorum Lam. (RD) (Rubiaceae) is traditionally used by some tribes of Assam and Manipur of North East India for the treatment of liver ailments. In this context, to scientifically validate this indigenous traditional knowledge, we have evaluated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of RD leaf and bark. The methanol extracts of RD leaf and bark were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity which exhibited good antioxidant activity in terms of reducing power assay, total antioxidant assay and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were found to be 112 ± 3.24 mg and 138 ± 2.46 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and 2.6 ± 0.26 mg and 3.34 ± 0.31 mg rutin equivalents/g extract respectively for RD leaf and bark methanol extracts. The in vivo hepato protective activity of the RD leaf and bark extract was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in male wistar rats. CCl4 administration induced hepatic damage in rats resulted in increased levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, albumin, bilirubin, TNF-α, IL-1β and decreased levels of total protein and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase. RD leaf and bark methanol extracts pre-treatment exhibited protection against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity by reversing all the abnormal parameters to significant levels. Histopathological results revealed that RD leaf and bark extracts at 400 mg/kg protects the liver from damage induced by CCl4. The results of this study scientifically validate the traditional use of RD leaf and bark for the treatment of liver ailments. PMID:27471465

  7. Ontogenetic Variation of Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity in Roots, Leaves and Flowers of Astragalus compactus Lam. (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Naghiloo, Somayeh; Movafeghi, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Dadpour, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The potential health risks and toxicity of synthetic antioxidants resulted in an upsurge of interest in phytochemicals as new sources of natural antioxidants. Phenolics of Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) possess antioxidant properties and have been shown to have a protective effect against several degenerative diseases. The objective of this study was to determine total phenolics and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from different parts of A. compactus Lam. at different phenological phases and to investigate the correlations between antioxidation and the contents of the total phenolics. Methods Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Results Generally, the TPC in leaves was higher than that of the roots and flowers. TPC in leaves, roots and flowers of the species varied from 5.01-8.25, 4.29-7.89 and 4.19 μg GAE/mg DW, respectively. In addition, roots and leaves at fructification stage possessed higher TPC than vegetative and flowering stages. Therefore, the leaf extracts at fructification phase showed the highest TPC that accompanied with best antioxidant activity. In the root extracts, fructification stage was also characterized by the highest antioxidant activity. Conclusion A positive relationship between antioxidant activity and TPC showed that phenolics were the dominant antioxidant components in the species. The results obtained suggest that A. compactus methanolic extracts may serve as potential sources of natural phenolic antioxidants and that the fructification phase could be considered as the best stage for the harvesting of this plant. PMID:23678448

  8. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentiality of Randia dumetorum Lam. Leaf and Bark via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Saikia, Bikas; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Singh, Yogendra P; Kalita, Kasturi; Dash, Suvakanta; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Randia dumetorum Lam. (RD) (Rubiaceae) is traditionally used by some tribes of Assam and Manipur of North East India for the treatment of liver ailments. In this context, to scientifically validate this indigenous traditional knowledge, we have evaluated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of RD leaf and bark. The methanol extracts of RD leaf and bark were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity which exhibited good antioxidant activity in terms of reducing power assay, total antioxidant assay and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were found to be 112 ± 3.24 mg and 138 ± 2.46 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and 2.6 ± 0.26 mg and 3.34 ± 0.31 mg rutin equivalents/g extract respectively for RD leaf and bark methanol extracts. The in vivo hepato protective activity of the RD leaf and bark extract was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in male wistar rats. CCl4 administration induced hepatic damage in rats resulted in increased levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, albumin, bilirubin, TNF-α, IL-1β and decreased levels of total protein and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase. RD leaf and bark methanol extracts pre-treatment exhibited protection against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity by reversing all the abnormal parameters to significant levels. Histopathological results revealed that RD leaf and bark extracts at 400 mg/kg protects the liver from damage induced by CCl4. The results of this study scientifically validate the traditional use of RD leaf and bark for the treatment of liver ailments. PMID:27471465

  9. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S; Raghavendra, K M; Biswas, S

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  10. Efficient embryogenic suspension culturing and rapid transformation of a range of elite genotypes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Bi, Hui-Ping; Fan, Wei-Juan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was developed using embryogenic suspension cell cultures of elite sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) cultivars, including Ayamurasaki, Sushu2, Sushu9, Sushu11, Wanshu1, Xushu18 and Xushu22. Embryogenic suspension cultures were established in LCP medium using embryogenic calli induced from apical or axillary buds on an induction medium containing 2 mg l(-1) 2,4-D. Suspension cultures were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the binary plasmid pCAMBIA1301 with the hpt gene as a selectable marker and an intron-interrupted uidA gene as a visible marker. Several key steps of the sweet potato transformation system have been investigated and optimized, including the appropriate antibiotics and their concentrations for suppressing Agrobacterium growth and the optimal doses of hygromycin for transformant selection. A total of 485 putative transgenic plant lines were produced from the transformed calli via somatic embryogenesis and germination to plants under 10 mg l(-1) hygromycin and 200 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. PCR, GUS and Southern blot analyses of the regenerated plants showed that 92.35% of them were transgenic. The number of T-DNA insertions varied from one to three in most transgenic plant lines. Plants showed 100% survival when 308 transgenics were transferred to soil in the greenhouse and then to the field. Most of them were morphologically normal, with the production of storage roots after 3 months of cultivation in the greenhouse or fields. The development of such a robust transformation method suitable to a range of sweet potato genotypes not only provides a routine tool for genetic improvement via transgenesis but also allows us to conduct a functional verification of endogenous genes in sweet potato. PMID:21958713

  11. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Asghari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Diana; Saeidi, Mozhgan; Nasr-Esfahani, Salar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4%) and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg) and normal saline (1 ml/kg) were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6) and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm) as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg) were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg) was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive. PMID:25050310

  12. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, S.; Raghavendra, K. M.; Biswas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  13. Resonant frequency analysis of a Lamé-mode resonator on a quartz plate by the finite-difference time-domain method using the staggered grid with the collocated grid points of velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takashi; Hasegawa, Koji; Hirayama, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method using a staggered grid with the collocated grid points of velocities (SGCV) was formulated for elastic waves propagating in anisotropic solids and for a rectangular SGCV. Resonant frequency analysis of Lamé-mode resonators on a quartz plate was carried out to confirm the accuracy and validity of the proposed method. The resonant frequencies for the fundamental and higher-order Lamé-modes calculated by the proposed method agreed very well with their theoretical values.

  14. Toddaculin, Isolated from of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., Inhibited Osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264 Cells and Enhanced Osteoblastogenesis in MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Akio; Kumagai, Momochika; Mishima, Takashi; Ito, Junya; Otoki, Yurika; Harada, Teppei; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Mikihiko; Suzuki, Misora; Yoshida, Izumi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis with bone loss is widely recognized as a major health problem. Bone homeostasis is maintained by balancing bone formation and bone resorption. The imbalance caused by increased bone resorption over bone formation can lead to various bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoclasts are the principal cells responsible for bone resorption and the main targets of anti-resorptive therapies. However, excessive inhibition of osteoclast differentiation may lead to inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. Therefore, it is important to screen for new compounds capable of inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of rheumatism. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of pharmacological agents for the treatment of bone-related diseases, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. We investigated whether toddaculin, derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., affects both processes by inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Towards this end, we used pre-osteoclastic RAW 264 cells and pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. We found that toddaculin not only inhibited the differentiation of osteoclasts via activation of the NF-κB, ERK 1/2, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, but it also induced differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts by regulating differentiation factors. Thus, toddaculin might be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25993011

  15. Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Rupjyoti; Tabassum, Jawahira; Azad, Mohammed Rekibul Haque

    2003-01-01

    The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the activities of hepatic cytochrome b(5), cytochrome p(450), catalase, glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ), glutathione reductase (GR), acid soluble sulfhydryl content (-SH ) and a significant decrease ( p<0.01 ) in the hepatic MDA level were observed at both dose levels of treatment when compared with the control values. Glutathione-S- transferase ( GST )activity was found to be significantly increased (p<0.01 ) only at the higher dose level. Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA ) fed at a dose of 0.75% in the diet for 7 and 14 days (positive control ) caused a significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the levels of hepatic phase I and phase II enzymes, anti- oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and a decrease in lipid peroxidation. The skin papillomagenesis studies demonstrated a significant decrease (p<0.05 ) in the percentage of mice with papillomas, average number of papillomas per mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse when the animals received a topical application of the extract at a dose of 5mg/ kg body weight in the peri-initiation phase 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application, Group II ), promotional phase (from the day of croton oil application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group III ) and both peri and post initiation stages (from 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the

  16. Fast analysis of volatile components of Achillea tenuifolia Lam with microwave distillation followed by headspace single-drop microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    This article investigates the effect of microwaves on the amount of volatile compounds Achillea tenuifolia Lam with two methods, headspace single-drop microextraction and microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextraction (MA-SDME), for the analysis of essential oil. Solvent selection, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time and sample mass were optimised by the simplex method. PMID:26329700

  17. How Is LAM Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung and chest wall together. This removes the space for leakage. Your doctor may do this procedure at your bedside in the hospital. You will be given medicine to prevent pain. The procedure also can be ...

  18. A new linoleiyl arabinopyranoside from the bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam and a new flavonoidal glycoside from the leaves of Cordia dichotoma Linn.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Azizur; Akhtar, Juber

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation is very valuable for the ethnomedicinally important plants Bauhinia racemosa Lam (BR) and Cordia dichotoma Linn (CD) used for the cure of variety of ailments. This study was thus designed for phytochemical investigation of BR bark and CD leaves. Phytoconstituents were isolated from the methanolic extracts of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel as stationary phase. The structures had been established on the basis of their physicochemical and spectral data, i.e. IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS. Elution of the columns with different solvents furnished six compounds (1-6) from the methanolic extract of BR bark and three compounds (7-9) from the methanolic extract of CD leaves which were structurally elucidated. The present phytochemical investigation reported several new compounds useful in increasing the existing knowledge of phytoconstituents from BR bark and CD leaves which is very valuable, as these drugs are used in the Indian traditional systems of medicine. PMID:27618564

  19. Point-of-care detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine for diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis: a state of the art review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in urine is attractive as a potential means of diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) regardless of the anatomical site of disease. The most promising candidate antigen is the cell wall lipopolysaccharide antigen lipoarabinomannan (LAM), which has been used to develop commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Although highly variable diagnostic accuracy has been observed in different clinical populations, it is now clear that this assay has useful sensitivity for diagnosis of HIV-associated TB in patients with advanced immunodeficiency and low CD4 cell counts. Thus, this assay is particularly useful when selectively used among patients enrolling in antiretroviral treatment services or in HIV-infected patients requiring admission to hospital medical wards. These are the very patients who have the highest mortality risk and who stand to gain the most from rapid diagnosis, permitting immediate initiation of TB treatment. A recently developed low-cost, lateral-flow (urine ‘dip-stick’) format of the assay provides a result within 30 minutes and is potentially a major step forward as it can be used at the point-of-care, making the possibility of immediate diagnosis and treatment a reality. This paper discusses the likely utility of this point-of-care assay and how it might best be used in combination with other diagnostic assays for TB. The many further research studies that are needed on this assay are described. Consideration is particularly given to potential reasons for the variable specificity observed in existing field evaluations of LAM ELISAs. Whether this might be related to the assay itself or to the challenges associated with study design is discussed. PMID:22536883

  20. High-Q energy trapping of temperature-stable shear waves with Lamé cross-sectional polarization in a single crystal silicon waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizian, R.; Daruwalla, A.; Ayazi, F.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-port electrostatically driven silicon acoustic cavity is implemented that efficiently traps the energy of a temperature-stable eigen-mode with Lamé cross-sectional polarization. Dispersive behavior of propagating and evanescent guided waves in a ⟨100⟩-aligned single crystal silicon waveguide is used to engineer the acoustic energy distribution of a specific shear eigen-mode that is well known for its low temperature sensitivity when implemented in doped single crystal silicon. Such an acoustic energy trapping in the central region of the acoustic cavity geometry and far from substrate obviates the need for narrow tethers that are conventionally used for non-destructive and high quality factor (Q) energy suspension in MEMS resonators; therefore, the acoustically engineered waveguide can simultaneously serve as in-situ self-oven by passing large uniformly distributed DC currents through its body and without any concern about perturbing the mode shape or deforming narrow supports. Such a stable thermo-structural performance besides large turnover temperatures than can be realized in Lamé eigen-modes make this device suitable for implementation of ultra-stable oven-controlled oscillators. 78 MHz prototypes implemented in arsenic-doped single crystal silicon substrates with different resistivity are transduced by in- and out-of-plane narrow-gap capacitive ports, showing high Q of ˜43k. The low resistivity device shows an overall temperature-induced frequency drift of 200 ppm over the range of -20 °C to 80 °C, which is ˜15× smaller compared to overall frequency drift measured for the similar yet high resistivity device in the same temperature range. Furthermore, a frequency tuning of ˜2100 ppm is achieved in high resistivity device by passing 45 mA DC current through its body. Continuous operation of the device under such a self-ovenizing current over 10 days did not induce frequency instability or degradation in Q.

  1. Evaluation of the polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of African variety of Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J Lam fruit.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Atawodi, J C; Idakwo, P; Pfundstein, B; Haubner, R; Wurtele, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2009-12-01

    Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in our diet that have been credited with chemoprevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the whole ripened fruit of Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J Lam, a multipurpose tree growing in West and Central Africa and other countries bordering the Gulf of Guinea, for polyphenol content as well as its antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity. Analysis of the methanol extract of the fruit by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ultraviolet dual-array detector and mass-selective detector revealed the presence of catechol (9.27 mg/kg), gallate (10.40 mg/kg), methylgallate (0.88 mg/kg), ellagic acid (3.10 mg/kg), quercetin (0.21 mg/kg), and quercetin rhamnoside (0.76 mg/kg). The extract showed very high antioxidant potential (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 14 microL), but a rather weak radical scavenging activity (IC(50) = 357 microL), when tested in vitro with the xanthine oxidase and 2-deoxyguanosine assay model systems, respectively. These results suggest that consumption of D. edulis could contribute to prevention of diseases that are related to oxidative stress. PMID:20041788

  2. Evaluation of in vitro antimalarial activity of different extracts of Artemisia aucheri Boiss. and A. armeniaca Lam. and fractions of the most potent extracts.

    PubMed

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Shiravand, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Heshmati Afshar, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Ten extracts with different polarity from two Iranian Artemisia species, A. armeniaca Lam. and A. aucheri Boiss, were screened for their antimalarial properties by in vitro   β -hematin formation assay. Dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of both plants showed significant antimalarial activities with IC50 values of 1.36±0.01 and 1.83±0.03 mg/mL and IC90 values of 2.12±0.04 and 2.62±0.09 mg/mL for A. armeniaca and A. aucheri, respectively. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of DCM extracts of both plants by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) over silica gel with solvent mixtures of increasing polarities afforded seven fractions. Two fractions from DCM extract of A. armeniaca and four fractions from DCM extract of A. aucheri showed potent antimalarial activity with reducing IC50 and IC90 values compared to extracts. The most potent fraction belonged to DCM extract of A. armeniaca with IC50 and IC90 values of 0.47±0.006 and 0.71±0.006 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:24558335

  3. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Siddhuraju, Perumal; Becker, Klaus

    2003-04-01

    Water, aqueous methanol, and aqueous ethanol extracts of freeze-dried leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. from different agroclimatic regions were examined for radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities. All leaf extracts were capable of scavenging peroxyl and superoxyl radicals. Similar scavenging activities for different solvent extracts of each collection were found for the stable 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) radical. Among the three different moringa samples, both methanol and ethanol extracts of Indian origins showed the highest antioxidant activities, 65.1 and 66.8%, respectively, in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid system. Nonetheless, increasing concentration of all the extracts had significantly (P < 0.05) increased reducing power, which may in part be responsible for their antioxidant activity. The major bioactive compounds of phenolics were found to be flavonoid groups such as quercetin and kaempferol. On the basis of the results obtained, moringa leaves are found to be a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their marked antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of the extracts from freeze-dried moringa leaves. Overall, both methanol (80%) and ethanol (70%) were found to be the best solvents for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from moringa leaves. PMID:12670148

  4. Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, Sunday E; Atawodi, Joy C; Idakwo, Gabriel A; Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Wurtele, Gerd; Bartsch, Helmut; Owen, Robert W

    2010-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been shown to have both chemopreventive and/or therapeutic effects on cancer and other diseases related to oxidative damage. Moringa oleifera Lam., known in the Hausa and Igala languages of Nigeria as "Zogale" and "Gergedi," respectively, and drumstick in English, is a plant that is used both as food and in folkloric medicine in Nigeria and elsewhere. Different parts of the plant were analyzed for polyphenol content as well as in vitro antioxidant potential. The methanol extract of the leaves of M. oleifera contained chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, whereas in the root and stem barks, several procyanidin peaks were detected. With the xanthine oxidase model system, all the extracts exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 16, 30, and 38 microL for the roots, leaves, and stem bark, respectively. Similarly, potent radical scavenging capacity was observed when extracts were evaluated with the 2-deoxyguanosine assay model system, with IC(50) values of 40, 58, and 72 microL for methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks, respectively. The high antioxidant/radical scavenging effects observed for different parts of M. oleifera appear to provide justification for their widespread therapeutic use in traditional medicine in different continents. The possibility that this high antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity may impact on the cancer chemopreventive potential of the plant must be considered. PMID:20521992

  5. Stress responses of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and water velvet (Azolla filiculoides Lam.) to anionic surfactant sodium-dodecyl-sulphate (SDS).

    PubMed

    Forni, C; Braglia, R; Harren, F J M; Cristescu, S M

    2012-04-01

    Surfactants are used for several purposes and recently they have attracted the attention for their ability to modify the behavior of other preexistent or co-disposed contaminants, although their use or discharge in wastewaters can represent a real or potential risk for the environment. Lemna minor L. and Azolla filiculoides Lam. are floating aquatic macrophytes, very effective in accumulating several pollutants including sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). In this work we evaluated the effects of SDS on these species by determining the stress ethylene production via laser-based trace gas detection, and the activities of enzymes involved in stress response, such as guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol-oxidase (PPO). Phenolics content was also determined. The macrophytes were treated with different concentrations of SDS for one week. SDS affected duckweed enzymatic activities and phenol content. While in the fern phenolics amount, PAL, G-POD and PPO activities were not affected by SDS except for 100 ppm SDS, the only concentration that was taken up and not completely degraded. Stress ethylene production was induced only in the fern treated with 50 and 100 ppm SDS. PMID:22277247

  6. HPLC-UV/DAD and ESI-MS(n) analysis of flavonoids and antioxidant activity of an Algerian medicinal plant: Paronychia argentea Lam.

    PubMed

    Sait, Sabrina; Hamri-Zeghichi, Sabrina; Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Lila; Madani, Khodir; Rigou, Peggy; Brighenti, Virginia; Pio Prencipe, Francesco; Benvenuti, Stefania; Pellati, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Paronychia argentea Lam., belonging to the Caryophyllaceae family, is a perennial plant widely distributed in Algeria. Even though this plant is used in the Algerian popular medicine, its phytochemical characterization is incomplete. In this study, the flavonoid profile and the in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract, decoction and infusion of P. argentea aerial parts are reported. Flavonoids were analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven compounds were identified and six of them, including isorhamnetin-3-O-dihexoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetinmethylether-O-hexoside, quercetin, jaceosidin and isorhamnetin, were described in this plant for the first time. The ethanol extract showed the highest flavonoid content, followed by the decoction and the infusion (25.4 ± 0.8 mg/g of DM, 8.4 ± 0.5 mg/g of DM, 0.2 mg/g of DM, respectively), while the best antioxidant activity was shown by the decoction (RC0.5 = 178 μg/mL for reducing power, 72.4% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, IC50 = 27.38μ g/mL for DPPH radical scavenging activity and 59.7% of inhibition of NO radical). These results showed that P. argentea decoction could be considered as a valuable source of flavonoids and antioxidants that might contribute to the valorization of the phytotherapeutic potential of this plant. PMID:25910047

  7. Inhibitory effect of n-butanol fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a guinea pig model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Banerjee, Aryamitra; Chauhan, Bhupendrasinh F; Padh, Harish; Nivsarkar, Manish; Mehta, Anita A

    2009-01-01

    Moringaceae, which belongs to the Moringa oleifera Lam. family, is a well-known herb used in Asian medicine as an antiallergic drug. In the present study, the efficacy of the n-butanol extract of the seeds of the plant (MONB) is examined against ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs. The test drugs (MONB or dexamethasone) are administered orally prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% ovalbumin. During the experimental period, bronchoconstriction tests are performed, and lung function parameters are measured. The blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are collected to assess cellular content, and serum is used for cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-4, and interleukin-6) assays. Histamine assays of lung tissue are performed using lung tissue homogenate. The results suggest that in ovalbumin-sensitized model control animals, tidal volume is decreased, respiration rate is increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are increased significantly compared with nonsensitized controls. MONB treatment shows improvement in all parameters except bronchoalveolar lavage tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-4. Moreover, MONB treatment demonstrates protection against acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation. These results indicate that MONB has an inhibitory effect on airway inflammation. Thus, MONB possesses an antiasthmatic property through modulation of the relationship between Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalances. PMID:19966143

  8. Evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity in the early successional Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. compared to the late successional Hymenaea courbaril L. grown in contrasting light environments.

    PubMed

    Portes, M T; Damineli, D S C; Ribeiro, R V; Monteiro, J A F; Souza, G M

    2010-02-01

    The present study investigated changes in photosynthetic characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (early successional species) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (late successional species) grown in contrasting light conditions as a way of assessing photosynthetic plasticity. Early successional species typically inhabit gap environments being exposed to variability in multiple resources, hence it is expected that these species would show higher photosynthetic plasticity than late successional ones. In order to test this hypothesis, light and CO2 response curves and chlorophyll content (Chl) were measured in plants grown in high and low light environments. G. ulmifolia presented the highest amounts of both Chl a and b, especially in the low light, and both species presented higher Chl a than b in both light conditions. The Chl a/b ratio was higher in high light leaves of both species and greater in G. ulmifolia. Taken together, these results evidence the acclimation potential of both species, reflecting the capacity to modulate light harvesting complexes according to the light environment. However, G. ulmifolia showed evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity, as indicated by the greater amplitude of variation on photosynthetic characteristics between environments shown by more significant shade adjusted parameters (SAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Thus, the results obtained were coherent with the hypothesis that the early successional species G. ulmifolia exhibits higher photosynthetic plasticity than the late successional species H. courbaril. PMID:20231962

  9. Activation of Cellular Immunity in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-Infected Mice by the Oral Administration of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Masahiko; Wadhwani, Ashish; Kai, Hisahiro; Hidaka, Muneaki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Sugita, Chihiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Matsuno, Koji; Hagiwara, Akinori

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is used as a nutritive vegetable and spice. Its ethanol extract has been previously shown to be significantly effective in alleviating herpetic skin lesions in mice. In this study, we evaluated the alleviation by the aqueous extract (AqMOL) and assessed the mode of its anti-herpetic action in a murine cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection model. AqMOL (300 mg/kg) was administered orally to HSV-1-infected mice three times daily on days 0 to 5 after infection. AqMOL significantly limited the development of herpetic skin lesions and reduced virus titers in the brain on day 4 without toxicity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to inactivated HSV-1 antigen was significantly stronger in infected mice administered AqMOL and AqMOL augmented interferon (IFN)-γ production by HSV-1 antigen from splenocytes of HSV-1-infected mice at 4 days post-infection. AqMOL administration was effective in elevating the ratio of CD11b(+) and CD49b(+) subpopulations of splenocytes in infected mice. As DTH is a major host defense mechanism for intradermal HSV infection, augmentation of the DTH response by AqMOL may contribute to their efficacies against HSV-1 infection. These results provided an important insights into the mechanism by which AqMOL activates cellular immunity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26814058

  10. Antioxidant activities of trypsin inhibitor, a 33 KDa root storage protein of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam cv. Tainong 57).

    PubMed

    Hou, W C; Chen, Y C; Chen, H J; Lin, Y H; Yang, L L; Lee, M H

    2001-06-01

    Trypsin inhibitors (TIs), root storage proteins, were purified from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas[L.] Lam cv. Tainong 57) roots by trypsin affinity column according to the methods of Hou and Lin (Plant Sci. 1997, 126, 11-19 and Plant Sci. 1997, 128, 151-158). A single band of 33 kDa TI was obtained by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels. This purified 33 kDa TI had scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. There was positive correlation between scavenging effects against DPPH (2 to 22%) and amounts of 33 kDa TI (1.92 to 46 pmol). The scavenging activities of 33 kDa TI against DPPH were calculated from linear regression to be about one-third of those of glutathione between 5 and 80 pmol. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for hydroxyl radical detection, it was found that 33 kDa TI could capture hydroxyl radical, and the intensities of EPR signal were significantly decreased from 1.5 to 6 pmol of 33 kDa TI compared to those of the controls. It is suggested that 33 kDa TI, one of the sweet potato root storage proteins, may play a role as an antioxidant in roots and may be beneficial to health when it is consumed. PMID:11409996

  11. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Berry Extract Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer but not Non-Tumorigenic Breast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liya; Adams, Lynn S.; Chen, Shiuan; Killian, Caroline; Ahmed, Aftab; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2009-01-01

    The ripe purple berries of the native Indian plant, Eugenia jambolana Lam., known as Jamun, are popularly consumed and available in the United States in Florida and Hawaii. Despite the growing body of data on the chemopreventive potential of edible berry extracts, there is paucity of such data for Jamun fruit. Therefore our laboratory initiated the current study with the following objectives:1) to prepare a standardized Jamun fruit extract (JFE) for biological studies and, 2) to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, and in a normal/non-tumorigenic (MCF-10A) breast cell line. JFE was standardized to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC50=27 µg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC50=40 µg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC50>100 µg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 µg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro (p≤0.05) and the MDA-MB-231 (p≤0.01) breast cancer cells, but not towards the normal MCF-10A breast cells. These studies suggest that JFE may have potential beneficial effects against breast cancer. PMID:19166352

  12. Eugenia jambolana Lam. berry extract inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of human breast cancer but not non-tumorigenic breast cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Liya; Adams, Lynn S; Chen, Shiuan; Killian, Caroline; Ahmed, Aftab; Seeram, Navindra P

    2009-02-11

    The ripe purple berries of the native Indian plant Eugenia jambolana Lam., known as Jamun, are popularly consumed and available in the United States in Florida and Hawaii. Despite the growing body of data on the chemopreventive potential of edible berry extracts, there is paucity of such data for Jamun fruit. Therefore our laboratory initiated the current study with the following objectives: (1) to prepare a standardized Jamun fruit extract (JFE) for biological studies and (2) to investigate the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, and in a normal/nontumorigenic (MCF-10A) breast cell line. JFE was standardized to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC(50) = 27 microg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC(50) = 40 microg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC(50) > 100 microg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 microg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro (p

  13. Channel architecture in maltoporin: dominance studies with lamB mutations influencing maltodextrin binding provide evidence for independent selectivity filters in each subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Ferenci, T; Lee, K S

    1989-01-01

    Maltoporin trimers constitute maltodextrin-selective channels in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. To study the organization of the maltodextrin-binding site within trimers, dominance studies were undertaken with maltoporin variants of altered binding affinity. It has been established that amino acid substitutions at three dispersed regions of the maltoporin sequence (at residues 8, 82, and 360) resulted specifically in maltodextrin-binding defects and loss of maltodextrin channel selectivity; a substitution at residue 118 increased both binding affinity and maltodextrin transport. Strains heterodiploid for lamB were constructed in which these substitutions were encoded by chromosomal and plasmid-borne genes, and the relative level of maltoporin expression from these genes was estimated. Binding assays with bacteria forming maltoporin heterotrimers were performed in order to test for complementation between binding-negative alleles, negative dominance of negative over wild-type alleles, and possible dominance of negatives over the high-affinity allele. Double mutants with mutations affecting residues 8 and 118, 82 and 118, and 118 and 360 were constructed in vitro, and the dominance properties of the mutations in cis were also tested. There was no complementation between negatives and no negative dominance in heterotrimers. The high-affinity mutation was dominant over negatives in trans but not in cis. The affinity of binding sites in heterotrimer populations was characteristic of the high-affinity allele present and uninfluenced by the negative allele. These results are consistent with the presence of three discrete binding sites in a maltoporin trimer and suggest that the selectivity filter for maltodextrins is not at the interface between the three subunits. PMID:2521623

  14. Do Ecological Niche Model Predictions Reflect the Adaptive Landscape of Species?: A Test Using Myristica malabarica Lam., an Endemic Tree in the Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, Shivaprakash K.; Gudasalamani, Ravikanth; Barve, Narayani; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Narayanagowda, Ganeshaiah Kotiganahalli; Ramanan, Uma Shaanker

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models (ENM) have become a popular tool to define and predict the “ecological niche” of a species. An implicit assumption of the ENMs is that the predicted ecological niche of a species actually reflects the adaptive landscape of the species. Thus in sites predicted to be highly suitable, species would have maximum fitness compared to in sites predicted to be poorly suitable. As yet there are very few attempts to address this assumption. Here we evaluate this assumption. We used Bioclim (DIVA GIS version 7.3) and Maxent (version 3.3.2) to predict the habitat suitability of Myristica malabarica Lam., an economically important tree occurring in the Western Ghats, India. We located populations of the trees naturally occurring in different habitat suitability regimes (from highly suitable to poorly suitable) and evaluated them for their regeneration ability and genetic diversity. We also evaluated them for two plant functional traits, fluctuating asymmetry – an index of genetic homeostasis, and specific leaf weight – an index of primary productivity, often assumed to be good surrogates of fitness. We show a significant positive correlation between the predicted habitat quality and plant functional traits, regeneration index and genetic diversity of populations. Populations at sites predicted to be highly suitable had a higher regeneration and gene diversity compared to populations in sites predicted to be poor or unsuitable. Further, individuals in the highly suitable sites exhibited significantly less fluctuating asymmetry and significantly higher specific leaf weight compared to individuals in the poorly suitable habitats. These results for the first time provide an explicit test of the ENM with respect to the plant functional traits, regeneration ability and genetic diversity of populations along a habitat suitability gradient. We discuss the implication of these resultsfor designing viable species conservation and restoration programs. PMID

  15. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of L-Dopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical formulations using a crude extract of sweet potato root [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] as enzymatic source.

    PubMed

    Fatibello-Filho, O; da Cruz Vieira, I

    1997-04-01

    A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of L-dopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical formulations. After selection of the extraction medium (e.g., buffer-to-tissue ratio, pH, buffer concentration, protective agents and/or stabilizers) and storage conditions, crude extract of sweet potato root [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was used as an enzymatic source of polyphenol oxidase (Tyrosinase; catechol oxidase; EC.1.14.18.1) directly in the carrier. This enzyme catalyses the oxidation of these catecholamines to the corresponding dopaquinone. Further, dopaquinone undergoes a rapid spontaneous auto-oxidation to leucodopachrome, which is in turn oxidized to dopachrome; this last compound has a strong absorption at 480 and 360 nm for L-dopa and carbidopa, respectively. For the optimum extraction conditions found the enzyme activity of the crude extract did not vary for at least 5 months when stored at 4 degrees C and decreased by only 4-5% during an 8 h working period at 25 degrees C. The results obtained for L-dopa and carbidopa by the proposed enzymatic FI method were in close agreement with the label values (r1 = 0.9699 and r2 = 0.9999) and also with those obtained using a pharmacopeial method (r3 = 0.9675). The throughput was 26 samples h-1, and 2.30 ml of crude extract were consumed in each determination, corresponding to only 72 mg of the original sweet potato root. The detection limit (three times the signal blank/slope) was 1.5 x 10(-5) and 2.0 x 10(-5) mol l-1 for L-dopa and carbidopa, respectively; the recovery of L-dopa and carbidopa from three samples ranged from 98.6 to 106.3% of the added amount. PMID:9177077

  16. Leaf morphological and physiological adaptations of a deciduous oak (Quercus faginea Lam.) to the Mediterranean climate: a comparison with a closely related temperate species (Quercus robur L.).

    PubMed

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sisó, Sergio; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Díaz-Espejo, Antonio; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-03-01

    'White oaks'--one of the main groups of the genus Quercus L.--are represented in western Eurasia by the 'roburoid oaks', a deciduous and closely related genetic group that should have an Arcto-Tertiary origin under temperate-nemoral climates. Nowadays, roburoid oak species such as Quercus robur L. are still present in these temperate climates in Europe, but others are also present in southern Europe under Mediterranean-type climates, such as Quercus faginea Lam. We hypothesize the existence of a coordinated functional response at the whole-shoot scale in Q. faginea under Mediterranean conditions to adapt to more xeric habitats. The results reveal a clear morphological and physiological segregation between Q. robur and Q. faginea, which constitute two very contrasting functional types in response to climate dryness. The most outstanding divergence between the two species is the reduction in transpiring area in Q. faginea, which is the main trait imposed by the water deficit in Mediterranean-type climates. The reduction in leaf area ratio in Q. faginea should have a negative effect on carbon gain that is partially counteracted by a higher inherent photosynthetic ability of Q. faginea when compared with Q. robur, as a consequence of higher mesophyll conductance, higher maximum velocity of carboxylation and much higher stomatal conductance (gs). The extremely high gs of Q. faginea counteracts the expected reduction in gs imposed by the stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit, allowing this species to diminish water losses maintaining high net CO2 assimilation values along the vegetative period under nonlimiting soil water potential values. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Q. faginea can be regarded as an example of adaptation of a deciduous oak to Mediterranean-type climates. PMID:26496958

  17. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Miller, Richard E.; Scotland, Robert W.; Wood, John R. I.; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A.; Jarret, Robert L.; Yencho, G. C.; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding. PMID:25954286

  18. In vitro analysis on bactericidal screening and antioxidant potentiality of leaf and root extracts of Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. An ethnobotanical plant

    PubMed Central

    Nusaiba, Saiba Abdul Wahab; Murugan, Kumaraswamy

    2013-01-01

    Objective Natural products of plant origin are potential source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidative agents. Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. (T. siliquosa). A medicinal herb used by local tribals for treating various ailments. The present study aims at the phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis, in vitro antibacterial activity and antioxidant potentiality of root and leaf extracts of T. siliquosa. Methods Hot continuous Soxhlet extraction, GC-MS analysis, antibacterial analysis by disc diffusion, microdilution assay and antioxidant potentialities by hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical scavenging. The data was statistically analyzed. Results Phytochemical screening of the ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of leaf and root revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins and saponin. The extract revealed a pool of phytochemicals by comparison with authentic standards from spectral library. Both the extracts has shown their broad spectrum of inhibition against the selected bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia compared with standard antibiotic drug streptomycin. The extracts showed antioxidant activity by scavenging of free radicals such as hydroxyl and nitric oxide. The IC50 values of the ethyl acetate extracts leaf and root and standard in this assay were 167.5±0.67, 99.4±1.2, 192±2.5 µg/mL respectively. Similarly those methanolic extracts of leaf and root were 269.5±0.89 and 289.1±2.66 µg/mL respectively. Similarly, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts also caused a moderate dose-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide with an IC50 range 65.5±1.55 to 148 ±3.09 µg/mL. The inhibitory activities were found to be dose dependent. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that ethyl acetate and methanol extract of leaf and root of T. siliquosa are potential source of natural antioxidants and bactericidal nature. It is essential that research should continue to isolate and purify

  19. The in-capillary DPPH-capillary electrophoresis-the diode array detector combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode for screening and quantifying major antioxidants in Cuscuta chinensis Lam.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Tian, Ji; Li, Jin; Azietaku, John Teye; Zhang, Bo-Li; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2016-07-01

    An in-capillary 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-CE-the DAD (in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD) combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode has been developed to screen and quantify the active antioxidant components of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. The operation parameters were optimized with regard to the pH and concentration of buffer solution, SDS, β-CDs, organic modifier, as well as separation voltage and temperature. Six antioxidants including chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, hyperin, isoquercitrin, and astragalin were screened and the total antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully evaluated based on the decreased peak area of DPPH by the established DPPH-CE-DAD method. Sensitivity was enhanced under reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode and 10- to 31-fold of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity for each analyte was attained. The results demonstrated that the newly established in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD method combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode could integrate sample concentration, the oxidizing reaction, separation, and detection into one capillary to fully automate the system. It was considered a suitable technique for the separation, screening, and determination of trace antioxidants in natural products. PMID:26955793

  20. Cryogenic Refractive Indices of S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14 Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Leviton, Doug

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is an explorer-class planet finder, whose principal goal is to detect small planets with bright host starts in the solar neighborhood. The TESS payload consists of four identical cameras with seven optical elements each that include various types of Ohara glass substrates. The successful implementation both panchromatic and thermal lens assembly designs for these cameras requires a fairly accurate (up to 1E-6) knowledge of the temperature and wavelength dependence of the refractive index in the wavelength and temperature range of operation. Hence, this paper is devoted to report on measurements of the refractive index over the wavelength range of 0.42-1.15 um and temperature range of 110-310 K for the following Ohara glasses: S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, SLAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14. The measurements were performed utilizing the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A dense coverage of the absolute refractive index for the title substrates in the aforementioned wavelength and temperature ranges was used to determine the thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) and dispersion relation (dn/d lambda) as a function of wavelength and temperature. A comparison of the measured indices with literature values, specifically the temperature-dependent refractive indices of S-PHM52 and S-TIH14, will be presented.

  1. Cryogenic Refractive Indices of S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14 Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Leviton, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is an explorer-class planet finder, whose principal goal is to detect small planets with bright host starts in the solar neighborhood. The TESS payload consists of four identical cameras and a Data Handling Unit (DHU) fitted with CCD detectors and associated electronics. Each camera consist of a lens assembly with seven optical elements that include various types of Ohara glass substrates. The successful implementation of a panchromatic and a thermal lens assembly design for these cameras requires a fairly accurate (up to 0.000001 (1e-6)) knowledge of the temperature- and wavelength-dependent of the refractive index in the wavelength and temperature range of operation. Hence, this paper is devoted to report on measurements of the refractive index over the wavelength range of 0.42-1.15 micrometers and temperature range of 110-300 K for the following Ohara glasses: S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14. The measurements were performed utilizing the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A dense coverage of the absolute refractive index for all these substrates in the aforementioned wavelength and temperature ranges was used to determine the thermo-optic coefficient (dndT) and dispersion relation (dnd) as a function of wavelength and temperature. A comparison of the measured indices with literature values, specifically the temperature-dependent refractive indices of S-PHM52 and S-TIH14 reported by Yamamuro et al. [Yamamuro et al., Opt. Eng. 45(8), 083401 (2006)], will be presented.

  2. Composition and antioxidant activity of the anthocyanins of the fruit of Berberis heteropoda Schrenk.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Li; Gao, Wan; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Li, Cheng; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun; Ji, Teng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    In present study, the anthocyanin composition and content of the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk were determined for the first time. The total anthocyanins were extracted from the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk using 0.5% HCl in 80% methanol and were then purified using an AB-8 macroporous resin column. The purified anthocyanin extract (PAE) was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-high resolution-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-HR-ESI-MS) under the same experimental conditions. The results revealed the presence of seven different anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins purified by preparative HPLC were confirmed to be delphinidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (30.3%), cyanidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (33.5%), petunidin-3-Ο-glucopyranoside (10.5%), peonidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (8.5%) and malvidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (13.8%) using HPLC-HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The total anthocyanin content was 2036.6 ± 2.2 mg/100 g of the fresh weight of B. heteropoda Schrenk fruit. In terms of its total reducing capacity assay, DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS radical cation-scavenging activity assay, the PAE also showed potent antioxidant activity. The results are valuable for illuminating anthocyanins composition of B. heteropoda Schrenk and for further utilising them as a promising anthocyanin pigment source. This research enriched the chemical information of B. heteropoda Schrenk. PMID:25415473

  3. Radical scavenging potential of phenolics from Bryophyllum pinnatum (LAM.) OKEN.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Suneel; Banerjee, Rintu

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of the extraction process of phenolics from Bryophyllum pinnatum was carried out using response-surface methodology (RSM). The effect of different variables such as ratio of solvents, plant material/solvent ratio, extraction time, and temperature were investigated. An optimal phenolics yield of 7.952 mg/g gallic acid equivalence (GAE) was achieved at reduced levels of methanol/water ratio (1:1, v/v). During optimization, the product yield was enhanced by ∼2-fold at reduced extraction solvent (methanol/water) up to 37%. Validation of the RSM model for extraction of total phenolic content (TPC) was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The obtained experimental values were in good agreement with the predicted values, thereby indicating the appropriateness of the model generated. Phenolic extracts from B. pinnatum were further examined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods for determining the radical scavenging activities. EC(50) values of B. pinnatum extracts (BPEs) obtained by these methods were in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in the extract. Significant correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). PMID:21660869

  4. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products.

    PubMed

    Limmatvapirat, C; Limmatvapirat, S; Charoenteeraboon, J; Wessapan, C; Kumsum, A; Jenwithayaamornwech, S; Luangthuwapranit, P

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health. PMID:26664066

  5. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products

    PubMed Central

    Limmatvapirat, C.; Limmatvapirat, S.; Charoenteeraboon, J.; Wessapan, C.; Kumsum, A.; Jenwithayaamornwech, S.; Luangthuwapranit, P.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health. PMID:26664066

  6. Generalized Lamé functions. II. Hyperbolic and trigonometric specializations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruijsenaars, S. N. M.

    1999-03-01

    In Part I [J. Math. Phys. 40, 1595 (1999)] we studied eigenfunctions of the quantum dynamics that defines the two-particle relativistic Calogero-Moser system with elliptic interaction. In the present paper we consider the same system with hyperbolic and trigonometric interactions. In these special regimes the eigenfunctions are shown to admit an elementary representation that is far more explicit than the "zero representation" of Part I. In particular, the new representation can be exploited to prove that the hyperbolic eigenfunctions can be chosen to be symmetric under interchanging position and momentum variables (self-duality). In the trigonometric case duality properties are derived, too, and several orthogonality and completeness results are obtained.

  7. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade

    PubMed Central

    Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Materials and Methods: Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Results: Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. Conclusions: These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing. PMID:22224061

  8. Virulence variations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates sexually produced on Berberis spp. under natural conditions in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), frequently causes significant yield losses in China, due to rapid development of new races that overcome resistance in wheat cultivars. Indirect evidence suggests that sexual reproduction occurs in the Pst population in China, but...

  9. Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from the Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree.

    PubMed

    Lea, Michael

    2014-01-01

    An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a crude water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. PMID:24789599

  10. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Dracaena reflexa Lam. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Abha; Vats, Swati; Shukla, R K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the antioxidant activity of successive leaf extracts of Dracaena reflexa was investigated using the scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Methanol extract was found potent in both the assays. IC50 values of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay for methanol extract was 0.97 mg/ml and ferric reducing antioxidant power value for the same is 1.19. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and total phenolic content were also determined. Qualitative screening for phytochemical showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and saponins. Highest phenolic content was shown by methanol extract (49.69 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight). Proximate analysis showed moisture content (3.31%), ash content (8.02%), crude fibre (1.31%), crude fat (0.97%), total protein (3.70%), total carbohydrate (86.01) and nutritive value (367.56 kcal/100 g), which would make it a potential nutraceutical. This study suggested that Dracaena reflexa, a potential natural free radical scavenger, which could find use as an antioxidative. PMID:26798184

  11. Triterpenes and Steroids from Euphorbia denticulata Lam. With Anti-Herpes Symplex Virus Activity.

    PubMed

    Shamsabadipour, Sara; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Saeedi, Hojjatollah; Rahimnejad, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi-Kamalabadi, Marzieh; Ayatollahi, Seyed Majid; Salimzadeh, Loghman

    2013-01-01

    In this research, dried acetone:chloroform extract of aerial parts of E. denticulata as one of the endemic plants to Iran, afforded a number of triterpenes and steroids including: betulin, 24-methylene-cycloart-3-ol, cycloart-23Z-ene-3β,25-diol, cycloart-23E-ene-3β,25- diol, ergosta-8,24-dien-3-ol (obtusifoliol) and beta-sitosterol which were reported for the first time from this plant. The structure of these compounds was elucidated by NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. The MTS assay was used to determine the toxicity and antiviral activity of betulin and (3β,23E)-cycloarta-23-ene-3,25-diol. Betulin showed anti-HSV-1 activity with EC50 value of 84.37±0.02 μg/mL, and toxicity on normal vero cells with CC50 value of 660.718±0.072 μg/mL. (3β,23E)-Cycloarta-23-ene-3,25-diol showed antiviral effect with EC50 value of 86.63±0.03 μg/mL, and toxicity with CC50 value of 1089.21±0.25 μg/mL. The results revealed that these two compounds have the antiviral activity far below the CC50 value with selectivity index (CC50/EC50) values of 7.83, and 12.57, respectively. PMID:24523756

  12. Hybridization and invasion: an experimental test with diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of studies have suggested a causative link between hybridization and invasion. In this study, we experimentally test for such a link through a greenhouse common garden study with artificially created Backcross 1 (BC1) diffuse knapweed hybrids. In comparison with diffuse knapweed plants of n...

  13. Allelopathic effects of glucosinolate breakdown products in Hanza [Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam.] processing waste water.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J; Krosse, Sebastian; de Graaf, Rob M; Garvi, Josef; Garvi-Bode, Renate D; van Dam, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    Boscia senegalensis is a drought resistant shrub whose seeds are used in West Africa as food. However, the seeds, or hanza, taste bitter which can be cured by soaking them in water for 4-7 days. The waste water resulting from the processing takes up the bitter taste, which makes it unsuitable for consumption. When used for irrigation, allelopathic effects were observed. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are the potential causes for both the bitter taste and the allelopathic effects. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify the glucosinolates present in processed and unprocessed hanza as well as different organs of B. senegalensis, to analyze the chemical composition of the processing water, and to pinpoint the causal agent for the allelopathic properties of the waste water. Hanza (seeds without testa), leaves, branches, unripe, and ripe fruits were collected in three populations and subjected to glucosinolate analyses. Methylglucosinolates (MeGSL) were identified in all plant parts and populations, with the highest concentrations being found in the hanza. The levels of MeGSLs in the hanza reduced significantly during the soaking process. Waste water was collected for 6 days and contained large amounts of macro- and micronutrients, MeGSL as well as methylisothiocyanate (MeITC), resulting from the conversion of glucosinolates. Waste water from days 1-3 (High) and 4-6 (Low) was pooled and used to water seeds from 11 different crops to weeds. The High treatment significantly delayed or reduced germination of all the plant species tested. Using similar levels of MeITC as detected in the waste water, we found that germination of a subset of the plant species was inhibited equally to the waste water treatments. This confirmed that the levels of methylisiothiocyanate in the waste water were sufficient to cause the allelopathic effect. This leads to the possibility of using hanza waste water in weed control programs. PMID:26236325

  14. Gastroprotective effect of aqueous extract and mucilage from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abhishek L.; Bhot, Meeta A.; Chandra, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bryophyllum pinnatum is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Tropical America and China for treatment of various diseases. B. pinnatum contains different groups of phytoconstituents viz., flavonoid, terpenoids, alkaloid, phenolic compounds. Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of B. pinnatum whole plant aqueous extract, and mucilage (MUC) isolated from the whole plant against ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract at dose level of 500 and 750 mg/kg b.w., MUC at 500 mg/kg dose level and standard drug Rabeprazole at dose level of 20 mg/kg b.w. where given for 7 days. Results: The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg p.o. and MUC at dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. markedly decrease the incidence of ulcers in ethanol induced ulcer rats. In ethanol induced ulcer rats, there was a decrease in the gastric volume, free and total acidity and ulcerative index as compared to the control group. Total carbohydrate content was found to be an increase as compare to control the group. The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in the above parameters which was comparable to the standard drug rabeprazole (20 mg/kg). B. pinnatum extract and MUC showed protection index 72.69 and 69.65% respectively, whereas standard drug rabeprazole showed protection index 75.49%. Conclusions: Whole plant extracts of B. pinnatum and MUC has potent gastroprotective effect which can be further clinically studied for new drug development. PMID:25593406

  15. Studies of sugar composition and starch morphology of baked sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).

    PubMed

    Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lien, Ching-Yi; Liao, Wayne C

    2013-12-01

    Sugar composition of seven sweet potato cultivars was successfully analyzed. Fresh CYY95-26 sweet potatoes had the highest (8.41%) total sugar content while TNG73 had the lowest (4.5%). For these fresh sweet potatoes, maltose content was very low (0 ~ 0.39%). Because 49.92 ~ 92.43% of total sugars were sucrose, sucrose was the major sugar composition of fresh sweet potatoes. After the baking treatment, the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes was dramatically increased due to the formation of maltose. The maltose content significantly increased from 0 ~ 0.39% to 8.81 ~ 13.97% on dry weight basis. Therefore, maltose should be included in calculating the total sugar content. Electronic micrographs of fresh sweet potato samples showed that the size of starch granules was generally less than 20 μm. After the baking treatment, starch granules completely gelatinized. PMID:24426034

  16. Effects of thermal stress and nickel exposure on biomarkers responses in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam).

    PubMed

    Attig, Hajer; Kamel, Naouel; Sforzini, Susanna; Dagnino, Alessandro; Jamel, Jebali; Boussetta, Hamadi; Viarengo, Aldo; Banni, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    The present work aimed to assess the Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland biomarkers responses to nickel (Ni) exposure along with a heat stress gradient. Mussels were exposed to a sublethal dose of nickel (13 μM) along with a temperature gradient (18 °C, 20 °C, 22 °C, 24 °C and 26 °C) for 4 days. Metallothionein (MTs) content was assessed as specific response to metals. Catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The cholinergic system was monitored using the acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE). Moreover, Ni uptakes along with the exposure temperatures were assessed. A correlation matrix (CM) between the investigated biomarkers and the exposure temperatures and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were achieved. Our data showed a negative effect of temperature increase on mussel's antioxidant and detoxification response to Ni exposure being more pronounced in animals exposed to the 24 °C and 26 °C. PMID:24424117

  17. [Textual research on Amara (Mangifera Indica Linn), Butea monsperma (Lam) Kuntze, and Ferula asatoitida L].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaohua; Wang, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    In the Buddhist canons, there are lots of medicines imported from abroad recorded. The dictionary works of such Buddhist canons give detailed annotations and explanations to all these foreign medicines, from which we can investigate the features of all these medicines. It is also clear that these three medicines were imported into China no later than the Tang Dynasty. Amara was originally grown in the xi yu (Western Region) , now called Mango. Its form and connotation appeared no later than the eastern Han Dynasty, and the explanation of this medicine appears in the A Great Modern Dictionary of Chinese is wrong. While its explanation for Butea monsperma should be supplemented. There are two kinds of asafoitida, herbaceous and woody. Only the former one is used for medical purpose, and the annotation appeared in A Great Modern Dictionary of Chinese is problematic. PMID:26268251

  18. Anticancer property of Bryophyllum pinnata (Lam.) Oken. leaf on human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bryophyllum pinnata (B. pinnata) is a common medicinal plant used in traditional medicine of India and of other countries for curing various infections, bowel diseases, healing wounds and other ailments. However, its anticancer properties are poorly defined. In view of broad spectrum therapeutic potential of B. pinnata we designed a study to examine anti-cancer and anti-Human Papillomavirus (HPV) activities in its leaf extracts and tried to isolate its active principle. Methods A chloroform extract derived from a bulk of botanically well-characterized pulverized B. pinnata leaves was separated using column chromatography with step- gradient of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate. Fractions were characterized for phyto-chemical compounds by TLC, HPTLC and NMR and Biological activity of the fractions were examined by MTT-based cell viability assay, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, Northern blotting and assay of apoptosis related proteins by immunoblotting in human cervical cancer cells. Results Results showed presence of growth inhibitory activity in the crude leaf extracts with IC50 at 552 μg/ml which resolved to fraction F4 (Petroleum Ether: Ethyl Acetate:: 50:50) and showed IC50 at 91 μg/ml. Investigations of anti-viral activity of the extract and its fraction revealed a specific anti-HPV activity on cervical cancer cells as evidenced by downregulation of constitutively active AP1 specific DNA binding activity and suppression of oncogenic c-Fos and c-Jun expression which was accompanied by inhibition of HPV18 transcription. In addition to inhibiting growth, fraction F4 strongly induced apoptosis as evidenced by an increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, suppression of the anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, and activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP-1. Phytochemical analysis of fraction F4 by HPTLC and NMR indicated presence of activity that resembled Bryophyllin A. Conclusions Our study therefore demonstrates presence of anticancer and anti-HPV an activity in B. pinnata leaves that can be further exploited as a potential anticancer, anti-HPV therapeutic for treatment of HPV infection and cervical cancer. PMID:22405256

  19. Does leaf manipulation affect leaf appearance in italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanical stimuli such as rubbing, shaking, or flexing plants can alter their growth rates and morphologies. Plant response to mechanical stress can result in delayed plant growth, reduced leaf size, shorten and thicken stems, and reduced yields. Repeated measurements, such as leaf counting or me...

  20. Effectiveness of lifesaving skills training and improving institutional emergency obstetric care readiness in Lam Dong, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Nancy L; Nguyen, Thi Nhu Ngoc; Do, Trong Hieu; Quimby, Charlotte; Winikoff, Beverly; Fassihian, Goli

    2005-01-01

    Essential obstetric care is promoted as the prime strategy to save women's lives in developing countries. We measured the effect of improving lifesaving skills (LSS) capacity in Vietnam, a country in which most women deliver in health facilities. A quasi-experimental study was implemented to assess the impact of LSS training and readiness (availability of essential obstetric equipment, supplies, and medication) on the diagnosis of life-threatening obstetric conditions and appropriate management of labor and birth. The intervention (LSS training and readiness) was provided to all clinics and hospitals from 1 of 3 demographically similar districts in southcentral Vietnam, to hospitals only in another district, with the third district serving as the comparison group. Detection of life-threatening obstetric conditions increased in both experimental clinics and hospitals, but the intervention only improved the management of these conditions in hospitals. Management of life-threatening obstetric conditions is most effective in hospitals. The intervention did not clearly benefit women delivering in clinics. PMID:15973269

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub.- a potential medicinal legume tree.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, Amit; Jehan, Tabassum; Lakhanpaul, Suman

    2013-07-01

    Three molecular marker systems, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) and Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) were employed to investigate the genetic structure and diversity among the 14 natural populations of Butea monosperma collected from different geographical regions of India. Detected by 17 RAPD, 15 ISSR and 11 SRAP primer combinations, the proportions of polymorphic bands were 84.2 %, 77.2 % and 91.9 %, respectively, and the mean Nei's genetic distances among the populations were 0.13, 0.10 and 0.13, respectively. Partitioning of genetic variability by Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the high genetic diversity was distributed within the populations. AMOVA also revealed that the coefficient of gene differentiation among populations based on FST was very high irrespective of markers used. The overall gene flow among populations (Nm) was very low. Cophenetic correlation coefficients of Nei's distance values and clustering pattern by Mental test were statistically significant for all three marker systems used but poor fit for ISSR data than for RAPD, SRAP and combined data set of all three markers. For all markers, a high similarity in dendrogram topologies was obtained, although some differences were observed with ISSR. The dendrogram obtained by RAPD, SRAP and combined data set of all three markers reflect relationship of most of the populations according to their geographic distribution. PMID:24431507

  2. In vitro callus induction and estimation of plumbagin content from Plumbago auriculata Lam.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Jyoti; Labade, Dinesh; Shankar, Kalaiselvi; Kata, Navin; Chaudhari, Manoj; Wani, Minal; Khetmalas, Madhukar

    2014-11-01

    The medicinal plant Plumbago contains a very potent secondary metabolite, plumbagin having many therapeutic properties. Callus culture was induced using explants, leaf, stem and shoot apex, from P. auriculata. Murashige and Skoog media fortified with various growth hormones like NAA, IAA, IBA and 2, 4-D individually and in various combinations were checked for callus induction. Among the growth hormones used, 1 mg/L 2, 4-D showed best callusing. The hormonal combinations of 1 mg/L IAA and 1.5 mg/L NAA in the media exhibited best callus induction using stem internode as an explant. Plumbagin content from root, stem, leaf and callus was analyzed by using thin layer chromatographic technique. The callus derived from stem showed comparable plumbagin content to the in vivo plant parts. Quantitative spectrophotometric analysis of plumbagin from plant samples and callus indicated that plumbagin content was maximum in roots which was followed by callus, stem and leaf samples respectively. Generation of in vitro sources for p!umbagin, for therapeutic applications will serve as a continuous supply and will contribute to preserve the natural plant recourses. PMID:25434108

  3. In Vitro and In Vivo Cytogenotoxic Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC.

    PubMed Central

    Cariddi, L. N.; Sabini, M. C.; Escobar, F. M.; Bacchetti, R.; Montironi, I.; Merckis, C.; Reinoso, E. B.; Núñez Montoya, S.; Zanon, S. M.; Comini, L. R.; Sabini, L. I.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we extend the toxicological studies of hot aqueous extract of A. satureioides (As-HAE) evaluating cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also determine genotoxic action of this extract in vivo. In addition, the extract was chemically characterized. Finally, we established a comparison with previous data of cold aqueous extract. The As-HAE induced cytotoxicity on PBMCs determined by trypan blue dye exclusion (CC50 = 653 μg/mL) and MTT (CC50 = 588 μg/mL) assays being more toxic than cold extract. However, As-HAE as well as cold extract did not induce apoptosis measured by Hoechst 33258 staining, TUNEL assay, and DNA fragmentation analysis. The in vivo micronucleus test showed that As-HAE exerted cytogenotoxic effects on bone marrow of mice, contrary to what was observed with cold extract. The chemical study of As-HAE allowed identifying the flavonoids found in cold extract: luteolin, quercetin, and 3-O-methylquercetin, but at higher concentrations. We suggest that toxic effects induced by As-HAE could be due to high concentrations of these flavonoids. Given that As-HAE is the most used in folkloric medicine, its administration should be controlled in order to prevent potential cell damage. PMID:26078941

  4. Establishment of an in vitro micropropagation protocol for Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. ex Poir.

    PubMed Central

    Khalafalla, Mutasim M.; Daffalla, Hussien M.; Abdellatef, Eltayb; Agabna, Elsadig; El-Shemy, Hany A.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes in vitro micropropagation of Boscia senegalensis, so-called famine foods, that helped the people in Darfur and Kordofan, Sudan survive during the 1984–1985 famine. Four types of explants prepared from green mature zygotic embryos were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with 1–5 mg/L 6-benzyladenine (BA). The highest number of shoots per explant (14.3±0.9) was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BA, while the highest shoot length [(3.5±0.4) cm] was obtained with 1 mg/L BA. The shoot cluster, when subcultured to its same medium, significantly increased the rate of shoot multiplication by the end of the third subculture. The maximum mean number of shoots per explant (86.5±3.6) was produced after three multiplication cycles on 3 mg/L BA-supplemented medium. In vitro induced shoots were excised and rooted on half strength MS medium fortified with 0.25 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) to obtain complete plantlets. B. senegalensis-regenerated plantlets obtained in vitro for the first time, were hardened and 95% survived under greenhouse conditions. PMID:21462387

  5. Preventive effects of Moringa oleifera (Lam) on hyperlipidemia and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes in iron deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Ndong, Moussa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shinichi; Sato, Shigeru; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2007-08-01

    The effects of Moringa oleifera (MO), Moringaceae on hyperlipidemia and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes caused by iron deficiency were investigated. Four-week-old male Wistar-strain rats were fed a control diet based on AIN-93G (C), an iron deficient diet (FeD), a FeD + 0.5% MO (FeD-m) diet, or a FeD + MO 1% (FeD-M) diet for 4 weeks. It was found that MO reduced iron-deficient diet-induced increases in serum and hepatic lipids with dose-dependent increases of serum quercetin and kaempherol, but did not prevent anemia. By electron microscopy, in iron deficient hepatocytes, slightly swollen mitochondria and few glycogen granules were observed, but glycogen granules increased and mitochondria were normalized by treatment with MO. Furthermore, lipoproteins were observed in the Golgi complex under treatment with MO. These results suggest a possible beneficial effect of MO in the prevention of hyperlipidemia and ultrastructural changes in hepatocytes due to iron-deficiency. PMID:17690476

  6. The use of meteorological analogues to account for LAM QPF uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diomede, T.; Nerozzi, F.; Paccagnella, T.; Todini, E.

    2006-09-01

    Flood predictions issued employing quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) provided by deterministic models do not account for the uncertainty in the outcomes. A probabilistic approach to QPF seems to be indispensable to obtain different future flow scenarios that allow to manage the flood accounting for the variability of phenomena and the uncertainty associated with an hydrological forecast. A new approach based on a search for past situations (analogues), similar to previous and current day in terms of different meteorological fields over Western Europe and East Atlantic, has been developed to determine an ensemble of hourly quantitative precipitation forecasts for the Reno river basin, a medium-sized catchment in northern Italy. A statistical analysis, performed over an hydro-meteorological archive collecting ECMWF analyses at 12:00 UTC relative to the autumn seasons ranging from 1990 to 2000 and the corresponding precipitation measurements recorded by the raingauges spread over the catchment of interest, has underlined that the combination of geopotential at 500 hPa and vertical velocity at 700 hPa provides a better estimation of precipitation. The analogue-based ensemble prediction has to be considered not alternative but complementary with the deterministic QPF provided by a numerical model, even in view of a joint employment to improve real-time flood forecasting. In the present study, the analogue-based QPFs and the precipitation forecast provided by the Limited Area Model LAMBO have been used as different input to the distributed rainfall-runoff model TOPKAPI, thus generating, respectively, an ensemble of discharge forecasts, which provides a confidence interval for the predicted streamflow, and a deterministic discharge forecast taken as an error affected "measurement'' of the future flow, which does not convey any quantification of the forecast uncertainty. To make more informative the hydrological prediction, the ensemble spread could be regarded as a measure of the uncertainty of the deterministic forecast.

  7. The use of meteorological analogues to account for LAM QPF uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diomede, T.; Nerozzi, F.; Paccagnella, T.; Todini, E.

    2008-01-01

    Flood predictions based on quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) provided by deterministic models do not account for the uncertainty in the outcomes. A probabilistic approach to QPF, one which accounts for the variability of phenomena and the uncertainty associated with a hydrological forecast, seems to be indispensable to obtain different future flow scenarios for improved flood management. A new approach based on a search for analogues, that is past situations similar to the current one under investigation in terms of different meteorological fields over Western Europe and East Atlantic, has been developed to determine an ensemble of hourly quantitative precipitation forecasts for the Reno river basin, a medium-sized catchment in northern Italy. A statistical analysis, performed over a hydro-meteorological archive of ECMWF analyses at 12:00 UTC relative to the autumn seasons ranging from 1990 to 2000 and the corresponding precipitation measurements recorded by the raingauges spread over the catchment of interest, has underlined that the combination of geopotential at 500 hPa and vertical velocity at 700 hPa provides a better estimation of precipitation. The analogue-based ensemble prediction has to be considered not alternative but complementary to the deterministic QPF provided by a numerical model, even when employed jointly to improve real-time flood forecasting. In the present study, the analogue-based QPFs and the precipitation forecast provided by the Limited Area Model LAMBO have been used as different input to the distributed rainfall-runoff model TOPKAPI, thus generating, respectively, an ensemble of discharge forecasts, which provides a confidence interval for the predicted streamflow, and a deterministic discharge forecast taken as an error-affected "measurement" of the future flow, which does not convey any quantification of the forecast uncertainty. To make more informative the hydrological prediction, the ensemble spread could be regarded as a measure of the uncertainty of the deterministic forecast.

  8. Integration and test activities for the SUMIRE prime focus spectrograph at LAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madec, F.; Jaquet, Marc; Pascal, Sandrine; Bozier, A.; Le Mignant, David; Vives, S.; Ferrand, D.; Pegot-Ogier, T.; Arthaud, G.; Golebiowski, M.; Sugai, H.; Tamura, N.; Gunn, J.; Smee, S.; Oliveira, L.

    2014-07-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) of the Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe) project for Subaru telescope consists in four identical spectrographs feed by 600 fibers each. Each spectrograph is composed by an optical entrance unit that creates a collimated beam and distributes the light to three channels, two visible and one near infrared. We present here the integration process of the first spectrograph channel. The verification requirements, the specific integration requirements and the product tree are the main drivers from the top plan for the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) development process. We then present the AIT flow-down, the details for the AIT processes as well as opto-mechanical alignment procedures and tests setup. In parallel, we are developing and validating dedicated tools to secure and facilitate the AIT activities, as we have to assemble eight visible cameras, integrate and align four fiber slits, integrate and align the components of four spectrographs.

  9. Triterpenes and Steroids from Euphorbia denticulata Lam. With Anti-Herpes Symplex Virus Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shamsabadipour, Sara; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Saeedi, Hojjatollah; Rahimnejad, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi-Kamalabadi, Marzieh; Ayatollahi, Seyed Majid; Salimzadeh, Loghman

    2013-01-01

    In this research, dried acetone:chloroform extract of aerial parts of E. denticulata as one of the endemic plants to Iran, afforded a number of triterpenes and steroids including: betulin, 24-methylene-cycloart-3-ol, cycloart-23Z-ene-3β,25-diol, cycloart-23E-ene-3β,25- diol, ergosta-8,24-dien-3-ol (obtusifoliol) and beta-sitosterol which were reported for the first time from this plant. The structure of these compounds was elucidated by NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. The MTS assay was used to determine the toxicity and antiviral activity of betulin and (3β,23E)-cycloarta-23-ene-3,25-diol. Betulin showed anti-HSV-1 activity with EC50 value of 84.37±0.02 μg/mL, and toxicity on normal vero cells with CC50 value of 660.718±0.072 μg/mL. (3β,23E)-Cycloarta-23-ene-3,25-diol showed antiviral effect with EC50 value of 86.63±0.03 μg/mL, and toxicity with CC50 value of 1089.21±0.25 μg/mL. The results revealed that these two compounds have the antiviral activity far below the CC50 value with selectivity index (CC50/EC50) values of 7.83, and 12.57, respectively. PMID:24523756

  10. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Dracaena reflexa Lam. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Abha; Vats, Swati; Shukla, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the antioxidant activity of successive leaf extracts of Dracaena reflexa was investigated using the scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Methanol extract was found potent in both the assays. IC50 values of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay for methanol extract was 0.97 mg/ml and ferric reducing antioxidant power value for the same is 1.19. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and total phenolic content were also determined. Qualitative screening for phytochemical showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and saponins. Highest phenolic content was shown by methanol extract (49.69 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight). Proximate analysis showed moisture content (3.31%), ash content (8.02%), crude fibre (1.31%), crude fat (0.97%), total protein (3.70%), total carbohydrate (86.01) and nutritive value (367.56 kcal/100 g), which would make it a potential nutraceutical. This study suggested that Dracaena reflexa, a potential natural free radical scavenger, which could find use as an antioxidative. PMID:26798184

  11. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Suchandra; Biswas, Subhasish; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das, Sudip Kumar; Khan, Anupam

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P < 0.05) improved meat pH and water holding capacity (WHC) and lowered cooking loss and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value as compared to control and other treated samples. Microbial load in terms of Total Plate Count (TPC) was found to be decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in treated samples. No significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed in juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores between the treated meat samples. PMID:23572848

  12. COX-2 inhibitors from stem bark of Bauhinia rufescens Lam. (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Aminu; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the stem bark of Bauhinia rufescens resulted in the isolation of a new cyanoglucoside and menisdaurin from methanol extract and oxepin from petroleum ether extract. The isolated compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory potentials based on the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX-2) model. Cyanoglucoside exhibited the highest activity among the compounds with an inhibition activity of 49.34 % at 100 µM (IC50 0.46 µM) compared to the positive control, indomethacin (79.20 %, IC50 0.24 µM). PMID:26600739

  13. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Bauhinia racemosa Lam. and Chemical Content.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Khaled; Butnariu, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Methanol 70% extract of Bauhinia racemosa aerial parts was tested for antimicrobial activity against different bacterial and fungal strains and for antioxidant activity and also total content of polyphenols with phytochemical analysis of the extract was determined. The results have showed that the extract has a significant antimicrobial activity, it inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and also it was highly active against Candida albicans suggesting that it can be used in the treatment of fungal infections. The extract has a good antioxidant activity, it has shown high values of the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content while it has shown a lower value of oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Phytochemical analysis has shown that it has interesting phytochemical bioconstituents, include flavonoids, tannins and others, and the deep phytochemical study results in the isolation of methyl gallate, gallic, kaempferol, quercetin, querection 3-O-α-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-β-glucoside, myricetin-3-O-β- glucoside, querection-3-O-rutinoside (Rutin). All compounds were identified by different spectroscopic analyses (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS). PMID:25276210

  14. 78 FR 3319 - Amendments to Existing Validated End User Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Suzhou, China 78 FR [INSERT FR 3C002 and 3C004 215021. PAGE NUMBER] 1/16/ and Advanced Micro 13... on June 19, 2007 (72 FR 33646) to create Authorization VEU. ] Amendment to Existing Validated End... (Mexico) and Reports,'' published July 2, 2012 (77 FR 39354). Former List of Eligible Items for SK...

  15. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.

    PubMed

    Agyare, Christian; Dwobeng, Anita Serwaa; Agyepong, Nicholas; Boakye, Yaw Duah; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Ayande, Patrick George; Adarkwa-Yiadom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5-7.5 mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25-7.5 mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5-7.5 mg/mL and 2.5-10 mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7  μ g/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1  μ g/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w) showed significant (P < 0.05) wound contraction at day 7 with 72% of wound closure whiles significant (P < 0.05) wound contractions were observed on day 11 for stem bark of K. africana, leaf and root extracts of S. hispidus. Wound tissues treated with the extracts showed improved collagenation, re-epitheliazition and rapid granulation formation compared with untreated wound tissues. The extracts were found to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these may justify the medicinal uses of the plants for treatment of microbial infections and wounds. PMID:23662099

  16. Ontogenetic variation of volatiles and antioxidant activity in leaves of Astragalus compactus Lam. (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Naghiloo, Somayeh; Movafeghi, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Nazemiyeh, Hosein; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Dadpour, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    The genus Astragalus is a rich source of a variety of biologically active compounds including phenols, saponins, polysaccharides and essential oils. The present study was conducted to determine ontogenetic variation of the volatile organic compounds as well as total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in leaves of A. compactus. The leaves of plant were harvested at vegetative, flowering and fructification stages and were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Different classes of volatile compounds were identified including alcohols, esters, hydrocarbons, sterols and terpenoides. Significant variation of these compounds was found during phenological stages of development. Sterols and hydrocarbons were the main components of essential oils at the vegetative stage. The presence of terpenoides (phytol) and alcohols (docosanol) was significant at the flowering stage. Fructification phase was characterized by the high content of sterols and hydrocarbons and absence of phytol. The antioxidant activity and phenolic content were related to the physiological stage and the highest amount detected at fructification phase. The ontogenetic variations of phenolic contents and antioxidant properties are largely contributed by climatic factors such as temperature and solar radiation.

  17. Allelopathic effects of glucosinolate breakdown products in Hanza [Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam.] processing waste water

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J.; Krosse, Sebastian; de Graaf, Rob M.; Garvi, Josef; Garvi-Bode, Renate D.; van Dam, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    Boscia senegalensis is a drought resistant shrub whose seeds are used in West Africa as food. However, the seeds, or hanza, taste bitter which can be cured by soaking them in water for 4–7 days. The waste water resulting from the processing takes up the bitter taste, which makes it unsuitable for consumption. When used for irrigation, allelopathic effects were observed. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are the potential causes for both the bitter taste and the allelopathic effects. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify the glucosinolates present in processed and unprocessed hanza as well as different organs of B. senegalensis, to analyze the chemical composition of the processing water, and to pinpoint the causal agent for the allelopathic properties of the waste water. Hanza (seeds without testa), leaves, branches, unripe, and ripe fruits were collected in three populations and subjected to glucosinolate analyses. Methylglucosinolates (MeGSL) were identified in all plant parts and populations, with the highest concentrations being found in the hanza. The levels of MeGSLs in the hanza reduced significantly during the soaking process. Waste water was collected for 6 days and contained large amounts of macro- and micronutrients, MeGSL as well as methylisothiocyanate (MeITC), resulting from the conversion of glucosinolates. Waste water from days 1–3 (High) and 4–6 (Low) was pooled and used to water seeds from 11 different crops to weeds. The High treatment significantly delayed or reduced germination of all the plant species tested. Using similar levels of MeITC as detected in the waste water, we found that germination of a subset of the plant species was inhibited equally to the waste water treatments. This confirmed that the levels of methylisiothiocyanate in the waste water were sufficient to cause the allelopathic effect. This leads to the possibility of using hanza waste water in weed control programs. PMID:26236325

  18. Antioxidant Effect of Nanoemulsions Containing Extract of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam) D.C.-Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Giovanni Konat; Caregnato, Fernanda; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; Carvalho, Edison Luis Santana

    2016-08-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Achyrocline satureioides have pronounced antioxidant activity mainly due to the presence of the flavonoid quercetin. However, direct topical application of the extract is not possible due to the presence of high amounts of ethanol. In this sense, nanoemulsions arise as an alternative for topical formulation associating molecules with limited aqueous solubility. This article describes the development of topical nanoemulsions containing either A. satureioides extract or one of its most abundant flavonoid, quercetin. Nanoemulsions composed of octyldodecanol, egg lecithin, water and extract (NEE), or quercetin (NEQ) were prepared by spontaneous emulsification. This process led to monodisperse nanoemulsions presenting a mean droplet size of approximately 200-300 nm, negative zeta potential, and high association efficiency. A study of quercetin skin retention using porcine skin which was performed using a Franz diffusion cell revealed a higher accumulation of quercetin in skin for NEE when compared to NEQ. Finally, the antioxidant activity of formulations was measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive species and the APPH model. A lower lipoperoxidation for the extract in respect to quercetin solution was observed. However, no difference between NEQ and NEE lipoperoxidation could be seen. The protection against lipoperoxidation by the formulations was also measured in the skin, where lower formation of reactive species was observed after treatment with NEE. In conclusion, this study shows the formulation effect on the physicochemical properties of nanoemulsions as well as on the skin retention and antioxidant activity of quercetin. PMID:26361953

  19. Physio-anatomic aspects on the initial growth of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Pereira, Heloisa H G; Glaeser, Daniele F; Silva, Jocemar J; Betoni, Roseli; Mussury, Rosilda M

    2011-06-01

    This paper aimed to evaluate the initial growth of "mutambo" seedlings in different conditions of light intensity and treatments with gibberellic acid (GA). The seedlings were kept under full sun and 50% of shading. Sixty days after the emergence, seedlings were sprayed with: 1) 100 mg L(-1) GA(3); 2) 200 mg L(-1) GA(3); 3) control. At the end of the appraisals, seedlings height under 50% of shading was compared to the height that were growing under full sun with 200 mg L(-1) GA. Stem diameter was lower under shading. Leaf area did not vary among the treatments, but the root system growth was higher under full sun and did not vary among GA levels. The number of stomata, trichomes and epidermal cells on adaxial and abaxial sides was higher under full sun. Total dry masses of leaf and root were highe runder full sun and with 200 mg L(-1) GA application. "Mutambo" seedlings presented a higher initial growth under full sun, although with a lower height, diameter, and lenght of the largest root and total dry masses of leaf and root were higher. A concentration with 200 mg L(-1) promoted a higher growth. PMID:21670888

  20. Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. extract on cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anamika; Gautam, Manish K; Singh, Rahul K; Kumar, M Vijay; Rao, Ch V; Goel, R K; Anupurba, Shampa

    2010-11-01

    Immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract (50%) of M. oleifera leaves (MOE) has been studied in normal and immunosuppressed mice models. Different doses of MOE i.e. 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of mice were administered orally for 15 days. Cyclophosphamide at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight was administered orally for the next 3 days. On day 16 and 19, hematological parameters like white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin level (Hb), percent neutrophils and organ weight were recorded. Effect of MOE on phagocytic activity of mice macrophages was determined by carbon clearance test. MOE showed significant dose dependent increase in WBC, percent neutrophils, weight of thymus and spleen along with phagocytic index in normal and immunosuppressed mice. The results indicate that MOE significantly reduced cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression by stimulating both cellular and humoral immunity. PMID:21117458

  1. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of Moringa oleifera Lam. callus and leaf extracts on Hela cells

    PubMed Central

    Jafarain, Abbas; Asghari, Gholamreza; Ghassami, Erfaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are considerable attempts worldwide on herbal and traditional compounds to validate their use as anti-cancer drugs. Plants from Moringaceae family including Moringa oleifera possess several activities such as antitumor effect on tumor cell lines. In this study we sought to determine if callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera possess any cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Ethanol-water (70-30) extracts of callus and leaf of M. oleifera were prepared by maceration method. The amount of phenolic compounds of the extracts was determined by Folin Ciocalteu method. The cytotoxicity of the extracts against Hela tumor cells was carried out using MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of the extract were added. Cells were incubated for 48 h and their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Cytotoxicity was considered when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Results: Callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera significantly decreased the viability of Hela cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, leaf extract of M. oleifera were more potent than that of callus extract. Conclusion: As the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extract was higher than that of callus extract, it can be concluded that phenolic compounds are involved in the cytotoxicity of M. oleifera. PMID:25337524

  2. Dem Extraction from CHANG'E-1 Lam Data by Surface Skinning Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.-B.; Zhang, W.-M.

    2011-08-01

    DEM is a digital model or 3-D representation of a terrain's surface and it is created from terrain elevation data. The main models for DEM extraction based on Lidar data or Laser Altimeter data currently use the idea that point cloud is scattered, such as regular grid model, TIN model and contour model. Essentially, in these above methods, the discrete points are interpolated into regular grid data and irregular grid data. In fact, point cloud generated by Laser Altimeter is not totally scattered, but have some regularity. In this paper, to utilize this regularity, the proposed method adopts surface skinning technology to generate DEM from Chang'E-1 Laser Altimeter data. The surface skinning technology is widely used in the field of mechanical engineering. Surface skinning is the process of passing a smooth surface through a set of curves called sectional curves, which, in general, may not be compatible. In the process of generating section line, a need for attention is that it needs to use curvature method to get a set of characteristic points, and these feature points were used to subdivide segment; the next step is generating several curves on some key places. These curves describe the shape of the curved surface. The last step is to generate a curved surface that through these curves. The result shows that, this idea is feasible, useful and it provides a novel way to generate accurate DEM.

  3. Analysis of isoquinoline alkaloids in medicinal plants by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sturm, S; Stuppner, H

    1998-11-01

    The technique of capillary electrophoresis - mass spectrometry (CE-MS) was applied for determination of isoquinoline alkaloids in crude methanolic extracts of medicinal plants. For the CE separations ammonium formate buffer solutions (70 or 100 mM, pH 3.0 or 4.0) containing 10% methanol or 20-60% acetonitrile as additives were used. The applied voltage was 25 kV, the thermostating temperature was kept constant at 25 degrees C. Coupling with the mass spectrometer was performed via an atmospherical pressure ionization (API) interface and the electrospray ionization technique (ESI). As sheath liquid 5 mM formic acid in acetonitrile at a flow rate of 3 microL/min was used. The spray voltage was 4.5 kV and the temperature of the heated capillary was chosen to be 200 degrees C. Detection in the positive ionization mode resulted in mass spectra showing either the molecular ions [M]+ or the protonated molecular ions [M+H]+. The presented method allows detection and identification of isoquinoline alkaloids in crude methanolic extracts of medicinal plants as Eschscholzia californica CHAM. (Papaveraceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Berberis vulgaris L. (Berberidaceae), Jateorhiza palmata (LAM.) MIERS (Menispermaceae) and Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae). PMID:9870408

  4. Leaf development in Xylopia aromatica (Lam) Mart. (Annonaceae): implications for palatability to Stenoma scitiorella Walker 1864 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae).

    PubMed

    Varanda, E M; Costa, A A; Barosela, J R

    2008-11-01

    Variations in specific foliar mass and water content, nitrogen, soluble carbohydrates and tannins were studied during the growth and maturation processes of the Xylopia aromatica leaves, to determine the effects of such alterations on the herbivory of Stenoma scitiorella caterpillars. This work was carried out in the physiognomy of the typical cerrado of the Parque Estadual de Vassununga, Gleba Pé-de Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, Brazil. While nutritional quality (water and nitrogen) decreases during expansion and maturation of Xylopia aromatica leaves, the chemical (tannins) and physical (sclerophylly) defenses are raised. In agreement with the observations on herbivory, the results support the hypothesis that the reduction in palatability and increase in chemical defenses of Xylopia aromatica leaves account for the caterpillars' preference for young expanding leaves. PMID:19197502

  5. Cytoprotection by Achyrocline satureioides (Lam) D.C. and some of its main flavonoids against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, M F; Blasina, F; Echeverry, C; Morquio, A; Ferreira, M; Abin-Carriquiry, J A; Lafon, L; Dajas, F

    2004-03-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that dietary antioxidants can influence the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. Among them flavonoids have been proposed to be effective cytoprotectors. Consequently, herbs with a high concentration of these compounds such as Achyrocline satureioides, Ginkgo biloba and Epilobium parviflorum are of special interest. In this context a comparative study of the cytoprotective capacity of infusions from the three plants against an oxidative insult was performed. Hence, the cytoprotective activity of each infusion against H2O2 injury to PC12 cells was tested and the antioxidant capacity was assessed by the ABTS*+ radical bleaching assay. Free and glycosylated flavonoids contained in the infusions were identified by HPLC and the cytoprotective effect of some of these individual flavonoids was tested. The analysis of the flavonoid content of the infusions revealed different profiles. Epilobium parviflorum infusion showed the highest antioxidant capacity but only Achyrocline satureioides infusion proved to be cytoprotective. Moreover, the free flavonoids quercetin and luteolin contained in this infusion were also cytoprotective. In conclusion, the free radical scavenger capacity did not correlate with the cytoprotective profile of the infusions. The special mixture of unglycosylated Achyrocline satureioides flavonoids could be a clue to explain the unique effect of this plant. PMID:15036461

  6. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status. PMID:24198710

  7. Chemical composition, pretreatments and saccharification of Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby: An efficient biomass producing tree legume.

    PubMed

    Mund, Nitesh K; Dash, Debabrata; Barik, Chitta R; Goud, Vaibhav V; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Mishra, Prasannajit; Nayak, Nihar R

    2016-05-01

    Protocols were developed for efficient release of glucose from the biomass of Senna siamea, one of the highly efficient biomass producing tree legumes. Composition of mature, 1year and 2years coppice biomass were analysed. For the hydrolysis of the glucan, two pretreatments, cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation (COSLIF) and alkali (sodium hydroxide) were used; COSLIF (85% phosphoric acid, 45min incubation at 50°C) pretreated mature biomass exhibited best result in which 88.90% glucose released after 72h of incubation with the use of 5 filter paper units (FPU) of cellulase and 10 international units (IU) of β-glucosidase per gram of glucan. Of the biomass of different particle sizes (40-200mesh) used for saccharification, 40-60mesh shown the maximum glucose release. COSLIF pretreated mature, 1year and 2years coppice biomass showed equivalent glucose release profiles. PMID:26890795

  8. Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi Sre, P. R.; Reka, M.; Poovazhagi, R.; Arul Kumar, M.; Murugesan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines.

  9. LC/MS/NMR analysis of isomeric divanilloylquinic acids from the root bark of Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Badioré; Angenot, Luc; Guissou, Pierre; Fondu, Pierre; Dubois, Jacques; Frédérich, Michel; Jansen, Olivia; van Heugen, Jean-Claude; Wauters, Jean-Noël; Tits, Monique

    2004-04-01

    Gradient HPLC coupled to DAD/UV, MS/MS and NMR has been applied to the rapid structure determination of three new isomeric divanilloylquinic acids from Fagara zanthoxyloides collected in Burkina Faso: 3,4-O-divanilloylquinic acid, 3,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid and 4,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid. Furthermore these new compounds named burkinabins A-C could play a useful role in sickle cell disease, as the active agents of Fagara zanthoxyloïdes are said to be unidentified aromatic compounds with carboxylic acid grouping (Adesanya, S.A., Sofowora, A., 1983. Biological standardisation of Zanthoxylum roots for antisickling activity. Planta Med. 48, 27-33). PMID:15110696

  10. Juice of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) inhibits oxytocin-induced increase of the intracellular calcium concentration in human myometrial cells.

    PubMed

    Simões-Wüst, A P; Grãos, M; Duarte, C B; Brenneisen, R; Hamburger, M; Mennet, M; Ramos, M H; Schnelle, M; Wächter, R; Worel, A M; von Mandach, U

    2010-10-01

    The use of preparations from Bryophyllum pinnatum in tocolysis is supported by both clinical (retrospective comparative studies) and experimental (using uterus strips) evidence. We studied here the effect of B. pinnatum juice on the response of cultured human myometrial cells to stimulation by oxytocin, a hormone known to be involved in the control of uterine contractions by increasing the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). In this work, [Ca2+]i was measured online during stimulation of human myometrial cells (hTERT-C3 and M11) with oxytocin, which had been pre-incubated in the absence or in the presence of B. pinnatum juice. Since no functional voltage-gated Ca2+ channels could be detected in these myometrial cells, the effect of B. pinnatum juice was as well studied in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which are known to have such channels and can be depolarised with KCl. B. pinnatum juice prevented the oxytocin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in hTERT-C3 human myometrial cells in a dose-dependent manner, achieving a ca. 80% inhibition at a 2% concentration. Comparable results were obtained with M11 human primary myometrial cells. In hTERT-C3 cells, prevention of the oxytocin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was independent of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration and of voltage-dependent Ca2+-channels. B. pinnatum juice delayed, but did not prevent the depolarization-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, the data suggest a specific and concentration-dependent effect of B. pinnatum juice on the oxytocin signalling pathway, which seems to corroborate its use in tocolysis. Such a specific mechanism would explain the rare and minor side-effects in tocolysis with B. pinnatum as well as its high therapeutic index. PMID:20381326

  11. Comparative analysis of nutritional quality of five different cultivars of sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas (L) Lam) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Suraji A; Ranaweera, K K D S; Gunaratne, Anil; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2013-07-01

    Nutritional attributes of flours obtained from five different cultivars of sweet potato roots commonly available in Sri Lanka showed significant differences in the tested parameters. The starch level ranged between 33% and 64% on the dry basis and the extractability from fresh tubers was governed by the quantity of starch. The crude fiber level ranged between 2.1% and 13.6% on dry basis and the highest level was observed in swp7 (CARI 273) and resistant starch ranged from 14.2% to 17.2%. Higher percentage of resistant starch from total starch was found in Wariyapola red (swp1) cultivar resulting in lower digestion level while higher levels of digestion was evident in cultivars with lower levels of resistant starch with high level of total starch. Low levels of calcium and significant levels of iron were found in the five cultivars studied. Crude protein level was in the range of 1.2-3.3% on dry basis and trypsin inhibitor activity level (TIA) was significantly different (P > 0.05) in the cultivars studied while heating resulted in a significantly high reduction in the TIA level than in unheated condition. Polygonal or round shaped starch granules were in the range of 16.8-23.5 μm and low level of starch digestion was shown in cultivars containing larger granules. Total amylose content lies in the range 15.4-19.6% and cultivars having higher percentage of amylose showed higher level of in vitro pancreatic digestion (Pallepola [swp4] and swp7). The starch digestibility of sweet potato flour was in the range of 36-55% and the highest digestion was observed in swp7. Orange fleshed cultivars (swp4 and swp7) were comparatively rich in nutrients and digestibility than the other three studied cultivars. PMID:24804032

  12. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on digestibility of different cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam) starch.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K K D S; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-07-01

    Different heat-moisture levels were applied to native starches from different cultivars of sweet potatoes available in Sri Lanka (Wariyapola red, Wariyapola white, Pallepola variety, Malaysian variety and CARI 273) to study the digestibility level. Samples were treated with 20, 25, and 30% moisture at 85°C and 120°C for 6 h and in vitro starch digestibility was tested with porcine pancreatin enzyme. A range of 19.3-23.5% digestibility was shown by the native starches with no significant difference (P < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the digestibility level of the hydrothermally modified starches and the moisture content showed a positive impact on the digestibility. Heat-moisture treatment at 85°C brought an overall increase in digestibility and temperature beyond 85°C had a negative impact. No significant difference (P < 0.05) in the digestibility was observed with 20% and 25% moisture at 85°C and increased level were seen at 85°C and 30% moisture. PMID:25473497

  13. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the extracts and compounds from the leaves of Psorospermum aurantiacum Engl. and Hypericum lanceolatum Lam.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Psorospermun aurantiacum and Hypericum lanceolatum are plants locally used in Cameroon and other parts of Africa for the treatment of gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections, skin infections, venereal diseases, gastrointestinal disorder, infertility, epilepsy as well as microbial infections. The present study was designed in order to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and radical scavenging activities of the extracts and isolated compounds from the leaves of these plants. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate and methanol and fractionated by column chromatography. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses in conjunction with literature data. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. The antioxidant potentials of the extracts and their isolated compounds were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Results Five known compounds: physcion (1), 1,8-dihydroxy-3-geranyloxy-6-methylanthraquinone (2), kenganthranol B (3), vismiaquinone (4), and octacosanol (5) were isolated from the leaves of P. aurantiacum while six compounds including friedelin (6), betulinic acid (7), 2,2’,5,6’-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (8), allanxanthone A (9), 1,3,6- trihydroxyxanthone (10) and isogarcinol (11) were isolated from H. lanceolatum. Compound 8 and 4 exhibited the highest antibacterial and antifungal activities with MIC ranges of 2–8 μg/ml and 4–32 μg/ml respectively. P. aurantiacum crude extract (Rsa50 = 6.359 ± 0.101) showed greater radical scavenging activity compared with H. lanceolatum extract (Rsa50 = 30.996 ± 0.879). Compound 11 showed the highest radical scavenging activity (RSa50 = 1.012 ± 0.247) among the isolated compounds, comparable to that of L-arscobic acid (RSa50 = 0.0809 ± 0.045). Conclusions The experimental findings show that the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and isolated compounds from P. aurantiacum and H. lanceolatum stem bark possess significant antimicrobial and antioxidant activities justifying the use of these plants in traditional medicine, which may be developed as phytomedicines. PMID:22916964

  14. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Cheah, Pike See; Abas, Farida; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%–24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 active compound may accelerate wound healing in hyperglycemic condition. PMID:27307703

  15. Antiviral activity of crude extracts of Eugenia jambolana Lam. against highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Sood, Richa; Swarup, D; Bhatia, S; Kulkarni, D D; Dey, S; Saini, M; Dubey, S C

    2012-03-01

    Crude extracts of leaves and bark of E. jambolana were tested for antiviral activity against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) by CPE reduction assay in three different layouts to elucidate virucidal, post-exposure and preexposure antiviral activity of the extracts. The cold and hot aqueous extracts of bark and hot aqueous extract of leaves of E. jambolana showed significant virucidal activity (100% inhibition) which was further confirmed in virus yield reduction assay (-98 to 99% reduction) and by egg based in ovo assay. The selective index (CC50/EC50) of hot aqueous extract (248) and cold aqueous extract (43.5) of bark of E. jambolana showed their antiviral potential against H5N1 virus. The significant virucidal activity of leaves and bark of E. jambolana merits further investigation as it may provide alternative antiviral agent for managing avian influenza infections in poultry farms and potential avian-human transmission. PMID:22439432

  16. Pharmacological evaluation of Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell.-Arg. fruit hair extract for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypnotic activity

    PubMed Central

    Gangwar, Mayank; Gautam, Manish Kumar; Ghildiyal, Shivani; Nath, Gopal; Goel, Raj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recently, we observed wound healing activity of 50% ethanol extract of Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg (MP) fruit hairs extract (MPE). In several intestinal infections, localized inflammation is of common occurrence and hence we evaluated the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypnotic activity of MPE in different rat experimental models. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan (acute) and turpentine oil induced formalin (subacute) induced paw edema and while granuloma pouch (subacute) in rats. Analgesic and hypnotic activity of MPE was undertaken by tail-flick, hot-plate, and acetic acid-induced writhing tests while pentobarbitone-induced hypnotic potentiation in rats. Results: MPE at a dose of 200 mg/kg at 3 h after their administration showed inhibition of formalin-induced paw edema by 41.60% (P < 0.001) and carrageenan-induced paw edema by 55.30% (P < 0.001). After 7 days of treatments, MPE showed 38.0% (P < 0.001) inhibition against formalin-induced paw edema and reduced weight of turpentine-induced granuloma pouch by 29.6% (P < 0.01) and volume of exudates by 26.1% (P < 0.01), respectively. MPE (200 mg/kg) showed dose-dependent elevation in pain threshold and peak analgesic effect at 120 min as evidenced by increased latency period in tail flick method and increased reaction time in the hot-plate test while the reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhes by 45.7% (P < 0.001). The pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis model showed potentiation, as defined by increased duration of sleep in treated group rats as compared to control. Conclusion: Thus, the study revealed MPE is effective in reducing acute and subacute inflammation and showed effective and similar analgesic activity. This seemed to be safe in the treatment of pain and inflammation. PMID:27069718

  17. Rapid screening and identification of phenolic antioxidants in Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sima; Elancheran, R; Kotoky, Jibon; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-07-15

    The aim of the study was to identify the phenolic compounds present in Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides (HS), Centella asiatica (CA) and Amaranthus viridis (AV) extracts and investigate their respective antioxidant activities. Herein, an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) analytical method has been developed for the separation, and systematic characterization of the phenolic compounds in HS, CA and AV extracts and was compared along with ten standard phenolic compounds. Additionally, in vitro antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds was also determined. The HS extract revealed excellent antioxidant activity such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (IC50=19.7 ± 1.2 μg/mL), total reduction capability (0.169 ± 0.003 at 100 μg/mL), nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (IC50=39.33 ± 3.2 μg/mL), metal chelating activity (IC50=56.51 ± 3.6 μg/mL) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC50=12.34 ± 2.3 μg/mL) as compared to CA and AV extracts. Furthermore, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin and chlorogenic acid were found to be the major components responsible for the antioxidant activity of the HS extract as evidenced from UPLC-MS/MS. Taken together, this study demonstrates the promising antioxidant properties of the HS extract, which can further be utilized in various pharmaceutical, food, and agricultural applications. PMID:26948646

  18. Direct effects of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) acetone leaf extract on broiler chickens naturally infected with Eimeria species.

    PubMed

    Ola-Fadunsin, Shola David; Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi

    2013-08-01

    Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of all broiler mortalities worldwide. The control of this disease relies mainly on the use of anticoccidial drugs. However, herbal preparations could be an alternative for the treatment against coccidiosis in chickens. The direct effects of Moringa oleifera acetone extracts on broiler chickens naturally infected with mixed Eimeria species was investigated to determine the relative efficacy of the extracts against coccidiosis in birds. The investigations were carried out in seven groups (ten chickens per group). The birds were given various doses (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g/kg body weight) of acetone extract of leaves of M. toltrazuril (positive control) and untreated (negative control). The extract was evaluated for anticoccidial activity by means of inhibition of oocyst output in faeces, faecal score, weight gain and mortality. Haematological indices were evaluated by standard methods. The group treated with 1.0 g/ kg body weight Moringa oleifera extract produced the least inhibitory effect on oocyst shed in the faeces (96.4%), while the groups treated with 2.0 g/kg, 3.0 g/kg, 4.0 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg body weight of the extract produced 97.4, 98.7, 99.1 and 99.8%, respectively. Body weight gains of infected chickens treated with the extract significantly improved (p < 0.05), and faecal scores were milder. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood count of the treated birds were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the infected untreated group. Moringa oleifera leaves could find application in the treatment of avian coccidiosis in veterinary practice. PMID:23440591

  19. Serum type III procollagen peptide and laminin (Lam-P1) detect alcoholic hepatitis in chronic alcohol abusers.

    PubMed

    Annoni, G; Colombo, M; Cantaluppi, M C; Khlat, B; Lampertico, P; Rojkind, M

    1989-05-01

    The diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis is difficult to establish by conventional clinical and laboratory methods, and a firm diagnosis relies on liver histology. Since there are severe limitations in following patients with repeated liver biopsies, noninvasive procedures are needed to assess the presence of alcoholic hepatitis in chronic alcohol abusers. It has been suggested that serum Type III procollagen peptide levels correlates with the degree of inflammation in chronic liver disease. Since inflammation is a major histological finding in alcoholic hepatitis, we therefore studied the usefulness of measuring serum Type III procollagen peptide and laminin values in 45 consecutive chronic alcohol abusers, with or without cirrhosis, in detecting those with alcoholic hepatitis. The results showed that both Type III procollagen peptide and laminin values were elevated in all of the patients with established liver damage. However, the values were highest in those with liver cirrhosis plus alcoholic hepatitis (Type III procollagen peptide 50.4 +/- 36.4 ng per ml vs. 8.1 +/- 2.6 in controls, p less than 0.01; laminin 4.50 +/- 1.49 units per liter vs. 1.24 +/- 0.26 units per liter in controls, p less than 0.01), followed by subjects with alcoholic hepatitis alone (Type III procollagen peptide 23.5 +/- 17.6 ng per ml, p less than 0.01; laminin 2.60 +/- 1.09 units per liter, p less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2707736

  20. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra; Arya, Priya Vrat; Aggarwal, Ved Prakash; Gupta, Radhey Shyam

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated against CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatotoxic rats were treated with ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera for a period of 60 days at the following three dose levels; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day, orally. The activities were studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ALP, ACP, as well as total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum concomitantly with the activities of LPO, SOD, CAT, GSH, GR and GPx in liver. The activities of all parameters registered a significant (p ≤ 0.001) alteration in CCl₄ treated rats, which were significantly recovered towards an almost normal level in rats co-administered with M. oleifera extract in a dose-dependent manner. All the biochemical investigations were confirmed by the histopathological observations and compared with the standard drug. silymarin. Results suggest that the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of M. oleifera leaves are possibly related to the free radical scavenging activity which might be due to the presence of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extract and/or the purified compounds β-sitosterol, quercetin and kaempferol, which were isolated from the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves. PMID:26785072

  1. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. cultivated in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Marrufo, Tatiana; Nazzaro, Filomena; Mancini, Emilia; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele; De Martino, Laura; Agostinho, Adelaide Bela; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) grown in Mozambique was investigated. The chemical composition was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. Hexacosane (13.9%), pentacosane (13.3%) and heptacosane (11.4%) were the main components. Ultra High Performance Chromatography-DAD analysis detected the flavonoids quercetin (126 μg/g) and luteolin (6.2 μg/g). The essential oil exhibited a relatively low free radical scavenging capacity. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against two Gram-positive strains (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and five fungal strains of agro-food interest (Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium digitatum, and Aspergillus niger spp.). B. cereus and P. aeruginosa, as well as the fungal strains were sensitive to the essential oil. PMID:24022760

  2. Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Leaf extracts against chronic ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Dahiru, D; Obidoa, O

    2007-01-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion is known to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby leading to liver damage. Antioxidant enzymes act individually or in combination to reduce or counter the effect of these ROS. Chronic administration of alcohol at (40% v/v, 1 ml/100 g), for 6 weeks showed a significant (p<0.05) elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TB). There was also a significant (p<0.05) decreased levels of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase compared to control rats. Pre-treatment of rats with 200, 400 mg/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana or 100 mg/kg silymarin resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decreased levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and TB with levels of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase showing a significant (p<0.05) increase compared to group administered alcohol only. Histopathology of rat liver administered with alcohol only resulted in severe necrosis, mononuclear cell aggregation and fatty degeneration in the central and mid zonal areas which was a characteristic of a damaged liver. Pre-treatment with the aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana or silymarin reduced the morphological changes that are associated with chronic alcohol administration. The presence of tannins, saponins and phenolic compounds observed in the plant extract could be responsible for the observed effects of decreasing the levels of injured tissue marker and lipid peroxidation. PMID:20162053

  3. Phylogenetic relationships among morphotypes of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpinioideae: Leguminosae) evidenced by trnL intron sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juchum, Fabrício Sacramento; Costa, Marco Antônio; Amorim, André Márcio; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier

    2008-11-01

    Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood or Pernambuco wood) comprises a complex of three morphological leaf variants, characterized by differences in the number and size of the pinnae and leaflets, and occurring in allopatric and sympatric populations. The present study evaluates the utility of the chloroplast DNA trnL intron in a phylogenetic analysis of the three leaf variants along with other species of Caesalpinia and generic relatives. Our study supports the hypothesis that the name C. echinata designates a species complex and provides evidence that one of the forms, the highly divergent C. echinata large-leafleted variant, represents a distinct taxon.

  4. Effect of Growth Regulators on In Vitro Morphogenic Response of Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. Poir. Using Mature Zygotic Embryos Explants

    PubMed Central

    Daffalla, Hussien H.; Abdellatef, Eltayb; Elhadi, Elsadig A.; Khalafalla, Mutasim M.

    2011-01-01

    The percent study describes the in vitro responses of mature zygotic embryos of Boscia senegalensis to different concentrations (0.0–5.0 mg/L) of 6-benzyladnine (BA), Thidiazuron (TDZ), α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) supplemented on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS). The plant growth regulators (PGRs) were considerably affected the morphogenetic responses. BA produced adventitious shoots through two ways: direct organogenesis and auxiliary shoot formation. Both 2, 4-D and TDZ tend to produce callus, whereas NAA improve the development of embryos to seedlings. Maximum number of shoots/explant (14.8 ± 0.6) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L BA. 67.0% of excised shoots were rooted either on 1/2 MS medium augmented with or without 0.25 mg/L IBA. The highest number of roots (1.2 ± 0.4) and root length (0.5 ± 0.2 cm) was produced on 0.25 mg/L IBA-containing medium. Regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized and transferred to the green house with 70% survival rate. All the plants appeared morphologically uniform with normal growth pattern. A rapid (30 days), efficient and without subculturing protocol for in vitro regeneration of B. senegalensis was developed. PMID:21687567

  5. Effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars.

    PubMed

    Dincer, Cuneyt; Karaoglan, Mert; Erden, Fidan; Tetik, Nedim; Topuz, Ayhan; Ozdemir, Feramuz

    2011-11-01

    The effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of three sweet potato cultivars (Beniazuma, Koganesengan, Kotobuki) cultivated in Turkey were investigated. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition, total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, antiradical activity, and free sugars. The dry matter, protein, and starch contents of the sweet potatoes were significantly changed by the treatments while the ash and crude fiber contents did not differ as significantly. The β-carotene contents of baked and boiled sweet potatoes were lower than those of fresh sweet potatoes; however, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of the baked and boiled sweet potatoes were higher than those of the fresh samples. Generally, the antiradical activity of the sweet potatoes increased with the treatments. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose were quantified as free sugars in all fresh sweet potatoes; however, maltose was determined in the treated samples. In terms of the analyzed parameters, there were no explicit differences among the sweet potato cultivars. PMID:22101780

  6. Effect of heat–moisture treatment on digestibility of different cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam) starch

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K K D S; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Different heat–moisture levels were applied to native starches from different cultivars of sweet potatoes available in Sri Lanka (Wariyapola red, Wariyapola white, Pallepola variety, Malaysian variety and CARI 273) to study the digestibility level. Samples were treated with 20, 25, and 30% moisture at 85°C and 120°C for 6 h and in vitro starch digestibility was tested with porcine pancreatin enzyme. A range of 19.3–23.5% digestibility was shown by the native starches with no significant difference (P < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the digestibility level of the hydrothermally modified starches and the moisture content showed a positive impact on the digestibility. Heat–moisture treatment at 85°C brought an overall increase in digestibility and temperature beyond 85°C had a negative impact. No significant difference (P < 0.05) in the digestibility was observed with 20% and 25% moisture at 85°C and increased level were seen at 85°C and 30% moisture. PMID:25473497

  7. Comparative analysis of nutritional quality of five different cultivars of sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas (L) Lam) in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, Suraji A; Ranaweera, K K D S; Gunaratne, Anil; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional attributes of flours obtained from five different cultivars of sweet potato roots commonly available in Sri Lanka showed significant differences in the tested parameters. The starch level ranged between 33% and 64% on the dry basis and the extractability from fresh tubers was governed by the quantity of starch. The crude fiber level ranged between 2.1% and 13.6% on dry basis and the highest level was observed in swp7 (CARI 273) and resistant starch ranged from 14.2% to 17.2%. Higher percentage of resistant starch from total starch was found in Wariyapola red (swp1) cultivar resulting in lower digestion level while higher levels of digestion was evident in cultivars with lower levels of resistant starch with high level of total starch. Low levels of calcium and significant levels of iron were found in the five cultivars studied. Crude protein level was in the range of 1.2–3.3% on dry basis and trypsin inhibitor activity level (TIA) was significantly different (P > 0.05) in the cultivars studied while heating resulted in a significantly high reduction in the TIA level than in unheated condition. Polygonal or round shaped starch granules were in the range of 16.8–23.5 μm and low level of starch digestion was shown in cultivars containing larger granules. Total amylose content lies in the range 15.4–19.6% and cultivars having higher percentage of amylose showed higher level of in vitro pancreatic digestion (Pallepola [swp4] and swp7). The starch digestibility of sweet potato flour was in the range of 36–55% and the highest digestion was observed in swp7. Orange fleshed cultivars (swp4 and swp7) were comparatively rich in nutrients and digestibility than the other three studied cultivars. PMID:24804032

  8. Constituents of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Moringa oleifera Lam., Heliotropium indicum L. and Bidens pilosa L. from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunbinu, Akinola O; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier L; Adebayo, Muritala A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2009-04-01

    The essential oils of four plant species from Nigeria have been extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of Cajanus cajan were comprised of sesquiterpenes (92.5%, 81.2% and 94.3% respectively in the leaves, stem and seeds). The major compounds identified were alpha-himachalene (9.0-11.5%), beta-himachalene (8.0-11.0%), gamma-himachalene (6.9-8.1%), alpha-humulene (7.1-8.7%) and alpha-copaene (4.5-5.6%). However, monoterpenoid compounds (81.8%) dominated the oil of Moringa oleifera with an abundance of alpha-phellandrene (25.2%) and p-cymene (24.9%). On the other hand, aldehydes (52.8%) occurred in the highest amount in Heliotropium indicum, represented by phenylacetaldehyde (22.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (8.3%) and (E, Z)-2-nonadienal (6.1%), with a significant quantity of hexahydrofarnesylacetone (8.4%). The leaf and stem oils of Bidens pilosa were dominated by sesquiterpenes (82.3% and 59.3%, respectively). The main compounds in the leaf oil were caryophyllene oxide (37.0%), beta-caryophyllene (10.5%) and humulene oxide (6.0%), while the stem oils had an abundance of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (13.4%), delta-cadinene (12.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.0%). The observed chemical patterns differ considerably from previous investigations. PMID:19476009

  9. Effect of Growth Regulators on In Vitro Morphogenic Response of Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. Poir. Using Mature Zygotic Embryos Explants.

    PubMed

    Daffalla, Hussien H; Abdellatef, Eltayb; Elhadi, Elsadig A; Khalafalla, Mutasim M

    2011-01-01

    The percent study describes the in vitro responses of mature zygotic embryos of Boscia senegalensis to different concentrations (0.0-5.0 mg/L) of 6-benzyladnine (BA), Thidiazuron (TDZ), α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) supplemented on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS). The plant growth regulators (PGRs) were considerably affected the morphogenetic responses. BA produced adventitious shoots through two ways: direct organogenesis and auxiliary shoot formation. Both 2, 4-D and TDZ tend to produce callus, whereas NAA improve the development of embryos to seedlings. Maximum number of shoots/explant (14.8 ± 0.6) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L BA. 67.0% of excised shoots were rooted either on 1/2 MS medium augmented with or without 0.25 mg/L IBA. The highest number of roots (1.2 ± 0.4) and root length (0.5 ± 0.2 cm) was produced on 0.25 mg/L IBA-containing medium. Regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized and transferred to the green house with 70% survival rate. All the plants appeared morphologically uniform with normal growth pattern. A rapid (30 days), efficient and without subculturing protocol for in vitro regeneration of B. senegalensis was developed. PMID:21687567

  10. Effects of olive mill wastewater physico-chemical treatments on polyphenol abatement and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) germinability.

    PubMed

    Barbera, A C; Maucieri, C; Ioppolo, A; Milani, M; Cavallaro, V

    2014-04-01

    Direct spreading on agricultural lands may represent an environmentally friendly disposal method and a possible use of water and nutrients from olive mill wastewaters (OMWs). However, the agronomic use of OMWs is limited, among others by polyphenols, which exert phytotoxic effects. Activated charcoal (AC) has been recognized as a very effective agent for polyphenol abatement, as it enables an irreversible process of phenol adsorption. Addition of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has also been described as a cheap and effective method in polyphenols abatement. However, the effects of Ca(OH)2 addition to OMW on seed germination are unclear. In this paper, the effects of AC and/or Ca(OH)2 on OMW polyphenols abatement, and Lolium multiflorum seed germination have been investigated. The highest polyphenols removal, approximately 95%, was observed when 80 g L(-1) of AC was added to OMWs (the maximum dose in this investigation). The addition of Ca(OH)2 not only improved the effectiveness of the AC treatment but also resulted in a significant rise in Lolium seed germination at the highest AC doses (60 and 80 g L(-1)). Considering the high salinity (7300 μS cm(-1)) of these wastewaters, low quantities of Ca(OH)2 may also exert a protective effect on soil structure counteracting the sodium-induced dispersion through the binding action of calcium cation on clays and organic matter. PMID:24289894

  11. Toxic Ipomeamarone Accumulation in Healthy Parts of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Storage Roots upon Infection by Rhizopus stolonifer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Furanoterpenoid accumulation in response to microbial attack in rotting sweetpotatoes has long been linked to deaths and lung edema of cattle in the world. However, it is not known whether furanoterpenoid ipomeamarone accumulates in the healthy-looking parts of infected sweetpotato storage roots. This is critical for effective utilization as animal feed and assessment of the potential negative impact on human health. Therefore, we first identified the fungus from infected sweetpotatoes as a Rhizopus stolonifer strain and then used it to infect healthy sweetpotato storage roots for characterization of furanoterpenoid content. Ipomeamarone and its precursor, dehydroipomeamarone, were identified through spectroscopic analyses, and detected in all samples and controls at varying concentrations. Ipomeamarone concentration was at toxic levels in healthy-looking parts of some samples. Our study provides fundamental information on furanoterpenoids in relation to high levels reported that could subsequently affect cattle on consumption and high ipomeamarone levels in healthy-looking parts. PMID:25418792

  12. Simultaneous analysis of eight vitamin E isomers in Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves by ultra performance convergence chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ningli; Gong, Xiao; Feng, Cuiping; Wang, Xiaoxi; Xu, Yongwei; Lin, Lijing

    2016-09-15

    A new method for simultaneous determination of eight vitamin E isomers including α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol by ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC(2)) equipped with a diode array detector was reported. They were separated on a BEH 2-EP column (3.0 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) using gradient elution (95:5-80:20) with a mobile phase consisted of CO2 and methanol:isopropanol (1:1, v/v), back pressure of 1800 psi, flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and detection at 294 nm. The results showed good linearity (R(2)=0.9990-0.9998) and high resolution (1.48-7.67). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranged from 23-49 ng/L and 70-150 ng/L, respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSD) for repeatability and reproducibility were 0.62-3.16% and 0.82-3.34%, respectively. Moreover, this method was successfully applied to analysis the vitamin E isomers in Moringa oleifera leaf samples. PMID:27080892

  13. Synthesis of Biaryl Ethers by the Copper-Catalyzed Chan-Evans-Lam Etherification from Benzylic Amine Boronate Esters.

    PubMed

    Marcum, Justin S; McGarry, Kathryn A; Ferber, Carl J; Clark, Timothy B

    2016-09-01

    The copper-catalyzed etherification of ortho-borylated benzylic amines with phenols has been achieved to provide biaryl ethers that are prevalent in biologically active compounds. A variety of substitution patterns on the aryl boronate ester and the phenol are tolerated under the reaction conditions, providing moderate to high yields. A competition reaction between phenol and aniline revealed condition-dependent selectivity in which the phenol could be highly favored over the aniline. PMID:27490146

  14. On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

    2013-01-01

    New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change. PMID:23531982

  15. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Cheah, Pike See; Abas, Farida; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%-24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 active compound may accelerate wound healing in hyperglycemic condition. PMID:27307703

  16. Genetic Dissection of New Genotypes of Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker

    PubMed Central

    Rufai, Shamsuddeen; Hanafi, M. M.; Rafii, M. Y.; Ahmad, S.; Arolu, I. W.; Ferdous, Jannatul

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of genetic diversity of tree crop is very important for breeding and improvement program for the purpose of improving the yield and quality of its produce. Genetic diversity study and analysis of genetic relationship among 20 Moringa oleifera were carried out with the aid of twelve primers from, random amplified polymorphic DNA marker. The seeds of twenty M. oleifera genotypes from various origins were collected and germinated and raised in nursery before transplanting to the field at University Agricultural Park (TPU). Genetic diversity parameter, such as Shannon's information index and expected heterozygosity, revealed the presence of high genetic divergence with value of 1.80 and 0.13 for Malaysian population and 0.30 and 0.19 for the international population, respectively. Mean of Nei's gene diversity index for the two populations was estimated to be 0.20. In addition, a dendrogram constructed, using UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance, grouped the twenty M. oleifera into five distinct clusters. The study revealed a great extent of variation which is essential for successful breeding and improvement program. From this study, M. oleifera genotypes of wide genetic origin, such as T-01, T-06, M-01, and M-02, are recommended to be used as parent in future breeding program. PMID:23862149

  17. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharmendra; Arya, Priya Vrat; Aggarwal, Ved Prakash; Gupta, Radhey Shyam

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatotoxic rats were treated with ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera for a period of 60 days at the following three dose levels; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day, orally. The activities were studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ALP, ACP, as well as total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum concomitantly with the activities of LPO, SOD, CAT, GSH, GR and GPx in liver. The activities of all parameters registered a significant (p ≤ 0.001) alteration in CCl4 treated rats, which were significantly recovered towards an almost normal level in rats co-administered with M. oleifera extract in a dose-dependent manner. All the biochemical investigations were confirmed by the histopathological observations and compared with the standard drug. silymarin. Results suggest that the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of M. oleifera leaves are possibly related to the free radical scavenging activity which might be due to the presence of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extract and/or the purified compounds β-sitosterol, quercetin and kaempferol, which were isolated from the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves. PMID:26785072

  18. Phytochemical Profiling of Leaf, Stem, and Tuber Parts of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi Using GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthika

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To explore the possible bioactive compounds in the methanolic extracts of leaf, stem, and tuber parts of the medicinal climber, Solena amplexicaulis, using GC-MS. Methods. GC-MS analysis of the plant extracts were performed by using GC-MS-5975C [Agilent] and mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract was matched with the data in the library of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Results. Thirty-five compounds were determined to be present in the parts studied. The active principles with their retention time, molecular formula, molecular weight, peak area, structure, category of the compounds, and activities were predicted. The most prevailing compounds were phytol (38.24%) in leaf, 4-(4-ethoxyphenyl) but-3-en-2-one (56.90%) in stem, and 9,17-octadecadienal, (Z)- (21.77%) in tuber. Conclusion. This study revealed that the species S. amplexicaulis is a good source of many bioactive compounds like terpenes, triazines, esters, alkanes, alcohols, hydrocarbons, aldehydes, amides, and so forth. That justifies the traditional usage of this species. PMID:27379314

  19. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status. PMID:24198710

  20. Evaluation of seasonal chemical composition, antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Tenfen, Adrielli; Yamanaka, Celina Noriko; de Cordova, Caio Maurício Mendes; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Alberton, Michele Debiasi

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the seasonal composition and the antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis leaves. Analysis by using GC allowed the identification of 40 compounds. It was observed that the monoterpenes varied more (42%) than the sesquiterpenes (14%), and that the monoterpene hydrocarbons suffered the greatest variation throughout the year (64%). Major compounds were spathulenol in the spring (16.02 ± 0.44%) and summer (18.17 ± 0.41%), τ-cadinol in the autumn (12.83 ± 0.03%) and α-pinene (15.94 ± 0.58%) in the winter. Essential oils were tested for their antibacterial activity, and the best result was obtained from the autumn oil, with MIC = 500 μg mL(- 1) against Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, lipid peroxidation and iron-reducing power assays, as well as the anticholinesterase activity. Both tests showed a weak performance of the essential oils. PMID:25219800

  1. Identification of eighteen Berberis species as alternate hosts of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and virulence variation in the pathogen isolates from natural infection of barberry plants in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst) population in China has been reported to be a distinct genetic group with higher diversity than those in many other countries. Genetic recombination in the Pst population has been identified with molecular markers, but whethe...

  2. Solitary extrapulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis of the liver: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Weiwei; Li, Yujun; Li, Hong; Yang, Ping; Xing, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive disorder of unknown etiology that predominantly affects the lungs, and the resulting respiratory failure can be fatal. Extrapulmonary LAM is a rare disease that often occurs concurrently with pulmonary LAM. Usually, extrapulmonary LAM presents as a localized, well-circumscribed mass. Due to the rare occurrence of extrapulmonary LAM and its atypical location, extrapulmonary LAM is often difficult to diagnose prior to surgery. The present study describes the clinicopathological features of primary liver LAM in a 26-year-old woman. To the best of our knowledge, the present study presents the first case of a primary solitary extrapulmonary form of LAM in the liver.

  3. Self-Reseeding Potential and Herbage Production of Italian Ryegrass (Lolium Multiflorum Lam.) Affected by Date and Intensity of Initial Harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annually-sown cool-season small grain cereals can provide a valuable source of cool-season feeding for livestock in the southern Great Plains of the USA, but for many farmers limited access to field equipment for cultivation and planting is an obstacle to their use. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflo...

  4. Using Haines Index coupled with fire weather model predicted from high resolution LAM forecasts to asses wildfire extreme behaviour in Southern Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, Francesco; Baptiste Filippi, Jean; Simeoni, Albert; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2010-05-01

    Haines Index (HI) was developed by USDA Forest Service to measure the atmosphere's contribution to the growth potential of a wildfire. The Haines Index combines two atmospheric factors that are known to have an effect on wildfires: Stability and Dryness. As operational tools, HI proved its ability to predict plume dominated high intensity wildfires. However, since HI does not take into account the fuel continuity, composition and moisture conditions and the effects of wind and topography on fire behaviour, its use as forecasting tool should be carefully considered. In this work we propose the use of HI, predicted from HR Limited Area Model forecasts, coupled with a Fire Weather model (i.e., RISICO system) fully operational in Italy since 2003. RISICO is based on dynamic models able to represent in space and in time the effects that environment and vegetal physiology have on fuels and, in turn, on the potential behaviour of wildfires. The system automatically acquires from remote databases a thorough data-set of input information both of in situ and spatial nature. Meteorological observations, radar data, Limited Area Model weather forecasts, EO data, and fuel data are managed by a Unified Interface able to process a wide set of different data. Specific semi-physical models are used in the system to simulate the dynamics of the fuels (load and moisture contents of dead and live fuel) and the potential fire behaviour (rate of spread and linear intensity). A preliminary validation of this approach will be provided with reference to Sardinia and Corsica Islands, two major islands of the Mediterranean See frequently affected by extreme plume dominated wildfires. A time series of about 3000 wildfires burnt in Sardinia and Corsica in 2007 and 2008 will be used to evaluate the capability of HI coupled with the outputs of the Fire Weather model to forecast the actual risk in time and in space.

  5. Phytoremediation potential of Cd and Zn by wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta L. Schott., Cyperus malaccensis Lam. and Typha angustifolia L. grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Chayapan, P; Kruatrachue, M; Meetam, M; Pokethitiyook, P

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium and zinc phytoremediation potential of wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta, Cyperus malaccensis, and Typha angustifolia, was investigated. Plants were grown for 15 days in nutrient solutions containing various concentrations of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg l(-1)) and Zn (0, 10, 20, 50, 100 mg l(-1)). T angustifolia was tolerant to both metals as indicated by high RGR when grown in 50 mg I(-1) Cd and 100 mg I(-1) Zn solutions. All these plants accumulated more metals in their underground parts and > 100 mg kg(-1) in their aboveground with TF values < 1. Only C. esculenta could be considered a Zn hyperaccumulator because it could concentrate > 10,000 mg kg(-1) in its aboveground parts with TF > 1. T angustifolia exhibited highest biomass production and highest Cd and Zn uptake, confirming that this plant is a suitable candidate for treating of Cd contaminated soil/sediments. PMID:26521563

  6. Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) leaves using ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Apexa Bhanuprasad; Mandavia, Divyesh Rasikbhai; Barvaliya, Manish Jasmatbhai; Baxi, Seema Natvarlal; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu Rajkishore

    2014-01-01

    Materials and Methods : Thirty-six Wistar male rats were randomly divided into six equal groups. Group A animals received distilled water for 28 days. Group B to group F animals received 1% v/v ethylene glycol in distilled water for 28 days and group B served as ethylene glycol control. Groups C and D (preventive groups) received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively for 28 days. Groups E and F (treatment groups) received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively from 15th to 28th day. On days 0 and 28, 24 hrs urine samples were collected for urinary volume and urinary oxalate measurement. On day 28, blood was collected for serum creatinine and blood urea level monitoring. All animals were sacrificed and kidneys were removed, weighed, and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate crystals deposition. Results: Administration of aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum reduced urine oxalate level ‎significantly, as compared with Group B (p<0.001). Serum creatinine and blood urea level were ‎improved significantly in all aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum-treated groups. Relative ‎kidney weight and calcium oxalate depositions were found significantly reduced in animals ‎received ABP as compared with Group B (p<0.001). ‎ Conclusions: B. pinnatum is effective in prevention and treatment of ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis. PMID:25050313

  7. Herbicidal activity of Brassicaceae seed meal on wild oat (Avena fatua), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an on-going need for the development of sustainable methods of weed control in crop production systems. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different Brassicaceae seed meals and application rates on the emergence of several weed species including wild oat, Italian rye grass, ...

  8. Evaluation on two-port configuration of a Lamé-mode octagonal microelectromechanical systems resonator driven by sliding driving electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujishita, Katsuhiro; Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Furutsuka, Takashi; Suzuki, Kenichiro

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we report significant improvements for microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonators. In our previous work, the reduction in gap between a driving electrode (DE) and a resonant plate was achieved by sliding DEs, showing a clear resonance at 12 MHz. However, it needed a large pull-in voltage and an elaborate measurement technique. In this study, we design soft springs for DEs and evaluate a two-port configuration to cancel feedthrough current. Measurement results show that the pull-in voltage is successfully decreased by one-third that for the previous resonator and a resonance is observed in a fabricated two-port circuit. Such a pull-in voltage can be sufficiently generated from a 2.5 V source in combination with a charge pump circuit. These results are useful for adopting the MEMS resonators to real applications.

  9. Larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal efficacy of Erythrina indica (Lam.) (Family: Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-02-01

    Mosquitoes are the major vector for the transmission of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and Japanese encephalitis. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Erythrina indica against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of E. indica against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values of 69.43, 75.13, and 91.41 ppm and 125.49, 134.31, and 167.14 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of E. indica against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus exerted 100 % mortality (zero hatchability) at 150, 200, and 250 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed above 99.3-100 % hatchability. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in methanol extract against A. stephensi followed by A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus with the LD50 and LD90 values of 88.76, 94.09, and 119.64 ppm and 160.83, 169.01, and 219.77 ppm, respectively. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of E. indica have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:24322290

  10. Comparison of content and in vitro bioaccessibility of provitamin A carotenoids in home cooked and commercially processed orange fleshed sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Lam).

    PubMed

    Berni, Paulo; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G; De Moura, Fabiana F; Failla, Mark L

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) remains a public health problem in some regions of Brazil. Increased use of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) as a source of pro-vitamin A represents a potential strategy for prevention of VAD. We compared the pro-vitamin A content, vitamin A equivalency and bioaccessibility of β-carotene (βC) of two varieties of home cooked OFSP and two commercial sources of processed OFSP. Pro-vitamin A carotenoid content in home cooked, Beauregard variety of OFSP exceeded that in Amelia variety and commercial products for babies. All-trans-βC was the most abundant carotenoid in raw, cooked and commercial OFSP. Boiling and frying OFSP generally decreased total βC. A serving of 100 g FW Beauregard variety of cooked OFSP contained greater than 100% of the estimated average requirement (EAR) for children and women, and up to 92% EAR for lactating women. Although the efficiency of micellarization of all-trans-βC during simulated digestion of OFSP was relatively low (4-8%) and significantly less than for cis-isomers, the quantities of trans-βC incorporated into micelles from boiled Beauregard and fried Amelia varieties exceeded that in micelles generated by digesting commercial OFSP. The bioaccessibility of pro-vitamin A carotenoids in the micelle fraction of digested OFSP was confirmed with differentiated cultures of Caco-2 human intestinal cells. Continued development of OFSP such as the Amelia and Beauregard varieties that are rich in trans-βC and dissemination of best practices for home cooking are encouraged to increase consumption of this food to decrease the risk of vitamin A deficiency in Brazil. PMID:25575485

  11. African eggplant (Solanum anguivi Lam.) fruit with bioactive polyphenolic compounds exerts in vitro antioxidant properties and inhibits Ca2+-induced mitochondrial swelling

    PubMed Central

    Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Bolingon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Lopes, Seeger Rodrigo; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Kade, Ige Joseph; Adanlawo, Isaac Gbadura; Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of Solanum anguivi fruit (SAG) and its possible effect on mitochondrial permeability transition pore as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) isolated from rat liver. Methods Antioxidant activity of SAG was assayed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, iron chelation and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in both liver and brain homogenate of rats. Also, the effect of SAG on mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial swelling were determined. Identification and quantification of bioactive polyphenolics was done by HPLC-DAD. Results SAG exhibited potent and concentration dependent free radical-scavenging activity (IC50/DPPH=275.03±7.8 µg/mL). Reductive and iron chelation abilities also increase with increase in SAG concentration. SAG also inhibited peroxidation of cerebral and hepatic lipids subjected to iron oxidative assault. SAG protected against Ca2+ (110 µmol/L)-induced mitochondrial swelling and maintained the ΔΨm. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid [(17.54±0.04) mg/g], chlorogenic acid (21.90±0.02 mg/g), caffeic acid (16.64±0.01 mg/g), rutin [(14.71±0.03) mg/g] and quercetin [(7.39±0.05) mg/g]. Conclusions These effects could be attributed to the bioactive polyphenolic compounds present in the extract. Our results suggest that SAG extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants that may be used not only in pharmaceutical and food industry but also in the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:24075339

  12. The antidiabetic effect of low doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in male rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; El Rabey, Haddad A

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group. PMID:25629046

  13. The Antidiabetic Effect of Low Doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; El Rabey, Haddad A.

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group. PMID:25629046

  14. Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract prevents fat diet induced oxidative stress in mice and protects liver cell-nuclei from hydroxyl radical mediated damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjan; Ganguli, Debdutta; Dey, Sanjit

    2015-12-01

    High fat diet (HFD) prompts metabolic pattern inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria thereby triggering multitude of chronic disorders in human. Antioxidants from plant sources may be an imperative remedy against this disorder. However, it requires scientific validation. In this study, we explored if (i) Moringa oleifera seed extract (MoSE) can neutralize ROS generated in HFD fed mice; (ii) protect cell-nuclei damage developed by Fenton reaction in vitro. Swiss mice were fed with HFD to develop oxidative stress model (HFD group). Other groups were control, seed extract alone treated, and MoSE simultaneously (HS) treated. Treatment period was of 15 days. Antioxidant enzymes with tissue nitrite content (TNC) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated from liver homogenate. HS group showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) compared to only HFD fed group. Further, TNC and LPO decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in HS group compared to HFD fed group. MoSE also protected hepatocytes nuclei from the hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction. MoSE was found to be polyphenol rich with potent reducing power, free radicals and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity. Thus, MoSE exhibited robust antioxidant prospective to neutralize ROS developed in HFD fed mice and also protected the nuclei damage from hydroxyl radicals. Hence, it can be used as herbal medication against HFD induced ROS mediated disorders. PMID:26742324

  15. Fungistatic activity of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. bark extracts against fungal plant pathogens and investigation on mechanism of action in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, Gennaro; Carrieri, Raffaele; Tarantino, Paola; Alfieri, Mariaevelina; Leone, Antonella; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Lahoz, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived compounds are emerging as an alternative choice to synthetic fungicides. Chloroform-methanol extract, obtained from the bark of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a member of Rutaceae, showed a fungistatic effect on Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Clonostachys rosea, when added to the growth medium at different concentrations. A fraction obtained by gel separation and containing the alkaloid O-Methylcapaurine showed significant fungistatic effect against B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, two of the most destructive phytopathogenic fungi. The underlying mechanism of such an inhibition was further investigated in B. cinerea, a fungus highly prone to develop fungicide resistance, by analysing the expression levels of a set of genes (BcatrB, P450, CYP51 and TOR). O-Methylcapaurine inhibited the expression of all the analysed genes. In particular, the expression of BcatrB gene, encoding a membrane drug transporter involved in the resistance to a wide range of xenobiotic compounds, was strongly inhibited (91%). PMID:25589008

  16. Butanolic fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) attenuates isoprotrenol-induced cardiac necrosis and oxidative stress in rats: an EPR study

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Sunanda

    2015-01-01

    The preventive effect of Moringa oleifera polyphenolic fraction (MOPF) on cardiac damage was evaluated in isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiotoxicity model of Wistar rats. Male rats in different groups were treated with MOPF orally at the dose of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day for 28 days and were subsequently administered (s.c.) with ISO (85 mg/kg body weight) for the last two days. At the end of the experiment levels of serum troponin-T, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, content of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities/levels of different cellular antioxidants were estimated in control and experimental groups. Additionally, scavenging potential to the hydroxyl radical of the fraction was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). ISO administered rats showed significant increase in the levels of serum troponin-I, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and heart tissue MDA content. Furthermore, marked reduction in the activities of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were observed. EPR study showed an increase in signal intensity in ISO-induced rats. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of heart section revealed a marked increase in infarcted area in ISO-induced rats. Histological features of the heart also indicated a disruption in the structure of cardiac myofibrils in these animals. MOPF (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment prevented all these adverse effects of ISO. Present results show that the rich polyphenolic content of Moringa oleifera significantly reduced the myocardial damage and decreased the oxidative stress, possibly through hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as evidenced from the EPR spectra. PMID:26417351

  17. Rapid analysis of Achillea tenuifolia Lam essential oils by polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite coating as a solid-phase microextraction fibre.

    PubMed

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a highly porous fibre coated with polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite (PT/SBA-15) was prepared and used for extraction of essential oils with microwave-assisted distillation headspace solid phase microextraction (MA-HS-SPME) method. The prepared nanomaterials were immobilised on a stainless steel wire for fabrication of the SPME fibre. Using MA-HS-SPME followed by GC-MS, 24 compounds were separated and identified in Achillea tenuifolia, which mainly included limonene (28.6%), α-cadinol (12.7%), borneol (6.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.2%), bornyl acetate (4.3%), camphene (3.2%) and para-cymene (2.3%). The experimental results showed that the polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite fibres were suitable for the semi-quantitative study of the composition of essential oils in plant materials and for monitoring the variations in the volatile components of the plants. PMID:25613724

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Artemisia umbelliformis Lam, an endangered aromatic species in Southern French Alps, influence plant P and essential oil contents.

    PubMed

    Binet, Marie-Noëlle; van Tuinen, Diederik; Deprêtre, Nicolas; Koszela, Nathalie; Chambon, Catherine; Gianinazzi, Silvio

    2011-08-01

    Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi of Artemisia umbelliformis, investigated in natural and cultivated sites in the Southern Alps of France, showed typical structures (arbuscules, vesicles, hyphae) as well as spores and mycelia in its rhizosphere. Several native AM fungi belonging to different Glomeromycota genera were identified as colonizers of A. umbelliformis roots, including Glomus tenue, Glomus intraradices, G. claroideum/etunicatum and a new Acaulospora species. The use of the highly mycorrhizal species Trifolium pratense as a companion plant impacted positively on mycorrhizal colonization of A. umbelliformis under greenhouse conditions. The symbiotic performance of an alpine microbial community including native AM fungi used as inoculum on A. umbelliformis was evaluated in greenhouse conditions by comparison with mycorrhizal responses of two other alpine Artemisia species, Artemisia glacialis and Artemisia genipi Weber. Contrary to A. genipi Weber, both A. umbelliformis and A. glacialis showed a significant increase of P concentration in shoots. Volatile components were analyzed by GC-MS in shoots of A. umbelliformis 6 months after inoculation. The alpine microbial inoculum increased significantly the percentage of E-β-ocimene and reduced those of E-2-decenal and (E,E)-2-4-decadienal indicating an influence of alpine microbial inoculum on essential oil production. This work provides practical indications for the use of native AM fungi for A. umbelliformis field culture. PMID:21243378

  19. Using the Internet in Middle Schools: A Model for Success. A Collaborative Effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Los Alamos Middle School (LAMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addessio, Barbara K.; And Others

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a model for school networking using Los Alamos Middle School as a testbed. The project was a collaborative effort between the school and the laboratory. The school secured administrative funding for hardware and software; and LANL provided the network architecture, installation, consulting, and…

  20. A Nonhost Peptidase Inhibitor of ~14 kDa from Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. Seeds Affects Negatively the Growth and Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Prabhash K.; Singh, Dushyant; Singh, Sangram; Khan, M. Y.; Jamal, Farrukh

    2014-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is one of the major devastating pests of crop plants. In this context a serine peptidase inhibitor purified from the seeds of Butea monosperma was evaluated for its effect on developmental physiology of H. armigera larvae. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor on 12% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis exhibited a single protein band of ~14 kDa with or without reduction. In vitro studies towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera and bovine trypsin indicated measurable inhibitory activity. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor dose for 50% mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 0.5% w/w and 0.10% w/w, respectively. The IC50 of B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor against total H. armigera gut proteinases activity was 2.0 µg/mL. The larval feeding assays suggested B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor to be toxic as reflected by its retarded growth and development, consequently affecting fertility and fecundity of pest and prolonging the larval-pupal duration of the insect life cycle of H. armigera. Supplementing B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor in artificial diet at 0.1% w/w, both the efficiencies of conversion of ingested as well as digested food were downregulated, whereas approximate digestibility and metabolic cost were enhanced. The efficacy of Butea monosperma peptidase inhibitor against progressive growth and development of H. armigera suggest its usefulness in insect pest management of food crops. PMID:24860667

  1. Berberine.

    PubMed

    2000-04-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in both Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine. It is present in Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), Coptis chinensis (Coptis or goldenthread), Berberis aquifolium (Oregon grape), Berberis vulgaris (barberry), and Berberis aristata (tree turmeric). The berberine alkaloid can be found in the roots, rhizomes, and stem bark of the plants. Berberine extracts and decoctions have demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against a variety of organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, helminths, and chlamydia. Currently, the predominant clinical uses of berberine include bacterial diarrhea, intestinal parasite infections, and ocular trachoma infections. PMID:10767672

  2. Crystal Structure of the Human Laminin Receptor Precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson,K.; Wu, J.; Hubbard, S.; Meruelo, D.

    2008-01-01

    The human laminin receptor (LamR) interacts with many ligands, including laminin, prions, Sindbis virus, and the polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and has been implicated in a number of diseases. LamR is overexpressed on tumor cells, and targeting LamR elicits anti-cancer effects. Here, we report the crystal structure of human LamR, which provides insights into its function and should facilitate the design of novel therapeutics targeting LamR.

  3. Characterization of a Truncated Lipoarabinomannan from the Actinomycete Turicella otitidis

    PubMed Central

    Gilleron, Martine; Garton, Natalie J.; Nigou, Jérôme; Brando, Thérèse; Puzo, Germain; Sutcliffe, Iain C.

    2005-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) lipoglycans have been characterized from a range of mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes and from the amycolate actinomycete Amycolatopsis sulphurea. To further understand the structural diversity of this family, we have characterized the lipoglycan of the otic commensal Turicella otitidis. T. otitidis LAM (TotLAM) has been determined to consist of a mannosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor unit carrying an (α 1→6)-linked mannan core and substituted with terminal-arabinosyl branches. Thus, TotLAM has a novel truncated LAM structure. Using the human monocytic THP-1 cell line, it was found that TotLAM exhibited only minimal ability to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha. These findings contribute further to our understanding of actinomycete LAM diversity and allow further speculation as to the correlation between LAM structure and the immunomodulatory activities of these lipoglycans. PMID:15659663

  4. Is Urinary Lipoarabinomannan the Result of Renal Tuberculosis? Assessment of the Renal Histology in an Autopsy Cohort of Ugandan HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Janneke A.; Lukande, Robert L.; Kalungi, Sam; Van Marck, Eric; Van de Vijver, Koen; Kambugu, Andrew; Nelson, Ann M.; Colebunders, Robert; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The detection of urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a mycobacterial cell wall component, is used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB). How LAM enters the urine is not known. To investigate if urinary LAM-positivity is the result of renal TB infection we correlated the outcomes of urinary LAM-antigen testing to renal histology in an autopsy cohort of hospitalized, Ugandan, HIV-infected adults. Methods We performed a complete autopsy, including renal sampling, in HIV-infected adults that died during hospitalization after written informed consent was obtained from the next of kin. Urine was collected postmortem through post-mortem catheterisation or by bladder puncture and tested for LAM with both a lateral flow assay (LFA) and an ELISA assay. Two pathologists assessed the kidney histology. We correlated the LAM-assay results and the histology findings. Results Of the 13/36 (36%) patients with a positive urinary LAM ELISA and/or LFA, 8/13 (62%) had renal TB. The remaining 5 LAM-positive patients had disseminated TB without renal involvement. Of the 23 LAM-negative patients, 3 had disseminated TB without renal involvement. The remaining LAM-negative patients had no TB infection and died mostly of fungal and bacterial infections. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 100% to diagnose TB at any location, and the LAM ELISA a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 100%. 54% (7/13) LAM LFA-positive patients were not on anti-TB treatment at the time of death. Conclusion Renal TB infection explained LAM-positivity in the majority of patients. Patients with disseminated TB without renal involvement can also be diagnosed with LAM. This suggests that other mechanisms that lead to urinary LAM-positivity exist in a minority of patients. PMID:25897661

  5. Chemical composition, larvicidal, and biting deterrent activity of essential oils of two subspecies of Tanacetum argenteum (Asterales: Asteraceae) and individual constituents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water distilled essential oils from the air dried aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (Lam.) and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. canum (C. Koch) Grierson were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-seven and 3...

  6. Detection of low-prevalence somatic TSC2 mutations in sporadic pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis tissues by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Atsushi; Ando, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Mitani, Keiko; Okudera, Koji; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Miyatake, Satoko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Seyama, Kuniaki; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) (MIM #606690) is a rare lung disorder leading to respiratory failure associated with progressive cystic destruction due to the proliferation and infiltration of abnormal smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells). LAM can occur alone (sporadic LAM, S-LAM) or combined with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC-LAM). TSC is caused by a germline heterozygous mutation in either TSC1 or TSC2, and TSC-LAM is thought to occur as a result of a somatic mutation (second hit) in addition to a germline mutation in TSC1 or TSC2 (first hit). S-LAM is also thought to occur under the two-hit model involving a somatic mutation and/or loss of heterozygosity in TSC2. To identify TSC1 or TSC2 changes in S-LAM patients, the two genes were analyzed by deep next-generation sequencing (NGS) using genomic DNA from blood leukocytes (n = 9), LAM tissue from lung (n = 7), LAM cultured cells (n = 4), or LAM cell clusters (n = 1). We identified nine somatic mutations in six of nine S-LAM patients (67 %) with mutant allele frequencies of 1.7-46.2 %. Three of these six patients (50 %) showed two different TSC2 mutations with allele frequencies of 1.7-28.7 %. Furthermore, at least five mutations with low prevalence (<20 % of allele frequency) were confirmed by droplet digital PCR. As LAM tissues are likely to be composed of heterogeneous cell populations, mutant allele frequencies can be low. Our results confirm the consistent finding of TSC2 mutations in LAM samples, and highlight the benefit of laser capture microdissection and in-depth allele analyses for detection, such as NGS. PMID:26563443

  7. Molecular characterization of Capra hircus lysosomal α-mannosidase and potential mutant site for the therapy of locoweed poisoning.

    PubMed

    Xiangya, Kong; Jiangye, Zhang; Ying, Wu; Jianfei, Li; Qinfan, Li

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal α-Mannosidase (LAM) belongs to the glycoside hydrolyzing enzymes family 38 and is involved in the biosynthesis and turnover of N-linked glycoproteins process. Locoweeds, which contain swainsonine (SW) that inhibits LAM, are the main poisoning plants in many regions of the world, and thereby resulting in animal poisoning or even death. Based on regions of protein sequence conservation between LAM from Bos taurus and Homo sapiens, we cloned cDNA encoding Capra hircus LAM (chLAM). Expression of cDNA in Pichia pastoris resulted in the secretion of aLAM activity into the culture medium. The recombinant chLAM was activated 1.6 and 1.2-fold with Zn(2+) and Ca(2+), respectively. By homology modeling, molecular docking and mutant analysis, we obtained the probable binding modes of SW at the allosteric sites of chLAM, and the potential mutant sites for the resistance to SW. Prediction of SW sensitivity to A28 W/G, D58 Y/G mutant chLAM is lower than wild type chLAM. The obtained results lead to a better understanding of not only interactions between substrate/SW and chLAM, but also of a potential strategy for a novel therapy for locoweed poisoning. PMID:24660168

  8. [Lymphangioleiomyomatosis - new concepts on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Sobiecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare cystic lung disease presenting with cough, dyspnea on exertion and recurrent pneumothorax. Substantial achievements have been made during the past two decades regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of this disorder. LAM, affecting almost exclusively women, is associated with inactivating tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) gene mutations in LAM cells, resulting in activation of mTOR that controls cell proliferation, growth and motility. Many parallels have been identified between LAM pathogenesis and neoplasia; inactivating mutations, the ability of LAM cells to metastasise, the induction of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, invasion of the lung. Recent reports suggest that VEGF-D levels have diagnostic utility in LAM patients. Partial response of TSC-associated tumors and decrease the rate of lung function decline in females with LAM due to inhibition of mTOR pathway with sirolimus have been demonstrated. PMID:27421126

  9. Copper catalyzed N-arylation of amidines with aryl boronic acids and one-pot synthesis of benzimidazoles by a Chan-Lam-Evans N-arylation and C-H activation/C-N bond forming process.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihui; Bénard, Sébastien; Neuville, Luc; Zhu, Jieping

    2012-12-01

    Mono-N-arylation of benzamidines 1 with aryl boronic acids 2 was effectively achieved in the presence of a catalytic amount of Cu(OAc)(2) and NaOPiv under mild aerobic conditions. Combining this step with an intramolecular direct C-H bond functionalization, catalyzed by the same catalytic system but under oxygen at 120 °C, afforded benzimidazoles 3 in good to excellent yields. PMID:23151245

  10. Seed isotopic analysis as a tool to understand ecological processes influencing plant development and physiology: the case study of Quercus rotundifolia Lam. in a desertification gradient in Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Tatiana; Silva, Anabela; Rodrigues, Carla; Antunes Antunes, Cristina; Pinho, Pedro; Ramos, Alzira; João Pereira, Maria; Branquinho, Cristina; Máguas, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Plant responses to climate change highly depend on the temporal variability in precipitation events and on plant specific strategies, such as drought tolerance and resilience. Within the different plant organs, seeds have become an important research tool in the past years to study plant development and nutrients allocation. Key features of seeds such as the tendency to accumulate and store nutrient compounds open many possibilities to explore isotope analysis (13C, 15N and 18O), with many outcomes in fields from ecology to food traceability. The application of light stable isotopes to plant materials have been used to study both physiological (i.e. photosynthesis and stomatal conductance), nutrients uptake and metabolism (origin of nitrogen and symbiotic associations) as well as many ecological processes, which will produce a distinctive isotope fingerprint on the plant tissues. Thus, the isotopic composition of certain bio and geo-elements of seeds, yielding relevant information on plant ecophysiology, are able to relate the plant functioning with local climatic conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation). The application of isotope analysis in this way can be used as a proxy to understand complex environmental degradation processes such as land degradation in drylands resulting from various factors including climatic variations and human activities. In this study acorns of Quercus ilex plants were sampled during 2012-2013 in a region of southern Portugal, according to (i) soil land-use; (ii) aridity and desertification indexes. The approach developed combined plant seed analysis (seed morphology and compounds quantification) with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (δ13C, δ15N and δ18O) as a "tool" to study changes in plant ecophysiology over time and space. Seeds allow studies at specific temporal scale (development period) which varies according to its biology and depends on the climatic conditions where the plant is grown (i.e, seed's biomass integrate climate variations information of several months). The results indicate a clear relationship between seed morphology and both temperature and precipitation as well a significant correlation between δ15N and precipitation, which indicate an influence of major climatic variables on seed carbon allocation and nitrogen uptake. These results may also contribute to future mitigation programmes in degraded areas where there are systematic problems with plant regeneration and ultimately to learn about the application of stable isotopes approaches in dryland ecosystems.

  11. Prognostic impact of day 15 blast clearance in risk-adapted remission induction chemotherapy for younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia: long-term results of the multicenter prospective LAM-2001 trial by the GOELAMS study group.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Sarah; Bories, Pierre; Béné, Marie C; Daliphard, Sylvie; Lioure, Bruno; Pigneux, Arnaud; Vey, Norbert; Delaunay, Jacques; Leymarie, Vincent; Luquet, Isabelle; Blanchet, Odile; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Hunault, Mathilde; Bouscary, Didier; Fegueux, Nathalie; Guardiola, Philippe; Dreyfus, François; Harousseau, Jean Luc; Cahn, Jean Yves; Ifrah, Norbert; Récher, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Early response to chemotherapy has a major prognostic impact in acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with a double induction strategy. Less is known about patients treated with standard-dose cytarabine and anthracycline. We designed a risk-adapted remission induction regimen in which a second course of intermediate-dose cytarabine was delivered after standard "7+3" only if patients had 5% or more bone marrow blasts 15 days after chemotherapy initiation (d15-blasts). Of 823 included patients, 795 (96.6%) were evaluable. Five hundred and forty-five patients (68.6%) had less than 5% d15-blasts. Predictive factors for high d15-blasts were white blood cell count (P<0.0001) and cytogenetic risk (P<0.0001). Patients with fewer than 5% d15-blasts had a higher complete response rate (91.7% vs. 69.2%; P<0.0001) and a lower induction death rate (1.8% vs. 6.8%; P=0.001). Five-year event-free (48.4% vs. 25%; P<0.0001), relapse-free (52.7% vs. 36.9%; P=0.0016) and overall survival (55.3% vs. 36.5%; P<0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with d15-blasts lower than 5%. Multivariate analyses identified d15-blasts and cytogenetic risk as independent prognostic factors for the three end points. Failure to achieve early blast clearance remains a poor prognostic factor even after early salvage. By contrast, early responding patients have a favorable outcome without any additional induction course. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01015196). PMID:23975179

  12. Prognostic impact of day 15 blast clearance in risk-adapted remission induction chemotherapy for younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia: long-term results of the multicenter prospective LAM-2001 trial by the GOELAMS study group

    PubMed Central

    Bertoli, Sarah; Bories, Pierre; Béné, Marie C.; Daliphard, Sylvie; Lioure, Bruno; Pigneux, Arnaud; Vey, Norbert; Delaunay, Jacques; Leymarie, Vincent; Luquet, Isabelle; Blanchet, Odile; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Hunault, Mathilde; Bouscary, Didier; Fegueux, Nathalie; Guardiola, Philippe; Dreyfus, François; Harousseau, Jean Luc; Cahn, Jean Yves; Ifrah, Norbert; Récher, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Early response to chemotherapy has a major prognostic impact in acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with a double induction strategy. Less is known about patients treated with standard-dose cytarabine and anthracycline. We designed a risk-adapted remission induction regimen in which a second course of intermediate-dose cytarabine was delivered after standard “7+3” only if patients had 5% or more bone marrow blasts 15 days after chemotherapy initiation (d15-blasts). Of 823 included patients, 795 (96.6%) were evaluable. Five hundred and forty-five patients (68.6%) had less than 5% d15-blasts. Predictive factors for high d15-blasts were white blood cell count (P<0.0001) and cytogenetic risk (P<0.0001). Patients with fewer than 5% d15-blasts had a higher complete response rate (91.7% vs. 69.2%; P<0.0001) and a lower induction death rate (1.8% vs. 6.8%; P=0.001). Five-year event-free (48.4% vs. 25%; P<0.0001), relapse-free (52.7% vs. 36.9%; P=0.0016) and overall survival (55.3% vs. 36.5%; P<0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with d15-blasts lower than 5%. Multivariate analyses identified d15-blasts and cytogenetic risk as independent prognostic factors for the three end points. Failure to achieve early blast clearance remains a poor prognostic factor even after early salvage. By contrast, early responding patients have a favorable outcome without any additional induction course. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01015196) PMID:23975179

  13. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF NATIVE PLANTS AGAINST HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Nyla; Anwar, Sadaf; Mahmood, Qaisar; Zia, Muhammad Abid; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of two medicinally important plants against Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants. Fruit peel of Punica granatum Linn. (vern. Anar), leaves and roots of Berberis lycium Royle (vern. Sumbal) were tested for their anthelmintic efficacy. Methanolic extracts of the test plants from various plant parts were tested for anthelmintic efficacy against the Haemonchus contortous using albendazole as a reference standard. The results revealed that both the plant extracts exhibited potent anthelmintic activity at concentrations higher than 50 mg/mL when tested against their respective standard drug. In case of Berberis lycium Royle when the results were compared, methanolic roots extracts showed more potent activity as compared to leaves extracts at the same concentration. It was observed that the in vitro anthelmintic potential of Punica granatum Linn. fruit peel and Berberis lyceium Royale root can be used to treat helminth infections after in vivo trails. PMID:26665413

  14. Structural features of lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Determination of molecular mass by laser desorption mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Venisse, A; Berjeaud, J M; Chaurand, P; Gilleron, M; Puzo, G

    1993-06-15

    It was recently shown that mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) can be classified into two types (Chatterjee, D., Lowell, K., Rivoire B., McNeil M. R., and Brennan, P. J. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 6234-6239) according to the presence or absence of mannosyl residues (Manp) located at the nonreducing end of the oligoarabinosyl side chains. These two types of LAM were found in a pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain and in an avirulent M. tuberculosis strain, respectively, suggesting that LAM with Manp characterizes virulent and "disease-inducing strains." We now report the structure of the LAM from Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strain Pasteur, largely used throughout the world as vaccine against tuberculosis. Using an up-to-date analytical approach, we found that the LAM of M. bovis BCG belongs to the class of LAMs capped with Manp. By means of two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear scalar coupling NMR analysis and methylation data, the sugar spin system assignments were partially established, revealing that the LAM contained two types of terminal Manp and 2-O-linked Manp. From the following four-step process: (i) partial hydrolysis of deacylated LAM (dLAM), (ii) oligosaccharide derivatization with aminobenzoic ethyl ester, (iii) HPLC purification, (iv) FAB/MS-MS analysis; it was shown that the dimannosyl unit alpha-D-Manp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Manp is the major residue capping the termini of the arabinan of the LAM. In this report, LAM molecular mass determination was established using matrix-assisted UV-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry which reveals that the LAM molecular mass is around 17.4 kDa. The similarity of the LAM structures between M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis H37Rv is discussed in regard to their function in the immunopathology of mycobacterial infection. PMID:8509380

  15. The neural crest lineage as a driver of disease heterogeneity in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Sean P.; Julian, Lisa M.; Stanford, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare neoplastic disease, best characterized by the formation of proliferative nodules that express smooth muscle and melanocytic antigens within the lung parenchyma, leading to progressive destruction of lung tissue and function. The pathological basis of LAM is associated with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), a multi-system disorder marked by low-grade tumors in the brain, kidneys, heart, eyes, lung and skin, arising from inherited or spontaneous germ-line mutations in either of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. LAM can develop either in a patient with TSC (TSC-LAM) or spontaneously (S-LAM), and it is clear that the majority of LAM lesions of both forms are characterized by an inactivating mutation in either TSC1 or TSC2, as in TSC. Despite this genetic commonality, there is considerable heterogeneity in the tumor spectrum of TSC and LAM patients, the basis for which is currently unknown. There is extensive clinical evidence to suggest that the cell of origin for LAM, as well as many of the TSC-associated tumors, is a neural crest cell, a highly migratory cell type with extensive multi-lineage potential. Here we explore the hypothesis that the types of tumors that develop and the tissues that are affected in TSC and LAM are dictated by the developmental timing of TSC gene mutations, which determines the identities of the affected cell types and the size of downstream populations that acquire a mutation. We further discuss the evidence to support a neural crest origin for LAM and TSC tumors, and propose approaches for generating humanized models of TSC and LAM that will allow cell of origin theories to be experimentally tested. Identifying the cell of origin and developing appropriate humanized models is necessary to truly understand LAM and TSC pathology and to establish effective and long-lasting therapeutic approaches for these patients. PMID:25505789

  16. Estrogen maintains myometrial tumors in a lymphangioleiomyomatosis model.

    PubMed

    Prizant, Hen; Taya, Manisha; Lerman, Irina; Light, Allison; Sen, Aritro; Mitra, Soumya; Foster, Thomas H; Hammes, Stephen R

    2016-04-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease in women. Patients with LAM develop metastatic smooth-muscle cell adenomas within the lungs, resulting in reduced pulmonary function. LAM cells contain mutations in tuberous sclerosis genes (TSC1 or TSC2), leading to up-regulation of mTORC1 activity and elevated proliferation. The origin of LAM cells remains unknown; however, inactivation of Tsc2 gene in the mouse uterus resulted in myometrial tumors exhibiting LAM features, and approximately 50% of animals developed metastatic myometrial lung tumors. This suggests that LAM tumors might originate from the uterine myometrium, possibly explaining the overwhelming prevalence of LAM in female. Here, we demonstrate that mouse Tsc2-null myometrial tumors exhibit nearly all the features of LAM, including mTORC1/S6K activation, as well as expression of melanocytic markers and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Estrogen ablation reduces S6K signaling and results in Tsc2-null myometrial tumor regression. Thus, even without TSC2, estradiol is required to maintain tumors and mTORC1/S6K signaling. Additionally, we find that MMP-2 and -9, as well as neutrophil elastase (NE), are overexpressed in Tsc2-null myometrial tumors in an estrogen-dependent fashion. In vivo fluorescent imaging using MMP- or NE-sensitive optical biomarkers confirms that protease activity is specific to myometrial tumors. Similar to LAM cells, uterine Tsc2-null myometrial cells also overexpress melanocytic markers in an estrogen-dependent fashion. Finally, we identify glycoprotein NMB (GPNMB) as a melanocytic marker up-regulated in Tsc2-null mouse uteri and human LAM samples. Our data highlight the potential importance of estradiol in LAM cells, suggesting that anti-estrogen therapy may be a treatment modality. Furthermore, proteases and GPNMB might be useful LAM biomarkers. PMID:26880751

  17. Population diversity of Puccinia graminis is sustained through sexual cycle on alternate hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high degree of virulence diversity has been maintained in the population of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) in northwestern United States. Although Berberis vulgaris is present in the region and Pgt has been isolated from aecial infections on B. vulgaris, the population is too diverse to be...

  18. [Ability of typical greenery shrubs of Beijing to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 ].

    PubMed

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Yun-qi; Zhang, Hui-lan; Yang, Song-nan; Li, Ang

    2014-09-01

    Four typical types of green shrubs of Beijing (Euonymus japonicus, Buxus microphylla, Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea, Taxus cuspidate cv. nana) were selected to study their capacities in adsorbing and arresting PM2.5 using both field observations and air chamber simulations. Concurrently, in order to analyze the pollution characteristics of Beijing in winter and spring, the PM2.5 concentrations of December 2012 to May 2013 were collected. Experimental results showed that: From the gas chamber experiments, the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 was in the order of Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea > Buxus microphylla > Taxus cuspidate cv. nana > Euonymus japonicus, mainly due to the differences in leaf characteristics; Outside measurement results showed that the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 was ranked as Buxus microphylla > Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea > Taxus cuspidate cv. nana > Euonymus japonicus. Chamber simulation and outdoor observation showed that Buxus microphylla and Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea had strong ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5; Meanwhile, the slight differences between the chamber simulation and outdoor observation results might be related to plant structure. Compared to tree species, the planting condition of shrub species was loose, and it greened quickly; By analyzing the Beijing PM2.5 concentration values in winter and spring, it was found that the PM2.5 concentration was particularly high in the winter of Beijing, and evergreen shrubs maintained the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5. PMID:25518685

  19. 78 FR 27855 - Black Stem Rust; Additions of Rust-Resistant Species and Varieties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...We are amending the black stem rust quarantine and regulations by adding two varieties to the list of rust-resistant Berberis species and varieties and one variety to the list of rust-resistant Mahonia species and varieties. This action will allow for the interstate movement of these newly developed varieties without unnecessary...

  20. Why is Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, but not P. striiformis f. sp. tritici able to infect an alternate host in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual reproduction of the stem rust pathogen, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), on barberry (Berberis vulgaris) has been shown to provide initial inoculum for the development of the disease on wheat and barley and also generate diverse races of the pathogen. However, in our previous study, t...

  1. Preparation and characterization of a lipoid adsorption material and its atrazine removal performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Qinxue; Lian, Jiaxiang; Ren, Nanqi

    2011-01-01

    A novel adsorbent named lipoid adsorption material (LAM), with a hydrophobic nucleolus (triolein) and a hydrophilic membrane structure (polyamide), was synthesized to remove hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) from solution. Triolein, a type of lipoid, was entrapped by the polyamide membrane through an interfacial polymerization reaction. The method of preparation and the structure of the LAM were investigated and subsequent experiments were conducted to determine the characteristics of atrazine (a type of HOC) removal from wastewater using LAM as the adsorbent. The results showed that LAM had a regular structure compared with the prepolymer, where compact particles were linked with each other and openings were present in the structure of the LAM in which the fat drops formed from triolein were entrapped. In contrast to the atrazine adsorption behavior of powdered activated carbon (PAC), LAM showed a persistent adsorption capacity for atrazine when initial concentrations of 0.57, 1.12, 8.31 and 19.01 mg/L were present, and the equilibrium time was 12 hr. Using an 8 mg/L initial concentration of atrazine as an indicator of HOCs in aqueous solution, experiments on the adsorption capacity of the LAM showed 69.3% removal within 6-12 hr contact time, which was close to the 75.5% removal of atrazine by PAC. Results indicated that LAM has two atrazine removal mechanisms, namely the bioaccumulation of atrazine by the nucleous material and physical adsorption to the LAM membrane. Bioaccumulation was the main removal mechanism. PMID:22128536

  2. Antibiotic susceptibility and heterogeneity in technological traits of lactobacilli isolated from Algerian goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Bousmaha-Marroki, Leila; Marroki, Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and study the heterogeneity of technological traits of lactobacilli from goat's milk of Algeria and to evaluate in vitro their safety aspect. Using API50 CHL system and 16S rDNA sequencing, 51 % of strains were assigned as Lactobacillus plantarum, 34 % as L. pentosus, 7 % as L. rhamnosus and 8 % as L. fermentum. A large variability was noted for the acidifying capacity in skim milk after 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation. All strains expressed aminopeptidase activity against alanine-ρ-NA and leucine-ρ-NA at different levels. All strains were resistant to vancomycin and most of strains showed more susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotic. High susceptibility toward the inhibitors of protein synthesis was also observed. Minimum inhibitory concentrations data obtained revealed that isolates were susceptible to penicillin and chloramphenicol, and resistant to gentamicin and vancomycin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations distribution of other antibiotics showed variability. The analysis of graphical representation of principal component analysis of technological properties of L. plantarum and L. pentosus strains showed diversity among the isolates. Finally, eight L. plantarum (LAM1, LAM3, LAM21, LAM25, LAM35, LF15, LAM34, and LAM35), four L. pentosus (LAM38, LAM39, LF9 and LF16) and two L. rhamnosus (LF3 and LF10) strains, could be good candidates as adjunct culture in dairy product in Algeria. PMID:26243893

  3. Laser Additive Manufacturing and Bionics: Redefining Lightweight Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmelmann, C.; Sander, P.; Kranz, J.; Wycisk, E.

    New layer wise manufacturing technologies such as Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM) allow innovative approaches to product design. Especially for lightweight design in aircraft applications LAM offers new possibilities for load-adapted structures. However, to fully capture lightweight potential of LAM technologies new design guidelines and processes have to be developed. A novel approach to extreme lightweight design is realized by incorporating structural optimization tools, bionic structures and LAM guidelines into one design process. By consequently following this design process designers can achieve lightweight savings in designing new aircraft structures.

  4. Women with TSC: Relationship between Clinical, Lung Function and Radiological Features in a Genotyped Population Investigated for Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Imeri, Gianluca; Palumbo, Giuseppina; La Briola, Francesca; Tresoldi, Silvia; Volpi, Angela; Gualandri, Lorenzo; Ghelma, Filippo; Alfano, Rosa Maria; Montanari, Emanuele; Gorio, Alfredo; Lesma, Elena; Peron, Angela; Canevini, Maria Paola; Centanni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The advent of pharmacological therapies for lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) has made early diagnosis important in women with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), although the lifelong cumulative radiation exposure caused by chest computer tomography (CT) should not be underestimated. We retrospectively investigated, in a cohort of TSC outpatients of San Paolo Hospital (Milan, Italy) 1) the role of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) for LAM diagnosis, 2) the association between LAM and other features of TSC (e.g. demography, extrapulmonary manifestations, genetic mutations, etc.), and 3) the characteristics of patients with multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia (MMPH). Eighty-six women underwent chest CT scan; pulmonary involvement was found in 66 patients (77%; 49% LAM with or without MMPH, and 28% MMPH alone). LAM patients were older, with a higher rate of pneumothorax, presented more frequently with renal and hepatic angiomyolipomas, and tended to have a TSC2 mutation profile. PFTs, assessed in 64% of women unaffected by cognitive impairments, revealed a lower lung diffusion capacity in LAM patients. In multivariate analysis, age, but not PFTs, resulted independently associated with LAM diagnosis. Patients with MMPH alone did not show specific clinical, functional or genetic features. A mild respiratory impairment was most common in LAM-TSC patients: In conclusions, PFTs, even if indicated to assess impairment in lung function, are feasible in a limited number of patients, and are not significantly useful for LAM diagnosis in women with TSC. PMID:27171001

  5. Initial report on the application of laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the analysis of radioactive Hanford Tank Waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Hartman, J.S.; Alexander, M.L.; Mendoza, A.; Hirt, E.H.; Stewart, T.L.; Hansen, M.A.; Park, W.R.; Peters, T.J.; Burghard, B.J.

    1996-12-01

    Initial LA/MS analyses of Hanford tank waste samples were performed successfully using laboratory and hot cell LA/MS instrumentation systems. The experiments described in this report have demonstrated that the LA/MS data can be used to provide rapid analysis of solid, radioactive Hanford tank waste samples to identify major, minor, and trace constituents (elemental and isotopic) and fission products and radioactive isotopes. The ability to determine isotopic constituents using the LA/MS method yielded significant advantages over ICP/AES analysis by providing valuable information on fission products and radioactive constituents.

  6. Animation of Flood Potential from Two Australian Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Video Gallery

    Merged precipitation data from NASA-JAXA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and other satellites was used to calculate flood potential withrainfall from Tropical Cyclone Lam and Tropical ...

  7. Comparison of tenofovir plus lamivudine versus tenofovir monotherapy in patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Ho; Jung, Seok Won; Shin, Jung Woo; Bae, Mi Ae; Lee, Yoon Im; Park, Yong Tae; Chung, Hwa Sik; Park, Neung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) exhibits similar antiviral efficacy against treatment-naïve and lamivudine (LAM)-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, there are few clinical reports on the antiviral effects of TDF–LAM combination therapy compared to TDF monotherapy in patients with LAM-resistant CHB. Methods: We investigated the antiviral efficacy of TDF monotherapy vs. TDF–LAM combination therapy in 103 patients with LAM-resistant CHB. Results: The study subjects were treated with TDF alone (n=40) or TDF–LAM combination therapy (n=63) for ≥6 months. The patients had previously been treated with TDF-based rescue therapy for a median of 30.0 months (range, 8–36 months). A virologic response (VR) was achieved in 99 patients (96.1%): 95.0% (38/40) of patients in the TDF monotherapy group and 96.8% (61/63) of patients in the TDF–LAM combination therapy group. The VR rates were not significantly different between the TDF monotherapy and TDF–LAM combination therapy groups (88.9 vs. 87.3% at month 12, and 94.4 vs. 93.7% at month 24, log-rank p=0.652). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that none of the pretreatment factors were significantly associated with VR. Conclusions: TDF monotherapy was as effective as TDF–LAM combination therapy for maintaining viral suppression in the vast majority of patients with LAM-resistant CHB, which suggests that TDF add-on therapy with LAM is unnecessary. PMID:27044766

  8. Bronchial involvement in advanced stage lymphangioleiomyomatosis: histopathologic and molecular analyses.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuo; Kumasaka, Toshio; Mitani, Keiko; Okada, Yoshinori; Kondo, Takashi; Date, Hiroshi; Chen, Fengshi; Oto, Takahiro; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Akinori; Hara, Kieko; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Ando, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Gunji-Niitsu, Yoko; Kunogi, Makiko; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yao, Takashi; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2016-04-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare progressive disease that almost exclusively affects women, is characterized by pulmonary cysts and neoplastic proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells). Airflow obstruction is a physiologic consequence that is commonly observed in LAM and has been attributed to narrowing of peripheral airways. However, histopathologic examinations of the entire airway have been precluded by the limited availability of such specimens. Here, we used explanted lung tissues from 30 LAM patients for a thorough histologic analysis with a special emphasis on the bronchi. We found bronchial involvement by LAM cells and lymphatics in all patients examined. Furthermore, a moderate to severe degree of chronic inflammation (73%), goblet cell hyperplasia (97%), squamous cell metaplasia (83%) of the epithelium, and thickening of basal lamina (93%) were identified in the bronchi. Because LAM cells are transformed by the functional loss of the TSC genes leading to a hyperactivated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway, we confirmed the expression of phospho-p70S6K, phospho-S6, phospho-4E-BP1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D in LAM cells from all of the patients examined. In contrast, no protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, a downstream molecule indicative of mTORC1 activation and leading to VEGF production, was detected in any patient. Our study indicates that late-stage LAM patients commonly have bronchi involved by the proliferation of both LAM cells and lymphatics and that chronic inflammation complicated their disease. Furthermore, the up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, a common event in mTORC1-driven tumor cells, does not occur in LAM cells and plays no role in VEGF-D expression in LAM cells. PMID:26997436

  9. Isolation and phytotoxicity of terpenes from Tectona grandis.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco A; Lacret, Rodney; Varela, Rosa M; Nogueiras, Clara; Molinillo, Jose M G

    2010-04-01

    A study was carried out on the allelopathic potential of four forest species, Tectona grandis, Aleurites fordii, Gliricidia sepium, and Maytenus buxifolia. The most active species, T. grandis, was selected to perform a phytochemical study. A new compound, abeograndinoic acid, was isolated, and elucidation of its structure showed that this compound has an unusual carbon skeleton. A further 21 known terpenoids-including 4 sesquiterpenoids, 8 diterpenes and 9 triterpenes-also were isolated. A biosynthetic scheme for the presence of the new compound is proposed. Bioactivity profiles that used etiolated wheat coleoptiles and phytotoxicity bioassays on the isolated compounds were conducted. The compounds that presented the highest phytotoxic activity are the diterpenes 9 (2-oxokovalenic acid) and 12 (19-hydroxyferruginol). PMID:20237951

  10. Laminin receptor is an interacting partner for viral outer capsid protein VP5 in grass carp reovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yu, Fei; Li, Jiale; Lu, Liqun

    2016-03-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is responsible for viral hemorrhagic disease in cultured grass carp Ctenopharyngon idellus. Through yeast two-hybrid screen, laminin receptor (LamR) was identified as a potential interacting partner for the outer capsid protein VP5 of GCRV. We cloned and sequenced the gene encoding grass carp LamR. Viral attachment assay demonstrated the involvement of membrane-associated LamR in GCRV infection. Solid-phase overlay assays demonstrated that GCRV interacted with GST-tagged LamR in vitro. In contrast to VP7, GST-tagged VP5 was shown to associate with LamR in both pull-down and solid-phase blot overlay assays. With the reduction of LamR expression in CIK cells achieved by RNAi, remarkably reduced infection efficiency of GCRV was observed. CIK cells pretreated with polyclonal antibody against LamR resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of GCRV infection. These results collectively indicated that grass carp LamR was involved in GCRV infection by interacting with viral outer capsid protein VP5. PMID:26848829

  11. Teacher Ratings of Evidence-Based Practices from the Field of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Christina M.; Bock, Stacey Jones; Szymanski, Christen

    2015-01-01

    Students who have a hearing loss and a comorbid diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have multiple obstacles to overcome. Using Gallaudet Research Institute data, Szymanski, Brice, Lam, and Hotto calculated 1 deaf student in 59 received services for both a hearing loss and an ASD (Szymanski, Brice, Lam, & Hotto, 2012). Teachers of…

  12. Comparative study on L-alaninium maleate single crystal grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method and conventional slow evaporation solution technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charoen-In, Urit; Ramasamy, P.; Manyum, P.

    2010-08-01

    Single crystals of L-alaninium maleate (LAM) were successfully grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method and conventional slow evaporation solution technique, which have the sizes of 32 mm in length, 18 mm in diameter and 18×13×2 mm 3. The grown LAM crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction, high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), chemical etching, dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, thermo-gravimetric-differential thermal analysis, UV-vis NIR and Vickers microhardness analysis and the results were compared. Single crystal X-ray diffraction confirmed the lattice parameters of the grown LAM crystals. The HRXRD analysis indicated that the crystalline perfection of the SR method grown LAM crystals is quite good without having any internal structural grain boundaries. Chemical etching studies represent the distribution of structural defects in LAM crystal and etch pit density of conventional and SR method grown LAM crystal was calculated. The dielectric permittivity and loss measurement were made as function of temperature in the range 40-140 °C. From thermo-gravimetric-differential thermal analysis of the grown crystal, the thermal stability was found to be up to 158 °C. The range and percentage of optical transmission are represented by recording UV-vis analysis. Mechanical strength of the grown LAM crystals was analyzed by Vickers microhardness test and the hardness of SR method grown LAM crystal is higher than the hardness of the crystal grown by conventional method.

  13. Increasing Interoperability of E-Learning Content in Moodle within a Franco-Arabo Educative Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Harrassi, Souad; Labour, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how Moodle, as an open-source Learning Management System, can be made more interoperable. The authors tested two software standards, LAMS and RELOAD, compatible with socio-constructivism norms. The analysis showed that pedagogic activities created with the LAMS-IMS Learning Design Level A Format are useable with Moodle but…

  14. Recurrence of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Nine years after a bilateral lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Khawaja S; Aryan, Zahra; Mehta, Atul C; Akindipe, Olufemi; Budev, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, slowly progressive lethal lung disease primary afflicting young women. LAM is characterized by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells that target the lungs, causing cystic destruction and eventual respiratory failure leading to death. Recent ten year mortality due to end stage LAM has been reported to be approximately 10%-20%, but may vary. The decline in lung function in LAM is gradual, occurring at a rate of about 3% to 15% per year but can vary from patient to patient. But recently therapy with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors such as sirolimus has shown promising results in the stabilization of lung function and reduction of chylous effusions in LAM. Lung transplantation is a viable option for patients who continue to have decline in lung function despite mTOR therapy. Unique issues that may occur post-transplant in a recipient with LAM include development of chylous effusion and a risk of recurrence. We describe a case of LAM recurrence in a bilateral lung transplant recipient who developed histological findings of LAM nine years after transplantation. PMID:27011924

  15. Molecular Genetic Analysis of the Nested Drosophila melanogaster Lamin C Gene

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Sandra R.; Curio-Penny, Beatrice; Li, Yuhong; Imani, Reza A.; Rydberg, Lena; Geyer, Pamela K.; Wallrath, Lori L.

    2005-01-01

    Lamins are intermediate filaments that line the inner surface of the nuclear envelope, providing structural support and making contacts with chromatin. There are two types of lamins, A- and B-types, which differ in structure and expression. Drosophila possesses both lamin types, encoded by the LamC (A-type) and lamin Dm0 (B-type) genes. LamC is nested within an intron of the essential gene ttv. We demonstrate that null mutations in LamC are lethal, and expression of a wild-type LamC transgene rescues lethality of LamC but not ttv mutants. Mutations in the human A-type lamin gene lead to diseases called laminopathies. To determine if Drosophila might serve as a useful model to study lamin biology and disease mechanisms, we generated transgenic flies expressing mutant LamC proteins modeled after human disease-causing lamins. These transgenic animals display a nuclear lamin aggregation phenotype remarkably similar to that observed when human mutant A-type lamins are expressed in mammalian cells. LamC aggregates also cause disorganization of lamin Dm0, indicating interdependence of both lamin types for proper lamina assembly. Taken together, these data provide the first detailed genetic analysis of the LamC gene and support using Drosophila as a model to study the role of lamins in disease. PMID:15965247

  16. Lymphatic endothelial differentiation in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer M; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Husain, Aliya N; Shen, Le; Jones, Jennifer; Schuger, Lucia A

    2013-08-01

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, low-grade neoplasm affecting almost exclusively women of childbearing age. LAM belongs to the family of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors, characterized by spindle and epithelioid cells with smooth muscle and melanocytic differentiation. LAM cells infiltrate the lungs, producing multiple, bilateral lesions rich in lymphatic channels and forming cysts, leading to respiratory insufficiency. Here we used antibodies against four lymphatic endothelial markers-podoplanin (detected by D2-40), prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1)-to determine whether LAM cells show lymphatic differentiation. Twelve of 12 diagnostic biopsy specimens (early-stage LAM) and 19 of 19 explants (late-stage LAM) showed immunopositivity for D2-40 in most neoplastic cells. PROX1, VEGFR-3, and LYVE1 immunoreactivity varied from scarce in the early stage to abundant in the late stage. Lymphatic endothelial, smooth muscle, and melanocytic markers were partially co-localized. These findings indicate that lymphatic endothelial differentiation is a feature of LAM and provide evidence of a previously unidentified third lineage of differentiation in this neoplasm. This study has implications for the histological diagnosis of LAM, the origin of the neoplastic cells, and potential future treatment with drugs targeting lymphangiogenesis. PMID:23609227

  17. Development of Antigen Detection Assay for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Using Sputum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Arias-Bouda, Lenka M.; Nguyen, Lan N.; Ho, Ly M.; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Jansen, Henk M.; Kolk, Arend H. J.

    2000-01-01

    The rising incidence of tuberculosis worldwide means an increasing burden on diagnostic facilities, so tests simpler than Ziehl-Neelsen staining are needed. Such tests should be objective, reproducible, and have at least as good a detection limit as 104 bacteria/ml. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in human sputum samples. As a capture antibody, we used a murine monoclonal antibody against LAM, with rabbit antiserum against Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a source of detector antibodies. The sensitivity of the capture ELISA was evaluated by using purified LAM and M. tuberculosis whole cells. We were able to detect 1 ng of purified LAM/ml and 104 M. tuberculosis whole cells/ml. LAM could also be detected in culture filtrate of a 3-week-old culture of M. tuberculosis. The culture filtrate contained approximately 100 μg of LAM/ml. The detection limit in sputum pretreated with N-acetyl-l-cysteine and proteinase K was 104 M. tuberculosis whole cells per ml. Thirty-one (91%) of 34 sputum samples from 18 Vietnamese patients with tuberculosis (32 smear positive and 2 smear negative) were positive in the LAM detection assay. In contrast, none of the 25 sputum samples from 21 nontuberculous patients was positive. This specific and sensitive assay for the detection of LAM in sputum is potentially useful for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. PMID:10834989

  18. Assessing the quality of data regarding use of the lactational amenorrhea method.

    PubMed

    Fabic, Madeleine Short; Choi, Yoonjoung

    2013-06-01

    This study assesses the quality of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data regarding self-reported current use of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM). LAM is an important modern contraceptive method that, when practiced correctly, has a 98 percent effectiveness rate six-months postpartum. The objectives of this study are to examine the accuracy of self-reported LAM use, compared with the constructed correct-practice variable, and to explore differentials in accuracy measures by characteristics at the individual and survey level by analyzing data from 73 DHSs conducted in 45 countries between 1998 and 2011. Findings reveal that only 26 percent of reported LAM users meet the criteria for correct LAM practice. We discuss the implications for future DHS data collection and for family planning and maternal and child health programming. PMID:23720003

  19. Linear atrophoderma of Moulin: an underrecognized entity.

    PubMed

    Zahedi Niaki, Omid; Sissons, Wendy; Nguyen, Van-Hung; Zargham, Ramin; Jafarian, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Linear atrophoderma of Moulin (LAM) is an acquired skin condition that manifests in early childhood and adolescence. It likely represents a form of cutaneous mosaicism that presents with linear, hyperpigmented and atrophic lesions appearing on the trunk and limbs. Its clinical appearance varies and may closely resemble that of atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini (APP) and linear scleroderma. LAM usually follows a benign course and no effective treatment options exist. We present a case of a young and healthy patient that developed such lesions on her upper and lower extremities over 5 years. The initial clinical impression of linear scleroderma was reviewed in favor of LAM following histological examination of the lesions which revealed no significant inflammatory changes. LAM remains a rare and possibly under recognized entity with reports confined only to the dermatologic literature. This case highlights the importance of recognizing LAM and distinguishing it from linear scleroderma given the significant differences in management and prognosis. PMID:26438123

  20. A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Torti, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The component technologies were developed required for an advanced control moment gyro (CMG) type of slewing actuator for large payloads. The key component of the CMG is a large-angle magnetic suspension (LAMS). The LAMS combines the functions of the gimbal structure, torque motors, and rotor bearings of a CMG. The LAMS uses a single superconducting source coil and an array of cryoresistive control coils to produce a specific output torque more than an order of magnitude greater than conventional devices. The designed and tested LAMS system is based around an available superconducting solenoid, an array of twelve room-temperature normal control coils, and a multi-input, multi-output control system. The control laws were demonstrated for stabilizing and controlling the LAMS system.

  1. Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: Implications for diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N.; Lee, Myungsun; Cho, Sang Nae; Barry, Clifton E.; Via, Laura E.; Swanson, Basil I.; Mukundan, Harshini

    2013-02-14

    Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum, and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of ‘monomeric’ LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. Furthermore, this phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host–pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics.

  2. Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: Implications for diagnostics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N.; Lee, Myungsun; Cho, Sang Nae; Barry, Clifton E.; Via, Laura E.; Swanson, Basil I.; Mukundan, Harshini

    2013-02-14

    Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum,more » and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of ‘monomeric’ LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. Furthermore, this phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host–pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics.« less

  3. Estimation of D-Arabinose by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry as Surrogate for Mycobacterial Lipoarabinomannan in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    De, Prithwiraj; Amin, Anita G.; Valli, Eloise; Perkins, Mark D.; McNeil, Michael; Chatterjee, Delphi

    2015-01-01

    Globally, tuberculosis is slowly declining each year and it is estimated that 37 million lives were saved between 2000 and 2013 through effective diagnosis and treatment. Currently, diagnosis relies on demonstration of the bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), in clinical specimens by serial sputum microscopy, culture and molecular testing. Commercial immunoassay lateral flow kits developed to detect Mtb lipoglycan lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine as a marker of active TB exhibit poor sensitivity, especially in immunocompetent individuals, perhaps due to low abundance of the analyte. Our present study was designed to develop methods to validate the presence of LAM in a quantitative fashion in human urine samples obtained from culture-confirmed TB patients. Herein we describe, a consolidated approach for isolating LAM from the urine and quantifying D-arabinose as a proxy for LAM, using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. 298 urine samples obtained from a repository were rigorously analyzed and shown to contain varying amounts of LAM-equivalent ranging between ~10–40 ng/mL. To further substantiate that D-arabinose detected in the samples originated from LAM, tuberculostearic acid, the unique 10-methyloctadecanoic acid present at the phosphatidylinositol end of LAM was also analyzed in a set of samples and found to be present confirming that the D-arabinose was indeed derived from LAM. Among the 144 samples from culture-negative TB suspects, 30 showed presence of D-arabinose suggesting another source of the analyte, such as disseminated TB or from non-tuberculosis mycobacterium. Our work validates that LAM is present in the urine samples of culture-positive patients in small but readily detectable amounts. The study further substantiates LAM in urine as a powerful biomarker for active tuberculosis. PMID:26633829

  4. Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: implications for diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N; Lee, Myungsun; Cho, Sang Nae; Barry, Clifton E; Via, Laura E; Swanson, Basil I; Mukundan, Harshini

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We have also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum, and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of 'monomeric' LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. This phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host-pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics. PMID:23507184

  5. Mannose-capped Lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces IL-37 production via upregulating ERK1/2 and p38 in human type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Gao Wei; Gao, Chun Hai; Chi, Xiu Wen; Zeng, Tao; Hu, Yan Wei; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The major surface lipoglycan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), is an immunosuppressive epitope of M. tb. Interleukin (IL)-37, is a newly identified anti-inflammatory cytokine, which reduces systemic and local inflammation. However, the correlation between ManLAM and IL-37 remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the possible role and relative molecular mechanism of ManLAM in IL-37 production of human type II alveolar epithelial cells by using A549 cell line. Here, we report that M. tb induced IL-37 mRNA and protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We next fractionated components of M. tb using chloroform: methanol (C:M) and water. In sharp contrast to the C:M phase, water phase was mainly responsible for the production of IL-37. Since ManLAM is the major component of water phase, we found that ManLAM induced IL-37 mRNA and protein expression in a time and dose-dependent manner, while this activity was almost totally abolished by the ERK1/2 (U0126) and p38 (SB203580) inhibitor. ManLAM stimulation significantly induced ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation in A549 cells, as well as cell surface TLR2 expression. After interfering TLR2 expression, ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation levels were markedly decreased, and also IL-37 production. Though ManLAM also promoted TLR4 expression on A549 cells, TLR4 interference showed no influence on ManLAM-induced IL-37 production. Our results indicate that ManLAM induces IL-37 production in human type II alveolar epithelial cells via up-regulating TLR2/p38 or ERK1/2 pathway, and this provide an important evidence to explain the pathological role of ManLAM that contribute to the persistence of M. tb. PMID:26221267

  6. Worldwide Phylogenetic Distributions and Population Dynamics of the Genus Histoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Maria L.; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Theodoro, Raquel C.; de Hoog, Sybren; Engelthaler, David M.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Felipe, Maria S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Histoplasma capsulatum comprises a worldwide complex of saprobiotic fungi mainly found in nitrogen/phosphate (often bird guano) enriched soils. The microconidia of Histoplasma species may be inhaled by mammalian hosts, and is followed by a rapid conversion to yeast that can persist in host tissues causing histoplasmosis, a deep pulmonary/systemic mycosis. Histoplasma capsulatum sensu lato is a complex of at least eight clades geographically distributed as follows: Australia, Netherlands, Eurasia, North American classes 1 and 2 (NAm 1 and NAm 2), Latin American groups A and B (LAm A and LAm B) and Africa. With the exception of the Eurasian cluster, those clades are considered phylogenetic species. Methodology/Principal Findings Increased Histoplasma sampling (n = 234) resulted in the revision of the phylogenetic distribution and population structure using 1,563 aligned nucleotides from four protein-coding regions. The LAm B clade appears to be divided into at least two highly supported clades, which are geographically restricted to either Colombia/Argentina or Brazil respectively. Moreover, a complex population genetic structure was identified within LAm A clade supporting multiple monophylogenetic species, which could be driven by rapid host or environmental adaptation (~0.5 MYA). We found two divergent clades, which include Latin American isolates (newly named as LAm A1 and LAm A2), harboring a cryptic cluster in association with bats. Conclusions/Significance At least six new phylogenetic species are proposed in the Histoplasma species complex supported by different phylogenetic and population genetics methods, comprising LAm A1, LAm A2, LAm B1, LAm B2, RJ and BAC-1 phylogenetic species. The genetic isolation of Histoplasma could be a result of differential dispersion potential of naturally infected bats and other mammals. In addition, the present study guides isolate selection for future population genomics and genome wide association studies in this

  7. The Laminin Receptor Is a Cellular Attachment Receptor for Classical Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianing; He, Wen-Rui; Shen, Liang; Dong, Hong; Yu, Jiahui; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Shaoxiong; Li, Yongfeng; Li, Su; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious, economically important viral disease in many countries. The Erns and E2 envelope glycoproteins are responsible for the binding to and entry into the host cell by CSFV. To date, only one cellular receptor, heparan sulfate (HS), has been identified as being involved in CSFV attachment. HS is also present on the surface of various cells that are nonpermissive to CSFV. Hence, there must be another receptor(s) that has been unidentified to date. In this study, we used a set of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against a number of porcine cell membrane protein genes to screen cellular proteins involved in CSFV infection. This approach resulted in the identification of several proteins, and of these, the laminin receptor (LamR) has been demonstrated to be a cellular receptor for several viruses. Confocal analysis showed that LamR is colocalized with CSFV virions on the membrane, and a coimmunoprecipitation assay indicated that LamR interacts with the CSFV Erns protein. In inhibition assays, anti-LamR antibodies, soluble laminin, or LamR protein significantly inhibited CSFV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Transduction of PK-15 cells with a recombinant lentivirus expressing LamR yielded higher viral titers. Moreover, an attachment assay demonstrated that LamR functions during virus attachment. We also demonstrate that LamR acts as an alternative attachment receptor, especially in SK6 cells. These results indicate that LamR is a cellular attachment receptor for CSFV. IMPORTANCE Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), an economically important viral disease affecting the pig industry in many countries. To date, only heparan sulfate (HS) has been identified to be an attachment receptor for CSFV. Here, using RNA interference screening with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against a number of porcine membrane

  8. Fruit mineral contents of six wild species of the North Andean Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Damascos, María A; Arribere, Maria; Svriz, Maya; Bran, Donaldo

    2008-10-01

    The fruit mineral contents (K, Ca, Ba, Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, and Sr) of four native and two exotic naturalized shrubs growing in different areas of the Andean Patagonian region of Argentina were investigated. Native species Berberis darwinii, Berberis microphylla (Berberidaceae), Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae) and Ribes magellanicum (Saxifragaceae) produce small berries while the fruits of the exotic species Rosa rubiginosa and Rosa canina (Rosaceae) are aggregates of aquenes. They are used to prepare jams, tea, liquors, and ice creams. Native shrub fruits had higher content of Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and Na than those of the exotic naturalized species. Rosa species showed the highest contents of Ca and Ba in their fruits (the mean content doubled those of the native plant fruits). The fruit nutrient content found in the studied species was similar or higher than other values reported for fruits of temperate and tropical species in the world. PMID:18512032

  9. A mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan specific monoclonal antibody and its F(ab′)2 fragment prolong survival of mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    HAMASUR, B; HAILE, M; PAWLOWSKI, A; SCHRÖDER, U; KÄLLENIUS, G; SVENSON, S B

    2004-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a major structural carbohydrate antigen of the outer surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. High antibody titres against LAM are often seen in active tuberculosis (TB). The role of such LAM-specific antibodies in the immune response against TB is unknown. Here we have investigated a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) SMITB14 of IgG1 subclass and its corresponding F(ab′)2 fragment directed against LAM from M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv. MoAb SMITB14 was shown by immunofluorescence to bind to whole cells of the clinical isolate M. tuberculosis strain Harlingen as well as to M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The binding of MoAb SMITB14 to LAM was inhibited by arabinomannan (AM) and oligosaccharides (5·2 kDa) derived from LAM, showing that the MoAb binds specifically to the AM carbohydrate portion of LAM. In passive protection experiments BALB/c mice were infected intravenously with M. tuberculosis Harlingen. MoAb SMITB14 was added intravenously either prior to, or together with, the bacteria. The antibody proved to be protective against the M. tuberculosis infection in terms of a dose-dependent reduction in bacterial load in spleens and lungs, reduced weight loss and, most importantly, increased long-term survival. PMID:15373902

  10. Real-time Recognition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Lipoarabinomannan using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    PubMed Central

    Hiatt, Leslie A.; Cliffel, David E.

    2012-01-01

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor has been successfully employed to screen for both whole Mycobacteria tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli and a Mtb surface antigen, lipoarabinomannan (LAM). One of the most abundant components of the Mtb cell surface, LAM, may be detected without the presence of the entire bacterium. Using available antibodies with proven utility in enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs), a sensor was designed to measure Mtb bacilli and LAM. Equilibrium association constants (Ka) were determined for the interaction of Mtb with immobilized α-LAM and anti-H37Rv antibodies, where avidity was seen to strengthen this interaction and provide for greater binding than might have otherwise been achieved. The binding of LAM to immobilized α-LAM had a high associate rate constant (ka) allowing for rapid detection. Evaluating these binding constants helped the compare the sensitivity of these immunosensors to conventional ELISAs. The use of these assays with the better antibodies may allow for immunosensor use in determining LAM as a point-of-care (POC) diagnostic for Mtb. PMID:23175600

  11. Anti-EGFR Antibody Reduces Lung Nodules by Inhibition of EGFR-Pathway in a Model of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Ancona, Silvia; Orpianesi, Emanuela; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    EGFR belongs to the HER/ErbB family of tyrosine kinase receptors and its activation in cancer cells has been linked with increased proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, low-grade neoplasm that occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a genetic, multisystem disorder characterized by hamartomas in several organs. From chylous of a LAM/TSC patient, we previously isolated smooth muscle-like LAM/TSC cells whose proliferation depends on EGF and monoclonal anti-EGFR antibodies reduced proliferation and caused cell death. We demonstrated that the dependency from EGF was caused by the absence of tuberin. To study the role of EGFR pathway in vivo, we developed a mouse model by administration of LAM/TSC cells to female nude mice. LAM/TSC cells caused pulmonary airspace enlargement and, after 30 weeks, nodule formation which express EGFR. Anti-EGFR antibody decreased the number and dimension of lung nodules likely for the inhibition of Erk and S6 signaling, reversed the pulmonary alterations, and reduced lymphatic and blood vessels. Moreover, in pulmonary nodules anti-EGFR antibody reduced the positivity to estrogen and progesterone receptors which enhance survival of LAM cells and Snail expression. These results suggest that the inhibition of EGFR signalling has a potential in treatment of LAM/TSC lung alterations. PMID:25699271

  12. Role of Prolactin Receptors in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Alkharusi, Amira; Lesma, Elena; Ancona, Silvia; Chiaramonte, Eloisa; Nyström, Thomas; Gorio, Alfredo; Norstedt, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung disease caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor genes encoding Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) 1 and TSC2. The protein product of the TSC2 gene is a well-known suppressor of the mTOR pathway. Emerging evidence suggests that the pituitary hormone prolactin (Prl) has both endocrine and paracrine modes of action. Here, we have investigated components of the Prl system in models for LAM. In a TSC2 (+/-) mouse sarcoma cell line, down-regulation of TSC2 using siRNA resulted in increased levels of the Prl receptor. In human LAM cells, the Prl receptor is detectable by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of Prl in these cells stimulates STAT3 and Erk phosphorylation, as well as proliferation. A high affinity Prl receptor antagonist consisting of Prl with four amino acid substitutions reduced phosphorylation of STAT3 and Erk. Antagonist treatment further reduced the proliferative and invasive properties of LAM cells. In histological sections from LAM patients, Prl receptor immuno reactivity was observed. We conclude that the Prl receptor is expressed in LAM, and that loss of TSC2 increases Prl receptor levels. It is proposed that Prl exerts growth-stimulatory effects on LAM cells, and that antagonizing the Prl receptor can block such effects. PMID:26765535

  13. Role of Prolactin Receptors in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Alkharusi, Amira; Lesma, Elena; Ancona, Silvia; Chiaramonte, Eloisa; Nyström, Thomas; Gorio, Alfredo; Norstedt, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung disease caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor genes encoding Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) 1 and TSC2. The protein product of the TSC2 gene is a well-known suppressor of the mTOR pathway. Emerging evidence suggests that the pituitary hormone prolactin (Prl) has both endocrine and paracrine modes of action. Here, we have investigated components of the Prl system in models for LAM. In a TSC2 (+/-) mouse sarcoma cell line, down-regulation of TSC2 using siRNA resulted in increased levels of the Prl receptor. In human LAM cells, the Prl receptor is detectable by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of Prl in these cells stimulates STAT3 and Erk phosphorylation, as well as proliferation. A high affinity Prl receptor antagonist consisting of Prl with four amino acid substitutions reduced phosphorylation of STAT3 and Erk. Antagonist treatment further reduced the proliferative and invasive properties of LAM cells. In histological sections from LAM patients, Prl receptor immuno reactivity was observed. We conclude that the Prl receptor is expressed in LAM, and that loss of TSC2 increases Prl receptor levels. It is proposed that Prl exerts growth-stimulatory effects on LAM cells, and that antagonizing the Prl receptor can block such effects. PMID:26765535

  14. Critical Roles for Lipomannan and Lipoarabinomannan in Cell Wall Integrity of Mycobacteria and Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Matsumura, Takayuki; Ato, Manabu; Hamasaki, Maho; Nishiuchi, Yukiko; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Taroh; Morita, Yasu S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lipomannan (LM) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) are mycobacterial glycolipids containing a long mannose polymer. While they are implicated in immune modulations, the significance of LM and LAM as structural components of the mycobacterial cell wall remains unknown. We have previously reported that a branch-forming mannosyltransferase plays a critical role in controlling the sizes of LM and LAM and that deletion or overexpression of this enzyme results in gross changes in LM/LAM structures. Here, we show that such changes in LM/LAM structures have a significant impact on the cell wall integrity of mycobacteria. In Mycobacterium smegmatis, structural defects in LM and LAM resulted in loss of acid-fast staining, increased sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics, and faster killing by THP-1 macrophages. Furthermore, equivalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants became more sensitive to β-lactams, and one mutant showed attenuated virulence in mice. Our results revealed previously unknown structural roles for LM and LAM and further demonstrated that they are important for the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. PMID:23422411

  15. Mannosylated Lipoarabinomannans from Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Alters the Inflammatory Response by Bovine Macrophages and Suppresses Killing of Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Avium Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Cleverson; Davis, William C.; Eckstein, Torsten M.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Weiss, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the mechanisms through which pathogenic mycobacteria interfere with macrophage activation and phagosome maturation have shown that engagement of specific membrane receptors with bacterial ligands is the initiating event. Mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (Man-LAM) has been identified as one of the ligands that modulates macrophage function. We evaluated the effects of Man-LAM derived from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on bovine macrophages. Man-LAM induced a rapid and prolonged expression of IL-10 message as well as transient expression of TNF-α. Preincubation with Man-LAM for up to 16 h did not suppress expression of IL-12 in response to interferon-γ. Evaluation of the effect of Man-LAM on phagosome acidification, phagosome maturation, and killing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) showed that preincubation of macrophages with Man-LAM before addition of MAA inhibited phagosome acidification, phagolysosome fusion, and reduced killing. Analysis of signaling pathways provided indirect evidence that inhibition of killing was associated with activation of the MAPK-p38 signaling pathway but not the pathway involved in regulation of expression of IL-10. These results support the hypothesis that MAP Man-LAM is one of the virulence factors facilitating survival of MAP in macrophages. PMID:24098744

  16. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: A review.

    PubMed

    Hohman, Donald W; Noghrehkar, Dena; Ratnayake, Saman

    2008-07-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease, of unknown etiology, affecting women almost exclusively. Microscopically, LAM consists of a diffuse proliferation of smooth muscle cells. LAM can occur without evidence of other disease (sporadic LAM) or in conjunction with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). TSC is an autosomal dominant tumor suppressor gene syndrome characterized by seizures, mental retardation, and tumors in the brain, heart, skin, and kidney. LAM commonly presents with progressive breathlessness or with recurrent pneumothorax, chylothorax, or sudden abdominal hemorrhage. Computed tomography (CT) scans show numerous thin-walled cysts throughout the lungs, abdominal angiomyolipomas, and lymphangioleiomyomas. No effective treatment currently exists for this progressive disorder. The prevalence of lymphangioleiomyomatosis is probably underestimated based on its clinical latency and the absence of specific laboratory tests. With the utilization of international LAM data registries the "classical" picture of the disorder appears to be evolving as a larger number of patients are evaluated. An increased awareness of LAM and its common clinical presentation may advance the development of new therapeutic strategies and reduce the number of mistakenly diagnosed patients. PMID:18549932

  17. Laminarin modulates the chloroplast antioxidant system to enhance abiotic stress tolerance partially through the regulation of the defensin-like gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Ru; Lin, Yi-Chen; Chuang, Huey-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Algae wall polysaccharide, laminarin (Lam), has an established role on induction of plant disease resistance. In this study, application of Lam increased Arabidopsis fresh weight and enhanced tolerance to salt and heat stress by stabilizing chloroplast under adverse environment. Transcriptome analysis indicated that, in addition to induced a large number of genes associated with the host defense, genes involved in the regulation of abiotic stress tolerance mostly the heat stress response constituted the largest group of the up-regulated genes. Lam induced expression of IRT1, ZIP8, and copper transporters involved in transport of Fe, Zn, Cu ions associated with the activity of chloroplast antioxidant system. Lam also up-regulated genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoid, a plastidial-derived secondary metabolite with antioxidant activity. Overexpression of a Lam-induced defensin like 202 (DEFL202) resulted in increased chloroplast stability under salt stress and increased plant growth activity after heat stress. Expression of antioxidant enzymes including SOD and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), photosystem PsbA-D1 and ABA-dependent responsive to desiccation 22 (RD22) was induced to higher levels in the transgenic seedlings. In sum, our results suggest that Lam is an potent inducer for induction of chloroplastic antioxidant activity. Lam affect plant abiotic stress tolerance partially through regulation of the DEFL-mediated pathway. PMID:27095402

  18. Anti-hemolytic, hemagglutination inhibition and bacterial membrane disruptive properties of selected herbal extracts attenuate virulence of Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Pallavi; Chawla, Raman; Narula, Alka; Goel, Rajeev; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Expression of a multitude of virulence factors by multi-drug resistant microbial strains, e.g., Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli (Family: Enterobacteriaceae; Class: Gammaproteobacteria), is responsible for resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. Hemolysin production and induction of hemagglutination by bacterial surface receptors inflicts direct cytotoxicity by destroying host phagocytic and epithelial cells. We have previously reported that Berberis aristata, Camellia sinensis, Cyperus rotundus Holarrhena antidysenterica and Andrographis paniculata are promising herbal leads for targeting Carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli. These herbal leads were analyzed for their anti-hemolytic potential by employing spectrophotometric assay of hemoglobin liberation. Anti-hemagglutination potential of the extracts was assessed by employing qualitative assay of visible RBC aggregate formation. Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) exhibited anti-hemolytic potential of 73.97 ± 0.03%, followed by Holarrhena antidysenterica (PTRC-8111-A) i.e., 68.32 ± 0.05%, Berberis aristata (PTRC-2111-A) i.e., 60.26 ± 0.05% and Cyperus rotundus (PTRC-31811-A) i.e., 53.76 ± 0.03%. Comprehensive, visual analysis of hemagglutination inhibition revealed that only Berberis aristata (PTRC-2111-A) and Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) exhibited anti-hemagglutination activity. However, Andrographis paniculata (PTRC-11611-A) exhibited none of the inhibitory activities. Furthermore, the pair wise correlation analysis of the tested activities with quantitative phytochemical descriptors revealed that an increased content of alkaloid; flavonoids; polyphenols, and decreased content of saponins supported both the activities. Additionally, flow cytometry revealed that cell membrane structures of CRE were damaged by extracts of Berberis aristata (PTRC-2111-A) and Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) at their respective Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations, thereby confirming noteworthy antibacterial

  19. Inferring the contribution of sexual reproduction, migration and off-season survival to the temporal maintenance of microbial populations: a case study on the wheat fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sajid; Gladieux, Pierre; Rahman, Hidayatur; Saqib, Muhammad S; Fiaz, Muhammad; Ahmad, Habib; Leconte, Marc; Gautier, Angélique; Justesen, Annemarie F; Hovmøller, Mogens S; Enjalbert, Jérôme; de Vallavieille-Pope, Claude

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the mode of temporal maintenance of plant pathogens is an important domain of microbial ecology research. Due to the inconspicuous nature of microbes, their temporal maintenance cannot be studied directly through tracking individuals and their progeny. Here, we suggest a series of population genetic analyses on molecular marker variation in temporally spaced samples to infer about the relative contribution of sexual reproduction, off-season survival and migration to the temporal maintenance of pathogen populations. We used the proposed approach to investigate the temporal maintenance of wheat yellow rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (PST), in the Himalayan region of Pakistan. Multilocus microsatellite genotyping of PST isolates revealed high genotypic diversity and recombinant population structure across all locations, confirming the existence of sexual reproduction in this region. The genotypes were assigned to four genetic groups, revealing a clear differentiation between zones with and without Berberis spp., the alternate host of PST, with an additional subdivision within the Berberis zone. The lack of any differentiation between samples across two sampling years, and the very infrequent resampling of multilocus genotypes over years at a given location was consistent with limited over-year clonal survival, and a limited genetic drift. The off-season oversummering population in the Berberis zone, likely to be maintained locally, served as a source of migrants contributing to the temporal maintenance in the non-Berberis zone. Our study hence demonstrated the contribution of both sexual recombination and off-season oversummering survival to the temporal maintenance of the pathogen. These new insights into the population biology of PST highlight the general usefulness of the analytical approach proposed. PMID:24354737

  20. Mannose-Capped Lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induces CD4+ T Cell Anergy via GRAIL.

    PubMed

    Sande, Obondo J; Karim, Ahmad F; Li, Qing; Ding, Xuedong; Harding, Clifford V; Rojas, Roxana E; Boom, W Henry

    2016-01-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall glycolipid, lipoarabinomannan, can inhibit CD4(+) T cell activation by downregulating the phosphorylation of key proximal TCR signaling molecules: Lck, CD3ζ, ZAP70, and LAT. Inhibition of proximal TCR signaling can result in T cell anergy, in which T cells are inactivated following an Ag encounter, yet remain viable and hyporesponsive. We tested whether mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (LAM)-induced inhibition of CD4(+) T cell activation resulted in CD4(+) T cell anergy. The presence of LAM during primary stimulation of P25 TCR-transgenic murine CD4(+) T cells with M. tuberculosis Ag85B peptide resulted in decreased proliferation and IL-2 production. P25 TCR-transgenic CD4(+) T cells primed in the presence of LAM also exhibited decreased response upon restimulation with Ag85B. The T cell anergic state persisted after the removal of LAM. Hyporesponsiveness to restimulation was not due to apoptosis, generation of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells, or inhibitory cytokines. Acquisition of the anergic phenotype correlated with upregulation of gene related to anergy in lymphocytes (GRAIL) protein in CD4(+) T cells. Inhibition of human CD4(+) T cell activation by LAM also was associated with increased GRAIL expression. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of GRAIL before LAM treatment abrogated LAM-induced hyporesponsiveness. In addition, exogenous IL-2 reversed defective proliferation by downregulating GRAIL expression. These results demonstrate that LAM upregulates GRAIL to induce anergy in Ag-reactive CD4(+) T cells. Induction of CD4(+) T cell anergy by LAM may represent one mechanism by which M. tuberculosis evades T cell recognition. PMID:26667170

  1. Paenibacillus populi sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of Populus alba.

    PubMed

    Han, Tong-Yan; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Yan-Wei; Wang, Hui-Min; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Kong, De-Long; Guo, Xiang; Ruan, Zhi-Yong

    2015-09-01

    A novel aerobic bacterium, designated strain LAM0705(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere of Populus alba in the Peking University Third Hospital. Cells of strain LAM0705(T) were observed to be Gram-stain positive, motile, spore-forming and rod-shaped. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were found to be 30 °C and pH 7.5, respectively. Strain LAM0705(T) was found to be able to grow in the presence 0-5 % NaCl (w/v) (optimum 1.0 %). The major fatty acids of strain LAM0705(T) were identified as anteiso-C15:0, C16:0 and iso-C16:0. The dominant polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The cell wall peptidoglycan of strain LAM0705(T) was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-7. The G+C content of genomic DNA was found to be 48 mol% when determined by the T m method. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis indicated that strain LAM0705(T) is closely related to Paenibacillus agaridevorans DSM 1355(T) and Paenibacillus thailandensis KCTC 13043(T) with 97.8 and 96.1 % sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain LAM0705(T) and P. agaridevorans DSM 1355(T) was 47 ± 0.8 %. On the basis of its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain LAM0705(T) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus populi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LAM0705(T) (=ACCC 06427(T) = JCM 19843(T)). PMID:26133115

  2. Cost-effectiveness comparison of lamivudine plus adefovir combination treatment and nucleos(t)ide analog monotherapies in Chinese chronic hepatitis B patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Ke, Weixia; Liu, Li; Gao, Yanhui; Yao, Zhenjiang; Ye, Xiaohua; Zhou, Shudong; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim Lamivudine (LAM) plus adefovir (ADV) combination therapy is clinically efficacious for treating chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in China, but no pharmacoeconomic evaluations of this strategy are available. The aim of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of LAM plus ADV combination treatment compared with five other nucleos(t)ide analog monotherapies (LAM, ADV, telbivudine [TBV], entecavir [ETV], and tenofovir [TDF]). Methods To simulate the lifetime (40-year time span) costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for different therapy options, a Markov model that included five initial monotherapies and LAM plus ADV combination as an initial treatment was developed. Two kinds of rescue combination strategies (base-case: LAM + ADV then ETV + ADV; alternative: direct use of ETV + ADV) were considered separately for treating patients refractory to initial therapy. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to explore model uncertainties. Results In base-case analysis, ETV had the lowest lifetime cost and served as the reference therapy. Compared to the reference, LAM, ADV, and TBV had higher costs and lower efficacy, and were completely dominated by ETV. LAM plus ADV combination therapy or TDF was more efficacious than ETV, but also more expensive. Although the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of combination therapy or TDF were both higher than the willingness-to-pay threshold of $20,466/QALY gained for the reference treatment, in an alternative scenario analysis LAM plus ADV combination therapy would be the preferable treatment option. Conclusion ETV and LAM plus ADV combination therapy are both cost-effective strategies for treating Chinese CHB patients. PMID:27041994

  3. Incidental Pelvic and Para-aortic Lymph Node Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Detected During Surgical Staging of Pelvic Cancer in Women Without Symptomatic Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis or Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    PubMed

    Rabban, Joseph T; Firetag, Brandie; Sangoi, Ankur R; Post, Miriam D; Zaloudek, Charles J

    2015-08-01

    Extrapulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare neoplasm of spindle cells exhibiting melanocytic and myoid differentiation that arises as a mass in the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, uterine wall, and/or intraperitoneal lymph nodes. Many patients also have pulmonary LAM, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), and/or other neoplasms of the perivascular epithelioid cell tumor family. This study reports 26 patients with clinically occult LAM involving pelvic/para-aortic lymph nodes removed from women undergoing surgical staging of a uterine (17), ovarian (5), cervical (3), or urinary bladder (1) neoplasm. None of the patients exhibited symptoms of pulmonary LAM, and the median patient age (56 y) was older than what would be expected for patients presenting with pulmonary LAM. Only 2/26 patients had TSC. Four patients also had uterine LAM. One of these 4 had uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, and 1 had vaginal angiomyolipoma. In all 26 patients the lymph node LAM was grossly occult, measured 3.5 mm on average (1 to 19 mm), and involved either a single lymph node (12/26) or multiple lymph nodes (14/26). HMB45 was positive in 24/25 cases, mostly in a focal or patchy distribution. Other melanocytic markers included MiTF (12/14) and MelanA (2/12). Myoid markers included smooth muscle actin (23/23) and desmin (15/16), mostly in a diffuse distribution. Estrogen receptor was positive in all cases tested, as was D240 expression in the lymphatic endothelium lining the spindle cell bundles. Concurrent findings in the involved lymph nodes included metastatic carcinoma (3/26), endosalpingiosis (3/26), and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (13/26). This study demonstrates that clinically occult lymph node LAM can be detected during surgical staging of pelvic cancer and is not commonly associated with pulmonary LAM or TSC, although these patients should still be formally evaluated for both of these diseases. PMID:25786086

  4. The Internet as a Glocal Discourse Environment: A Commentary on "Second Language Socialization in a Bilingual Chat Room" by Wan Shun Eva Lam and "Second Language Cyberhetoric: A Study of Chinese L2 Writers in an Online Usenet Group" by Joel Bloch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsogiannis, Dimitris; Mitsikopoulou, Bessie

    2004-01-01

    The Internet as a worldwide literacy practice environment has created a new situation in communication, providing a new dynamic field for research. On the basis of the two articles under discussion, this commentary develops three main aspects of the Internet: as an informal learning environment for English as a second/foreign language; as a…

  5. Quality evaluation of ayurvedic crude drug daruharidra, its allied species, and commercial samples from herbal drug markets of India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sharad; Rawat, A K S

    2013-01-01

    Berberis aristata known as "Daruharidra" in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India), the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata. PMID:23431340

  6. Quality Evaluation of Ayurvedic Crude Drug Daruharidra, Its Allied Species, and Commercial Samples from Herbal Drug Markets of India

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sharad; Rawat, A. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Berberis aristata known as “Daruharidra” in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India), the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata. PMID:23431340

  7. Studies on quantitative determination of total alkaloids and berberine in five origins of crude medicine "Sankezhen".

    PubMed

    Li, Luyang; Long, Weifang; Wan, Xiangluan; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Fei; Wan, Dingrong

    2015-02-01

    The roots of Berberis plants are widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine called "Sankezhen", having the activities of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, and the ingredients are alkaloids. This work aims to study and compare the total alkaloids and individual alkaloid (berberine) contents in roots and stems from five origins of Berberis plants (Berberis soulieana Schneid., B. henryana Schneid., B. triacanthophora Fedde, B. gagnepainii Schneid. and B. bergmanniae Schneid.) and provides some references for resource and quality evaluation of the medicine. Acid dye colorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography were used in the determination. The results showed that the contents for the total alkaloids in root and stem samples were in the range of 1.60-4.72% and 0.76-2.70%, while those of the berberine were 0.70-2.92% and 0.23-1.07%. With higher contents of the total alkaloids and berberine, the roots of B. soulieana, B. gagnepainii and B. bergmanniae were good sources of "Sankezhen". Meanwhile, the contents were also high in stems of the three plants, indicating that the stems were likely to be alternative sources of "Sankezhen" after further research. As the results of precision, stability and recovery tests shown, the methods were simple, rapid and reliable, and provided valuable basis for quality evaluation and new resource investigation of "Sankezhen". PMID:25013028

  8. The Importance of Lamivudine Therapy in Liver Cirrhosis Patients Related HBV with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Receiving Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Momiyama, Koichi; Nagai, Hidenari; Ogino, Yu; Mukouzu, Takanori; Matsui, Daigo; Kogame, Michio; Matsui, Teppei; Wakui, Noritaka; Shinohara, Mie; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Sumino, Yasukiyo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously reported that continuous hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) might be more effective for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (aHCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) related to HCV infection (C-LC) or alcohol abuse (A-LC) than in patients who had LC related to HBV infection (B-LC). The aim of the present study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy of lamivudine therapy for B-LC patients with aHCC undergoing HAIC. Methods: Seventeen adult Japanese B-LC patients with aHCC were treated by HAIC with or without lamivudine (100 mg/day) between 2002 and 2008 at our hospital. Their tumors were inoperable according to computed tomography findings. HAIC (LV at 12 mg/hr, CDDP at 10 mg/hr, and 5-FU at 250 mg/22 hr) was given via the proper hepatic artery every 5 days for 4 weeks using a catheter connected to a subcutaneously implanted drug delivery system. Results: Nine of the 17 patients received lamivudine at a dose of 100 mg/day together with HAIC (LAM group), while 8 patients did not receive lamivudine and only had HAIC (non-LAM group). The response rate was 12.5 in the non-LAM group and 0.0% in the LAM group. However, the survival of the LAM group was better than that of the non-LAM group, although there was no significant difference between them. The median survival time of the LAM and non-LAM groups was 310 and 157 days, respectively. HBV-DNA levels were significantly lower after chemotherapy compared with that before chemotherapy in the LAM group. In the non-LAM group, the percentage of Th2 cells before HAIC and after HAIC was significantly higher than in the control group. However, the percentage of Th2 cells in the LAM group after HAIC was not different from that in the control group, although it was significantly higher in the LAM group than in the control group before chemotherapy. Conclusions: These results indicate that lamivudine therapy may prolong the survival of B-LC patients receiving HAIC for aHCC by reducing HBV

  9. Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-D Prospectively Distinguishes Lymphangioleiomyomatosis From Other Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Young, Lisa R.; VanDyke, Rhonda; Gulleman, Peter M.; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Brown, Kevin K.; Schmidt, Laura S.; Linehan, W. Marston; Hajjar, Fuad; Kinder, Brent W.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Bissler, John J.; Franz, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of women with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) present with cystic lung disease, and most require lung biopsy for definitive diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prospective diagnostic usefulness of a serologic test for vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D), a lymphangiogenic growth factor. Methods: We prospectively measured serum VEGF-D levels by enzyme-linked immunoassay in 48 women presenting with cystic lung disease. Diagnostic test performance was determined from a cohort of 195 women, with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), TSC-LAM, sporadic LAM (S-LAM), and other cystic lung diseases in the differential diagnosis, including biopsy-proven or genetically proven pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, emphysema, Sjögren syndrome, or Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. Results: Serum VEGF-D levels were significantly greater in S-LAM (median 1,175 [interquartile range (IQR): 780-2,013] pg/mL; n = 56) than in other cystic lung diseases (median 281 [IQR 203-351] pg/mL; n = 44, P < .001). In the cohort evaluated prospectively, 12 of the 15 individuals ultimately diagnosed with LAM by biopsy had VEGF-D levels of > 800 pg/mL, whereas levels were < 600 pg/mL in all 18 subjects later diagnosed with other causes of cystic lung disease. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that VEGF-D effectively identified LAM, with an area under the curve of 0.961(95% CI, 0.923-0.992). A VEGF-D level of > 600 pg/mL was highly associated with a diagnosis of LAM (specificity 97.6%, likelihood ratio 35.2) and values > 800 pg/mL were diagnostically specific. Serum VEGF-D levels were significantly elevated in women with TSC-LAM (median 3,465 [IQR 1,970-7,195] pg/mL) compared with women with TSC only (median 370 [IQR 291-520] pg/mL), P < .001). Conclusions: A serum VEGF-D level of > 800 pg/mL in a woman with typical cystic changes on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan is diagnostically specific for S-LAM and identifies LAM in women with

  10. Recovery of chylous pulmonary congestion in tuberous sclerosis complex-associated lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Sakamoto, Atsuhiko; Hidaka, Kouko

    2014-01-01

    Chyloptysis and chylous pulmonary congestion are extremely rare complications of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). We report a case of a 50-year-old woman with tuberous sclerosis complex-associated LAM, who presented with expectorating milky-white bronchial casts. She was diagnosed with chyloptysis and chylous pulmonary congestion by sputum analysis. Her symptoms and lung infiltration were improved by oral sirolimus therapy; moreover, serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) levels paralleled the symptoms and lung infiltration of these complications. We suggest that serum KL-6 may be a useful monitoring biomarker of chyloptysis and chylous pulmonary congestion in LAM. PMID:25326562

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean Family and Its Sublineages in the Light of Robust Evolutionary Markers

    PubMed Central

    Vyazovaya, Anna; Narvskaya, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a clonal population structure, and the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family is one of the largest and most widespread within this species, showing evidence for remarkable pathobiology and a confusing phylogeny. Here, we applied robust phylogenetic markers to study the evolution of the LAM family and its major sublineages circulating in Russia and neighboring countries. A total of 250 M. tuberculosis isolates were confirmed to belong to the LAM family based on the analysis of the LAM-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Rv3062 and Rv0129c genes. At this stage, the family status was rectified for 121 isolates misleadingly assigned by CRISPR spoligotyping to non-LAM families (T1- or T5-RUS1). Consequently, the reestimated LAM prevalence rate increased 2-fold in Russia and Kazakhstan and 4-fold in Belarus. The majority (91.8 to 98.7%) of the LAM isolates from all three countries belonged to the LAM-RUS sublineage. In contrast, the Ibero-American LAM RD-Rio sublineage was identified in only 7 Russian isolates. Taken together, our findings and further analyses suggest a monophyletic origin of LAM-RUS: at a historically distant time, in Russia, in a small founding bacterial/human population. Its dissemination pattern and high prevalence rate in Northern Eurasia may indicate a long-term coexistence of the LAM-RUS sublineage and local human populations hypothetically leading to coadaptation and reduced pathogenicity of the relatively more ancient clones, such as spoligotype international type 254 (SIT254), compared to the more recent SIT252 and SIT266 clones. In contrast, rare LAM RD-Rio isolates were likely brought to Russia through occasional human contact. The spread of RD-Rio strains is not as global as commonly claimed and is determined largely by human migration flows (rather than by pathobiological properties of these strains). Consequently, a host population factor appears to play a major role in shaping the in

  12. Inhibition of angiogenesis and murine tumour growth by laminarin sulphate.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, R.; Paper, D. H.; Donaldson, J.; Vogl, H.

    1996-01-01

    LAM S5 is a polysulphated derivative of the glucan laminarian that inhibits basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) binding and the bFGF-stimulated proliferation of fetal bovine heart endothelial (FBHE) cells. This report demonstrates that LAM S5 has anti-angiogenic activity, as shown by inhibition of tubule formation by endothelial cells cultured on Matrigel and inhibition of vascularisation of the chick chorioallantoic membrane. In addition, LAM S5 caused a tumour growth delay of the murine RIF-1 tumour of 2.6 days (P = 0.01). Images Figure 2 PMID:8630276

  13. CT and MR Imaging Findings of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Involving the Uterus and Pelvic Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, You Sung; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon; Park, Jong Sup

    2011-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare idiopathic disease and this is characterized by a proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells in the lungs and in the lymphatic system of the thorax and retroperitoneum. The female genital tract is rarely affected by LAM. We report here on the CT and MR imaging findings of extensive LAM involving the uterus and pelvic cavity, and this was seen as multiple cystic uterine and parauterine masses with internal hemorrhage in a young female with tuberous sclerosis complex. PMID:21430946

  14. A 4-year prospective evaluation of protocols to improve clinical outcomes for patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis in a national clinical centre.

    PubMed

    Bee, Janet; Bhatt, Rupesh; McCafferty, Ian; Johnson, Simon R

    2015-12-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare multisystem disease. Progressive airflow limitation, pneumothorax and angiomyolipoma-related bleeding are major morbidities. As treatments are available for these complications, we prospectively audited loss of FEV1 (ΔFEV1), pneumothorax and angiomyolipoma bleeding against clinical standards over 4 years at the UK Clinical Centre. ΔFEV1 for these patients is lower than previously reported and rates of pneumothorax and angiomyolipoma haemorrhage are low. This suggests that real-time analysis of clinical data with targeted interventions can reduce morbidity in LAM. These measures could be applied as quality standards to compare the emerging LAM clinical networks worldwide. PMID:26123659

  15. What Causes Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as pneumonia (nu-MO-ne-ah) and tuberculosis, and infections from fungi or parasites Pulmonary embolism , ... diseases may include COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), tuberculosis, and LAM. Surgery or a chest injury also ...

  16. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is superior to lamivudine plus adefovir in lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan-Hong; Xie, Yuan-Jun; Zhao, Nian-Feng; Pan, Hong-Ying; Li, Ming-Wei; Huang, Hai-Jun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in lamivudine (LAM)-resistant patients with a suboptimal response to LAM plus adefovir (ADV). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy of switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in suboptimal responders to lamivudine plus adefovir. Charts were reviewed for LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who visited the Zhejiang Province People’s Hospital and The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, from June 2009 to May 2013. Patients whose serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA remained detectable despite at least 6 mo of LAM plus ADV combination therapy were included. Patients with a suboptimal response to LAM plus ADV were randomized to switch to TDF monotherapy (300 mg/d orally; TDF group) or to continuation with LAM (100 mg/d orally) plus ADV (10 mg/d orally; LAM plus ADV group) and were followed for 48 wk. Serum HBV DNA was determined at baseline and weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48. HBV serological markers and biochemistry were assessed at baseline and weeks 12, 24, and 48. Resistance surveillance and side effects were monitored during therapy. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patient were randomized to switch to TDF (n = 28) or continuation with LAM plus ADV (n = 31). No significant differences were found between the groups at baseline. Prior to TDF therapy, all patients had been exposed to LAM plus ADV for a median of 11 mo (range: 6-24 mo). No difference was seen in baseline serum HBV DNA between the two groups [5.13 ± 1.08 log10 copies/mL (TDF) vs 5.04 ± 31.16 log10 copies/mL (LAM + ADV), P = 0.639]. There was no significant difference in the rates of achieving complete virological response (CVR) at week 4 between the TDF and LAM + ADV groups (17.86% vs 6.45%, P = 0.24). The rate of achieving CVR in the TDF and LAM plus ADV groups was 75% vs 16.13% at week 12, 82.14% vs 22.58% at week 24, 89.29% vs 25.81% at week 36, and 96.43% vs 29.03% at week 48, respectively

  17. Galaxy alignment as a probe of large-scale filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    The orientations of the red galaxies in a filament are aligned with the orientation of the filament. We thus develop a location-alignment-method (LAM) of detecting filaments around clusters of galaxies, which uses both the alignments of red galaxies and their distributions in two-dimensional images. For the first time, the orientations of red galaxies are used as probes of filaments. We apply LAM to the environment of Coma cluster, and find four filaments (two filaments are located in sheets) in two selected regions, which are compared with the filaments detected with the method of Falco et al.. We find that LAM can effectively detect the filaments around a cluster, even with 3σ confidence level, and clearly reveal the number and overall orientations of the detected filaments. LAM is independent of the redshifts of galaxies, and thus can be applied at relatively high redshifts and to the samples of red galaxies without the information of redshifts.

  18. Clinical Trials for Rare Lung Diseases: Lessons from Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Francis X.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, slowly progressive neoplasm that causes gradual but often life-threatening cystic destruction of the lung. Advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis have LAM have identified a number of promising targets for testing in therapeutic trials. However, the design, prioritization, organization, and implementation of clinical trials in rare lung diseases poses unique challenges, including geographically disperse populations, sluggish enrollment, off- label drug use, burdensome regulations, and paucity of validated surrogate endpoints. PMID:20235889

  19. Establishment of drug-resistant HBV small-animal models by hydrodynamic injection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Junjun; Han, Yanxing; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2014-01-01

    In antiviral therapy of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, drug resistance remains a huge obstacle to the long-term effectiveness of nucleoside/tide analogs (NAs). Primary resistance mutation (rtM204V) contributes to lamivudine (LAM)-resistance, and compensatory mutations (rtL180M and rtV173L) restore viral fitness and increase replication efficiency. The evaluation of new anti-viral agents against drug-resistant HBV is limited by the lack of available small-animal models. We established LAM-resistance HBV replication mice models based on clinical LAM-resistant HBV mutants. Double (rtM204V+rtL180M) or triple (rtM204V+rtL180M+rtV173L) lamivudine-resistant mutations were introduced into HBV expression vector, followed by hydrodynamic injection into tail vein of NOD/SCID mice. Viremia was detected on days 5, 9, 13 and 17 and liver HBV DNA was detected on day 17 after injection. The serum and liver HBV DNA levels in LAM-resistant model carrying triple mutations are the highest among the models. Two NAs, LAM and entecavir (ETV), were used to test the availability of the models. LAM and ETV inhibited viral replication on wild-type model. LAM was no longer effective on LAM-resistant models, but ETV retains a strong activity. Therefore, these models can be used to evaluate anti-viral agents against lamivudine-resistance, affording new opportunities to establish other drug-resistant HBV small-animal models. PMID:26579395

  20. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Biomarkers Linked to Lung Metastatic Potential and Cell Stemness

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz de Garibay, Gorka; Herranz, Carmen; Llorente, Alicia; Boni, Jacopo; Serra-Musach, Jordi; Mateo, Francesca; Aguilar, Helena; Gómez-Baldó, Laia; Petit, Anna; Vidal, August; Climent, Fina; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Cordero, Álex; González-Suárez, Eva; Sánchez-Mut, José Vicente; Esteller, Manel; Llatjós, Roger; Varela, Mar; López, José Ignacio; García, Nadia; Extremera, Ana I.; Gumà, Anna; Ortega, Raúl; Plà, María Jesús; Fernández, Adela; Pernas, Sònia; Falo, Catalina; Morilla, Idoia; Campos, Miriam; Gil, Miguel; Román, Antonio; Molina-Molina, María; Ussetti, Piedad; Laporta, Rosalía; Valenzuela, Claudia; Ancochea, Julio; Xaubet, Antoni; Casanova, Álvaro; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung-metastasizing neoplasm caused by the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells that commonly carry loss-of-function mutations in either the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 or 2 (TSC1 or TSC2) genes. While allosteric inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has shown substantial clinical benefit, complementary therapies are required to improve response and/or to treat specific patients. However, there is a lack of LAM biomarkers that could potentially be used to monitor the disease and to develop other targeted therapies. We hypothesized that the mediators of cancer metastasis to lung, particularly in breast cancer, also play a relevant role in LAM. Analyses across independent breast cancer datasets revealed associations between low TSC1/2 expression, altered mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway signaling, and metastasis to lung. Subsequently, immunohistochemical analyses of 23 LAM lesions revealed positivity in all cases for the lung metastasis mediators fascin 1 (FSCN1) and inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1). Moreover, assessment of breast cancer stem or luminal progenitor cell biomarkers showed positivity in most LAM tissue for the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), integrin-ß3 (ITGB3/CD61), and/or the sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) proteins. The immunohistochemical analyses also provided evidence of heterogeneity between and within LAM cases. The analysis of Tsc2-deficient cells revealed relative over-expression of FSCN1 and ID1; however, Tsc2-deficient cells did not show higher sensitivity to ID1-based cancer inhibitors. Collectively, the results of this study reveal novel LAM biomarkers linked to breast cancer metastasis to lung and to cell stemness, which in turn might guide the assessment of additional or complementary therapeutic opportunities for LAM. PMID:26167915

  1. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Biomarkers Linked to Lung Metastatic Potential and Cell Stemness.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Garibay, Gorka; Herranz, Carmen; Llorente, Alicia; Boni, Jacopo; Serra-Musach, Jordi; Mateo, Francesca; Aguilar, Helena; Gómez-Baldó, Laia; Petit, Anna; Vidal, August; Climent, Fina; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Cordero, Álex; González-Suárez, Eva; Sánchez-Mut, José Vicente; Esteller, Manel; Llatjós, Roger; Varela, Mar; López, José Ignacio; García, Nadia; Extremera, Ana I; Gumà, Anna; Ortega, Raúl; Plà, María Jesús; Fernández, Adela; Pernas, Sònia; Falo, Catalina; Morilla, Idoia; Campos, Miriam; Gil, Miguel; Román, Antonio; Molina-Molina, María; Ussetti, Piedad; Laporta, Rosalía; Valenzuela, Claudia; Ancochea, Julio; Xaubet, Antoni; Casanova, Álvaro; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung-metastasizing neoplasm caused by the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells that commonly carry loss-of-function mutations in either the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 or 2 (TSC1 or TSC2) genes. While allosteric inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has shown substantial clinical benefit, complementary therapies are required to improve response and/or to treat specific patients. However, there is a lack of LAM biomarkers that could potentially be used to monitor the disease and to develop other targeted therapies. We hypothesized that the mediators of cancer metastasis to lung, particularly in breast cancer, also play a relevant role in LAM. Analyses across independent breast cancer datasets revealed associations between low TSC1/2 expression, altered mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway signaling, and metastasis to lung. Subsequently, immunohistochemical analyses of 23 LAM lesions revealed positivity in all cases for the lung metastasis mediators fascin 1 (FSCN1) and inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1). Moreover, assessment of breast cancer stem or luminal progenitor cell biomarkers showed positivity in most LAM tissue for the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), integrin-ß3 (ITGB3/CD61), and/or the sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) proteins. The immunohistochemical analyses also provided evidence of heterogeneity between and within LAM cases. The analysis of Tsc2-deficient cells revealed relative over-expression of FSCN1 and ID1; however, Tsc2-deficient cells did not show higher sensitivity to ID1-based cancer inhibitors. Collectively, the results of this study reveal novel LAM biomarkers linked to breast cancer metastasis to lung and to cell stemness, which in turn might guide the assessment of additional or complementary therapeutic opportunities for LAM. PMID:26167915

  2. Extended pressure range performance of Kaiser/Marquardt 490N thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, J. R.; Kreiner, K. B.

    1993-06-01

    The performance of INTELSAT VI Reboost Program Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) is studied using both ground and flight testing results. Ground testing based on an INTELSAT VI qualification unit, S/N 002A, was performed at the Kaiser Marquardt facility in California in 1991. Data obtained from the F-603 flight show that the R4-D 490 N LAM is susceptible to a dynamic combustion instability mode, called chugging, when operated at a low inlet pressure with helium saturated propellants.

  3. A Novel Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Glycoside Hydrolase from Ustilago esculenta Functions in β-1,3-Glucan Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Masahiro; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Machiko; Nakano, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    A glycoside hydrolase responsible for laminarin degradation was partially purified to homogeneity from a Ustilago esculenta culture filtrate by weak-cation-exchange, strong-cation-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Three proteins in enzymatically active fractions were digested with chymotrypsin followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis, resulting in the identification of three peptide sequences that shared significant similarity to a putative β-1,3-glucanase, a member of glucoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) from Sporisorium reilianum SRZ2. A gene encoding a laminarin-degrading enzyme from U. esculenta, lam16A, was isolated by PCR using degenerate primers designed based on the S. reilianum SRZ2 β-1,3-glucanase gene. Lam16A possesses a GH16 catalytic domain with an N-terminal signal peptide and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor peptide. Recombinant Lam16A fused to an N-terminal FLAG peptide (Lam16A-FLAG) overexpressed in Aspergillus oryzae exhibited hydrolytic activity toward β-1,3-glucan specifically and was localized both in the extracellular and in the membrane fractions but not in the cell wall fraction. Lam16A without a GPI anchor signal peptide was secreted extracellularly and was not detected in the membrane fraction. Membrane-anchored Lam16A-FLAG was released completely by treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. These results suggest that Lam16A is anchored in the plasma membrane in order to modify β-1,3-glucan associated with the inner cell wall and that Lam16A is also used for the catabolism of β-1,3-glucan after its release in the extracellular medium. PMID:22685137

  4. Clinical features, epidemiology, and therapy of lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Moss, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a multisystem disease of women, characterized by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells, leading to the formation of lung cysts, fluid-filled cystic structures in the axial lymphatics (eg, lymphangioleiomyomas), and renal angiomyolipomas. LAM is caused by mutations of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which encode, respectively, hamartin and tuberin, two proteins with a major role in control of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. LAM occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex, an autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by widespread hamartomatous lesions. LAM may present with progressive dyspnea, recurrent pneumothorax, or chylothorax. Pulmonary function tests show reduced flow rates (forced expiratory volume in the first second) and diffusion capacity. Exercise testing may reveal gas exchange abnormalities, ventilatory limitation, and hypoxemia. The severity and progression of disease may be assessed by lung histology scores, quantification of computed tomography, pulmonary function testing, 6-minute walk tests, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and measurement of serum vascular endothelial growth factor D levels. Sirolimus and everolimus, two mTOR inhibitors, are effective in stabilizing lung function and reducing the size of chylous effusions, lymphangioleiomyo-mas, and angiomyolipomas. However, inhibition of mTOR complex 1 increases autophagy, possibly enhancing LAM cell survival. Inhibition of autophagy with hydroxychloroquine, in combination with sirolimus, has been proposed as a possible treatment for LAM. Deficiency of tuberin results in increased RhoA GTPase activity and cell survival, an effect that is mediated through mTOR complex 2 signaling. Because sirolimus and everolimus only affect the activity of mTOR complex 1, therapies targeting RhoA GTPases with simvastatin, which inhibits Rho GTPases and promotes apoptosis, are being investigated. As in the case of

  5. Romboutsia sedimentorum sp. nov., isolated from an alkaline-saline lake sediment and emended description of the genus Romboutsia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwei; Song, Jinlong; Zhai, Yi; Zhang, Chi; Gerritsen, Jacoline; Wang, Huimin; Chen, Xiaorong; Li, Yanting; Zhao, Bingqiang; Zhao, Bin; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2015-04-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming, obligately anaerobic bacterium, designated LAM201(T), was isolated from sediment samples from an alkaline-saline lake located in Daqing oilfield, Daqing City, PR China. Cells of strain LAM201(T) were non-motile and straight or spiral rod-shapes. Strain LAM201(T) was able to utilize glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose and sorbitol as the sole carbon source. Acetic acid, ethanol, iso-butanoic acid and iso-valeric acid were the main products of glucose fermentation. The major fatty acids of LAM201(T) were C(16 : 0) (26.7%) and C(18 : 0) (11.2%). The main polar lipids were four unknown glycolipids and five unknown phospholipids. The predominant cell-wall sugars were ribose and galactose. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain LAM201(T) contained alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Sodium sulfite was used as the electron acceptor. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 32±0.8 mol%, as determined by the T(m) method. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolate belonged to the genus Romboutsia and was most closely related to Romboutsia lituseburensis DSM 797(T) and Romboutsia ilealis CRIB(T) with 97.3% and 97.2% similarities, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain LAM201(T) and the two reference strains were 37% and 31%, respectively. On the basis of its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain LAM201(T) is suggested to represent a novel species within the genus Romboutsia , for which the name Romboutsia sedimentorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LAM201(T) ( = ACCC 00717(T) = JCM 19607(T)). PMID:25609678

  6. Accuracy of Lipoarabinomannan and Xpert MTB/RIF Testing in Cerebrospinal Fluid To Diagnose Tuberculous Meningitis in an Autopsy Cohort of HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lukande, Robert L.; Kalungi, Sam; Van Marck, Eric; Lammens, Martin; Van de Vijver, Koen; Kambugu, Andrew; Nelson, Ann M.; Colebunders, Robert; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2015-01-01

    Point-of-care tests for tuberculous meningitis (TBM) are needed. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of the lipoarabinomannan (LAM) lateral flow assay (LFA), LAM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Xpert MTB/RIF in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in an autopsy cohort of Ugandan HIV-infected adults. We obtained written informed consent postmortem from the next of kin. A complete autopsy was done and CSF obtained. We performed LAM LFA (on unprepared and supernatant CSF after heating and spinning), LAM ELISA, and Xpert MTB/RIF on the CSF samples. Accuracy parameters were calculated for histopathological TBM and also for the composite standard, including Xpert MTB/RIF-positive cases. We tested CSF of 91 patients. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 75% for definite histopathological TBM, ELISA a sensitivity of 43%, and Xpert MTB/RIF a sensitivity of 100% and specificities of 87%, 91%, and 87%, respectively. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 50% for definite and probable histopathological TBM, ELISA a sensitivity of 38%, and Xpert MTB/RIF a sensitivity of 86% and specificities of 70%, 91%, and 87%, respectively. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 68% for the composite standard and ELISA a sensitivity of 48% and specificities of 78% and 98%, respectively. The rapid diagnostic tests detected TBM in 22% to 78% of patients not on anti-TB treatment. Point-of-care tests have high accuracy in diagnosis of TBM in deceased HIV-infected adults. LAM LFA in CSF is a useful additional diagnostic tool. PMID:26063865

  7. On Some Genetic Aspects of Phage λ Resistance in E. COLI K12

    PubMed Central

    Thirion, J. P.; Hofnung, M.

    1972-01-01

    Most mutations rendering E. coli K12 resistant to phage λ, map in two genetic regions malA and malB.—The malB region contains a gene lamB specifically involved in the λ receptor synthesis. Twenty-one independent lamB mutations studied by complementation belonged to a single cistron. This makes it very likely that lamB is monocistronic. Among the lamB mutants some are still sensitive to a host range mutant of phage λ. Mutations mapping in a proximal gene essential for maltose metabolism inactivate gene lamB by polarity confirming that both genes are part of the same operon. Because cases of intracistronic complementation have been found, the active lamB product may be an oligomeric protein.—Previously all λ resistant mutations in the malA region have been shown to map in the malT cistron. malT is believed to be a positive regulatory gene necessary for the induction of the "maltose operons" in the malA region and in the malB region of the E. coli K12 genetic map. No trans dominant malT mutation have been found. Therefore if they exist, they occur at a frequency of less than 10-8, or strongly reduce the growth rate of the mutants. PMID:4558324

  8. Use of sirolimus in the treatment of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: favorable responses in patients with different extrapulmonary manifestations*

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Carolina Salim Gonçalves; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Araújo, Mariana Sponholz; Heiden, Glaucia Itamaro; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease that is currently considered a low-grade neoplasm with metastatic potential and variable progression. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as sirolimus and everolimus, have recently become a treatment option for LAM patients, especially those with extrapulmonary manifestations. The objective of the present study was to describe a case series of four patients with LAM in Brazil who showed significant improvement, particularly in their extrapulmonary manifestations, after treatment with sirolimus (at 1-4 mg/day). METHODS: We describe four cases of LAM patients with different extrapulmonary manifestations who were treated with sirolimus. RESULTS: After treatment with sirolimus for 12 months, one patient presented resolution of severe chylothorax; one had a significant reduction in renal angiomyolipoma volume; and one showed significant regression of retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyomas and abdominal lymph node enlargement. After treatment with sirolimus for 6 months, the remaining patient had a significant reduction in the volume of a massive retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyoma. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that mTOR inhibitors are beneficial for patients with LAM, especially those with extrapulmonary manifestations, such as renal angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyomas, and chylous effusions. However, certain aspects, such as the optimal dose, duration of treatment, and long-term adverse effects, have yet to be sufficiently clarified for mTOR inhibitors to be incorporated into LAM management protocols. PMID:26176526

  9. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Current understanding and potential treatments.

    PubMed

    Moir, Lyn M

    2016-02-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare neoplastic disease affecting predominantly young women. Clinical symptoms of this progressive disease include dyspnoea, cough, recurrent pneumothorax, hemoptysis and chylothorax. LAM is generally aggressive in nature and ultimately results in respiratory failure. Important hallmark features of this metastatic disease include the formation of lesions of abnormal smooth muscle cells, cystic destruction of the lung tissue and lymphangiogenesis affecting the lungs, abdomen and lymphatics. Research over the last 10-15 years has significantly enhanced our understanding of the molecular and cellular processes associated with LAM. These processes include mutational inactivation of the tuberous sclerosis complex genes, TSC1 and TSC2, activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, enhanced cell proliferation and migration, lymphangiogenesis, metastatic spread through the blood and lymphatic circulations, sex steroid sensitivity and dysregulated autophagy. Despite this increased knowledge there is currently no cure for LAM and treatment options remain limited. Whilst the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has shown some benefit in patients with LAM, with stabilisation of lung function and improved quality of life, cessation of treatment results in recurrence of the disease progression. This highlights the urgent need to identify novel targets and new treatment regimens. The focus of this review is to summarise our current understanding of the cellular and molecular processes associated with LAM and highlight emerging treatments. PMID:26713679

  10. B-type nuclear lamin and the nuclear pore complex Nup107-160 influences maintenance of the spindle envelope required for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Tanabe, Karin; Katsube, Hiroka; Inoue, Yoshihiro H

    2016-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, nuclear envelope (NE) disassembly allows chromatin to condense and spindle microtubules to access kinetochores. The nuclear lamina, which strengthens the NE, is composed of a polymer meshwork made of A- and B-type lamins. We found that the B-type lamin (Lam) is not fully disassembled and continues to localize along the spindle envelope structure during Drosophila male meiosis I, while the A-type lamin (LamC) is completely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Among the nuclear pore complex proteins, Nup107 co-localized with Lam during this meiotic division. Surprisingly, Lam depletion resulted in a higher frequency of cytokinesis failure in male meiosis. We also observed the similar meiotic phenotype in Nup107-depleted cells. Abnormal localization of Lam was found in the Nup-depleted cells at premeiotic and meiotic stages. The central spindle microtubules became abnormal and recruitment of a contractile ring component to the cleavage sites was disrupted in Lam-depleted cells and Nup107-depleted cells. Therefore, we speculate that both proteins are required for a reinforcement of the spindle envelope, which supports the formation of central spindle microtubules essential for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis. PMID:27402967

  11. Associations between dairy production indices and lipoarabinomannan enzyme-immunoassay results for paratuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    McNab, W B; Meek, A H; Martin, S W; Duncan, J R

    1991-01-01

    Data from an epidemiological study in Ontario, involving 304 dairy herds, were used to identify associations between selected production indices and lipoarabinomannan antigen serological test results for paratuberculosis (LAM-ELISA). Analyses were conducted at both the herd and individual cow levels of organization. After analytically controlling for management and cow factors in the respective regression models, positive serological paratuberculosis status (as defined by the LAM-ELISA test), was associated with higher milk somatic cell counts at both the herd average (p less than 0.01), and individual cow levels of organization (p less than 0.0001). In contrast, LAM-ELISA test results were consistently not associated with calving intervals in either the herd average or individual cow level analyses. Associations between LAM-ELISA results and milk production were inconsistent. No associations were found at the herd level of organization, and LAM-ELISA results were not associated with a change in breed class average (BCA) for milk, between the previous and the most recent lactations of individual cattle. However, at the individual cow level, LAM-ELISA results were positively associated with higher milk production as measured by the current BCA (p less than 0.05), and individual cow average kg of milk produced per year of life since two years of age (p less than 0.0001). PMID:1790492

  12. B-type nuclear lamin and the nuclear pore complex Nup107-160 influences maintenance of the spindle envelope required for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Tanabe, Karin; Katsube, Hiroka

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In higher eukaryotes, nuclear envelope (NE) disassembly allows chromatin to condense and spindle microtubules to access kinetochores. The nuclear lamina, which strengthens the NE, is composed of a polymer meshwork made of A- and B-type lamins. We found that the B-type lamin (Lam) is not fully disassembled and continues to localize along the spindle envelope structure during Drosophila male meiosis I, while the A-type lamin (LamC) is completely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Among the nuclear pore complex proteins, Nup107 co-localized with Lam during this meiotic division. Surprisingly, Lam depletion resulted in a higher frequency of cytokinesis failure in male meiosis. We also observed the similar meiotic phenotype in Nup107-depleted cells. Abnormal localization of Lam was found in the Nup-depleted cells at premeiotic and meiotic stages. The central spindle microtubules became abnormal and recruitment of a contractile ring component to the cleavage sites was disrupted in Lam-depleted cells and Nup107-depleted cells. Therefore, we speculate that both proteins are required for a reinforcement of the spindle envelope, which supports the formation of central spindle microtubules essential for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis. PMID:27402967

  13. Rapamycin-insensitive up-regulation of adipocyte phospholipase A2 in tuberous sclerosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenggang; Zhang, Erik; Sun, Yang; Lee, Po-Shun; Zhan, Yongzhong; Guo, Yanan; Osorio, Juan C; Rosas, Ivan O; Xu, Kai-Feng; Kwiatkowski, David J; Yu, Jane J

    2014-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis syndrome (TSC) is an autosomal dominant tumor suppressor gene syndrome affecting multiple organs, including renal angiomyolipomas and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). LAM is a female-predominant interstitial lung disease characterized by the progressive cyst formation and respiratory failure, which is also seen in sporadic patients without TSC. Mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 cause TSC, result in hyperactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and are also seen in LAM cells in sporadic LAM. We recently reported that prostaglandin biosynthesis and cyclooxygenase-2 were deregulated in TSC and LAM. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of plasma membrane phospholipids into prostaglandins. In this study, we identified upregulation of adipocyte AdPLA2 (PLA2G16) in LAM nodule cells using publicly available expression data. We showed that the levels of AdPLA2 transcript and protein were higher in LAM lungs compared with control lungs. We then showed that TSC2 negatively regulates the expression of AdPLA2, and loss of TSC2 is associated with elevated production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) in cell culture models. Mouse model studies also showed increased expression of AdPLA2 in xenograft tumors, estrogen-induced lung metastatic lesions of Tsc2 null leiomyoma-derived cells, and spontaneous renal cystadenomas from Tsc2+/- mice. Importantly, rapamycin treatment did not affect the expression of AdPLA2 and the production of PGE2 by TSC2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast (Tsc2-/-MEFs), rat uterine leiomyoma-derived ELT3 cells, and LAM patient-associated renal angiomyolipoma-derived "mesenchymal" cells. Furthermore, methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphate (MAFP), a potent irreversible PLA2 inhibitor, selectively suppressed the growth and induced apoptosis of TSC2-deficient LAM patient-derived cells relative to TSC2-addback cells. Our findings suggest that AdPLA2 plays an important role

  14. Erratum: Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces IL-37 production via upregulating ERK1/2 and p38 in human type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Gao Wei; Gao, Chun Hai; Chi, Xiu Wen; Zeng, Tao; Hu, Yan Wei; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The major surface lipoglycan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), is an immunosuppressive epitope of M. tb. Interleukin (IL)-37, is a newly identified anti-inflammatory cytokine, which reduces systemic and local inflammation. However, the correlation between ManLAM and IL-37 remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the possible role and relative molecular mechanism of ManLAM in IL-37 production of human type II alveolar epithelial cells by using A549 cell line. Here, we report that M. tb induced IL-37 mRNA and protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We next fractionated components of M. tb using chloroform: methanol (C:M) and water. In sharp contrast to the C:M phase, water phase was mainly responsible for the production of IL-37. Since ManLAM is the major component of water phase, we found that ManLAM induced IL-37 mRNA and protein expression in a time and dose-dependent manner, while this activity was almost totally abolished by the ERK1/2 (U0126) and p38 (SB203580) inhibitor. ManLAM stimulation significantly induced ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation in A549 cells, as well as cell surface TLR2 expression. After interfering TLR2 expression, ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation levels were markedly decreased, and also IL-37 production. Though ManLAM also promoted TLR4 expression on A549 cells, TLR4 interference showed no influence on ManLAM-induced IL-37 production. Our results indicate that ManLAM induces IL-37 production in human type II alveolar epithelial cells via up-regulating TLR2/p38 or ERK1/2 pathway, and this provide an important evidence to explain the pathological role of ManLAM that contribute to the persistence of M. tb.[This corrects the article on p. 7279 in vol. 8, PMID: 26221267.]. PMID:26770645

  15. Long-term lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis: A real-life cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ming-Hua; Lu, Ai-Lian; Li, Shi-Hua; Zhong, Shao-Hua; Wang, Bao-Jian; Wu, Xiao-Li; Mo, Yan-Yan; Liang, Peng; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Xie, Rong; He, Li-Xia; Fu, Wu-Dao; Jiang, Jian-Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and liver cirrhosis (LC) patients under whole-course management with lamivudine (LAM). METHODS: This was a retrospective-prospective cohort study based on two nonrandom cohorts of Chinese patients (LAM group and history control group). Two hundred thirty-eight patients with LAM treatment for at least 12 mo under whole-course management were included in the LAM group. The management measures included regular follow-up and timely adjustment of the therapeutic regimen according to drug-resistance and relapse. Two hundred thirty-eight patients with CHB or LC without any antiviral treatment and with follow-up over 12 mo were included in the history control group. The LAM and control group patients were 1:1 matched by propensity score method to ensure both patients were similar in general datum, sex, age, E antigen, and diagnosis. The incidence rates of endpoint events [LC, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and death] were compared between the LAM and control groups. RESULTS: Hepatitis B virus-DNA < 1000 copies per mL rate and rate of alanine transaminase < 1.3 of the upper normal limit in LAM and control groups were 89.1% vs 18.5% (P < 0.05) and 89.8% vs 31.1% (P < 0.05), respectively. Viral breakthrough occurred in 77 patients (32.4%); the one-, three-, and five-year cumulative rates were 6.8%, 33.1%, and 41.3%, respectively. In total, 44.5% (106/238) of patients had once stopped LAM, and 63 (59.4%) of them developed virologic relapse; the relapse rate of patients with and without reaching Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver endpoint criteria were 52.4% and 69.8%, respectively. Six CHB patients in the LAM group developed LC compared to 47 patients in the control group; the three-, and five-year cumulative rates of CHB at baseline of LAM were lower than those of the control group: 0.7% vs 12.0% and 1.8% vs 23.8% (P < 0.01), respectively. The incidence of HCC in CHB at baseline of LAM was

  16. Efficacy of switching to telbivudine plus adefovir in suboptimal responders to lamivudine plus adefovir

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hana; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Seung Up; Kim, Do Young; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Chon, Chae Yoon; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine the efficacy of telbivudine (LdT) + adefovir (ADV) vs continuation of lamivudine (LAM) + ADV in patients with LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who show a suboptimal response to LAM + ADV. METHODS: This was a randomized, active-control, open-label, single-center, parallel trial. All eligible patients were enrolled in this study in Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea, between March 2010 and March 2011. Hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg)-positive CHB patients whose serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA remained detectable despite at least 6 mo of LAM + ADV therapy were included. Enrolled patients were randomized to either switching to LdT (600 mg/d orally) plus ADV (10 mg/d orally) (LdT + ADV group) or to continuation with LAM (100 mg/d orally) plus ADV (10 mg/d orally) (LAM + ADV group), and were followed for 48 wk. One hundred and six patients completed the 48-wk treatment period. Serum HBV DNA, HBeAg status, liver biochemistry and safety were monitored at baseline and week 12, 24, 36 and 48. RESULTS: The duration of prior LAM + ADV treatment was 18.3 (LdT + ADV) and 14.9 mo (LAM + ADV), respectively (P = 0.131). No difference was seen in baseline serum HBV DNA between the two groups [3.66 (LdT + ADV) vs 3.76 (LAM + ADV) log10 IU/mL, P = 0.729]. At week 48, although there was no significant difference in the mean reduction of serum HBV DNA from baseline between LdT + ADV group and LAM + ADV group (-0.81 vs -0.47 log10 IU/mL, P = 0.167), more patients in the LdT + ADV group had undetectable HBV DNA levels compared to those in the LAM + ADV group (30.2% vs 11.5%, P = 0.019). Three patients with LdT + ADV treatment and 2 patients with LAM + ADV treatment achieved HBeAg loss. The patients in both groups tolerated the treatment well without serious adverse events. The proportion of patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥ 90 mL/min per 1.73 m2 in the LdT + ADV group increased from 49.1% (26/53) at

  17. Management of lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a multisystem disease affecting almost exclusively women, is characterized by cystic lung destruction and presents with dyspnea, recurrent pneumothoraxes, chylous effusions, lymphangioleiomyomas, and angiomyolipomas. It is caused by the proliferation of a cancer-like LAM cell that possesses a mutation in either the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)1 or TSC2 genes. This article reviews current therapies and new potential treatments that are currently undergoing investigation. The major development in the treatment of LAM is the discovery of two mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, sirolimus and everolimus, as effective drugs. However, inhibition of mTOR increases autophagy, which may lead to enhanced LAM cell survival. Use of autophagy inhibitors, for example, hydroxychloroquine, in combination with sirolimus is now the subject of an ongoing drug trial (SAIL trial). Another consequence of mTOR inhibition by sirolimus is an increase in Rho activity, resulting in reduced programmed cell death. From these data, the concept evolved that a combination of sirolimus with disruption of Rho activity with statins (e.g. simvastatin) may increase TSC-null cell death and reduce LAM cell survival. A combined trial of sirolimus with simvastatin is under investigation (SOS trial). Since LAM occurs primarily in women and TSC-null cell survival and tumor growth is promoted by estrogens, the inhibition of aromatase to block estrogen synthesis is currently undergoing study (TRAIL trial). Other targets, for example, estrogen receptors, mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, vascular endothelial growth factor-D signaling pathway, and Src kinase, are also being studied in experimental model systems. As in the case of cancer, combination therapy may become the treatment of choice for LAM. PMID:25580270

  18. Botanical features for identification of Gymnosporia arenicola dried leaf.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Gustavo; Serrano, Rita; Gomes, Elsa Teixeira; Silva, Olga

    2015-11-01

    Gymnosporia arenicola Jordaan (Celastraceae) is a shrub or small tree, which naturally occurs in coastal sand dunes of Southern Mozambique and South Africa. Its dried leaf is often used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Hereby, we present results of studies carried out according to the pharmacopoeia standards for the identification of herbal drugs, in the whole, fragmented, and powdered plant material. These results were complemented with scanning electron microscopy and histochemical techniques. The leaf microscopic analysis revealed a typical dorsiventral mesophyll with a corresponding spongy parenchyma-palisade parenchyma ratio of 0.60, anomocytic and paracytic stomata, papillate cells with a diameter of 4.00 ± 0.40 µm, multicellular uniseriate nonglandular trichomes with a length of 27.00 ± 4.10 µm and cristalliferous idioblasts containing calcium oxalate cluster crystals with a diameter of 23.04 ± 5.84 µm. The present findings demonstrate that the G. arenicola leaf has both nonglandular trichomes and hypoderm, features not previously described in the corresponding botanical section (Gymnosporia sect. Buxifoliae Jordaan). The establishment of these new botanical markers for the identification of G. arenicola leaf is essential for quality, safety and efficacy reasons. PMID:26303860

  19. Berberine Antifungal Activity in Fluconazole-Resistant Pathogenic Yeasts: Action Mechanism Evaluated by Flow Cytometry and Biofilm Growth Inhibition in Candida spp.

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Anderson Ramos; de Andrade Neto, João Batista; da Silva, Cecília Rocha; Campos, Rosana de Sousa; Costa Silva, Rose Anny; Freitas, Daniel Domingues; do Nascimento, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires; de Andrade, Larissa Nara Dantas; Sampaio, Letícia Serpa; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Magalhães, Hemerson Iury Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of fungal infections and, in particular, the incidence of fungal antibiotic resistance, which is associated with biofilm formation, have significantly increased, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Thus, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. In this context, natural products have emerged as a major source of possible antifungal agents. Berberine is a protoberberine-type isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the roots, rhizomes, and stem bark of natural herbs, such as Berberis aquifolium, Berberis vulgaris, Berberis aristata, and Hydrastis canadensis, and of Phellodendron amurense. Berberine has been proven to have broad antibacterial and antifungal activity. In the present study, the potential antifungal effect of berberine against fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains, as well as against the biofilm form of Candida spp., was assessed. The antifungal effect of berberine was determined by a broth microdilution method (the M27-A3 method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) and flow cytometry techniques, in which the probable mechanism of action of the compound was also assessed. For biofilm assessment, a colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the susceptibility of sessile cells. The isolates used in the study belonged to the Laboratory of Bioprospection and Experiments in Yeast (LABEL) of the Federal University of Ceará. After 24 and 72 h, fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains showed berberine MICs equal to 8 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml, respectively. Cytometric analysis showed that treatment with berberine caused alterations to the integrity of the plasma and mitochondrial membranes and DNA damage, which led to cell death, probably by apoptosis. Assessment of biofilm-forming isolates after treatment showed statistically significant reductions in biofilm cell activity (P < 0.001). PMID:27021328

  20. Indicator species of essential forest tree species in the Burdur district.

    PubMed

    Negiz, Mehmet Güvenç; Eser, Yunus; Kuzugüdenll, Emre; Izkan, Kürşad

    2015-01-01

    The forests of Burdur district for long have been subjected to over grazing and individual selection. As a result of this, majority of the forest areas in the district were degraded. In the district, afforestation efforts included majority of forestry implementations. It is well known that selecting suitable species plays an important role for achieving afforestation efforts. In this context, knowing the indicator species among the target species would be used in afforestation efforts, studies on the interrelationships between environmental factors and target species distribution is vital for selecting suitable species for a given area. In this study, Anatolian Black pine (Pinus nigra), Red pine (Pinus brutia), Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani), essential tree species, were considered as target species. The data taken from 100 sample plots in Burdur district was used. Interspecific correlation analysis was performed to determine the positive and negative indicator species among each of the target species. As a result of ICA, 2 positive (Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus), 2 negative (Phillyrea latifolia, Quercus coccifera) for Crimean Juniper, I positive (Juniperus oxycedrus), 3 negative (Onopordium acanthium, Fraxinus ornus, Phillyrea latifolia) for Anatolian black pine, 3 positive (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus coccifer, Crataegus orientalis), 2 negative (Berberis crataegina, Astragalus nanus) for Red pine and 3 positive (Berberis crataegina, Rhamnus oleoides, Astragalus prusianus) 2 negative (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus cerris) for Taurus cedarwere defined as indicator plant species. In this way, practical information was obtained for selecting the most suitable species, among the target species, for afforestation efforts in Burdur district. PMID:26591889

  1. Berberine Antifungal Activity in Fluconazole-Resistant Pathogenic Yeasts: Action Mechanism Evaluated by Flow Cytometry and Biofilm Growth Inhibition in Candida spp.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Anderson Ramos; de Andrade Neto, João Batista; da Silva, Cecília Rocha; Campos, Rosana de Sousa; Costa Silva, Rose Anny; Freitas, Daniel Domingues; do Nascimento, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires; de Andrade, Larissa Nara Dantas; Sampaio, Letícia Serpa; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Magalhães, Hemerson Iury Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Nobre Júnior, Hélio Vitoriano

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of fungal infections and, in particular, the incidence of fungal antibiotic resistance, which is associated with biofilm formation, have significantly increased, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Thus, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. In this context, natural products have emerged as a major source of possible antifungal agents. Berberine is a protoberberine-type isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the roots, rhizomes, and stem bark of natural herbs, such as Berberis aquifolium, Berberis vulgaris, Berberis aristata, and Hydrastis canadensis, and of Phellodendron amurense Berberine has been proven to have broad antibacterial and antifungal activity. In the present study, the potential antifungal effect of berberine against fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains, as well as against the biofilm form of Candida spp., was assessed. The antifungal effect of berberine was determined by a broth microdilution method (the M27-A3 method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) and flow cytometry techniques, in which the probable mechanism of action of the compound was also assessed. For biofilm assessment, a colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the susceptibility of sessile cells. The isolates used in the study belonged to the Laboratory of Bioprospection and Experiments in Yeast (LABEL) of the Federal University of Ceará. After 24 and 72 h, fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains showed berberine MICs equal to 8 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml, respectively. Cytometric analysis showed that treatment with berberine caused alterations to the integrity of the plasma and mitochondrial membranes and DNA damage, which led to cell death, probably by apoptosis. Assessment of biofilm-forming isolates after treatment showed statistically significant reductions in biofilm cell activity (P < 0.001). PMID:27021328

  2. Medicinal plants of Chile: evaluation of their anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Orlando M; Maya, Juan D; Ferreira, Jorge; Christen, Philippe; San Martin, José; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo; Morello, Antonio; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    The extracts of several plants of Central Chile exhibited anti-Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes activity. Most active extracts were those obtained from Podanthus ovatifolius, Berberis microphylla, Kageneckia oblonga, and Drimys winteri. The active extract of Drimys winteri (IC50 51.2 microg/mL) was purified and three drimane sesquiterpenes were obtained: polygodial, drimenol, and isodrimenin. Isodrimenin and drimenol were found to be active against the trypomastigote form of T. cruzi with IC50 values of 27.9 and 25.1 microM, respectively. PMID:23923616

  3. A Single ssDNA Aptamer Binding to Mannose-Capped Lipoarabinomannan of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Enhances Immunoprotective Effect against Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoming; Pan, Qin; Yuan, Chunhui; Wang, Qilong; Tang, Xiao-Lei; Ding, Kan; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Lian

    2016-09-14

    Because Mycobacterium bovis, termed bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only available used tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, retains immunomodulatory properties that limit its protective immunogenicity, there are continuous efforts to identify the immunosuppression mechanism as well as new strategies for improving the immunogenicity of BCG. Here, an ssDNA aptamer "antibody" BM2 specifically bound to the mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) of BCG was selected. BM2 significantly blocked ManLAM-mannose receptor (MR) binding, triggered ManLAM-CD44 signaling, and enhanced M1 macrophage and Th1 activation via cellular surface CD44 in vitro and in vivo. BM2 enhanced immunoprotective effects of BCG against virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv infection in mice and monkeys models. Thus, we report a new mechanism of the interaction between ManLAM and CD44 on macrophages and CD4(+) T cells and reveal that ManLAM-binding membrane molecule CD44 is a novel target for the enhancement of BCG immunogenicity, and BM2 has strong potential as an immune enhancer for BCG. PMID:27529508

  4. Generation of a human hepatoma cell line supporting efficient replication of a lamivudine resistant hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijun; Zhang, Yongmei; Kang, Yaoyue; Wang, Jinyu; Liu, Hongyan; Zhu, Haoxiang; Qin, Yanli; Mao, Richeng; Lin, Xu; Lu, Mengji; Zhang, Jiming

    2014-06-01

    Emergence of lamivudine (LAM) resistance causes treatment failure in patients with chronic hepatitis B and compromise the efficacy of subsequent salvage therapies with other nucleot(s)ide analogs (NAs). Establishment of cell-based assays supporting LAM-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication will not only provide tools for investigating the replication property, but also screening for antiviral agents efficiently inhibiting the replication of LAM-resistant HBV variants. Accordingly, a human hepatoma (HepG2)-derived cell line was established by stable transfection of a plasmid containing a 1.2 unit length of HBV genome harboring rtL180M and rtM204V mutations that confer LAM resistance. In addition to support efficient viral genome replication, the cell line also produces high levels of HBV virions and subviral particles. As expected, HBV DNA replication in this cell line is completely resistant to lamivudine, but sensitive to adefovir (ADV), entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir (TDF). The cell line is suitable for screening for antiviral agents that inhibit LAM-resistant HBV replication and inhibitors of HBsAg biosynthesis and secretion, which may reduce HBsAg antigenemia and ultimately help to restore host antiviral immune response against HBV and cure chronic HBV infection. PMID:24583110

  5. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design.

    PubMed

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support. PMID:25710895

  6. Erythropoietin-driven proliferation of cells with mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TSC2

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M.; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Steagall, Wendy K.; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Gochuico, Bernadette R.; May, Rose M.; Hathaway, Olanda M.; Li, Shaowei; Wang, Ji-an; Darling, Thomas N.; Stylianou, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is characterized by cystic lung destruction, resulting from proliferation of smooth-muscle-like cells, which have mutations in the tumor suppressor genes TSC1 or TSC2. Among 277 LAM patients, severe disease was associated with hypoxia and elevated red blood cell indexes that accompanied reduced pulmonary function. Because high red cell indexes could result from hypoxemia-induced erythropoietin (EPO) production, and EPO is a smooth muscle cell mitogen, we investigated effects of EPO in human cells with genetic loss of tuberin function, and we found that EPO increased proliferation of human TSC2−/−, but not of TSC2+/−, cells. A discrete population of cells grown from explanted lungs was characterized by the presence of EPO receptor and loss of heterozygosity for TSC2, consistent with EPO involvement. In LAM cells from lung nodules, EPO was localized to the extracellular matrix, supporting evidence for activation of an EPO-driven signaling pathway. Although the high red cell mass of LAM patients could be related to advanced disease, we propose that EPO, synthesized in response to episodic hypoxia, may increase disease progression by enhancing the proliferation of LAM cells. PMID:21036916

  7. Cost Estimation of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piili, Heidi; Happonen, Ari; Väistö, Tapio; Venkataramanan, Vijaikrishnan; Partanen, Jouni; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a layer wise fabrication method in which a laser beam melts metallic powder to form solid objects. Although 3D printing has been invented 30 years ago, the industrial use is quite limited whereas the introduction of cheap consumer 3D printers, in recent years, has familiarized the 3D printing. Interest is focused more and more in manufacturing of functional parts. Aim of this study is to define and discuss the current economic opportunities and restrictions of LAM process. Manufacturing costs were studied with different build scenarios each with estimated cost structure by calculated build time and calculating the costs of the machine, material and energy with optimized machine utilization. All manufacturing and time simulations in this study were carried out with a research machine equal to commercial EOS M series equipment. The study shows that the main expense in LAM is the investment cost of the LAM machine, compared to which the relative proportions of the energy and material costs are very low. The manufacturing time per part is the key factor to optimize costs of LAM.

  8. Study of breast cancer incidence in patients of lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Olivier; Román, Antonio; Johnson, Simon R; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Hirose, Masaki; Casanova, Álvaro; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Herranz, Carmen; Bueno-Moreno, Gema; Boni, Jacopo; Mateo, Francesca; Petit, Anna; Climent, Fina; Soler, Teresa; Vidal, August; Sánchez-Mut, José Vicente; Esteller, Manel; López, José Ignacio; García, Nadia; Gumà, Anna; Ortega, Raúl; Plà, María Jesús; Campos, Miriam; Ansótegui, Emilio; Molina-Molina, María; Valenzuela, Claudia; Ussetti, Piedad; Laporta, Rosalía; Ancochea, Julio; Xaubet, Antoni; Pollán, Marina; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2016-02-01

    Molecular evidence has linked the pathophysiology of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) to that of metastatic breast cancer. Following on this observation, we assessed the association between LAM and subsequent breast cancer. An epidemiological study was carried out using three LAM country cohorts, from Japan, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The number of incident breast cancer cases observed in these cohorts was compared with the number expected on the basis of the country-specific incidence rates for the period 2000-2014. Immunohistochemical studies and exome sequence analysis were performed in two and one tumors, respectively. All cohorts revealed breast cancer standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) ≥ 2.25. The combined analysis of all cases or restricted to pre-menopausal age groups revealed significantly higher incidence of breast cancer: SIR = 2.81, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.32-5.57, P = 0.009; and SIR = 4.88, 95 % CI = 2.29-9.99, P = 0.0007, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses showed positivity for known markers of lung metastatic potential. This study suggests the existence of increased breast cancer risk among LAM patients. Prospective studies may be warranted to corroborate this result, which may be particularly relevant for pre-menopausal women with LAM. PMID:26951504

  9. The Association between Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Genotype and Drug Resistance in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Louis; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Lithgow, Anna; Gilman, Robert H; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Noriko; Martin, Laura; Castillo, Edith; Alarcon, Valentina; Coronel, Jorge; Solano, Walter; Aminian, Minoo; Guezala, Claudia; Rastogi, Nalin; Couvin, David; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko; Moore, David AJ

    2015-01-01

    Background The comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterial genotypes with phenotypic, demographic, geospatial and clinical data improves our understanding of how strain lineage influences the development of drug-resistance and the spread of tuberculosis. Methods To investigate the association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterial genotype with drug-resistance. Drug susceptibility testing together with genotyping using both 15-loci MIRU-typing and spoligotyping, was performed on 2,139 culture positive isolates, each from a different patient in Lima, Peru. Demographic, geospatial and socio-economic data were collected using questionnaires, global positioning equipment and the latest national census. Results The Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) clade (OR 2.4, p<0.001) was significantly associated with drug-resistance and alone accounted for more than half of all drug resistance in the region. Previously treated patients, prisoners and genetically clustered cases were also significantly associated with drug-resistance (OR's 2.5, 2.4 and 1.8, p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively). Conclusions Tuberculosis disease caused by the LAM clade was more likely to be drug resistant independent of important clinical, genetic and socio-economic confounding factors. Explanations for this include; the preferential co-evolution of LAM strains in a Latin American population, a LAM strain bacterial genetic background that favors drug-resistance or the "founder effect" from pre-existing LAM strains disproportionately exposed to drugs. PMID:25984723

  10. Lipoarabinomannan-specific TNF-α and IFN-γ as markers of protective immunity against tuberculosis: a cohort study in an endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Belay, Mulugeta; Legesse, Mengistu; Mihret, Adane; Bekele, Yonas; Bjune, Gunnar; Abebe, Fekadu

    2015-10-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a virulent factor used for entry and survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in macrophages. Although the role of LAM for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) has been extensively investigated, its cytokine response during natural Mtb infection in humans is largely unknown. In this study, LAM-specific IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 levels following whole blood assay were measured in untreated pulmonary TB patients, their contacts and community controls at baseline. In treated patients and contacts, cytokines were also measured at 6 and 12 months. At entry, 52.8% and 74.8% of controls and contacts were QFT-GIT positive, respectively. At baseline, untreated TB patients and contacts had significantly lower IFN-γ and TNF-α response compared to community controls (p < 0.0001). Besides, untreated patients had significantly higher TNF-α and IL-10 response compared to their contacts (p < 0.0001). At 6 months, contacts and treated TB patients had significantly increased INF-γ and TNF-α response (p < 0.0001). In TB patients, IFN-γ increased 10-fold following chemotherapy suggesting its potential role for treatment monitoring. The data suggests that LAM might have an anti-inflammatory effect during clinical TB and early Mtb infection. The data also suggests that LAM-induced IFN-γ and TNF-α could be used as biomarkers of protective immunity. PMID:26200933

  11. Linear Amplification Mediated PCR – Localization of Genetic Elements and Characterization of Unknown Flanking DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Richard; Kutschera, Ina; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; von Kalle, Christof; Schmidt, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Linear-amplification mediated PCR (LAM-PCR) has been developed to study hematopoiesis in gene corrected cells of patients treated by gene therapy with integrating vector systems. Due to the stable integration of retroviral vectors, integration sites can be used to study the clonal fate of individual cells and their progeny. LAM- PCR for the first time provided evidence that leukemia in gene therapy treated patients originated from provirus induced overexpression of a neighboring proto-oncogene. The high sensitivity and specificity of LAM-PCR compared to existing methods like inverse PCR and ligation mediated (LM)-PCR is achieved by an initial preamplification step (linear PCR of 100 cycles) using biotinylated vector specific primers which allow subsequent reaction steps to be carried out on solid phase (magnetic beads). LAM-PCR is currently the most sensitive method available to identify unknown DNA which is located in the proximity of known DNA. Recently, a variant of LAM-PCR has been developed that circumvents restriction digest thus abrogating retrieval bias of integration sites and enables a comprehensive analysis of provirus locations in host genomes. The following protocol explains step-by-step the amplification of both 3’- and 5’- sequences adjacent to the integrated lentiviral vector. PMID:24998871

  12. HBsAg seroconversion after pegylated interferon alfa 2a rescue in a lamivudine-resistant patient with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B and favourable IL28-B genotype.

    PubMed

    Stanzione, Maria; Stornaiuolo, Gianfranca; Rizzo, Viviana; Pontarelli, Agostina; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion to anti-HBs antibody is the best final objective for all available chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatments. Unfortunately, this goal is rarely achieved with the currently applied therapeutic approaches. Here we describe the case of an anti-HBe-positive CHB patient who was successfully treated with a particular therapeutic schedule. The patient was initially treated with lamivudine (LAM) for nine years. Breakthrough was observed after eight years of LAM therapy. HBV-DNA was 3x10E4 IU/mL and LAM resistance mutations were present. Subcutaneous pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa 2a, 180 mcg/week, was added to LAM and after 4 weeks LAM was discontinued and PEG-IFN alone was continued up to week 52. HBV-DNA became undetectable at week 4 of therapy; serum HBsAg started to decline from week 4 and became undetectable at week 36, with the subsequent appearance of anti-HBs antibodies. IL28-B was genotyped at the polymorphic site rs12979860 and the CC allele was detected. Rescue therapy with Peg-IFN may be an option for selected patients with resistance to nucleos(t)ide analogues. PMID:27367326

  13. Involvement of Antilipoarabinomannan Antibodies in Classical Complement Activation in Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hetland, Geir; Wiker, Harald G.; Høgåsen, Kolbjørn; Hamasur, Beston; Svenson, Stefan B.; Harboe, Morten

    1998-01-01

    We examined alternative and classical complement activation induced by whole bacilli of Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis products. After exposure to BCG, there were higher levels of the terminal complement complex in sera from Indian tuberculosis patients than in sera from healthy controls. The addition of BCG with or without EGTA to these sera indicated that approximately 70 to 85% of the total levels of the terminal complement complex was formed by classical activation. Sera from Indian tuberculosis patients contained more antibody to lipoarabinomannan (LAM) than sera from healthy Indians. Levels of anti-LAM immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2), but not anti-LAM IgM, correlated positively with classical activation induced by BCG in the sera. By flow cytometry, deposition of C3 and terminal complement complex on bacilli incubated with normal human serum was demonstrated. The anticomplement staining was significantly reduced in the presence of EGTA and EDTA. Flow cytometry also revealed the binding of complement to BCG incubated with rabbit anti-LAM and then with factor B-depleted serum. This indicates that classical activation plays a major role in complement activation induced by mycobacteria and that anti-LAM IgG on the bacilli can mediate this response. Classical complement activation may be important for the extent of phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis by mononuclear phagocytes, which may influence the course after infection. PMID:9521145

  14. Diverse Molecular Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates Circulating in the Free State, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van der Spoel van Dijk, Anneke; Makhoahle, Pakiso M; Rigouts, Leen; Baba, Kamaldeen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious public health concern especially in Africa and Asia. Studies describing strain diversity are lacking in the Free State region of South Africa. The aim of the study was to describe the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strain families in the Free State province of South Africa. A total of 86 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping. A 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) typing was used to further characterize the resulting spoligotyping clusters. SITVITWEB identified 49 different patterns with allocation to six lineages including Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) (18 isolates), T (14 isolates), Beijing (five isolates), S (six isolates), Haarlem (one isolate), and X (five isolates), while 37 (43.0%) orphans were identified. Eight clusters included 37 isolates with identical spoligotypes (2 to 13/cluster). MIRU-VNTR typing further differentiated three spoligotyping clusters: SIT1/Beijing/MIT17, SIT33/LAM3/MIT213, and confirmed one SIT34/S/MIT311. In addition, SpolDB3/RIM assignment of the orphan strains resulted in a further 10 LAM and 13 T families. In total, LAM (28 isolates) and T (27 isolates) cause 63% of the individual cases of MTB in our study. The Free State has a highly diverse TB population with LAM being predominant. Further studies with inclusion of multidrug-resistant strains with larger sample size are warranted. PMID:27073397

  15. Diverse Molecular Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates Circulating in the Free State, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rigouts, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious public health concern especially in Africa and Asia. Studies describing strain diversity are lacking in the Free State region of South Africa. The aim of the study was to describe the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strain families in the Free State province of South Africa. A total of 86 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping. A 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) typing was used to further characterize the resulting spoligotyping clusters. SITVITWEB identified 49 different patterns with allocation to six lineages including Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) (18 isolates), T (14 isolates), Beijing (five isolates), S (six isolates), Haarlem (one isolate), and X (five isolates), while 37 (43.0%) orphans were identified. Eight clusters included 37 isolates with identical spoligotypes (2 to 13/cluster). MIRU-VNTR typing further differentiated three spoligotyping clusters: SIT1/Beijing/MIT17, SIT33/LAM3/MIT213, and confirmed one SIT34/S/MIT311. In addition, SpolDB3/RIM assignment of the orphan strains resulted in a further 10 LAM and 13 T families. In total, LAM (28 isolates) and T (27 isolates) cause 63% of the individual cases of MTB in our study. The Free State has a highly diverse TB population with LAM being predominant. Further studies with inclusion of multidrug-resistant strains with larger sample size are warranted. PMID:27073397

  16. Innervation of the levator ani muscles: description of the nerve branches to the pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, and puborectalis muscles.

    PubMed

    Grigorescu, Bogdan A; Lazarou, George; Olson, Todd R; Downie, Sherry A; Powers, Kenneth; Greston, Wilma Markus; Mikhail, Magdy S

    2008-01-01

    We described the innervation of the levator ani muscles (LAM) in human female cadavers. Detailed pelvic dissections of the pubococcygeus (PCM), iliococcygeus (ICM), and puborectalis muscles (PRM) were performed on 17 formaldehyde-fixed cadavers. The pudendal nerve and the sacral nerves entering the pelvis were traced thoroughly, and nerve branches innervating the LAM were documented. Histological analysis of nerve branches entering the LAM confirmed myelinated nerve tissue. LAM were innervated by the pudendal nerve branches, perineal nerve, and inferior rectal nerve (IRN) in 15 (88.2%) and 6 (35.3%) cadavers, respectively, and by the direct sacral nerves S3 and/or S4 in 12 cadavers (70.6%). A variant IRN, independent of the pudendal nerve, was found to innervate the LAM in seven (41.2%) cadavers. The PCM and the PRM were both primarily innervated by the pudendal nerve branches in 13 cadavers (76.5%) each. The ICM was primarily innervated by the direct sacral nerves S3 and/or S4 in 11 cadavers (64.7%). PMID:17565421

  17. Liposomal Amphotericin B (AmBisome(®)): A Review of the Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Clinical Experience and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Stone, Neil R H; Bicanic, Tihana; Salim, Rahuman; Hope, William

    2016-03-01

    Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome(®); LAmB) is a unique lipid formulation of amphotericin B. LAmB is a standard of care for a wide range of medically important opportunistic fungal pathogens. LAmB has a significantly improved toxicity profile compared with conventional amphotericin B deoxycholate (DAmB). Despite nearly 20 years of clinical use, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of this agent, which differ considerably from DAmB, remain relatively poorly understood and underutilized in the clinical setting. The molecular pharmacology, preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetics, and clinical experience with LAmB for the most commonly encountered fungal pathogens are reviewed. In vitro, experimental animal models and human clinical trial data are summarized, and novel routes of administration and dosing schedules are discussed. LAmB is a formulation that results in reduced toxicity as compared with DAmB while retaining the antifungal effect of the active agent. Its long terminal half-life and retention in tissues suggest that single or intermittent dosing regimens are feasible, and these should be actively investigated in both preclinical models and in clinical trials. Significant gaps remain in knowledge of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in special populations such as neonates and children, pregnant women and obese patients. PMID:26818726

  18. Integrating Learning Styles and Personality Traits into an Affective Model to Support Learner's Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontidis, Makis; Halatsis, Constantin

    The aim of this paper is to present a model in order to integrate the learning style and the personality traits of a learner into an enhanced Affective Style which is stored in the learner’s model. This model which can deal with the cognitive abilities as well as the affective preferences of the learner is called Learner Affective Model (LAM). The LAM is used to retain learner’s knowledge and activities during his interaction with a Web-based learning environment and also to provide him with the appropriate pedagogical guidance. The proposed model makes use of an ontological approach in combination with the Bayesian Network model and contributes to the efficient management of the LAM in an Affective Module.

  19. Kinetics of Transition between HEX and Lamellar Phases in a triblock copolymer solution in a selective solvent.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongsheng; Bansil, Rama; Steinhart, Milos

    2006-03-01

    Synchrotron based time-resolved small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), was used to study the kinetics of ordering transition (OOT) between cylindrical micelles in HEX phase and lamellar (LAM) phase in a 0.4 (w/v) solution of a triblock of polystyrene (PS) and poly(ethylene-co-butylene) (PEB), SEBS (PS-PEB-PS) copolymer in Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP), a selective solvent for the PS block. From a temperature ramp experiment the OOT was identified at about 137C and an ODT above 160 C. Several temperature jump experiments from HEX to LAM and the reverse were performed over the temperature range of 110-155C. Detailed analysis of the time evolution of the intensities of the Bragg peaks to follow the kinetics of the transition between HEX and LAM phases will be presented. A model to explain the transition mechanism will be discussed. This research was supported by NSF-DMR.

  20. From efficacy to effectiveness: selecting indicators for a community-based lactational amenorrhoea method promotion programme.

    PubMed

    Bender, D E; Dusch, E; McCann, M F

    1998-04-01

    This paper reviews the results of clinical trials and community studies of lactational amenorrhoea and its role as a contraceptive method (LAM). Indicators which are used in efficacy trials and effectiveness interventions are compared and sets of indicators of effectiveness appropriate to community-based LAM programmes are recommended. A five-tiered ecological framework is used to facilitate selection of indicators which range from individual to policy level outcomes. The indicator framework is intended as a tool for health practitioners in family planning and maternal and child health service delivery settings who are interested in designing programmatic interventions for the promotion of LAM, particularly among less well-educated women of lower socioeconomic communities. PMID:9746825

  1. Nematicity in stripe ordered cuprates probed via resonant x-ray scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Achkar, A. J.; Zwiebler, M.; McMahon, Christopher; He, F.; Sutarto, R.; Dijianto, Isaiah; Hao, Zhihao; Gingras, Michael J.P.; Hucker, M.; Gu, G. D.; et al

    2016-02-05

    We found that in underdoped cuprate superconductors, a rich competition occurs between superconductivity and charge density wave (CDW) order. Whether rotational symmetry-breaking (nematicity) occurs intrinsically and generically or as a consequence of other orders is under debate. Here, we employ resonant x-ray scattering in stripe-ordered superconductors (La,M)2CuO4 to probe the relationship between electronic nematicity of the Cu 3d orbitals, structure of the (La,M)2O2 layers, and CDW order. We find distinct temperature dependences for the structure of the (La,M)2O2 layers and the electronic nematicity of the CuO2 planes, with only the latter being enhanced by the onset of CDW order. Ourmore » results identify electronic nematicity as an order parameter that is distinct from a purely structural order parameter in underdoped striped cuprates.« less

  2. Development of a magnetic coagulant based on Moringa oleifera seed extract for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Santos, Tássia R T; Silva, Marcela F; Nishi, Leticia; Vieira, Angélica M S; Klein, Márcia R F; Andrade, Murilo B; Vieira, Marcelo F; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2016-04-01

    In this work, to evaluate the effectiveness of the coagulation/flocculation using a natural coagulant, using Moringa oleifera Lam functionalized with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, producing flakes that are attracted by an external magnetic field, thereby allowing a fast settling and separation of the clarified liquid, is proposed. The removal efficiency of the parameters, apparent color, turbidity, and compounds with UV254nm absorption, was evaluated. The magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant could effectively remove 90 % of turbidity, 85 % of apparent color, and 50 % for the compounds with absorption at UV254nm, in surface waters under the influence of an external magnetic field within 30 min. It was found that the coagulation/flocculation treatment using magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant was able to reduce the values of the physico-chemical parameters evaluated with reduced settling time. PMID:26743649

  3. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation of long-anode magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Rajendra Kumar; Maurya, Shivendra; Singh, Vindhyavasini Prasad

    2016-03-01

    Long Anode Magnetron (LAM) is a design scheme adopted to attain greater thermal stability and higher power levels for the conventional magnetrons. So a LAM for 5MW Power level at 2.858 GHz was `Virtual Prototyped' using Admittance Matching field theory (AMT) andthen a PIC Study (Beam-wave interaction) was conducted using CST Particle Studio (CST-PS) which is explained in this paper. The convincing results thus obtained were - hot resonant frequency of 2.834 GHz. Output power of 5 MW at beam voltage of 58kV and applied magnetic field of 2200 Gauss with an overall efficiency of 45%. The simulated parameters values on comparison with the E2V LAM tube (M5028) were in good agreement which validates the feasibility of the design approach.

  4. Mode of operation and low-resolution structure of a multi-domain and hyperthermophilic endo-β-1,3-glucanase from Thermotoga petrophila.

    PubMed

    Cota, Junio; Alvarez, Thabata M; Citadini, Ana P; Santos, Camila Ramos; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Oliveira, Renata R; Pastore, Glaucia M; Ruller, Roberto; Prade, Rolf A; Murakami, Mario T; Squina, Fabio M

    2011-03-25

    1,3-β-Glucan depolymerizing enzymes have considerable biotechnological applications including biofuel production, feedstock-chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Here we describe a comprehensive functional characterization and low-resolution structure of a hyperthermophilic laminarinase from Thermotoga petrophila (TpLam). We determine TpLam enzymatic mode of operation, which specifically cleaves internal β-1,3-glucosidic bonds. The enzyme most frequently attacks the bond between the 3rd and 4th residue from the non-reducing end, producing glucose, laminaribiose and laminaritriose as major products. Far-UV circular dichroism demonstrates that TpLam is formed mainly by beta structural elements, and the secondary structure is maintained after incubation at 90°C. The structure resolved by small angle X-ray scattering, reveals a multi-domain structural architecture of a V-shape envelope with a catalytic domain flanked by two carbohydrate-binding modules. PMID:21352806

  5. Characterization of Effect of Support Structures in Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, Jukka-Pekka; Matilainen, Ville; Li, Xiaoyun; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti; Mäkelä, Ismo; Nyrhilä, Olli

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of stainless steel is a layer wisetechnology for fabricating 3D parts from metal powder via selectively melting powder with laser beam. Support structures play a significant role in LAM process as they help to remove heat away from the process and on the other hand hold the work piece in its place. A successful design of support structures can help to achievea building process fast and inexpensive with high quality. Aimof this study was to characterize the usability of two types of support structures: web and tube supports. Purpose of this studywas also to analyze how suitable they are in two industrial application cases: case for dental application and case for jewelry application. It was concluded that the removability of web supports was much better than tube supports. It was noticed that support structures are an important part of LAM process and they strongly affect the manufacturability and the end quality of the part.

  6. Equine lamellar energy metabolism studied using tissue microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Medina-Torres, C E; Pollitt, C C; Underwood, C; Castro-Olivera, E M; Collins, S N; Allavena, R E; Richardson, D W; van Eps, A W

    2014-09-01

    Failure of lamellar energy metabolism may contribute to the pathophysiology of equine laminitis. Tissue microdialysis has the potential to dynamically monitor lamellar energy balance over time. The objectives of this study were to develop a minimally invasive lamellar microdialysis technique and use it to measure normal lamellar energy metabolite concentrations over 24 h. Microdialysis probes were placed (through the white line) into either the lamellar dermis (LAM) (n = 6) or the sublamellar dermis (SUBLAM) (n = 6) and perfused continuously over a 24 h study period. Probes were placed in the skin dermis (SKIN) for simultaneous comparison to LAM (n = 6). Samples were collected every 2 h and analysed for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, urea and glycerol concentrations. LAM was further compared with SUBLAM by simultaneous placement and sampling in four feet from two horses over 4 h. Horses were monitored for lameness, and either clinically evaluated for 1 month after probe removal (n = 4) or subjected to histological evaluation of the probe site (n = 10). There were no deleterious clinical effects of probe placement and the histological response was mild. Sample fluid recovery and metabolite concentrations were stable for 24 h. Glucose was lower (and lactate:glucose ratio higher) in LAM compared with SUBLAM and SKIN (P < 0.05). Pyruvate was lower in SUBLAM than SKIN and urea was lower in LAM than SKIN (P < 0.05). These differences suggest lower perfusion and increased glucose consumption in LAM compared with SUBLAM and SKIN. In conclusion, lamellar tissue microdialysis was well tolerated and may be useful for determining the contribution of energy failure in laminitis pathogenesis. PMID:24947715

  7. M. leprae components induce nerve damage by complement activation: identification of lipoarabinomannan as the dominant complement activator.

    PubMed

    Bahia El Idrissi, Nawal; Das, Pranab K; Fluiter, Kees; Rosa, Patricia S; Vreijling, Jeroen; Troost, Dirk; Morgan, B Paul; Baas, Frank; Ramaglia, Valeria

    2015-05-01

    Peripheral nerve damage is the hallmark of leprosy pathology but its etiology is unclear. We previously identified the membrane attack complex (MAC) of the complement system as a key determinant of post-traumatic nerve damage and demonstrated that its inhibition is neuroprotective. Here, we determined the contribution of the MAC to nerve damage caused by Mycobacterium leprae and its components in mouse. Furthermore, we studied the association between MAC and the key M. leprae component lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in nerve biopsies of leprosy patients. Intraneural injections of M. leprae sonicate induced MAC deposition and pathological changes in the mouse nerve, whereas MAC inhibition preserved myelin and axons. Complement activation occurred mainly via the lectin pathway and the principal activator was LAM. In leprosy nerves, the extent of LAM and MAC immunoreactivity was robust and significantly higher in multibacillary compared to paucibacillary donors (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively), with a highly significant association between LAM and MAC in the diseased samples (r = 0.9601, p = 0.0001). Further, MAC co-localized with LAM on axons, pointing to a role for this M. leprae antigen in complement activation and nerve damage in leprosy. Our findings demonstrate that MAC contributes to nerve damage in a model of M. leprae-induced nerve injury and its inhibition is neuroprotective. In addition, our data identified LAM as the key pathogen associated molecule that activates complement and causes nerve damage. Taken together our data imply an important role of complement in nerve damage in leprosy and may inform the development of novel therapeutics for patients. PMID:25772973

  8. Mutational analysis of reverse transcriptase and surface proteins of patients with partial virological response during mono and combination antiviral therapies in genotype D chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Mahabadi, Mostafa; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Norouzi, Mehdi; Keyvani, Hossein; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The mutational pattern of chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is unclear in patients who show incomplete response to antiviral therapy. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the benefit of combination therapy with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and Lamivudine (LAM) versus ADV or LAM alone in maintaining virological, biochemical and histological responses and 2) to investigate the patterns of mutations in the reverse transcriptase and surface proteins of HBV with LAM and/or ADF-resistant in partially-responded chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Methods The study group consisted of 186 chronic HBV carriers who were admitted to the Tehran Hepatitis Network from 2010 to 2013. We retrospectively selected 86 patients who partially responded to different nucleoside analogue regimens. After 48 weeks of therapy, five groups of patients were defined including eight Lamivudine (LAM) Group (I), 30 Adefovir (ADV) Group (II), 16 ADV add on LAM Group (III), 32 ADV+LAM Group (IV), and 100 controls (no therapy). Reverse transcriptase (RT) and surface genes were amplified and sequenced for mutational analysis. Results All groups showed differences between mean values for age, gender, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and HBV DNA levels groups showed significant differences than other groups (p < 0.05). The mutation frequencies for groups were I (1.7%), II (1.39%), III (2.28%), IV (2.0%), and V (0.38%). T54N, L80I/V, I91L/V, L180M, M204I/V, Q215P/S, and F221Y/S showed the highest number of mutations in all groups with different frequencies. Four new, unreported mutations were found. Conclusion Those patients who failed to respond in the first 48 weeks, whether they were receiving mono or combination therapy, should be tested genotypically, for the early modification of treatment. PMID:27504160

  9. A Single Arabinan Chain Is Attached to the Phosphatidylinositol Mannosyl Core of the Major Immunomodulatory Mycobacterial Cell Envelope Glycoconjugate, Lipoarabinomannan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Devinder; Angala, Shiva K.; Wu, Sz-Wei; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Chatterjee, Delphi; Brennan, Patrick J.; Jackson, Mary; McNeil, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is composed of a phosphatidylinositol anchor followed by a mannan followed by an arabinan that may be capped with various motifs including oligosaccharides of mannose. A related polymer, lipomannan (LM), is composed of only the phosphatidylinositol and mannan core. Both the structure and the biosynthesis of LAM have been studied extensively. However, fundamental questions about the branching structure of LM and the number of arabinan chains on the mannan backbone in LAM remain. LM and LAM molecules produced by three different glycosyltransferase mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis were used here to investigate these questions. Using an MSMEG_4241 mutant that lacks the α-(1,6)-mannosyltransferase used late in LM elongation, we showed that the reducing end region of the mannan that is attached to inositol has 5–7 unbranched α-6-linked-mannosyl residues followed by two or three α-6-linked mannosyl residues branched with single α-mannopyranose residues at O-2. After these branched mannosyl residues, the α-6-linked mannan chain is terminated with an α-mannopyranose at O-2 rather than O-6 of the penultimate residue. Analysis of the number of arabinans attached to the mannan core of LM in two other mutants (ΔembC and ΔMSMEG_4247) demonstrated exactly one arabinosyl substitution of the mannan core suggestive of the arabinosylation of a linear LM precursor with ∼10–12 mannosyl residues followed by additional mannosylation of the core and arabinosylation of a single arabinosyl “primer.” Thus, these studies suggest that only a single arabinan chain attached near the middle of the mannan core is present in mature LAM and allow for an updated working model of the biosynthetic pathway of LAM and LM. PMID:25231986

  10. Strain classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Brazil based on genotypes obtained by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit typing and the presence of large sequence and single nucleotide polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Sidra E G; Acosta, Chyntia Carolina; Gomes, Lia Lima; Conceição, Emilyn Costa; Lima, Karla Valéria; de Araujo, Marcelo Ivens; Leite, Maria de Lourdes; Tannure, Flávio; Caldas, Paulo Cesar de Souza; Gomes, Harrison M; Santos, Adalberto Rezende; Gomgnimbou, Michel K; Sola, Christophe; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Boechat, Neio; Suffys, Philip Noel

    2014-01-01

    Rio de Janeiro is endemic for tuberculosis (TB) and presents the second largest prevalence of the disease in Brazil. Here, we present the bacterial population structure of 218 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, derived from 186 patients that were diagnosed between January 2008 and December 2009. Genotypes were generated by means of spoligotyping, 24 MIRU-VNTR typing and presence of fbpC103, RDRio and RD174. The results confirmed earlier data that predominant genotypes in Rio de Janeiro are those of the Euro American Lineages (99%). However, we observed differences between the classification by spoligotyping when comparing to that of 24 MIRU-VNTR typing, being respectively 43.6% vs. 62.4% of LAM, 34.9% vs. 9.6% of T and 18.3% vs. 21.5% of Haarlem. Among isolates classified as LAM by MIRU typing, 28.0% did not present the characteristic spoligotype profile with absence of spacers 21 to 24 and 32 to 36 and we designated these conveniently as "LAM-like", 79.3% of these presenting the LAM-specific SNP fbpC103. The frequency of RDRio and RD174 in the LAM strains, as defined both by spoligotyping and 24 MIRU-VNTR loci, were respectively 11% and 15.4%, demonstrating that RD174 is not always a marker for LAM/RDRio strains. We conclude that, although spoligotyping alone is a tool for classification of strains of the Euro-American lineage, when combined with MIRU-VNTRs, SNPs and RD typing, it leads to a much better understanding of the bacterial population structure and phylogenetic relationships among strains of M. tuberculosis in regions with high incidence of TB. PMID:25314118

  11. Strain Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Brazil Based on Genotypes Obtained by Spoligotyping, Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit Typing and the Presence of Large Sequence and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcellos, Sidra E. G.; Acosta, Chyntia Carolina; Gomes, Lia Lima; Conceição, Emilyn Costa; Lima, Karla Valéria; de Araujo, Marcelo Ivens; Leite, Maria de Lourdes; Tannure, Flávio; Caldas, Paulo Cesar de Souza; Gomes, Harrison M.; Santos, Adalberto Rezende; Gomgnimbou, Michel K.; Sola, Christophe; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Boechat, Neio; Suffys, Philip Noel

    2014-01-01

    Rio de Janeiro is endemic for tuberculosis (TB) and presents the second largest prevalence of the disease in Brazil. Here, we present the bacterial population structure of 218 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, derived from 186 patients that were diagnosed between January 2008 and December 2009. Genotypes were generated by means of spoligotyping, 24 MIRU-VNTR typing and presence of fbpC103, RDRio and RD174. The results confirmed earlier data that predominant genotypes in Rio de Janeiro are those of the Euro American Lineages (99%). However, we observed differences between the classification by spoligotyping when comparing to that of 24 MIRU-VNTR typing, being respectively 43.6% vs. 62.4% of LAM, 34.9% vs. 9.6% of T and 18.3% vs. 21.5% of Haarlem. Among isolates classified as LAM by MIRU typing, 28.0% did not present the characteristic spoligotype profile with absence of spacers 21 to 24 and 32 to 36 and we designated these conveniently as “LAM-like”, 79.3% of these presenting the LAM-specific SNP fbpC103. The frequency of RDRio and RD174 in the LAM strains, as defined both by spoligotyping and 24 MIRU-VNTR loci, were respectively 11% and 15.4%, demonstrating that RD174 is not always a marker for LAM/RDRio strains. We conclude that, although spoligotyping alone is a tool for classification of strains of the Euro-American lineage, when combined with MIRU-VNTRs, SNPs and RD typing, it leads to a much better understanding of the bacterial population structure and phylogenetic relationships among strains of M. tuberculosis in regions with high incidence of TB. PMID:25314118

  12. Prediction of virologic response to tenofovir mono-rescue therapy for multidrug resistant chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangheun; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Beom Kyung; Kim, Seung Up; Song, Kijun; Ku, Hye Jin; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Most guidelines suggest combination therapy including nucleoside and nucleotide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with multidrug resistance (MD-R). However, long-term combination treatment can evoke high costs and safety problems. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) mono-rescue therapy for viral suppression in patients with CHB exhibiting MD-R. We reviewed patients with CHB exhibiting antiviral drug resistance treated by TDF mono-rescue therapy from December 2012 to June 2014. The patients were categorized into three groups: lamivudine-resistance (LAM-R) group (n = 290), and LAM-R + adefovir-resistance (ADV-R) group (n = 43), and LAM-R + entecavir-resistance (ETV-R) group (n = 113). We compared the virologic response rate according to the multiplicity of resistance and investigated the predictive factors of a virologic response. For a median of 15 months (range, 6-24 months) of TDF mono-rescue therapy, the cumulative virologic response rates were 82.8, 81.4, and 84.1% in the LAM-R, LAM-R + ADV-R, and LAM-R + ETV-R groups, respectively (P = 0.239). Multivariate analysis revealed that multiplicity of resistance did not influence the achievement of a virologic response (P = 0.218). However, the baseline HBV DNA level significantly influenced the achievement of a virologic response for the treatment of CHB with MD-R (P < 0.001). TDF mono-rescue therapy is an appropriate treatment for CHB with MD-R, and the baseline HBV DNA level is a significant predictive factor for a virologic response. These factors should be considered before treating CHB with MD-R. J. Med. Virol. 88:1027-1034, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26538234

  13. Lamin Mutations Accelerate Aging via Defective Export of Mitochondrial mRNAs through Nuclear Envelope Budding.

    PubMed

    Li, Yihang; Hassinger, Linda; Thomson, Travis; Ding, Baojin; Ashley, James; Hassinger, William; Budnik, Vivian

    2016-08-01

    Defective RNA metabolism and transport are implicated in aging and degeneration [1, 2], but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. A prevalent feature of aging is mitochondrial deterioration [3]. Here, we link a novel mechanism for RNA export through nuclear envelope (NE) budding [4, 5] that requires A-type lamin, an inner nuclear membrane-associated protein, to accelerated aging observed in Drosophila LaminC (LamC) mutations. These LamC mutations were modeled after A-lamin (LMNA) mutations causing progeroid syndromes (PSs) in humans. We identified mitochondrial assembly regulatory factor (Marf), a mitochondrial fusion factor (mitofusin), as well as other transcripts required for mitochondrial integrity and function, in a screen for RNAs that exit the nucleus through NE budding. PS-modeled LamC mutations induced premature aging in adult flight muscles, including decreased levels of specific mitochondrial protein transcripts (RNA) and progressive mitochondrial degradation. PS-modeled LamC mutations also induced the accelerated appearance of other phenotypes associated with aging, including a progressive accumulation of polyubiquitin aggregates [6, 7] and myofibril disorganization [8, 9]. Consistent with these observations, the mutants had progressive jumping and flight defects. Downregulating marf alone induced the above aging defects. Nevertheless, restoring marf was insufficient for rescuing the aging phenotypes in PS-modeled LamC mutations, as other mitochondrial RNAs are affected by inhibition of NE budding. Analysis of NE budding in dominant and recessive PS-modeled LamC mutations suggests a mechanism by which abnormal lamina organization prevents the egress of these RNAs via NE budding. These studies connect defects in RNA export through NE budding to progressive loss of mitochondrial integrity and premature aging. PMID:27451905

  14. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry combined with automated MetaboLynx analysis approach to screen the bioactive components and their metabolites in Wen-Xin-Formula.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Fang-mei; Wang, Qin-qin; Zhang, He; Song, Yan-hua; Zhou, Ying; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guang-li; Han, Ying; Wang, Xijun

    2014-12-01

    Wen-Xin-Formula (WXF), a famous traditional prescription, has been widely used to treat myocardial ischemia syndrome for thousands of years. However, the constituents absorbed into blood after oral administration of WXF remain unknown. Here, an integrative ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) combined with the MetaboLynx approach was established to investigate the absorbed constituents in rats after oral administration of WXF. A hyphenated electrospray ionization and quadrupole-time-of-flight analyzer was used for the determination of accurate mass of the molecule and fragment ions. With this rapid and automated analysis method, a total of 32 peaks were tentatively characterized in vivo based on MS and MS/MS data and comparison with available databasess, 26 of which were parent components and six metabolites. These components mainly were ginsenosides, paeoniflorin, galloyl glucose, berberis alkaloids, phenolic, phenolic glycosides and unsaturated fatty acids, glucuronide products of original berberis alkaloids. The present study demonstrates that integrative UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS technique and MetaboLynx data processing method were successfully applied for the rapid discovery of potentially bioactive components and metabolites from WXF, and proved that the established method could help to explore the effective substances for further research into WXF. PMID:24853889

  15. Successful management of bilateral refractory chylothorax after double lung transplantation for lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Mohammed; Aljehani, Yasser M.; Nizami, Imran; Saleh, Waleed

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease that leads to airways and lymphatic channels obstruction due to abnormal smooth muscle proliferation. It presents with dyspnea, pneumothorax or chylothorax. Lung transplantation (LT) has emerged as a valuable therapeutic option with limited reports. We report a case of LAM that underwent double LT and complicated by refractory bilateral chylothorax which was managed successfully by povidone-iodine pleurodesis and the addition of sirolimus to the post-transplantation immunosuppressive therapy. The patient has no recurrence with 24 months follow-up. PMID:24791177

  16. Permissive sites and topology of an outer membrane protein with a reporter epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Charbit, A; Ronco, J; Michel, V; Werts, C; Hofnung, M

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a genetic approach to study with a single antibody the folding and topology of LamB, an integral outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli K-12. This approach consists of inserting the same reporter foreign antigenic determinant (the C3 epitope from poliovirus) at different sites of LamB so that the resulting hybrid proteins have essentially kept the in vivo biological properties of LamB and therefore its cellular location and structure; the corresponding sites are called permissive sites. A specific monoclonal antibody can then be used to examine the position of the reporter epitope with respect to the protein and the membrane. We present an improved and efficient procedure that led us to identify eight new permissive sites in LamB. These sites appear to be distributed on both sides of the membrane. At one of them (after residue 253), the C3 epitope was detected on intact bacteria, providing the first direct argument for exposure of the corresponding LamB region at the cell surface. At this site as well as at four others (after residues 183, 219, 236, and 352), the C3 epitope could be detected with the C3 monoclonal antibody at the surface of the extracted trimeric LamB-C3 hybrid proteins. We provide a number of convergent arguments showing that the hybrid proteins are not strongly distorted with respect to the wild-type protein so that the conclusions drawn are also valid for this protein. These conclusions are essentially in agreement with the proposed folding model for the LamB protein. They agree, in particular, with the idea that regions 183 and 352 are exposed to the periplasm. In addition, they suggest that region 236 is buried at the external face of the outer membrane and that region 219 is exposed to the periplasm. Including the 3 sites previously determined, 11 permissive sites are now available in LamB, including 3 at the cell surface and most probably at least 3 in the periplasm. We discuss the nature of such sites, the

  17. Candidatus Liberibacter americanus induces si