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Sample records for bergama izmir turkey

  1. Investigation of parasitic and viral pathogens in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in the Gulf of Izmir, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Erol, Nural; Delibaş, Songül B.; Özkoç, Soykan; Ergüden, Ceren; Aksoy, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate Microsporidia spp. parasite, hepatitis A virus (HAV), and norovirus (NoV) contamination in mussels collected from 8 stations in the inner, middle, and outer regions of the Gulf of Izmir. Methods: In this cross-sectional study carried out between August 2009 and September 2010 in the Gulf of Izmir, Turkey, 15 mussels collected from each of the stations each season were pooled and homogenized to create a single representative sample. Thirty representative samples were available for analysis. Direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR), RT-nested PCR, and RT-booster PCR were used to investigate the pathogens. Results: The mussels were negative for Microsporidia spp., but 8 (26.7%) samples analyzed were positive for HAV and 9 (30%) were positive for NoV. Excluding Foca and Gediz, viral contamination was detected in all of the stations sampled. Conclusion: Our results suggest that viral contamination is present in mussels in the Gulf of Izmir and may pose a potential threat to human health in the region. Necessary measures should be taken to prevent future illness due to these pathogens. PMID:27279520

  2. An Investigation on the Effects of Ship Sourced Emissions in Izmir Port, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Saraçoğlu, Halil; Kılıç, Alper

    2013-01-01

    Maritime transportation is a major source of climate change and air pollution. Shipping emissions cause severe impacts on health and environment. These effects of emissions are emerged especially in territorial waters, inland seas, canals, straits, bays, and port regions. In this paper, exhaust gas emissions from ships in Izmir Port, which is one of the main ports in Turkey, are calculated by the ship activity-based methodology. Total emissions from ships in the port is estimated as 1923 ton y−1 for NOx, 1405 ton y−1 for SO2, 82753 ton y−1 for CO2, ton y−1 for HC, and 165 ton y−1 for PM in the year 2007. These emissions are classified regarding operation modes and types of ships. The results are compared with the other studies including amounts of exhaust pollutants generated by ships. According to the findings, it is clear that the ships calling the Izmir Port are important air polluting causes of the Izmir city and its surroundings. PMID:24198720

  3. Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system approach for municipal water consumption modeling: An application to Izmir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurdusev, Mehmet Ali; Firat, Mahmut

    2009-02-01

    SummaryIn this study, an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to forecast monthly water use from several socio-economic and climatic factors including average monthly water bill, population, number of households, gross national product, monthly average temperature observed, monthly total rainfall, monthly average humidity observed and inflation rate. Water consumption modeling in this way will be more consistent than doing it using a single variable as more effective parameter could be incorporated. The ANFIS system is applied to modeling monthly water consumptions of Izmir, Turkey. The results indicated that ANFIS can be successfully applied for monthly water consumption modeling.

  4. Geodetic Network Design and Optimization on the Active Tuzla Fault (Izmir, Turkey) for Disaster Management

    PubMed Central

    Halicioglu, Kerem; Ozener, Haluk

    2008-01-01

    Both seismological and geodynamic research emphasize that the Aegean Region, which comprises the Hellenic Arc, the Greek mainland and Western Turkey is the most seismically active region in Western Eurasia. The convergence of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates forces a westward motion on the Anatolian plate relative to the Eurasian one. Western Anatolia is a valuable laboratory for Earth Science research because of its complex geological structure. Izmir is a large city in Turkey with a population of about 2.5 million that is at great risk from big earthquakes. Unfortunately, previous geodynamics studies performed in this region are insufficient or cover large areas instead of specific faults. The Tuzla Fault, which is aligned trending NE–SW between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey, is an important fault in terms of seismic activity and its proximity to the city of Izmir. This study aims to perform a large scale investigation focusing on the Tuzla Fault and its vicinity for better understanding of the region's tectonics. In order to investigate the crustal deformation along the Tuzla Fault and Izmir Bay, a geodetic network has been designed and optimizations were performed. This paper suggests a schedule for a crustal deformation monitoring study which includes research on the tectonics of the region, network design and optimization strategies, theory and practice of processing. The study is also open for extension in terms of monitoring different types of fault characteristics. A one-dimensional fault model with two parameters – standard strike-slip model of dislocation theory in an elastic half-space – is formulated in order to determine which sites are suitable for the campaign based geodetic GPS measurements. Geodetic results can be used as a background data for disaster management systems.

  5. Isolation of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains from different sources in Izmir region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bozcal, Elif; Uzel, Atac; Aydemir, Sohret; Skurnik, Mikael

    2015-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a foodborne pathogen that is very rarely encountered in Turkey. In this work, several human, porcine, and environmental samples collected from Izmir region in Turkey were examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica using different cultivation and enrichment methods. A total of nine pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated; five strains from pig stool and manure samples and four strains from waste water samples. On the other hand, no Y. enterocolitica was isolated from human diarrheal stool samples (n = 102) and from 12 gulf, canal, municipal pool, and well water samples. Biochemical and serological characterization of the nine Y. enterocolitica strains revealed that they belonged to three different bioserotypes: 4/O:3, 2/O:9, and 2/O:5,27. All the strains were deemed pathogenic based on virulence factor-specific PCR analysis. Detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains from the pig and waste water samples from the Izmir region indicates that Y. enterocolitica is a potential risk for public health. PMID:25912845

  6. Child Abuse and Neglect Among Children Who Drop Out of School: A Study in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sofuoğlu, Zeynep; Sariyer, Görkem; Aydin, Fulya; Cankarde, Sinem; Kandemirci, Birsu

    2016-10-01

    Child abuse and neglect (CAN), and dropping out of school have long been recognized as pervasive social problems globally, and Turkey is no exception. This study aims to explore the prevalence and incidence of CAN in children who drop out of school of Turkey, using the ISPCAN Child abuse Screening Tool, Children's Version, which is an appropriate tool for multinational comparisons. Data from a convenience sample of children who drop out of school age 11, 13, and 16 from Izmir were collected either by interviews or by self-completion. The results show that, compared to children who do not drop out of school, children who drop out of school have higher rates of psychological and physical abuse and neglect within the family. This study not only highlights the need for preventive laws for CAN and dropping out of school, but also points to direction for future research. PMID:27331866

  7. The relationship between fire number and burned area in Antalya, Izmir and Muğla regions in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ertuğrul, Mertol; Varol, Tuğrul

    2015-03-01

    This study focuses on Antalya, Izmir and Muğla regions, where the highest number of fires were experienced within Turkey. The number and area relationship between the fires were examined together with large fires. Within whole Turkey, these three regions incorporated 55.24% of the area burned in large fires, in which over 300 ha of land was burned. In terms of the number of fires, Muğla ranked first among these regions and was followed by Izmir. Apart from the number of fires, Antalya, however, had the highest burned area, both in all fires and in large fires. No significant relationship was found between the number and area of fires in all working areas. The fact that most fires were small and that the large fires burnt extremely big areas compared the area per fire, relationship between the number of fires and the area burned. However, when the fires burning an area of over 300 ha in Turkey were considered, there was a strong relationship between the number of fires and the area burned. PMID:25895262

  8. Investigation of the bedrock depth by using MASW, microtremor and microgravity methods at Guzelbahce-Izmir (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aykut, Tunçel; Tolga, Gönenç; Oya, Pamukçu; Mustafa, Akgün

    2015-04-01

    Whole population of Izmir city is under control of active tectonic structures. On the otherhand there are high buildings, skyscrappers which have very high predominant periods. Therefore prediction of soil behavior under dynamic conditions are very important issue.For this reason, the Izmir-Guzelbahce (Turkey) region where there is intersection of two major faults called Izmir fault and Seferihisar fault, was selected to study. To identify the shear wave velocity, bedrock depth and soil dynamic properties, multi-channel analyses of surface waves (MASW), microtremor and microgravity methods were carried out along a profile. Shearing strength, elasticity modulus, incompressibility modulus, natural vibration frequency, seismic amplification coefficient, Poisson's ratio etc. are directly related to the Vs. The Vs is utilized in the determination of dynamic soil behavior together with soil amplification and fundamental period. Also microtremor measurements are used in the determination of soil types, fundamental period and empirical transfer function. Nowadays, the microgravity method is used in the exploration of shallow structures particularly in places where settlements have accumulated. The gravity data obtained from the application of this method are evaluated together with the results obtained from MASW and microtremor measurements. The results of these methods were interprated together. The Bouguer gravity values could be related to the transitions between the N-S trending alluvial fans and delta coast sediments. These transitions observed in the soil structure are monitored in the H/V dominant frequency values. The Vs-depth changes, Vs values of the soil show sudden changes both laterally and vertically. These changes were classified at four different Vs values along the N-S profile. Within this classification, unit I was defined in the velocity range 0-350 m s/sec, unit II as 351-550 m/sec, unit III as 551-950 m/sec and unit IV as 951-1150 m/sec. Finally, the

  9. An investigation of preschool teachers' recognition of possible child abuse and neglect in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Sevinç Çırak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobalı, Nilay

    2015-03-01

    Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. PMID:24928252

  10. Application of remote sensing data and GIS for landslide risk assessment as an environmental threat to Izmir city (west Turkey).

    PubMed

    Akgun, Aykut; Kıncal, Cem; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2012-09-01

    In this study, landslide risk assessment for Izmir city (west Turkey) was carried out, and the environmental effects of landslides on further urban development were evaluated using geographical information systems and remote sensing techniques. For this purpose, two different data groups, namely conditioning and triggering data, were produced. With the help of conditioning data such as lithology, slope gradient, slope aspect, distance from roads, distance from faults and distance from drainage lines, a landslide susceptibility model was constructed by using logistic regression modelling approach. The accuracy assessment of the susceptibility map was carried out by the area under curvature (AUC) approach, and a 0.810 AUC value was obtained. This value shows that the map obtained is successful. Due to the fact that the study area is located in an active seismic region, earthquake data were considered as primary triggering factor contributing to landslide occurrence. In addition to this, precipitation data were also taken into account as a secondary triggering factor. Considering the susceptibility data and triggering factors, a landslide hazard index was obtained. Furthermore, using the Aster data, a land-cover map was produced with an overall kappa value of 0.94. From this map, settlement areas were extracted, and these extracted data were assessed as elements at risk in the study area. Next, a vulnerability index was created by using these data. Finally, the hazard index and the vulnerability index were combined, and a landslide risk map for Izmir city was obtained. Based on this final risk map, it was observed that especially south and north parts of the Izmir Bay, where urbanization is dense, are threatened to future landsliding. This result can be used for preliminary land use planning by local governmental authorities. PMID:21915598

  11. Comparison of model predictions with the data of an urban air quality monitoring network in Izmir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbir, Tolga

    The CALMET meteorological model and its puff dispersion model CALPUFF were used to predict dispersion of the sulfur dioxide emissions from industrial and domestic heating sources in Izmir, the third biggest province in Turkey. The modeling domain covered an area of 80×100 km centered at the metropolitan area of Izmir with grid spacing of 1000 m. Statistical analyses were carried out to evaluate the model performance by comparing the predicted and measured time series of sulfur dioxide concentrations at four monitoring stations using two main methods: root of the mean square error (RMSE) and an index of agreement (d). The index of agreement varied from 0.51 to 0.77 at four monitoring stations and the total RMSE ranged from 0.36 to 0.66 for the year 2000. The overall model performance for four monitoring stations was found good with an accuracy of about 68%. The agreement of model predictions and measurements was better for two urban monitoring stations (Karsiyaka and Bornova), compared with the other urban stations (Alsancak and Konak).

  12. Disasters as an ideological strategy for governing neoliberal urban transformation in Turkey: insights from Izmir/Kadifekale.

    PubMed

    Saraçoğlu, Cenk; Demirtaş-Milz, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    Since the turn of the twenty-first century, Turkish cities have undergone large-scale change through a process referred to as urban transformation, involving, notably, the demolition of inner-city low-income settlements. The official authorities and business circles have resorted to various forms of discourse to justify these projects, which have led to the deportation of a significant number of people to peripheral areas. The discourse of 'natural disasters', for example, suggests that urban transformation is necessary to protect people from some pending event. Probably the most effective application of this discourse has occurred in Izmir, where the risk posed by 'landslides' has played a critical role in the settlement demolitions conducted in the huge inner-city neighbourhood of Kadifekale. By examining the case of Kadifekale, this paper provide some insights into how 'natural disasters' serve as a discourse with which to legitimise the neoliberal logic entrenched in the urban transformation process in Turkey. PMID:24325244

  13. Geochemistry and Geochronology of Oceanic Rock Assemblages in the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarifakioglu, Ender; Dilek, Yildirim; Sevin, Mustafa

    2013-04-01

    We report here new data from the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone (IAESZ), which connects the Vardar Suture Zone in the west with the Sevan-Akera Suture Zone in the east. It occurs between the Sakarya Continent and the Anatolide-Tauride ribbon continent in Turkey, and consists mainly of ophiolitic thrust sheets emplaced into a subduction-accretion mélange. The ophiolites include upper mantle peridotites, cumulate to massive gabbros, sheeted doleritic dykes, plagiogranite dykes and stocks, and basalt-chert-radiolarite as in a complete Penrose-type ophiolite pseudostratigraphy. They display a geochemical progression in their magmatic evolution from initially MORB-like to island arc tholeiites (IAT) to boninites, similar to many other Tethyan ophiolites in the eastern Mediterranean region. Boninitic dykes and volcanic rocks have very low TiO2 (0.03-0.50 wt.%), Nb (0.03-1.9 ppm), Y (1,9-10.7ppm) and Zr (4.10-42 ppm) values. IAT-type doleritic dykes and basaltic lavas contain low TiO2 (0.42-1.04 wt.%), Nb (0.90-2.7 wt.%), Y (9.7-33.3 ppm) and Zr (12.7-85 ppm). The TiO2 (0.81-2.60 wt.%), Nb (3.30-4.8 ppm), Y (22.6-63.8 ppm) and Zr (36.01-179.33 ppm) contents of the MORB-like basaltic rocks are higher than those in the IAT and boninitic lavas. The subduction-accretion mélange (Ankara Mélange) in the central part of the IAESZ, includes volcanic mega-blocks derived from seamounts and/or an oceanic plateau that have OIB and P-MORB geochemical characteristics. This subduction-accretion complex also contains blocks of MORB- and/or IAT-like ophiolite fragments within a matrix composed of serpentinite, altered volcanics-volcaniclastics and/or pelitic sedimentary rocks. Pegmatitic gabbros in the ophiolites in the western and eastern IAESZ reveal 40Ar-39Ar hornblende ages of 168.9Ma and 195.7±2.7Ma, respectively. Plagiogranite dykes in the central and eastern parts of the IAESZ are 180 Ma and 179±2 Ma to 180.1±2.4 Ma in age as determined from U-Pb from zircon dates. The

  14. Investigation of roadside pollution in Aliaga Industrial Zone (Izmir/Turkey) by using magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timur, Emre

    2014-05-01

    Pollution of soils is significantly reducing environmental quality and affecting human health. As a condition for effective protection and remediation actions, the screening and detection of soil and sediment pollution has become increasingly important. The pollutants of most cases are usually heavy metals, organic contaminants and agricultural applications such as chemical fertilizers, pestisides and hormones. The aim of this study is to trace the distribution and concentration of contaminants in soils along roads carrying both appreciably high and low traffic along three roads around Aliaga industrial zone. Magnetic susceptibility (Bartington MS2E) is used for pollution mapping in the field. The distribution of the susceptibility values represents contaminated areas strongly influenced by traffic frequency, roadside topography, vegetation and meteorological conditions. It was determined that approximately 5 m along both sides of Canakkale-Izmir highway, which has a very high traffic density (250 car/min), shows very high susceptibility values in comparison with the rest of the profile. This value reduced to 2.4 m and 0.7 m along two side roads, which are 300 and 1100 m away from the highway. Also these roads were having traffic densities of 47 cars/min and 3 cars/min respectively. The measurements were repeated in summer and winter seasons in order to observe possible climate effects. Also soil samples were collected at 2 stations in both sides of the roads to compare the heavy metal content with the background values. According to geochemical data Fe-oxides are found to be responsible for the high values of magnetic susceptibility. It was determined that magnetic susceptibility is a rapid and cheap method for investigating potentially contaminated areas.

  15. Protection from cancer and early diagnosis applications in Izmir, Turkey: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sirin, Ahsen; Atan, Senay Unsal; Tasci, Emel

    2006-01-01

    Research was planned as a descriptive and cross-sectional study in order to explore knowledge and practices of individuals residing in the Bornova District about protection from and early diagnosis of cancer. The individuals residing in the Bornova District in Izmir constituted the population of research. A total of 195 persons, who were selected by convenience sampling method, participated in the study. Results show that 89.2% of the individuals knew what cancer was, 50.3% were alcohol consumers, 45.6% knew the relationship between cancer and being overweight, and 41.5% were exercising regularly. Of the individuals enrolled, 75.4% knew that some ingredients in ready-made foods contain substances causing cancer, but only 10.8% paid attention to the ingredients while buying a food, and 26.7% did not pay any attention at all. Of the women, 53.9% knew how to do breast self-examination and 29.2% thought that to have pap smear performed regularly was essential for protection from cancer. Although 14.2% of the men knew how to do testis examination, 76.4% did not know the importance of testis examination. A statistically significant correlation was found between the research participants who knew what cancer was and those who knew the signs of cancer (chi2 = 8.077, SD = 1, P = .004 < .05). The levels of knowledge and practices related to protection from and early diagnosis of cancer among the individuals enrolled in the research were not sufficient. PMID:16783120

  16. Influence of urban form on landscape pattern and connectivity in metropolitan regions: a comparative case study of Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Hepcan, Çiğdem C; Hepcan, Şerif; Cook, Edward A

    2014-10-01

    Although ecological connectivity conservation in urban areas has recently been recognized as an important issue, less is known about its relationship to urban form and landscape pattern. This study investigates how urban morphology influences regional ecosystem pattern and landscape connectivity. Two metropolitan landscapes, Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey, were compared, both of which are fast-growing regions in their national context. A wide range of variables were considered for identifying natural and urban properties. The natural characteristics include typology of urban ecosystems, urban to natural cover ratio, dominant habitat type, urban biodiversity, landscape context, and connectivity conservation efforts. Urban parameters examine urban form, urban extent, urban cover proportion, growth rate, populations, urban gradient, major drivers of urbanization, urban density, and mode/approach of urban development. Twelve landscape metrics were measured and compared across the natural patches. Results show that there is little difference in landscape connectivity in the rural zones of Phoenix and Izmir, although Phoenix has slightly higher connectivity values. The connectivity variance in urbanized areas, however, is significantly dependent on the region. For example, Phoenix urban zones have substantially lower connectivity than either urban or suburban zones in Izmir. Findings demonstrate that small and compact urban settlements with more dense populations are more likely to conserve landscape connectivity compared to multiple-concentric but amalgamated urban form spreading all over the landscape (aka urban sprawl). PMID:24934130

  17. Teaching embryology to undergraduates in the Faculty of Education at Dokuz Eylul University in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Irfan

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the way in which classical embryology is taught and interpreted at the Buca Faculty of Education, in Dokuz Eylul University (Turkey). This university is one of the leading teacher-education institutions in Turkey. My course is taught with appreciation of the fact that students are thinking ideologically rather than scientifically with regard to creationism and evolution in both cognitive and educational processes. However, this ideological orientation, along with lack of classroom time and material resources, hinders my goal of a student-centered education. Being flexible with regard to philosophical and metaphysical issues on which concepts of evolution and creationism are in conflict, is constructive for student development and represents the approach I endeavor to pursue. PMID:12705661

  18. Applications of MASW Method with Different Offsets and Geophone Geometries in Buca District of Izmir City, TURKEY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamuk, Eren; Önsen, Funda; Turan, Seçil

    2014-05-01

    Shear-wave velocity is so critical parameter for evaluating the dynamic behaviour of soil in the subsurface investigations. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) is a popular method to utilize shear-wave velocity in shallow depth surveys. This method uses the dispersive properties of shear-waves for imaging the subsurface layers. In MASW method, firstly data are acquired multichannel field records (or shot gathers), then dispersion curves are extracted. Finally, these dispersion curves are inverted to obtain one dimension (1D) Vs depth profiles. Reliable and accurate results of evaluating shear wave velocity depends on dispersion curves. Therefore, determination of basic mode dispersion curve is very important. In this study, MASW measurements were carried out different types of spread and various offsets to obtain better results in Ä°zmir, Turkey. The types of spread were selected as pairs geophone group of spread, increase spread and constant interval spread. The data were collected in the Campus of Tinaztepe, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Buca). 24 channel Geometrix Geode seismic instruments, 4.5 Hz low frequency receiver (geophone) and sledge hammer (8kg) as an energy source were used in this study. The data were collected with forward shots. MASW measurements were applied different profiles and their lengths were 24 m. Geophone intervals were selected 1 m in the constant interval spread and offsets were selected respectively 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 m in all spreads. In the first stage of this study, the measurements, which were taken in these offsets, were compared between each other in all spreads. The results show that higher resolution dispersion curves were observed at 1 m, 2 m and 4 m offsets. In the other offsets (8, 12, 24 m), distinguishability between basic and higher modes dispersion curves became difficult. In the second stage of this study, obtained dispersion curves of different spread were compared to all spread type of MASW survey.

  19. Training unemployed women for adult day care in Izmir, Turkey: a program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Shereen; Oğlak, Sema

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of older people in Turkey is increasing steadily with a subsequent growth of long-term care (LTC) needs. There is a scarcity of formal care provisions for residential and particularly nonresidential settings. Thus, formal caregiving is not meeting LTC needs nor attracting workers as a labor option. The authors examine the hypothesis that LTC may offer work opportunities for women unfamiliar with caregiving as an occupation, and also examine the need and acceptance of different types of LTC beyond residential care. The authors evaluate an innovative project introducing these two elements to 76 women in İzmir, Turkey, using an analysis framework that incorporates factors related to applications and progression; management assessment; trainees' self-assessment reflecting on their views on aging; and older people's perception of the experience and its impact on their well-being. Trainees reported a major positive shift in their attitudes toward working in LTC and toward the aging process. Users reported discovering a new dimension to care, which directly affected their quality of life. Overall, this community-based initiative appeared effective in enhancing the awareness of the concept of adult day centers providing a social model of care, and appears promising in addressing the growing need for formal LTC in Turkey. PMID:23701487

  20. Prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae specific antibodies in different clinical situations and healthy subjects in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gencay, M; Dereli, D; Ertem, E; Serter, D; Puolakkainen, M; Saikku, P; Boydak, B; Dereli, S; Ozbakkaloglu, B; Yorgancioglu, A; Tez, E

    1998-07-01

    Serological markers for Chlamydia pneumoniae were investigated by using the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test in various age and patient groups in a specific area in Turkey. IgG seropositivity to C. pneumoniae was 64.3% and 18.7% in healthy adults and children, respectively. The highest positivity rate (77%) was in the 15-19 age group. Among the groups investigated, serological findings revealed a possible etiological association between C. pneumoniae and the clinical condition in the groups with acute myocardial infarction, atypical pneumoniae and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:9744685

  1. Evaluation of Süleymanköy (Diyarbakir, Eastern Turkey) and Seferihisar (Izmir, Western Turkey) Self Potential Anomalies with Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaftan, Ilknur; Sindirgi, Petek

    2013-04-01

    Self-potential (SP) is one of the oldest geophysical methods that provides important information about near-surface structures. Several methods have been developed to interpret SP data using simple geometries. This study investigated inverse solution of a buried, polarized sphere-shaped self-potential (SP ) anomaly via Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks ( MLPNN ). The polarization angle ( α ) and depth to the centre of sphere ( h )were estimated. The MLPNN is applied to synthetic and field SP data. In order to see the capability of the method in detecting the number of sources, MLPNN was applied to different spherical models at different depths and locations.. Additionally, the performance of MLPNN was tested by adding random noise to the same synthetic test data. The sphere model successfully obtained similar parameters under different S/N ratios. Then, MLPNN method was applied to two field examples. The first one is the cross section taken from the SP anomaly map of the Ergani-Süleymanköy (Turkey) copper mine. MLPNN was also applied to SP data from Seferihisar Izmir (Western Turkey) geothermal field. The MLPNN results showed good agreement with the original synthetic data set. The effect of The technique gave satisfactory results following the addition of 5% and 10% Gaussian noise levels. The MLPNN results were compared to other SP interpretation techniques, such as Normalized Full Gradient (NFG), inverse solution and nomogram methods. All of the techniques showed strong similarity. Consequently, the synthetic and field applications of this study show that MLPNN provides reliable evaluation of the self potential data modelled by the sphere model.

  2. An investigation of the presence of methane and other gases at the Uzundere-Izmir solid waste disposal site, Izmir, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Onargan, T.; Kucuk, K.; Polat, M

    2003-07-01

    Izmir is a large metropolitan city with a population of 3,114,860. The city consists of 27 townships, each township has a population of not less than 10,000 inhabitants. The two major solid waste disposal sites are in the townships of Uzundere and Harmandali. The amount of solid waste that is disposed at each of these sites is about 800 and 1800 t/day, respectively. In Uzundere, compost is produced from the organic fraction of urban solid wastes while the residual material is deposited at a disposal site with a remaining capacity of 700,000 m{sup 3} as of 2001. Gas monitoring and measurements were carried out at the disposal site in Uzundere. For this purpose, nine sampling wells were drilled on selected locations. Each well was furnished with perforated metal pipes suitable for gas monitoring and measurements. The following gases were monitored: O{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}S. The most important finding was that the concentrations of CH{sub 4} in the wells ranged from 7 to 57%. Dilution of the CH{sub 4} by O{sub 2} down to the LEL levels (5-15%) is always possible and poses a continuing risk at the site. Furthermore, the levels of O{sub 2} require that access to the site be limited to only authorized personnel.

  3. Investigation of vertical mass changes in the south of Izmir (Turkey) by monitoring microgravity and GPS/GNSS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamukçu, Oya; Gönenç, Tolga; Çirmik, Ayça; Sindirgi, Petek; Kaftan, Ilknur; Akdemir, Özer

    2015-02-01

    The monitoring of gravity changes in a region enables the investigation of regional structural elements depending upon the changes in load compensation. This method, preferred in recent years, has yielded good results from different parts of the world for determination of the deformation at fields. With the addition of GPS/GNSS monitoring to microgravity studies, the mass changes within the crust in vertical directional movements of a region can be estimated. During GPS/GNSS monitoring and microgravity studies, it was found that the behaviour of vertical directions of Izmir and the surrounding areas, indicate an active tectonic regime and high seismic activity, especially since 2000. As a result, regions considered to have a mass change in vertical direction were determined by 3-year measurements and it was found that they were consistently highly seismic.

  4. 78 FR 76821 - Executive-Led U.S.-Turkey Healthcare Trade Mission to Ankara, Istanbul, and Izmir

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... published at 78 FR 18318 (March 26, 2013), regarding the Executive-Led U.S.-Turkey Healthcare Trade Mission... evaluated in accordance with the Notice published at 78 FR 18318 (March 26, 2013) regarding the Amendment to... International Trade Administration Executive-Led U.S.-Turkey Healthcare Trade Mission to Ankara, Istanbul,...

  5. Coastal flood risk analysis using landsat-7 ETM+ imagery and SRTM DEM: a case study of Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Demirkesen, A C; Evrendilek, F; Berberoglu, S; Kilic, S

    2007-08-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports an acceleration of the global mean sea-level rise (MSLR) in the twentieth century in response to global climate change. If this acceleration remains constant, then some coastal areas are most likely to be inundated by the year 2100. The ability to identify the differential vulnerability of coastlines to future inundation hazards as result of global climate change is necessary for timely actions to be taken. Yildiz et al. (Journal of Mapping, 17, 1-75, 2003) reported that the local MSLR in the city of Izmir rose at a rate of 6.8 +/- 0.9 mm year(-1) between 1984 and 2002. In this study, the spatial distribution of the coastal inundation hazards of Izmir region was determined using not only land-use and land-cover (LULC) types derived from the maximum likelihood classification of Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) multi-spectral image set but also the classification of the digital elevation model (DEM) acquired by the shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM). Coastal areas with elevations of 2 and 5 m above mean sea-level vulnerable to inundation were found to cover 2.1 and 3.7% of the study region (6,107 km(2)), respectively. Our findings revealed that Menemen plain along Gediz river, and the settlements of Karsiyaka, Alacati, Aliaga, Candarli and Selcuk are at high risk in order of decreasing vulnerability to permanent and episodic inundation by 2100 under the high MSLR scenarios of 20 to 50 mm year(-1). PMID:17171268

  6. The 210Po and 210Pb levels in surface sediment samples in the Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea-Turkey).

    PubMed

    Saçan, Sezen; Uğur, Aysun; Sunlu, Uğur; Büyükişik, Baha; Aksu, Mehmet; Sunlu, F Sanem

    2010-02-01

    Bottom sediments reflect in general the relative contamination of a sea area. Therefore, a great deal of monitoring work has been dedicated to the analysis of bottom sediments. Izmir Bay is a very important pollution centre in Turkish Aegean coast region due to a densely populated community, industrial complex and maritime transportation, and there are many streams flowing into the bay that pass through a number of industrial and agricultural areas. It had received the majority of domestic and industrial wastewaters until the wastewater treatment plant was constructed. It is well known that sediments play an important role as reservoirs of a fraction of the pollution in aquatic systems. Therefore, sediment samples were collected monthly from three stations which are located in the inner part of the bay during the period January to December 2003. Temporal variations and seasonal changes on their (210)Po and (210)Pb contents were examined, and the activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb were found to vary from 43+/-6 to 132+/-12 and 27+/-5 to 91+/-9 Bq kg(-1) dry wt, respectively. The highest values of those natural radionuclides were measured at Karşiyaka Station because of the current systems of the bay. Seasonally, the (210)Pb levels were found to increase during the winter time for all the stations. PMID:19242813

  7. Monitoring the impacts of urbanization and industrialization on the agricultural land and environment of the Torbali, Izmir region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kurucu, Yusuf; Chiristina, Nilüfer Küçükyilmaz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine agricultural land loss and environmental pollution caused by industrialization and urban sprawl using the Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing technique (RS). Remotely sensed data is the most powerful tool for monitoring land use changes and GIS is the best way to store and reproduce various kinds of integrated data. Considering the rapid increase of population the loss of fertile agricultural soils is a very dangerous situation for the future of the country. Thus, people are living in the cities in (with adverse) conditions of insufficient drinking water, infrastructure problems, inadequate landscape and many unsolved (extreme) environmental problems. During the last 36 years, unplanned urbanization and industrialization have led to the use of agricultural areas for non-agricultural purposes in the Torbali (Izmir) region, which has the most fertile soils of the Aegean Region. Within this study, a database was created on the parameters of land loss and environmental pollution by means of field observation, interpretation of satellite images (ASTER), aerial photos(1/25.000 scale), topographic map, soil map, and 1/5.000 scale cadastral map. Results of previous researches and the archives of Torbali municipality were used as ancillary data. In the research, urbanization and industrialization of the town was studied by (using) GIS and RS between 1965 and 2001. Since 1965, 4,742,357 m2 agricultural land, mostly of first and second land use capability classes, has been lost due to unplanned urban and industrial developments. Urbanization and industrialization involved an area of which 58% was being used as irrigated lands, 25 % rain feed (rain fed lands)and 17 % for olive growing. PMID:17370130

  8. Investigating the Geoelectric Fluctuations Measured in Izmir-Urla-Demircili Village (Western Turkey) with Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindirgi, Petek; Kaftan, Ilknur

    2013-04-01

    Turkey is one of the countries frequently facing significant earthquakes because of its geological and tectonic position on the earth. Especially, graben systems of Western Turkey occur as a result of seismically quite active tensional tectonics. Prediction of earthquakes has been one of the important subjects taking interest of human being for a long time. Recently Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is being used for earthquake prediction besides its successful application to broad spectrum of data-intensive applications from stock market prediction to process control. ANN was used to predict time of occurrence and the locations of the earthquakes, experienced for a specified time interval. Also ANN were analyzed the predictability of time series. İzmir city and its surroundings are located in the strike-slip dominated zone of weakness known as the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone. The latest activity of the zone was evidenced by the Urla and Sıǧacık earthquakes. 10 April 2003 Urla (M=5.7) and 17-21 October 2005 (M=5.7, M=5.9 and M=5.9) Sıǧacık earthquakes were the important seismic activities in the region. Recently, geoelectrical fluctuations measured in seismic areas have been attributed to stress and strain changes, associated with earthquakes. This study has been realized for the evaluation of self potential (SP) and ground temperature monitoring data, which has been collected from İzmir-Urla-Demircili Village, to investigate the relationship of the SP and the seasonal climatic changing and earthquakes. Collected data during the eight months has been evaluated by artificial neural networks. Ground temperature and SP data has been recorded as a function of time. In addition to these two variables with each other relations, the relationship with daily average of SP data to daily rainfall and earthquakes were also investigated. We analyzed the correlation between the sequence of extreme events in geoelectrical signals, measured by the monitoring station

  9. Geophysical surveys around the Izmir Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aykut, Tunçel; Tolga, Gönenç; Mustafa, Akgün; Oya, Pamukcu; Özkan, Özdağ; Mehmet, Çetiner

    2015-04-01

    Izmir is the 3rd largest city of Turkey following Istanbul and Ankara in terms of population, industrial density and contribution to the national economy. Izmir city is located very close to the active faults, has very high seismic risk and develops rapidly on thick and Quaternary-Neogene aged young sediments. Three different tectonic belts take place in Izmir precincts. One of these belts which shapes the Menderes massif at east consists of very thick mica schist unit at basement and a marble stack which formed by the metamorphism of the platform type carbonates. Another tectonic belt named "Izmir-Ankara zone" take place at western part of massif and around Izmir city there is another tectonic belt which is generally flysch characterized. "Karaburun Belt" is at west of "Izmir-Ankara zone" comprised by a thick Mesozoic carbonate stack which precipitated at platform conditions. Izmir and its surroundings, has been the scene of intense earthquake activity since the historical period. The most of earthquake epicenters are at Aegean Sea and take place between Karaburun-Chios Island, Izmir Bay-Lesbos Island and Doğanbey Cape-Samos Island. A number of earthquakes occurs on the remaining land mass between the Aegean Sea and the western part of the Gediz graben. Izmir city to be the center of the 50-60 km radius, there are active faults that may pose a risk by generating potential earthquakes for Izmir metropolitan area and its surroundings. Propagation of earthquake waves towards to surface can be affected considerably by unconsolidated soil structures of Izmir. While occurrence of shallow and large scaled earthquakes, mechanism of soil amplification, liquefaction in sandy soils and losses of bearing capacity in clayey soil can be expected that they are particularly effective on earthquake performance of both buildings and industrial areas. Also some conditions such as; physical parameters of alluvial soil, high groundwater level and basin geometry, which cause soil

  10. Microzonation Studies In District of Dikili, Izmir (Turkey) In The Context of Social Responsibility by Using GIS Tecniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Savas; Cinku, Mualla; Tezel, Okan; Hisarli, Mumtaz; Ozcep, Ferhat; Tun, Muammer; Avdan, Ugur; Ozel, Oguz; Acikca, Ahmet; Aygordu, Ozan; Benli, Aral; Kesisyan, Arda; Yilmaz, Hakan; Varici, Cagri; Ozturkan, Hasan; Ozcan, Cuneyt; Kivrak, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Social Responsibility Projects (SRP) are important tools in contributing to the development of communities and applied educational science. Researchers dealing with engineering studies generally focus on technical specifications. However, when the subject depends on earthquake, engineers should be consider also social and educational components, besides the technical aspects. If scientific projects collaborated with municipalities of cities, it should be known that it will reach a wide range of people. Turkey is one of the most active region that experienced destructive earthquakes. The 1999 Marmara earthquake was responsible for the loose of more than 18.000 people. The destructive damage occurred on buildings that made on problematic soils. This however, is still the one of most important issues in Turkey which needs to be solved. Inspite of large earthquakes that occurred along the major segments of the North and East Anatolian Fault Zones due to the northwards excursion of Anatolia, the extensional regime in the Aegean region is also characterized by earthquakes that occurred with the movement of a number of strike slip and normal faults. The Dikili village within the Eastern Aegean extensional region experienced a large earthquake in 1939 (M: 6.8). The seismic activity is still characterised by high level and being detected. A lot of areas like the Kabakum village have been moved to its present location during this earthquake. The probability of an earthquake hazard in Dikili is considerably high level, today. Therefore, it is very important to predict the soil behaviour and engineering problems by using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools in this area. For this purpose we conducted a project with the collaboration of the Dikili Municipality in İzmir (Turkey) to determine the following issues: a) Possible disaster mitigation as a result of earthquake-soil-structure interaction, b) Geo-enginnering problems (i.e: soil liquefaction, soil settlement, soil

  11. Deterioration of the volcanic kerb and pavement stones in a humid environment in the city centre of Izmir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, A. B.

    2006-11-01

    İzmir is the third largest city in Turkey and has being the centre of art, culture, tourism and trade activities throughout the 5,000 years of its history. Natural stones brought from different parts of the world have been widely used for construction of the prestigious buildings, monuments and roads etc., in the past in the city. Renovation of the street pavements and public gathering areas in the city centre has been undertaken by the Metropolitan Municipality in 2000 and continued through the year of 2001. These renovation activities have mainly been carried out in the streets running parallel to the sea shore. Volcanic rocks brought from the Central Anatolia Ankara-Gölbaşı (andesites) and Kayseri-İncesu (tuffs) have been used in the renovation works. These rocks have shown extensive deteriorations within 4 years of their usage between 2001 and 2005 under the influence of different environmental factors. In this study, the deteriorations developed in the recently placed volcanic rocks used as kerb and pavement stones in the city centre of İzmir in the light of their mineralogical, chemical, physical and mechanical properties, used locations and the environmental factors are presented.

  12. Petrological Features of The Post-Collisional Volcanics on the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone at Around Almus and Yıldızeli Regions, NE Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göçmengil, G.; Karacik, Z.; Genç, Ş. C.

    2014-12-01

    Following the closure of the northern Neo-Tethyan ocean, post-collisional magmatism developed both on the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) and the northern (Pontides) and southern (Kırşehir block) continents. Cenozoic volcanics (particularly Middle to Upper Eocene) from the Almus and Yıldızeli regions (NE, Turkey) have poorly known and exposed along the northern and southern part of the IAESZ respectively. In this presentation; we present geological, geochemical and isotopic data of these volcanic rocks to characterize the petrological evolution and petrogenesis on the different tectonic blocks. Almus region, have a composite basement of Mesozoic metamorphic and ophiolitic rocks. Volcanic and sedimentary units of the Middle Eocene covering the basement units have a stratigraphic sequence of: a basal conglomerate; fossiliferous sandstone/shale; epiclastic rocks; auto-brecciated lavas with basalt/basaltic andesite lava flows. All these units are cut by trachyte stocks. Besides, basement of Yıldızeli region consisting of Cretaceous Kırşehir block metamorphics with IAESZ melangé and flysch units. Volcanic and sedimentary units covers the basement are trachyte-trachyandesite lavas; fossiliferous limestone; basalt/basaltic andesite lava flows; pyroclastic units with dacitic lavas. Basalt/basaltic andesites from Almus region are sub-alkaline/mildly alkaline and display middle to high-K character. REE data display relative enrichments in LILE (Sr, K, Rb, Ba, Th) together with negative anomalies of Nb, Ta and P. Trachyte stocks are shoshonitic and display LILE enrichment together with negative patters of Nb, Ta, P and Eu. Besides, trachyte-trachyandesite and basalt/basaltic andesite from Yıldızeli region are sub-alkaline/mildly alkaline with middle-K to shoshonitic character. REE patterns show enrichments in LILE and depletion of Nb, Ta, P and Ti for both rock suites. The 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of volcanic rocks from both regions, range from 0

  13. Petrogenesis of the Miocene felsic volcanism from the south of Izmir (Western Turkey) and its regional tectono-magmatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karacik, Z.; Genç, C.

    2013-12-01

    Miocene volcanism, mainly intermediate and rarely mafic and felsic in composition, was produced under the effects of the extensional tectonic regime in western Turkey. The Karaburun and Cumaovasi volcanics are the cases for understanding the magma source(s) and petrological processes, producing the extension-related mafic and felsic bimodal volcanism. The Karaburun volcanics (KV) are mainly distributed north to south direction within the Karaburun peninsula and span a wide compositional spectrum from basalt (20 Ma) to rhyolite (16 Ma), and younger trachyte and trachydacites (13 Ma). The products of the subaerial felsic volcanism (the Cumaovasi volcanics, CV; 17 Ma) which are represented by cluster of topaz bearing rhyolite domes, related pyroclastic rocks occur within the NE-SW trending Cubukludag graben. The intermediate and mafic volcanic rocks are lack in the volcanic succession of CV. The lavas of the Cumaovasi volcanics are silicic which are calc alkaline, peralumious and enriched significantly in LILE. Extremely low Sr, Ba values, Eu depletions and very low LaN/YbN ratios are typical for rhyolites. The Karaburun volcanics, with the exception of the minor alkaline basaltic and trachytic lavas, are mainly calc alkaline and metaluminous intermediate lavas. The petrological data revealed that the KV and CV were formed in extensional tectonic setting, but evolved by different petrological processes in different magma chambers. The Cumaovasi lavas have a unique chemical composition, and closely similar to the extension related topaz bearing rhyolites formed from small magma bodies. Our data reveal that extension related mafic injections caused crustal anatectic melting and produced felsic melts that rapidly ascended into the upper crust.

  14. The Age and Geodynamic Evolution of the Metamorphic sole rocks from Izmir-Ankara-Erzıncan suture zone (Northern-Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melih Çörtük, Rahmi; Faruk Çelik, Ömer; Özkan, Mutlu; Sherlock, Sarah C.; Marzoli, Andrea; Altıntaş, İsmail Emir; Topuz, Gültekin

    2016-04-01

    The İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone in northern Turkey is one of the major tectonic zones separating the Pontides to the North from the Anatolide-Tauride block and Kı rşehir Massif to the South. The accretionary complex of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone, near Artova, is composed mainly of peridotites with varying degree serpentinization, metamorphic rocks, basalt, sandstones, pelagic and neritic limestones. The metamorphic rocks are represented by amphibolite, garnet micaschit, calc-schist and marble. The metamorphic rocks were interpreted as the metamorphic sole rocks. Because; (i) They are tectonically located beneath the serpentinized peridotites. (ii) Foliation planes of both the amphibolites and mantle tectonites are parallel to each other. (iii) The metamorphic rocks are crosscut by non-metamorphic dolerite dikes which exhibite Nb and Ta depletion relative to Th enrichment on the N-MORB normalized multi-element spider diagram. The dolerite dikes display flat REE patterns (LaN/YbN=0.85-1.24). These geochemical signatures of the dolerite dikes are indicative of subduction component during their occurrences. Geochemical observations of the amphibolites suggest E-MORB- and OIB-like signatures (LaN/SmN= 1.39-3.14) and their protoliths are represented by basalt and alkali basaltic rocks. Amphiboles from the amphibolites are represented by calcic amphiboles (magnesio-hornblende, tchermakite and tremolite) and they yielded 40Ar-39Ar ages between 157.8 ± 3.6 Ma and 139 ± 11 Ma. These cooling ages were interpreted to be the intra-oceanic subduction/thrusting time of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan oceanic domain. This study was funded by TÜBİTAK (Project no: 112Y123).

  15. Adolescents’ risk perceptions on mobile phones and their base stations, their trust to authorities and incivility in using mobile phones: a cross-sectional survey on 2240 high school students in Izmir, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Use of mobile phones has rapidly risen among adolescents despite a lack of scientific certainty on their health risks. Risk perception is an important determinant of behavior, and studies on adolescents’ risk perceptions of mobile phones or base stations are very scarce. This study aims to evaluate high school students’ risk perceptions on mobile phones and base stations, their trust to authorities, their opinions regarding incivility while using mobile phones and to assess associated factors. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 2530 students were chosen with stratified cluster sampling among 20,493 high school students studying in Bornova district of Izmir, Turkey, among whom 2240 (88.5%) participated. Risk perceptions and opinions were questioned with a 5-point Likert scale for 24 statements grouped under four dimensions. The mean responses to the four dimensions were categorized as <3.5 (low) and ≥3.5 (high) and the determinants were analyzed with logistic regression. Results Mean risk perception scores for the mobile phone, base station, trust to authority and incivility dimensions were 3.69 ± 0.89, 4.34 ± 0.78, 3.77 ± 0.93, 3.16 ± 0.93 and the prevalence of high risk perception was 65.1%, 86.7%, 66.2%, 39.7%, respectively. In the mobile phone dimension; students attending industrial technical high school had lower risk perceptions while female students, lower mothers’ education groups and students not using mobile phones (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.80-4.40) had higher risk perceptions. In the base station dimension girls had higher risk perceptions (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.20-2.37). Girls and students attending industrial technical high school had significantly lower risk perception however 11-12th grade group perceived the risk higher (OR = 1.45 95% CI = 1.15-1.84) in the trust to authority dimension. For the incivility dimension, female students (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.14-1.82), illiterate

  16. Using Decision Trees for Estimating Mode Choice of Trips in Buca-Izmir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oral, L. O.; Tecim, V.

    2013-05-01

    Decision makers develop transportation plans and models for providing sustainable transport systems in urban areas. Mode Choice is one of the stages in transportation modelling. Data mining techniques can discover factors affecting the mode choice. These techniques can be applied with knowledge process approach. In this study a data mining process model is applied to determine the factors affecting the mode choice with decision trees techniques by considering individual trip behaviours from household survey data collected within Izmir Transportation Master Plan. From this perspective transport mode choice problem is solved on a case in district of Buca-Izmir, Turkey with CRISP-DM knowledge process model.

  17. Turkey.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Focus in this discussion of Turkey is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and Turkey. In 1986, Turkey's population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. Turkey is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of Turkey's population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel

  18. 78 FR 18318 - U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Turkey AGENCY: International Trade....--Turkey Healthcare Trade Mission to Ankara, Istanbul, and Izmir on May 4-8, 2014. The trade mission to.../Defense trade missions in December 2011 and December 2012 respectively. Turkey has a compelling...

  19. Geoarchaeological research of the mid-age Ilyas Bey complex buildings with ground penetrating radar in Miletus, Aydin, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioğlu, S.; Kadioğlu, Y. K.; Akyol, A. A.

    2008-07-01

    ) studies reveal that the main bulding rock units of Ilyas Bey Mosque are mainly composed of 4 main units these are marble, metalimestone, mica gneiss and granodiorite. The marble, metalimestone with the mica gneiss were obtained from Menderes Massif in Western Anatolia. The granodiorite columns might be obtained from Kozak Pluton in the north of Bergama-Izmir line of western Anatolia.

  20. Evaluation of AN Integrated Gis-Based Crime Analysis & 3d Modelling for Izmir-Konak Municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarhan, C.; Deniz, D.

    2011-08-01

    GIS integrated 3D modelling is crucial for the city planning and design processes because urban modelling is a tool used in virtual environments, and provides convenience to work. Although, the creation and display of 3D city models for large regions is difficult it is vital for planning and designing safer cities, as well as public places. Today, crime is a significant problem in Turkey. When it was compared by years of crime rates, population growth and urbanization rate, an increasing more than in parallel has been observed. This paper aims to discuss GIS integrated 3D modelling affects in urban planning and design, explaining Turkish planning processes with GIS and 3D modelling. To do that, it presents a case study for Izmir Konak Municipality about GIS integrated crime analysis and 3D models of the crime scenes. Izmir crime records has been obtained from Izmir Police Department belonging to 2003-2004 and 2005 (D. Deniz, 2007) are used for districts' crime map. In the light of these data, the highest rate crime district, Konak, is analyzed between 2001 and 2005 data.

  1. An Aspect on the School Culture in Turkey and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Semiha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to get a better understanding on school culture in the United States and Turkey. In this quantitative investigation, data were collected using the "School Culture Inventory" from 157 teachers in Izmir, Turkey and 161 teachers in the United States. The findings show that both countries have a positive culture. A…

  2. Assessment of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Two Provinces of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    TATAR, Dursun; SENOL, Gunes; ALPTEKIN, Serpil; GUNES, Ebru; AYDIN, Mert; GUNES, Ozdal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main health issues in Turkey. Extrapulmonary TB cases have significant proportion comparing pulmonary TB cases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cases in two regions of Turkey, which have different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, EPTB cases between 2000 and 2005 in Van and Izmir Provinces of Turkey were analyzed and compared for symptoms, age groups, vaccination status, diagnostic procedures and social-economical conditions within two provinces. Descriptive analytic methods were used. Results: Total of 397 EPTB cases were reviewed retrospectively in Izmir and Van provinces. Pleural TB was most often seen EPTB form (47.6% vs. 32.6%) and female/male ratio was similar in both groups. Patients were in older ages in Izmir Province. Chest pain (20% vs. 32%), cough (33% vs. 26%) and night sweatiness (29% vs. 36%) were leading complaints. Low BCG vaccination rate and higher childhood EPTB were found in Van group, in contrary elderly EPTB was more often in of Izmir group. Conclusion: Frequency of severe forms of EPTB is more often in younger ages in lower social economical condition areas. PMID:27141492

  3. Chemistry Teachers' Perceptions on Laboratory Applications: Izmir Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feyzioglu, Burak; Demirdag, Baris; Ates, Alev; Cobanoglu, Ilker; Altun, Eralp

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to reveal to what extent Turkish chemistry teachers use laboratories effectively and their perceptions on laboratory applications and the factors related to laboratory applications. In this cross-sectional survey, 408 chemistry teachers from the secondary schools in Izmir were given "Teacher Demographic form", "The Scale of…

  4. Social and Emotional Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…

  5. A Relative Investigation on Purposes of Computer and Internet Use of Prospective Geography Teachers in Turkey and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Ilhan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Chinese and Turkish prospective geography teachers' use of computer and internet applications as indispensable instruments in and out of education. 292 prospective geography teachers students from Shanghai, China, and Izmir, Turkey, participated in this study. The aim of this study was to examine the use of computers and…

  6. Chemical characterization of odors due to some industrial and urban facilities in Izmir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, Faruk; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    The relationship between odor concentrations (olfactometry) and chemical concentrations (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS) was studied for the odorous air compositions of a rendering plant, a sanitary landfill and an industrial area with large petroleum and petrochemical industries. Samples taken from the university campus located in a non-industrial and non-urban area were also studied for several organic components for comparison. Ambient air samples were taken into special bags by using an odor sampling device designed for field sampling of odors. In the laboratory odorous chemicals in the samples were transferred into adsorbent tubes and analyzed using a combination of thermal desorption and GC-MS. Results point to different characteristics of the odorous gases and air in and around the urban and industrial sources. Among the 64 specific compounds studied, 49 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in rendering plant, 53 VOCs were detected in sanitary landfill and 44 VOCs were detected in petroleum and petrochemical industries. The compounds measured in the odorous gas composition are the alkanes, alkenes, carbonyls, arenes, chlorinated and other halogenated compounds and organic chlorides as well as the volatile fatty acids.

  7. Investigation of Buildings Strength Using Microtremor Method: A case from the North of Izmir Bay (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timur, Emre

    2016-04-01

    Seismic risk investigations has great importance in City of İzmir which exists within the first degree earthquake hazardous zone and also surrounded by active tectonic systems. Microtremor measurements have been used to determine building's period and strength characteristics, as a non-destructive way of exploring bearing frame structure of the buildings. It is possible to measure dominant periods and amplifications at each floor, and also to calculate vulnerability indexes and floor spectral ratios (FSR) using these two parameters. In this study, microtremor data were collected at each floor of 5 buildings in Karşıyaka, in the North of İzmir Bay. The buildings were selected along the shoreline and the construction ages as well as the heights were chosen to be similar, in order to make a consistent comparison between the results. The data were recorded at each floor of the buildings and outside the buildings simultaneously for 40 minutes and HVSR curves were obtained by using GEOPSY software. The validation of periods were determined using FSR in order to calculate damping ratios accurately. The variation range and tendency between damping ratio and period of each floor with damping ratios and vulnerability indices, along with the preliminary influence factor, were presented and discussed. In addition, a fitting curve was plotted indicating the relation between the damping ratio and dominant natural frequencies of the floors of each building. Furthermore, evaluation of strength, damping ratio, natural dominant period and vulnerability index of the buildings were estimated by interpreting microtremor data. As a result, it was determined that 3 of the 5 buildings were seismically risky.

  8. Talking Turkey...

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock Talking Turkey… 45 million turkeys are eaten each Thanksgiving, 22 ... more 4 Steps to Making Sense, Safely, of Turkey and "All the Fixin's" The U.S. Food and ...

  9. Investigation of 1-D crustal velocity structure beneath Izmir Gulf and surroundings by using local earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Orhan; Özer, Ćaglar

    2016-04-01

    In this study; we examined one dimensional crustal velocity structure of Izmir gulf and surroundings. We used nearly one thousand high quality (A and B class) earthquake data which recorded by Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) [1], Bogazici University (BU-KOERI) [2] and National Observatory of Athens (NOA) [3,4]. We tried several synthetic tests to understand power of new velocity structure, and examined phase residuals, RMS values and shifting tests. After evaluating these tests; we decided one dimensional velocity structure and minimum 1-D P wave velocities, hypocentral parameter and earthquake locations from VELEST algorithm. Distribution of earthquakes was visibly improved by using new minimum velocity structure.

  10. Synoptic Analysis of Heavy Rainfall and Flood Observed in Izmir on 20 May 2015 Using Radar and Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avsar, Ercument

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a meteorological analysis is conducted on the sudden and heavy rainfall that occurred in Izmir on May 20, 2015. The barotropic model that is observed in upper carts is shown in detail. We can access the data of and analyze the type, severity and amount of many meteorological parameters using the meteorological radars that form a remote sensing system. The one field that uses the radars most intensively is rainfall. Images from the satellite and radar systems are used in the meteorological analysis of the heavy rainfall that occurred in Izmir on 20 May 2015, and the development of the system that led to this rainfall is shown. In this study, data received from Bornova Automatic Meteorological Observation Station (OMGI), which is under the management of Meteorology General Directorate (MGM), Izmir 2. Regional Directorate; satellite images; Radar PPI (Plan Position Indicator) and Radar MAX (Maximum Display) images are evaluated. In addition, synoptic situation, outputs of numerical estimation models, indices calculated from Skew T Log-P diagram are shown. All these results are mapped and analyzed. At the end of these analyses, it is found that this sudden rainfall had developed according to the frontal system motion. A barotropic model occurred on the day of the rainfall over the Aegean Region. As a result of the rainfall that happened in Izmir at 12.00 UTC (Universal Coordinated Time), the May month rainfall record for the last 64 years is achieved with a rainfall amount of 67.7 mm per meter square. Keywords: Izmir, barotropic model, heavy rainfall, radar, synoptic analysis

  11. [An evaluation of the 1906 issues of the first medical periodical in Izmir, Hifzissihha Periodical].

    PubMed

    Karayaman, Mehmet

    The purpose of this study is to review the first issues of Hifzissihha Periodical published in 1906 as the first medical periodical of Izmir. We already conducted a similar study on the 1908 issues of the same periodical published as 26 issues between May 8, 1908 and December 24, 1908. This particular study, on the other hand, mainly focuses on the very first issues (from Issue 3 to 21) which were published in 1906. Published as a weekly periodical in Turkish in Arabic alphabet by Doktor Taslizade Edhem Bey, the periodical was formatted in two columns with a 25.5 x 18.5 page size. The articles in the periodical included information about epidemics, mother and child health, healthy nutrition and maintaining a healthy life were written in a plain language. Our study also aims to provide information about the articles, authors, and the date and place of publication of each issue. PMID:22164737

  12. qnrA prevalence in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-positive Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oktem, I Mehmet Ali; Gulay, Zeynep; Bicmen, Meral; Gur, Deniz

    2008-01-01

    Quinolone resistance mostly originates from chromosomal mutations. In recent years, however, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance has been reported in several parts of the world. Plasmid-borne qnrA, qnrB, or qnrS genes are responsible for this kind of resistance. Little is known about the diversity, type, and species range of the qnr genes in Turkey. We screened qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes in quinolone-resistant blood culture isolates collected from six different medical centers in Turkey which produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). A total of 78 ESBL-positive isolates were enrolled in this study. Of these, 37 (47.4%) were nalidixic-acid resistant or intermediate. qnrA was found on large plasmids isolated from five (6.4%) of the Nal(I/R) isolates. In three of these, the same plasmid also carried bla(CTX-M). Four of the qnrA-positive isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae from Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Izmir, and the fifth isolate was Escherichia coli from Istanbul University Hospital. Two of the isolates from Izmir were found by enterobacterial repetitive interegenic consensus sequence-PCR to be clonally related. This is the first report on the qnrA prevalence among ESBL-positive blood culture isolates collected from different regions in Turkey. According to our results, plasmid-mediated resistance is a potential problem for the spread of quinolone resistance, and this mechanism could be emerging strongly among the ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in Turkey. PMID:18219128

  13. Hydrogeochemical investigation of Küçük Menderes River coastal wetland, Selçuk-Izmir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somay, A. Melis; Gemici, Ünsal; Filiz, Sevki

    2008-07-01

    Küçük Menderes River forms a rich coastal wetland inside in the Selçuk plain. Three saline/brackish lakes, one swamp and Küçük Menderes River are these wetlands’ components. Alkaline-slightly alkaline type lakes are recharged from precipitation and karstic springs that discharge from marble-schist and marble-alluvium contacts in the northern and southern parts of the study area. Water types of the wetland are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Mg-HCO3-Cl in both rainy and dry seasons. Both seawater intrusion and evaporation, as being the sources of the ions, justify the presence of Na-Cl, Na-SO4 and Cl-SO4, in the wetland water. Environmental isotopes were used to identify the relationship between wetland and groundwater in the Selçuk plain. The δ18O and δD composition of wetland area samples have changed between -6.42 to -4.56‰, and -36.40 to -23.80‰, respectively. The lakes and rivers are plotted on the mixing line by slope of 5.2 and these data indicate that wetland is affected from seawater intrusion. The recharge area that was sampled in order to compare the wetland has Ca-HCO3 water type with a neutral-slightly alkaline pH values and the main hydrogeochemical process is weathering the different types of silicates. Iron, manganese and selenium are the dominant minor ions due to the high biological activities and organic matters in the lakes. There are two contamination risks for this wetland: (1) waste disposal site and (2) water treatment plant where the purified waters are released into the river. EC, Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe and Zn values exceed those of aquatic life standards. In the near future these sites will pose a danger for wetland wild life and surrounding irrigation water suppliers.

  14. Elder abuse and neglect in a population offering care by a primary health care center in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kissal, Aygul; Beşer, Ayşe

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of abuse and neglect of the elderly aged 65 years and older, living with their relative in a primary health care center area and affecting factors. A descriptive study included 331 people aged 65 years. The most frequent type of abuse was psychological abuse and the least frequent was sexual abuse. Female gender, low education levels, living with spouses and children, and perception of familial relationships as average or below average significantly increased abuse. The nurses providing primary health care should be able to identify and observe the elderly at risk of abuse and conduct programs preventing abuse. PMID:21347984

  15. Turkey`s nuclear power effort

    SciTech Connect

    Aybers, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey`s plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.

  16. Total and inorganic arsenic levels in some marine organisms from Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean Sea): a risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Gonul, Lutfi Tolga; Tasel, Didem

    2014-10-01

    The arsenic compounds in marine biota were evaluated from Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean) and found that inorganic arsenic occurred as a minor fraction. No information is available on the annual variations of arsenic in important edible biota species from Izmir Bay. Fish and mussel samples were taken from different regions of Izmir Bay between 2009 and 2011 (n=854 individual specimens). The average percentages of inorganic arsenic to total arsenic for all biota samples were 3.43±3.38% with a range of 0.11-11.8%. The importance of speciation analysis for arsenic is supported by our work, because arsenic is ubiquitous in the ecosystem, and flexible toxicity of arsenic is based on chemical form. The average total As levels in Mullus barbatus were 6 times higher than Diplodus annularis and Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study also revealed that spatial variation influenced the arsenic levels in the fish samples and the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in Gediz site. Our study showed that estimated daily intakes of arsenic via consumption of flesh fish and shell fish were below the BMDL0.5 values established by FAO/WHO. PMID:25048921

  17. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous radiolarian age constraints from the sedimentary cover of the Amasia ophiolite (NW Armenia), at the junction between the Izmir-Ankara-Erzinçan and Sevan-Hakari suture zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danelian, T.; Asatryan, G.; Galoyan, Gh.; Sahakyan, L.; Stepanyan, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Amasia ophiolite, situated at the northernmost corner of Armenia, is part of the Sevan-Hakari suture zone which links with the Izmir-Ankara-Erzinçan suture zone in northern Turkey. Three new radiolarian assemblages have been extracted from siliceous sedimentary rocks that accumulated on the Amasia ophiolite in an oceanic setting. Two of these assemblages were extracted from red-brownish bedded cherts overlying basaltic lavas; one of these is likely to be middle Oxfordian to early Kimmeridgian in age, while the second correlates with the Berriasian. Similar time-equivalent lava-chert sequences have been dated recently using radiolarians from the Stepanavan, Vedi and Sevan ophiolite units, where they are considered to relate to submarine volcanic activity in the back-arc marginal basin in which the Armenian ophiolites were formed. The third radiolarian assemblage, of late Barremian age, was extracted from a more than 15-m-thick volcaniclastic-chert sequence. The related volcanic activity is likely to have been subaerial and probably relates to the formation of an oceanic volcanic plateau; no Cretaceous subaerial volcanism has been previously recorded in the Lesser Caucasus area.

  18. GPS-derived Strain Rates in western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, Haluk; Aktug, Bahadir; Dogru, Asli

    2014-05-01

    In western Turkey, the distribution of earthquakes indicates that the Aegean Region is under North-South extension. In order to estimate strain rates around the Tuzla Fault, which is located in the Aegean Region of western Turkey, five Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys were carried out between 2009 and 2012. The velocity field obtained from this study was combined with the published velocity field of the region and strain rates were calculated. Maximum values of strain accumulation were found to be on and around the sites close to Izmir. The velocities in ITRF2005 reached up to 20 mm/yr relative to the Eurasian plate. The Results of strain calculation indicated up to 140x10-9strain/yr and the direction of the extension and compression of the area showed consistency with present day kinematics of the Aegean Region. The GPS network in the area should be extended westward to increase the spatial resolution of the results. Besides, real-time GPS data coming from CORS sites can also provide an improved assessment of the status.

  19. Impact of the Bologna Process on Turkish Higher Education: The Case of Izmir University of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esen, Oguz; Gürleyen, Isik; Binatli, Ayla Ogus

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on Turkey's experience of the Bologna Process. Its main objective is to contribute to the literature on the impact of Bologna Process on national higher education systems regarding the issue of curricula development. It argues that the Bologna Process has fostered development of transparent and systematic curricula, which…

  20. The effect of urban heat island on Izmir's city ecosystem and climate.

    PubMed

    Corumluoglu, Ozsen; Asri, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Depending on the researches done on urban landscapes, it is found that the heat island intensity caused by the activities in any city has some impact on the ecosystem of the region and on the regional climate. Urban areas located in arid and semiarid lands somehow represent heat increase when it is compared with the heat in the surrounding rural areas. Thus, cities located amid forested and temperate climate regions show moderate temperatures. The impervious surfaces let the rainfall leave the city lands faster than undeveloped areas. This effect reduces water's cooling effects on these lands. More significantly, if trees and other vegetations are rare in any region, it means less evapotranspiration-the process by which trees "exhale" water. Trees also contribute to the cooling of urban lands by their shade. Land cover and land use maps can easily be produced by processing of remote sensing satellites' images, like processing of Landsat's images. As a result of this process, urban regions can be distinguished from vegetation. Analyzed GIS data produced and supported by these images can be utilized to determine the impact of urban land on energy, water, and carbon balances at the Earth's surface. Here in this study, it is found that remote sensing technique with thermal images is a liable technique to asses where urban heat islands and hot spots are located in cities. As an application area, in Izmir, it was found that the whole city was in high level of surface temperature as it was over 28 °C during the summer times. Beside this, the highest temperature values which go up to 47 °C are obtained at industrial regions especially where the iron-steel factories and the related industrial activities are. PMID:24764007

  1. Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U

  2. The Superimposed Paleocene-Miocene Tectonics of the middle part of the Nallihan Wedge (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Murat; Yaltirak, Cenk

    2015-04-01

    In the NW Turkey, the area between the suture zones of the Rhodope-Pontide Ocean and Izmir-Ankara Ocean, and North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and Thrace-Eskişehir Fault Zone (TEFZ) is known as the Nallıhan Wedge. The shape of Nallıhan Wedge is a 90 degree counter-clockwise rotated isosceles triangle. The northwestern boundary is a part of NAFZ and the southwestern boundary is a part of TEFZ. The 160 km-long eastern boundary is located at around Beypazarı and western corner is on the Bursa Plain. Nallıhan is situated at the centre of this isosceles triangle. While all the thrusts and folds shrink towards to the west and show an imbricate-like structure, the characteristics of the folds turn into to the open folds. Thrusts faults are locally observed as blind and almost perpendicular thrusts at the fold limbs towards to the east. The rocks of the study area show different characteristics according to their types and basins of formation. On the other hand the structural properties of these rocks display the effects of the closure of the Intra-Pontide and Izmir-Ankara Oceans in between Paleocene and Early Oligocene. During Miocene, the thrust faults reactivated and a deformation formed the NEE-SWW left lateral strike-slip faults parallel to these thrust faults. Whereas the first events are related to the closure of the branches of Neo-Tethys, the Miocene deformation is probably based on the Miocene tectonics of the Western Anatolia by the reason of equivalent age of the TEFZ. In this framework, the deformation of the Nallıhan Wedge presents significant information about the period between the evolution of Paleotectonic and Neotectonic of Turkey.

  3. The importance of associations in the struggle against tuberculosis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Murat; Toprak, Sadık

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease as old as human history and has affected every area of human life. The struggle against tuberculosis had been started by non-governmental organizations and achieved success after second world war. In Anatolia as well as all over the world fight against tuberculosis, with the leading names in medicine, started during the Ottoman Empire. In the following years of struggle within the executive team will host association (Istanbul Anti-tuberculosis Association) was founded in 1918. Due to political developments that occurred shortly after standing association studies, in 1923, the Republic of Turkey in Izmir during the re-started. In the 1925 and 1927 a national medical congress, tuberculosis as the main election issue, was organized, and then in 1928 in Istanbul Tuberculosis Association again take action in the fight against decisive role in association studies have begun to undertake. In the years 1953-1973, UNICEF, Ministry of Health and later efforts Turkish National Anti-tuberculosis Association jointly significant results were obtained in the fight against tuberculosis. These positive statements given the lethargy environment, economic and political crises in the last 10 years, in parallel with the increase of tuberculosis around the world experiencing, there was an increase in Turkey. In 1986, the National Anti-Tuberculosis Federation was founded by Anti-Tuberculosis Associations. The Anti-Tuberculosis Federation has put in practice DOTS programme in 2005 in Turkey. In conclusion, we evaluate that the Anti-Tuberculosis Associations in Turkey have played a major role in struggle against tuberculosis in Turkey since the last century. PMID:23030758

  4. Multidisciplinary approach for the characterization of a new Late Cretaceous continental arc in the Central Pontides (Northern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellero, Alessandro; Ottria, Giuseppe; Sayit, Kaan; Catanzariti, Rita; Frassi, Chiara; Cemal Göncüoǧlu, M.; Marroni, Michele; Pandolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    In the Central Pontides (Northern Turkey), south of Tosya, a tectonic unit consisting of not-metamorphic volcanic rocks and overlying sedimentary succession is exposed inside a fault-bounded elongated block. It is restrained within a wide shear zone, where the Intra-Pontide suture zone, the Sakarya terrane and the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone are juxtaposed as result of strike-slip activity of the North Anatolian shear zone. The volcanic rocks are mainly basalts and basaltic andesites (with their pyroclastic equivalents) associated with a volcaniclastic formation made up of breccias and sandstones that are stratigraphically overlain by a Marly-calcareous turbidite formation. The calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy points to a late Santonian-middle Campanian age (CC17-CC21 Zones) for the sedimentary succession. The geochemistry of the volcanic rocks reveals an active continental margin setting as evidenced by the enrichment in Th and LREE over HFSE, and the Nb-enriched nature of these lavas relative to N-MORB. As highlighted by the performed arenite petrography, the occurrence of continent-derived clastics in the sedimentary succession supports the hypothesis of a continental arc-derived volcanic succession. Alternative geodynamic reconstructions are proposed, where this tectonic unit could represent a slice derived from the northern continental margin of the Intra- Pontide or Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan oceanic basins.

  5. Turkey between two worlds: a demographic view.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, C F

    1982-01-01

    A demographic view of Turkey is presented in this discussion. Turkey provides another example of a country, ravaged by war losses between 1914-1922, which took 4 decades, from the mid1920s to the mid1960s, to move from a pronatalist policy to an understanding of the social, economic, and most recently the political dangers of rampant population growth. The 1st census, taken in Turkey in 1927, showed a population of 13,648,270 living in an area of 299,294 square miles, substantially equal to its present dimensions. In mid1977 the population surpassed 42 million, and it reached 45.6 million in mid1980 estimates. The population grew by only 5.4% in the 1940-1945 intercensal period. With the return to normalcy following the war, Turkey's high wartime death rate (almost 40/1000 between 1940 and 1945) declined rapidly and population growth began to accelerate. It was toward the end of the 1950s that concern began to be expressed about the rapid population growth the country was experiencing. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and the State Planning Organization began to study the implications of the increase for future social and economic development. This reconsideration of the previous pronatalist policy, which had forbidden the dissemination of birth control supplies or information, received a stimulus following the coup of 1960 that brought the military to power. Under military rule from May 1960 to November 1961 an antinatalist position emerged and was incorporated in the 1963-1967 5 year plan and later in the Population Planning Law, No. 557, enacted in 1965. Law 557 was permissive yet essentially neutral. It did not interfere with the private decisions of couples to plan family size but it offered them contraceptive supplies and information free or at low cost as well as education in population matters. Abortion was legalized if the mother's health were endangered, but it was not allowed otherwise. Sterilization was prohibited. The implementation of these

  6. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  7. The first report on the outbreak of OXA-24/40-like carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarı, Ayşe Nur; Biçmen, Meral; Gülay, Zeynep

    2013-01-01

    Carbapenem resistance due to OXA-type carbapenemases seriously limits therapeutic options in nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Previous studies have shown the presence of OXA-51, OXA-58, and OXA-23 carbapenemases but not OXA-24/40 in A. baumannii in Turkey. In this study, we investigated carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases (CHDLs) in A. baumannii and the molecular epidemiology of CHDL producers at the Dokuz Eylul Hospital, Izmir Turkey, and detected blaOXA-24/40 in a clinical isolate from a patient in the medical intensive care unit (ICU). The specific enzyme type was OXA-72. Additional studies revealed 22 more isolates from 20 patients and that the OXA-72-producing strain caused an outbreak in the medical ICU from September 2012 to March 2013, which still continues. To our knowledge, this is the first report of OXA-24/40 carbapenemases in A. baumannii in Turkey. Emergency infection control should be implemented following the arrival of a new OXA at a hospital where A. baumannii is highly endemic. PMID:24047747

  8. Analysis of Cumulonimbus (Cb), Thunderstorm and Fog for Izmir Adnan Menderes Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avsar, Ercument

    2016-07-01

    Demand for airline transport has been increasing day by day with the development of the aviation industry in Turkey. Meteorological conditions are among the most important factors that influence aviation facilities. Meteorological events cause delays and cancellation of flights which create economic and time losses, and they even lead to accidents and breakups. The most important meteorological events that affect the takeoff and landing of airplanes can be listed as wind, runway visual range, cloud, rain, icing, turbulence, and low level windshear. Meteorological events that affect the aviation facilities most often in Adnan Menderes Airport (LTBJ), the fourth largest airport in Turkey in terms of air traffic, are fog, Cumulonimbus (Cb) clouds and thunderstorms (TS-Thunderstorm). Therefore, it is important to identify the occurrence time of these events based on the analysis of data over many years and do the flight plans based on this meteorological information in order to make the aviation facilities safer and without delays. In this study, statistical analysis on the formation of Cb clouds, thunderstorm and foggy days is conducted using observations produced for aviation (METAR) and special observers (SPECI). It is found that there are two types of fog that are observed most often at LTBJ, namely radiation and advection fogs, accordingly to the results of statistical analysis based on data from 2004 to 2014. Fog events are found to occur most often in the months of December and January, during 04:00 - 07:00 UTC time interval, between pressure values over 1015-1020 hPa, in 130-190 degree light breeze (1-5KT) and in temperature levels between 5°C and 8°C. Thunderstorm events recorded at LTBJ between the years 2004 and 2014 are most often observed in the months of January and February, in 120-210 degree gentle breeze winds (6-10KT), and in temperature levels between 8 and 18 °C. Key Words: Adnan Menderes International Airport, LTBJ, Fog, Thunderstorm (TS), Cb

  9. Informatics in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  10. Sustainability in the Architectural Design Studio: A Case Study of Designing On-Campus Academic Staff Housing in Konya and Izmir, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bala, Havva Alkan

    2010-01-01

    It is important to engender a "sustainable" architectural consciousness in the students who will be the next generation architects. In architectural education, design decisions taken during the early phases of the design process play an important role in ensuring concern for the sustainability issue. But, in general, all discussions about the site…

  11. Echinococcosis multilocularis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uysal, V; Paksoy, N

    1986-10-01

    We present 20 new cases of Echinococcosis multilocularis (EM) and have also reviewed all 137 previously reported cases from Turkey. The total number of cases is now 157 up until the end of 1983. Of 146 cases with information on their place of occurrence, 133 (91%) were from eastern and central parts of Turkey or the region of the Black Sea where the cold climate is predominant. This area should be considered as part of the geographic distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis which extends from the Caucasian Republics (Azerbaijan and Georgian S.S.R.) to Siberia in the Soviet Union. EM is more frequent among the people involved in raising livestock in the rural areas of Turkey. Most of the cases (76%) were between the ages of 30 and 50; 53% were males. One hundred and thirty nine cases (92%) were liver infections, and most of the cases (60%) were clinically diagnosed as liver tumour. PMID:3795325

  12. The "Turkey Buzzard" glider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G; Brown, D T

    1923-01-01

    The "Turkey Buzzard" is a semi-internally braced monoplane (Fig. 1). The wing is placed above the fuselage for two important aerodynamical reasons: first, because this position minimizes the mutual interference between the wing and the fuselage, and, second, useful lifting surface is utilized with the wing passing over the fuselage instead of through it.

  13. Country Profiles, Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lewis S.

    A profile of Turkey is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  14. Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Malmgren, Kimber W.

    2009-01-01

    Special education has been gaining intense attention from governments and educators throughout the world. As a developing country, and official candidate for the European Union, Turkey has been working on issues related to special education provision and inclusive education to improve the quality of services for citizens with disabilities. This…

  15. Wind energy and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future. PMID:21479556

  16. Osteomyelitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...

  17. Cloning Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    1999-01-01

    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…

  18. Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eres, Figen

    2010-01-01

    The quality and the prevalence of education are the major indicators of the development of a society. It is a kind of human right to every person living in the society to be educated in a sufficient way. The education of the disabled people, a social reality in Turkey, is not sufficiently carried out. This paper aims at the education of the…

  19. Astronomy in Modern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eker, Zeki; Demircan, Osman, Kirbiyik, Halil; Bilir, Selcuk

    2013-01-01

    Present-day astronomy and its development in the recent history of Turkey are described. Current astronomy education in modern-day Turkish Republic from primary to high schools, including modern-day university education is discussed. Astronomical and space research together with the existing observatories and present-day Turkish astronomy in the global state is presented.

  20. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  1. Late Cretaceous - recent lithosphere scale evolution of Turkey: linking the crustal surface evolution to the structure of the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartol, J.; Govers, R. M. A.; Wortel, M. J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Central Anatolia (Central Turkey) possesses all the characteristics of a plateau. It experienced a period of rapid and substantial uplift (late Miocene, ˜8 Ma) while significant crustal shortening did not occur. Similar to other plateaus, the presence of volcanic ash and tuff within the sediments suggest that uplift was preceded by widespread volcanism (˜14-9Ma). The lithospheric context of these events is, however, unknown. For the Eastern Anatolian plateau, similar events have been attributed to southward retread followed by slab break-off of the northern Neotethys slab. Recent tomographic results indicate that this northern Neotethys slab extended beneath both the Eastern and Central Anatolian plateau prior to late Miocene delamination and possibly even beneath western Anatolia prior to the Eocene (?). We propose a new lithospheric scenario for the regional evolution for the Aegean-Anatolia-Near East region that combines a recent compilation of surface geology data with the structure of the upper mantle imaged with tomography. In our new scenario for the evolution of the Aegean-Anatolia-Near East region, a single continuous subduction zone south of the Pontides (Izmir - Ankara - Erzincan crustal suture zone) accommodated the Africa - Eurasia convergence until the end of the late Cretaceous. In the Late Cretaceous - Eocene the northern Neotethys Ocean closed followed by Anatolide - Taurides (south) and Pontides (north) continental collision along the Izmir - Ankara - Erzincan crustal suture zone. While the trench jumped to the south of Anatolide - Taurides terrane, subduction continued beneath the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture where the northern Neotethys slab continued to sink into the deeper mantle. In the early Miocene (˜20-15Ma), the northern Neotethys slab started to retreat southward towards the trench, resulting in delamination of the lithospheric mantle. The last part of (early Miocene - recent) our scenario is testable. We use a coupled thermal

  2. Nursing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada. PMID:16982724

  3. Effect of the first chemotherapy course on the quality of life of cancer patients in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turgay, Ayse San; Khorshid, Leyla; Eser, Ismet

    2008-01-01

    Multiple studies have examined the quality of life of cancer patients before or after treatment, but few have evaluated the impact of a specific course of treatment on cancer patients' quality of life. Using a longitudinal design, we examined the quality of life of 24 women and 8 men before receiving their initial course of chemotherapy and again at 21 days after the first course of chemotherapy. The study was carried out at the outpatient chemotherapy unit of a university hospital located in the city of Izmir, West Turkey. Research data were collected using a patient demographic form and the Rolls Royce Model Quality of Life Scale. All of the postchemotherapy mean scores from the quality-of-life instrument were statistically significantly lower at day 21, except for the cognitive functioning subscale. Overall, initial chemotherapy was found to have a significantly negative effect on the quality of life of cancer patients. Nurses can help patients prepare for an initial decrease in their quality of life early in treatment. PMID:18987504

  4. Aflatoxin M1 levels in UHT milk and kashar cheese consumed in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tekinşen, K Kaan; Eken, H Semih

    2008-10-01

    In the present study, 100 UHT milk and 132 kashar cheese samples were analyzed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). They were obtained from retail outlets in five big cities (Istanbul, Izmir, Konya, Tekirdag, Edirne). The occurrence and concentration range of AFM1 in the samples were investigated by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Sixty-seven percent of the UHT milk samples and 82.6% of the kashar cheese samples contained AFM1. The positive incidence of AFM1 in the UHT milk samples and the kashar cheese samples ranged from 10 to 630 ng/kg and from 50 to 690 ng/kg, respectively. AFM1 levels in 31 (31%) UHT milk and 36 (27.3%) kashar cheese samples exceeded the maximum tolerable limit of the EC and the TFC. AFM1 levels in the samples show that there is a presence of high aflatoxin level that constitutes a human health risk in Turkey. Therefore milk and dairy products have to be controlled continuously for presence of AFM1 contamination by the Turkish public health authorities. PMID:18700163

  5. Presence of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and Their Influence on Nitrogen Cycling in Ilica Bay, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulecal, Y.; Temel, M.

    2011-12-01

    Recenlty, the processes of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), and ammonia oxidation within the domain Archaea, have been recognized as two new links in the global nitrogen cycle. The distribution and ubiquity of marine Archaea an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycling (Ingalls et al., 2006; Leininger et al., 2006; Wuchter et al.,2006a). However, our knowledge on archaeal distribution in aquatic ecosystem was largely confined to the extreme environments for a long time until DeLong (1992, 1998) revealed the ubiquity of archaea in common marine environments. Despite the great progress, more efforts need to be given to the study of archaeal diversity in the vast oceans and of the variations in the ecological environment from coastal to oceanic waters (Massana et al.,2000). Our studying area which Ilica Bay in Izmir (Turkey) has a lot of thermal springs. The aim of study was to investigate the presence of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and their roles of nitrogen cycling in marine enviroments.We have not only used the geochemical analyses but also genetic tools. This study will supply knowledge for marine nitrogen cycling to understanding very well, in addition how Archea genes players in the process of anammox in shallow coastal marine environments.

  6. Greece and Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  8. Health behaviors in high school students in İzmir, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çavdar, Sabanur; Sümer, Esin Çetinkaya; Eliaçık, Kayı; Arslan, Aslıhan; Koyun, Begüm; Korkmaz, Nurhan; Kanık, Ali; Erginöz, Ethem; Ercan, Oya; Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of the self reported health behaviors and differences in these behaviors by gender and grades in high school adolescents in İzmir, Turkey. Material and Methods: A stratified cluster sampling procedure was used for this cross-sectional study. The study sample included 2 296 students attending 22 high schools in Izmir. As a data collection instrument, some questions from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children Study 2009/2010 questionnnaire and questions which were developed by the researchers to understand behaviors of internet use in adolescents were used. Chi-square tests and Cramer’s V statistics were used for statistical analyses. Results: Among the high school students, 33.8% experimented smoking, 26.3% smoked cigarette during the 30 days before the survey, 14.9% smoked cigarette regularly during the 30 days before the survey, 54.1% experimented drinking alcohol, 38.4% drunk alcohol during the 30 days before the survey, 31.6% got drunk, 10.9% were adequately physically active, 59.9% watched TV for a long period of time, 72.8% used internet for a long period of time, 48.1% ate breakfast regularly, 36.2% ate adequate amount of fruit, 14.1% ate adequate amount of vegetable, 31.3% ate candies and chocolate very often, 18% drunk soft drink very often, 30.3% were bullied, 29.9% bullied others and 41% involved in a physical fight. Conclusions: These results showed that “Adolescent friendly health services” should be generalized all over Turkey, physicians should evaluate each adolescent for his/her health behaviors in each visit and implementation of prevention programs which adopt a health promotion perspective is necessary begining from the elementary school. PMID:27103861

  9. Nutritional rickets in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Behzat

    2010-08-01

    Nutritional rickets (NR) remains the most common form of developmental bone disease, in spite of the efforts of clinicians and health care providers to reduce the incidence of the disease in Turkey. Today, it is well known that the etiology of NR exists along a spectrum ranging from isolated vitamin D deficiency to isolated calcium deficiency. In Turkey, almost all NR results from vita-min D deficiency that may have temporary but profound effects on short- and long-term skeletal development. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency during infancy may predispose a patient to diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, multiple sclerosis, etc. The factors responsible for the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in developing countries and its resurgence in developed countries include the following: limited sunshine exposure as individuals spend more time indoors watching television and working on computers or intentional sunshine avoidance for skin cancer prevention. Traditional clothing (covered dress) further limits the exposure to sunshine and thus decreases the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D. In Turkey, maternal vitamin D deficiency and breast feeding without supplementation are the most prominent reasons. The diagnosis of NR is established with a thorough history and physical examination and confirmed by laboratory evaluation. In conclusion, recent literature has drawn attention to the supplemental doses of vitamin D required to achieve a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l), the serum concentration that is needed to optimize absorption of dietary calcium, suppress excess secretion of parathyroid hormone, and reduce fracture risk as well as prevent long-term negative effects. PMID:25610130

  10. Sphingolipidoses in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozkara, Hatice Asuman; Topçu, Meral

    2004-09-01

    During the last 5 years 2057 children under the age of 5 with various neurologic symptoms with the suspected diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases were referred to our hospital from different universities and state hospitals. We were able to separate sphingolipidoses by lysosomal enzyme screening. A total of 300 patients (15%) with sphingolipidoses were diagnosed; there were deficiencies of arylsulfatase A [metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD)] in 93 (31%), hexosaminidase [Sandhoff disease (SHD)] in 62 (20.7%), hexosaminidase A [Tay-Sachs disease (TSD)] in 15 (5%), beta-galactosidase (GM1 gangliosidosis) in 35 (11.7%), alpha-galactosidase (Fabry disease) in one (0.3%) cerebroside beta-galactosidase (Krabbe disease) in 65 (21.7%) and glucosylceramidase (Gaucher disease) in 29 (9.6%). SHD (20.7%), MLD (31%) and Krabbe disease (21.7%) were common. Prenatal enzymatic diagnosis was made in 70 at risk pregnancies, 64 for TSD and SHD, three for MLD and three for GM1 gangliosidosis by using chorionic villus biopsy in 54, cord blood samples in 12 and cultured amniotic fluid cells in four. Seventeen fetuses were found to be affected. We have calculated the relative frequency and minimum incidence of sphingolipidoses in Turkey. The combined incidence of sphingolipidoses is 4.615 per 100,000 live births. The calculated incidences are 1.43, 0.95, 1, 0.23, 0.54, 0.45, 0.015 per 100,000 live births for MLD, SHD, Krabbe, Gaucher, TSD, GM1 gangliosidosis and Fabry diseases, respectively. The real incidence, which covers all subtypes of this group of diseases, should be greater than this number. The results suggested that, as a group, sphingolipidoses are relatively common and represent an important health problem in Turkey and some rare autosomal recessive diseases of Turkey are due to 'founder effect' created by consanguineous marriages. PMID:15275696

  11. Harsh Winter in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The predominantly mountainous terrain of the Republic of Turkey is covered by snow in this Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image, produced from data collected on January 13, 2002. The snow-laced peaks of the Kure Daglari mountain range in the north can be seen as they range from the upper middle of the image to the upper right. The mountains parallel the northern coastline, which opens to the Black Sea. Also visible in this image, at the bottom right, is the island of Cyprus. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. Recent activity in Turkey.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    The role of Pathfinder grants to recent family planning projects led by business and labor in Turkey is described. Pathfinder funded a major portion of the Turkish Family Planning and Health Foundation, a grant agency set up to complement government programs. One current project is a survey of family planning needs of squatter communities. The Foundation's founder established a factory-based family planning clinic, aided by Pathfinder, now self-supporting. The Turkish TURK-IS Labor Federation has supported several other worksite clinics, and has placed family planning among its top priorities. Pathfinder supported development of their population policy statement. Turkey has only recently passed progressive family planning legislation and permitted significant private sector activities. The population of 52 million is growing at 2.8%. Unemployment is high; per capita income is $1160. The government's goals are to reduce fertility from 4.3 to 2.5 children per woman and increase contraceptive prevalence from 20% to 60% by the year 2000. PMID:12179678

  13. Quantifying landscape pattern and connectivity in a Mediterranean coastal settlement: the case of the Urla district, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun Hepcan, Cigdem

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at analyzing and interpreting changes in landscape pattern and connectivity in the Urla district, Turkey using core landscape metrics based on a 42-year data derived from 1963 CORONA and 2005 ASTER satellite images and ten 1/25,000 topographical maps (1963-2005). The district represents a distinctive example of re-emerged suburbanization in the Izmir metropolitan area. In order to explore landscape characteristics of the study area, nine landscape composition and configuration metrics were chosen as follows: class area, percentage of landscape, number of patches, patch density, largest patch index, landscape shape index, mean patch size, perimeter area fractal dimension, and connectance index. The landscape configurations in the Urla district changed significantly by 2005 in that the process of (sub-)urbanization in the study area evolved from a rural, monocentric urban typology to a more suburban, polycentric morphology. Agricultural, maquis-phrygana, and forest areas decreased, while the built-up, olive plantation and phrygana areas increased. There was nearly a fivefold increase in the built-up areas during the study period, and the connectivity of the natural landscape declined. To prevent further fragmentation, it is important to keep the existing natural land cover types and agricultural areas intact. More importantly, a sustainable development scenario is required that contains a green infrastructure, or an ecological network planning for conservation and rehabilitation of the vital natural resources in the study area. PMID:22331453

  14. Low-dose sultamicillin oral suspension in the treatment of mild to moderate paediatric infections in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Raillard, P; Kose, G; Ozkan, H; Hasanoglu, A; Firat, S; Feiner, C

    1992-01-01

    A total of 101 children (47 males, 54 females; age range, 3 months-16 years) with mild to moderate upper or lower respiratory tract infections, or skin and soft tissue infections entered a clinical study conducted at two centres in Izmir, Turkey. The children received a mean daily dose of 25 mg/kg sultamicillin oral suspension administered as two equal doses approximately 12 h apart. In total, 100 children met all requirements for evaluability and were included in the clinical efficacy assessment, and 49 children were evaluated for bacteriological efficacy. Clinical cure was reported by the investigators in 93 patients, improvement in six and failure in only one. The bacteriological eradication rate of isolated pathogens was 100%. Of the 101 patients evaluated for drug safety, four experienced adverse drug-related or possibly drug-related reactions. All side-effects were gastro-intestinal and diarrhoea was reported in three patients. No discontinuation of therapy was reported, nor were any significant laboratory abnormalities recorded. PMID:1451925

  15. Turkey. Health system review.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Mehtap; Mollahaliloğlu, Salih; Sahin, Bayram; Aydin, Sabahattin; Maresso, Anna; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Turkey has accomplished remarkable improvements in terms of health status in the last three decades, particularly after the implementation of the Health Transformation Program (HTP (Saglikta Donus, um Programi)). Average life expectancy reached 71.8 for men and 76.8 for women in 2010. The infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased to 10.1 per 1000 live births in 2010, down from 117.5 in 1980. Despite these achievements, there are still discrepancies in terms of infant mortality between rural and urban areas and different parts of the country, although these have been diminishing over the years. The higher infant mortality rates in rural areas can be attributed to low socioeconomic conditions, low female education levels and the prevalence of infectious diseases. The main causes of death are diseases of the circulatory system followed by malignant neoplasms. Turkeys health care system has been undergoing a far-reaching reform process (HTP) since 2003 and radical changes have occurred both in the provision and the financing of health care services. Health services are now financed through a social security scheme covering the majority of the population, the General Health Insurance Scheme (GHIS (Genel Saglik Sigortasi)), and services are provided both by public and private sector facilities. The Social Security Institution (SSI (Sosyal Guvenlik Kurumu)), financed through payments by employers and employees and government contributions in cases of budget deficit, has become a monopsonic (single buyer) power on the purchasing side of health care services. On the provision side, the Ministry of Health (Saglik Bakenligi) is the main actor and provides primary, secondary and tertiary care through its facilities across the country. Universities are also major providers of tertiary care. The private sector has increased its range over recent years, particularly after arrangements paved the way for private sector provision of services to the SSI. The most important reforms since

  16. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

  17. An overview of tumorous diseases of turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This overview is primarily aimed at addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  18. Life Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selim, Sibel

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to investigate life satisfaction and happiness in Turkey. It extends the previous researches on subjective well-being (SWB) for Turkey by considering both happiness and life satisfaction. The previous researches for Turkey are local studies, and their findings cannot be generalized to the population of Turkish society. Given…

  19. Turkey: Reviews of National Policies for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The first of three parts of this review of Turkey's educational system and national educational policies, the examiner's report, begins by singling out essential features of modern Turkey that affect the provision of education and to which the system is having to respond. These include Turkey's unique geographic situation, its continuing devotion…

  20. Role of the Western Anatolia Shear Zone (WASZ) in Neotectonics Evolution of the Western Anatolia Extended Terrain, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cemen, I.; Gogus, O. H.; Hancer, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Neotectonics period in western Anatolia Extended Terrain, Turkey (WAET) may have initiated in late Oligocene following the Eocene Alpine collision which produced the Izmir-Ankara suture zone. The Western Anatolia Shear Zone (WASZ) bounds the WAET to the east. The shear zone contains mostly normal faults in the vicinity of the Gulf of Gokova. However, its movement is mostly oblique slip from the vicinity of Tavas towards the Lake of Acigol where it makes a northward bend and possibly joins the Eskisehir fault zone to the north of the town of Afyon. The shear zone forms the southern and eastern margins of the Kale-Tavas, Denizli and Acigol basins. The shear zone is similar in its structural/tectonics setting to the Eastern California Shear zone (ECSZ) of the Basins and Ranges of North America Extended terrain which is also composed of many normal to oblique-slip faults and separates two extended terrains with different rates of extension. Western Anatolia experienced many devastating earthquakes within the last 2000 years. Many of the ancient Greek/Roman city states, including Ephesus, Troy, and Hierapolis were destroyed by large historical earthquakes. During the second half of the 20th century, the region experienced two major large earthquake giving normal fault focal mechanism solutions. They are the 1969, M=6.9 Alasehir and the 1970, M=7.1 Gediz earthquakes. These earthquakes had caused substantial damage and loss of life in the region. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the kinematics of the Cenozoic extensional tectonics and earthquake potential of the WASZ in the region, is very important, especially since the fault zone is very close to the major towns in eastern part of western Turkey, such as Mugla, Denizli, Sandikli, Dinar and Afyon.

  1. Contraception in Turkey.

    PubMed

    1967-01-01

    Population control and the use of contraceptives were discusses at the biannual meeting of the Turkish Academy of Medicine in September 1966. This was of special importance because contraception and dissemination of information about it were illegal in Turkey for many years before 1965. Thus, until quite recently Turkish doctors had only limited experience of modern contraceptive methods. Oral contraceptives and IUDs were discussed at the Academy meeting, and Dr Nusret Fisek has sent the Bulletin a summary of the main points raises. Oral contraceptives: Only minor side-effects were found and were ignored or easily treated; they disappeared when the oral contraception was stopped. Serious conditions such as liver dysfunction, thromboembolic phenomena, and diabetes have not been found. Intra-uterine devices: Endometritis requiring treatment is infrequent. In 23 of 45 women who had used IUDs for six months, endometrial histology showed diffuse bleeding, endometrial oedema or lymphocyctic endometritis. Expulsion and medical removal rates for IUDs over a six-month period were 5% in one clinic and 12% in another, with a pregnancy rate of between 1.2%. There was only one perforation in 6000 insertions. The doctor's attitude had a great influence on removal and discontinuation rates. In a large maternity hospital the Medical Board accepted, as a medical reason for induced abortion, accidental pregnancies that occurred in women wearing IUDs. PMID:12304991

  2. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

  3. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  4. Labour migration from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uner, S

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with Turkish labor migration to Western Europe. Earlier and recent patterns of labor migration, characteristics of migrants by occupation, area of destination, and by geographical origins are discussed. Economic and demographic consequences of labor migration are also analyzed. It is estimated that Turkey's population will reach 73 million at the year 2000 with the present growth rate of 2.48% annually. Considering the efforts made to slow down the present high fertility rates and assuming that the decrease in labor force participation during 1970-1980 continues, the author concludes that the labor supply will increase with a growth rate of 2% annually for the next 13-15 years. Thus, the labor supply will reach 26.6 million people in the year 2000 from the 1980 level of 17.8 million. Assuming also that the income/employment elasticity of .25 which was observed throughout the period of 1960-1980 will not change until 2000, the annual growth rate of employment may be estimated as 1.5%. Thus, the number of people employed will reach 20 million in the year 1990 and 23.2 million in the year 2000. 8.8 million people will join the labor market as new entrants between 1980 and 2000. Only 6 million people out of 8.8 million will be employed. Thus, in the year 2000, it is estimated that 2.8 million new unemployed people will be added to the already open unemployment figure 1980 census data give the number of unemployed as .6 million people. Adding the 2.8 million new unemployed to this figure totals 3.4 million unemployed in 2000. The State Planning Organization's estimate of labor surplus for 1980 was 2.5 million people. When 2.8 million unemployed people are added to this figure, the labor surplus for the year 2000 reaches 5.3 million people. PMID:12342136

  5. Alcohol fuel research in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A.

    1998-12-01

    Turkey, like most of the developing countries of the world, has vast agricultural potential, yet the country is highly dependent on oil imports, which satisfy 90% of its crude oil demand. Since Turkey had an economy based on agriculture, the usage of national resources in the energy field is extremely important. In the first years of the Turkish Republic, in 1931, the usage of national resources as an alternative to conventional fuels became a subject of increasing interest. Since then a lot of research has been conducted, but only a limited amount of application has been realized. Alcohol has always occupied an important place among the alternative fuel studies. The subject has been the scope of some research institute projects and university and government development planning studies. In Turkey, one of the most important studies in this area has been undertaken by the authors` research group in their university. This study is a general review of alcohol usage as an alternative automotive fuel in Turkey. This review includes a short history of the subject, the approach of the government, the research results, possible developments on the subject in the near future, and finally, it concludes with proposals.

  6. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  7. Mineral and whole-rock geochemistry of the Topuk Granitoid (Bursa, Western Anatolia, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orhan, Ayşe; Demirbilek, Mehmet; Mutlu, Halim

    2014-05-01

    The Eocene aged Topuk Granitoid exposing in the Tavşanlı Zone at south of the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone is one of the granitoids which were formed as a result of collision of the Anatolide-Tauride block with the Sakarya continent in the late Cretaceous. Nearly east-west extending, elliptical shaped Topuk Granitoid was intruded into the Paleozoic and Mesozoic metamorphites and upper Cretaceous ophiolitic rocks. The intrusion is in granodiorite composition and contains spherical/ellipsoidal mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) with composition of monzodiorite to monzogabbro. The granitoid which contains xenoliths is frequently cut by porphyritic granodiorite, granite aplite and quartz dikes at the margins. Topuk Granitoid is represented by an I-type pluton with medium to high K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous melt composition. Ocean ridge granite (ORG) normalized element distributions show that the granitoid, dikes and MME's have similar patterns. A significant enrichment of LIL (Rb, Ba, K, Th and Sr) elements and relatively depletion of HFS (Ta, Nb, Ce, Hf, Y, Zr and Ti) elements are indicative of formation from hybrid magma in a subduction environment. In tectonic discrimination diagrams (Ta -Yb and Rb-Y+Nb), samples of the Topuk Granitoid are plotted into the volcanic arc granite (VAG) field which is characteristic for the post collision granites. The results of mineral chemistry show that plagioclases are in oligoclase-andesine (An20-49) composition, amphiboles are of magnesio-hornblende and biotites are of Fe-Mg-biotite composition. In the Al2O3-FeO-MgO diagram biotite minerals are accompanied by amphibole and other ferromagnesian minerals and represent biotites of calc-alkaline orogenic zones. Calculations based on the hornblende-barometer indicate that the calc-alkaline magma was crystallized under pressure of 2-6 kbars (mean=4 kbars) and at depth of 7-20 km (mean=12 km). The whole-rock and mineral chemistry data show that the Topuk Granitoid was formed

  8. [Scholarship report of a 1982 study trip in western and middle Turkey].

    PubMed

    Ericsson, A L

    1982-10-01

    The cultural background of Islam and its religious practices as well as hospital administration and staff training, living conditions, the status of women, and child rearing were the topics of a study by 3 child care nurses in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to better understand the situation of Turkish immigrants and the possible conflicts they experience with Swedish society. Public school attendance is compulsory for a period of 5 years starting at age 7 (3 additional years may be required in the future). Since Ataturk's reforms in 1926, schools have been coeducational, and attendance is 80-90% even in remote rural areas governed by district registrars. The Red Crescent runs school health centers staffed by a doctor and a nurse. Illiterate women take a free 6-month course for 8 hours a day to learn reading and writing. There are state supported hospitals, workers' hospitals funded by unions, university clinics for the education of physicians, and small private clinics in Turkey. Most women marry at 14-18 years of age. The population is growing by 1 million annually. About 80% of urban women give birth in hospitals vs. only 20% of rural women. Women with high-risk pregnancies are placed in special birthing wards. Ultrasound is not used, nor is epidural anesthesia; only pethidine (Meperidine) injections are given to mitigate pain. Midwives play a central role in family planning, giving advice about contraceptives (IUDs are most prevalent, but the pill is gaining ground). Abortion is allowed for medical reasons, but a new law is being debated. Prostitutes get regular medical examinations to control venereal diseases. Pregnant women receive paid leave for 42 days before and after delivery. Education of nurses takes place in nursing schools of major cities like Istanbul, Ankara, and Izmir. Tuition, room, and board are free provided by the state. The course of study is 4 years and nurses can also work as midwives due to a shortage in their ranks. Elementary

  9. Structural Dimensions and Functions of Student Centers in the Open Education Faculty Practices: Three Metropolis Samplings--Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunckan, Ergun

    2007-01-01

    The Open Education Faculty Students Centers have been offering many services to students in Turkey since 1982. Building up bridges between students and faculties, student centers have had technological improvements since 1998 and thereafter quality of services have been increased and services given to students at the student center have been…

  10. Susceptibility of convalescent turkeys to pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Kunkle, R A; Sacco, R E

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary lesions resulting from Aspergillus fumigatus inoculation were assessed in convalescent turkeys and compared with those in previously noninoculated (control) turkeys. In addition, lesions observed in small Beltsville white (SBW) turkeys were compared with those in broad-breasted white (BBW) turkeys challenged with the same inoculum. Turkeys were challenged by unilateral posterior thoracic air sac (PTAS) inoculation, rechallenged via the contralateral air sac after 5 wk, and then necropsied 1 wk later. Pulmonary lesions induced by the initial challenge had resolved in 6 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW turkeys. However, convalescence did not protect against pulmonary aspergillosis subsequent to rechallenge; 10 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW developed granulomatous pulmonary lesions on the side of reexposure. A greater proportion of control SBW turkeys developed pneumonia and airsacculitis following challenge as compared with the BBW breed. Lesions were limited to the lower respiratory tract in all turkeys and were confined to the ipsilateral lung and PTAS in the singly inoculated control turkeys. This study demonstrates that convalescence from pulmonary aspergillosis does not confer protection against rechallenge but may, instead, decrease resistance to subsequent infection. PMID:9876849

  11. A multicenter, case control study of risk factors for low tibial speed of sound among residents of urban areas in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Inanici-Ersöz, Fatma; Gökçe-Kutsal, Yeşim; Oncel, Sema; Eryavuz, Merih; Peker, Ozlen; Ok, Seniz

    2002-05-01

    Risk factors which have been associated with low bone mass are multifactorial and represent regional differences between and within countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible risk factors of low tibial speed of sound (tSOS), which determines cortical bone status among residents of urban regions in Ankara, Izmir, and Istanbul, in Turkey, and also to compare groups of different socioeconomic status (SES). A total of 1,026 subjects (63% women and 53% of low socioeconomic status) 40-70 years old were included in the study. Risk factors of osteoporosis were determined using the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) questionnaire, and the bone status was screened by tSOS. Socioeconomic status was found to be among the major risk factors of low tSOS in our population (odds ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.58), besides the well-known risk factors such as age and gender. Therefore, we suggest that SES is an important determinant of cortical bone status. Additionally, our results confirmed the correlation between tSOS and the clinical determinants of bone mass. PMID:12120907

  12. Tectonic imbrication of Palaeo- and Neo-Tethyan accretionary complexes in the central Pontides, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okay, A. I.; Tuysuz, O.; Satir, M.; Eren, R. H.

    2003-04-01

    -eclogite thrust slice was previously also regarded as part of the Palaeo-Tethyan (Triassic) subduction-accretion complex. However, recent isotopic dating of the Elekdag eclogites have yielded Cretaceous ages, indicating that Palaeo- and Neo-Tethyan accretionary complexes were thrust imbricated during the Late Cretaceous subduction. A similar observation was recently reported from the Eskisehir region, 370 km to the west, where Triassic blueschists and eclogites are imbricated with the Upper Cretaceous accretionary complexes. Close association of Paleo- and Neo-Tethyan accretionary complexes along the Izmir-Ankara suture indicates that the latest Triassic-earliest Jurassic Cimmeride orogeny in Turkey was of accretional rather than collisional nature, and that the Izmir-Ankara suture represents a long-lived plate boundary of late Palaeozoic to early Tertiary age.

  13. [Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibilities and VISA-VRSA rates among MRSA strains isolated from hospitalized patients in intensive care units of hospitals in seven provinces of Turkey].

    PubMed

    Cesur, Salih; Irmak, Hasan; Simşek, Hüsniye; Cöplü, Nilay; Kılıç, Hasan; Arslan, Uğur; Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Baysan, Betil Ozhak; Gülay, Zeynep; Hoşoğlu, Salih; Berktaş, Mustafa; Gencer, Serap; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan; Esen, Berrin; Karabiber, Nihal; Aydın, Faruk; Yalçın, Ata Nevzat

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and vancomycin intermediate susceptible S.aureus (VISA) strains were present among methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from patients hospitalised at intensive care units (ICU) of hospitals located at different regions of Turkey and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of teicoplanin, linezolid, tigecycline, quinupristin-dalfopristin and daptomycin, which are alternative drugs for the treatment of MRSA infections. A total of 260 MRSA clinical strains (isolated from 113 lower respiratory tract, 90 blood, 24 wound, 17 catheter, 13 nasal swabs, two urine and one CSF sample) were collected from nine health-care centers in eight provinces [Ankara (n= 52), Konya (n= 49), Antalya (n= 40), Istanbul (n= 7), Izmir (37), Diyarbakir (n= 15), Van (n= 12), Trabzon (n= 48)] selected as representatives of the seven different geographical regions of Turkey. Methicillin resistance was determined by cefoxitin disk diffusion in the hospitals where the strains were isolated and confirmed by oxacillin salt agar screening at the Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Screening for VISA and VRSA was conducted using the agar screening test and E-test. Susceptibility of the MRSA strains to other antibiotics was also determined by E-test method. None of the 260 MRSA strains were determined to be VRSA or VISA. All were susceptible to teicoplanin and linezolid, and susceptibility rates to daptomycin, tigecycline and quinupristin-dalfopristin were 99.6%, 96.9%, and 95%, respectively. Absence of VISA and VRSA among the MRSA strains surveyed currently seemed hopeful, however, continuous surveillance is necessary. In order to prevent the development of VISA and VRSA strains the use of linezolid, tigecycline, quinupristin-dalfopristin and daptomycin should be encouraged as alternative agents of treatment of MRSA infections. PMID:22951647

  14. INTESTINAL FLORA OF WILD AND DOMESTIC TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GOAL: To describe and compare the intestinal bacterial communities of domestic and wild turkeys. METHODS: Ceca from five domestic turkeys killed on-farm (Farm A) and eight from the abattoir (five from Farm A, three from Farm B) were examined for bacterial composition. Ceca from wild birds were p...

  15. Rights of the Child in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naqvi, Yasmin

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Turkey and observations regarding violence against girls in Turkey. The report is presented in three major parts. Part 1 asserts that despite the considerable…

  16. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  17. Principals' Openness to Change in Malatya, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Mahire; Beycioglu, Kadir; Konan, Necdet

    2008-01-01

    When change is deemed necessary, principals' attitudes towards changes are significant for successful restructuring of schools. This study aimed to ascertain the extent to which principals in Malatya, Turkey, are open to change. A questionnaire was administered to 156 elementary and secondary school principals in Malatya, Turkey. This…

  18. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  19. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  20. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  1. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and outlines how…

  2. An examination of the effects of land use changes on nature conservation rulings in Ceşme peninsula, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gülgün, Bahriye; Türkyilmaz, Bahar; Bolca, Mustafa; Ozen, Fulsen

    2009-04-01

    Because of their intense vegetation and the fact that they include areas of coastline, deltas situated in the vicinity of big cities are areas of great attraction for people who wish to get away from in a crowded city. However, coasts, with their fertile soil and unique flora and fauna, need to be protected. In order for the use of such areas to be planned in a sustainable way by local authorities, there is a need for detailed data about these regions. In this study, the changes in land use of the area between Topburnu and Uçburun Musa Bey Harbour on the Ceşme peninsula, which is to the immediate west of Turkey's third largest city Izmir, from 1976 up to the present day, were investigated. In the study, using aerial photographs taken in 1976, 1995 and 2000 and an IKONOS satellite image from the year 2007, the natural and cultural characteristics of the region and changes in the coastline were determined spatially. Using aerial photographs from 1976, 1995 and 2000 and an IKONOS satellite image from the year 2007, together with "1/25,000 scale Conservation-Oriented Development Plans" prepared in 1979, 1990 and 2000 by the committee for the Preservation of Natural and Cultural Entities attached to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Turkish Republic, the natural and cultural characteristics of the region and the land use changes and their connection with conservation rulings were determined spatially. In this study, spatial changes in land use over the years were compared with changing conservation rulings over the years and the emerging results have brought a new perspective to the subject in contrast to other similar studies. PMID:18484188

  3. [The urbanization rate in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Widy-kwiatkowska, J

    1994-01-01

    Data from the annual statistical report on Turkey for 1990 and the results of research from 1985 and 1990 were utilized and compared with the trends of urbanization observed in the 1969 work of Z. Siemek on Turkey. In 1990, Turkey had about 56.5 million people with an average annual natural growth rate of 2.6% and an unemployment rate of 16%. The rural population made up 41% of the total populace. Urbanization was on the increase, from 47% in 1980, to 55% in 1985, and 59% in 1990. Urbanization in Ankara, because of its location in the center of Turkey, was particularly active in the regions of Anatolia, although it was still isolated in terms of intensified development. Istanbul's The population of Istanbul numbered 6,754,000 people in 1990. It is the major industrial center of the country with about 20% of industrial plants and 17% of the work force in the manufacturing industry. The largest degree of urbanization was demonstrated by Ankara: in 1927 its population numbered only 74,500 people, in 1965 about 902,000 inhabitants, and in 1990 about 2,837,000 people. During the period 1985-90, only 2 out of 73 provinces experienced a decline of the urban population: Kirikkale from 70.4% to 69.7% (because of the dynamic development of the Central region) and Istanbul from 95.4% to 92.4%. During this same period, Kirikkale's urban population, compared with the nation's total urban population, also declined from 0.9% to 0.7% because of immigration of both urban and rural people to other, more attractive provinces. The growth of urban population in the province of Istanbul varied from 1% to 10% during the period and made up 20.3% of the entire urban population. The Central region underwent a large degree of urbanization characterized by industrial-agricultural development. The city of Sivas became a center of communication. In the Central and Kurd regions, urbanization proceeded fast owing to the development of the Black Sea region and the immigration of Kurds from Iraq

  4. Fumonisin toxicity in turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Weibking, T S; Ledoux, D R; Brown, T P; Rottinghaus, G E

    1993-01-01

    The effects of dietary fumonisin B1 were evaluated in young turkey poults. The experimental design consisted of 3 treatments, with 24 female turkey poults allotted randomly per treatment. Day-old poults were fed diets containing 0 mg (feed control), 100 mg, and 200 mg fumonisin B1/kg feed for 21 days. Body weight gains and efficiency of feed conversion decreased linearly with increasing dietary fumonisin. Liver, kidney, and pancreas weights increased linearly with increasing dietary fumonisin, and spleen and heart weights decreased. Serum aspartate aminotransferase levels increased with increasing dietary fumonisin, and serum cholesterol; alkaline phosphatase, mean cell volume, and mean cell hemoglobin all decreased. Biliary hyperplasia, hypertrophy of Kupffer's cells, thymic cortical atrophy, and moderate widening of the proliferating and degenerating hypertrophied zones of tibial physes were present in poults fed diets containing fumonisin B1. Results indicate that fumonisin B1, from Fusarium moniliforme culture material, is toxic in young poults, and the poult appears to be more sensitive to fumonisin than the broiler chick. PMID:8466985

  5. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  6. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kurnaz, A; Kucukomeroglu, B; Damla, N; Cevik, U

    2011-04-01

    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and (137)Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h(-1) and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 μSv y(-1). In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 μSv y(-1) from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. PMID:21382657

  7. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  8. Assessment of impact of geochemical and environmental properties on the meiofauna (benthic foraminifer, ostracod, mollusc) assemblages: A case study in The Late Quaternary Sediments In The Gulf Of Izmir (Eastern Aegean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yümün, Zeki Ü.

    2016-04-01

    The drilling samples collected from varying depths at 1.00-13.00 m at four different localities of Karsiyaka, Bayrakli, Inciralti and Urla (Çesmealti) in the Gulf of Izmir were studied for their geochemical, sedimantological and micropaleontological properties. The purpose of this study is to describe the meiofauna of the sediments, to determine the pollution history of the gulf and to show the effect of the pollution on the foraminifera and ostracoda. Examination of the loose sediments reveals that the gulf has been affected by the sea for a long time, and it had a rich microfaunal assemblages. Both foraminiferal tests and ostracod carapaces have coloring, and morphological abnormalities have been determined in foraminiferal tests. Peneroplis pertusus (Forskal) and P. planatus (Fichtel and Moll) have blue and black colored tests, while morphological abnormalities were observed on the tests of Ammonia compacta Hofker, Elphidium complanatum (d'Orbigny), E. crispum (Linné), E. macellum (Fichtel and Moll). The ostracod carapaces are generally gray-black colored. Heavy metal (Cr, Mn, Zn, Co, Ni, Cu) analyses have been carried out on the sediments of the Gulf of Izmir. Heavy metal concentrations are high in Bayrakli, and low in Urla (Çesmealti). Cr, Mn and Zn values are the highest in Bayrakli, whereas Co, Ni and Cu values are the highest in Inciralti. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analyses were performed and no heavy metal was detected on the white and colored ostracod carapaces. When the white and colored ostracod carapaces are compared, the coloured ostracode carapace has higher Mg content, and also includes Fe, Al, N, Cl and K. Based on the results obtained, it is observed that the Bayrakli region have been more affected by the pollution than Urla (Çesmealti).

  9. Ophiolite suture in Central Anatolia: New insights from the Sivas Basin (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul

    2015-04-01

    The closure of the Neotethys is classically associated with the obduction of ophiolitic rocks, defining successive suture zones. Theses Alpine-Himalayan ophiolites reflect a complex and still poorly understood paleogeographic framework. In Turkey, various types of ophiolite have been described, involving supra subduction zone and ophiolitic melanges as well. Hence reconstructions of the Anatolian continent assumed the amalgamation of one or more continental fragments during the Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic time. The Sivas Basin is located in a key position at the junction of three crustal domains: the Pontides to the North, the Anatolide - Tauride platforms to the South, and the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex to the West. These blocks are separated to the North by the Izmir-Ankara-Erzican suture zone (IAESZ), and by the Inner Tauride suture zone (ITSZ) to the South. Ophiolitic outcrops are common in this area, mainly on the basin borders, and sometimes within the central part. These green rocks have been previously related to the ophiolitic melange from the IAESZ in Northern part and to the ITSZ for the southern parts. Recent fieldwork on the southern edge of the Sivas Basin allows a proper description of the ophiolitic complex, including from bottom to top: (1) a large volume of intensely serpentinized peridotites, strongly veined with chrysotile, with minor gabbroic intrusions; (2) upward, serpentinized mantle rocks affected by a cataclastic deformation associated with tectonic breccias and ophicalcites ; and eventually, (3) on the top of the mantle, silicates deposits similar to radiolarian cherts cover by sedimentary breccias with mantle clasts. New geochemical analysis and subsurface data confirm the existence of a southward obducted slice of ophiolite over more than 100km from North to South, forming the basement of the Sivas Basin since the Campanian. This southward obduction related to the IAESZ appears similar to slow spreading ridge or hyper

  10. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  11. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  12. Second medical use in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baklaci, Ezgi; Altınay, Merve

    2016-07-01

    Turkish patent legislation complies with European Patent Convention (EPC) 1973 and EPC 2000, but does not have a corresponding provision. This triggers a debate in Turkish Law, where no regulations address protection of second (or subsequent) use. Turkish validations of European patents concerning second medical uses that have been granted within the scope of EPC 2000. However, the approach to national patent applications and patents entered to Turkey through Patent Cooperation Treaty is still questionable since the Patent Decree Law is not offering an explicit protection to second medical use and European Board of Appeal decisions (especially G5/83) are not binding for Turkish authorities. This article overviews the current approach of the Turkish legal system to second medical use patents. PMID:27334394

  13. Fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Birincioglu, Ismail; Karadeniz, Hulya; Teke, Hacer Yasar

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present the characteristics of medicolegal autopsies of fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey), performed from 1998 to 2008, to contribute to the available data on this topic. A retrospective study of the forensic records and the toxicological data of all autopsies performed over that period revealed that 285 cases (6.34%) of the 4492 total autopsies performed were attributed to fatal poisoning. Major toxic substances were classified in five categories as follows: carbon monoxide (CO), insecticides, prescription medications, narcotic drugs, and alcohol (methyl and ethyl). CO was the most frequent cause of death (63.2%), followed by insecticides (17.2%), prescription medications and narcotic drugs (9.8%), alcohol (7.7%), and others (mushroom, rodenticide, and botulism) (2.1%). Ages of the patients ranged from 1 to 86 years (21.55 ± 36.56). PMID:21447071

  14. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

  15. Turkey vulture and California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Wilbur, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline. With the capture of the last wild bird in 1987, the species has been extirpated from the wild. Reestablishment will depend on production and introduction of captive-reared birds, hopefully within the next 10 years. In the 18th century, condors inhabited areas along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Baja California. Since 1950, the range has been restricted to a six county area adjacent to the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Within this area, there appears to be no shortage of suitable nest sites; all recently used nest sites are within federally-controlled lands. Suitable foraging grounds have continued to diminish and are now largely limited to private rangelands and some Bureau of Land Management rangelands within the foothills of the San Joaquin Valley. Only these areas continue to supply the large mammal carcasses that the California condor needs for survival. The habitat of the condor is subject to a variety of land use practices and development pressures. Excessive mortality, coupled with low reproductive potential, continues to threaten the recovery of the species. Development of management practices to reduce mortality, particularly those that are contaminant-related, and of a preserve design to insure adequate habitat for the reintroduced population are still necessary for eventual recovery of the species.

  16. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  17. Policy Options for Turkey: A Critique of the Interpretation and Utilization of PISA Results in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Bekir S.; Celik, Zafer; Ozoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide a critique of the interpretation and utilization of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results by the National Education Authorities in Turkey. First, we define and explain what OECD's PISA is. Second, we make an overview of the media coverage in Turkey of the PISA 2003 and 2006 results. Third, we…

  18. 'Cold Turkey' May Work Best for Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157753.html 'Cold Turkey' May Work Best for Quitting Smoking Stopping ... four weeks, nearly half of those who quit "cold turkey" were still not smoking. But, among people ...

  19. Relationships between subduction and extension in the Aegean region: evidence from granite plutons of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, K. N.; Catlos, E. J.; Oyman, T.; Demirbilek, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Biga Peninsula is a tectonically complex region in western Turkey characterized by Tethyan sutures overprinted by extensional grabens, active fault strands of the North Anatolian Shear Zone, and numerous granitoid plutons. Two end-member models for the initiation of extension in the Biga region have been proposed, both of which focus on the role of igneous assemblages. The first model involves the emplacement of a hot mantle plume that thins and weakens crust and isostatic doming drives extension. The second has regional tensional stresses as the driving force, and magmatism is a consequence of decompression. Here we focus on understanding the timing and geochemical evolution of three granitoid plutons located in and just south of the Biga Peninsula to understand which end-member model could be applicable to the Aegean region. The Kestanbolu pluton is located north of the proposed Vardar Suture Zone, whereas the Eybek and Kozak plutons are north of the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone. These sutures may mark regions of the closure of branches of the NeoTethyan Ocean. To better understand their sources and tectonic evolution, we acquired geochemical and geochronological data, and cathodoluminescence (CL) images of the rocks. Previously reported ages of the plutons range from Late Eocene to Middle Miocene. Here we acquired in situ (in thin section) ion microprobe U-Pb ages of zircon grains found in a range of textural relationships. Ages from the Kozak pluton range from 37.8±5.4 Ma to 10.3±2.4 Ma (238U/206Pb, ±1σ) with two ages from a single grain of 287±26 Ma and 257±18 Ma. We also found Oligocene to Late Miocene zircon grains in the Kestanbolu pluton, whereas zircons from the Eybek pluton range from 34.3±4.8 Ma to 21.2±1.7 Ma. Samples collected from the Kozak and Eybek plutons are magnesian, calc-alkalic, and metaluminous, whereas the Kestanbolu rocks are magnesian, alkali-calcic, and metaluminous with one ferroan sample and one peraluminous sample. Trace

  20. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates possible involvement of TCoV in egg production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV...

  1. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    SciTech Connect

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D.

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Turkey liver - a chromium enriched food source

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, M.M.; Bryden, N.A.; Richards, M.; Anderson, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    There are presently no known foods for humans that are particularly good sources of chromium. As a means of obtaining Cr enriched foods, turkeys were fed diets containing various levels of supplemental chromium. Four groups of 6-month old turkey hens were fed either the basal diet for laying hens or this diet supplemented with 25, 100 or 200 ..mu..g of chromium as chromium chloride per g of diet. Liver Cr concentration of the turkeys sacrificed after 1 week increased from 7 ng/g (wet wt) while consuming the basal diet to 15, 48 and 68 ng/g, respectively, while consuming the diets with supplemental chromium. Comparable values for the turkeys sacrificed after 5 weeks were 2, 43, 170 and 325 ng/g. Similar trends but higher chromium values were observed for kidney samples. The chromium contents of the dark and white meat and eggs were not altered significantly. Chromium concentrations of the pancreas, gizzard and heart increased marginally; final chromium concentrations were less than 23 ng/g even after 5 weeks on the highest level of supplemental chromium. Chromium content of spleen and lungs was approximately 2-fold higher than that of the pancreas, gizzard or heart. Therefore, turkey liver is a food source suitable for Cr enrichment while the eggs, dark and white meat and other edible parts do not appear to be enriched following chromium supplementation.

  3. Q Conversion Factor Models for Estimating Precipitable Water Vapor for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Ilke; Mekik, Cetin; Gurbuz, Gokhan

    2015-04-01

    precipitable water vapor is the conversion factor Q which is shown in Emardson and Derks' studies and also Jade and Vijayan's. Developing a regional model using either Tm-Ts equation or the conversion factor Q will provide a basis for GNSS Meteorology in Turkey which depends on the analysis of the radiosonde profile data. For this purpose, the radiosonde profiles from Istanbul, Ankara, Diyarbaki r, Samsun, Erzurum, Izmir, Isparta and Adana stations are analyzed with the radiosonde analysis algorithm in the context of the 'The Estimation of Atmospheric Water Vapour with GPS' Project which is funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK). The Project is also in the COST Action ES1206: Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate (GNSS4SWEC). In this study, regional models using the conversion factor Q are used for the determination of precipitable water vapor, and applied to the GNSS derived wet tropospheric zenith delays. Henceforth, the estimated precipitable water vapor and the precipitable water vapor obtained from the radiosonde station are compared. The average of the differences between RS and models for Istanbul and Ankara stations are obtained as 2.0±1.6 mm, 1.6±1.6 mm, respectively.

  4. Basic sciences agonize in Turkey!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdemir, Fatma; Araz, Asli; Akman, Ferdi; Durak, Rıdvan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, changes from past to present in the departments of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics, which are considered as the basic sciences in Turkey, are shown. The importance of basic science for the country emphasized and the status of our country was discussed with a critical perspective. The number of academic staff, the number of students, opened quotas according to years for these four departments at universities were calculated and analysis of the resulting changes were made. In examined graphics changes to these four departments were similar. Especially a significant change was observed in the physics department. Lack of jobs employing young people who have graduated from basic science is also an issue that must be discussed. There are also qualitative results of this study that we have discussed as quantitative. Psychological problems caused by unemployment have become a disease among young people. This study was focused on more quantitative results. We have tried to explain the causes of obtained results and propose solutions.

  5. Effect of humidity on infection of turkeys with Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Slavik, M F; Skeeles, J K; Beasley, J N; Harris, G C; Roblee, P; Hellwig, D

    1981-01-01

    Turkeys maintained at 75% to 80% relative humidity were more adversely affected by Alcaligenes faecalis infection than turkeys maintained at 20 to 35% relative humidity. Alcaligenes faecalis was reisolated earlier and more often from turkeys maintained at the higher humidity. Clinically, the turkeys maintained at high humidity exhibited both sinusitis and conjunctivitis earlier than the turkeys at low humidity. In both groups, antibody titers as determined by a microagglutination test developed by 2 weeks postinoculation and started to decline after the third week, lymphocytosis was demonstrated at 1 week postinoculation, and a lymphopenia developed at 5 weeks postinoculation. PMID:7337613

  6. Alcaligenes faecalis rhinotracheitis in Manitoba turkeys.

    PubMed

    Boycott, B R; Wyman, H R; Wong, F C

    1984-01-01

    An outbreak of alcaligenes rhinotracheitis occurred on one premises housing five turkey flocks totaling 25,000 poults. Prominent findings were severe respiratory difficulty resulting from excess mucus in the nasopharynx, lachrimation, and tracheal collapse. Sinus and tracheal cultures consistently yielded Alcaligenes faecalis. An adenovirus was isolated and four flocks became positive for CELO virus by agar-gel-precipitin (AGP) tests. Mortality by flocks ranged from 4% to 48%. Treatment was unsuccessful and appeared to increase the mortality rate. The course of the disease was about 6 weeks, and recovered turkeys were marketed 1 week later than the usual date. PMID:6525132

  7. A case of salinomycin intoxication in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Van Assen, Earl J

    2006-03-01

    A flock of 4287 heavy hybrid turkey hens were accidentally fed broiler premix containing salinomycin sodium and suffered a 34.5% death loss. Measures taken to ensure food safety for the remaining flock and consumer food safety included feed record studies, on-farm veterinary consultation, diagnostic laboratory studies, and CgFARAD and CFIA consultation. The remaining turkeys were processed 3 weeks after the initial toxicosis with no evidence of lesions that would render the product unfit for human consumption. PMID:16604983

  8. [Tularemia in Konya region, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dikici, Nebahat; Ural, Onur; Sümer, Sua; Oztürk, Kayhan; Albayrak Yiğit, Ozgen; Katlanır, Eda; Keleş, Bahar

    2012-04-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis. In the recent years tularemia has become a re-emerging infection in Turkey with epidemics and also sporadic cases. Transmission occurs most often through consumption of contaminated water and food, direct contact with animals and insect/ tick bites. In this study, we evaluated clinical features and laboratory findings of 35 tularemia cases diagnosed during two outbreaks that occurred in two different villages during two different periods in Konya (located in Central Anatolia), Turkey and five sporadic cases. In both outbreaks, first (index) cases were admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of cervical lympadenopathy. After diagnosis of tularemia, an organized team visited the villages to search if more cases existed. For microbiological diagnosis, blood, throat and tonsil swabs and lymph node aspirate specimens were collected from the suspected cases. Diagnostic tests (culture, serology, molecular methods) for tularemia were performed in reference center, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Drinking and potable water samples from those villages were also collected by provincial health authorities. The cases (n= 14) that belonged to the first epidemics were detected in February 2010 and cases (n= 21) of the second epidemics in November- December 2010; five cases were followed as sporadic. The mean age of the 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) was 37.6 (age range: 5-80 years; five of them were pediatric group) years. The most common complaints of patients were cervical mass (90%), sore throat (63%), chills (60%) and fever (58%). The most frequently detected clinical findings were enlarged lymph nodes (n= 34, 85%), followed by tonsillitis (20%), skin lesions (15%) and conjunctivitis (8%). Most of the patients (82.5%) had been misdignosed as acute tonsillitis, suppurative lymphadenitis, tuberculous lymphadenitis and brucellosis, before their admission to our hospital and treated

  9. Operational EEW Networks in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There are several EEW networks and algorithms under operation in Turkey. The first EEW system was deployed in Istanbul in 2002 after the 1999 Mw7.4 Kocaeli and Mw7.1 Duzce earthquake events. The system consisted of 10 strong motion stations located as close as possible to the main Marmara Fault line. The system was upgraded by 5 OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) in 2012 located in Marmara Sea. The system works in threshold based algorithm. The alert is given according to exceedance of certain threshold levels of amplitude of ground motion acceleration in certain time interval at least in 3 stations. Currently, there are two end-users of EEW system in Istanbul. The critical facilities of Istanbul Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) and Marmaray Tube tunnel receives the EEW information in order to activate their automatic shut-off mechanisms. The IGDAS has their own strong motion network located at their district regulators. After receiving the EEW signal if the threshold values of ground motion parameters are exceeded the gas-flow is cut automatically at the district regulators. The IGDAS has 750 district regulators distributed in Istanbul. At the moment, the 110 of them are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers. As a 2nd stage of the on-going project, the IGDAS company proposes to install strong motion accelerometers to all remaining district regulators. The Marmaray railway tube tunnel is the world's deepest immersed tube tunnel with 60m undersea depth. The tunnel has 1.4km length with 13 segments. The tunnel is monitored with 2 strong motion accelerometers in each segment, 26 in total. Once the EEW signal is received, the monitoring system is activated and the recording ground motion parameters are calculated in real-time. Depending on the exceedance of threshold levels, further actions are taken such as reducing the train speed, stopping the train before entering the tunnel etc. In Istanbul, there are also on-site EEW system applied in several high

  10. Risk and Career Choice: Evidence from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caner, Asena; Okten, Cagla

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the college major choice decision in a risk and return framework using university entrance exam data from Turkey. Specifically we focus on the choice between majors with low income risk such as education and health and others with riskier income streams. We use a unique dataset that allows us to control for the choice set…

  11. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  12. The First ETV Project of Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskisehir Academy of Economic and Commercial Sciences (Turkey). Inst. of Educational Television.

    The success of a small-scale, closed circuit educational television project run at the Academy of Economic and Commercial Sciences in Eskisehir, Turkey has led to the expansion of the experiment. The expanded project will offer services to other academies, demonstrate the effective use of educational television, and serve as an integral part of…

  13. Globalization and English Language Policy in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkgoz, Yasemin

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that globalization has made a considerable impact on multidimensional aspects of human life including the language policies of many countries. This article examines the adjustment of Turkey's language policy in response to the global influence of English at different levels of Turkish national education, including its…

  14. The Determinants of Student Achievement in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, M. A.; Uysal, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent achievement test results show that Turkish students have been performing poorly compared to students from other countries. Using science literacy results from the PISA 2006 survey, we aim to measure the determinants of student achievement in Turkey within the education production function framework. We find that program types have large…

  15. MAXIMIZING THE FERTILITY POTENTIAL OF TURKEY SEMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkeys are the only commercial poultry species completely dependent upon artificial insemination for fertile egg production. Although time and labor-intensive, artificial insemination has proven to be a key strategy for achieving rapid genetic improvements in economically important traits such as g...

  16. Clay Corner: Light up a Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Presents two activities that enable students to work with clay: a tile project and turkey candle-holders. Explains that before students actually create their own projects, they get an opportunity to experience the clay itself. Asserts that the new vocabulary, unusual equipment, and intriguing techniques make ceramics a motivating activity. (CMK)

  17. Cultural Studies in Turkey: Education and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pultar, Gonul; Kirtunc, Ayse Lahur

    2004-01-01

    In this essay, the authors aim at contributing to the debate on "International Perspectives on Cultural Studies in/and Education" by presenting a perspective from Turkey, and problematizing the issues that are encountered in the country in the instruction and practice of cultural studies. They start with a brief survey of the Ege University…

  18. Fundamentalist Bedfellows: Political Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Arthur M.

    1999-01-01

    Defines Islamic creationism and anti-evolutionism in Turkey, provides information about political and cultural changes starting from the 1920s, and discusses Islamic movements at this time. Presents examples of politicians' approaches to this issue and points out the effects of Christian creationism and the Institute for Creation Research (ICR) on…

  19. Vocational and Technical Education Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is a country where individual rights and freedom of people are improving. It is known that a free market economy is in its infancy. There is a strong relationship between developed human resources and the production sector. In this sense, vocational and technical education is very important. It cannot be said that the efforts for…

  20. Transition to Family Practice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunes, Evrim Didem; Yaman, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Turkey's primary health care (PHC) system was established in the beginning of the 1960s and provides preventive and curative basic medical services to the population. This article describes the experience of the Turkish health system, as it tries to adapt to the European health system. It describes the current organization of primary…

  1. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  2. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  3. Extensive Quaternary glaciations in eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilyurt, Serdar; Akçar, Naki; Doǧan, Uǧur; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Schlüchter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During cold periods in the Quaternary, global ice volume increased and as a result valley glaciers advanced and the vice versa occurred during the warm periods. Quaternary glacier fluctuations had been also recorded in the Turkish mountains. Recently, the chronology of Late Quaternary advances in the northern and western Turkish mountains was reconstructed by surface exposure dating. However, these advances in the eastern Turkey are not dated yet. In this study, we investigated paleoglaciations in Kavuşşahap Mountains, which is located to the south of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. These mountains are one of the extensively glaciated areas in Turkey. Glacial activity is evidenced by more than 20 U-shaped valleys. For instance, one of the prominent and well-preserved glacial landscapes of Turkey is situated in the Narlıca valley system. Lateral and terminal moraines in the valley system indicate more than 10 glacial advances. To build their chronology, 39 erratic carbonaceous boulders were sampled for surface exposure dating with cosmogenic 36Cl. We also reconstructed the ice margin reconstruction of the Narlıca paleoglacier using the accumulation area ratio and area-altitude balance ratio approaches. We estimated an equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of ca. 2900 m above sea level based on the maximum ice extend, which implied ca. 800 m decrease in the ELA during the Late Quaternary in comparison to the lower bound of the modern ELA estimate. The first results of the surface exposure dating will be presented.

  4. Myocarditis associated with reovirus in turkey poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myocarditis associated with reovirus was diagnosed in 17 day-old male turkey poults based on virus isolation, reverse transcript – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), demonstration of reovirus antigen in the cytoplasm of mononuclear inflammatory cells and myocytes in the heart by immunohistochemistr...

  5. Global attention to Turkey due to desertification.

    PubMed

    Camci Cetin, S; Karaca, A; Haktanir, K; Yildiz, H

    2007-05-01

    Desertification has recognized as an environmental problem by many international organizations such as UN, NATO and FAO. Desertification in Turkey is generally caused by incorrect land use, excessive grazing, forest fires, urbanization, industry, genetic erosion, soil erosion, salinization, and uncontrolled wild type plants picking. Due to anthropogenic destruction of forest, steppe flora gradually became dominant in Anatolia. In terms of biodiversity, Turkey has a significant importance in Europe and Middle East. Nine thousands plant species naturally grown in Turkey, one third of them are endemic. Also, endemic species of vertebrates, thrive in the lakes and marshy areas. The studies of modelling simulation of vegetation on the effects of Mediterranean climate during the Roman Classical period by using vegetation history showed that, in 2000 years BP, Mediterranean countries were more humid than today. Turkey is a special place on the global concern in terms of desertification because of biodiversity, agricultural potential, high population, social and economical structure, topographical factors and strategic regional location. Communication among scientists, decision makers and international non-profit organizations must be improved. PMID:17057981

  6. Tylosin depletion in edible tissues of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Montesissa, C; De Liguoro, M; Santi, A; Capolongo, F; Biancotto, G

    1999-10-01

    The depletion of tylosin residues in edible turkey tissues was followed after 3 days of administration of tylosin tartrate at 500 mg l-1 in drinking water, to 30 turkeys. Immediately after the end of the treatment (day 0) and at day 1, 3, 5 and 10 of withdrawal, six turkeys (three males and three females) per time were sacrificed and samples of edible tissues were collected. Tissue homogenates were extracted, purified and analysed by HPLC according to a method previously published for the analysis of tylosin residues in pig tissues. In all tissues, tylosin residues were already below the detection limits of 50 micrograms kg-1 at time zero. However, in several samples of tissues (skin + fat, liver, kidney, muscle), from the six turkeys sacrificed at that time, one peak corresponding to an unknown tylosin equivalent was detected at measurable concentrations. The identification of this unknown compound was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts from incurred samples. The mass fragmentation of the compound was consistent with the structure of tylosin D (the alcoholic derivative of tylosin A), the major metabolite of tylosin previously recovered and identified in tissues and/or excreta from treated chickens, cattle and pigs. PMID:10755131

  7. Factors Influencing Teaching Choice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Why choose to become a teacher in Turkey? The authors examined motivations and perceptions among preservice teachers (N = 1577) encompassing early childhood, primary and secondary education. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) instrument was translated into Turkish and its construct validity and reliability assessed. Altruistic…

  8. PREVALENCE OF ARCOBACTER IN COMMERCIAL TURKEY PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Arcobacter in live turkeys was determined for six Midwestern commercial flocks. In the first study (summer 2003), cloacal (n = 298) and feather swabs (n = 75), cecal (n = 70), and crop (n = 50) contents, drinker water (n = 46), and environmental (n = 25) samples were monitored. I...

  9. Decreasing trend of groundwater in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarachi, S.; Moghim, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    In these days the increasing demand for water has created problems for availability of its resources. Some recent issues like population growth, global warming and inefficient methods of water consumption, generated the need to find sources of water other than surface water such as ground water. Excess using of groundwater in most parts of the world causes depletion of ground water in those areas. Scientists are trying to find efficient means to quantify these trends. GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) including two satellites launched in March 2002, is making measurements of the Earth's gravity field which is used to display the change of storage of the water on the Earth. GRACE makes it possible to find the trend of the change of storage all over the world.It can show specific areas in the world that have dramatic decreasing trend of water storage. One of these regions that have been considered in this study is Turkey in western Asia, as one of the countries deeply affected by global warming. Turkey is identified as one of the first places where desertification will start in Europe, according to estimates by the UN Environment Program (UNEP). Turkey has 25 underground water tables and they had a decrease in level of 27 meters in the past 25 years (Turkey water report 2009). In this paper the change of the ground water is evaluated by applying the GRACE storage anomalies and the mass conservation equation that concludes the reduction trend in groundwater. The results clarify that decreasing trend of groundwater is more noticeable during recent years, particularly since 2006. Our results show that in recent years the average decrease in ground water level is 2.5 cm per year and the maximum decrease occurred in May 2007 with the value of about 7.9 cm. KEY WORDS: water resources; Ground water; Turkey; GRACE

  10. Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yuzgun, A

    1993-01-01

    Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs. PMID:8505535

  11. Toward a phenology network in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalfes, H. N.; Ülgen, H.; Zeydanli, U.; Durak, A. T.

    2012-04-01

    All climate projections indicate that drastic changes are to occur in the Mediterranean Basin and Southwestern Asia. Detailed studies also foresee strong patterns of change in seasonality for most climate fields all across the country, threatening Turkey's rich biodiversity and diverse ecosystems already in trouble due to massive land use changes and careless resource extraction projects. It is therefore obvious that climate impact studies can benefit from detailed and continuous monitoring of relationships between climate and natural systems. Recently started efforts to build a phenology network for Turkey will hopefully constitute a component of a more comprehensive ecological observation infrastructure. The Phenology Network of Turkey Project saw its debut as a joint initiative of an academic institution (Istanbul Technical University) and a research NGO (Nature Conservation Center). It has been decided from the very beginning to rely a much as possible on Internet technologies (provided by the National High Performance Computing Center of Turkey). The effort is also inspired by and collaborates with already established networks in general and USA National Phenology Network in particular. Many protocols, instructional materials and Nature's Notebook application has been barrowed from the USA NPN. The project has been designed from the start as a two-faceted effort: an infrastructure to accumulate/provide useful data to climate/ecosystem research communities and a 'citizen science' project to raise nature and climate change awareness among all components of the society in Turkey in general and secondary education teachers and students in particular. It has been opted to start by gathering plant phenological data. A set with 20 plant species has been designed to serve as a countrywide 'calibration set'. It is also anticipated to salvage and extend as much of possible historical animal (especially bird and butterfly) observations.

  12. Nephrology, dialysis and transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erek, Ekrem; Süleymanlar, Gültekin; Serdengeçti, Kamil

    2002-12-01

    The establishment of the Turkish Society of Nephrology (TSN) in 1970 coincided with that of many western European nephrology societies. The TSN organized the 15th ERA-EDTA Congress in Istanbul in 1978, earlier than many European Countries, and currently has 286 active members. At present, Turkey has 161 nephrologists, which equals 2.5 nephrologists per million population (p.m.p.). The number of original articles submitted by Turkish authors to the journal Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ranks 7th-8th amongst total submissions to the journal. Turkey also ranks 2nd-4th in the number of abstracts submitted to recent ERA-EDTA Congresses. With 18 063 patients undergoing intermittent haemodialysis treatment in 348 dialysis centres, Turkey has the 5th largest chronic haemodialysis patient population among European countries. In addition, 1903 patients are currently undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. However, with a total of 4693 renal transplants since 1975, of which only 21.3% were of cadaveric origin, Turkey lags considerably behind other European countries in renal transplantation. In Turkey, the prevalence and incidence of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are at present 358 and 52 p.m.p. respectively, and the expansion rate of the RRT stock is 17% (HD 18.5%, CAPD 6%, and transplantation 1.7%). The yearly gross mortality rate of the total RRT population is 9.4%. The present priorities of the Turkish nephrological community include high-standard research activity and long-term, prospective clinical and epidemiological studies, an increase in the total number and percentage of cadaveric transplants, further improvement of the quality and cost-effectiveness of RRT, and finally the further development of scientific and educational collaboration with the world nephrological community. PMID:12454217

  13. Determinants of a quality wild turkey hunting season.

    PubMed

    Wynveen, Christopher J; Cavin, Drew A; Wright, Brett A; Hammitt, William E

    2005-07-01

    According to the National Wild Turkey Federation, there has been a 450% increase in the number of licensed wild turkey hunters since 1973. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research articles focusing specifically on turkey hunting. Most human dimensions of wildlife research have focused on either deer or waterfowl hunting. In this study, dimensions of hunting quality, days a field, and harvest were examined among a sample of 739 Virginia fall turkey hunters. Quality of a hunting season, rather than a specific hunt, was examined. Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed five domains of attributes of a high-quality turkey-hunting season: wildlife interaction, education, being away, social interaction, and hunting skills. The domains of hunting quality revealed by the PCA are similar to domains found previously for spring turkey hunters as well as other types of hunters. Also examined were hunter perceptions of overall hunting quality, the number of days spent hunting turkeys during the fall season, and harvest success. For comparative purposes and agency needs, hunters were segmented into three categories based on days spent hunting: low frequency (1 to 2 days), medium frequency (3 to 4 days), and high frequency (> or =5 days). The influence of these variables to respondents' perceptions of overall quality was examined using a series of regression models. Variables found to be significant predictors of quality were wildlife interaction and harvest success. Hunters who killed a turkey reported a significantly higher quality season than those who did not kill a turkey. PMID:16132453

  14. Natural infection of turkeys by infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Portz, Cristiana; Beltrão, Nilzane; Furian, Thales Quedi; Júnior, Alfredo Bianco; Macagnan, Marisa; Griebeler, Josiane; Lima Rosa, Carlos André Veiga; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Driemeier, David; Back, Alberto; Barth Schatzmayr, Ortrud Monika; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2008-09-18

    The infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an important respiratory pathogen of chickens that also infects pheasants and peafowl. Epidemiologically non-related commercial turkey flocks with clinical signs such as tracheitis, swollen sinuses, conjunctivitis and expectoration of bloody mucus were examined for the presence of the virus. Laboratory ILTV detection was performed by virus isolation in embryonated eggs and cell cultures, PCR and sequencing of amplification products, histopathology, indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. One ILTV turkey isolate was also experimentally inoculated into susceptible chickens and turkeys, reproducing a mild respiratory disease. This is the first description of natural infections with ILTV in turkeys. PMID:18436397

  15. A report on syphilis control in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Sven

    1954-01-01

    This report presents the results of a six-month survey of the nature and extent of venereal diseases in Turkey which was undertaken by the author, on behalf of WHO, at the request of the Turkish Government. The first part of the report outlines the present venereal-disease-control system and includes descriptions of the work undertaken by public authorities, hospitals and dispensaries, mobile venereal-disease-control teams, and laboratories; in the second part, the author enumerates certain recommendations for the intensification of the current control programme. These recommendations are particularly concerned with the control of syphilis (since the incidence of other venereal diseases in Turkey is of very secondary importance), and with the expansion, standardization, and co-ordination of serodiagnostic facilities and services. It is suggested that there might be a gradual intensification and reorientation of the present programme. A proposed plan of operations for an eight-year period is described. PMID:13182590

  16. Female breast cancer mortality rates in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nurhan; Toprak, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the mortality trends of female breast cancer in Turkey between the years 1987-2008. The rates per 100,000 age-standardized to the European standard population were assessed and time trends presented using joinpoint regression analysis. Average annual percent change (AAPC), anual percent change (APC) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Nearly 23,000 breast cancer deaths occurred in Turkey during the period 1987-2008, with the average annual age-standardized mortality rate (ASR) being 11.9 per 100,000 women. In the last five years, significant increases were observed in all age groups, but there was no significant change over the age of 65. In this period, the biggest significant increase was in the 45-54 age group (AAPC=4.3, 95%CI=2.6 to 6.0). PMID:25292030

  17. The WHO global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases in Turkey (GARD Turkey).

    PubMed

    Yorgancioğlu, A; Türktaş, H; Kalayci, O; Yardim, N; Buzgan, T; Kocabaş, A; Karlikaya, C; Yildiz, F; Ergün, P; Mungan, D; Kart, L; Göktaş, E; Musaonbaşioğlu, S; Gündoğan, A; Akdağ, R; Akçay, S; Akin, M; Akkurt, I; Altan, P; Altunsu, T; Arpaci, N; Aydin, C; Aydin, S; Aydinli, F; Aytaç, B; Bavbek, S; Biber, C; Bingöl Karakoç, G; Ceyhun, G; Cakir, B; Celik, G; Cetinkaya, T; Ciçek, M E; Coban, S C; Cobanoğlu, N; Com, S; Cöplü, L; Demirkazik, A; Doğan, E; Ekmekçi, E B; Elbir, M; Erdoğan, A; Ergüder, T; Gemicioğlu, B; Gögen, S; Gülbahar, O; Güngör, H; Horzum, E; Içer, Y; Imamecioğlu, A R; Kahraman, N; Kakillioğlu, T; Kalyoncu, F; Karakaya, M; Karakaya, G; Karaodul, G; Kesici, C; Keskinkiliç, B; Kilinç, O; Kirmizitaş, F; Kosdak, M; Köktürk, N; Metintaş, M; Numanoğlu, S C; Gümrükçüoğlu, O F; Onal, Z; Onal, B; Ozacar, R; Ozen, H A; Ozkan, S; Oztürk, F; Polat, H; Saçkesen, C; Selçuk, T; Serin, G; Sönmez, G; Sahin, M; Sahinöz, S; Sahinöz, T; Simşek, B; Tartan, N; Toprak, A; Tugay, T; Tuncer, A; Uçan, E S; Unüvar, N; Yapicikardeşler, B; Yildirim, N; Yol, S; Yüksel, H; Khaltaev, N; Cruz, A; Minelli, E; Bateman, E; Baena Cagnani, C; Dahl, R; Bousquet, J

    2009-01-01

    In order to prevent and control non-communicable diseases (NCDs), the 61st World Health Assembly has endorsed an NCD action plan (WHA resolution 61.14). A package for essential NCDs including chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) has also been developed. The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD) is a new but rapidly developing voluntary alliance that is assisting World Health Organization (WHO) in the task of addressing NCDs at country level. The GARD approach was initiated in 2006. GARD Turkey is the first comprehensive programme developed by a government with all stakeholders of the country. This paper provides a summary of indicators of the prevalence and severity of chronic respiratory diseases in Turkey and the formation of GARD Turkey. PMID:20037863

  18. Healthcare Information Technology Infrastructures in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, M.; Ertürkmen, G. L.; Kabak, Y.; Namli, T.; Yıldız, M. H.; Ay, Y.; Ceyhan, B.; Hülür, Ü.; Öztürk, H.; Atbakan, E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for “Health-Net”), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. Methods The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Results Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients’ Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. Conclusion With the introduction of the “Health Transformation Program” in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality. PMID:24853036

  19. Hypertension and chronic kidney disease in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Sule; Erdem, Yunus; Batuman, Vecihi; Erturk, Sehsuvar

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide, both hypertension and chronic kidney disease are major public health problems, due to their epidemic proportions and their association with high cardiovascular mortality. In 2003, the first Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (the PatenT) study was conducted in a nationally representative population (n=4910) by the Turkish Society of Hypertension and Renal Diseases, and showed that overall age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in Turkey was 31.8%. The PatenT study also reported that overall awareness (40.7%), treatment (31.1%), and control rates (8.1%) of hypertension were strikingly low. Only 20.7% of the patients who were aware of their hypertension and receiving treatment had their blood pressure controlled to <140/90 mm Hg. In the Chronic Renal Disease in Turkey (CREDIT) study (n=10,748), the overall prevalence of chronic kidney (including all stages) disease was 15.7% and increased with advancing age. In the same population, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome were reported as 32.7%, 12.7%, 76.3%, 20.1%, and 31.3%, respectively. The prevalence and awareness of hypertension in CREDIT population was 32.7% and 48.6%, respectively. According to the data obtained from national surveys, the prevalence of hypertension and chronic kidney disease in Turkey is alarmingly high. To improve prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of these major public health problems, appropriate health strategies should be implemented by the government, together with medical societies, non-governmental organizations, industry, health-care providers, and academia. PMID:25019009

  20. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  1. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  2. An epornitic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Mason, S J; Maiers, J D

    1984-01-01

    A major epornitic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum occurred in the Monroe, North Carolina, area between January and June of 1983. The outbreak involved 304,000 turkeys of various ages, which were slaughtered in the eradication program at a cost of more than $550,000 to growers and poultry companies. An infected peafowl was the likely source of infection on the first farm. Traffic between farms by growers and company personnel was theorized to be the means of further spread. PMID:6487195

  3. Hierarchical structure of Turkey's foreign trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-10-01

    We examine the hierarchical structures of Turkey's foreign trade by using real prices of their commodity export and import move together over time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on Turkey's foreign trade during the 1996-2010 period by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). These periods are divided into two subperiods, such as 1996-2002 and 2003-2010, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. We perform the bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We also use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure much better. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic ties. Our results show that the DE (Germany), UK (United Kingdom), FR (France), IT (Italy) and RU (Russia) are more important within the network, due to a tighter connection with other countries. We have also found that these countries play a significant role for Turkey's foreign trade and have important implications for the design of portfolio and investment strategies.

  4. Assessing Poverty and Related Factors in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-01-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US $4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. PMID:17948949

  5. Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betul Demircioglu, Mine; Sesetyan, Karin; Erdik, Mustafa

    2010-05-01

    Using a GIS-environment to present the results, seismic risk analysis is considered as a helpful tool to support the decision making for planning and prioritizing seismic retrofit intervention programs at large scale. The main ingredients of seismic risk analysis consist of seismic hazard, regional inventory of buildings and vulnerability analysis. In this study, the assessment of the national earthquake hazard based on the NGA ground motion prediction models and the comparisons of the results with the previous models have been considered, respectively. An evaluation of seismic risk based on the probabilistic intensity ground motion prediction for Turkey has been investigated. According to the Macroseismic approach of Giovinazzi and Lagomarsino (2005), two alternative vulnerability models have been used to estimate building damage. The vulnerability and ductility indices for Turkey have been taken from the study of Giovinazzi (2005). These two vulnerability models have been compared with the observed earthquake damage database. A good agreement between curves has been clearly observed. In additional to the building damage, casualty estimations based on three different methods for each return period and for each vulnerability model have been presented to evaluate the earthquake loss. Using three different models of building replacement costs, the average annual loss (AAL) and probable maximum loss ratio (PMLR) due to regional earthquake hazard have been provided to form a basis for the improvement of the parametric insurance model and the determination of premium rates for the compulsory earthquake insurance in Turkey.

  6. Local magnitude scale for earthquakes in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıç, T.; Ottemöller, L.; Havskov, J.; Yanık, K.; Kılıçarslan, Ö.; Alver, F.; Özyazıcıoğlu, M.

    2016-06-01

    Based on the earthquake event data accumulated by the Turkish National Seismic Network between 2007 and 2013, the local magnitude (Richter, Ml) scale is calibrated for Turkey and the close neighborhood. A total of 137 earthquakes (Mw > 3.5) are used for the Ml inversion for the whole country. Three Ml scales, whole country, East, and West Turkey, are developed, and the scales also include the station correction terms. Since the scales for the two parts of the country are very similar, it is concluded that a single Ml scale is suitable for the whole country. Available data indicate the new scale to suffer from saturation beyond magnitude 6.5. For this data set, the horizontal amplitudes are on average larger than vertical amplitudes by a factor of 1.8. The recommendation made is to measure Ml amplitudes on the vertical channels and then add the logarithm scale factor to have a measure of maximum amplitude on the horizontal. The new Ml is compared to Mw from EMSC, and there is almost a 1:1 relationship, indicating that the new scale gives reliable magnitudes for Turkey.

  7. General aspect of pneumoconiosis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cimrin, Arif; Erdut, Zeki

    2007-05-01

    During the past 20 years number of definitive occupational diseases has not increased above 1500 case/year according to official statistics in Turkey. Although pneumoconiosis is the most diagnosed occupational disease, incidence of pneumoconiosis is very low.The present paper aims at reaching conclusions on the true dimension of the pneumoconiosis problem by evaluating whole the studies and case presentations related to coal mine dust and crystalline silica exposure within occupational environment.Regarding the results of the workplace-based studies it could be predicted that 20,000 out of 220,000 workers in mining sector could have pneumoconiosis and approximately 5,000 new pneumoconiosis cases might have occurred each year. Case presentations show high-level dust exposures present at the work places. These working conditions might cause acute pneumoconiosis. Poor working conditions exist especially at small and micro scale establishments.In Turkey, infrastructural and superstructural problems on workplace supervision and follow-up, legal processes on workers' health are complicated. Turkey has to provide healthy working conditions to those small-scale workplaces. Providing relevant assistance with activating people of the developed countries should be on top of the global efforts. PMID:21938215

  8. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-10-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. PMID:17948949

  9. National Seismic Network System of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunbul, S.; Kadirioğlu, F. T.; Holoğlu, N.; Kartal, R. F.; Kiliç, T.; Yatman, A.; Iravul, Y.; Tüzel, B.

    2009-04-01

    In order to mitigate disaster losses, it is necessary to establish an effective disaster management and risk system. The first step of the management is constituted by preparedness studies before the earthquake (disaster). In order to determinate disaster and risk information it is necessary to have a seismological observation network. Due to the monitoring of the earhquakes in the country-wide scale, recording, evaluation, archieving and to inform to the public autority, the project named "Development of the National Seismic Network Project-USAG" has been started. 6 Three Component Short Period, 63 Broad-band, 13 One Component Short Period stations, 65 Local Network- Broad-band, and 247 accelerometers have been operated in the frame of this project. All of the stations transmit continuously their signal to the ERD (Earthquake Research Department) seismic data center in Ankara. Capability of the network is to determine an earthquake which is minimum local magnitude ML= 2.8 generally, in some region local magnitude threshold is ML=1.5 (the places where the stations are concentrated). Earthquake activity in Turkey and surrounding region has been observed 7 days / 24 hours, in ERD data center in Ankara. After the manuel location of an earthquake, If the magnitude is over 4.0, system sends to SMS message automaticaly to the authorized people and immediately press, public and national-local crisis center, scientific institutions are informed by fax and e-mail. Data exchange has been carried out to EMSC-CSEM. During the İnstallation of the broad-band stations, the seismotectonics of the region has been taken into consideration. Earthqauke record stations are concentrated at the most important fault zones in Turkey; North Anatolian Fault System, East Anatolian Fault System, Bitlis Overlap Belt and Aegean Graben (or opening) System. After 1999 İzmit and Düzce earthquakes, the number of the seismic stations in Turkey have been increased each passing year. In this study

  10. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  11. Applications and Problems of Computer Assisted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usun, Salih

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey; reviews of the related literature; examines the projects, applications and problems on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey compares with the World; exposes the positive and negative aspects of the projects; a number of the suggestion presents on the effective use of…

  12. Regulation of waste and waste management in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gören, Sami; Ozdemir, Feyza

    2011-04-01

    Industrial and technological developments have increased rapidly throughout the world including Turkey. Furthermore, the population of Turkey is also increasing and the ever-increasing consumption creates larger amounts of waste materials and adversely affects the environment and human health. The development of a waste management and disposal system has become necessary in all countries of the world. As part of the process of seeking entry to the European Union, Turkey continues to prepare the necessary legislation to satisfy European Union regulations for the disposal of solid waste, packaging waste, biodegradable waste and medical waste materials within the framework of the strategy. An integrated waste management system is necessary for each town in Turkey that is suitable for the different contents and increasing amounts of waste produced. In the present study, Turkey's geographical regions were examined in terms of population and the total amount of solid waste generated in each province to produce detailed data for the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry. As a result of this study, it is understood that Turkey has drawn up a 'road map' which will be followed by the 2008-2012 Waste Management Action Plan. To achieve this, the Ministry of the Environment and Forestry, Turkey and the municipalities must fulfill the tasks that have been allocated to them. Turkey will attain the European Union standards for waste management if these tasks lead to the achievement of the targets within the action plan. PMID:20686052

  13. Perspectives on medical school library services in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Brennen, P W; Blackwelder, M B; Kirkali, M

    1987-07-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of medical education in Turkey and shows the impact of established social, educational, and economic patterns upon current medical library services. Current statistical information is given on the twenty-two medical school libraries in Turkey. Principal problems and chief accomplishments with library services are highlighted and discussed. PMID:3676535

  14. Accreditation Policies of Turkey in Primary and Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuzan, Verda Gizem

    2012-01-01

    Turkey's quality of education is being improved in order to become a member of EU (European Union), and Turkey is following the EU's system of educational policies. In the field of education, to encourage teaching and learning, accreditation process is used. It helps programs improve and be accountable for their quality. Accreditation provides…

  15. Socioscientific Issues in Science Education: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami; Mugaloglu, Ebru Zeynep; Guven, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the foci and results of studies on socioscientific issues (SSI) conducted in Turkey. Additionally, the study aimed to compare the results of this study with ones conducted internationally. For this aim, a literary review of empirical studies related to SSI conducted in Turkey was carried out. Four criteria…

  16. Stress-induced immunosupression and gangrenous dermatitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our laboratory has been researching the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) for the past 16 years and we have determined that this syndrome is caused by the inability of some fast-growing male turkeys to cope with production stressors. While immunosuppressive viruses have traditionally be...

  17. Perspectives on medical school library services in Turkey.

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, P W; Blackwelder, M B; Kirkali, M

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of medical education in Turkey and shows the impact of established social, educational, and economic patterns upon current medical library services. Current statistical information is given on the twenty-two medical school libraries in Turkey. Principal problems and chief accomplishments with library services are highlighted and discussed. PMID:3676535

  18. Pathogenicity of turkey astroviruses Type 2 in poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenicity of five different type 2 turkey astroviruses (TAstV-2) was studied in SPF turkeys. These viruses belong to three different genotypes based on sequence analysis of the capsid gene. Poults were inoculated at one day of age and examined for clinical signs and virus shedding during t...

  19. Vocational Education in Turkey: The Past, Changes and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbilek, Muhammet

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the present conditions and emerging issues about the future of vocational teacher education in Turkey. The paper discusses the background and historic legacies that have led to the restructuring of Faculties of Teacher Education in Turkey. The influence of the reforms from the foundation of the Turkish Republic are discussed as…

  20. Private Education as a Policy Tool in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinoglu, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses privatization as policy tool to solve educational problems in Turkey. Turkey, as a developing country, is faced with many problems in education. Large class size, low enrollment rate, girl's education, high illiteracy rate, religious education, textbooks, curriculum and multicultural education are some of the important…

  1. Cephalaria anamurensis (Caprifoliaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Göktürk, Ramazan Süleyman; Sümbül, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Cephalaria anamurensis (Caprifoliaceae) is described and illustrated from south Anatolia, Turkey. The species grows on steppe and stony places in Anamur (C4 Mersin province) in south Anatolia. Diagnostic morphological characters from closely similar taxa are discussed. The geographical distribution of the new species and two closely related species in Turkey are mapped. PMID:27489486

  2. Factors Preventing Women's Advancement in Management in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanal, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the reasons why there is relatively very small number of woman administrators in public and private sector in Turkey. We have tried to reveal the factors preventing women's advancement up the organizational ladder. Although there are no legal obstacles against woman administrators in Turkey, such factors as gender…

  3. Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff: An Empirical Study on Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toker, Boran

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among academicians in the universities of Turkey and to examine the effects of demographics on levels of satisfaction among them. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based study was conducted in 648 academicians working in the Universities of Turkey. Data…

  4. Migration and Psychological Status of Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksel, Seyda; Gun, Zubeyit; Irmak, Turkan Yilmaz; Cengelci, Banu

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of involuntary migration on an adolescent population that had moved with their families to either one of two culturally different locations in Turkey. One of these groups had moved from a village in Eastern Turkey to a nearby town, while the other had moved a considerable distance to a large…

  5. A Reflective Conversation with Ugur Sak: Gifted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Sak, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Ugur Sak discusses the current "state of the art" of gifted education in Turkey. He reviews the use of enrichment, discusses acceleration and reviews curricular procedures in Turkey. He responds to questions about the identification of gifted students and discusses the age old debate of talent versus…

  6. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  7. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  8. International Counseling Students in Turkey and Their Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan, Tahsin; Korkut-Owen, Fidan; Furr, Susan; Parikh, Sejal

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions and experiences of international counseling students (ICSs) in university training programs in Turkey. A majority of participants reported they had adjusted positively, but did experience problems related to language, food, and customs. Participants largely also thought that the training in Turkey met their…

  9. The Demand for Higher Education in Turkey and Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cekerol, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Failure to meet considerably high demand for higher education in Turkey has always been one of the most significant concerns of Turkish Higher Education System for many years. In this respect, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty has played a significant role in the attempts to overcome this problem in Turkey for the last three decades. In…

  10. Student Retention in Higher Education in Turkey: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aypay, Ahmet; Cekic, Osman; Boyaci, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate student perceptions of college departure in three state universities in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 1990s, higher Education System in Turkey went through a massification of higher education. The rapid growth brought enrollment and dropout issues in the system. A total of 58 participants were…

  11. Literacy in Turkey with Special Reference to Women's State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulusavas, Mualla

    In Turkey today, 93% of all persons between the ages of 6 and 15 attend school, and 89.7% of males and 71.1.% of females over the age of 15 are literate. Turkey's largest adult education programs are public, free, and offered both within and outside the formal educational system by governmental bodies, national institutions, and voluntary…

  12. Water as Source of Francisella tularensis Infection in Humans, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Selcuk; Birdsell, Dawn N.; Karagöz, Alper; Çelebi, Bekir; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Arikan, Muzaffer; Sahl, Jason W.; Mitchell, Cedar; Rivera, Andrew; Maltinsky, Sara; Keim, Paul; Üstek, Duran; Durmaz, Rıza

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis DNA extractions and isolates from the environment and humans were genetically characterized to elucidate environmental sources that cause human tularemia in Turkey. Extensive genetic diversity consistent with genotypes from human outbreaks was identified in environmental samples and confirmed water as a source of human tularemia in Turkey. PMID:26583383

  13. An Examination of Articles Published on Preschool Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine articles published in Turkey on Preschool Education both in terms of subject and method. Sample of the study based on document analysis in qualitative method consists of seven Turkey-based journals indexed in SSCI (Social Science Citation Index) and 10 journals indexed in Turkish Academic Network and Information Center…

  14. 78 FR 21107 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results... carbon steel pipes and tubes from Turkey (pipes and tubes from Turkey) for the period of review (POR) of..., of any wall thickness (pipe and tube) from Turkey. These products are currently provided for...

  15. 78 FR 57129 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey: Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... of Five-Year Sunset Review, 77 FR 53867 (September 4, 2012); Certain Pasta from Italy and Turkey; and... from Italy and Turkey, 77 FR 53909 (September 4, 2012). \\2\\ See Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey... Order, 78 FR 693 (January 4, 2013); and Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of the Expedited...

  16. Past and Future Drought Regimes in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Burak; Topcu, Sevilay; Turkes, Murat; Sen, Baha

    2010-05-01

    Climate variability in the 20th century was characterized by apparent precipitation variability at both temporal and spatial scales. In addition to the well-known characteristic seasonal and year-to-year variability, some marked and long-term changes in precipitation occurred in Turkey, particularly after the early 1970s. Drought, originating from a deficiency of precipitation over an extended time period (which is usually a season or more) has become a recurring phenomenon in Turkey in the past few decades. Spatially coherent with the significant drought events since early 1970s, water stress and shortages for all water user sectors have also reached their critical points in Turkey. Analyzing the historical occurrence of drought provides an understanding of the range of climate possibilities for a country, resulting in more informed management decision-making. However, future projections about spatial and temporal changes in drought characteristics such as frequency, intensity and duration can be challenging for developing appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies. Hence, the objectives of this study are (i) to analyze the spatial and temporal dimensions of historical droughts in Turkey, (2) to predict potential intensity, frequency and duration of droughts in Turkey for the future (2070-2100). The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Percent to Normal Index (PNI) have been used to assess the drought characteristics. Rainfall datasets for the reference period, 1960-1990, were acquired from 52 stations (representative of all kinds of regions with different rainfall regimes in the country) of the Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS). The future rainfall series for the 2070-2100 period were simulated using a regional climate model (RegCM3) for IPCC's SRESS-A2 scenario conditions. For verification of RegCM3 simulations, the model was performed for the reference period and simulated rainfall data were used for computing two drought indices (SPI

  17. Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern Turkey near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of Turkey. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören Fault Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern Turkey. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.

  18. Health and Roma People in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ekmekçi, Perihan Elif

    2016-01-01

    Background: The research and published literature on Roma health in Turkey is much more limited than in other European countries. Among these, there are hardly any published literature focusing on the health status, health indicators and health behaviors. Aims: The aim of this research is to describe the perceptions of health-related concepts and access and the use of health services and social determinants of the health of Roma people in Turkey. Study Design: Descriptive qualitative survey. Methods: The participants were chosen by random sampling. The semi-structured interview topic guide was developed from sources such as advice from the Romani community leaders, published evidence and personal experience from previous work with Roma communities. Non-directive open-ended questions allowed the exploration of their health status, how they conceptualize health and disease, their level of awareness on the impact of social determinants of health, on their health status and the access and use of health services. The data analysis was based on grounded theory. Analysis proceeded in four steps: 1. Reading and examining the transcripts separately using open coding, 2. Extracting the key words and codes from the transcripts and sorting them into categories, 3. Re-reading the transcripts by using selective coding, and 4. Examining the categories derived from the open coding systematically and determining the concepts summarizing the material. Results: The survey results are compatible with the existing literature on Roma health and reveal that 1) there is a tight link between the lack of social determinants of health and the poor health status of Roma people 2) socioeconomic factors and cultural norms of the ethnic minority are suspicious factors 3) comparative and systematic research is needed to illuminate the actual health gaps and causal factors for them. Conclusion: The research proves that the need for comparative and systematic research in Turkey to determine the

  19. High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemci, Emrah

    2011-09-21

    This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

  20. Sustainability of energy and carbon capture and storage for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpsar, Cengiz

    This study, as study herein, is intended to approach a different way to provide sustainability of energy and environment by different aspects for Turkey. This study investigates the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey for non-emissions of GHG and elaborates on a carbon capture and storage technology by creating a roadmap for Turkey. The main purpose of this study is to make a roadmap about carbon capture and storage (CCS) for Turkey to use as it proceeds. As one of the members of International Panel of Climate Change, which signed Kyoto protocol, it must adapt its acts and regulations. In addition, this study concentrates on the sustainable energy potential of Turkey, although the study investigated only the alternative energy resources suitable for Turkey: solar, wind, geothermal, bio-energy, and hydropower. There are huge numbers of potential renewable energy sources, and given Turkey's total energy demand of 106.3 million tons equivalent petroleum in 2010, only solar potential would be able to eventually supply the total demand, but energy from the wind and hydropower are sufficient to provide partial amounts. This study might help policy makers in their decisions regarding CCS technology. Currently, there are various technical and non-technical economic and social challenges that prevent CCS from become an extensively used commercial technology. This document discusses them and presents goals for each research pathway.

  1. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, J. T.; Bildstein, K. L.; Bohrer, G.; Winkler, D. W.

    2008-01-01

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change. PMID:19060195

  2. Mapping the Tobacco Retailers in Edirne, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karlıkaya, Celal; İnce, Hüseyin; Özkan, Nurcan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The youth smoking rate is on the rise in Turkey. Although many marketing bans have been effectively implemented, regulations related to retail tobacco outlets have gone unnoticed and have not been effectively supervised. In this study, we aimed to show the lack of legal regulation related to the high retail tobacco outlet density with displays. Material and Methods: In the center of Edirne, the marketing environment, numbers and geographical distribution of retail tobacco outlets were documented and mapped with geographical positions. Results: There were 569 retail tobacco points of sale in 520 stores. We calculated one tobacco retail outlet per 270 people. This retail outlet density rate is above the national average and about four times higher than the density in Istanbul. Products especially attracting children, such as chocolate, sweet candy and chewing gum, were set up near the tobacco stands and were easy for children to recognize and reach. It can be seen on the city map that 47% of retail tobacco outlets are within 100 m of education, health or sport facilities. Conclusion: We concluded that one of the reasons for the increasing prevalence of cigarette use, especially among adolescents in Turkey, is deregulation of the retail tobacco marketing industry as a result of the privatization process of the national tobacco monopoly. Using mapping techniques can be useful in terms of controlling the retail marketing environment. PMID:25207039

  3. Ectoparasites of hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Senlik, Bayram; Aydin, Levent; Cirak, Veli Y

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal, spiny-coated animals that have been growing in popularity as exotic pets. However, these animals are host to a wide variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, some of which are of zoonotic character. Thus, because hedgehogs have a potential role to transmit zoonoses including arthropod-borne diseases, we examined them for their ectoparasites. The study was carried out on hedgehogs found dead mainly due to road casualties in the Bursa province of Turkey. The ectoparasites were collected by both insecticide spraying of the body and inspection on a white paper carefully. Totally three species of ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma aegyptium, Haemophysalis parvo) and one flea species (Archeopsylla erinacei) were detected. The prevalence of mixed infestation with both ticks and fleas was 45.5%. Haemaphysalis parva was reported for the first time from hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Turkey. The occurrence of ectoparasites and their potential role as vectors of certain zoonotic diseases are briefly discussed. PMID:26281445

  4. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. PMID:21870064

  5. National Childhood Diabetes Program Activities in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Hatun, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Recent census figures in Turkey show that out of a population of 76.6 million, 22.7 million (29.7%) are younger than 18 years old. The great majority (>95%) of pediatric cases of diabetes in Turkey are type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In recent years, with increase in number of pediatric endocrine centers around the country, the important issue of care for diabetic children and adolescents has been revived and major steps have been taken for improvement in pediatric care and its outreach to all diabetic children. The Childhood Diabetes Group continues its activities in cooperation with the Turkish Ministry of Health. A list of areas of interest of the Group include “School programs”, “Incidence/prevalence studies and national registry system”, “Educational guidelines for diabetes in children”, “Increasing the numbers of camps and summer schools for diabetic children”, “Organization of educational programs for the health team”, “National guidelines for transition of diabetic children to adult clinics”, “Improvement of school canteens”, “Educational spots” to improve awareness of diabetes. The activities of the Childhood Diabetes Group will be discussed in detail in this article. PMID:25800469

  6. Sleep characteristics in the turkey Meleagris gallopavo.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso; Mexicano, G; Ramos, J I

    2003-03-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral characteristics of the states of vigilance were analyzed in chronically implanted specimens of the turkey Meleagris gallopavo (M. gallopavo). Five different states of vigilance were observed throughout the nyctohemeral period: active wakefulness (AW), quiet wakefulness (QW), drowsiness (D), slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. These states exhibit characteristics similar to those described in other bird species. Sleep periods displayed a polyphasic distribution; however, they showed the tendency to concentrate between 2100 and 0900 h in spite of the fact that the recordings were carried out under constant illumination. Sleep period occupied 45.71% of the nyctohemeral cycle, 43.33% corresponded to SWS, while 2.38% to REM sleep. The average duration of the REM sleep phase was very short, lasting 7.7+/-0.55 s (mean+/-S.D.). In contrast, its frequency was very high with an average recurrence of 268+/-63 phases throughout the nyctohemeral cycle. The short duration of REM sleep phase presented by the turkey as by other bird species studied up to now may be dependent upon genetic factors shared by this group of vertebrates. PMID:12676279

  7. Patient doses from CT examinations in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ataç, Gökçe Kaan; Parmaksız, Aydın; İnal, Tolga; Bulur, Emine; Bulgurlu, Figen; Öncü, Tolga; Gündoğdu, Sadi

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to establish the first diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for computed tomography (CT) examinations in adult and pediatric patients in Turkey and compare these with international DRLs. METHODS CT performance information and examination parameters (for head, chest, high-resolution CT of the chest [HRCT-chest], abdominal, and pelvic protocols) from 1607 hospitals were collected via a survey. Dose length products and effective doses for standard patient sizes were calculated from the reported volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). RESULTS The median number of protocols reported from the 167 responding hospitals (10% response rate) was 102 across five different age groups. Third quartile CTDIvol values for adult pelvic and all pediatric body protocols were higher than the European Commission standards but were comparable to studies conducted in other countries. CONCLUSION The radiation dose indicators for adult patients were similar to those reported in the literature, except for those associated with head protocols. CT protocol optimization is necessary for adult head and pediatric chest, HRCT-chest, abdominal, and pelvic protocols. The findings from this study are recommended for use as national DRLs in Turkey. PMID:26133189

  8. Machine-related farm injuries in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akdur, Okhan; Ozkan, Seda; Durukan, Polat; Avsarogullari, Levent; Koyuncu, Murat; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Traumas connected with agricultural production can result in serious injuries and mortality. The objective of the study was to describe the characteristics of agricultural machines related work injury cases admitted to the Emergency Department, and to asses factors related to injury severity and hospital admission in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. All the cases presented related to injuries caused by work with agricultural machines between January 2006-November 2007 were included in the study. Information was collected concerning the demographic structures of the patients. Injury sites, injury types, and clinical features were recorded. Initial injury severity scores of all the cases were diagnosed at hospital admission. 91.9 percent of the cases were male. Mean age was 35.8 +- 17.0. The most common machine causing injuries was a tractor with 46 percent of cases, and all of these were fall traumas. 18.9 percent of the cases was considered as slight injury, 43.2 percent as moderate, and 37.9 percent as severe. Two male cases resulted in fatality. Our findings suggest that tractors are the most dangerous agricultural machines, and falls from tractors as the most common injury mechanism among machine-related injuries, especially for young people. In the rural areas of our country, Turkey, agricultural machines cause serious injuries that require hospitalization. PMID:20684481

  9. A SNP based linkage map of the turkey genome reveals multiple intrachromosomal rearrangements between the Turkey and Chicken genomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. The genomic resources of turkey provide turkey breeders with tools needed for the genetic improvement of commercial breeds of turkey for economically important traits. A linkage map of turkey is essential not only for the mapping of quantitative trait loci, but also as a framework to enable the assignment of sequence contigs to specific chromosomes. Comparative genomics with chicken provides insight into mechanisms of genome evolution and helps in identifying rare genomic events such as genomic rearrangements and duplications/deletions. Results Eighteen full sib families, comprising 1008 (35 F1 and 973 F2) birds, were genotyped for 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Of the 775 SNPs, 570 were informative and used to construct a linkage map in turkey. The final map contains 531 markers in 28 linkage groups. The total genetic distance covered by these linkage groups is 2,324 centimorgans (cM) with the largest linkage group (81 loci) measuring 326 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 28 linkage groups is 4.6 cM. Comparative mapping of turkey and chicken revealed two inter-, and 57 intrachromosomal rearrangements between these two species. Conclusion Our turkey genetic map of 531 markers reveals a genome length of 2,324 cM. Our linkage map provides an improvement of previously published maps because of the more even distribution of the markers and because the map is completely based on SNP markers enabling easier and faster genotyping assays than the microsatellitemarkers used in previous linkage maps. Turkey and chicken are shown to have a highly conserved genomic structure with a relatively low number of inter-, and intrachromosomal rearrangements. PMID:21092123

  10. [Influence of a turkey stable with a veranda on performance, behaviour and health of male turkeys].

    PubMed

    Berk, J; Wartemann, S

    2006-03-01

    Throughout 4 fattening periods (summer and winter) the influence of a veranda (roofed outside run) on the performance, behaviour and health of tom turkeys was investigated in a pilot study. A second conventional naturally ventilated stable without a veranda was also included in the investigations for special aspects. The aim of this study was to investigate this first turkey stable with a veranda and to give first recommendation for the practical use. The use of the veranda and the differences in behaviour between inside the stable with a veranda and inside the veranda as well as inside both stables were analysed. From 100 turkeys in each period we examined feather condition, walking ability and leg posture in the 9th, 13th and 17th week of age in both stables. In addition, body weight, food consumption and mortality were recorded. The results of this pilot study indicate that the tom turkeys of the line BUT Big 6 used the veranda without negative effects on health and performance parameters. There was some indication for an improved health of animals or a reduced mortality in the stable with veranda. The decrease of walking ability and normal leg posture with increasing age and body weight in both stables suggests that the genetic influence seems to have a higher influence than the enrichment of environment in this study using the fast growing line BUT Big 6. On the other hand, in this pilot study only one stable with a veranda and another commercial stable without a veranda at a different location were included. For this reason the results should be interpreted carefully with respect to possible effects in the management between the two farms. PMID:16669193

  11. Geological, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of zeolite deposits associated with borates in the Bigadiç, Emet and Kirka Neogene lacustrine basins, western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gündogdu, M. N.; Yalçin, H.; Temel, A.; Clauer, N.

    1996-09-01

    The Bigadiç, Emet and Kirka lacustrine basins of western Turkey may be considered as Tibet-type graben structures that were developed during the Miocene within the Izmir-Ankara suture zone complex. The volcanic-sedimentary successions of these basins are made up of mudstone, carbonate (limestone and dolomite) and detrital rocks, and also of crystal or vitric tuffs about 135 to 200 m thick. The Degirmenli (Bigadiç), Emirler (Bigadiç) Köpenez (Emet) and Karaören (Kirka) tuffs constituting the zeolite deposits are situated beneath four borate deposits (colemanite, ulexite, borax). The most abundant diagenetic silicate minerals are K- and Ca-clinoptilolites in the zeolite deposits, and Li-rich trioctahedral smectites (stevensite, saponite and hectorite) and K-feldspar in the borate deposits. In the Degirmenli, Emirler, Köpenez and Karaören deposits, the following diagenetic facies were developed from rhyolitic glasses rich in K and poor in Na: (glass+smectite), (K-clinoptilolite+opal-CT), (Ca-clinoptilolite+K-feldspar±analcime± quartz) and (K-feldspar+analcime+quartz). K-feldspar which is also rarely associated with phillipsite (Karaören) and heulandite (Degirmenli and Karaören), succeeds clinoptilolite and precedes analcime in these diagenetic facies where dioctahedral smectites, opal-CT and quartz are the latest minerals. No diagenetic transformations exist between clinoptilolite, K-feldspar and analcime that were formed directly from glass. The lateral facies distributions resulted from the differences in salinity and pH of pore water trapped during deposition of the tuffs, but vertical distributions in vitric tuffs seem to have been controlled by the glass/liquid ratio of the reacting system and the permeability or diffusion rate of alkali elements. The Bigadiç, Emet and Kirka zeolite deposits which were formed in saline basins rich in Ca and Mg ions, show similar chemical changes, i.e. loss of alkalis and gain in alkaline-earth elements that have taken

  12. Geochemical and Sr-Nd Isotopic Compositions of Cenozoic Granitoids in Western Anatolia (Turkey): Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Continental Magmatism and Extension in the Aegean Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunkaynak, S.; Genc, C.; Dilek, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Western Anatolia (Turkey) is part of the Aegean extensional province, which is situated in an active collision zone between the African and Eurasian Plates. The Cenozoic magmatism in western Anatolia started after the collision of the Sakarya continent (SC) and Anatolide-Tauride continental blocks (ATP) in the late Paleocene. The collisional front is today marked by the Izmir-Ankara suture zone (IASZ), which includes late Cretaceous Tethyan ophiolites, melanges, and HP/LT blueschist assemblages. Comparison of the isotope geochemistry and the petrogenesis of different plutons on both sides of the IASZ provide important geochronological and geochemical constraints on the nature of the late Cenozoic magmatism associated with crustal extension in the Aegean province. Irrespective of the lithological make-up of the collided blocks, the Oligo-Miocene granitoids that were emplaced into the SB and ATP show similar major and trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, indicating common melt sources and evolutionary trends. These granitoids are mainly metaluminous, medium to high-K calc-alkaline rocks with their silica contents ranging from 57.0 wt.% to 72.2 wt.%. They display enrichment in LILE and strong negative anomalies in Nb, Ta, P, Ti, and Zr, and they have initial 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.705186 - 0.711437 and 143Nd/ 143Nd values of 0.512615-0.512266. These isotopic signatures and trace element characteristics are considered to reflect the composition of the magmas derived from a metasomatized lithospheric mantle beneath NW Anatolia and from the overlying mafic lower crust. This inferred melt source readily explains the I-type granitoid nature of most Cenozoic plutons in western Anatolia regardless of their temporal and spatial position. The heat and the basaltic material to induce this partial melting were provided by aesthenospheric upwelling caused by partial lithospheric delamination and/or convective thinning. Slab rollback of the Hellenic subduction zone may

  13. Ultra-high-resolution marine 2D-3D seismic investigation of the Liman Tepe/Karantina Island archaeological site (Urla/Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, C.; Woelz, S.; Ersoy, Y.; Boyce, J.; Jokisch, T.; Wendt, G.; Rabbel, W.

    2009-05-01

    2D and 3D high-resolution seismic investigations were performed on submerged coastal archaeological sites at Iskele and near to Karantina Island in the Bay of Izmir in western Turkey. Tectonic subsidence of the coastline has submerged a number of archaeological features associated with an important Early Bronze Archaic settlement (Liman Tepe) and the classical Ionian city of Clazomenae. Seismic surveys were focused on imaging of an Archaic harbour structure and other submerged Hellenistic and Roman architectural features. Seismic data were acquired with the SEAMAP-3D ultra-high-resolution 3D marine seismic acquisition system developed for detailed archaeological site investigation. A 2D reconnaissance survey was performed over a 2 km 2 area around Karantina Island to evaluate the seismic penetrability and to locate sites for further 3D investigation. This survey predominantly revealed marine sediment layers covering the local bedrock, which is characterized by scattering of seismic energy showing its rocky nature. Two ultra-high-resolution 3D seismic surveys were performed. The first covered a 350 m × 30 m area in the modern harbour targeting a prominent Archaic harbour structure. The second was acquired across a 120 m × 40 m area on the southeast shore of the Karantina Island close to a Roman architectural feature. The 3D surveys were acquired with nominal line spacings of 1 m, using a 8 × 4 pseudo-rigid hydrophone array and a Boomer source firing at 3 Hz shot frequency. Automated processing of the seismic data using a portable Linux cluster provided stacked 3D seismic volumes with 25 cm × 25 cm bin size on-site. The 3D seismic survey of the harbour clearly imaged the submerged Archaic structure and the underlying sediment sequence. The seismic time slices reveal two seismic anomalies (2-3 m in diameter) in the harbour basin sediments. The 3D surveys southeast of Karantina identified a thicker marine sediment sequence overlying steeply dipping bedrock

  14. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries. PMID:10208658

  15. The Moss Flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Canli, Kerem; Çetin, Barbaros

    2014-01-01

    The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey) was investigated. At the result of identifications of 1500 moss specimens, collected from the research area, 178 taxa belonging to 69 genera and 26 families were determined. Among them, 94 taxa are new for A3 grid square according to the Turkey grid system which was adopted by Henderson. The location data of Grimmia crinitoleucophaea Cardot and Barbula enderesii Garov. are the first records for Turkey, and Encalypta spathulata Müll. Hal., Schistidium dupretii (Thér.) W. A. Weber, Weissia condensa var. armata (Thér. & Trab.) M. J. Cano, Ros & J. Guerra, Tortella bambergeri (Schimp.), Barbula enderesii Garov., Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp., and Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb.) Kanda are recorded for the second time to the byroflora of Turkey. PMID:25587573

  16. Experimental lead poisoning in Turkey Vultures, Cathartes aura

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Pattee, O.H.; Fritts, S.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Royle, J. Andrew; Smith, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Lead-induced mortality appears to have been a major factor in the decline of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus. We orally dosed turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with BB-sized lead shot from January 1988 through July 1988 to determine physiological response (delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition, erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, anemia), diagnostic tissue lead concentrations (blood, liver, and kidney), and comparative sensitivity of this species. Two turkey vultures died and two became so intoxicated they were euthanized. Overall, responses of measured parameters were comparable to other species exposed to lead although there was considerable individual variation. Survival time (143-211 days), even with the large number of shot and constant redosing, was much longer than reported for other species of birds, suggesting considerable tolerance by turkey vultures to the deleterious effects of lead ingestion. Based on these observations, turkey vultures appear to be poor models for assessing the risk of lead poisoning to California condors or predicting their physiological response.

  17. International spotlight: developing a gerontological social policy agenda for Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arun, Özgür

    2013-12-01

    From 1960 to 2013, the population of Turkey increased almost threefold, with older adults aged 65 and older increasing almost sevenfold. In light of the demographic revolution in the age composition of world populations, we investigated the following research questions from the perspective of Turkish gerontologists: What are the conditions of older people based on sociological factors such as gender, partnership status, income, education, health, religion, and ethnicity? What should Turkey's gerontological agenda contain for the short term, mid-term, and long term, particularly in view of the rapidly changing nature of political, social, and economic life in the country? By 2025, adults (aged 40-65) will make up the largest population group in Turkey's history. It is time for Turkey to embrace this demographic gift and identify its own gerontological agenda to pave the way for social justice and social citizenship. PMID:23856026

  18. Peach skin powder inhibits oxidation in cooked turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Han, I; Bridges, W C; Dawson, P L

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the antioxidant activity of peach skin and test the antioxidant effect of peach skin powder on cooked ground turkey meat during 12 d of refrigerated storage. Antioxidant activity of 3 cultivars of peaches grown in South Carolina was first evaluated by 3 antioxidant assays. The peach variety O'Henry showed the greatest antioxidant effect and therefore was used for further study. Two levels of peach skin powder (0.5%, 1%) and 0.01% butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) were applied to ground turkey meat. Oxidation of cooked turkey meat was measured by detection of hexanal using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that all levels of peach skin powder used in this study had an antioxidant effect on ground turkey with a greater effect at the higher concentration. O'Henry peach skin powder was as effective as BHA in preventing oxidation at the levels tested. PMID:27252372

  19. An IPE back-end study for Turkey Point plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guey, C.; Kabadi, J. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a study of Turkey Point plant's large dry containment as part of a response to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's individual plant examination Generic Letter 88-20. Two unique features of Turkey Point containment are discussed. This study includes an evaluation of the containment response to the physical processes occurring during an accident and probabilistic analysis of the spectrum of severe-accident progressions.

  20. Hawk moths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) of Turkey and their zoogeographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Akkuzu, E; Ayberk, H; Inac, S

    2007-10-01

    The family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) has 63 species in the western Palaearctic Region of the world. Thirty-four out of 63 species present in Turkey either permanently or temporarily. The subfamilies Smerinthinae, Sphinginae and Macroglossinae are consisted of 7, 4, and 23 species respectively Ten out of 34 species were captured in the field. Available knowledge of Sphingidae of Turkey was evaluated and summarized with this study as well. PMID:18405103

  1. Negative findings concerning Alcaligenes faecalis as an etiologic agent in acute respiratory disease of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Singer, N; Weisman, Y; Aronovici, A

    1981-01-01

    An acute respiratory disease of turkeys in Israel was first reported in November 1978. Alcaligenes faecalis was isolated from sick turkeys and from chickens not affected by the disease. Plate agglutination tests with A. faecalis antigen of 1,067 turkey and 494 chicken serum samples gave variable results: healthy turkeys gave positive reactions and sick turkeys sometimes gave negative ones. All isolated strains were highly sensitive in vitro drug sensitivity tests, but chemotherapy failed in the field. Pathogenicity trials with A. faecalis, given alone or in combination with Yucaipa virus to 8-day-old turkey poults, failed to reproduce the disease. PMID:7259671

  2. Vaginal douching practices and beliefs in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kukulu, Kamile

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify women's motivations for vaginal douching, vaginal douching practices, and women's reactions to situations that discourage vaginal douching. Research took place in the outskirts of Antalya, a city located on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. A total of 776 women participated in the study. Age, religious affiliation, place of residence, and poverty were found to influence women's attitudes to douching. Motivating factors included mothers' attitudes as well as women's own individual motivations. Women who douched believed that it was a normal and routine behaviour. Women who were members of the Shafii sect were much less likely to practice vaginal douching. Healthcare providers should be aware of women's beliefs and concerns about feminine hygiene and tailor their strategies accordingly. PMID:16846944

  3. Nursing satisfaction and job enrichment in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Havva; Bahcecik, Nefise; Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    Survey research was conducted with the aim of better understanding nurses' perceptions of organizational factors which relate to their job satisfaction and motivation in Turkey. Nurses (N = 290) who were employed at a training and research hospital, part of the Turkish Republic Ministry of Health, were included. The questionnaire used was developed for this study based on Hackman and Oldman's job enrichment theory. The results showed that only one third of the nurse leaders and one in five of the staff nurses reported being satisfied with their job. The participants saw the five core job dimensions of Hackman and Oldman's work design model: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback as important for nurses. Nursing was described by the participants as hard and challenging, but they also found it meaningful and said that it gave them the opportunity to use their skills and abilities. PMID:16982725

  4. Aflatoxins in various food from Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hacıbekiroğlu, I; Kolak, U

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1 levels in 62 food samples from Istanbul, Turkey. The total aflatoxin content in dried American cucumber, squash, tomato, okra and saffron samples was found to be 1.7 μg/kg. AFB1 levels in five dried vegetables (red bell pepper, American cucumber, squash, tomato and okra), two tea (linden and jasmine flower) and three spice samples (cardamom, galangal and saffron) were 1 μg/kg. Of the tested samples, 76% exceeded legal limits of total aflatoxin. The highest levels were determined in chestnut (232.9 μg/kg), nutmeg (206.1 μg/kg) and sumac (182.5 μg/kg). These findings confirm the existing knowledge that food should be regularly and effectively controlled. PMID:24779934

  5. Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kültür, Sükran

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

  6. Bullying within the Forestry Organizations of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations. PMID:23853543

  7. Salmonellae Associated with Further-processed Turkey Products1

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Frank L.; Ayres, John C.; Kraft, Allen A.

    1968-01-01

    “Further-processed” turkey products, prepared from chilled, eviscerated, and thawed carcasses at two commercial turkey-processing plants, were evaluated, for the presence of salmonellae. These organisms were isolated from swab samples from 12% of chilled, eviscerated turkey carcasses, 27% of finished products, and 24% of processing equipment. The same serotypes as those found throughout a plant on any one visit were recovered from 31% of rinse-samples taken from hands and gloves of processing personnel. Salmonellae were found in samples taken on 37 of 48 visits; a greater number of recoveries were made on days when freshly killed turkeys were processed (87%) than when frozen-defrosted carcasses were processed (59%). The predominant serotype isolated from meat and environment usually changed from visit to visit. Salmonella sandiego and Salmonella anatum were the most frequent among 23 serotypes recovered. Most of the isolated serotypes are commonly associated with turkeys and have been incriminated as causative agents of human salmonellosis. The implication is that further-processed turkey products, if inadequately cooked by the consumer and if improperly refrigerated between the time of manufacture and consumption, could directly transmit salmonellae. These same products might also contaminate other foods by introducing salmonellae into food-preparation areas. PMID:5688832

  8. Structure and age-dependent development of the turkey liver: a comparative study of a highly selected meat-type and a wild-type turkey line.

    PubMed

    Hünigen, Hana; Mainzer, Kathleen; Hirschberg, Ruth M; Custodis, Pia; Gemeinhardt, Ole; Al Masri, Salah; Richardson, Kenneth C; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed; Plendl, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    In this study the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the liver of a fast growing, meat-type turkey line (British United turkeys BUT Big 6, n=25) and a wild-type turkey line (Wild Canadian turkey, n=48) were compared at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 wk. Because the growth plates of long bones were still detectable in the 20-week-old wild-type turkeys, indicating immaturity, a group of 8 wild-type turkeys at the age of 24 wk was included in the original scope of the study. Over the term of the study, the body and liver weights of birds from the meat-type turkey line increased at a faster rate than those of the wild-type turkey line. However, the relative liver weight of the meat-type turkeys declined (from 2.7 to 0.9%) to a greater extent than that of the wild-type turkeys (from 2.8 to 1.9%), suggesting a mismatch in development between muscle weights and liver weights of the meat-type turkeys. Signs of high levels of fat storage in the liver were detected in both lines but were greater in the wild-type turkey line, suggesting a better feed conversion by the extreme-genotype birds i.e., meat-type birds. For the first time, this study presents morphologic data on the structure and arrangement of the lymphatic tissue within the healthy turkey liver, describing two different types of lymphatic aggregations within the liver parenchyma, i.e., aggregations with and without fibrous capsules. Despite differences during development, both adult meat-type and adult wild-type turkeys had similar numbers of lymphatic aggregations. PMID:26908884

  9. Detection and molecular characterization of astroviruses in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Singh, Azad; Mor, Sunil K; Jindal, Naresh; Patnayak, Devi; Sobhy, Nader M; Luong, Nhungoc Ti; Goyal, Sagar M

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of turkey astrovirus 1 (TAstV-1) and avian nephritis virus (ANV) in turkeys with light turkey syndrome (LTS), which is characterized by lower body weight in market-age turkeys than their standard breed character. We collected pools of fecal samples from four LTS and two non-LTS turkey flocks in Minnesota at 2, 3, 5 and 8 weeks of age. Of the 80 LTS pools tested, 16 (20.0 %) and 11 (13.8 %) were positive for TAstV-1 and ANV, respectively. For non-LTS flocks, these numbers were 8 (20.0 %) and 5 (12.5 %), respectively. The maximum number of birds was positive at five weeks of age. We also tested 130 fecal samples of poult enteritis syndrome (PES) cases submitted to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and found 19 and 11 positive for TAstV-1 and ANV, respectively. RdRp gene sequences were determined for a total of 29 TAstV-1 and 22 ANV samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp gene revealed 92-100 % and 88-100 % nucleotide sequence identity among TAstV-1 and ANV sequences, respectively. A large number of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were observed in LTS and PES flocks than in non-LTS flocks. One of the PES sequences grouped with ANV-like sequences detected in chickens, indicating that regular screening of birds should be continued. Further, complete genome analysis should be conducted to determine whether this virus is a novel divergent strain or a recombinant of chicken and turkey ANV-like viruses. The detection of TAstV-1 and ANV in a considerable number of non-LTS cases emphasizes the need for further studies on the transmission pattern and pathogenesis of these viruses to determine their role as pathogens of turkeys. PMID:26780891

  10. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  11. Effects of hunting and season of fire on wild turkey populations in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, William, F.; Kilgo, John, C.; Guynn, David, C.; Davis, James, R.

    2002-07-31

    This report assesses impacts to wild turkey populations from hunting and prescribed fire. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) To compare survival rates and causes of mortality of wild turkey gobblers between hunted and unhunted populations; (2) To determine the effects of dormant versus growing season prescribed burns on nesting success, survival and habitat use of wild turkey hens; (3) To determine the effects of dormant versus growing season prescribed burns on the availability of wild turkey plant foods.

  12. [Tularemia is spreading from north to south side of Turkey: a small outbreak in Kahramanmaras, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, İlkay; Kiliç, Selçuk

    2014-07-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis. Sporadic tularemia cases have been increasingly reported particularly from provinces located at northwest and central regions of Turkey especially during last two decades, as well as waterborne outbreaks reported from almost all regions. Transmission most often occurs through consumption of contaminated water and food, thus, oropharyngeal form is the most common clinical presentation in our country. The aim of this study was to present a small outbreak experience in Afsin, country of Kahramanmaras province located at southern part of Turkey. A total of 10 patients (5 male, 5 female; age range 2-68 years; mean age 25 years) who were admitted to Afsin State Hospital with the complaints of swollen neck between 21 October 2013-22 January 2014, were evaluated considering their clinical findings and treatment outcomes. Following the diagnosis of the first tularemia case coming from Nadir village, a field investigation was performed. All villagers were informed about the disease and water samples from the possible sources of outbreak were collected by provincial health authorities. Lymph node aspirate and serum samples were sent for culture and serologic investigation and the environmental water samples were sent for molecular analysis to the National Tularemia Reference Laboratory at Public Health Institution of Turkey. Six out of 10 patients' sera were found positive in terms of F.tularensis antibodies between the titers of 1/320-1/1280 by microagglutination test (MAT) and diagnosis of oropharyngeal tularemia was based on the clinical and serological findings. One of the patients also presented with oculoglandular form accompanying oropharyngeal form. Cultures from aspirate samples that could be obtained from only two patients yielded negative results. Three out of six patients' lymph nodes were drained surgically and one was drained by ultrasound-guided needle. In one case lymph node suppuration occured

  13. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution and exhumation of the Haymana basin: Unravelling the subduction and collision history of Neotethys in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülyüz, Erhan; Özkaptan, Murat; Lefebvre, Côme; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Persano, Cristina; Stuart, Finlay M.

    2014-05-01

    The Haymana basin straddles the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone (IAESZ) in the north and Intra-Tauride Suture Zone (ITSZ) in the south. The two suture zones developed in response to the subduction and demise of Neotethys Ocean in Turkey during the late Cretaceous to early Tertiary; the tectonic significance of the basin and its relationship with the ITSZ are still poorly constrained. In order to unravel subduction and subsequent collision history of the Neotethys in the region, we have carried out a detailed analysis of the stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Haymana basin infill and, using a combination of palaeomagnetic and thermochronometric data we have unravelled its structural evolution since its formation. The basin developed on the IAESZ and comprises fore-arc late Cretaceous to foreland Middle Eocene sedimentary sequences. The analysis of the sedimentogical facies and depositional environments indicate four Late Cretaceous to Paleogene key sequences in the basin. These sequences grade laterally and vertically into each other and are continuous from the late Cretaceous to Eocene whereas local progressive syn-sedimentary unconformities and frequent depocenter migrations are common. Late Cretaceous sequences fine upward whereas coarsening upwards sequences are common in the later units. These characteristics possibly reflect the response to local uplift and subsidence in front of south-verging thrust faults associated with the transition from fore-arc to foreland basin settings, following the terminal subduction of the Neotethys at the end of Cretaceous. About 4000 paleomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic data from the basin infill units and the Neogene cover indicate large clockwise vertical axes rotations in the NW and counter-clockwise rotations in the SE part of the basin. We suggest that these rotations are related to the northward movement and indentation of the Gondwana-derived continental blocks into Eurasia. A model of southward thrust propagation

  14. Antiurbanization: an implicit development policy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Levine, N

    1980-01-01

    This paper asserts that "antiurbanization" has become an implicit development policy among Turkish policymakers. Antiurbanism is used to justify policymakers' views of economic and social development. As a consequence, social policies become ineffective because they go up against forces producing urbanization and fail to consider the needs of the growing urban population. Turkey has been urbanizing at a rapid rate. In 1935, only 17% of the population lived in urban areas. By 1960 the urban population was 26%, but by 1975 it was 45%. These increases are accounted for by rural-urban migration of 7-9 million people. Reasons for the urbanization are that: 1) population growth has increased in Turkey from less than 2%/year in 1950 to 2.9% in 1960; 2) rural fertility is higher than urban fertility and consequently pressure on land is a major factor leading to migration, 3) higher incomes in urban areas promote rural-urban migration; 4) expansion of credit to landowners and developments in better transportation facilitated migration; and 5) most importantly, there is an institutionalization of migration whereby migrants go to urban areas with hope and for rational reasons. The inconsistency in state development policies is striking in relation to the emphasis on relationships between urban industrialization and economic policy on the one hand and the rural development and social policy on the other. Industrialization is the keystone of Turkish economic policy with 3 goals being sought: 1) industrialization, 2) economic independence, and 3) state initiative in industrialization. Agricultural development has always take a second place to industrialization. However, population estimates in 1928 and 1957 for Ankara were 300,000-750,000. Yet at the current growth rate, Ankara will have a population of 2.25 million in 1980. Clearly the transformation of the rural areas occurred faster than expected. Affects on rural oriented social policies have been felt in health, education

  15. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Gok, R.; Zor, E.; Walter, W. R.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the crust and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet, forming a complex tectonic regime. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provide a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure of the region. Zor et al. (2003) found an average 46 km thick crust in the Anatolian plateau using a six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver functions alone, however, may result in an apparent depth-velocity trade-off [Ammon et al., 1990]. In order to improve upon this velocity model, we have combined the receiver functions with surface wave data using the joint inversion method of Julia et al. (2000). In this technique, the two sets of observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. The receiver functions are calculated using an iterative time-domain deconvolution technique. We also consider azimuthal changes in the receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups accordingly. We are improving our surface wave model by making Love and Rayleigh dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and incorporating them into a regional group velocity model for periods between 10 and 100 seconds. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocities toward the northeast, indicating slow upper mantle velocities in the area consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. Starting models used for the joint inversions include both a 1-D model from a 12-ton dam shot recorded by ETSE [Gurbuz et al., 2004] and

  16. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W

    2004-09-03

    We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in Anatolian plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function

  17. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  18. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  19. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  20. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  1. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  2. 77 FR 19623 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 7984 (March 7, 1986). \\2\\ See Antidumping or Countervailing... certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube with an outside diameter of 0.375 inch or more, but not over 16...: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey, 72 FR 62837, 62838 (November 7, 2007) (Turkey...

  3. THE ROLE OF DIETARY VITAMIN E IN EXPERIMENTAL LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES INFECTIONS IN TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E in turkeys experimentally infected with Listeria monocytogenes. One-day-old turkeys (n = 70) were fed diets containing either 0 or 200 IU vitamin E. After 6 weeks on the experimental diet, turkeys were orally inoculated with...

  4. Phosphatidylcholine-supplemented Extender Improves the Fertility of Turkey Semen Stored In Vitro for 24 Hours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been long recognized that the ability to store turkey semen for 24h in vitro without a significant loss in fertility upon insemination would benefit the commercial turkey industry. We investigated a novel approach to circumvent the loss of phospholipids from the turkey sperm membrane in the ...

  5. Effect of dexamethasone on bactericidal activity of turkey monocytes and implications for food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress has been shown to affect the immune system of turkeys making them more susceptible to bacterial infections that may compromise food safety. Female turkeys are more resistant to stress-induced opportunistic bacterial infections than are male turkeys. In order to determine the mechanism of this...

  6. 78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Duty Investigations, 78 FR 45505 (July 29, 2013). \\2\\ Maverick Tube Corporation, United States Steel... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary... tubular goods (OCTG) from the Republic of Turkey (Turkey). The period of investigation is January 1,...

  7. 77 FR 3739 - Executive-led Aerospace and Defense Industry Trade Mission to Turkey-Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Executive-led Aerospace and Defense Industry Trade Mission to Turkey... Commercial Service (CS) is organizing a U.S.--Turkey Aerospace and Defense Industry Trade Mission to Ankara... traveling to Turkey on their own, will enhance the companies' ability to secure meetings in Ankara...

  8. Progressive Education in Turkey: Reports of John Dewey and His Successors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskin, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    John Dewey, the well-known figure in progressive education, visited Turkey in 1924. Through his visit, Turkey was introduced to progressive education. Although his visit was short, the reports he prepared influenced the shape of the Turkish education system. After Dewey's visit, many foreign educators were invited to Turkey, particularly…

  9. The Effects of Community Factors on School Participation in Turkey: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Turkey, like many developing countries, is facing considerable problems in terms of low school attendance rates, late enrolment and early dropout of girls in particular. Numerous studies have already been conducted, both in Turkey and elsewhere, to determine the factors affecting school enrolment of boys and girls. Existing studies in Turkey,…

  10. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1 Modified) and two inspectors New...

  11. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1 Modified) and two inspectors New...

  12. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1 Modified) and two inspectors New...

  13. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1 Modified) and two inspectors New...

  14. The Lice, Turkey, earthquake of September 6, 1975; a preliminary engineering investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanev, P. I.

    1976-01-01

    The Fifth European Conference on Earthquake Engineering was held on September 22 through 25 in Istanbul, Turkey. The opening speech by the Honorable H. E. Nurettin Ok, Minister of Reconstruction and Resettlement of Turkey, introduced the several hundred delegates to the realities of earthquake hazards in Turkey:

  15. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1 Modified) and two inspectors New...

  16. Efficacy of Lytic Bacteriophage Preparation in Reducing Salmonella In Vitro, on Turkey Breast Cutlets, and on Ground Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sharma, C S; Dhakal, J; Nannapaneni, R

    2015-07-01

    The efficacy of the recently approved Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (SalmoFresh) in reducing Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg on turkey breast cutlets and ground turkey was evaluated. In a broth model assay, the phage preparation completely inhibited the growth of four S. enterica serotypes (Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Kentucky, and Salmonella Typhimurium) at 37°C at a multiplicity of infection of 10,000 PFU/CFU. At 4°C in 0.1% peptone water (PW), phage treatment at a multiplicity of infection of 10,000 resulted in ca. 4.0-log CFU/ml reductions of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, and Salmonella Typhimurium. When raw turkey breast cutlets inoculated with Salmonella Heidelberg (∼10(3) CFU/g) were treated with phage preparation (10(7) PFU/g) and stored at 4°C, the phage treatment caused reductions of 0.8, 0.6, and 1.3 log CFU/g (P ≤ 0.05) of Salmonella Heidelberg on day 0, 1, and 7, respectively, compared with the counts in the control. However, no significant reduction of Salmonella Heidelberg (P > 0.05) was observed in ground turkey when turkey meat pieces inoculated with Salmonella Heidelberg were surface treated with phage preparation (10(7) PFU/g) before grinding. These findings indicate that the bacteriophage preparation was effective in reducing Salmonella on turkey breast cutlets as a surface treatment but did not cause any reduction of Salmonella Heidelberg in ground turkey. PMID:26197288

  17. Optimum conditions for the turkey lymphocyte transformation test.

    PubMed

    Barta, O; Barta, V; Domermuth, C H; Pierson, F W

    1992-01-01

    Optimum conditions for turkey lymphocyte transformation tests were determined. Thrice-washed turkey buffy-coat cells obtained after slow centrifugation (40 x g, 10 minutes) responded well to mitogenic stimulation. Turkey lymphocytes isolated on Ficoll-containing separation media largely lost their ability to respond to mitogens. Maximum responses were obtained with 2 x 10(7) lymphoid cells/ml. Responses to the mitogens were greatest when bovine fetal serum was used at a 2.5% concentration or pooled turkey serum and autologous plasma were used at a 1.25% concentration. Higher concentrations of turkey serum or plasma decreased the responses when sub-optimum doses of concanavalin-A (Con A) or phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) were used. Serum-free cultures gave higher stimulation indices than cultures with serum only when sub-optimum doses of Con A or PHA-P were used. Optimum mitogen concentrations varied with individual birds, timing of the culture, temperature of incubation, and serum concentration in the cultures. Responses were usually greatest with final concentrations of 5 micrograms Con A/ml, 10 micrograms PHA-P/ml, and 20 micrograms pokeweed mitogen (PWM)/ml and when the cultures were incubated in 96-well microplates at 40 C in humidified air with 5% CO2 for 40-42 hours with pulsing with 3H-thymidine during the final 16 hours of incubation. PMID:1627110

  18. Water Resources Management Issues in Turkey and Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emin Baris, Mehmet; Ayfer Karadag, Aybike

    The prevailing trends towards rising population, increasing urbanization, spread of more water intensive life styles as well as widespread use of water intensive agriculture sweeping around the world are going to make water resources even scarcer especially in countries like Turkey with scarce water resources and high development and population growth rate, economic and social aspects of water resources become even more important. Turkey, like many countries today, faces challenges in efficiently developing and managing its limited water resources while maintaining water quality and protecting the environment. To add to the challenge, Turkey will need to continue to develop its water resources in order for its economic and social development to keep pace with its rapidly growing and urbanizing population. This article deals with water resources management problems in Turkey and provides recommendations on water resources management issues at the country level. Its objectives are to summarize key water resources management issues to review institutional and legal framework and to provide suggestions for effective water resources management in Turkey.

  19. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The Turkish government is in the process of planning two nuclear reactors in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority has been given the task of developing plans for improved control of low-level wastes (LLW) in Turkey. Principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries, and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot water treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200-l concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey in 1990. The PRESTO-II (prediction of radiation effects from shallow trench operations) computer code has been applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this code takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides, and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion.

  20. Retention of riveted aluminum leg bands by wild turkeys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Vreeland, Wendy C.; Casalena, Mary Jo; Schiavone, Michael V.

    2016-01-01

    In order for mark–recapture models to provide unbiased estimates of population parameters, it is critical that uniquely identifying tags or marks are not lost. We double-banded male and female wild turkeys with aluminum rivet bands and estimated the probability that a bird would be recovered with both bands <1–225 wk since banding (mean = 51.2 wk, SD = 44.0). We found that 100% of females (n = 37) were recovered with both bands. For males, we recovered 6 of 188 turkeys missing a rivet band for a retention probability of 0.984 (95% CI = 0.96–0.99). If male turkeys are double-banded with rivet bands the probability of recovering a turkey without any marks is <0.001. We failed to detect a change in band retention over time or differences between adults and juveniles. Given the low cost and high retention rates of rivet aluminum bands, we believe they are an effective marking technique for wild turkeys and, for most studies, will minimize any concern about the assumption that marks are not lost.

  1. An evaluation of Turkey's recent migration flows and stocks.

    PubMed

    Gokdere, A

    1994-01-01

    Most immigrants from Turkey go to the Gulf countries and the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union. Only a very small percentage of migrants leave Turkey for Western destinations. Indeed, only 1734 of the 60,000 Turkish workers sent abroad in 1992 went to the EC. Turkish or foreign contracting firms working in Saudi Arabia accounted for 46,467 of these workers. 3,080,274 Turkish nationals were living abroad as of April 1993, 43.3% of whom are workers. This figure does not include illegal workers. Rates of return range 1-2% for Turks in Germany and Holland, while the average duration of stay is increasing. The departure of ethnic Turks from Bulgaria has slowed. Turkish authorities seem not to accept Turkey as a country of immigration, but the country is surrounded by others in which there are serious political tensions and conflict from which people wish to escape. Turkey has therefore been an attractive destination for people seeking refuge, although the inflow has been modest. The migration of Turkish nationals to the oil-exporting Arab countries and to the new republics should be encouraged by the government of Turkey. PMID:12289946

  2. Seasonal indoor radon concentration in Eskisehir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sogukpinar, H; Algin, E; Asici, C; Altinsoz, M; Cetinkaya, H

    2014-12-01

    Indoor radon concentrations are subject to seasonal variation, which directly depends on weather conditions. The seasonal indoor radon concentrations were measured and the annual effective dose was estimated for the city centre of Eskisehir, Turkey. In order to reflect annual averages measurements were performed over all seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) including also the entire year. Measurements were carried out using Kodak-Pathe LR 115 Type II passive alpha track detectors in 220 different houses. A total of 534 measurements including measurements of different seasons were taken between 2010 and 2011. The radon concentrations for winter ranged from 34 to 531 Bq m(-3), for spring ranged from 22 to 424 Bq m(-3), for summer ranged from 25 to 320 Bq m(-3), and for autumn ranged from 19 to 412 Bq m(-3). Yearly measurements ranged from 19 to 338 Bq m(-3). In this study the average annual effective total dose from radon and its decay products was calculated to be 3.398 mSv y(-1). PMID:24379436

  3. Continuing medical education in Turkey: Recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Hakan

    2002-01-01

    Background The Turkish Association of Medicine founded a Continuing Medical Education Accreditation Committee in 1993 to evaluate and accredit scientific meetings and publications. The aims of this project were to raise the standards of meetings and to introduce compulsory revalidation and re-certification for physicians in Turkey. Discussion Since the year 1994, 2348 applications to the Continuing Medical Education board have been made (mostly for scientific meetings), and 95% of these applications have been accepted. Physicians received 139.014 credits during this time. This number is increasing every year. Meeting organisers' demand for such a kind of evaluation is increasing, because participants increasingly request it. Summary Efforts for revalidation and re-certification of physicians have not been completely successful yet. In the near future the Co-ordination Council of Medical Speciality Societies is going to oblige member associations to establish speciality boards. This will be the first step to the conventional use of Continuing Medical Education credits in occupational evaluation. Time-limited re-certification of physicians is the principal goal of Turkish Medical Association. Efforts to implement this change in legislation are being made. PMID:12074763

  4. Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonenc, Sertac; Tanrivermis, Harun

    In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

  5. Astronomy Education and Teacher Training in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirbiyik, Halil

    In this talk, education in astronomy and space sciences in schools in Turkey as well as activities to create awareness in these subjects will be discussed. A search done among youngsters(ages from 15 to 24) for measuring the scientific literacy showed that most attractive subjects to the Turkish younsters are “internet” and “astronomy”. This result led authorities to take necessary measures to fill the gap especially in teaching material such as books. Another attempt along this is to increase astronomy subjects in the school curricula. Besides TUBITAK National Observatory, universities and Turkish Astronomical Society are giving every efort to create public awareness of space activities and space sciences. As for the teacher training in astronomy and space sciences, much has been done but no success has come yet. Astronomy subjects, in schools, are generally taught not by astronomers but some other substitutes from other branches, such as physics and mathematics. Thus the Ministry of Education prefers training teachers in service. Nevertheless it must be stated that astronomers are pushing forward to formally have the right to train astronomers to become teachers to be hired by the Ministry of Education in schools.

  6. Crustal attenuation characteristics in western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtulmuş, Tevfik Özgür; Akyol, Nihal

    2013-11-01

    We analysed 1764 records produced by 322 micro- and moderate-size local earthquakes in western Turkey to estimate crustal attenuation characteristics in the frequency range of 1.0 ≤ f ≤ 10 Hz. In the first step, we obtained non-parametric attenuation functions and they show that seismic recordings of transverse and radial S waves exhibit different characteristics at short and long hypocentral distances. Applying a two-step inversion, we parametrized Q( f ) and geometrical spreading exponent b( f ) for the entire distance range between 10 and 200 km and then we estimated separately Q and b values for short (10-70 km) and large (120-200 km) distance ranges. We could not observe significant frequency dependencies of b for short distance range, whereas the significant frequency dependence of b was observed for large distances. Low Q0 values (˜60) with strong frequency dependence of Q (˜1.4) for short distances suggest that scattering might be an important factor contributing to the attenuation of body waves in the region, which could be associated to a high degree of fracturing, fluid filled cracks, young volcanism and geothermal activity in the crust. Weak Q frequency dependence and higher Q0 values for large distances manifest more homogenous medium because of increasing pressure and enhanced healing of cracks with increasing temperature and depth. Q anisotropy was also observed for large hypocentral distance ranges.

  7. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  8. Risk factors and cardiovascular disease in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Onat, A

    2001-05-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors as well as morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease among Turkish adults are herein reviewed. Lipids and lipoproteins are in focus, but other relevant risk factors are also discussed. Turks have distinctively low levels of total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, associated with high levels of hepatic lipase and fasting triglycerides. In addition, physical inactivity is common in both genders; close to 60% of men have the smoking habit, while obesity is common among Turkish women leading to a high prevalence of hypertension and diabetes in them. These factors probably account for the unanticipated fact that Turkish adults have the pattern of causes of death similar to a developed population, although the process of industrialization is ongoing, the structure of its population is young and overall cholesterol levels are comparatively low. The age-standardized coronary heart disease death rate is estimated to rank among the highest in Europe. The leading independent predictors of coronary events and death [systolic blood pressure, total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, followed by diabetes and (central) obesity] are related to the metabolic syndrome, estimated to prevail in 3-4% of adults aged 30 or over, and to underlie one-eighth of cases of coronary disease. Since several adverse factors exhibit a rising trend, primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease must assume a much higher priority in various issues in Turkey than it currently does. PMID:11368991

  9. Lightning fatalities and injuries in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilev-Tanriover, Ş.; Kahraman, A.; Kadioğlu, M.; Schultz, D. M.

    2015-08-01

    A database of lightning-related fatalities and injuries in Turkey was constructed by collecting data from the Turkish State Meteorological Service, newspaper archives, European Severe Weather Database, and the internet. The database covers January 1930 to June 2014. In total, 742 lightning incidents causing human fatalities and injuries were found. Within these 742 incidents, there were 895 fatalities, 149 serious injuries, and 535 other injuries. Most of the incidents (89 %) occurred during April through September, with a peak in May and June (26 and 28 %) followed by July (14 %). Lightning-related fatalities and injuries were most frequent in the afternoon. Most of the incidents (86 %) occurred in rural areas, with only 14 % in the urban areas. Approximately, two thirds of the victims with known gender were male. Because of the unrepresentativeness of the historical data, determining an average mortality rate over a long period is not possible. Nevertheless, there were 31 fatalities (0.42 per million) in 2012, 26 fatalities (0.35 per million) in 2013, and 25 fatalities (0.34 per million) in 2014 (as of June). There were 36 injuries (0.49 per million) in each of 2012 and 2013, and 62 injuries (0.84 per million) in 2014 (as of June).

  10. Lightning fatalities and injuries in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilev-Tanriover, Ş.; Kahraman, A.; Kadioğlu, M.; Schultz, D. M.

    2015-03-01

    A database of lightning-related fatalities and injuries in Turkey was constructed by collecting data from the Turkish State Meteorological Service, newspaper archives, European Severe Weather Database, and the internet. The database covers January 1930 to June 2014. In total, 742 lightning incidents causing human fatalities and injuries were found. Within these 742 incidents, there were 895 fatalities, 149 serious injuries, and 535 other injuries. Most of the incidents (89%) occurred during April through September, with a peak in May and June (26 and 28 %) followed by July (14%). Lightning-related fatalities and injuries were most frequent in the afternoon. Most of the incidents (86%) occurred in the rural areas, with only 14% in the urban areas. Approximately, two thirds of the victims with known gender were male. Because of the unrepresentativeness of the historical data, determining an average mortality rate over a long period is not possible. Nevertheless, there were 31 fatalities (0.42 per million) in 2012, 26 fatalities (0.35 per million) in 2013, and 25 fatalities (0.34 per million) in 2014 (as of June). There were 36 injuries (0.49 per million) in each of 2012 and 2013, and 62 injuries (0.84 per million) in 2014 (as of June).

  11. The last total solar eclipse of the millennium in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguc, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

    1999-03-01

    The last total solar eclipse of the millennium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two continents and has been the cradle of so many past civilizations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificent event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of historical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible, Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute has arranged fieldwork on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey from south-east at 14:42 L.T.

  12. Lichens from Antalya, Cankiri, Konya and Nevsehir Provinces (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Yazici, K; Aslan, A; Etayo, J; Giordani, P

    2008-09-15

    A contribution to the lichen flora of Turkey is performed. A total of 171 lichen taxa (including 2 subspecies and 2 varieties) and 1 lichenicolous fungus are determined from 14 localities in Antalya, Cankiri, Konya and Nevşehir provinces of Turkey. Caloplaca scrobiculata H. Magn. is new to Turkey. Besides Caloplaca scrobiculata H. Magn. and Xanthoria sorediata (Vain.) Poelt were found for the second time in Asia. Carbonea vitellinaria (Nyl.) Hertel was found to grow on Candelariella vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg. while Muellerella pymaea (Körb.) D. Hawksw. var. athallina (Müll. Arg.) Triebel (lichenicolous fungus) on Tephromela atra (Huds.) Hafellner as parasitic. All lichen taxa found in Cankiri are new to this province (92 intraspecific taxa), while 39 new to Nevşehir, 8 new to Konya and 5 new to Antalya provinces. For every each taxon, the habitat pattern and distribution data are presented. PMID:19137828

  13. Geothermal Energy Potential of Turkey: Inferred from the Aeromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ates, Abdullah; Bilim, Funda; Buyuksarac, Aydin; Bektas, Ozcan

    2010-05-01

    Geothermal energy potential of Turkey is well known. There are lots of hot springs with over 30° C water temperatures. However, the significance of these geothermal energy potential of Turkey is not adequately understood. We believe that the main reason for this; is the lack of exploration methods and tools in a wide area as large as Turkey. We exploited a well known physical property of rocks to estimate the geothermal energy potential. Physically, substances lose their magnetization above a temperature known as the Curie that is the 580° C for magnetite. Properties of the Curie temperature have been exploited to observe the bottom depth of the magnetization. That is the depth where the heat reaches to 580° C. In another word, there is no magnetization below this depth. In normal crust this depth is about 22-24 km. Thus, investigation of the bottom depth of magnetization by using aeromagnetic anomalies can lead to information that if there are any anomalous regions well above the normal crust. The aeromagnetic anomalies of whole of Turkey were surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey. The survey was completed during late 1980's. Five kilometers grid data were available and used for regional exploration purposes. Exploration of the geothermal energy potential of Turkey was done from west to east in the similar way to search for shallow high temperature regions. These are from west to east; i.) Western Turkey: Two major shallow depth regions were determined at the west of Kutahya and the north-east of Denizli. The Curie Point Depths (CPDs) were calculated as about 7 km and about 9 km in Kutahya and Denizli, respectively. Also, high heat flow values and crustal thinning (about 32 km from gravity anomalies of western Turkey) were calculated for western Turkey. ii.) Central Turkey: A CPD depth of 8 km was calculated. This gives us a temperature gradient of 0.073° C/m. Geothermal energy potential was studied using water chemistry and isotopic

  14. Some characteristics of Hirsizdere sedimentary magnesite deposits, Denizli, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedef, Veysel; Russell, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 8% of Turkey is covered by ultramafic rocks which host economically important deposits of magnesite, chromite and olivine. Magnesite deposits are of three types: (1) Massive or crystalline, (2) Cryptocrystalline and (3) Sedimentary. Cryptocrystalline and sedimentary type magnesite deposits are widespread all over Turkey although the massive type deposits are seemingly absent. In this study, we examined the sedimentary magnesite deposits of Hirsizdere, located in the province of Denizli, SW Turkey. The deposits formed as five beds within an ultramafic environment. The thickness of the magnesite beds can reach up to 4 meters and may be traced up to 3 km from west to east. The deposit comprises half a million tons of magnesite with some associated dolomite.

  15. British American Tobacco’s failure in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. Results BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey’s tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. Conclusions BAT’s failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey’s unstable and corrupt investing climate. PMID:18845622

  16. Sociocultural determinants of infant and child mortality in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aksit, B; Aksit, B

    1989-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to review and integrate international and Turkish research on infant and child mortality. Recent research and multivariate analyses in African, Latin American and Asian countries have revealed that in many countries mother's education is a powerful predictor of child survival. The present review of research in Turkey has indicated that urban/rural and regional differentials in infant mortality have been clearly established as by-products of fertility, contraception, and health surveys covering nationally representative samples. However, there are only a few multivariate explanatory models of infant/child mortality in Turkey to isolate and measure the effects of mother's education in relation to other variables. Nevertheless, existing studies in Turkey seem to suggest that mother's and father's education might link socio-economic, psychocultural, and biomedical variables with each other at community, household, and individual levels, providing clue for the formulation of future research designs and policy decisions. PMID:2648604

  17. Incidence of Salmonella in fresh dressed turkeys raised under Salmonella-controlled and uncontrolled environments.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D F; Green, S S; Custer, C S; Johnston, R W

    1982-10-01

    The incidence of salmonella in turkeys from experimental salmonella-controlled and uncontrolled, or normal, flocks processed at three turkey slaughter plants were compared. The results indicate that processing salmonella-controlled turkeys in a plant that routinely kills normal birds may result in the contamination of the salmonella-controlled birds, probably due to salmonella in the plant environment. The salmonella-controlled turkeys studied tended to have a lower incidence of salmonella than normal birds. These observation indicate that salmonella control practices in turkey raising can result in a salmonella reduction in market birds even under existing commercial slaughter, evisceration, and cooling procedures. PMID:6217458

  18. Evaluation of an Intensive Intervention Programme to Protect Children Aged 1-5 Years from Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yücel, U.; Öcek, Z. A.; Çiçeklioglu, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in…

  19. Liver transplantation in Turkey: historical review and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Sami; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2015-07-01

    Since the first successful liver transplantation by Starzl et al. in 1967, liver transplantation has become the standard therapy for many liver diseases, mainly chronic liver disease. Most liver transplantations performed in Europe and North America utilize deceased donors while a considerable portion of organ requirements is supplied by living donors in Asian countries including Turkey. The actual history of solid organ transplantation in Turkey began with the pioneering work of Dr. Haberal in collaboration with Thomaz E. Starzl in 1974 in Colorado University at Denver. The first successful solid organ transplantation in Turkey was accomplished by Haberal in 1975 with a living donor renal transplantation. Subsequently, legislations no 2238 and 2594 dated 1979 and 1982, respectively, were passed, paving the way for cadaveric tissue/organ utilization and preservation in Turkey. The first deceased donor liver transplantation and the first living donor liver transplantation were performed in 1988 and 1990, respectively. There are currently 45 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. Of these, 25 are state universities, 8 are private (foundation) universities, 9 are private hospitals, and 3 are training and research hospitals belonging to the Ministry of Health. A total of 7152 liver transplantations were performed in Turkey between January 2002 and May 2014. Of these, 4848 (67.8%) used living donors and 2304 (32.2%) used deceased donors. These figures indicate that, despite widespread organ donation campaigns and media-sponsored propaganda, desired targets have not been met yet in providing deceased organ donation. Despite unsatisfactory levels attained in supplying deceased donors, both the number of annual liver transplantations and improvements in overall survival rates of organ transplanted patients continues to increase. Actually, the one-year patient survival rate after liver transplantation in 2013 was 80.5%. This rate is getting better with each passing year

  20. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in turkey flocks.

    PubMed

    Sting, R; Richter, A; Popp, C; Hafez, H M

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in turkeys in the southwest of Germany was investigated. For this purpose, 200 cloacal swab samples and 5 environmental dust samples (tested as a pooled sample) of each of the 20 flocks (10 female and 10 male flocks) included in this study were examined. The VRE could be isolated by means of a procedure combining bacterial cultivation in an enrichment broth and on a selective solid media. Enterococci were identified biochemically and subsequently tested on the presence of the vancomycin resistance genes vanA, vanB (B1/B2/B3), and vanC (C1/C2/C3) using real-time PCR assays. In 54 (27%) turkeys originating from 11 (55%) flocks and in 14 (70%) of the dust samples, exclusively vanA and vanC1 genes could be detected. Of the turkeys examined, 46 were colonized with VRE bearing the resistance gene vanC1 and 8 vanA, originating from 9 and 2 flocks, respectively. None of the birds carried vanB, vanC2, or vanC3 positive VRE. The results obtained from the birds are largely confirmed by the dust samples originating from 4 vanA and 10 vanC1 positive flocks. However, one flock housing animals colonized with vanC1 positive VRE could not be confirmed by the dust samples that revealed vanA bearing VRE. However, in one case vanA and in 3 cases vanC1 carrying VRE could be detected in dust samples of the turkey houses, but not in the turkeys of the associated flock. In 5 flocks the turkeys as well as the dust samples were free of VRE. PMID:23300299

  1. Rare earth element content of cryptocrystalline magnesites of Konya, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedef, Veysel; Russell, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We examined the rare earth element content of several cryptocrystalline magnesites as well as hydromagnesite, host rock serpentinites, lake water and hot spring water from Turkey. Southwestern Turkey hosts cryptocrystalline magnesites, sedimentary magnesites with presently forming, biologically mediated hydromagnesites and travertines. Our results show the REE content of the minerals, rocks and waters are well below detection limits. One hydromagnesite sample from Lake Salda has slightly high La (2.38ppb), Ce (3.91 ppb) and Nd (1.68 ppb) when compared to other samples, but these are also still below detection limits of the method we followed.

  2. Influence of Holy Month Ramadan on Alcohol Consumption in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çelen, Aydın

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes a balanced panel data set covering 50 monthly observations regarding the brewery products to examine the impact of holy month Ramadan on alcohol consumption in Turkey. In addition to the Ramadan, temperature, prices of the products and disposable income are other demand factors which are taken into account in this study. As expected, the Ramadan has been found to be associated with lower alcohol usage. As price of alcoholic drinks increases, the alcohol consumption decreases significantly. In addition, alcohol consumption rises with the enhancements in the disposable income. However, surprisingly, the temperature has not any significant effect on alcohol consumption in Turkey. PMID:24810139

  3. A case of biliary Fascioliasis by Fasciola gigantica in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Goral, Vedat; Senturk, Senem; Mete, Omer; Cicek, Mutallib; Ebik, Berat; Kaya, Beşir

    2011-03-01

    A case of Fasciola gigantica-induced biliary obstruction and cholestasis is reported in Turkey. The patient was a 37- year-old woman, and suffered from icterus, ascites, and pain in her right upper abdominal region. A total of 7 living adult flukes were recovered during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). A single dose of triclabendazole was administered to treat possible remaining worms. She was living in a village of southeast of Anatolia region and had sheeps and cows. She had the history of eating lettuce, mallow, dill, and parsley without washing. This is the first case of fascioliasis which was treated via endoscopic biliary extraction during ERCP in Turkey. PMID:21461271

  4. Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: Implications for Pre-Hispanic Animal Trade and the Timing of Turkey Domestication

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Emery, Kitty F.; Steadman, David W.; Speller, Camilla; Matheny, Ray; Yang, Dongya

    2012-01-01

    Late Preclassic (300 BC–AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic. PMID:22905156

  5. Prevalence of bruxism awareness in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nekora-Azak, Aysen; Yengin, Esengun; Evlioglu, Gulumser; Ceyhan, Arzu; Ocak, Ozlem; Issever, Halim

    2010-04-01

    The reported prevalence of symptoms related to bruxism varies in the general population because of different investigative methodologies, operational definitions, clinical criteria, and samples of population. Awareness of bruxism in the general population is 15% to 23%, however, this rate increases to 50% to 90% in clinical studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported symptoms associated with bruxism in Istanbul, Turkey and to analyze the correlation between bruxism and factors such as age, gender, marital status, and occupation. Seven-hundred-ninety-five (795) adult subjects who resided in the city of Istanbul were interviewed by telephone about their age, gender, marital status, occupation, and description of the prevalence of bruxism awareness. The overall prevalence of clenching teeth was 45.7% and that of grinding teeth was 21.6%. Women responded positively to the questions more often than men. The data showed significant differences between males and females, regarding clenching teeth OR: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.05-1.87), difficulty opening OR: 2.64 (95% CI: 1.63-4.26), headache on awakening OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.58-3.27) joint sounds OR: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.24-2.38), sore on awakening OR: 2.97 (95% CI: 1.91-4.61), influence in daily activity (OR: 2.26 CI: 1.38-3.67). Tooth wear in the married group was higher than the single group. Age distribution showed significant differences related to grinding teeth, tooth wear and joint sounds. There were statistically significant differences between bruxism and job categories. As a conclusion, this study suggest an association between bruxism and stressful events such as marital status and job problems. PMID:20491234

  6. Environmental radioactivity assessment for Bayburt, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kucukomeroglu, B; Kurnaz, A; Damla, N; Cevik, U; Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskin, H

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the results of environmental radioactivity measurements for Bayburt Province in the Eastern Black Sea area of Turkey. Using gamma-ray spectrometry, activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and a fission product (137)Cs were investigated in soil samples. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in various building materials such as sand, cement and marble and in drinking waters were determined. The activity concentrations vary from 16 to 54 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 10 to 21 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and from 113 to 542 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K in building materials. The mean specific activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in drinking waters were 93, 30 and 504 mBq l(-1), respectively. The concentrations of gross alpha and beta radioactivity in drinking water samples collected from four different sampling stations have been determined. The results show that the gross alpha and beta activities are lower than the screening levels given by the World Health Organization (WHO), which are a maximum contaminant level of 0.5 Bq l(-1) and 1.0 Bq l(-1) gross alpha and beta radioactivity, respectively, in drinking water. Indoor radon measurements were made in 44 dwellings in Bayburt by using Cr-39 detectors. Radon concentrations in dwellings in Bayburt varied from 17 to 125 Bq m(-3) and the average value was 56 Bq m(-3). The results obtained in this study indicate that the region has a background radiation level that is within the typical natural range and shows no significant departures from other parts of the country. PMID:19690358

  7. National Soil Information System in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emrah Erdogan, Hakki; Sahin, Mehmet; Sahin, Yuksel

    2013-04-01

    Land consolidation (LC) represents complexity if management, legal, economic and technical procedures realized in order to adjust the land structure according to actual human preferences and needs. It includes changes in ownership rights to land and other real estate property, exchange of parcels among owners, changes in parcel borders, parcel size and shape, joining and dividing of parcels, changes in land use, construction works as roads, bridges, water changes etc.. Since the subject of LC is agricultural lands, the quality of consolidation depends on the quality of soil data. General Directorate of Agrarian Reform (GDAR) is the responsible institution on land consolidation whole of Turkey. Under GDAR, National Soil Information System (NSIS) has been build up with base soil data in relevant scale (1:5000). NSIS contain detailed information on soil chemical and physical properties, current land use, parent material, land capability class, Storie Index Values. SI were used on land consolidation, land use planning and farm development services. LCC was used for land distribution, rental land; define of village settlement, consolidation, expropriation, reconstruction, reclamation, non-agricultural usage. LCC were also specified to subclasses in four different limited factors as i) flow and erosion risk ii) requirement of drainage and soil moisture iii) Limits of soil tillage and root (shallow soils, low water retention capacity, stony, salty .etc) iv) climatic limits. In this study, digital soil survey and mapping project located in Yumurtalik, Adana is presented as an example of NSIS data structure. The project cover an area of 45709 ha that include crop lands as an area of 28528 ha and other land use (urban, roads..etc) as an area of 17181 ha. Soil profiles were described in 45 different points and totally 1279 soil samples were collected in field study and the check bore hole were made in 3170 points.

  8. PREVALENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER AND SALMONELLA IN THE TURKEY BROODER HOUSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously surveyed market weight turkeys for the effect of transport to and holding at the abattoir for the prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella. Whereas Campylobacter is frequently found in the ceca of adult birds (~60%), the prevalence of Salmonella varies considerably from farm to...

  9. Leadership and Strategic Choices: Female Professors in Australia and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkanli, Ozlem; White, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This study explores leadership styles and gender in higher education (HE) by examining representation of female professors in Australian and Turkish universities and identifying barriers to achieving seniority. The paper explores factors, including leadership styles, which explain the higher representation of female professors in Turkey, despite…

  10. Molecular characterization of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 247 true morels (Morchella spp.) was made from 10 different provinces of Turkey during the 2007-2008 growing season. This collection was analyzed for species diversity using phylogenetic analyses of partial Ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase I (RPB1) and nuclear ribosomal large subuni...

  11. Perceptions and Attitudes of Mothers about Child Neglect in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Selda; Tasar, Aysin; Ozkan, Secil; Yeltekin, Sevinc; Cakir, Bahar Cuhac; Akbaba, Sevil; Sahin, Figen; Camurdan, Aysu Duyan; Beyazova, Ufuk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and attitudes about child neglect of a group of mothers, in Ankara, Turkey, and to determine the factors affecting perception and attitudes of these mothers about child neglect. A questionnaire consisting of 15 scenarios about perception of child neglect and 12 behavioral descriptions about…

  12. Examination and Evaluation of Websites of Science Centres in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Bozdogan, Kerem

    2016-01-01

    Science centres which have a considerable importance and functions in developed countries are intended to be popularized in Turkey. At this point considering the fact that the first contact between science centres and visitors is usually provided with websites, it is quite important that the content of these websites should be designed and…

  13. Novel Picornavirus in Turkey Poults with Hepatitis, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Honkavuori, Kirsi S.; Shivaprasad, H. L.; Street, Craig; Hirschberg, David L.; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    To identify a candidate etiologic agent for turkey viral hepatitis, we analyzed samples from diseased turkey poults from 8 commercial flocks in California, USA, that were collected during 2008–2010. High-throughput pyrosequencing of RNA from livers of poults with turkey viral hepatitis (TVH) revealed picornavirus sequences. Subsequent cloning of the ≈9-kb genome showed an organization similar to that of picornaviruses with conservation of motifs within the P1, P2, and P3 genome regions, but also unique features, including a 1.2-kb sequence of unknown function at the junction of P1 and P2 regions. Real-time PCR confirmed viral RNA in liver, bile, intestine, serum, and cloacal swab specimens from diseased poults. Analysis of liver by in situ hybridization with viral probes and immunohistochemical testing of serum demonstrated viral nucleic acid and protein in livers of diseased poults. Molecular, anatomic, and immunologic evidence suggests that TVH is caused by a novel picornavirus, tentatively named turkey hepatitis virus. PMID:21392440

  14. Debates about the Future of Media Literacy in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakmak, Ebubekir; Tuzel, Sait

    2015-01-01

    Media literacy has been widely debated in Turkey since the early 2000s and has been in the curriculum of the secondary schools as an optional subject for nearly a decade. During this time period, about four million students have received media literacy education. The multidisciplinary structure of media literacy has contributed to the interest of…

  15. Values Education Research Trends in Turkey: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beldag, Adem

    2016-01-01

    The present study makes a situation analysis of graduate theses on values education published between 1999 and 2015 in Turkey. It has a qualitative research design, wherein data is collected through document analysis. The form developed for this purpose is comprised of nine sections, each of which focuses on a different aspect: universities,…

  16. An Investigation of Violence against Teachers in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Soner Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to investigate violence against teachers. A total of 902 teachers working at the elementary schools and at secondary schools located in the center of Kirikkale, Turkey were enrolled in the study. Data were gathered by an instrument designed by the researcher and aiming to measure violence against teachers. Analyses included…

  17. How Geography Teachers Deal with the Curriculum Changes in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The changes in Turkish geography curriculum in 2005 have placed geography teachers to adopt completely different approaches from what they were used to throughout their careers. This study attempts to explore to what extent teachers of geography have adopted the new curriculum and how they are dealing with the recent curricular changes in Turkey.…

  18. Routes of transmission of salmonella and campylobacter in breeder turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are frequent colonizers of the intestinal tracts of poultry and have often been associated with human foodborne illness. The entry, transmission and prevalence of both pathogens have been extensively studied in chickens but little information is available for turkeys. ...

  19. Neoliberal Ideology in Primary School Social Studies Textbooks in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkaymak, Güliz

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which fourth and fifth grade primary school Social Studies textbooks published by the Ministry of National Education in Turkey between 1980 and 2009 represent neoliberal ideology. In an examination of changes following the restructuring of Turkish primary school education in 2004, this analysis compares pre- and…

  20. Some Critical Reflections on Lifelong Learning Policy in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayilan, Fevziye

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the Lifelong Learning Strategy document which was on the agenda during the European Union harmonization process of Turkey. The public policies in the document, regarding non-formal and adult education, will be analyzed. Lifelong Learning strategy became a current issue in the last stage of neoliberal transformation of…

  1. Foreign Language Anxiety in Turkey: The Role of Multilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Khawaja, Anastasia J.

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger study on individual differences and language learning in Turkey, this study explores the relationship between foreign language anxiety and two operationalisations of multilingualism: any experience with a third language and Perceived Positive Language Interaction; it also illuminates connections among the aforementioned…

  2. Measurement and Application of Intellectual Capital in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozbura, F. Tunc

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the elements of intellectual capital of firms in Turkey and to empirically investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and market value of firms in Istanbul Stock Exchange. To create a suitable intellectual capital measurement model for this study, a wide literature research was made. In almost…

  3. Evaluation of Twitter Users Writings about Teachers in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    As a social sharing network whose number of users worldwide continues to rapidly increase, Twitter has become an active network for individuals to share their thoughts and feelings at any given time. The purpose of this work, then, is to evaluate Twitter users of Turkey in terms of how they write about their teachers on Twitter. In order to…

  4. Rathayibacter iranicus isolated from asymptomatic wheat seeds in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asymptomatic wheat seeds collected from 799 farmers in six central provinces of Turkey were checked for the presence of Rathayibacter species by plating 100 µl of the diluted and undiluted seed wash suspension onto modified 523 agar. Of the 25 isolated strains presumptively identified as Rathayibac...

  5. UTILIZATION OF PCR TO DETECT SALMONELLA ON TURKEY CARCASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk which is presented by food-borne pathogens to the consumer demonstrates the need to utilize rapid methods for the detection of these microbes. This study compared conventional microbiology with the application of PCR assays to detect Salmonella on turkey carcasses at a processing plant in ...

  6. Educational Activities in Turkey (1974/1975-1975/1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of National Education, Ankara (Turkey).

    Education in Turkey emphasizes civic and moral responsibility in accordance with Attaturk's reforms and Turkish nationalism. It is available to all citizens regardless of race, sex, religion or economic status and promotes life-long learning through mass media methods. The educational system includes primary, secondary (middle and lycee), and…

  7. Comparing and Contrasting Primary School Playgrounds in Turkey and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chancellor, Barbara; Cevher-Kalburan, Nilgün

    2014-01-01

    This collaborative study aims to investigate aspects of school playgrounds in the city of Denizli, Turkey and in the state of Victoria, Australia. Using a survey designed for a recent study in Victoria, data was collected from a large number of schools in both settings and analysed in light of international research findings. The most significant…

  8. THE PREVALENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER AND SALMONELLA THROUGHOUT TURKEY BROODER PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously surveyed market weight turkeys for the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella and have reported that whereas the prevalence of Campylobacter is >60% at slaughter the Salmonella prevalence varies from 0 to 97%. The purpose of this study was to determine the temporal point of ent...

  9. Draft Genomes for Eight Burkholderia mallei Isolates from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Daligault, H. E.; Davenport, K. W.; Minogue, T. D.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Broomall, S. M.; Bruce, D. C.; Coyne, S. R.; Frey, K. G.; Gibbons, H. S.; Jaissle, J.; Koroleva, G. I.; Ladner, J. T.; Lo, C.-C.; Munk, C.; Wolcott, M. J.; Palacios, G. F.; Redden, C. L.; Rosenzweig, C. N.; Scholz, M. B.; Chain, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders, is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative intracellular pathogen. Although glanders has been eradicated from many parts of the world, the threat of B. mallei being used as a weapon is very real. Here we present draft genome assemblies of 8 Burkholderia mallei strains that were isolated in Turkey. PMID:26744368

  10. Technical Efficiencies of Faculties of Economics in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokgezen, Murat

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study of technical efficiencies of higher education institutions and the first study evaluating performance at faculty level in Turkey. The study also compares technical efficiencies of private and public institutions. Estimation shows low overall efficiency with high variations across the faculties of economics. The results also…

  11. Factors Affecting Teachers' Participation in Professional Development Activities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Adem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between factors (internal [personal] and external [environmental]) and teachers' participation in professional development (PD) programs in Turkey. The researcher employed a survey design, using a multiple-stage sampling method, selecting 30 out of 66 elementary schools in the Center…

  12. Trends in Educational Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goktas, Yuksel; Hasancebi, Funda; Varisoglu, Behice; Akcay, Ahmet; Bayrak, Naci; Baran, Mukadder; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on educational research papers published from 2005-2009 in journals listed in SSCI and the ULAKBIM database in Turkey. Study types, research methods, investigated specific topics, used data collection tools, employed data analysis methods, and utilized types of samples and sampling methods were analyzed. A total of 2115 papers…

  13. Career Development of Upper Primary School Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazli, Serap

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory-descriptive study was to determine the career development of upper primary school students in Turkey. The Revised Career Awareness Survey (RCAS) was completed by 644 Turkish upper primary school students. Results indicated that the students were able to associate their own personal characteristics with particular…

  14. Sexism in School Textbooks Prepared under Education Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esen, Yasemin

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the new textbooks prepared under the framework of the "curriculum reform" realized in Turkey , as part of the EU harmonization process, in terms of gender representation. For this purpose, illustrations in the new ABC, Life Studies and Social Studies textbooks prepared under the new program were analyzed…

  15. An Examination of Centralized Educational Planning Practices in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisman, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    Examines and analyzes the educational planning practices in Turkey at the national level after the planned development period (1963-2002). The principles, policies, and goals related to education in development plans and how far they were put into practice are summarized in eight sections. (Contains 2 tables and 24 references.) (MLF)

  16. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Turkey: Probability versus Convenience Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A Turkish translation of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was used to compare probability versus convenience sampling to measure public attitudes toward stuttering. Method: A convenience sample of adults in Eskisehir, Turkey was compared with two replicates of a school-based, probability cluster…

  17. Faculty Perception on International Students in Turkey: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study is to examine faculty perceptions on international students with respect to benefits and challenges of having them in a liberal arts university located in Istanbul, Turkey. The research data were collected through evaluation of pertinent documents of the school and interviews with sixteen faculty members…

  18. Sexual Abuse among Female High School Students in Istanbul, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Erginoz, Ethem; Ercan, Oya; Albayrak-Kaymak, Deniz; Uysal, Omer; Ilter, Ozdemir

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of sexual abuse in female adolescents in Istanbul, Turkey from data collected as part of a school-based population study on health and health behaviors. Method: A stratified cluster sampling procedure was used for this cross-sectional study. The study sample included 1,955…

  19. Teaching in Rural Turkey: Pre-Service Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizilaslan, Irem

    2012-01-01

    Despite preliminary findings that preparing teachers for rural positions is of great importance in Turkey's conditions, little has been reported regarding the measures that need to be addressed in order to effectively prepare teachers for remote areas. In response to this gap, the present study aimed to provide some preliminary views about the…

  20. The Teaching of Modern Languages to Migrant Workers. (Turkey), 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    The number of migrant workers Turkey has sent to foreign countries has now reached approximately 1 million. Educational level of these workers is: 67 percent - primary school education; 24 percent - secondary school education; and 9 percent - high school education. However, 98 percent of these workers do not know the language of the country to…

  1. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships of chicken and turkey parvoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports indicate that the newly discovered chicken parvoviruses (ChPV) and turkey parvoviruses (TuPV) are very similar to each other, yet they represent different species within a new genus of Parvoviridae. Currently, strain classification is based on the phylogenetic analysis of a 561 bas...

  2. Serological examination of sera from hyperimmunized chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection of avian influenza (AI) H5 and H7 antibody in commercial poultry is a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) notifiable event and impacts trade. Chickens and turkeys which had been vaccinated with an oil-emulsion H1N1/H3N2 influenza autogenous vaccine were inoculated with inactivated ...

  3. Change Readiness among Teaching Staff at Anadolu University, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbulut, Yavuz; Kuzu, Abdullah; Latchem, Colin; Odabasi, Ferhan

    2007-01-01

    Turkey's Anadolu University is one of the world's largest mega-universities. It is engaged in strategic planning in response to changes in the expectations of the Turkish Higher Education Council and the community at large. In re-examining its vision and strategic directions, Anadolu University needs to be informed on the knowledge, skills, and…

  4. Leadership in Doctoral Dissertations of Educational Sciences in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yardibi, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine tendencies in educational sciences doctoral dissertations according to divisions, research methods and desings, data collection tools, data analysis techniques, and leadership levels in Turkey. This content analysis study has been desinged with qualitative research methods. This research has been limited by…

  5. Functional characterization of the turkey macrophage migration inhibitory factor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a soluble protein that inhibits the random migration of macrophages and plays a pivotal immunoregulatory function in innate and adaptive immunity. The aim of this study was to clone the turkey MIF (TkMIF) gene, express the active protein, and characte...

  6. Gender Inequality in Schooling: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Bruce H.; Aytac, Isik A.

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on recent research on education in developing countries, this article examines gender inequality in schooling in Turkey. Using a nationally representative sample of Turkish youths, it assesses the effects of macrostructure, family resources, and cultural attitudes and practices on primary and postprimary school attainment. The results show…

  7. Parental Trust and Parent-School Relationships in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beycioglu, Kadir; Ozer, Niyazi; Sahin, Semiha

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the degree and levels of parent trust and involvement in lower secondary and high schools in Turkey. Survey data were obtained from 429 participants working for state schools during the 2012-2013 education years. We used zero-order correlation coefficient, independent samples t test, and, when significant differences were…

  8. Accreditation of Open and Distance Learning: A Framework for Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocdar, Serpil; Aydin, Cengiz Hakan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a framework for the accreditation of higher open and distance learning (ODL) programs in Turkey. The study was designed as a sequential monomethod multistrand mixed model including two strands which were both qualitative (QUAL[arrow right]QUAL). In the first strand, both quantitative and qualitative data…

  9. Does Private Tutoring Increase Students' Academic Performance? Evidence from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berberoglu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students'…

  10. Academic Procrastination and Motivation of Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Kuzucu, Elcin

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a study of academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 508 adolescents from a general secondary school in central Turkey. Girls reported higher levels of self-efficacy for self-regulation and predicted higher Turkish grades than boys, but there was no difference in levels of procrastination. Academic…

  11. Student-Centred Pedagogy in Turkey: Conceptualisations, Interpretations and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altinyelken, Hulya Kosar

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore recent curricular reforms to advocate student-centred pedagogy (SCP) in primary schools in Turkey. By using a case study approach, the article examines teacher views on SCP, classroom practices and perceived challenges in implementation process. The study highlights some of the unintended consequences of…

  12. Student Participation in Higher Education Institutions in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuruuzum, Ayse; Asilkan, Ozcan; Cizel, Rabia Bato

    2005-01-01

    After the 2001 meeting of the European Ministers of Education held in Prague, higher education institutions in Turkey took serious actions in order to implement the goals of the Bologna Declaration (1999). Arrangements made for the democratization of universities and student participation in the decision-making process formed one of the…

  13. COMPARISON OF THE CECAL MICROBIOTA OF DOMESTIC AND WILD TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent to which production methods alter intestinal microbial communities of livestock is currently unknown. As the intestinal microbiota may affect animal health, nutrition and food safety, a baseline comparison of the cecal communities of domestic and wild turkeys was performed. Oligonucleot...

  14. The Origins of Revolutionary Critical Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inal, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the origins of Revolutionary Critical Education in Turkey from the late Ottoman Period to the present, focusing mostly on post-2000 developments in society at large-scale and in education in particular. The chapter argues that Revolutionary Critical Education is a product of the post-1960 military intervention period where…

  15. Oil source rocks in the Adiyaman area, southeast Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soylu, Cengiz

    In the Adiyaman area, southeast Turkey, two carbonate source rock units, the Karababa-A Member and the Karabogaz Formation, are identified. The maturity levels of the source rock units increase towards the north and the west. Both the Karababa-A Member and the Karabogaz Formation are good to excellent oil-source rocks with widespread "kitchen areas".

  16. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and coli strains isolated in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    associated with significant foodborne disease. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the two most prevalent species contributing to human diarrheal disease. The objective of this study was to determine the routes of transmission for Campylobacter throughout turkey production and processing. A floc...

  17. Islamic Scientific Creationism: A New Challenge in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayin, Umit; Kence, Aykut

    1999-01-01

    Compares "being Muslim" in Turkey with other Islamic countries and describes the regime changes of the Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic. Explains evolution in Islamic understanding and discusses creationism's effects and evolution's place in the high school biology curriculum. Defines the Science Research Foundation's (BAV) and Harun Yahya's…

  18. History of neurosurgery and neurosurgical applications in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Sait; Erbengi, Aykut

    2005-01-01

    Although there is evidence of applications of cranial surgery in ancient times, it is commonly accepted that modern surgery started in the late 19th century. The advancements in anesthesiology and aseptic techniques were the main factors contributing to this process. Surgery of the nervous system, however, has a relatively shorter history than surgery of other systems. The process of surgical development in Turkey did not differ from most Western countries. Modern surgery started in 1890 in Turkey. In the beginning, neurosurgical applications were performed by general surgeons. Most of these applications included procedures for craniocerebral traumas and infections and procedures for pain relief. The first neurosurgeon, Dr. Tuner, started working in 1923, operating in some spinal cord and brain tumor and trigeminal neuralgia cases. Other neurosurgeons, Dr. Dilek, Dr. Baydur, and Dr. Kankat, were trained in France and started to work in the mid 1930s. The first neurosurgery department was established in Istanbul in 1923, and the first neurosurgery training program started in the late 1940s. Today, there are more than 50 neurosurgery training centers and more than 500 neurosurgeons in Turkey. There is an increasing number of publications by Turkish neurosurgeons, contributing to the total body of literature in neurosurgery. The current state of neurosurgery in Turkey is parallel to that of the advanced Western countries. PMID:16256833

  19. Professional Status of Elementary Teaching in Turkey: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ali E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether elementary teaching can be considered to be a profession in Turkey in comparison to selected characteristics that previous scholars have found to be common to all professions. Evidence was drawn primarily from a Delphi study conducted in three rounds. Educators of various kinds served as Delphi participants. The…

  20. The Notion of Charter Schools and Its Feasibility in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem; Özaskin, Aysegül

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of Charter School system in Turkey, which was opened firstly in State of Minnesota of United States and was expanded to approximately 40 states in America today and also, in practice in some countries such as Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Sweden and Norway. Charter Schools are…

  1. Being a Teacher in the East of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soydan, Tarik

    2015-01-01

    In today's Turkey, the problems faced in the provincial regions have several causes and dimensions. At first glance we can count a set of them: insufficiency of the resources allocated to education and the inability to use the education budget effectively with proper planning; frequent central restructuring of the education system without taking…

  2. Statistical Trends and Developments within Inclusive Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakiroglu, Orhan; Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    The education of students with special needs in an inclusive environment is becoming more widespread throughout the world. Similarly, in Turkey, the inclusion of students with disabilities has also improved. However, current statistical trends and developments within inclusive education are not well known. The purpose of this study is to provide a…

  3. Democratising Turkey through Student-Centred Pedagogy: Opportunities and Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altinyelken, Hülya Kosar

    2015-01-01

    Global reform talk on pedagogy has been converging around student-centred pedagogy (SCP) in recent decades. One of the significant appeals of this pedagogical model is its democratisation potentials. This article seeks to empirically study SCP's role in democratising learning and promoting social democratisation by taking the case of Turkey, a…

  4. Draft Genomes for Eight Burkholderia mallei Isolates from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Daligault, H E; Johnson, S L; Davenport, K W; Minogue, T D; Bishop-Lilly, K A; Broomall, S M; Bruce, D C; Coyne, S R; Frey, K G; Gibbons, H S; Jaissle, J; Koroleva, G I; Ladner, J T; Lo, C-C; Munk, C; Wolcott, M J; Palacios, G F; Redden, C L; Rosenzweig, C N; Scholz, M B; Chain, P S

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders, is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative intracellular pathogen. Although glanders has been eradicated from many parts of the world, the threat of B. mallei being used as a weapon is very real. Here we present draft genome assemblies of 8 Burkholderia mallei strains that were isolated in Turkey. PMID:26744368

  5. The Gender-Related Role of Teaching Profession in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uygun, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Teaching is a professional job that requires expertise. The characteristics of the professionals can affect the quality of the profession. One of these characteristics is gender. In this study, the gender-related role of teaching profession in Turkey is examined. The analysis in a historical perspective of gender distributions of students who have…

  6. Principals' Opinions of Organisational Justice in Elementary Schools in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Inayet; Karaman-Kepenekci, Yasemin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose--This study aims to present the opinions of public elementary school principals in Turkey about the current organisational justice practices among teachers from the distributive, procedural, interactional, and rectificatory dimensions. Design/methodology/approach--The opinions of 11 public elementary school principals in Ankara about…

  7. Farewell to the World: Suicide Notes from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirel, Birol; Akar, Taner; Sayin, Aslihan; Candansayar, Selcuk; Leenaars, Antoon A.

    2008-01-01

    There has been limited study of suicide in Islamic countries. This paper marks the first study of suicide notes in Turkey, an Islamic country. Using a classification scheme, 49 suicide notes (a rate of 34.5%) were studied. The results show that note writers do not differ greatly from other suicides. Further analysis of younger (less than 40) and…

  8. TRANSCRIPT PROFILING IN TURKEY SPERM STORAGE TUBULES USING SAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sperm storage tubules (SST) are unique epithelial structures within the avian oviduct that provide for prolonged storage of fertile sperm following natural mating or artificial insemination (AI). In turkeys, spermatozoa can remain fertile after being stored in the SST for upwards of 70 days. We...

  9. Consanguineous marriages in the province of Antalya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alper, O M; Erengin, H; Manguoğlu, A E; Bilgen, T; Cetin, Z; Dedeoğlu, N; Lüleci, G

    2004-01-01

    To assess the trends in the frequency and the medical effects of consanguinity in the south coast of Turkish population using local and national data in the last 11 years. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Manavgat province, which is a major tourism center on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The authors studied consanguineous marriages in rural and urban population in the Mediterranean coast, Manavgat province, Turkey, via a 1500 random survey sample of married couples. There has been a significant increase in the incidence of consanguineous marriages in rural areas (40.7%) since 1989 in the southern population of Turkey. The results showed that the most frequent type of marriage was between the first cousins. It is found that there is no statistically significant difference between the consanguineous and non-consanguineous marriages in the different age groups. The results were discussed on the basis of educational status, reasons for having consanguineous marriages and the general medical effects as well as with the relation of congenital malformations. The custom of consanguineous unions in the Mediterranean population of Turkey is still extremely high, and preventive measures should be done to decrease its frequency and associated complications. PMID:15183745

  10. Draft Genomes for Eight Burkholderia mallei Isolates from Turkey

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Daligault, H. E.; Johnson, Shannon L.; Davenport, K. W.; Minogue, T. D.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Broomall, S. M.; Bruce, D. C.; Coyne, S. R.; Frey, K. G.; Gibbons, H. S.; et al

    2016-01-07

    Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders, is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative intracellular pathogen. Though glanders have been eradicated from many parts of the world, the threat ofB. malleibeing used as a weapon is very real. We, then, present draft genome assemblies of 8Burkholderia malleistrains that were isolated in Turkey.

  11. Uppermost mantle P wave velocities beneath Turkey and Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Chen, W.; Molnar, P.

    1980-01-01

    The uppermost mantle P wave velocities beneath Turkey and Iran were estimated by applying the conventional travel time-distance relation method to arrival times of well located earthquakes recorded at a few stations. The average uppermost mantle P wave velocity under Turkey is estimated from two stations of the World Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN), Istanbul and Tabriz. The data are consistent with a crust of uniform, but poorly determined, thickness and an uppermost mantle P wave velocity of 7.73 +- 0.08 km/s. This velocity is very similar to that for the Aegean Sea and suggests that its structure could be closely related to that beneath Turkey. For Iran, the results calculated from travel times to three WWSSN stations, Meshed, Shiraz, and Tabriz, can be explained by a crust dipping toward the south-southeast at about 1/sup 0/ with an uppermost mantle P wave velocity of 8.0 +- 0.1 km/s. If the crustal thickness were 34 km in the north it would reach about 49 km in the south. Based on these uppermost mantle velocities, the temperature at Moho beneath Turkey is probably close to the melting temperature of peridotite but that beneath Iran is probably lower.

  12. Controlling hypertension in Turkey: not a hopeless dream.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Sule; Erdem, Yunus; Akpolat, Tekin; Derici, Ulver; Sindel, Sukru; Karatan, Oktay; Turgan, Cetin; Hasanoglu, Enver; Caglar, Sali; Erturk, Sehsuvar

    2013-12-01

    Despite major progress in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment during the recent decades, hypertension remains the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality throughout the world. The prevalence of hypertension in developing countries continues to rise reaching alarming rates. Several risk factors of hypertension appear to be more common in developing countries than in developed countries. In Turkey, hypertension is a prevalent condition affecting approximately 22.5 million individuals. Hypertension control (defined as blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg) rate increased from 8.1% in 2003 (first Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (PatenT) study) to 28.7% in 2012 (PatenT 2 study). Meanwhile, rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remained high in Turkey. Controlling risk factors such as hypertension, tobacco use, unhealthy diet, obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and physical inactivity can prevent most of the deaths from cardiovascular disease. It is also crucial for the public health system to have a hypertension education program aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease and prevention and control of hypertension promoting a healthy lifestyle in Turkey. Such a program could positively affect other lifestyle-related diseases as well. Importantly, cooperation among the components of the health system could contribute to improved outcomes in hypertensive populations. PMID:25019013

  13. A Creative Drama Study in Turkey about Mevlana Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavuzer, Yasemin; Dikici, Ayhan; Gundogdu, Rezzan

    2008-01-01

    In Turkey, creative drama has been incorporated into many fields; in particular, it has been used in training teachers. In learning how to use drama to teach different subjects, trainee teachers have always participated willingly in drama studies. Part of the reason for this is that Turkish people are familiar with drama activities through…

  14. Modernity, Traditionality, and Junior High School Attainment in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aytac, Isik A.; Rankin, Bruce H.

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on the impact of modernity and traditionality on junior high school attainment of children in Turkey. Using the nationwide Turkish Family Structure Survey, the primary objectives are to determine whether junior high school attainment varies by region, city size, and by family background. Based on a sample of 2025 16 year-old…

  15. Primary School Students of 1980s' Turkey Remembering Their Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Primary school students of 1980s' Turkey remember their teachers in various aspects. Uncovering their reminiscences lets researchers see what factors become decisive in recontructing primary school teachers in the memories of their students. The priority of this paper is to discover the reasons why the 1980s primary school students remember their…

  16. Instructional Variables of Inclusive Elementary Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sucuoglu, Nimet Bulbin; Akalin, Selma; Pinar, Elif Sazak

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to determine the instructional variables of the inclusive classrooms in Turkey and to investigate to what extent the student behaviors change according to eco-behavioral characteristics of inclusive classrooms. The study group consisted of 44 students between the ages of six and 12 with mild disabilities who…

  17. Instructional Variables of Inclusive Elementary Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sucuoglu, Nimet Bulbin; Akalin, Selma; Pinar, Elif Sazak

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to determine the instructional variables of the inclusive classrooms in Turkey and to investigate to what extent the student behaviors change according to eco-behavioral characteristics of inclusive classrooms. The study group consisted of 44 students between the ages of six and 12 with mild disabilities who…

  18. Income and Education in Turkey: A Multivariate Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Ramazan; Soytas, Ugur

    2006-01-01

    Although the role of education in an economy is emphasized in theoretical studies, empirical literature finds mixed results for the relationship between growth and education. We examine the relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and enrollments in primary, secondary, and high schools, as well as universities in Turkey for 1937-1996, in…

  19. Coping Strategies among Internal Migrant Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altinyelken, Hulya Kosar

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study that explored educational challenges and coping mechanisms of internal migrant girls whose families moved from the rural areas in the east to the western parts of Turkey. The study revealed that internal migrant girls have encountered a number of challenges that influence their educational achievement…

  20. The Historical and Political Context of Adult Literacy in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayilan, Fevziye; Yildiz, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the development of adult literacy education in Turkey in a historical and political context. The development of adult literacy education is studied in three different historical periods. To spread literacy and create novel institutions, although these institutions were closed later, played a critical role in…

  1. PREVALENCE OF ARCOBACTER SPECIES IN MARKET-WEIGHT COMMERCIAL TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Arcobacter in live turkeys was determined for six Midwestern commercial flocks. In the first study (summer 2003), cloacal (n=298) and feather swabs (n=75), cecal (n=70) and crop (n=50) contents, drinker water (n=46) and environmental (n=25) samples were monitored. In the second stu...

  2. PRESLAUGHTER EVENTS DO NOT IMPACT SALMONELLA PREVALENCE IN TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to determine if preslaughter events, such as transport and holding at the slaughterhouse, impact Salmonella prevalence in turkeys. Floors of transport crates were swabbed after loading and prior to transport at the farm (Time 1, n = 100 swabs per trial) and after transpor...

  3. Notice of release of Turkey Lake Germplasm of bottlebrush squirreltail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey Lake Germplasm of bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides ssp. californicus) was released by USDA-Agricultural Research Service in 2015 as a selected class of pre-variety germplasm (natural track). This new plant material originates in Gooding County in southern Idaho's Snake River Plain....

  4. Neotectonics and Evolution of the Yenicaga Basin, Bolu - Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arca, M.; Kocyigit, A.

    2004-12-01

    The Yenicaga Basin, located along the North Anatolian Fault System, is interpreted to be a fault-wedge basin with the North Anatolian Fault System's master strand, the Gerede Fault, cutting across the basin itself. The basin and its surroundings contain both paleotectonic rock units and neotectonic rock units. Paleotectonic units, which are deposited or formed during prior tectonic regimes, comprise several formations. The most important of these is the Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene Eskipazar formation which plays an important role in the understanding of the evolutionary history of the basin. The main Neotectonic unit deposited under control of the present tectonic regime is the Plio-Quaternary Betemurlu formation. The Betemurlu formation unconformably overlies the paleotectonic Eskipazar formation throughout the study area and the unconformity separating these two units corresponds to the time interval during which the paleotectonic stress regime changed into the neotectonic stress regime. Thus, the onset age of the strike-slip neotectonic regime in the study area is Late Pliocene (~ 2.6 Ma). Common basin-margin-bounding faults of the Yenicaga Basin are the Asagi Kuldan fault, the Aksu fault, the Izmirli fault set, the Saraycali fault, the Degirmen fault set and the Hamzabey fault set. These fault systems display well-preserved fault scarps in places. Morphological expressions of these faults and their geometrical relationships with the local stress regime indicate that these faults are mainly strike-slip and oblique-slip faults. Morphotectonic expressions of the faults exposed within the study area indicate that these faults remain active. Most of the population centers within the study area are located on water-saturated, loose basin fill near the active faults. Hence, these population centers are open to future earthquake hazards.

  5. Development of a Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection model in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Wijesurendra, Dinidu S; Kanci, Anna; Tivendale, Kelly A; Bacci, Barbara; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Browning, Glenn F; Markham, Philip F

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes chronic respiratory disease in chickens and is also highly pathogenic in turkeys. Several live attenuated M. gallisepticum vaccines are available for prevention of disease in chickens but they are considered to be either not safe or not efficacious in turkeys. The studies presented here aimed to develop a suitable infection model in turkeys, a prerequisite for development of a vaccine against M. gallisepticum for turkeys. Two wild-type Australian M. gallisepticum strains, Ap3AS and 100809/31, were used and their capacity to induce lesions was evaluated in 5-week-old to 6-week-old turkeys exposed to aerosols of these strains. Gross air sac lesion scores in the group exposed to Ap3AS were significantly greater than those in the group exposed to 100809/31 (P < 0.05). Histological tracheal lesion scores and tracheal mucosal thicknesses were significantly greater in birds exposed to either strain than in the unexposed birds (P < 0.05), but no significant differences were observed between the two infected groups. In a subsequent experiment, 6-week-old to 7-week-old turkeys were exposed to different doses of M. gallisepticum Ap3AS. Serology and M. gallisepticum re-isolation performed 14 days after infection showed that all birds exposed to Ap3AS were positive by rapid serum agglutination and by culture. Gross air sac lesion scores in the groups exposed to the highest dose, 8.17 × 10(8) colour-changing units Ap3AS/ml, as well as a 10-fold lower dose were significantly more severe than in the uninfected control group. Lesion scores and tracheal mucosal thicknesses were significantly greater in birds exposed to Ap3AS than in the unexposed birds (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were seen in tracheal mucosal thicknesses or lesion scores between the groups exposed to the different doses of Ap3AS. This study has established a reliable challenge model for M. gallisepticum infection in turkeys, which will be useful for evaluation of

  6. Caldera formation at Tendurek, East Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathke, H.; Sudhaus, H.; Shirzaei, M.; Walter, T. R.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanoes of eastern Turkey have been historically active and are located in an active tectonic system with abundant faults and fissures. Tendurek is a low relief shield volcano with an edifice height of about 3580 m and covers an area of 650km2. It has an elliptical shape and the two summit craters and a flank crater are arranged in the direction of the long axis. The summit area is surrounded by an also elliptical ring fracture system with a 9km long axis and a 6km minor axis. This system is more developed in the south than in the north, therefore it is called a half caldera. Tendurek is located in an active tectonic region with right lateral motion near to the Balik Gölü fault, and has been affected by significant tectonic earthquakes, such as in 1840 (M7.4). The last eruption occurred in 1855, since then it is considered to be dormant. Little is known about the deep magma plumbing system, and the state of its current activity. Here we report on a radar interferometric study where we combine SAR images acquired by the Envisat satellite in the years from 2004- 2008 and 2003- 2010 in ascending and descending orbits, respectively. We used the software's ROI_Pac and Doris to create interferograms. The StaMPS software was used to analyze the temporal evolution and to estimate a mean annual velocity of the deformation signal in both tracks. Due to the poor coherence in the summit area, less stable pixel have been identified there in the processing. Where at the lower flanks and further away from the volcanic edifice a lot of stable pixel could be identified. These data allows us to investigate the ground deformation pattern at unprecedented spatial detail. We observe various localized but evident deformation occurrences, associated with volcanic activity at Tendurek volcano. Deformation affected the upper region of the volcano, including the summit craters within the dimension of the previously mentioned ring fault system at a very low rate. By using a genetic

  7. Living with an Alzheimer patient in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Taşc, Sultan; Tekinsoy Kartn, Pnar; Ceyhan, Ozlem; Sungur, Gönül; Göriş, Songül

    2012-08-01

    The research was performed to determine the problems that caregivers experience with patients with Alzheimer disease. The research was carried out qualitatively with those who were responsible for the care of eight Alzheimer patients who were being treated at the Neurology Polyclinics of Gevher Nesibe Hospital at Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey. Research data were collected through questionnaires designed to understand the characteristics of the individuals who provided care and focus group interviews. A written consent from the institution and an oral as well as written consent of the individuals were obtained. Focus groups were interviewed in the same setting at different times with two different groups, including four people who agreed to participate in the research. Each interview was conducted by three personnel: a moderator, a reporter, and an observer. Interviews were structured under four main titles: "The changes seen in the individual with Alzheimer disease"; "Physical, social, psychological, and socioeconomical problems that caregivers experienced"; "Precautions taken against the problems"; and "Patients' expectations of the care". The interviews lasted for approximately 2 hours. A voice recorder and a written registration form were also used to collect information. Six women and two men constituted the research group. The caregivers stated that the patients had such difficulties as forgetfulness, nervousness, jealousy, childish behavior, deterioration in speech, fear of water, hallucinations, and difficulty in carrying out daily life activities. Caregivers emphasized the fact that they perceived the changes in the patients as deliberate behaviors and thus became annoyed and quarreled with them before diagnosis; however, after diagnosis, they felt remorse and experienced guilt because of their ill-treatment of them. In addition, the caregivers hid the patients and their disease from social surroundings. Caregivers mentioned that they had felt as

  8. Pathobiology of triple reassortant H3N2 influenza viruses in breeder turkeys and its potential implication for vaccine studies in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triple reassortant (TR) H3N2 avian influenza viruses have become endemic in the United States turkey population. The H3N2 infections do not usually cause mortality in turkeys, but result in clinical disease of varying severities leading to reduced egg production and poor body weight gain, accountin...

  9. Prokaryotic diversity in the extreme lakes of Turkey, SW Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, Cansu; Gül Karagüler, Nevin; Menekşe-Kılıç, Meryem; Akçer-Ön, Sena; Haydar Gültekin, A.; Balcı, Nurgül

    2016-04-01

    The Lake District, located in the SW Anatolia region of Turkey, hosts a number of lakes with unique water chemistry. Among them, Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli display extreme biogeochemical conditions. In terms of their water chemistry and diverse prokaryotic community, each lake sets a great example for microbially mediated reactions (e.g carbonate precipitation). Lake Acigol (average pH around 8.6) is known for hypersaline and alkaline water chemistry. Lake Salda (average pH around 9.1) is known for its hydromagnesite beaches, clayey-hydromagnesite shoreline and ancient-modern stromatolite formations as well as being a model for Mars. For the first time, Lake Yarisli having alkaline conditions with an average pH value of 9.5 is investigated for its geochemistry and geobiology during this study. Algal bloom and well developed cyanobacterial mats are visible on shallow waters along the Eastern shoreline of the lake. In scope of elucidating complex bio/geochemical reactions that regulate C, S and O cycles in the extreme conditions of these lakes, water, surface sediment and shallow core samples were collected. For the first time, prokaryotic diversity of Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli were determined by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) during this study (Balci et al., 2013). Preliminary results revealed the total number of bacterial classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli as 22, 19 and 19; respectively. Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli are mostly dominated by bacterial classes of Alphaproteobacteria (68.2%, 25.6% and 1.9%; respectively), Cyanobacteria (10.2%, 5.3% and 92.9%; respectively), Bacilli (9.6%, 23.7% and 0.45%; respectively), Gammaproteobacteria (6.1%, 39.6% and 4.3%; respectively) and Actinobacteria (2.7%, 1.8% and 0.06%; respectively). The total number of archaeal classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli are 8, 7 and 6; respectively. Common most dominant archaeal classes of Lake Acigol, Lake Salda

  10. Role of Wheat Based Diet on the Pathology of Necrotic Enteritis in Turkeys.

    PubMed

    Umar, Sajid; Younus, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad; Aqil, Kiran; Qayyum, Rizwan; Mushtaq, Aqsa; Shah, Muhammad Ali Abdullah; Munir, Muhammad Tanveer

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of wheat based diet on the pathology of necrotic enteritis in turkeys. Turkeys were divided into four groups. Groups A and B were kept as noninoculated and fed normal commercial diet while groups C and D were challenged orally with C. perfringens and fed wheat based diet to promote the development of experimental disease. Infected turkeys showed clinical signs of depression, ruffled feathers, and dark yellowish faeces showing the most prominent disease signs in turkeys of group D with 30% mortality. Similarly, turkeys of group D showed more striking gross and histopathologic lesions as compared to turkeys of group C. The most severe gross lesions comprised intestinal distension, small necrotic spots and haemorrhages on intestine, fragile intestinal wall, and gas bubble formation in the small intestine. Histologically, inoculated turkeys showed patchy necrosis, desquamation of intestinal epithelium, and intense leukocyte infiltration in the intestine. Microscopic examination showed significant decrease in the height of intestinal villi of inoculated birds. Haematological studies showed significant influence of necrotic enteritis on the blood profile of turkeys in group D. The findings revealed that simultaneous feeding of wheat enhanced the pathology of necrotic enteritis in turkeys. PMID:27239373

  11. Molecular Surveillance for Lymphoproliferative Disease Virus in Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jesse M.; Allison, Andrew B.; Holmes, Edward C.; Phillips, Jamie E.; Bunting, Elizabeth M.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is a poorly understood, oncogenic avian retrovirus of domestic turkeys that has historically been restricted to Europe and Israel. However, a recent study reported LPDV in multiple wild turkey diagnostic cases from throughout the eastern United States of America (USA). To better understand the distribution of LPDV in the eastern USA, we surveyed 1,164 reportedly asymptomatic hunter-harvested wild turkeys from 17 states for the presence of LPDV proviral DNA by PCR. In total, 564/1,164 (47%) turkeys were positive for LPDV. Wild turkeys from each state had a relatively high prevalence of LPDV, although statewide prevalence varied from 26 to 83%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clades of LPDV in the USA, although one was at a low frequency suggesting restricted transmission, as well as significant clustering by state of isolation. To determine the best tissue to target for diagnostic purposes, liver, spleen, and bone marrow were tested from a subset of 15 hunter-harvested wild turkeys and 20 wild turkey diagnostic cases. Overall, bone marrow provided the highest level of detection for both hunter-harvested turkeys and diagnostic cases. The sensitivity of LPDV detection between tissues was not significantly different for diagnostic cases, but was for hunter-harvested birds. These results indicate that LPDV infection is common and widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern USA, even without overt signs of disease. PMID:25897755

  12. Effects of high and low environmental temperatures on clinical course of fowl cholera in turkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Simensen, E.; Olson, L.D.; Hahn, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida either in the palatine air spaces or via drinking water were maintained t high (33.4-37.4 C), low (2.6-5.3 C), and moderate (19.8-22.4 C) temperatures in temperature-controlled chambers to determine the influence environmental temperature had on the pathogenesis of fowl cholera. In inoculated turkeys maintained at high temperatures, there was a delay in the onset of depression and, in most instances, in mortality in relation to those at low or moderate temperatures. In turkeys inoculated via drinking water and maintained at low temperatures, there was a higher mortality than in those at high or moderate temperatures. In turkeys maintained at low temperatures during the preinoculation period, the onset of depression was accelerated more after inoculation than in those maintained at moderate temperatures before inoculation. The percentage of leukocytes in the hematocrit was higher in turkeys inoculated int he palatine air spaces and maintained at low temperatures than in turkeys similarly inoculated but maintained at high or moderate temperatures. Cloacal temperatures were higher in all inoculated turkeys maintained at high temperatures than in those at low or moderate temperatures, and decreased markedly when turkeys became moribund. In turkeys inoculated in the palatine air spaces, deaths from pneumonia occurred more frequently at low temperatures and torticollis occurred more frequently at high temperatures than at the other temperatures.

  13. Role of Wheat Based Diet on the Pathology of Necrotic Enteritis in Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Sajid; Younus, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad; Aqil, Kiran; Qayyum, Rizwan; Mushtaq, Aqsa; Shah, Muhammad Ali Abdullah; Munir, Muhammad Tanveer

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of wheat based diet on the pathology of necrotic enteritis in turkeys. Turkeys were divided into four groups. Groups A and B were kept as noninoculated and fed normal commercial diet while groups C and D were challenged orally with C. perfringens and fed wheat based diet to promote the development of experimental disease. Infected turkeys showed clinical signs of depression, ruffled feathers, and dark yellowish faeces showing the most prominent disease signs in turkeys of group D with 30% mortality. Similarly, turkeys of group D showed more striking gross and histopathologic lesions as compared to turkeys of group C. The most severe gross lesions comprised intestinal distension, small necrotic spots and haemorrhages on intestine, fragile intestinal wall, and gas bubble formation in the small intestine. Histologically, inoculated turkeys showed patchy necrosis, desquamation of intestinal epithelium, and intense leukocyte infiltration in the intestine. Microscopic examination showed significant decrease in the height of intestinal villi of inoculated birds. Haematological studies showed significant influence of necrotic enteritis on the blood profile of turkeys in group D. The findings revealed that simultaneous feeding of wheat enhanced the pathology of necrotic enteritis in turkeys. PMID:27239373

  14. Characterization and Pre-treatment of LLW in Turkey - 12572

    SciTech Connect

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2012-07-01

    Pre-treatment of radioactive waste is the first step in waste management program that occurs after waste generation from various applications in Turkey. Pre-treatment and characterization practices are carried out in Radioactive Waste Management Unit (RWMU) at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (CNRTC) in Istanbul. This facility has been assigned to take all low-level radioactive wastes generated by nuclear applications in Turkey. The wastes are generated from research and nuclear applications mainly in medicine, biology, agriculture, quality control in metal processing and construction industries. These wastes are classified as low- level radioactive wastes. Pre-treatment practices cover several steps. In this paper, main steps of pre-treatment and characterization are presented. Basically these are; collection, segregation, chemical adjustment, size reduction and decontamination operations. (author)

  15. Differentiation among bacteria isolated from turkeys with coryza (rhinotracheitis).

    PubMed

    Rimler, R B; Simmons, D G

    1983-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria isolated from turkeys with coryza in the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the Republic of South Africa were compared with known Alcaligenes species and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The turkey isolates were separated into three distinct groups based on biochemical and physiologic tests. Forty of the 68 isolates studied (group I) were different from Alcaligenes sp. and B. bronchiseptica. Isolates in group I produced a heat-labile hemagglutinin and did not grow on Simmons' citrate agar. Isolates in group II (25 isolates) were similar to A. faecalis and A. odorans, grew on Simmons' citrate agar, and did not produce a hemagglutinin. Isolates in group III were B. bronchiseptica. Isolates from groups I and II caused coryza in poults. Group III isolates were not pathogenic. PMID:6870724

  16. Tularemia in Children, Turkey, September 2009–November 2012

    PubMed Central

    Tezer, Hasan; Aykan, Hakan; Erkocoglu, Mustafa; Gülhan, Belgin; Demir, Ahmet; Kanik-Yuksek, Saliha; Tapisiz, Anil; Polat, Meltem; Kara, Soner; Devrim, Ilker; Kilic, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    Tularemia, a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, is found throughout most of the Northern Hemisphere. It is not well known and is often misdiagnosed in children. Our aim with this study was to evaluate the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for 100 children with tularemia in Turkey. The mean patient age was 10.1 ± 3.5 years (range 3–18 years), and most (63%) patients were male. The most common physical signs and laboratory findings were cervical lymphadenopathy (92%) and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (89%). Treatment response was higher and rate of relapse lower for children 5–10 years of age than for those in other age groups. Associated with treatment failure were female sex, treatment delay of ≥16 days, and use of doxycycline. Tularemia is endemic to Turkey, and the number of cases has been increasing among children as well as adults. PMID:25529639

  17. Ecology, anatomy and morphology of Orchis spitzelii in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Durmuşkahya, Cenk; Akyol, Yurdanur; Özdemir, Canan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study reveals the morphological, anatomical and ecological characteristic of Orchis spitzelii in Turkey. Plant materials of Orchis spitzefli were collected from 17 different population, between 2010-2013 in Turkey. Orchis spitzelii samples were analyzed for 19 morphological, 20 anatomical and 18 soil characters and habitat properties. As a result, the minimum length of plantwas 200 mm and maximum 500 mm, minimum length of underground part was 25 mm and maximum 94 mm. Number of leaves varied between 3-9. According to habitat definition, Orchis spitzelii grew up to 500 m to 2100 m. Also, Pinus nigra forests and glades were most common habitat of Orchis spitzeii, found generally over calcareous soils. PMID:26591898

  18. Poppies for medicine in Afghanistan: lessons from India and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Windle, James

    2011-01-01

    This study examines India and Turkey as case studies relevant to the Senlis Council’s ‘poppies for medicine’ proposal. The proposal is that Afghan farmers are licensed to produce opium for medical and scientific purposes. Here it is posited that the Senlis proposal neglects at least three key lessons from the Turkish and Indian experiences. First, not enough weight has been given to diversion from licit markets, as experienced in India. Second, both India and Turkey had significantly more efficient state institutions with authority over the licensed growing areas. Third, the proposal appears to overlook the fact that Turkey’s successful transition was largely due to the use of the poppy straw method of opium production. It is concluded that, while innovative and creative policy proposals such as that of the Senlis proposal are required if Afghanistan is to move beyond its present problems, ‘poppies for medicine’ does not withstand evidence-based scrutiny. PMID:22213882

  19. Separation of turkey lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes using isoelectric focusing technique.

    PubMed

    Heinová, Dagmar; Kostecká, Zuzana; Csank, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.8 did not allow to separate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes of turkey origin. Five electrophoretically distinguishable forms of the enzyme were detected in serum and tissues of turkey using IEF technique in a pH range of 3-9. Generally, three different groups were seen: (i) those having an anodic domination (heart, kidney, pancreas, and erythrocytes) with mainly LDH-1 fraction, (ii) those having a cathodic domination (breast muscle and serum) with prevalence of LDH-5, and (iii) those with a more uniform distribution (liver, spleen, lung, and brain). The specific enzyme activity was the highest in the breast muscle, followed by heart muscle, and brain. Low activities were detected in serum, kidney, and liver. PMID:26471476

  20. First Report of Echinococcus equinus in a Donkey in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Simsek, Sami; Roinioti, Erifylli; Eroksuz, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year-old female donkey (Equus asinus) was euthanized in the Pathology Department of Firat University, Elazig, Turkey. Necropsy disclosed the presence of 7 hydatid cysts distributed throughout the lung parenchyma. One of those cysts represented the parasite material of the present study and was molecularly identified through sequencing of a fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NADH1) gene, as Echinococcus equinus. The generated CO1 sequence supports the presence of the dominant haplotype as has been described in Europe and Africa. The NADH1 sequence was found similar to sequences reported in equids in Egypt and the United Kingdom. The molecular identification of E. equinus in a donkey is being reported for the first time in Turkey. PMID:26797441

  1. Modification methods of blank pistols in Turkey in 2006.

    PubMed

    Saribey, Aylin Yalçin; Tarimci, Celik

    2009-05-01

    This study describes the modification methods of blank cartridge firing pistols in Turkey. We have examined cases submitted to the Aydin Regional Criminal Laboratory of Turkey in 2006. In total, 95 modified pistols and 300 modified cartridges were examined. The blank cartridge firing pistols are guns which look similar to "real" pistols, however, there are blockages in their barrel in order to prevent the discharge of a bullet. However, as a result of simple modifications, these pistols can be easily converted into "real" firearms. Studied modification methods are removing the obstruction from the barrel, removing the partial obstruction from the barrel, sleeving a smaller diameter tube into the original barrel, using a replacement barrel, and rifling the original barrel. Special cartridges for these modified pistols are also produced. These modified pistols and cartridges were evaluated in respect of the converting methods. PMID:19302384

  2. First Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus multilocularis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Avcioglu, Hamza; Guven, Esin; Balkaya, Ibrahim; Kirman, Ridvan; Bia, Mohammed Mebarek; Gulbeyen, Hatice

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to find out the occurrence of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes in Erzurum province, the highest endemic region for human alveolar echinococcosis in Turkey. The sedimentation and counting technique was used to reveal adult Echinococcus spp. in the intestines of foxes. One out of the 10 foxes was infected with E. multilocularis. The adult worms were analyzed morphologically and molecularly and were confirmed to be E. multilocularis by species-specific PCR. Pairwise comparisons between the 12S rRNA sequences of the E. multilocularis isolate from Erzurum and other E. multilocularis isolates showed 100% similarity of the Erzurum isolate with European isolates. With this study, the presence of E. multilocularis in a fox in Erzurum was confirmed by PCR, and molecular identification of E. multilocularis is reported for the first time in Turkey. PMID:27463527

  3. Hemoglobin H Disease in Turkey: Experience from Eight Centers

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Selma; Oktay, Gönül; Acıpayam, Can; İlhan, Gül; Gali, Edip; Celkan, Tiraje; Bay, Ali; Malbora, Barış; Akar, Nejat; Oymak, Yeşim; Toptaş, Tayfur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to research the problem of hemoglobin H (HbH) disease, to reveal the distribution patterns among different health centers, and to emphasize the importance of this disease for Turkey. A total of 273 patients were included from 8 hemoglobinopathy centers. The Antakya Hemoglobinopathy Center reported 232 patients and the remaining 7 centers reported 41 patients. PubMed was also searched for published articles related to Turkish patients with HbH disease, and we found 16 articles involving a total of 198 HbH patients. Most of the patients were reported from Antakya; thus, special attention should be paid to this region. This is a preliminary study to investigate the extent of the problem of HbH disease and it emphasizes the need for hematology associations or the Ministry of Health to record all cases of HbH disease in Turkey. PMID:26376738

  4. Adoption of the EU SEA Directive in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Unalan, Dilek; Cowell, Richard

    2009-07-15

    This paper analyses the adoption of the EU Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive (2001/42/EC) in Turkey as part of a programme of environmental policy harmonisation for EU accession, to explore the extent to which this is driving wider shifts in modes of environmental governance. To do this, rather than simply assess compliance with Directive in narrow, formal, statutory terms, we use Jaenicke and Weidner's concept of capacity building, which focuses on the constraints facing societal action to promote sustainable development. Despite the resources invested in pre-accession training and pilot SEA projects, Turkey's adoption of the Directive is still likely to be affected by the centralised nature of the bureaucracy (affecting the scope for sectoral integration), its politicised nature (interrupting the accumulation of policy learning), the limited capacity of civil society and environmental organisations to engage with the process, and the political dominance of economic development objectives.

  5. [CO2 stunning of broilers and turkey hens].

    PubMed

    Wenzlawowicz, M V; Holleben, K V; Bostelmann, N

    2000-03-01

    Stunning of poultry is still not solved satisfactorily. This concerns the requirements of animal welfare, meat quality and working conditions in the lairage, stunning and debleeding area. In an investigation of combined CO2-/O2-stunning in a new gas stunning system stress reactions of the animals during the induction phase and stunning effectivity were recorded in 7,000 chicken and 3.825 turkeys. During the induction phase (here: chicken 41 sek./turkeys 25-65 sec.) the animals first staid calm and then showed beak-opening as a consequence of the breathing stimulating effect of CO2. As a further sign of the aversiveness against CO2 the animals showed head shaking and wing flapping. The used settings of gas concentrations and stunning time in the system investigated lead to a very deep stunning resp. Killing of the animals. Therefore the debleeding cut could be performed late (chicken 44-55 sec., turkeys 54-90 sec.) after leaving the system without animals regaining consciousness. The stunning of turkeys with a mixture of CO2 and oxygen is an improvement according to animal welfare requirements because unnecessary pain and suffering, happening very often with electrical stunning, can be avoided. As far as animal welfare in chicken stunning is concerned it must be evaluated if gas stunning means an improvement because stress during the till now relatively long induction phase must be put into relation with comparably lower stress caused by hanging upside down and a fast and safe working electrical stunning unit. PMID:10774072

  6. Mosses beta radioactivity in Katirli mountain-Bursa, TURKEY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, A. G.; Kaynak, G.; Akkaya, G.; Gultekin, A.; Gurler, O.; Yalcin, S.

    2007-04-01

    Mosses are one of the most widely used procedures to determine via plant of radioactive contamination. The high concentrating capacity of mosses may be used as bioindicator of environmental radioactive contamination. In this study, the mosses were collected in region of Katirli Mountain in northwestern Turkey, activities were determined using TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector. Samples of mosses growing on soil, rock, and tree bark were collected.

  7. Nursing education in Turkey: from past to present.

    PubMed

    Bahçecik, Nefise; Alpar, Sule Ecevit

    2009-10-01

    Nursing education in Turkey first began in 1912 with the introduction of a 6-month course to train voluntary medical attendants, with Dr. Besim Omer Pasha's advice to the Red Crescent Association regarding the inadequacy of healthcare services, as a crucial need for nursing services resulted due to significant losses given during Tripoli (1911) and the Balkan (1912) wars. Carrying out their duties in battlefields and hospitals with great devotion, the first nurses graduated from the course played a significant role in promoting the nursing profession and its importance. Nursing education which used to continue at the secondary and high-school levels increased to bachelor's level in 1955. Master's program in nursing was opened in 1968, and Ph.D. programs was opened in 1972. Professional members of the practice, well-equipped in accordance with the requirements of the age, who conduct their studies at the national and international levels, are trained as the consequence of the recent developments in nursing education. The number of nurses at the universities who offered higher levels of academic degree, and especially the number of nurses who gained 'science expert' title at the inpatient medical establishments has increased. This situation and globalization, which ensures an easier access to nursing literature through internet, enable a more systematic and of a better quality healthcare. This article explains the nursing education in Turkey from past to present. The developments in nursing education which have taken place in Turkey are expressed in a chronological order, starting from the Ottoman Empire, until the present. Compared with other countries, nursing education is given on different levels in Turkey. Recently, however, the obstacles regarding the differences especially at the bachelor's degree level were overcome, appropriate changes were made, and education melioration efforts gained speed. PMID:19560235

  8. Organic Turkey Flocks: A Reservoir of Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Jochen; Dumke, Jessika; Hinse, Dennis; Dreier, Jens; Habig, Christin; Kemper, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) can colonise the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and is known to cause similar infections in both humans and animals. Data about the spread or prevalence in farm animals are missing. In this study, Trypton Soya Agar was modified to a selective medium enabling the isolation and quantification of S. gallolyticus from faecal samples. The bacterium was observed in 82 out of 91 faecal samples obtained from 18 different organic turkey flocks. The prevalence of shedding birds was estimated by the number of positive fresh droppings and reached up to 100% on most farms. Furthermore, for the first time S. gallolyticus was quantified in faeces from poultry flocks. The median of colony forming units (CFU) per gramme faeces was 3.6 x 105CFU/g. Typing of one isolate from each positive faecal sample by multilocus sequence typing delivered 24 sequence types (STs). Most of the isolates belonged to the clonal complex CC58. The same STs of this complex were detected in up to six different flocks. Partly, these flocks were located in various regions and stocked with varying breeding lines. Regarding the biochemical profiles of the same STs from different farms, the results did not contradict a spread of specific STs in the organic turkey production. Moreover, checking the pubMLST database revealed that STs found in this study were also found in other animal species and in humans. The high detection rate and the number of S. gallolyticus in turkey faeces indicate that this bacterium probably belongs to the common microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys from organic flocks. Furthermore, the findings of this study support the suggestion of a possible interspecies transmission. PMID:26657757

  9. Malaria in Turkey: successful control and strategies for achieving elimination.

    PubMed

    Özbilgina, Ahmet; Topluoglu, Seher; Es, Saffet; Islek, Elif; Mollahaliloglu, Salih; Erkoc, Yasin

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in the middle of Asia, Africa and Europe, close to Caucasia, Balkans and Middle East in subtropical climate zone. Malaria has been known since the early ages of human history and it was one of the leading diseases in Anatolian history, as well. Today, chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium vivax is the only agent of autochthonous malaria cases in Turkey. The other Plasmodium species identified are isolated from imported cases of malaria. The most common vector of malaria in Turkey is Anopheles sacharovi followed by An. superpictus, An. maculipennis and An. subalpinus. In 2009, pre-elimination stage of Malaria Program was started due to dramatic decline in the number of malaria cases in Turkey (Total, 84; 38 autochthonous cases only in 26 foci in south-eastern Anatolia, and 46 imported cases; incidence: 0.1/100,000). As there were no detected cases of new autochthonous malaria in the first 8 months of 2010, elimination stage was started. The role of the persistent policies and successful applications of the Ministry of Health, such as the strict control of the patients using anti-malarial drugs especially chloroquine, avoidance of resistant insecticides, facilitation of access to patients via Health Transformation Program (HTP), establishment of close contact with the patients' families, and improvement of reporting and surveillance system, was essential. In addition, improvement maintained in the motivations and professional rights of malaria workers, as well in the coordination of field studies and maintenance of a decline or termination in vector-to-person transmission were all achieved with the insistent policies of the Ministry of Health. Other factors that probably contributed to elimination studies include lessening of military operations in south-eastern Anatolia and the lowering of malaria cases in neighbouring countries in recent years. Free access to health services concerning malaria is still successfully conducted throughout the country

  10. Mosses beta radioactivity in Katirli mountain-Bursa, TURKEY

    SciTech Connect

    Kahraman, A. G.; Kaynak, G.; Akkaya, G.; Gultekin, A.; Gurler, O.; Yalcin, S.

    2007-04-23

    Mosses are one of the most widely used procedures to determine via plant of radioactive contamination. The high concentrating capacity of mosses may be used as bioindicator of environmental radioactive contamination. In this study, the mosses were collected in region of Katirli Mountain in northwestern Turkey, activities were determined using TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector. Samples of mosses growing on soil, rock, and tree bark were collected.

  11. Digestive parameters in young turkeys fed yucca saponin

    SciTech Connect

    Dziuk, H.E.; Duke, G.E.; Buck, R.J.; Janni, K.A.

    1985-06-01

    Yucca saponin fed in a concentration of 63 ppm to turkey poults at 6 to 14 weeks of age did not significantly improve weight gains, feed conversion, or digestive coefficients. Compared with nonstressed control groups, saponin-fed poults did not have significantly greater average weight gains or feed intakes when stressed by crowding (3 poults per cage) or by adding ammonia to the atmosphere (30 to 35 ppm).

  12. Eremogone ali-gulii (Caryophyllaceae), a new species from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Murat; Hamzaoğlu, Ergin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Eremogone ali-gulii (Caryophyllaceae) is described as a new species of Eremogone in Turkey. The specimens were collected from Kop Mountain (Erzurum). The new species is endemic of the Irano-Turanian region and is related to Eremogone scariosa and Eremogone armeniaca. The differences on sterile shoots, habit, sepals and capsules between these species are discussed. Description, distribution, illustration and conservation status of the new species are given. PMID:27081353

  13. Late Cenozoic Basin Architecture in Central Turkey: Geodynamic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurbuz, A.; Kazanci, N.

    2014-12-01

    The Lake Tuz basin is the largest intracontinental basin in Turkey and has hydrocarbon and industrial mineral reserves. Thus, there are several studies particularly intended for the pre-Neogene geology of the basin. However, there is not any detailed study related to the geological units of Neogene and Quaternary periods. This study aims to exhibit facies features of these units within spatial and temporal distributions according to field studies. In the other hand, the region has modelled through stratigraphically by computing more than 250 borehole data within 3D GeoScientific Information System. In light of obtained model, basement topographies of Neogene and Quaternary units has revealed. The model indicate high amounts of sedimentation during the Mio-Pliocene with a southward increasing thickness of a freshwater lake basin while it is a shallow saline lake basin today that regressed towards the north during the Plio-Quaternary. The combination of these results with regional geological and geophysical data (i.e. gravity and crustal thickness) allows geodynamic implications for central Turkey. The spatio-temporal variations of Late Cenozoic units reflect the main effect of endogenic forces that were caused due to lithospheric slab break-off and following asthenospheric upwelling under central Turkey.

  14. The last total Eclipse of teh Millenium in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguch, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

    1998-09-01

    The last total solar eclipse of the millenium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two components and has been the cradle of so many past civilisations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificient event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of hystorical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible , Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and the Earthquake Research Institute has arranged field work on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey form south-east at 14:42 L.T. Official observational sites are given in the following table. These sites will have catering, toilet, and guidance facilities. Osmanchik 40.98D North 34.82D East Turhal 40.40D North 36.10D East Sivas 39.75D North 37.03D East Elazig 38.68D North 39.23D East Diyarbakir 37.92D North 40.23D East Batman 37.87 North 41.12D East

  15. Occurrence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Listeria Species in Turkey Meats

    PubMed Central

    Ardıç, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of Listeria species in turkey meats and to check the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated strains. Hundred and fifteen raw turkey meat samples were randomly collected from the supermarkets, butchers and restaurants. Strain isolation and identification were made according to the ISO11290-1 method. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the standard disc diffusion method. A total of 47 Listeria spp. were isolated from 115 (40.9%) raw turkey meat samples. The isolates were distributed between L. monocytogenes (25.53%), L. innocua (34.04%), L. grayi (31.91%) and L. welshimeri (8.51%). A total of 55.3 % of Listeria spp. isolates were multi-resistant to at least 3 of the antimicrobial agent tested. The level of multi-resistance was higher in L. monocytogenes strains (66.7%) than in L. innocua (62.5%) and L. grayi (53.3%). Listeria spp. isolates were highly resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, penicillin, meticillin, oxacillin, and trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole. The isolates particularly L. monocytogenes are increasingly resistant to one or more antibiotics and may represent a potential risk for public health because these antibiotics are common used in treatment of listeriosis. The correct and controlled use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine is important to the emergence of resistant strains. PMID:26761896

  16. Analysis of Projected Changes in Precipitation Regions of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbas, Abdullah; Turp, M. Tufan; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    Classification and clustering are important issues in climatology studies for water management. In this study, we examine the precipitation regions of Turkey with combination of the regional climate model outputs with a hierarchical cluster technique. Therefore, the outputs of the HadGEM2-ES global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre were downscaled to 50 km for Turkey via Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) for the period of 2070 - 2100 with respect to the present period of 1970 - 2000 under two distinct case scenarios (i.e. RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Thereafter, Ward's method, which is commonly used in climate research, was also performed in order to cluster the precipitation data. In this context, spatial variations in precipitation regions of Turkey were determined for different climate change pathways. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  17. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Bulgaria and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Marc; Schuster, Isolde; Sas, Miriam A; Vatansever, Zati; Hubalek, Zdenek; Güven, Esin; Deniz, Ahmet; Georgiev, Georgi; Peshev, Raiko; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-09-01

    Infections of humans with the tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates of up to 80%. Most humans are infected by tick bite, crushing infected ticks by hand or by unprotected contact with blood of viremic mammals. Next to the notified human CCHF cases, the real distribution and the situation in animals in Southeastern Europe are nearly unknown. Since domestic ruminants play a crucial role in the life cycle of the vector ticks and the transmission and amplification of the virus, the antibody prevalence in those animals is a good indicator for the presence of CCHFV in a region. Therefore, the prevalence of CCHFV-specific antibodies was investigated in domestic ruminants of different regions of Bulgaria and Turkey. Sera of 1165 ruminants were tested and a prevalence of up to 90% was identified. The overall prevalence for Bulgaria was 26% and for Turkey 57%. The results highlight the risk of human infections in those regions and the importance of the investigation of the prevalence in animals for identification of risk areas. This article provides a unique overview about published CCHFV antibody prevalence in animals in comparison to human incidences in different areas of Bulgaria and Turkey. Although it will help to complete the understanding of the CCHFV situation in these countries, it also demonstrates the lack of unpublished and published data even in these highly endemic areas. PMID:27467142

  18. Infective endocarditis: a tertiary referral centre experience from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Agca, Fahriye Vatansever; Demircan, Necmiye; Peker, Tezcan; Ari, Hasan; Karaagac, Kemal; Ozluk, Ozlem Arican; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Tenekecioglu, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to define the current characteristics of infective endocarditis (IE) in a part of Turkey. Methods: All patients who were hospitalized in our hospital with a diagnosis of IE between 2009 and 2014 were included in the study. Data were collected from archives records of all patients. Modified Duke criteria were used for diagnosis. Results: There were 85 IE cases during the study period. The mean age of patients was 52 years. Fourty eight of patients were males. Native valves involved in 47%, prostetic valves involved in 40% and pacemaker or ICD lead IE in 13% of patients. Mitral valve was the most common site of vegetationb (38%). The most common valvular pathology was mitral regurgitation. The most common predisposing factor was prosthetic valve disease (40%). Positive culture rate was 68%. Staphylococci were the most frequent causative microorganisms isolated (27%) followed by Streptococcus spp. (11%). In-hospital mortality rate was 36%. Conclusion: In Turkey, IE occurs in relatively young patients. In high developed part of Turkey, prosthetic and dejenerative valve disease is taking the place of rheumatic valve disease as a predisposing factor. Surgery is an important factor for preventing mortality. PMID:26550353

  19. Melting bones: The social construction of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erol, Maral

    2011-11-01

    The increased medicalization of different life stages, including menopause, is a subject studied mostly in the Western context. Examining medicalization in the non-Western world advances discussions of body, identity and health. In this paper, I analyze the discourses around postmenopausal osteoporosis in Turkey, focusing on the different constructions of risk in the medical and popular literature. The empirical basis of the paper draws on ethnographic research done in Istanbul, Turkey between June 2006 and March 2007. The research includes participant observation in gynecology clinics, interviews with clinicians and menopausal women and archival research on the representations of menopause in the Turkish media between 1999 and 2006. Referred to as kemik erimesi (melting of the bones) in colloquial Turkish, osteoporosis has been an essential component in the medicalization of menopause in Turkey. I argue that postmenopausal osteoporosis is defined as a combination of embodied risk, which is related to the definition of menopause as a risky period, and lifestyle risk, demonstrated in discussions around "traditional" vs. "modern" clothing and healthcare habits. The Turkish example emphasizes the importance of local conditions in defining medical risk and complicates the embodied vs. lifestyle risk categories. PMID:21967826

  20. Gender interaction in coed physical education: a study in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koca, Canan

    2009-01-01

    Although there has been a long-standing debate about whether a single-sex or mixed-sex environment is better for students in many Western countries, coeducation is one of the taken-for-granted issues in the modern Turkish education system. This study examined commonly expressed concerns about gender equity in a mixed-sex environment within the context of physical education (PE) in Turkey. The purpose of the study was to examine teacher-student interaction in the coed PE classroom, focusing on gender-stereotyped beliefs. Participants consisted of two PE teachers and 37 eighth-grade students from a private school situated in suburban Ankara Turkey. The modified observational instrument with the combination of Teacher-Student Interaction (TSI) and Interactions for Sex Equity in Classroom Teaching Observation System (INTERSECT) was used to assess teacher-student interaction in the classroom. In order to understand students' and teachers' gender-stereotyped beliefs, individual interviews were also conducted. The findings of this study indicated that both male and female PE teachers interact more frequently with boys, and this interaction was influenced by gender-stereotyped beliefs of both teachers and students. In sum, similar to many other western countries, the movement toward coeducation in Turkey has not automatically brought equal opportunities for girls or boys in PE. PMID:19435173

  1. The approach to frostbite in Turkey: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Emsen, Ilteris Murat

    2006-01-01

    Increased participation in outdoor activities and an epidemic of homelessness have caused the incidence of cold injuries in the civilian population of Turkey to rise dramatically during the past 20 years. Knowledge of treatment is crucial for emergency physicians in rural and urban areas. Recent developments have significantly advanced the understanding of the pathophysiology of hypothermic and frostbite injuries. The authors undertook a retrospective review of frostbite cases in the East Anatolia region of Turkey. The mean altitude of East Anatolia is 1600 m, and temperatures may be -35 degrees C at night and -18 degrees C in the morning in the cities and surrounding villages. Winter is prolonged and harsh, and freezing is a normal condition in this region. The socioeconomic level in this region is lower than other regions of Turkey. During the winter, roads may be closed for as long as five months, and most villages in East Anatolia have no medical units. Erzurum, one of the coldest cities in East Anatolia, is the only city with advanced medical hospitals in this region. Three hospitals in Erzurum were included in the present study: Ataturk University Medical Faculty, Erzurum Numune Hospital and Erzurum SSK Hospital. Frostbite case records and their properties are presented. PMID:19554225

  2. Salmonella surveillance on fresh produce in retail in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gunel, Elif; Polat Kilic, Gozde; Bulut, Ece; Durul, Bora; Acar, Sinem; Alpas, Hami; Soyer, Yeşim

    2015-04-16

    Although Turkey is one of the major producers of fruits and vegetables in the world, there has been no information available on the prevalence of pathogens in fresh produce. To fill this gap, we collected 503 fresh produce samples including tomato, parsley, iceberg lettuce, green-leaf lettuce and five different fresh pepper varieties (i.e., green, kapya, bell, mazamort and Charleston) from 3 major districts within 9 supermarkets and 3 bazaars in Ankara, Turkey to investigate the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella was detected in 0.8% (4/503) of samples by conventional culturing method with molecular confirmation conducted through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For further characterization of isolates, serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST; aroC, thrA, purE, sucA, hisD, hemD and dnaN) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes Anatum, Charity, Enteritidis and Mikawasima were isolated from two parsley, one pepper and one lettuce samples, respectively. MLST resulted in 4 sequence types (STs) for each serotype, including one novel ST for serotype Mikawasima. Similarly, PFGE revealed four different XbaI PFGE patterns. The results of this survey, obtained by the most common subtyping methods (i.e. serotyping, MLST and PFGE) worldwide, contributes to the development of a national database in Turkey, which is essential for investigating the evolutionary pathways, geographical distribution and genetic diversity of Salmonella strains. PMID:25643853

  3. Sustainable management for the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Berberoglu, Süha

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a program for the integrated coastal zone management that is required to stimulate and guide sustainable development of the Mediterranean coastal zone of Turkey. Improved data collection, quality control, analysis, and data management will provide a firm basis for future scientific understanding of the East Mediterranean coast of Turkey and will support long-term management. Various innovative procedures were proposed for a promising ecosystem-based approach to manage coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean: remote data acquisition with new technologies; environmental quality monitoring program that will provide a baseline for monitoring; linking a Geographic Information System (GIS) with natural resource management decision routines in the context of operational wetlands, fisheries, tourism management system; environmental sensitivity analysis to ensure that permitted developments are environmentally sustainable; and use of natural species to restore the wetlands and coastal dunes and sustain the system processes. The proposed management scheme will benefit the scientific community in the Mediterranean and the management/planning community in Eastern Turkey. PMID:12592459

  4. Thermal and chemical effects of turkey feathers pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kluska, Jacek; Kardaś, Dariusz; Heda, Łukasz; Szumowski, Mateusz; Szuszkiewicz, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the thermal and chemical effects of the pyrolysis of turkey feathers. Research of feathers pyrolysis is important because of their increasing production and difficulties of their utilization. The experiments were carried out by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and two pyrolytic reactors. The experimental investigation indicated that the feather material liquefies at temperatures between 210 and 240°C. This liquefaction together with the agglomeration of various dispersed and porous elements of the feathers into larger droplets leads to the volume reduction. Moreover, this work presents characteristics of the composition of the solid, liquid and gaseous products of turkey feathers pyrolysis at different temperatures. The higher heating value (HHV) of gaseous products in temperature 900°C equals 19.28 MJ/Nm(3) making the gases suitable for use as a fuel. The thermochemical conversion of turkey feathers leads to the formation of poisonous compounds such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the liquid (0.13%) and gaseous (88 mg/Nm(3)) products. The phenomenon of liquefaction of feathers is important because it can lead to rapid degradation of the walls of reactors, and the formation of deposits. PMID:26783100

  5. Factors influencing wild turkey hen survival in southcentral Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    A decline in the population of eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in southcentral Iowa necessitated more current estimates of population parameters. Survival of 126 eastern wild turkey hens in southcentral Iowa was investigated during 1993-96. Estimates of annual survival averaged 0.676 ?? 0.048% (x?? ?? SE) for adults and 0.713 ?? 0.125 for subadults. Mammalian predators, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans) and red fox (Vulpes fulva) accounted for 64% of all documented mortality. Age-specific annual survival distributions differed within years (P < 0.03), but no difference was detected in survival between age classes across years (P = 0.49). Based on chronological dates, survival of adult hens differed among seasons across years (P = 0.03). However, seasonal survival was not different when estimates were based on hen behavior (p = 0.48). Risk of mortality for hens increased by 2.0% for every 100-m increase in dispersal distance, decreased by 2.0% for every 10-ha increase in home range size, and decreased by 3.5% for each 1.0% increase in proportion of home range in woody cover. Although the exact cause of the population decline remains unknown, we suggest it was more likely related to a decrease in production than changes in hen survival. Declining turkey populations would likely benefit more from management designed to increase reproduction rather than hen survival.

  6. Most cited articles in general surgery from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Mayir, Burhan; Bilecik, Tuna; Doğan, Uğur; Koç, Ümit; Ensari, Cemal Özben; Oruç, Mehmet Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The citation number of an article gives us information about its quality and contribution to science. In this article, we aimed to find the most frequently cited article in general surgery from Turkey, and evaluate how these articles in general surgery contributed to the world literature. Material and Methods: We used the science citation index expanded database to find the most frequently cited articles in general surgery from Turkey. Results: Among the 52 articles found, the most common subjects were as follows: hydatid cyst (21.1%), pilonidal disease (15.4%), laparoscopic operations (15.4%), breast diseases (11.5%), and inguinal hernia (7.7%). Two articles were cited in more than 100 articles. Furthermore, 48.8% of the articles were published from three major cities. Most articles were published between 2000 and 2004, and 65.4% of articles were case series. Conclusion: Most of the cited articles were about hydatid cyst and pilonidal disease, which are more common in the Turkish population compared with other countries. Evaluation of most cited articles is important to identify the fields in which Turkey contributes to the world literature. PMID:26170756

  7. First complete genome sequence of European turkey coronavirus suggests complex recombination history related with US turkey and guinea fowl coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Brown, P A; Touzain, F; Briand, F X; Gouilh, A M; Courtillon, C; Allée, C; Lemaitre, E; De Boisséson, C; Blanchard, Y; Eterradossi, N

    2016-01-01

    A full-length genome sequence of 27,739  nt was determined for the only known European turkey coronavirus (TCoV) isolate. In general, the order, number and size of ORFs were consistent with other gammacoronaviruses. Three points of recombination were predicted, one towards the end of 1a, a second in 1b just upstream of S and a third in 3b. Phylogenetic analysis of the four regions defined by these three points supported the previous notion that European and American viruses do indeed have different evolutionary pathways. Very close relationships were revealed between the European TCoV and the European guinea fowl coronavirus in all regions except one, and both were shown to be closely related to the European infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Italy 2005. None of these regions of sequence grouped European and American TCoVs. The region of sequence containing the S gene was unique in grouping all turkey and guinea fowl coronaviruses together, separating them from IBVs. Interestingly the French guinea fowl virus was more closely related to the North American viruses. These data demonstrate that European turkey and guinea fowl coronaviruses share a common genetic backbone (most likely an ancestor of IBV Italy 2005) and suggest that this recombined in two separate events with different, yet related, unknown avian coronaviruses, acquiring their S-3a genes. The data also showed that the North American viruses do not share a common backbone with European turkey and guinea fowl viruses; however, they do share similar S-3a genes with guinea fowl virus. PMID:26585962

  8. Offshore Seismic Observation in the Western Marmara Sea, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Citak, S.; Kalafat, D.; Pinar, A.; Gurbuz, C.; Kaneda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) extends 1600 km westward from a junction with the East Anatolian Fault at the Karliova Triple Junction in eastern Turkey, across northern Turkey and into the Aegean Sea, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured NAF westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk and the Duzce earthquakes in the Marmara region. Considering the fault segments ruptured by the May 24th, 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake, the only un-ruptured segments left behind NAF locate beneath the Marmara Sea and those segments keep their mystery due to their underwater location. To clarify the detailed fault geometry beneath the western Marmara Sea, we started to operate a series of ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) observations. As a first step, we deployed 3 pop-up type OBSs on 20th of March 2014 as a trial observation, and recovered them on 18thof June 2014. Although one of the OBSs worked only 6 days from the start of the observation, other two OBSs functioned properly during the whole 3-month observation period. Only 8 earthquakes were reported near the OBS network in 3 months periods according to the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute catalogue. Thus, we first searched for the microearthquakes missing by the land seismic network and estimated their precious location by using the initial 6 days data. We could identify about 50 earthquakes with more than 5 picking data of P and S first arrivals, and half of them located near the NAF. We also tested the hypocenter relocation by combining the land and OBS seismic data for the 8 earthquakes, and found that these earthquakes are located in between 12-24 km depths. Next, we are planning to deploy 10 OBSs from September 2014 to June 2015 as a second step for our observation. At the AGU fall meeting, we will be able to

  9. Foresight Model of Turkey's Defense Industries' Space Studies until 2040

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuksel, Nurdan; Cifci, Hasan; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Being advanced in science and technology is inevitable reality in order to be able to have a voice in the globalized world. Therefore, for the countries, making policies in consistent with their societies' intellectual, economic and political infrastructure and attributing them to the vision having been embraced by all parties of the society is quite crucial for the success. The generated policies are supposed to ensure the usage of countries' resources in the most effective and fastest way, determine the priorities and needs of society and set their goals and related roadmaps. In this sense, technology foresight studies based on justified forecasting in science and technology have critical roles in the process of developing policies. In this article, Foresight Model of Turkey's Defense Industries' Space Studies, which is turned out to be the important part of community life and fundamental background of most technologies, up to 2040 is presented. Turkey got late in space technology studies. Hence, for being fast and efficient to use its national resources in a cost effective way and within national and international collaboration, it should be directed to its pre-set goals. By taking all these factors into consideration, the technology foresight model of Turkey's Defense Industry's Space Studies was presented in the study. In the model, the present condition of space studies in the World and Turkey was analyzed; literature survey and PEST analysis were made. PEST analysis will be the inputs of SWOT analysis and Delphi questionnaire will be used in the study. A two-round Delphi survey will be applied to the participants from universities, public and private organizations operating in space studies at Defense Industry. Critical space technologies will be distinguished according to critical technology measures determined by expert survey; space technology fields and goals will be established according to their importance and feasibility indexes. Finally, for the

  10. Kula Geopark: Turkeys first European and Global Geopark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumus, Erdal; Zouros, Nickolas

    2014-05-01

    The Kula European and Global Geopark is situated in the Aegean Region of Turkey at Western Anatolia, within Manisa Province. The Geopark area covers 300 km2. The Kula Geopark area is the youngest volcanic region of Turkey where the volcanic activity continued up to prehistoric times. The outstanding volcanic structures of Kula Geopark area are well known at least for 2 thousand years. The great ancient Greek Geographer Strabo (63BC-24AD) in his majestic book "Geographica" named Kula as "Katakekaumene" (fire-born) because of the coal black lava. The geological significance and the cultural richness of Kula was mentioned by many foreign travellers and researchers like Charles Texier (1832) "Asia Minor" and Henry Washington's PhD thesis in 1893 where he named Kula basalts as "Kulaite". Kula Geopark area is awarded with high geodiversity representing 200 million years of earth history from Palaeozoic to Holocene including maars, monogenic cinder cones, successive lava flow plains, lava caves and tubes, craters, basalt columns, xenoliths, contact metamorphism, ash deposits, waterfalls in volcanic canyons, active karstic caves, badlands and fairy chimneys, mesa structures and schist tor, as far as 15 thousand years of fossil human foot prints preserved in volcanic ash. Kula Geopark is the land of miniature volcanoes where cinder cones are not higher than 150m. As a result, the geosites are easy to access and visiting the area requires very little risk, effort and time which makes the area excellent for geotourism and geoeducation. In addition to these outstanding natural and geological heritages, Kula Geopark reveals rich cultural, architectural historical, archaeological, and paleontological monuments. Kula represents well-preserved monuments of the 18th century Ottoman urban architecture in Turkey. The Kula Geopark Project was initiated in 2011 by PhD Erdal Gümüş with the support of the Kula Municipality. In September 2013 the Kula Geopark was certified as the first

  11. 9 CFR 147.27 - Procedures recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. 147.27 Section 147.27 Animals and Animal... recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. (a) The vehicle transporting the insemination crew should be left as far as practical from the turkey pens. (b) The...

  12. 75 FR 33262 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Turkey, 51 FR 17784 (May 15, 1986) (``Antidumping Duty Order''). On May 1, 2009, the Department published... and Tube From Turkey, 74 FR 6368 (February 9, 2009), unchanged in Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 22883...

  13. 77 FR 43573 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States Section of the United States-Turkey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... United States-Turkey Business Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In December 2009, the Governments of the United States and Turkey agreed to establish a U.S.-Turkey Business Council. This notice announces membership opportunities for appointment...

  14. 77 FR 53909 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Institution of Five-year Reviews Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on imports of certain pasta from Italy and Turkey (61 FR 38544... Italy and Turkey (66 FR 57703). Following the second five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission... on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey (72 FR 58052). The Commission is now conducting third...

  15. 9 CFR 147.27 - Procedures recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. 147.27 Section 147.27 Animals and Animal... recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. (a) The vehicle transporting the insemination crew should be left as far as practical from the turkey pens. (b) The...

  16. 9 CFR 147.27 - Procedures recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. 147.27 Section 147.27 Animals and Animal... recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. (a) The vehicle transporting the insemination crew should be left as far as practical from the turkey pens. (b) The...

  17. 9 CFR 147.27 - Procedures recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. 147.27 Section 147.27 Animals and Animal... recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. (a) The vehicle transporting the insemination crew should be left as far as practical from the turkey pens. (b) The...

  18. 9 CFR 147.27 - Procedures recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. 147.27 Section 147.27 Animals and Animal... recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. (a) The vehicle transporting the insemination crew should be left as far as practical from the turkey pens. (b) The...

  19. 78 FR 74161 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, Mexico, and Turkey; Scheduling of Full...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... COMMISSION Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, Mexico, and Turkey; Scheduling of Full..., Mexico, and Turkey AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... duty orders on light- walled rectangular pipe and tube from China, Korea, Mexico, and Turkey would...

  20. Arsenic Speciation of Waters from the Aegean Region, Turkey by Hydride Generation: Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Çiftçi, Tülin Deniz; Henden, Emur

    2016-08-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a serious problem for human health. Since the toxicity of arsenic species As(III) and As(V) is different, it is important to determine the concentrations separately. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an accurate and sensitive method for the speciation of arsenic. It was intended with this work to determine the concentrations of arsenic species in water samples collected from Izmir, Manisa and nearby areas. A batch type hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer was used. As(V) gave no signal under the optimal measurement conditions of As(III). A certified reference drinking water was analyzed by the method and the results showed excellent agreement with the reported values. The procedure was applied to 34 water samples. Eleven tap water, two spring water, 19 artesian well water and two thermal water samples were analyzed under the optimal conditions. PMID:27236436

  1. Enterococci with Glycopeptide Resistance in Turkeys, Turkey Farmers, Turkey Slaughterers, and (Sub)Urban Residents in the South of The Netherlands: Evidence for Transmission of Vancomycin Resistance from Animals to Humans?

    PubMed Central

    Stobberingh, Ellen; van den Bogaard, Anthony; London, Nancy; Driessen, Christel; Top, Janetta; Willems, Rob

    1999-01-01

    The number of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) relative to the total number of enterococci was determined in fecal samples from turkeys and three human populations in 1996, each with a different level of contact with turkeys, i.e., turkey farmers, turkey slaughterers, and (sub)urban residents. The percentage of VRE relative to the total enterococcal population (i.e., the degree of resistance) was low (2 to 4%) in all groups (except in six samples). No difference was observed between farmers who used avoparcin and those who did not. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the VRE isolates from the different populations were quite heterogeneous, but isolates with the same PFGE pattern were found among animal and human isolates, in addition to the isolates which were described previously (A. E. van den Bogaard, L. B. Jensen, and E. E. Stobberingh, N. Engl. J. Med. 337:1558–1559, 1997). Detailed molecular characterization of vanA-containing transposons from different isolates showed, that in addition to a previously reported strain, similar transposons were present in VRE isolates from turkeys and turkey farmers. Moreover, similar VanA elements were found not only in isolates with the same PFGE pattern but also in other strains from both humans and animals. PMID:10471567

  2. Analyzing Turkey's Data from TIMSS 2007 to Investigate Regional Disparities in Eighth Grade Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erberber, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is expected to be a full member of the European Union (EU) by 2013. In the course of its integration into the EU, Turkey has been simultaneously facing access, quality, and equity issues in education. Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made on increasing the access. However, improving the country's low level of education…

  3. The Impact of John Dewey on the Teacher Education System in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uygun, Selcuk

    2008-01-01

    This study discusses the impact of John Dewey (1859-1952) on Turkey's teacher education system. In so doing, it heavily relies on the commissioned report "The Report and Recommendation on Turkish Education" prepared by Dewey in 1924. This paper documents Dewey's ideas about teacher education in Turkey and analyses their take up in practice. Based…

  4. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Melissa S.; Cardona, Carol J.; Coulombe, Roger A.; Reed, Kent M.

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB1 can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris) are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB1 challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB1 in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Eggs were injected with AFB1 (1 μg) or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24) and wild turkey (n = 15) produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log2 fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB1 effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance. PMID:26751476

  5. US Influence on the Education System in Turkey: An Analysis of Reports by American Education Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskin, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse reports prepared by American education specialists visiting Turkey from the Proclamation of the Republic till the end of the 1950's to inspect Turkey's education system. In accordance with this purpose, first, the foreign specialists' reports are briefly introduced chronologically and then American…

  6. 78 FR 55755 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Mexico and Turkey; Institution of Antidumping and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Mexico and Turkey; Institution of Antidumping and... from Mexico and Turkey of steel concrete reinforcing bar, primarily provided for in subheadings...

  7. The Development of Science Concept in Turkey and Effects of Constructivism on 2004 Primary Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öztürk, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the development of science concept in Turkey. It is seen that the historical process of science concept in Turkey has developed within two stages. The first setting is the later stages of the Ottoman State and the Republican Era, at which time positivism was prevalent as noted in the objectives of the national…

  8. A Chronological Approach to Development of Social Studies Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akdag, Hakan; Kaymakci, Selahattin

    2011-01-01

    Social studies education has played an important role for ages in Turkey. The aim of this study is to inform international scientific community about the historical development of social studies education in Turkey. In the study, document analysis, a technique of qualitative approach, was used. The data were collected from documents like social…

  9. Effects of hydrodynamic pressure processing on the marination and quality of turkey breast muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) on the marination and meat quality characteristics of turkey breast muscle was investigated. Boneless, skinless turkey breast muscles were obtained from 45 birds. One breast muscle from each bird was HDP treated and the other side served as a n...

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among turkeys on family farms in the state of Northeastern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in turkeys and chickens on family farms in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In order to do so, 204 sera samples from turkeys were analyzed using the Modified Agglutination T...

  11. The Effects of Violence and Internal Displacement on Rural-Agrarian Change in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonmez, Abdulkerim

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses two interrelated issues that have assumed major political significance in the handling of the Kurdish question in Turkey. The first is the impact of violence and resulting internal displacement in Eastern and Southeastern Turkey on rural-agrarian change. The second concerns the implications of the structural change and social…

  12. Invisible Obstacles on the Implementation of Multiple Intelligences Theory in K-8 Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Ebenezer, Jazlin

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the implementation of Multiple Intelligences (MI) Theory in K-8 classrooms in Turkey. First, it was made meetings in small groups (3 or 4) with 38 teachers in one of the first MI schools in Turkey during the first semesters. They were 22 elementary teachers from Grades 1 to 5 and 16…

  13. The Open Education System, Anadolu University, Turkey: E-Transformation in a Mega-University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin; Ozkul, Ali Ekrem; Aydin, Cengiz Hakan; Mutlu, Mehmet Emin

    2006-01-01

    Anadolu University in Turkey is one of the world's largest and least known mega-universities. Well over one million students in Turkey, the European Union and Northern Cyprus are enrolled in its Open Education System and yet few accounts of this dual-mode provider appear in the international literature. This article describes the evolution of the…

  14. 75 FR 16439 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Steel Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 7984 (March 7, 1986). On March 2, 2009, the Department... products covered by this order are certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube with an outside diameter of 0... Administrative Review: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey, 72 FR 62837, 62838 (November...

  15. Bone characteristics of 16 wk-old turkeys subjected to different dietary regimens and simulated stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of a yeast extract (YE) feed supplement and/or vitamin D3 (VD) on the bone properties of 16 wk-old turkeys, transiently subjected to a simulated stress using dexamethasone (Dex), were determined. The turkeys were fed diets with or without YE and/or VD during 6, 11, and 15 wk post hatch, ...

  16. Analysing the Subject of Peace in Award-Winning Children's and Adolescent Novels in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Canan; Kepenekci, Yasemin Karaman; Güldenoglu, Bilge Nur Dogan; Karagül, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal how the concept of peace is addressed in the national award-winning novels written for secondary school students within the Republic of Turkey. Data for this study was obtained from child and youth literature award organizations, associations and publishers within Turkey. Each group which was researched has…

  17. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B₁.

    PubMed

    Monson, Melissa S; Cardona, Carol J; Coulombe, Roger A; Reed, Kent M

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB₁ can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris) are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB₁ challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB₁ in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Eggs were injected with AFB₁ (1 μg) or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24) and wild turkey (n = 15) produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log₂ fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB₁ effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance. PMID:26751476

  18. TIME OF ENTRY OF SALMONELLA AND CAMPYLOBACTER INTO THE TURKEY BROODER HOUSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earlier we reported the prevalence of Campylobacter (> 90%) and Salmonella (33%) in turkeys at slaughter. Herein we describe studies to estimate the time of entry of Campylobacter and Salmonella into the brooder house, which is the first stage of commercial turkey production. In Trial 1, birds (10...

  19. Language Education and ELT Materials in Turkey from the Path Dependence Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the role of traditional language teaching methodology on the current language teaching methodology in Turkey from the Path Dependence Theory perspective. Path Dependence claims that the past continues shaping the present. Similarly, traditional approaches still shape foreign/second language education. Turkey has inherited a…

  20. Virulence of Puccinia triticina in Turkey and leaf rust resistance in Turkish wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is a common disease on wheat in the coastal regions of Turkey. Collections of P. triticina from infected wheat leaves were obtained from the main wheat production zones of Turkey in 2009 and 2010. A total of 104 single uredinial isolates were tested for virulen...

  1. Investigating turkey enteric coronavirus circulating in the southeastern United States and Arkansas during 2012 and 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of molecular diagnostic assays has allowed ongoing periodic monitoring of United States turkey flocks for suspected viral enteric pathogens such as reovirus, rotavirus, parvovirus, and astrovirus. Beginning in early 2012, monitoring of commercial turkey flocks in the Southeastern United Stat...

  2. Molecular characterization of turkey enteric coronaviruses circulating in the United States in 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of molecular diagnostic assays has allowed ongoing periodic monitoring of United States turkey flocks for suspected viral enteric pathogens such as reovirus, rotavirus, parvovirus, and astrovirus. Beginning in early 2012, monitoring of commercial turkey flocks in the Southeastern United Stat...

  3. Sotalol for the protection of turkeys from the development of β-aminopropionitrile-induced aortic ruptures

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Charles F.

    1972-01-01

    1. The influence of feeding 2 levels of sotalol on the incidence of β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN)-induced aortic ruptures of immature turkeys was determined. 2. Four of 22 turkeys fed 0·12% sotalol and 0·07% BAPN died of aortic ruptures, but 6 of 21 turkeys fed only BAPN died of the syndrome. 3. Blood pressure, heart rate, aortic tensile strength, and aortic structure as seen by light- and electron-microscope were similar in turkeys fed BAPN alone or both BAPN and 0·12% sotalol concurrently. 4. In a second experiment, 13 of 24 turkeys fed 0·7% BAPN alone died of aortic ruptures, but only 2 of 24 turkeys fed BAPN and 0·2% sotalol concurrently died of the disease. 5. Aortic tensile strength was lower, heart rate was faster, alterations of aortic elastic fibres as seen by light- and electron-microscope were more severe, and aortic salt soluble collagen with a higher amino acid content was increased in turkeys fed only BAPN, as compared to turkeys fed both BAPN and 0·2% sotalol. PMID:4561180

  4. Analysis of Primary School Curriculum of Turkey, Finland, and Ireland in Terms of Media Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanriverdi, Belgin; Apak, Ozlem

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implications of Media Literacy Education (MLE) in Turkey by analyzing the Primary School Curricula in terms of MLE comparatively in Turkey, Ireland and Finland. In this study, the selection of Finland and Ireland curricula is related with those countries' being the pioneering countries in MLE and the…

  5. First report of leaf spot of Convolvulus arvensis caused by Phoma macrostoma var. macrostoma in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) is an exotic perennial vine that is invasive in the USA and problematic in Turkey. In May 2012, diseased Convolvulus arvensis plants were found near Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey. Symptoms were irregular tan-colored necrotic lesions on leaves. Leav...

  6. The Comparison of Teaching Process of First Reading in USA and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Yalçin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the teaching process of early reading in the US to in Turkey. This study observes developing early reading of students, their reading miscues, and compares early reading process of students in the US and to early reading process of students in Turkey. This study includes the following research question: What are…

  7. Dexamethasone immunosuppression results in turkey clostridial dermatitis: A retrospective analysis of 7 studies, 1998 - 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been studying the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) for the past 20 years and have determined that this syndrome is caused by the inability of some fast-growing male turkeys to cope with production stressors. While immunosuppressive viruses have often been associated with suscep...

  8. Evaluation of the Latest English Language Teacher Training Programme in Turkey: Teacher Trainees' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzun, Levent

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the latest English Language Teacher Training Programme in Turkey from the viewpoint of students who were enrolled on the programme for a period of four years. Participants were 90 last year students who were enrolled in the English Language Teaching department at Uludag University, Turkey. Data were collected by means…

  9. A Comparative Analysis of the Education Systems of Turkey and Canada: The Similarity and the Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guven, Ilknur; Gurdal, Ayla

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study was made on the education systems of Turkey, a developing country, and Canada, a developed country with a comparatively high living standard and successful education systems. While education is governed at the national level in Turkey, it is the individual responsibility of the governments of the ten provinces and the…

  10. Role of Migratory Birds in Spreading Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Cafer; Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz; Hokelek, Murat; Acici, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Hava

    2014-01-01

    We investigated migratory birds’ role in spreading Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) through attached ticks. We detected CCHFV RNA in ticks on migratory birds in Turkey. Two isolates showed similarity with CCHFV genotype 4, suggesting a role for ticks in CCHFV epidemics in Turkey and spread of CCHFV by birds. PMID:25062428

  11. Comparison of Learning Strategies for Mathematics Achievement in Turkey with Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Serpil; Cene, Erhan; Demir, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine learning strategies accounted for mathematics achievement across Turkey and neighboring countries. Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation, Israel, Serbia, Romania and Jordan were involved in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2009) study. Since other neighbors of Turkey…

  12. Comparison of Early Childhood Education (Preschool Education) in Turkey and OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgan, Habib

    2010-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to evaluate how the difference the early childhood education in Turkey and OECD countries. The outstanding point evaluated by the teachers about the difference between the education in Turkey and that in OECD countries and the conditions needing to be improved was the compare of age groups benefiting from the services…

  13. Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of turkeys, from breeders to processed carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are two main pathogens of public health concern very often associated with poultry and eggs. Both are zoonotic bacteria frequently colonizing intestinal tracts of turkeys. However, the mechanisms of transmission of these organisms through fertile turkey eggs, and consequ...

  14. European Citizenship and European Union Expansion: Perspectives on Europeanness and Citizenship Education from Britain and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Chris; Busher, Hugh; Lawson, Tony; Acun, Ismail; Goz, Nur Leman

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some perspectives on citizenship education in Turkey and Britain in the context of current contested discourses on the nature of European identity and of the European Union (EU). It is based on data collected during an EU-funded student teacher exchange programme between three universities in Turkey and Leicester University…

  15. Research on Foreign Language Teaching and Learning in Turkey (2005-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alptekin, Cem; Tatar, Sibel

    2011-01-01

    This is an overview of research on applied linguistics and foreign language education in Turkey, surveying nearly 130 studies from the period 2005-2009. Following a brief presentation of the history and current sociopolitical situation of foreign language education in Turkey, the article focuses on research that characterizes the most common…

  16. A Critical Approach to Discipline of Human Geography as an Apparatus for State Hegemony in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özgen, Nurettin

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the hegemony of political power on the discipline of human geography in Turkey. Throughout the history of the country, human geography curricula have been aligned with the nationalist and hegemonic power politics of state authorities instead of being guided by universal norms, thus ignoring Turkey's sociopolitical and cultural…

  17. Intercultural Competence of English Language Teachers in International Baccalaureate World Schools in Turkey and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demircioglu, Serife; Çakir, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the opinions and attitudes of International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) English language teachers from Turkey, the USA, the UK, New Zealand and Spain on intercultural language teaching. 16 teachers from Turkey, 15 teachers from the USA, 11 teachers from the UK, 10 teachers from New Zealand and 8 teachers from Spain,…

  18. Trends in Pre-School Enrolment in Turkey: Unequal Access and Differential Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agirdag, Orhan; Yazici, Zeliha; Sierens, Sven

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a historical and international analysis of early childhood education in Turkey is made. More specifically, we explore the trend in pre-school enrolment, compare Turkey's enrolment rate with other countries, study whether access to pre-school is related to social class and gender, and investigate the impact of pre-school attendance…

  19. Opinions of Students at Turkish and German Universities on Turkey in the EU Accession Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebi, Nurhayat

    2009-01-01

    Turkey's candidacy for accession to the European Union (EU) dates back to many years and is still a current and highly disputed issue. This study was conducted to determine the opinions of students at Turkish and German universities on Turkey in relation to the European Union. Two hundred twenty six German students participated in the study from…

  20. The Medium-of-Instruction Debate in Turkey: Oscillating between National Ideas and Bilingual Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvi, Ali Fuad

    2014-01-01

    Situated at the intersection of sociolinguistic and educational planes, English as a medium-of-instruction debate has always been at the crux of the intense debates, and offers a lens for a systematic investigation of the spread of English in Turkey. As Turkey is moving toward greater integration with the European Union and promoting its…

  1. Characteristics of 15-Year-Old Students Predicting Scientific Literacy Skills in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Ergül

    2016-01-01

    Since 2003, Turkey regularly participates in PISA. According to the PISA 2012 results, 15-year-old students in Turkey performed below both OECD countries and participating countries. Defining the relations between students' characteristics and their scientific literacy skills is thought to provide deeper understanding for the nature of this…

  2. 75 FR 27925 - Use of Turkey Shackle in Bar-Type Cut Operations; Correcting Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... inches (73 FR 51899). The specified shackle width of 10.5 inches is a typographical error, and the... Food Safety and Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 381 Use of Turkey Shackle in Bar-Type Cut Operations... regulations to correct an inadvertent error in the required shackle width for Bar-type cut turkey...

  3. What Kind of Citizen? An Analysis of the Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kus, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The social studies curriculum was recently revised in Turkey, running in a pilot scheme in the school year 2004-05. It was then implemented in primary schools all over Turkey from 2006. This study describes the kind of citizen it aims to form by analysing all of the documents relating to social studies teaching. The social studies curriculum for…

  4. Burnout among Turkish High School Teachers Working in Turkey and Abroad: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogan, Ismail; Dogan, Ahmet Atilla; Bayram, Nuran

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine perceived levels of burnout among Turkish high school teachers working in Turkey and abroad. Method: A total of 255 Turkish teachers working at public schools in Germany (n=78), Cyprus (n=94) and Turkey (n=83) comprised our study group. In Germany and Cyprus, the participants were selected…

  5. 78 FR 56865 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Investigations, 78 FR 45502 (July 29, 2013). Postponement of Due Date for the Preliminary Determination Section... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of...) 482-3964 (India); Shane Subler at (202) 482-0189 (Turkey), AD/CVD Operations, Import...

  6. Turkey's Educational Policies in Central Asia and Caucasia: Perceptions of Policy Makers and Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcali, Pinar; Engin-Demir, Cennet

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the educational policies of Turkey in Central Asia and Caucasia in the post-Soviet era in terms of their successes and failures as perceived by some of the relevant professional policy makers in this field as well as experts from various think-tank institutions in Turkey who are interested in the region.…

  7. Perspectives of College of Education Students in Turkey on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasar, Pinar; Cronin, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed the autism awareness of College of Education students in two universities in Turkey. The main purpose of this research study was to conduct a needs assessment to learn more about Turkey's College of Education students' knowledge and awareness of autism. The Autism Awareness of College of Education Students in Turkey…

  8. University Students' Perception of Discrimination on Campus in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokce, Asiye Toker

    2013-01-01

    This study explores discrimination on campus in Turkey. The participants were 164 university students from the first, third, and fourth classes of two departments in a university in Turkey. The data was gathered through a questionnaire developed by the author. The results revealed that students were discriminated against because of their clothing…

  9. Education of the Gifted Students in Turkey and a Sample Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genç, Mehmet Ali

    2016-01-01

    After the Enderun College which successively provided gifted education during the Ottoman period, special education for the gifted in Turkey was interrupted. The discussion of talent education started after 1993 and an education model convenient to the conditions in Turkey was developed following the steps of how it is done in other parts of the…

  10. Monuments to the Republic: School as a Nationalising Discourse in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilgi, Sabiha

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the cultural construction of the school in Turkey in relation to the construction of Turkish nation-ness. By looking at how the modern school was fit together with a network of interrelated discourses available in early twentieth-century Turkey, the article investigates the ways in which the school became an object of thought…

  11. A Study on Environmental Knowledge Level of Primary Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gökdere, Murat

    2005-01-01

    The education system in Turkey has responded promptly to the need for environmental education (EE). However, the existing lack of relevant research may limit the functionality of EE programs in Turkey. In this study, the goal was to develop an environmental conscious database that would allow effective planning of EE. Specifically, the study was…

  12. A new species of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae) from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Tropea, Gioele; Yağmur, Ersen Aydın; Koç, Halil; Yeşilyurt, Fatih; Rossi, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Euscorpius Thorell, 1876is described based on specimens collected from Dilek Peninsula (Davutlar, Aydın) in Turkey. It is characterized by an oligotrichous trichobothrial pattern (Pv= 7, et= 5/6, eb= 4) and small size. Euscorpius (Euscorpius) avcii sp. n. is the first named species of the subgenus Euscorpius from Turkey. PMID:22977350

  13. A new species of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae) from Marmara Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yağmur, Ersen Aydın; Tropea, Gioele

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 is described based on specimens collected from Bursa Province, in Marmara Region of Turkey. It is characterized by a mesotrichous trichobothrial pattern (Pv= 8, et= 6, em=4, eb= 4), medium size and light coloration. Euscorpius (Euscorpius) rahsenae sp. n. is the second species of the subgenus Euscorpius recognizedin Turkey. PMID:23794835

  14. Phylogenetic analysis, genomic diversity and classification of M class gene segments of turkey reoviruses.

    PubMed

    Mor, Sunil K; Marthaler, Douglas; Verma, Harsha; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Jindal, Naresh; Porter, Robert E; Goyal, Sagar M

    2015-03-23

    From 2011 to 2014, 13 turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARVs) were isolated from cases of swollen hock joints in 2-18-week-old turkeys. In addition, two isolates from similar cases of turkey arthritis were received from another laboratory. Eight turkey enteric reoviruses (TERVs) isolated from fecal samples of turkeys were also used for comparison. The aims of this study were to characterize turkey reovirus (TRV) based on complete M class genome segments and to determine genetic diversity within TARVs in comparison to TERVs and chicken reoviruses (CRVs). Nucleotide (nt) cut off values of 84%, 83% and 85% for the M1, M2 and M3 gene segments were proposed and used for genotype classification, generating 5, 7, and 3 genotypes, respectively. Using these nt cut off values, we propose M class genotype constellations (GCs) for avian reoviruses. Of the seven GCs, GC1 and GC3 were shared between the TARVs and TERVs, indicating possible reassortment between turkey and chicken reoviruses. The TARVs and TERVs were divided into three GCs, and GC2 was unique to TARVs and TERVs. The proposed new GC approach should be useful in identifying reassortant viruses, which may ultimately be used in the design of a universal vaccine against both chicken and turkey reoviruses. PMID:25655814

  15. Phosphorus availability and early corn growth response in soil amended with turkey manure ash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incinerating turkey manure is an alternative option to generate renewable energy and also to eliminate environmental problems associated with manure stockpiling. Incineration produces a turkey manure ash (TMA) with a fertilizer value of 4.3% P and 10% K. We conducted a greenhouse pot-study using a l...

  16. Demand for Education in Turkey: A Tobit Analysis of Private Tutoring Expenditures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansel, Aysit; Bircan, Fatma

    2006-01-01

    This is the first study on private tutoring in Turkey. Private tutoring especially for the purpose of preparing for the competitive university entrance examination is an important, widespread phenomenon in Turkey. Private tutoring centers are commonly referred to as "dersane" in Turkish. This study first gives an overview of private tutoring…

  17. Obstacles to Special Education for Students with Intellectual Disabilities in Turkey: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meral, Bekir Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Turkey regulates the special education of students with disabilities and, particularly, those who have intellectual disabilities (ID) based on international and national legal texts. However, the gap between law and practice cannot be denied. The existence of obstacles to special education for students with disabilities or ID continues in Turkey.…

  18. Presence of two host races of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) collected in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphis gossypii has emerged as a primary pest of citrus, cotton, cucurbits and greenhouse-grown vegetables and foliage crops in Turkey as well as the rest of Europe. To determine if host races of the aphid are present in Turkey, reciprocal host transfer experiments and life table analyses were perfo...

  19. The Analysis on Sport Attitudes of Students at High School Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalay, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The research objective is to determine different variables on sport attitudes of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade high school students throughout Turkey. Data were collected using face to face survey method with students studying in 21 provinces within seven different geographical regions of Turkey. 5862 randomized students are selected throughout…

  20. Effect of Lactose as a Prebiotic on Turkey Body Weight Under Commercial Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of a commercially available lactic acid bacteria (LAB) probiotic alone and supplemented with lactose as prebiotic, was evaluated for effects on turkey body weight during the brooding and grow out phases under commercial conditions in two experiments. Turkey poults were given the probioti...