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Sample records for bergbauforschung-foster wheeler process

  1. Spectral caustics in laser assisted Breit-Wheeler process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nousch, T.; Seipt, D.; Kämpfer, B.; Titov, A. I.

    2016-04-01

    Electron-positron pair production by the Breit-Wheeler process embedded in a strong laser pulse is analyzed. The transverse momentum spectrum displays prominent peaks which are interpreted as caustics, the positions of which are accessible by the stationary phases. Examples are given for the superposition of an XFEL beam with an optical high-intensity laser beam. Such a configuration is available, e.g., at LCLS at present and at European XFEL in near future. It requires a counter propagating probe photon beam with high energy which can be generated by synchronized inverse Compton backscattering.

  2. Nonlinear Breit-Wheeler process in the collision of a photon with two plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuan-Bin; Xue, She-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    The nonlinear Breit-Wheeler process of electron-positron pair production off a probe photon colliding with a low-frequency and a high-frequency electromagnetic wave that propagate in the same direction is analyzed. We calculate the pair-production probability and the spectra of the created pair in the nonlinear Breit-Wheeler processes of pair production off a probe photon colliding with two plane waves or one of these two plane waves. The differences of these two cases are discussed. We evidently show, in the two-wave case, the possibility of Breit-Wheeler pair production with simultaneous photon emission into the low-frequency wave and the high multiphoton phenomena: (i) Breit-Wheeler pair production by absorption of the probe photon and a large number of photons from the low-frequency wave, in addition to the absorption of one photon from the high-frequency wave; (ii) Breit-Wheeler pair production by absorption of the probe photon and one photon from the high-frequency wave with simultaneous emission of a large number of photons into the low-frequency wave. The phenomenon of photon emission into the wave cannot happen in the one-wave case. Compared with the one-wave case, the contributions from high multiphoton processes are largely enhanced in the two-wave case. The results presented in this article show a possible way to access the observations of the phenomenon of photon emission into the wave and high multiphoton phenomenon in Breit-Wheeler pair production even with the laser-beam intensity of order 1018 W/cm2.

  3. Wheeler and Whitehead: Process Biology and Process Philosophy in the Early Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Sölch, Dennis

    2016-07-01

    The case of William Morton Wheeler and Alfred North Whitehead represents a striking example of how biologists and philosophers engaged in a common enterprise in the early twentieth century. Both challenge the notion that the living world is composed of distinct organisms. Based on his studies of the behavior of social insects, Wheeler developed a concept of superorganisms that paved the way for a theory of emergent evolution. This paper argues that Whitehead, whose relation to academic biology has been largely ignored, drew on Wheeler's findings and integrated them into a universal philosophical cosmology. PMID:27477347

  4. Observing the two-photon Breit-Wheeler process for the first time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, Oliver; Hill, Edward; Rose, Steven; Mackenroth, Felix

    2014-10-01

    As the inverse of Dirac annihilation, the Breit-Wheeler process, the production of an electron-positron pair in the collision of two photons, is the simplest mechanism by which light can be transformed into matter. It is also of fundamental importance in high-energy astrophysics, both in the context of the dense radiation fields of compact objects and the absorption of high-energy gamma rays travelling intergalactic distances. However, in the 80 years since its theoretical prediction, this process has never been observed. Here, we present the design of a new class of photon-photon collider, which is capable of detecting significant numbers of Breit-Wheeler pairs using current-generation technology. We further show how our scheme could be implemented on existing laser facilities; successfully achieving this would represent the advent of a new type of high-energy physics experiment. Supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, AWE, Aldermaston and the John Adams Institute (STFC).

  5. Pair production by Schwinger and Breit-Wheeler processes in bi-frequent fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, A.; Nousch, T.; Seipt, D.; Kämpfer, B.; Blaschke, D.; Panferov, A. D.; Smolyansky, S. A.; Titov, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    > Counter-propagating and suitably polarized light (laser) beams can provide conditions for pair production. Here, we consider in more detail the following two situations: (i) in the homogeneity regions of anti-nodes of linearly polarized ultra-high intensity laser beams, the Schwinger process is dynamically assisted by a second high-frequency field, e.g. by an XFEL beam; and (ii) a high-energy probe photon beam colliding with a superposition of co-propagating intense laser and XFEL beams gives rise to the laser-assisted Breit-Wheeler process. The prospects of such bi-frequent field constellations with respect to the feasibility of conversion of light into matter are discussed.

  6. Pair production by Schwinger and Breit-Wheeler processes in bi-frequent fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, A.; Nousch, T.; Seipt, D.; Kämpfer, B.; Blaschke, D.; Panferov, A. D.; Smolyansky, S. A.; Titov, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    Counter-propagating and suitably polarized light (laser) beams can provide conditions for pair production. Here, we consider in more detail the following two situations: (i) in the homogeneity regions of anti-nodes of linearly polarized ultra-high intensity laser beams, the Schwinger process is dynamically assisted by a second high-frequency field, e.g. by an XFEL beam; and (ii) a high-energy probe photon beam colliding with a superposition of co-propagating intense laser and XFEL beams gives rise to the laser-assisted Breit-Wheeler process. The prospects of such bi-frequent field constellations with respect to the feasibility of conversion of light into matter are discussed.

  7. Data collection and processing tools for naturalistic study of powered two-wheelers users' behaviours.

    PubMed

    Espié, Stéphane; Boubezoul, Abderrahmane; Aupetit, Samuel; Bouaziz, Samir

    2013-09-01

    Instrumented vehicles are key tools for in-depth understanding of drivers' behaviours, thus for the design of scientifically based countermeasures to reduce fatalities and injuries. The instrumentation of Powered Two-Wheelers (PTW) has been less widely implemented that for vehicles, in part due to the technical challenges involved. The last decade has seen the development in Europe of several tools and methodologies to study motorcycle riders' behaviours and motorcycle dynamics for a range of situations, including crash events involving falls. Thanks to these tools, a broad-ranging research programme has been conducted, from the design and tuning of real-time falls detection to the study of riding training systems, as well as studies focusing on naturalistic riding situations such as filtering and line splitting. The methodology designed for the in-depth study of riders' behaviours in naturalistic situations can be based upon the combination of several sources of data such as: PTW sensors, context-based video retrieval system, Global Positioning System (GPS) and verbal data on the riders' decisions making process. The goals of this paper are: (1) to present the methodological tools developed and used by INRETS-MSIS (now Ifsttar-TS2/Simu) in the last decade for the study of riders' behaviours in real-world environment as well as on track for situations up to falls, (2) to illustrate the kind of results that can be gained from the conducted studies, (3) to identify the advantages and limitations of the proposed methodology to conduct large scale naturalistic riding studies, and (4) to highlight how the knowledge gained from this approach will fill many of the knowledge gaps about PTW-riders' behaviours and risk factors. PMID:23659861

  8. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesterson, David B.

    Designed for use by the general reader, the college student, and the teacher, this book analyzes the life and literary career of Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw), emphasizing his literary ventures and artistic talents. The analysis reveals Billings' talents as a subtle humorist, homespun philosopher, and artist of the essay. Chapters include…

  10. Wheeler County Riparian Buffers; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Number of Contacts Made--Over 44 landowner contacts were made regarding CREP potential. Out of those 44 contacts, 15 resulted in on-site visits to the property to discuss available options. Articles were published in the Wheeler SWCD annual report and newsletter totaling a distribution of 1,200. Two informational displays were viewed by approximately 500 people: one at the Wheeler SWCD Annual Meeting and the second at the Wheeler County Fair. Number of Contracts Negotiated and Signed--3 CREP contracts in Wheeler County were signed within this contract period. They included landowners on Stephenson Creek, Bear Creek and Lost Valley Creek. The project done on Lost Valley Creek was handled by the Gilliam Co. Riparian Buffer Specialist filling in during the Wheeler position being vacated. Work was also started and is proceeding on another four contracts. Problems Encountered During Contract Year: (1) Riparian Buffer position vacated in October 2004 and District had difficulty filling the position. This set the district back in some of the delineated goals. Existing district staff is now up-to-speed on training, etc. and District is confident of achieving outlined goals. (2) Issues involving qualification of irrigated rates and how to process irrigated acres through CREP. (3) Issues involving clarification of eligibility as it relates to financial status of landowner; and (4) Landowner comfort in signing up for federal programs.

  11. SRTM Anaglyph: Wheeler Ridge, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Wheeler Ridge and vicinity, California, is a site of major tectonic activity, both historically and over recent geologic time. The epicenter of the 7.5 magnitude Kern County earthquake occurred here on July 21,1952, and numerous geologic and topographic features indicate rapid geologic processes. The ridge itself (upper-right center) is a geologic fold that is growing out of the southern San Joaquin Valley. A prominent 'wind gap,' now used for passage of the California aquaduct (with the aid of a pumping station), is evidence that the ridge grew faster than tranversing streams could erode down. Nearby abrupt and/or landslid mountain fronts similarly indicate a vigorous tectonic setting here, just north of the San Andreas fault. The Interstate 5 freeway can be seen crossing agricultural fields on the right and entering the very rugged and steep Grapevine Canyon toward the bottom.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect

  12. Edward Wheeler Hones Jr. (1922-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.; McPherron, Robert L.; Birn, Joachim

    2013-02-01

    Space physicist Edward Wheeler Hones Jr. died on 17 September 2012 at his home in Los Alamos, N. M. He was 90 years old. The cause of death was a heart attack that came following a brief hospitalization.

  13. Foster Wheeler compact CFB boiler with INTREX

    SciTech Connect

    Hyppaenen, T.; Rainio, A.; Kauppinen, K.V.O.; Stone, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    Foster Wheeler has introduced a new COMPACT Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler design based on the rectangular hot solids separator. The Compact design also enables easy implementation of new designs for INTREX fluid bed heat exchangers. These new products result in many benefits which affect the boiler economy and operation. After initial development of the Compact CFB design it has been applied in demonstration and industrial scale units. The performance of Compact CFB has been proved to be equivalent to conventional Foster Wheeler CFB has been proved to be equivalent to conventional Foster Wheeler CFB boilers with high availability. Several new Foster Wheeler Compact boilers are being built or already in operation. Operational experiences from different units will be discussed in this paper. There are currently Compact units with 100--150 MW{sub e} capacity under construction. With the scale-up experience with conventional CFB boilers and proven design approach and scale-up steps, Foster Wheeler will have the ability to provide large Compact CFB boilers up to 400--600 MW{sub e} capacity.

  14. Wheeler County Riparian Buffers; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Homer, Will

    2006-01-01

    Number of Contacts Made--I have contacted 35 landowners in Wheeler County. Of the 35 contacts 12 have resulted in meeting on their property to discuss available options. Included an article in the Annual Report and Wheeler SWCD newsletter mailed to 550 landowners. Contacts are primarily through networking with others here in the office as well as working closely with the NRCS office. Number of Contracts Negotiated--This Project has produced five riparian buffers within the past contract year. Each has greater meaning to the landowner than simply a buffer. In most cases the buffer is providing the landowner with improved grazing management and/or more reliable water source for livestock. Landowners also feel the enhanced wildlife habitat is a bonus to the program. Other Accomplishments--I took part in the John Day Subbasin Planning process and was able to offer assistance into the inventory items related to Wheeler County. I was often the only local representative able to attend the meetings. I assisted the Wheeler SWCD in writing a successful OWEB grant to remove 110 acres of junipers for watershed restoration, range rehabilitation, and economic development. One partner in the project is a manufacturer that uses juniper as their primary construction material. The goal is to create a pilot project that may grow into a self sustaining industry within the county. I also assisted in writing a small grant to improve water usage in the Muddy Creek watershed. I assisted with the Pine Creek Conservation Area ''Twilight Tour'' as well as the Wheeler SWCD ''Annual Meeting and Dinner''. Both events were successful in getting information out about our riparian buffer program. Facilitate office training and utilization of advanced GIS technology and mapping. Problems Encountered During Contract Year--The NRCS Cultural Resources Review process has ground to a halt. It is takes 6 months to get initial results from the Portland offices. Nearly all requests require site surveys

  15. DDT contamination at Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Fleming, W.J., III; Cromartie, E.

    1980-01-01

    Disposal of industrial waste resulted in massive DDT contamination atWheeler National Wildlife Refuge, Alabama. Nearly a decade after the cessation of DDT manufacturing at the facility responsible, concentrations of DDT residues in the local fauna are still high enough to suggest avian reproductive impairment and mortality. Populations of fish-eating birds are low, endangered species are being exposed, and muscle lipids of game birds contain up to 6900 parts of DDT (isomers and metabolites) per million.

  16. A generalized Hill-Wheeler ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, J.; Esebbag, C.; Martin, M. T.; Rebollo, L.; Plastino, A.

    1984-06-01

    The Hill-Wheeler ansatz for the total wave function, within the Generator Coordinate Method framework, is generalized by recourse to the theory of distributions. The ensuing approach allows one to obtain a basis that spans the collective subspace, without having to deal explicitly with the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the overlap kernel. Applications to an exactly soluble model and anharmonic vibrations illustrate the present treatment.

  17. SRTM Stereo Pair: Wheeler Ridge, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Wheeler Ridge and vicinity, California, is a site of major tectonic activity, both historically and over recent geologic time. The epicenter of the 7.5 magnitude Kern County earthquake occurred here on July 21,1952, and numerous geologic and topographic features indicate rapid geologic processes. The ridge itself (upper-right center) is a geologic fold that is growing out of the southern San Joaquin Valley. A prominent 'wind gap,' now used for passage of the California aquaduct (with the aid of a pumping station), is evidence that the ridge grew faster than tranversing streams could erode down. Nearby abrupt and/or landslid mountain fronts similarly indicate a vigorous tectonic setting here, just north of the San Andreas fault. The Interstate 5 freeway can be seen crossing agricultural fields on the right and entering the very rugged and steep Grapevine Canyon toward the bottom.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle

  18. Wheeler thought experiment with delayed choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    This is an alternative interpretation of Jacques, et. al. (2007), Wheeler's thought experiment with delayed choice. The researchers find that the choice of observables changes the previous behavior of the photon inside the interferometer. Stepping outside the QM box, we propose that elementary waves from the detectors travel backwards through the interferometer, and the photon is following such a ray in the reverse direction. Thus a change in observables changes the behavior of the photon for the simple reason that the observable is transmitting information to the photon and the photon is able to change its polarization mid-stream in response to a change in that information. According to this explanation there is no delayed choice. It is an illusion.

  19. Development of Foster Wheeler's Vision 21 Partial Gasification Module

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.

    2001-11-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded Foster Wheeler Development Corporation a contract to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx} 2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate

  20. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  1. John Wheeler, 1933 - 1959: Particles and Weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Kenneth

    2009-05-01

    During the early part of his career, John Archibald Wheeler made an astonishing number of contributions to nuclear and particle physics, as well as to classical electrodynamics, often in collaboration with another physicist. He was also a major contributor to the Manhattan Project (in Chicago and Hanford rather than Los Alamos), and, following World War II, became an influential scientific cold warrior. His early achievements in physics include the calculated scattering of light by light (with Gregory Breit), the prediction of nuclear rotational states (with Edward Teller), the theory of fission (with Niels Bohr), action-at-a-distance electrodynamics (with Richard Feynman), the theory of positronium, the universal weak interaction (with Jayme Tiomno), and the proposed use of the muon as a nuclear probe particle. He gained modest fame as the person who identified xenon 135 as a reactor poison. His Project Matterhorn contributed significantly to the design of the H bomb, and his Project 137, which he had hoped would flower into a major defense lab, served as the precursor to the Jason group.

  2. Multi-threading the generation of Burrows-Wheeler Alignment.

    PubMed

    Jo, H

    2016-01-01

    Along with recent progress in next-generation sequencing technology, it has become easier to process larger amounts of genome sequencing data at a lower cost. The most time-consuming step of next-generation sequencing data analysis involves the mapping of read data into a reference genome. Although the Burrows-Wheeler Alignment (BWA) tool is one of the most widely used open-source software tools for aligning read sequences, it still has a limitation in that it does not fully support a multi-thread mechanism during the alignment generation step. In this article, we propose a BWA-MT tool based on BWA that supports multi-thread mechanisms for processing alignment generation. To evaluate BWA-MT, we used an evaluation system equipped with 24 cores and 128 GB of memory. As workloads, we used the hg19 human genome reference sequence and sequences of various read sizes from the 1 to 40 M spots. In our evaluation, BWA-MT showed a maximum of 3.66-times better performance, and generated the same Sequence Alignment/Map result file as that of BWA. Although the ability to speed up the procedure might be dependent on computing resources, we confirmed that BWA-MT is a highly effective and fast alignment tool. PMID:27323088

  3. Wheeler-DeWitt Equation with Variable Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinchón, José Antonio; Dolgov, A.

    In this paper we study how all the physical ``constants'' vary in the framework described by a model in which we have taken into account the generalize conservation principle for its stress-energy tensor. This possibility enable us to take into account the adiabatic matter creation in order to get rid of the entropy problem. We try to generalize this situation by contemplating multi-fluid components. To validate all the obtained results we explore the possibility of considering the variation of the ``constants'' in the quantum cosmological scenario described by the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. For this purpose we explore the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in different contexts but from a dimensional point of view. We end by presenting the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the case of considering all the constants varying. The quantum potential is obtained and the tunneling probability is studied.

  4. John Archibald Wheeler: A study of mentoring in modern physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Terry M.

    This dissertation has two objectives. The first objective is to determine where best to situate the study of mentoring (i.e. the 'making of scientists') on the landscape of the history of science and science studies. This task is accomplished by establishing mentoring studies as a link between the robust body of literature dealing with Research Schools and the emerging scholarship surrounding the development, dispersion, and evolution of pedagogy in the training of twentieth century physicists. The second, and perhaps more significant and novel objective, is to develop a means to quantitatively assess the mentoring workmanship of scientific craftsmen who preside over the final stages of preparation when apprentices are transformed into professional scientists. The project builds upon a 2006 Master's Thesis that examined John Archibald Wheeler's work as a mentor of theoretical physicists at Princeton University in the years 1938--1976. It includes Wheeler's work as a mentor at the University of Texas and is qualitatively and quantitatively enhanced by virtue of the author having access to five separate collections with archival holdings of John Wheeler's papers and correspondence, as well as having access to thirty one tape recorded interviews that feature John Wheeler as either the interviewee or a prominent subject of discussion. The project also benefited from the opportunity to meet with and gather background information from a number of John Wheeler's former colleagues and students. Included in the dissertation is a content analysis of the acknowledgements in 949 Ph.D. dissertations, 122 Master's Theses, and 670 Senior Theses that were submitted during Wheeler's career as an active mentor. By establishing a census of the students of the most active mentors at Princeton and Texas, it is possible to tabulate the publication record of these apprentice groups and obtain objective measures of mentoring efficacy. The dissertation concludes by discussing the wider

  5. John Wheeler, 1952 - 1976: Black Holes and Geometrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Kip S.

    2009-05-01

    In 1952 John Wheeler turned his attention from nuclear physics and national defense to a backwater of physics: general relativity. Over the next 25 years, with students and postdocs he led a ``revolution'' that made relativity a major subfield of fundamental physics and a tool for astrophysics. Wheeler viewed curved spacetime as a nonlinear dynamical entity, to be studied via tools of geometrodynamics (by analogy with electrodynamics) -- including numerical relativity, for which his students laid the earliest foundations. With Joseph Weber (his postdoc), he did theoretical work on gravitational waves that helped launch Weber on a career of laying foundations for modern gravitational-wave detectors. Wheeler and his students showed compellingly that massive stars must form black holes; and he gave black holes their name, formulated the theory of their pulsations and stability (with Tullio Regge), and mentored several generations of students in seminal black-hole research (including Jacob Bekenstein's black-hole entropy). Before the discovery of pulsars, Wheeler identified magnetized, spinning neutron stars as the likely power sources for supernova remnants including the Crab nebula. He identified the Planck length and time as the characteristic scales for the laws of quantum gravity, and formulated the concept of quantum fluctuations of spacetime geometry and quantum foam. With Bryce DeWitt, he defined a quantum wave function on the space of 3-geometries and derived the Wheeler-DeWitt equation that governs it, and its a sum-over-histories action principle. Wheeler was a great inspiration to his colleagues and students, pointing the directions toward fruitful research problems and making intuitive-leap speculations about what lies beyond the frontiers of knowledge. Many of his ideas that sounded crazy at the time were ``just crazy enough to be right''.

  6. Powered two-wheelers within the traffic system.

    PubMed

    Van Elslande, Pierre; Elvik, Rune

    2012-11-01

    The world of powered two-wheelers has changed dramatically in recent decades, along with a steady increase in the number and diversity of the fleet and uses. This evolution has led to some benefits in terms of mobility, but also some drawbacks in terms of safety. The problems involved are neither simple nor monolithic and there is a lack of knowledge about their different facets and backgrounds that require research work both in terms of risk exposure, accidents factors and impact severity. This special issue of Accident Analysis and Prevention regroups 30 papers devoted to an improvement in this knowledge, exploring the different aspects involved in the safety of powered two-wheelers by complementary methods. PMID:23036376

  7. Evaluation of the mussel fishery in Wheeler Reservoir, Tennessee River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zack H.; Malvestuto, S. P.; Davies, W. D.; Crance, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the freshwater mussel fishery on Wheeler Reservoir, a 27,155-hectare mainstream impoundment of the Tennessee River in Alabama. During July 1991 through June 1992, we used a roving creel survey to conduct 285 interviews over 57 weekdays and 12 weekend days. Total harvest during the 12-month survey period was estimated to be 570 metric tons, and included 15 mussel species. The most frequently harvested species were the washboard Megalonaias nervosa. Ohio pigtoe Pleurobema cordatum, and butterfly Ellipsaria lineolata. Harvest peaked in June at 290,414 mussels. Among collection techniques, total estimated effort was highest for divers (71,160 musseler-hours). The total estimated value of the 12-month mussel harvest (in terms of money paid to harvesters) from Wheeler Reservoir was US$2,119,921.

  8. The Everett-Wheeler interpretation and the open future

    SciTech Connect

    Sudbery, Anthony

    2011-03-28

    I discuss the meaning of probability in the Everett-Wheeler interpretation of quantum mechanics, together with the problem of defining histories. To resolve these, I propose an understanding of probability arising from a form of temporal logic: the probability of a future-tense proposition is identified with its truth value in a many-valued and context-dependent logic. In short, probability is degree of truth. These ideas relate to traditional naive ideas of time and chance. Indeed, I argue that Everettian quantum mechanics is the only form of scientific theory that truly incorporates the perception that the future is open.

  9. A review of powered-two-wheeler behaviour and safety.

    PubMed

    Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George

    2015-01-01

    Powered-two-wheelers (PTWs) constitute a very vulnerable type of road users. The notable increase in their share in traffic and the high risk of severe accident occurrence raise the need for further research. However, current research on PTW safety is not as extensive as for other road users (passenger cars, etc.). Consequently, the objective of this research is to provide a critical review of research on Power-Two-Wheeler behaviour and safety with regard to data collection, methods of analysis and contributory factors, and discuss the needs for further research. Both macroscopic analyses (accident frequency, accident rates and severity) and microscopic analyses (PTW rider behaviour, interaction with other motorised traffic) are examined and discussed in this paper. The research gaps and the needs for future research are identified, discussed and put in a broad framework. When the interactions between behaviour, accident frequency/rates and severity are co-considered and co-investigated with the various contributory factors (riders, other users, road and traffic environment, vehicles), the accident and injury causes as well as the related solutions are better identified. PMID:24882114

  10. Introduction to General Relativity and John Archibald Wheeler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciufolini, Ignazio; Matzner, Richard

    John Archibald Wheeler was born on July 9, 1911, in Jacksonville, Florida, and passed away on April 13, 2008, in Hightstown, New Jersey; his influence on gravitational physics and science in general will remain forever. Among his many and important contributions to physics, he was one of the fathers of the renaissance of General Relativity. After a golden starting age of General Relativity, a few years after the Einstein's papers of 1915-1916, Einstein's gravitational theory was for many years, to quote the preface of a 1960 book of General Relativity [1], confined to "an ivory tower…and no doubt many a relativist looks forward to the day when the governments will seek his opinion on important questions".

  11. Semiclassical solutions of generalized Wheeler-DeWitt cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cesare, Marco; Gargiulo, Maria Vittoria; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2016-01-01

    We consider an extension of Wheeler-DeWitt minisuperpace cosmology with additional interaction terms that preserve the linear structure of the theory. General perturbative methods are developed and applied to known semiclassical solutions for a closed Universe filled with a massless scalar. The exact Feynman propagator of the free theory is derived by means of a conformal transformation in minisuperspace. As an example, a stochastic interaction term is considered, and first order perturbative corrections are computed. It is argued that such an interaction can be used to describe the interaction of the cosmological background with the microscopic d.o.f. of the gravitational field. A Helmoltz-like equation is considered for the case of interactions that do not depend on the internal time, and the corresponding Green's kernel is obtained exactly. The possibility of linking this approach to fundamental theories of quantum gravity is investigated.

  12. Length and volume of the Qadir-Wheeler ``suture model''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atiya-Tul-Hussain; Qadir, Asghar

    2001-04-01

    It had been shown that the Qadir-Wheeler inhomogeneous cosmological model constructed by a ``cut-and-paste'' procedure from two closed Friedmann models develops a corridor in the late stages of crunch. It had been argued that the proper length of the corridor tends to infinity with York time. However, it was not proved that it does so, and nor was it really clear how it would tend to infinity. Again, it was argued that the volume of the model would shrink to zero, but it was not apparent precisely how it would do so. The earlier conjecture for the first order behavior of the proper length and volume of the model is proved and the next order correction worked out so as to make clear at what York time the onset of the crunch occurs.

  13. Foster Wheeler power products limited pyrolysis technology for energy recovery from used tyres. Compendium on low- and non-waste technology (addendum)

    SciTech Connect

    1983-03-14

    The Foster Wheeler pyrolysis technology is a process in which used, shredded tires are heated in absence of air to produce a light fuel oil, solid fuel, and high grade steel. Hot gases (600 deg. C), containing no oxygen, are passed through the bed of tires causing pyrolysis to occur. Oil in the vapor phase is condensed and collected in the quench column. Remaining gases either fuel the process or are recycled through the reactor. Solid products are continuously removed from the reactor.

  14. Ground-water resources of Wheeler and eastern Gray Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maderak, M.L.

    1973-01-01

    Wheeler and eastern Gray Counties are in the east·central part of the Texas Panhandle. The two counties are characterized by rolling to fairly rugged topography with many sand-dune areas and a well developed drainage system.

  15. Wheeler County Riparian Buffers; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Judy; Homer, Will

    2004-02-01

    Problems Encountered During Contract Year--Wheeler County residents are mostly non participants when it comes to Farm Services programs. Results of the counties non participation is the rental rates are the lowest in the state. There is a government fear factor as well as an obvious distance limitation. The FSA office is nearly 150 mile roundtrip from two of the counties urban areas. I find myself not only selling the CREP-Riparian Buffer but also selling Farm Services in general. Training has been very limited. NRCS is obviously not designed around training and certification. They are an on-the-job training organization. It has caused a hesitation in my outreach program and a great deal of frustration. I feel my confidence will strengthen with the follow through of the current projects. The most evident problem has come to light as of late. The program is too expensive to implement. The planting is too intensive for a 12''-18'' rainfall area. I provide the potential landowner a spread sheet with the bonuses, the costs, and the final outcome. No matter the situation, CREP or CCRP, the landowner always balks at the cost. The program assumes the landowner has the capital to make the initial investment. For example, project No.2 is going to be a minimum width buffer. It is approximately 3,000 ft long and 5.5 acres. The buffer for tree planting and fencing alone will result in a cost of nearly $13,000. With the water developments it nears $23,000. That is nearly 10% of a 250 mother-cow operating budget. Project No.1, the tree planting estimate is $45,000. This alone is nearly 25% of the same type of budget. I would greatly appreciate any help in finding a third party willing to put money to work covering the initial costs of the program, expecting reimbursement from Farm Services Agency. I believe this could create a powerful tool in buffering streams in Wheeler County. Outlook for Contract Year 2--I have been in this position now for 6 months. I am beginning to feel a

  16. Wheeler-DeWitt equation in 3+1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamber, Herbert W.; Toriumi, Reiko; Williams, Ruth M.

    2013-10-01

    Physical properties of the quantum gravitational vacuum state are explored by solving a lattice version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. The constraint of diffeomorphism invariance is strong enough to uniquely determine part of the structure of the vacuum wave functional in the limit of infinitely fine triangulations of the three-sphere. In the large fluctuation regime, the nature of the wave function solution is such that a physically acceptable ground state emerges, with a finite nonperturbative correlation length naturally cutting off any infrared divergences. The location of the critical point in Newton’s constant Gc, separating the weak from the strong coupling phase, is obtained, and it is inferred from the general structure of the wave functional that fluctuations in the curvatures become unbounded at this point. Investigations of the vacuum wave functional further suggest that for weak enough coupling, G

  17. Situation report: Heavy DDT contamination at Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Atkeson, T.Z.

    1980-01-01

    A DDT manufacturing plant that operated on the Redstone Arsenal near Huntsville, Alabama discharged DDT-Iaden effluent from 1947 to 1970 into a creek on Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. Seven to 9 years after the plant closed, high DDT, DDE, and DDD levels were reported in soils, river sediments, and fish in the area. Eleven of 27 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) collected on the Refuge during February 1979 had carcass DDE residues that exceeded levels associated with eggshell thinning. DDE residues in a smaller number of mallards exceeded levels associated with egg breakage, poor hatchability, and abnormal hehavior and poor survival of offspring. Several avian species have disappeared from the Refuge since 1950, probably due to both industrial discharges of DDT from the plant and insecticidal use of DDT in the area. The contamination still presents a threat to herons, waterfowl, and raptors including occasional wintering or migrant eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and probably many other avian species. A maternity colony of endangered gray bats (Myotis grisescens) is also threatened by this contamination.

  18. Improvement Text Compression Performance Using Combination of Burrows Wheeler Transform, Move to Front, and Huffman Coding Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprilianto, Mohammada; Abdurohman, Maman

    2014-04-01

    Text is a media that is often used to convey information in both wired and wireless-based network. One limitation of the wireless system is the network bandwidth. In this study we implemented a text compression application with lossless compression technique using combination of Burrows wheeler transform, move to front, and Huffman coding methods. With the addition of the compression of the text, it is expected to save network resources. This application provides information about compression ratio. From the testing process, it concludes that text compression with only Huffman coding method will be efficient when the number of text characters are above 400 characters, meanwhile text compression with burrows wheeler transform, move to front, and Huffman coding methods will be efficient when the number of text characters are above 531 characters. Combination of these methods are more efficient than just Huffman coding when the number of text characters are above 979 characters. The more characters that are compressed and the more patterns of the same symbol, the better the compression ratio.

  19. Waiting Endurance Time Estimation of Electric Two-Wheelers at Signalized Intersections

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Mei; Yang, Xiao-bao

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposed a model for estimating waiting endurance times of electric two-wheelers at signalized intersections using survival analysis method. Waiting duration times were collected by video cameras and they were assigned as censored and uncensored data to distinguish between normal crossing and red-light running behavior. A Cox proportional hazard model was introduced, and variables revealing personal characteristics and traffic conditions were defined as covariates to describe the effects of internal and external factors. Empirical results show that riders do not want to wait too long to cross intersections. As signal waiting time increases, electric two-wheelers get impatient and violate the traffic signal. There are 12.8% of electric two-wheelers with negligible wait time. 25.0% of electric two-wheelers are generally nonrisk takers who can obey the traffic rules after waiting for 100 seconds. Half of electric two-wheelers cannot endure 49.0 seconds or longer at red-light phase. Red phase time, motor vehicle volume, and conformity behavior have important effects on riders' waiting times. Waiting endurance times would decrease with the longer red-phase time, the lower traffic volume, or the bigger number of other riders who run against the red light. The proposed model may be applicable in the design, management and control of signalized intersections in other developing cities. PMID:24895659

  20. Cosmological constant from a deformation of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garattini, Remo; Faizal, Mir

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the Wheeler-DeWitt equation modified by a deformation of the second quantized canonical commutation relations. Such modified commutation relations are induced by a Generalized Uncertainty Principle. Since the Wheeler-DeWitt equation can be related to a Sturm-Liouville problem where the associated eigenvalue can be interpreted as the cosmological constant, it is possible to explicitly relate such an eigenvalue to the deformation parameter of the corresponding Wheeler-DeWitt equation. The analysis is performed in a Mini-Superspace approach where the scale factor appears as the only degree of freedom. The deformation of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation gives rise to a Cosmological Constant even in absence of matter fields. As a Cosmological Constant cannot exist in absence of the matter fields in the undeformed Mini-Superspace approach, so the existence of a non-vanishing Cosmological Constant is a direct consequence of the deformation by the Generalized Uncertainty Principle. In fact, we are able to demonstrate that a non-vanishing Cosmological Constant exists even in the deformed flat space. We also discuss the consequences of this deformation on the big bang singularity.

  1. Interview with Elizabeth Boling, aka Noel Wheeler, aka Skater Owens, aka EXB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsburger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Elizabeth Boling, aka Noel Wheeler, aka Skater Owens, aka EXB, editor of "TechTrends" magazine. EXB has edited AECT's bi-monthly peer-reviewed magazine since January 2003. She is also an associate professor in the Instructional Systems Technology department at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB), and in her…

  2. Occupational risk factors for low back pain among drivers of three-wheelers in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Misa; Malhotra, Rahul; DeSilva, Vijitha; Sapukotana, Pasindu; DeSilva, Asela; Kirkorowicz, Jacob; Allen, John; Østbye, Truls

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 5% of all households in Sri Lanka operate a three-wheeler as their primary source of income. However, very little is known about the occupational health risks associated with driving these vehicles. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess occupational risk factors, including the number of hours worked associated with the 4-week prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among drivers of three-wheelers. Methods: Questionnaires were administered to 200 full-time drivers of three-wheelers from the Galle District in Sri Lanka. Occupational, psychological, socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to investigate the correlation between occupational risk factors of the prevalence of LBP. Results: 15.5% of respondents reported experiencing LBP in the previous 4 months. Univariate analysis revealed that the number of hours worked per week, feeling pressure to compete with other drivers, and perceived stress scale scores were significantly associated with the 4-week prevalence of LBP. Multivariate analysis found that the number of hours worked per week and engine type were significantly associated with LBP. Conclusions: LBP is common among drivers of three-wheelers in Sri Lanka. Long work hours and two-stroke engines were significantly associated with LBP. Results from this study point towards a role for educational, behavioral health, and policy interventions to help prevent and reduce LBP among these drivers. PMID:25133353

  3. New high-resolution topographic data and updated tectonic geomorphology at Wheeler Ridge, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleber, E.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2014-12-01

    Wheeler Ridge is an eastward propagating and north-vergent fault-bend fold (10km axis, 330m relief) at the front of the Transverse Range thrust system, southern San Joaquin Valley, CA. The occurrence of wind and water gaps along tear faults as well as elevated, distinct geomorphic surfaces along the fold axis show that Wheeler Ridge is actively growing over the kyr-timescale. The soils, tectonic geomorphology, structural modeling, and slip rate estimations were research foci in the 1990's. Previous studies used total station surveys, contour maps, trenches (5m deep), RASCAL (RAster SCanning Airborne Lidar) scanning (~1pnt/1.54m, ~0.8 km2) on the forelimb, and aerial photographs to map distinct geomorphic surfaces & features, and generate topographic profiles perpendicular and parallel to the fault axis. In September 2014, a ~40 km2 area of high resolution (>4pnts/m2) light detection and ranging (lidar) data will be collected at Wheeler Ridge by the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) via a graduate student Seed grant. The new topographic data will enable us to build on previous studies of meter scale topography on the 10km fold and refine the geometric characterization of identified landforms that have been used to infer uplift, east fault tip propagation, and fold geometry in the last 250 kyr. These features include 5 geomorphic surfaces, stream channel geometry, alluvial terraces on the forelimb as well as wind and water gaps. This initial work will refine the representation of these features with high resolution topography as well as apply additional morphometric techniques to the hillslopes and channels, examine the spatial variation of landforms with independently determined uplift rates, create an updated, detailed geomorphic map of the 10km fold axis of Wheeler Ridge, and use previous subsurface modeling and these new constraints to inform an updated structural model for the growth history of Wheeler Ridge.

  4. Inclination to speeding and its correlates among two-wheeler riding Indian youth

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Rajeev J.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Mehrotra, Seema; Banu, Humera; Kumar, Rajesh; Sudhir, Paulomi M.; Chakrabarthy, Neelima

    2014-01-01

    Context: Concerns about road safety have been increasingly associated with two-wheeler riding and especially with young commuters in India. Aims: The study was designed to explore inclination to speeding and to profile the driving behaviors in two-wheeler riding young men and women who reported a tendency to ride faster than their peers. Design: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Materials and Methods: On the basis of three focus group discussions and review of literature, a survey was prepared to tap domains such as affect states associated with riding/speeding, factors contributing to speeding, inclination for competing, perceived speed and safety, etc. The study sample comprised of 961 two-wheeler riding college-going young men and women in Bangalore. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were used including Chi-square, Spearman's rank correlation, and independent sample t-test. Results: The sample was divided into two subgroups on the basis of self-report of greater speeding than one's peers. A subgroup of 349 participants endorsed the item regarding inclination to ride faster than one's peers, whereas, the remaining 612 participants did not endorse it. The profiles of these two subgroups were obtained in terms of sociodemographic variables, riding behaviors, and associated domains. Significant differences between the subgroups emerged on domains such as motives for riding fast, tendency for competing, perceived safety and frequency of minor accidents while riding. Conclusions: Several correlates of the tendency to speeding among young two-wheeler riders emerged that have implications for enhancing safe riding. PMID:25788799

  5. Wheeler-DeWitt equation and Lie symmetries in Bianchi scalar-field cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliathanasis, A.; Karpathopoulos, L.; Wojnar, A.; Capozziello, S.

    2016-04-01

    Lie symmetries are discussed for the Wheeler-De Witt equation in Bianchi Class A cosmologies. In particular, we consider general relativity, minimally coupled scalar-field gravity and hybrid gravity as paradigmatic examples of the approach. Several invariant solutions are determined and classified according to the form of the scalar-field potential. The approach gives rise to a suitable method to select classical solutions and it is based on the first principle of the existence of symmetries.

  6. First Record of Drosophila buzzatii (Patterson & Wheeler) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Emerging from a Non-Cactus Host.

    PubMed

    Fanara, J J; Soto, I M; Lipko, P; Hasson, E

    2016-06-01

    Drosophila buzzatii (Patterson & Wheeler), a typical cactophilic species of the repleta group, is registered for the first time emerging from Melon (Cucumis melo) in western Argentina. The analysis of inversion polymorphism and genetic diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (mtCOI) provided additional evidence that corroborated the presence of a high proportion of D. buzzatii among the flies emerged from melon. This finding set the scenario for a broader range of possible hosts and host-related distribution and dispersion for this widespread species. PMID:26960546

  7. Are leaves 'freewheelin'? Testing for a wheeler-type effect in leaf xylem hydraulic decline.

    PubMed

    Scoffoni, Christine; Sack, Lawren

    2015-03-01

    A recent study found that cutting shoots under water while xylem was under tension (which has been the standard protocol for the past few decades) could produce artefactual embolisms inside the xylem, overestimating hydraulic vulnerability relative to shoots cut under water after relaxing xylem tension (Wheeler et al. 2013). That study also raised the possibility that such a 'Wheeler effect' might occur in studies of leaf hydraulic vulnerability. We tested for such an effect for four species by applying a modified vacuum pump method to leaves with minor veins severed, to construct leaf xylem hydraulic vulnerability curves. We tested for an impact on leaf xylem hydraulic conductance (Kx ) of cutting the petiole and minor veins under water for dehydrated leaves with xylem under tension compared with dehydrated leaves after previously relaxing xylem tension. Our results showed no significant 'cutting artefact' for leaf xylem. The lack of an effect for leaves could not be explained by narrower or shorter xylem conduits, and may be due to lesser mechanical stress imposed when cutting leaf petioles, and/or to rapid refilling of emboli in petioles. These findings provide the first validation of previous measurements of leaf hydraulic vulnerability against this potential artefact. PMID:25039813

  8. Prospects of inspection and maintenance of two-wheelers in India.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Schmoyer, R; Harrison, G; Hausker, K

    2001-10-01

    Two-wheeler vehicles in Delhi, India--roughly 70% of the total vehicle fleet--are responsible for a significant portion of the city's vehicle emissions and petroleum consumption. An inspection and maintenance (I/M) program that ensures vehicle emission control systems are well maintained can complement other emission reduction strategies. This paper presents the initial findings of extensive data collected on vehicle characteristics and emissions for two-wheeler vehicles operating in Delhi in a series of I/M camps conducted by the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers and various partners in late 1999. The analysis shows idle HC and CO emissions [measured in terms of parts per million (ppm) and volume % (vol %), respectively] in a slow declining trend with subsequent model years, reflecting tighter emission standards and more advanced emission technologies. The I/M benefits--3 vol % and 39% reduction in idle and mass CO, respectively; 40 vol % and 22% reduction in idle and mass HC, respectively; and a 10-20% increase in fuel efficiency--were higher than those reported in the literature. Although these benefits are substantial, any implementation strategy needs to consider cost-effectiveness. In the present study, only 10% of vehicles--contributing 22% of the total vehicle emissions--failed the idle CO standard. Fleet emissions data variability necessitates a large sample size to develop a baseline for the vehicle fleet, but a smaller, scientifically designed sample and better data collection quality could periodically track the benefits at future camps. PMID:11686242

  9. Powered two-wheelers road accidents and their risk perception in dense urban areas: case of Paris.

    PubMed

    Maestracci, Marion; Prochasson, François; Geffroy, Aurélie; Peccoud, Florian

    2012-11-01

    For a few years, the use of powered two-wheelers has taken off in Paris. It then became critical for the City of Paris to understand both the mechanisms leading to traffic accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers user and the perception of their risk when riding in dense urban areas. In so doing, two studies were carried out along similar lines so that their results could be compared. The first study focused on the perception of situations where accidents are most likely to occur. The second one was an analysis of police reports of accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers and the drawing-up of prototypical accident scenarios. Comparing the results of the two studies revealed a gap between perceived and objective risks of these users. In fact, they rather fear the situations during which a car driver is changing lanes, while accidents involving them occur more often when a car driver turns (right, left or U). Knowledge of this dissonance in terms of awareness of road risks for powered two-wheelers and equally, other road users, will give the City of Paris food for thought. The promising results of this study have encouraged the City of Paris to extend it to other types of users, such as cyclists or elderly pedestrians. PMID:23036388

  10. Adaptive Driving Equipment: Selection and Major Considerations [and] Battery Powered Scooters and 3-Wheelers. Information Support Packets #1 and #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    Two brief guides offer suggestions for persons with physical disabilities who are considering the purchase of adaptive driving equipment, battery-powered scooters, or three wheelers. The first guide offers guidelines for individuals considering purchase of special hand controls or other modifications or a van lift to enhance their independence in…

  11. Comparison of modified burrows wheeler transform with JPEG and JPEG2000 for image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Sonia; Zolghadrasli, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    In this research we present a new method for image compression which is a combination of lossy and lossless image coder .In lossy part we use a 3-level decomposition of discrete wavelet transform with hard threshold technique. lossless image coding part is Burrows Wheeler Transform (BWT) which has received considerable attention in recent years because of its simplicity and effectiveness. The BWT is used with other additional methods of image compression such as, MTF, RLE and entropy coding algorithms. the effectiveness of over method is presented and compare with JPEG and JPEG2000 for different images concidering criteria such as PSNR ,Compression Ratio (CR) and images quality(HVS) in our future works we use BWT with other source coding algorithm such as Lempel-Ziv and different mother function for DWT.

  12. Overview of critical risk factors in Power-Two-Wheeler safety.

    PubMed

    Vlahogianni, Eleni I; Yannis, George; Golias, John C

    2012-11-01

    Power-Two-Wheelers (PTWs) constitute a vulnerable class of road users with increased frequency and severity of accidents. The present paper focuses of the PTW accident risk factors and reviews existing literature with regard to the PTW drivers' interactions with the automobile drivers, as well as interactions with infrastructure elements and weather conditions. Several critical risk factors are revealed with different levels of influence to PTW accident likelihood and severity. A broad classification based on the magnitude and the need for further research for each risk factor is proposed. The paper concludes by discussing the importance of dealing with accident configurations, the data quality and availability, methods implemented to model risk and exposure and risk identification which are critical for a thorough understanding of the determinants of PTW safety. PMID:22579296

  13. COLUMBINE-HONDO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND WHEELER PEAK WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Brown, S. Don

    1984-01-01

    The Columbine-Hondo Wilderness Study Area and the Wheeler Peak Wilderness, near Taos, New Mexico, were studied. Two areas within the study area and wilderness have substantiated mineral-resource potential for molybdenum and are surrounded by an area of probable molybdenum potential. A small area on the north side of the Columbine-Hondo Wilderness Study Area also has probable molybdenum potential; this area is peripheral to the Red River mining area, which includes the Questa mine. Two other areas within the study area and wilderness have probable mineral-resource potential for copper, lead, and zinc, and four areas have probable mineral-resource potential for gold and silver, as well as base metals.

  14. Surface response of blind thrust shown from high resolution topographic data and updated geochronology at Wheeler Ridge, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleber, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; DeVecchio, D. E.; Johnstone, S. A.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Wheeler Ridge is an asymmetric east-propagating anticline (10km axis, 330m relief) above a north-vergent blind thrust deforming Quaternary alluvial fan and shallow marine rocks at the northern front of the Transverse Ranges, San Joaquin Valley, CA. This area was a research foci in the 1990's when the soils, u-series soil carbonate dating, and subsurface structure of deformed strata identified from oil wells were used to create a kinematic model of deformation, and estimates of fault slip, uplift, and lateral propagation rates. A recent collection of light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) data allow us to complete meter scale topographic analyses of the fluvial networks and hillslopes and correlate geomorphic response to tectonics. We interpret these results using a detailed morphological map and observe drainage network and hillslope process transitions both along and across the fold axis. With lidar topography, we extract common morphometrics (e.g., channel steepness-- ksn, eroded volume, hillslope relief) to illustrate how the landscape is responding to variations in uplift rate along the fold axis and show asymmetry of surface response on the forelimb and backlimb. The forelimb is dominated by large drainages with landslides initiating in the marine units at the core of the fold. Our topographic analysis shows that the stream channel indices values on the forelimb increase along the fold axis, away from the propagation tip. The backlimb drainages are dominantly long and linear with broad ridgelines. Using lidar and fieldwork, we see that uplifted backlimb surfaces preserve the deformed fan surface. The preliminary OSL results from alluvial fan units improve age control of previously defined surfaces, refining our understanding of the deposition and uplift of alluvial fan units on preserved on backlimb.

  15. Class of solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, H. S.; Bezerra, V. B.

    2016-07-01

    We show that the solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in a homogeneous and isotropic universe are given by triconfluent Heun functions for the spatially closed, flat, and open geometries of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe filled with different forms of energy. In a matter-dominated universe, we find the polynomial solution and the energy density spectrum. In the cases of radiation-dominated and vacuum universes, there are no polynomial solutions as shown.

  16. On the non-canonical noncommutative Wheeler-Dewitt equation for Schwarzschild and Kantowski-Sachs black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrinkamar, S.; Hassanabadi, H.; Rajabi, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    The interior of both Schwarzschild and Kantowski-Sachs black holes is studied via a non-canonical noncommutative extension of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the interesting work (Bastos et al. in Phys. Rev. D 84:024005, 2011) by neglecting the cubic and quartic terms arising the Hamiltonian. Here, we consider the problem when these terms are present and provide a more realistic analytical solution to the problem.

  17. Powered two wheelers in a changing world-challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Haworth, N

    2012-01-01

    Powered two wheelers (PTWs) come in diverse forms and are used for a range of purposes in very different parts of the world. In many parts of the world, the forms and uses of PTWs are changing, influenced by social, economic and demographic changes. Most of the challenges associated with PTWs relate to safety, while the majority of the opportunities relate to mobility. The challenges for improving safety relate to the PTW user, other road users, the road environment, the vehicle, data and research, and socio-political dimensions. The relative importance of particular challenges varies between developed and developing countries, and among developing countries according to whether PTWs are largely used for recreation or for transport. PTWs present a range of psychological, transport, economic and environmental opportunities to individuals and societies. The fun and excitement of riding PTWs is a major motivator for their purchase and use for recreational purposes, both off-road and on-road. The transport and economic advantages to the individual also need to be considered. At a societal level, research has examined the potential for increasing PTW volumes to reduce fossil fuel use and traffic congestion in busy cities. The future of PTWs may differ greatly between countries and environmental and technological changes are leading to an evolution in the form of PTWs to encompass new modes of personal transportation. PMID:22062331

  18. Sleepiness, attention and risk of accidents in powered two-wheelers.

    PubMed

    Bougard, Clément; Davenne, Damien; Espie, Stéphane; Moussay, Sébastien; Léger, Damien

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the role of "sleepiness at the wheel" in the occurrence of accidents has been increasingly highlighted with several national and international public health campaigns based on consensual research publications. However, one aspect of this phenomenon is rarely taken into account, i.e., the risk of sleep-induced accidents while riding powered two-wheelers (PTWs). PTWs are indeed involved in a high percentage of fatal accidents mostly with young male riders. The effects of sleepiness may be different in drivers and riders, partly because riders may be stimulated more by the road environment. But riders (differently from drivers) have also to maintain continuously a balance between their own stability and the need of following the road, even when they are directly exposed to adverse climatic conditions. We, therefore, gathered the limited scientific literature on this topic and tried to analyze how riders may be affected differently by sleepiness. Finally we provide some suggestions as to how this question may be better approached in the future. PMID:26140871

  19. Griffiths-Wheeler geometrical picture of critical phenomena: Experimental testing for liquid-liquid critical points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troncoso, Jacobo; González-Salgado, Diego; Cerdeiriña, Claudio A.; Carballo, Enrique; Romaní, Luis

    2005-02-01

    An experimental approach to the verification of specific relations between thermodynamic properties as predicted from the Griffiths-Wheeler theory of critical phenomena in multicomponent systems is developed for the particular case of ordinary liquid-liquid critical points of binary mixtures. Densities ρ(T) , isobaric heat capacities per unit volume Cp(T) , and previously reported values of the slope of the critical line (dT/dp)c for five critical mixtures are used to check the thermodynamic consistency of Cp and ρ near the critical point. An appropriate treatment of ρ(T) data is found to provide the key solution to this issue. In addition, various alternative treatments for Cp(T) data provide values for both the critical exponent α and the ratio between the critical amplitudes of the heat capacity A+/A- that are in agreement with their widely accepted counterparts, whereas two-scale-factor universality is successfully verified in one of the systems studied.

  20. Critical power two wheeler driving patterns at the emergence of an incident.

    PubMed

    Vlahogianni, Eleni I; Yannis, George; Golias, John C

    2013-09-01

    The paper proposes a methodology based on Bayesian Networks for identifying the power two wheeler (PTW) driving patterns that arise at the emergence of a critical incident based on high resolution driving data (100Hz) from a naturalistic PTW driving experiment. The proposed methodology aims at identifying the prevailing PTW drivers' actions at the beginning and during critical incidents and associating the critical incidents to specific PTW driving patterns. Results using data from one PTW driver reveal three prevailing driving actions for describing the onset of an incident and an equal number of actions that a PTW driver executes during the course of an incident to avoid a crash. Furthermore, the proposed methodology efficiently relates the observed sets of actions with different types of incidents occurring during overtaking or due to the interactions of the rider with moving or stationary obstacles and the opposing traffic. The observed interrelations define several driving patterns that are characterized by different initial actions, as well as by different likelihood of sequential actions during the incident. The proposed modeling may have significant implications to the efficient and less time consuming analysis of the naturalist data, as well as to the development of custom made PTW driver assistance systems. PMID:23375128

  1. Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment: A proposal for the Bragg-regime cavity-QED implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikram, Manzoor; Imran, Muhammad; Abbas, Tasawar; Islam, Rameez-ul-

    2015-04-01

    Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment highlights strange features of quantum theory such as pre-sensing of the experimental setup by the quantum object and the role of time. A recent proposal for such an experiment with an interferometer having a quantum beam splitter (QBS) [R. Ionicioiu and D. R. Terno, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 230406 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.230406] and its subsequent experimental implementations through photonics and NMR have produced results including the modification in the concept of complementarity. Here we propose a matter-wave Mach-Zehnder-Bragg cavity-QED interferometric setup with final QBS engineered through a cavity field that is taken initially in the superposition of zero and one photon. The setup operates through first-order off-resonant Bragg diffraction of the neutral atoms from the cavity fields with the matter wave's particle (wave) nature marked through the absence (presence) of a photon in the final cavity. The proposal, addressing the issue through atomic de Broglie waves, can be executed within the present cavity-QED experimental scenario with appreciable success probability and fidelity.

  2. Advanced battery technology for electric two-wheelers in the people's Republic of China.

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2009-07-22

    This report focuses on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology applications for two- and possibly three-wheeled vehicles. The author of this report visited the People's Republic of China (PRC or China) to assess the status of Li-ion battery technology there and to analyze Chinese policies, regulations, and incentives for using this technology and for using two- and three-wheeled vehicles. Another objective was to determine if the Li-ion batteries produced in China were available for benchmarking in the United States. The United States continues to lead the world in Li-ion technology research and development (R&D). Its strong R&D program is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the U.S. Department of Defense. In Asia, too, developed countries like China, Korea, and Japan are commercializing and producing this technology. In China, more than 120 companies are involved in producing Li-ion batteries. There are more than 139 manufacturers of electric bicycles (also referred to as E-bicycles, electric bikes or E-bikes, and electric two-wheelers or ETWs in this report) and several hundred suppliers. Most E-bikes use lead acid batteries, but there is a push toward using Li-ion battery technology for two- and three-wheeled applications. Highlights and conclusions from this visit are provided in this report and summarized.

  3. Star crossings and stone monuments-Field astronomy by the Wheeler Survey in 1870s Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, William E.

    2010-01-01

    The decade of the 1870s was a time of extensive exploration and surveying in the American West. The nation needed knowledge of the cultural features, topography, natural resources, and geology of this land to promote and aid the 'rapid development of an empire.' The need was particularly acute in the region that still was known in the early 1870s as Colorado Territory. There, cities and towns were springing up along the base of the Front Range, railroads were expanding, and in the mountains prospectors and miners were exploring the countryside seeking and extracting the region's abundant mineral resources. Also, recurring conflicts between the newcomers and Native Americans made it desirable to have accurate maps for military purposes. Four major government-sponsored scientific surveys formed the principal organized effort to provide critical knowledge of the land. Civilian scientists led three of these: John Wesley Powell ('Geographical and Topographical Survey of the Colorado River of the West'); Ferdinand V. Hayden ('Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories'); and Clarence King ('Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel'). Lt. George Montague Wheeler, a young graduate of West Point (Class of 1866) and a member of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, led the fourth and most ambitious project ('United States Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian').

  4. Wheelchair propulsion biomechanics and wheelers' quality of life: an exploratory review.

    PubMed

    Chow, John W; Levy, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To provide an overview of associations between wheelchair propulsion biomechanics for both everyday and racing wheelchairs, wheeling-related upper limb injuries, and quality of life of manual wheelchair users through a synthesis of the available information. METHODS. A search of publications was carried out in PubMed and SportsDiscus databases. Studies on wheelchair propulsion biomechanics, upper limb injuries associated with wheelchair propulsion and quality of life of wheelchair users were identified. Relevant articles cited in identified articles but not cited in PubMed or SportsDiscus were also included. RESULTS. Wheelchair sports participation has positive impact on quality of life and research in racing wheelchair biomechanics can indirectly promote the visibility of wheelchair sports. The impact of pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchairs (a hybrid between manual and battery-powered wheelchairs) and geared manual wheels on wheelers' everyday life were discussed. CONCLUSIONS. The study of wheelchair propulsion biomechanics focuses on how a wheelchair user imparts power to the wheels to achieve mobility and the accumulated knowledge can help to improve wheelchair users' mobility, reduce physical stress associated with wheelchair propulsion, and as a result, enhance quality of life. PMID:20932232

  5. Impact of real world driving pattern and all-electric range on battery sizing and cost of plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjad, Shaik; Rudramoorthy, R.; Neelakrishnan, S.; Varman, K. Sri Raja; Arjunan, T. V.

    2011-03-01

    This study addresses the impact of an actual drive pattern on the sizing and cost of a battery pack for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler. To estimate the daily average travel distance in fixing the all-electric range of two wheelers, a study conducted in Coimbatore city is presented. A MATLAB simulation model developed for estimating the energy and power requirements in an all-electric strategy using an Indian driving cycle (IDC) and a real-world driving pattern are discussed. The simulation results reveal the impact of the real-world driving pattern on energy consumption and also the influence of all-electric range in sizing the battery pack. To validate the results, a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler developed by modifying a standard two-wheeler has been tested on the road with the help of the IDC simulator kit. An annual battery cost comparison shows that nickel-metal-hydride batteries are more economical and suitable for in plug-in hybrid electric two-wheelers.

  6. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  7. Parallel and Space-Efficient Construction of Burrows-Wheeler Transform and Suffix Array for Big Genome Data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchao; Hankeln, Thomas; Schmidt, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have led to the sequencing of more and more genomes, propelling related research into the era of big data. In this paper, we present ParaBWT, a parallelized Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) and suffix array construction algorithm for big genome data. In ParaBWT, we have investigated a progressive construction approach to constructing the BWT of single genome sequences in linear space complexity, but with a small constant factor. This approach has been further parallelized using multi-threading based on a master-slave coprocessing model. After gaining the BWT, the suffix array is constructed in a memory-efficient manner. The performance of ParaBWT has been evaluated using two sequences generated from two human genome assemblies: the Ensembl Homo sapiens assembly and the human reference genome. Our performance comparison to FMD-index and Bwt-disk reveals that on 12 CPU cores, ParaBWT runs up to 2.2× faster than FMD-index and up to 99.0× faster than Bwt-disk. BWT construction algorithms for very long genomic sequences are time consuming and (due to their incremental nature) inherently difficult to parallelize. Thus, their parallelization is challenging and even relatively small speedups like the ones of our method over FMD-index are of high importance to research. ParaBWT is written in C++, and is freely available at http://parabwt.sourceforge.net. PMID:27295644

  8. Coexistence of full which-path information and interference in Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment with photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michielsen, K.; Yuan, S.; Zhao, S.; Jin, F.; De Raedt, H.

    2010-01-01

    We present a computer simulation model that is a one-to-one copy of an experimental realization of Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment that employs a single photon source and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of a 50/50 input beam splitter and a variable output beam splitter with adjustable reflection coefficient R [V. Jacques, E. Wu, F. Grosshans, F. Treussart, P. Grangier, A. Aspect, J.-F. Roch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 220402]. For 0⩽R⩽0.5, experimentally measured values of the interference visibility V and the path distinguishability D, a parameter quantifying the which-path information (WPI), are found to fulfill the complementary relation V2+D2⩽1, thereby allowing to obtain partial WPI while keeping interference with limited visibility. The simulation model that is solely based on experimental facts that satisfies Einstein's criterion of local causality and that does not rely on any concept of quantum theory or of probability theory, reproduces quantitatively the averages calculated from quantum theory. Our results prove that it is possible to give a particle-only description of the experiment, that one can have full WPI even if D=0, V=1 and therefore that the relation V2+D2⩽1 cannot be regarded as quantifying the notion of complementarity.

  9. Gene expression of ascorbic acid biosynthesis related enzymes of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway in acerola (Malpighia glabra).

    PubMed

    Badejo, Adebanjo A; Fujikawa, Yukichi; Esaka, Muneharu

    2009-04-01

    The Smirnoff-Wheeler (SW) pathway has been proven to be the only significant source of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; vitamin C) in the seedlings of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. It is yet uncertain whether the same pathway holds for all other plants and their various organs as AsA may also be synthesized through alternative pathways. In this study, we have cloned some of the genes involved in the SW-pathway from acerola (Malpighia glabra), a plant containing enormous amount of AsA, and examined the expression patterns of these genes in the plant. The AsA contents of acerola leaves were about 8-fold more than that of Arabidopsis with 5-700-fold higher mRNA abundance in AsA-biosynthesizing genes. The unripe fruits have the highest AsA content but the accumulation was substantially repressed as the fruit transitions to maturation. The mRNAs encoding these genes showed correlation in their expression with the AsA contents of the fruits. Although very little AsA was recorded in the seeds the mRNAs encoding all the genes, with the exception of the mitochondrially located L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase, were clearly detected in the seeds of the unripe fruits. In young leaves of acerola, the expression of most genes were repressed by the dark and induced by light. However, the expression of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase similar to that encoded by A. thaliana VTC1 was induced in the dark. The expressions of all the genes surged after 24h following wounding stress on the young leaves. These findings will advance the investigation into the molecular factors regulating the biosynthesis of abundant AsA in acerola. PMID:18952318

  10. DEFINITIVE SOX CONTROL PROCESS EVALUATIONS: AQUEOUS CARBONATE AND WELLMAN-LORD (ACID, ALLIED CHEMICAL, AND RESOX) FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of economic evaluations of two processes: the Rockwell International aqueous carbonate process (ACP) and the Wellman-Lord process, the latter applied to a sulfuric acid plant, the Foster Wheeler Resox process, and the Allied Chemical coal reduction proces...

  11. The rise of electric two-wheelers in China: Factors for their success and implications for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan Xavier

    This dissertation examines the rise, present use, and future growth of the electric two-wheeler (E2W, a.k.a. E2W or e-scooter) in China, the world's most successful electric-drive vehicle. The E2W market has been experiencing tremendous growth with over 30 million now in regular use on Chinese streets. The adoption of E2W technology is significant because, along with their air quality and energy (low-carbon) benefits compared to gasoline powered motorcycles, E2Ws are driving the development of improved and lower cost batteries and may lead to a shift toward larger three-and four-wheel electric vehicles (EV). This dissertation explores three questions: why the E2W market grew so rapidly in China, what factors are driving and resisting its growth, and how future growth might impact the adoption of electric vehicles. In Chapter 1, the context for this analysis is built by describing China's transportation past, present, and future challenges. E2Ws are also introduced and compared with gasoline-powered motorcycles on several metrics, such as performance, air emissions, and energy use. In Chapter 2, data from the literature was collected and analyzed to understand the history and important reasons for E2W growth in China. To supplement these data, the author and colleagues interviewed leaders of E2W and battery companies and toured several manufacturing plants. In Chapter 3, E2W and bicycles users were surveyed to understand how and why they use (or don't use) E2Ws. In Chapter 4, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries commonly used in today's E2Ws were laboratory tested to determine their performance characteristics. Data were also compiled on their cost, and on the cost and performance of Li-ion batteries. In Chapter 5, the future of E2Ws in China was assessed by integrating data from the previous three chapters and from the literature to create a force-field analysis of the E2W market. This chapter concludes by examining the spillover effects E2W market growth may

  12. Traffic generated non-exhaust particulate emissions from concrete pavement: A mass and particle size study for two-wheelers and small cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aatmeeyata; Kaul, D. S.; Sharma, Mukesh

    This study aimed to understand the non-exhaust (NE) emission of particles from wear of summer tire and concrete pavement, especially for two wheelers and small cars. A fully enclosed laboratory-scale model was fabricated to simulate road tire interaction with a facility to collect particles in different sizes. A road was cast using the M-45 concrete mixture and the centrifugal casting method. It was observed that emission of large particle non exhaust emission (LPNE) as well as PM 10 and PM 2.5 increased with increasing load. The LPNE was 3.5 mg tire -1 km -1 for a two wheeler and 6.4 mg tire -1 km -1 for a small car. The LPNE can lead to water pollution through water run-off from the roads. The contribution of the PM 10 and PM 2.5 was smaller compared to the LPNE particles (less than 0.1%). About 32 percent of particle mass of PM 10 was present below 1 μm. The number as well as mass size distribution for PM 10 was observed to be bi-modal with peaks at 0.3 μm and 4-5 μm. The NE emissions did not show any significant trend with change in tire pressure.

  13. Mixmaster revisited: wormhole solutions to the Bianchi IX Wheeler-DeWitt equation using the Euclidean-signature semi-classical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Joseph H.

    2015-04-01

    A modified semi-classical method is used to construct both ground and excited state solutions to the canonically quantized vacuum Bianchi IX (Mixmaster) cosmological models. Employing a modified form of the semi-classical Ansatz we solve the relevant Wheeler-DeWitt equation asymptotically by integrating a set of linear transport equations along the flow of a suitably chosen solution to the corresponding Euclidean-signature Hamilton-Jacobi equation. For the Moncrief-Ryan (or ‘wormhole’) Hamilton-Jacobi solution, we compute the ground state quantum correction term associated with operator ordering ambiguities and show how higher order correction terms can be computed. We also determine the explicit, leading order forms of a family of excited states and show how to compute their quantum corrections as smooth, globally defined functions on the Bianchi IX minisuperspace. These excited state solutions are peaked away from the minisuperspace origin and are labeled by a pair of positive integers that can be plausibly interpreted as graviton excitation numbers for the two independent anisotropy degrees of freedom. The Euclidean-signature semi-classical method used here is applicable to more general models, representing a significant progress in the Wheeler-DeWitt approach to quantum gravity.

  14. Applied behavior analysis and statistical process control?

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, B L

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines Pfadt and Wheeler's (1995) suggestions that the methods of statistical process control (SPC) be incorporated into applied behavior analysis. The research strategies of SPC are examined and compared to those of applied behavior analysis. I argue that the statistical methods that are a part of SPC would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with the problems with which they deal and would, therefore, likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Examples of these kinds of results and decisions are drawn from the cases and data Pfadt and Wheeler present. This paper also describes and clarifies many common misconceptions about SPC, including W. Edwards Deming's involvement in its development, its relationship to total quality management, and its confusion with various other methods designed to detect sources of unwanted variability. PMID:7592156

  15. Arabidopsis VTC2 Encodes a GDP-l-Galactose Phosphorylase, the Last Unknown Enzyme in the Smirnoff-Wheeler Pathway to Ascorbic Acid in Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Linster, Carole L.; Gomez, Tara A.; Christensen, Kathryn C.; Adler, Lital N.; Young, Brian D.; Brenner, Charles; Clarke, Steven G.

    2008-01-01

    The first committed step in the biosynthesis of l-ascorbate from d-glucose in plants requires conversion of GDP-l-galactose to l-galactose 1-phosphate by a previously unidentified enzyme. Here we show that the protein encoded by VTC2, a gene mutated in vitamin C-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana strains, is a member of the GalT/Apa1 branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily that catalyzes the conversion of GDP-l-galactose to l-galactose 1-phosphate in a reaction that consumes inorganic phosphate and produces GDP. In characterizing recombinant VTC2 from Arabidopsis thaliana as a specific GDP-l-galactose/GDP-d-glucose phosphorylase, we conclude that enzymes catalyzing each of the ten steps of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway from glucose to ascorbate have been identified. Finally, we identify VTC2 homologs in plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, suggesting that a similar reaction is used widely in nature. PMID:17462988

  16. The A d S 5 Warp of Spatially Hyperbolic Universes, Spinless Modes and Spectra and the Corresponding Wheeler-DeWitt Schrödinger-Like Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dariescu, Ciprian; Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Bodnarescu, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we consider an A d S 5 bulk with k=-1- FRW branes, together with bosons test particles, evolving in the 5D hyperspace. In the first part, we compute the wave function of the scalar fields in the bulk and the allowed mass spectrum for physically relevant cases. Also, an important quantization law, connecting the mass spectrum of the bosons on the brane and the bulk mass parameter is written down. In the second part, in oder to develop a quantization model, we use the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and solve its Schrödinger-like form, obtaining the wave function of the Universe. The solutions describe a universe emerging out of nothing, without tunneling. Lastly, using a mixture of states, we emphasize a smooth universe, with neither Bangs nor Crunches.

  17. Exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds of powered two-wheelers: effect of cold start and vehicle speed. Contribution to greenhouse effect and tropospheric ozone formation.

    PubMed

    Costagliola, M Antonietta; Murena, Fabio; Prati, M Vittoria

    2014-01-15

    Powered two-wheeler (PTW) vehicles complying with recent European type approval standards (stages Euro 2 and Euro 3) were tested on chassis dynamometer in order to measure exhaust emissions of about 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the range C1-C7, including carcinogenic compounds as benzene and 1,3-butadiene. The fleet consists of a moped (engine capacity ≤ 50 cm(3)) and three fuel injection motorcycles of different engine capacities (150, 300 and 400 cm(3)). Different driving conditions were tested (US FPT cycle, constant speed). Due to the poor control of the combustion and catalyst efficiency, moped is the highest pollutant emitter. In fact, fuel injection strategy and three way catalyst with lambda sensor are able to reduce VOC motorcycles' emission of about one order of magnitude with respect to moped. Cold start effect, that is crucial for the assessment of actual emission of PTWs in urban areas, was significant: 30-51% of extra emission for methane. In the investigated speed range, moped showed a significant maximum of VOC emission factor at minimum speed (10 km/h) and a slightly decreasing trend from 20 to 60 km/h; motorcycles showed on the average a less significant peak at 10 km/h, a minimum at 30-40 km/h and then an increasing trend with a maximum emission factor at 90 km/h. Carcinogenic VOCs show the same pattern of total VOCs. Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) was estimated by using Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale. The greatest contribution to tropospheric ozone formation comes from alkenes group which account for 50-80% to the total OFP. VOC contribution effect on greenhouse effect is negligible with respect to CO2 emitted. PMID:24095967

  18. deBWT: parallel construction of Burrows–Wheeler Transform for large collection of genomes with de Bruijn-branch encoding

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Zhu, Dixian; Wang, Yadong

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: With the development of high-throughput sequencing, the number of assembled genomes continues to rise. It is critical to well organize and index many assembled genomes to promote future genomics studies. Burrows–Wheeler Transform (BWT) is an important data structure of genome indexing, which has many fundamental applications; however, it is still non-trivial to construct BWT for large collection of genomes, especially for highly similar or repetitive genomes. Moreover, the state-of-the-art approaches cannot well support scalable parallel computing owing to their incremental nature, which is a bottleneck to use modern computers to accelerate BWT construction. Results: We propose de Bruijn branch-based BWT constructor (deBWT), a novel parallel BWT construction approach. DeBWT innovatively represents and organizes the suffixes of input sequence with a novel data structure, de Bruijn branch encoding. This data structure takes the advantage of de Bruijn graph to facilitate the comparison between the suffixes with long common prefix, which breaks the bottleneck of the BWT construction of repetitive genomic sequences. Meanwhile, deBWT also uses the structure of de Bruijn graph for reducing unnecessary comparisons between suffixes. The benchmarking suggests that, deBWT is efficient and scalable to construct BWT for large dataset by parallel computing. It is well-suited to index many genomes, such as a collection of individual human genomes, with multiple-core servers or clusters. Availability and implementation: deBWT is implemented in C language, the source code is available at https://github.com/hitbc/deBWT or https://github.com/DixianZhu/deBWT Contact: ydwang@hit.edu.cn Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307614

  19. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler (Euphorbiaceae Juss.): an unexplored medicinal herb reported from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ndam, Lawrence Monah; Mih, Afui Mathias; Tening, Aaron Suh; Fongod, Augustina Genla Nwana; Temenu, Nkegua Anna; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the phytochemical constituents of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler, an alien invasive medicinal herb that is used for the treatment of gastroenteritis related ailments, diabetes, conjunctivitis, gastritis, enterocolitis, tonsillitis, vaginitis, hemorrhoids, prostatism, warts and painful swellings by the Mundani people of the mount Bambouto Caldera in SouthWestern Cameroon, and to evaluate its in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Susceptibility testing by agar well diffusion assay revealed good antibacterial activity with inhibition zone diameter of 20 ± 1.1 mm against Bacillus cereus followed by Staphylococcus aureus with inhibition zone diameter of 17 ± 1.6 mm which was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the positive control (amoxicillin). None of the fungi was inhibited by the acetone extract of E. golondrina except Candida albicans wherein the zone of inhibition was not significantly different from that of the positive control (Amphotericin B). The ABTS scavenging activity of E. golondrina was higher than that of gallic acid and BHT at concentrations greater than 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mL respectively while at all concentrations, nitric oxide scavenging activity was higher than those of both rutin and vitamin C. GC-MS profile of E. golondrina steam distilled volatiles revealed that the plant has potent phytoconstituent classes such as sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, alkaloids, phenolics and aromatic hydrocarbons. Among the 30 compounds identified, caryophyllene oxide (14.16 %), camphor (9.41 %) and phytol (5.75 %) were the major compounds. Further structural characterisation based on (1)H and (13)C NMR is required to demonstrate structural integrity including correct stereochemistry. The current study partially justifies the ethnomedicinal uses of E. golondrina in Cameroon. PMID:27006873

  20. [Optimization of the pertussis vaccine production process].

    PubMed

    Germán Santiago, J; Zamora, N; de la Rosa, E; Alba Carrión, C; Padrón, P; Hernández, M; Betancourt, M; Moretti, N

    1995-01-01

    The production of Pertussis Vaccine was reevaluated at the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in order to optimise it in terms of vaccine yield, potency, specific toxicity and efficiency (cost per doses). Four different processes, using two culture media (Cohen-Wheeler and Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1) and two types of bioreactors (25 L Fermentador Caracas and a 450 L industrial fermentor) were compared. Runs were started from freeze-dried strains (134 or 509) and continued until the obtention of the maximal yield. It was found that the combination Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1/industrial fermentor, shortened the process to 40 hours while consistently yielding a vaccine of higher potency (7.91 +/- 2.56 IU/human dose) and lower specific toxicity in a mice bioassay. In addition, the physical aspect of the preparation was rather homogeneous and free of dark aggregates. Most importantly, the biomass yield more than doubled those of the Fermentador Caracas using the two different media and that in the industrial fermentor with the Cohen-Wheeler medium. Therefore, the cost per doses was substantially decreased. PMID:9279028

  1. Process

    SciTech Connect

    Geenen, P.V.; Bennis, J.

    1989-04-04

    A process is described for minimizing the cracking tendency and uncontrolled dimensional change, and improving the strength of a rammed plastic refractory reactor liner comprising phosphate-bonded silicon carbide or phosphate-bonded alumina. It consists of heating the reactor liner placed or mounted in a reactor, prior to its first use, from ambient temperature up to a temperature of from about 490/sup 0/C to about 510/sup 0/C, the heating being carried out by heating the liner at a rate to produce a temperature increase of the liner not greater than about 6/sup 0/C per hour.

  2. Quantum processes in short and intensive electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, A. I.; Kämpfer, Burkhard; Hosaka, Atsushi; Takabe, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    This work provides an overview of our recent results in studying two most important and widely discussed quantum processes: electron-positron pairs production off a probe photon propagating through a polarized short-pulsed electromagnetic (e.g. laser) wave field or generalized Breit-Wheeler process, and a single a photon emission off an electron interacting with the laser pules, so-called non-linear Compton scattering. We show that the probabilities of particle production in both processes are determined by interplay of two dynamical effects, where the first one is related to the shape and duration of the pulse and the second one is non-linear dynamics of the interaction of charged fermions with a strong electromagnetic field. We elaborate suitable expressions for the production probabilities and cross sections, convenient for studying evolution of the plasma in presence of strong electromagnetic fields.

  3. Sources de photons uniques et expérience à choix retardé de Wheeler : la dualité onde corpuscule à l'épreuve de l'expérience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, V.

    Young's double-slit experiment realized with particles sent one at a time through an interferometer is at the heart of quantum mechanics. The striking feature is that the phenomenon of interference, interpreted as a wave following simultaneously two paths, is incompatible with our common sense representation of a particle following one route or the other but not both. The work described in this book is dedicated to the study of wave-particle duality for a single photon emitted by the triggered photoluminescence of a single NV color center in a diamond nanocrystal. We first present the realization of a single-photon interference experiment using a Fresnel's biprism, in a scheme equivalent to the standard Young's double-slit textbook experiment. We then discuss the complementarity between interference and which-path information in this two-path interferometer. We finally describe the experimental realization of Wheeler's delayed-choice gedanken experiment, which is a fascinating and subtle illustration of wave-particle duality. In such experiment, the choice either to observe interference fringes, obviously associated to a wave-like behavior, or to know which path of the interferometer has been followed, according to a particle-like behavior, is made whereas the photon has already entered into the interferometer. Furthermore, the choice is made by a quantum random number generator and is relativistically separated from the entering of the photon into the interferometer. The results of that experiment show once again that no classical physical reality can be attributed to the photon independent of the measurement apparatus, as stated by the complementarity principle. La théorie quantique nécessite de renoncer à certaines images classiques héritées du sens commun. Elle stipule en particulier une description duale de la lumière et de la matière, présentant simultanément les propriétés d'une onde et d'une particule et conduisant ainsi à des repr

  4. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL FIRED PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Leon Glicksman; Hesham Younis; Richard Hing-Fung Tan; Michel Louge; Elizabeth Griffith; Vincent Bricout

    1998-04-30

    Pressurized fluidization is a promising new technology for the clean and efficient combustion of coal. Its principle is to operate a coal combustor at high inlet gas velocity to increase the flow of reactants, at an elevated pressure to raise the overall efficiency of the process. Unfortunately, commercialization of large pressurized fluidized beds is inhibited by uncertainties in scaling up units from the current pilot plant levels. In this context, our objective is to conduct a study of the fluid dynamics and solid capture of a large pressurized coal-fired unit. The idea is to employ dimensional similitude to simulate in a cold laboratory model the flow in a Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed ''Pyrolyzer,'' which is part of a High Performance Power System (HIPPS) developed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) under the DOE's Combustion 2000 program.

  5. Laboratory testing of RESOX/sup TM/ Process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, P.; Gutterman, C.

    1980-11-01

    Foster Wheeler Development Corporation addressed the task of further broadening the application of the RESOX process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The major effort, to date, had been concentrated on treating the off-gas from one specific front-end SO'' concentrator process - the Bergbau-Forschung dry adsorption system. By selecting two other concentrator processes, which furnish differing inlet compositions, and coupling these to coals with differing characteristics, the scope and flexibility of the RESOX process was evaluated. The front-end concentrator processes which were chosen are the Wellman-Lord (WL) and Chemico-Basic (CB); both are regenerative and employ wet scrubbing. WL is based on the chemistry of the sodium sulfite/bisulfite system, which can absorb and free SO/sub 2/. CB accomplishes the same function with the magnesium oxide/sulfite system. WL can concentrate the SO/sub 2/ to 85 to vol % while CB currently utilizes a direct fired calciner, which limits the SO/sub 2/ concentration to approximately 13%. Each front-end process was studied and adapted to the RESOX process. Each was then coupled to three different coals, selected as reductants through a preliminary screening procedure, for a series of tests at FWDC's 1200 aft/sup 3//h pilot plant. The coals chosen had ASTM rankings of Anthracite, High-Volatile C Bituminous, and Subbituminous A. The maximum sulfur yield realized within a series varied from 68.1 to 85.2%. The program demonstrated the ability of the RESOX process to handle a broader range of reducing agents and front-end gas compositions than heretofore tested. For each front-end process, a sulfur yield of approximately 80 wt % of the quantity available from its gas composition was realized with at least one of the reductants tested.

  6. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  7. Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical Myrmicinae ant genus Blepharidatta Wheeler.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Carlos Roberto F; Feitosa, Rodrigo M; Diniz, Jorge L M

    2015-01-01

    We revise the taxonomy of the exclusively Neotropical Myrmicinae ant genus Blepharidatta (Attini), redescribing the known species (B. brasiliensis and B. conops), and describing two new species, B. delabiei sp. n. (Brazil: Bahia) and B. fernandezi sp. n. (Colombia: Amazonas). We also describe worker sting apparatuses, larvae, males, and ergatoid gynes of all species, except for B. fernandezi, known only from few worker specimens; we provide a key for identifying workers, present distribution maps for all species and summarize the knowledge on the biology of Blepharidatta species. PMID:26623844

  8. God's Turnstile: The Work of John Wheeler and Stephen Hawking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbye, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Presents an excerpt from the book entitled "Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos." Provides narration of behind-the-scenes events in the lives, the scientific debates, and the intellectual triumphs of the two physicists responsible for inventing the concept of the black hole. (JJK)

  9. Wheeler's delayed-choice gedanken experiment with a single atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, A. G.; Khakimov, R. I.; Dall, R. G.; Truscott, A. G.

    2015-07-01

    The wave-particle dual nature of light and matter and the fact that the choice of measurement determines which one of these two seemingly incompatible behaviours we observe are examples of the counterintuitive features of quantum mechanics. They are illustrated by Wheeler’s famous `delayed-choice’ experiment, recently demonstrated in a single-photon experiment. Here, we use a single ultracold metastable helium atom in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to create an atomic analogue of Wheeler’s original proposal. Our experiment confirms Bohr’s view that it does not make sense to ascribe the wave or particle behaviour to a massive particle before the measurement takes place. This result is encouraging for current work towards entanglement and Bell’s theorem tests in macroscopic systems of massive particles.

  10. Hydrocarbon Processing`s gas processes `96

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This review summarizes 71 processes, describing the process, its application, products, operating conditions, economics, installations, and licensor. Processes include desulfurization, CO{sub 2} removal, sulfur recovery, NGL recovery, deoxygenation, hydrogen production and separation, cryogenic separation of hydrocarbon fractions, dehydration, liquefaction of natural gas, LPG recovery, denitrogenation, and synthesis gas production. While most processes apply to natural gas, some are also useful for refinery gas, synthesis gas, coal mine gas, and tail gas from other processes.

  11. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL-FIRED POWER PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Leon R. Glicksman; Michael Louge; Hesham F. Younis; Richard Tan; Mathew Hyre; Mark Torpey

    2003-11-24

    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor an agency thereof, nor any of the their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, A combined-cycle High Performance Power System (HIPPS) capable of overall cycle efficiencies approaching 50% has been proposed and designed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC). A pyrolyzer in the first stage of the HIPPS process converts a coal feedstock into fuel gas and char at an elevated pressure of 1.4 Map. (206 psia) and elevated temperature of 930 C (1700 F). The generated char serves as the feedstock for a Pulverized Coal (PC) boiler operating at atmospheric pressure, and the fuel gas is directly fired in a gas turbine. The hydrodynamic behavior of the pyrolyzer strongly influences the quality of both the fuel gas and the generated char, the energy split between the gas turbine and the steam turbine, and hence the overall efficiency of the system. By utilizing a simplified set of scaling parameters (Glicksman et al.,1993), a 4/7th labscale cold model of the pyrolyzer operating at ambient temperature and pressure was constructed and tested. The scaling parameters matched include solid to gas density ratio, Froude number, length to diameter ratio; dimensionless superficial gas velocity and solid recycle rate, particle sphericity and particle size distribution (PSD).

  12. Meat Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  13. Hydrocarbon Processing`s petrochemical processes `97

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The paper compiles information on numerous petrochemical processes, describing the application, the process, yields, economics, commercial plants, references, and licensor. Petrochemicals which are synthesized include: alkylbenzene, methylamines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, phthalic anhydride, polycaproamide, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, PVC, styrene, terephthalic acid, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers.

  14. Shuttle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guodace, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation details shuttle processing flow which starts with wheel stop and ends with launching. The flow is from landing the orbiter is rolled into the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), where processing is performed, it is then rolled over to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where it is mated with the propellant tanks, and payloads are installed. A different flow is detailed if the weather at Kennedy Space Center requires a landing at Dryden.

  15. Peat Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Humics, Inc. already had patented their process for separating wet peat into components and processing it when they consulted NERAC regarding possible applications. The NERAC search revealed numerous uses for humic acid extracted from peat. The product improves seed germination, stimulates root development, and improves crop yields. There are also potential applications in sewage disposal and horticultural peat, etc.

  16. Anaerobic Process.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Zun; Qian, Yang; Chang, Chein-Chi; Ju, Meiting

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2014 on the focus of Anaerobic Process. It is divided into the following sections. •Pretreatment •Organic waste •multiple-stage co-digestion •Process Methodology and Technology. PMID:26420080

  17. Process automation

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs.

  18. Recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Apffel, F.

    1989-06-13

    This patent describes a process for manufacturing char and hydrocarbons from discarded used tires. The process consists of: introducing the substantially whole tires into a reactor; pyrolyzing the substantially whole tires in a reaction chamber continuously at a temperature and pressure and for a reaction time sufficient to cause the tires to dissociate into a vapor and a solid phase; the pyrolyzing step including directly heating the tires with a radiant heat source at temperatures of 1000{sup 0} to 3000{sup 0}F; producing char from the solid phase; and processing the vapor phase to produce hydrocarbons.

  19. MULTIPHOTON PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    2002-07-05

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on MULTIPHOTON PROCESSES was held at Tilton School, Tilton, NH. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  20. Grants Process

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Grants Process provides an overview of the end-to-end lifecycle of grant funding. Learn about the types of funding available and the basics for application, review, award, and on-going administration within the NCI.

  1. Membrane Processes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Sadler, Mary E; Greiner, Anthony D; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Min, Kyungnan; Zhang, Kai; Arabi, Sara; Burbano, Marie S; Kent, Fraser; Shoaf, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2014, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, fixed film and anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:26420079

  2. Membrane Processes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Burbano, Marie S; Sadler, Mary E; Diamond, Jason; Baker, Simon; Greiner, Anthony D; Arabi, Sara; Wong, Joseph; Doody, Alexandra; Padhye, Lokesh P; Sears, Keith; Kistenmacher, Peter; Kent, Fraser; Tootchi, Leila; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Saddredini, Sara; Schilling, Bill; Min, Kyungnan; McCandless, Robert; Danker, Bryce; Gamage, Neranga P; Wang, Sunny; Aerts, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2015, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:27620084

  3. Disinfection Processes.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Naoko; Kuo, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to disinfection processes is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: disinfection methods, disinfection byproducts, and microbiology and microbial communities. PMID:27620087

  4. COLLAGEN PROCESSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collagen dispersions, produced from fibrils recovered from milled bovine collagen, have shown promise in environmental remediation in applications as settling aids, filtration aids, fractionation media, oil drop stabilizers, and water purification aids. Macroporous structures, processed by controll...

  5. Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Describes the kinds of computer equipment needed for a personal word processing system. The characteristics and capabilities of specific devices, including keyboards, printers, and disk drives, are discussed. (JL)

  6. Processive catalysis.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Stijn F M; Elemans, Johannes A A W; Rowan, Alan E; Nolte, Roeland J M

    2014-10-20

    Nature's enzymes are an ongoing source of inspiration for scientists. The complex processes behind their selectivity and efficiency is slowly being unraveled, and these findings have spawned many biomimetic catalysts. However, nearly all focus on the conversion of small molecular substrates. Nature itself is replete with inventive catalytic systems which modify, replicate, or decompose entire polymers, often in a processive fashion. Such processivity can, for example, enhance the rate of catalysis by clamping to the polymer substrate, which imparts a large effective molarity. Reviewed herein are the various strategies for processivity in nature's arsenal and their properties. An overview of what has been achieved by chemists aiming to mimic one of nature's greatest tricks is also included. PMID:25244684

  7. Power processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    Processing of electric power has been presented as a discipline that draws on almost every field of electrical engineering, including system and control theory, communications theory, electronic network design, and power component technology. The cost of power processing equipment, which often equals that of expensive, sophisticated, and unconventional sources of electrical energy, such as solar batteries, is a significant consideration in the choice of electric power systems.

  8. Anodizing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This anodizing process traces its origin to the 1960's when Reynolds Metals Company, under contract with Goddard Space Flight Center, developed a multipurpose anodizing electrolyte (MAE) process to produce a hard protective finish for spacecraft aluminum. MAE produces a high-density, abrasion-resistant film prior to the coloring step, in which the pores of the film are impregnated with a metallic form of salt. Tru-Color product applications include building fronts, railing, curtain walls, doors and windows.

  9. Process Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The ChemScan UV-6100 is a spectrometry system originally developed by Biotronics Technologies, Inc. under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. It is marketed to the water and wastewater treatment industries, replacing "grab sampling" with on-line data collection. It analyzes the light absorbance characteristics of a water sample, simultaneously detects hundreds of individual wavelengths absorbed by chemical substances in a process solution, and quantifies the information. Spectral data is then processed by ChemScan analyzer and compared with calibration files in the system's memory in order to calculate concentrations of chemical substances that cause UV light absorbance in specific patterns. Monitored substances can be analyzed for quality and quantity. Applications include detection of a variety of substances, and the information provided enables an operator to control a process more efficiently.

  10. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and forecasters from the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violating the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) (Krider et al. 2006; Space Shuttle Flight Rules (FR), NASA/JSC 2004)). As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool that creates an anvil threat corridor graphic that can be overlaid on satellite imagery using the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS, Short and Wheeler, 2002). The tool helps forecasters estimate the locations of thunderstorm anvils at one, two, and three hours into the future. It has been used extensively in launch and landing operations by both the 45 WS and SMG. The Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) is now used along with MIDDS for weather analysis and display at SMG. In Phase I of this task, SMG tasked the AMU to transition the tool from MIDDS to AWIPS (Barrett et aI., 2007). For Phase II, SMG requested the AMU make the Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS more configurable by creating the capability to read model gridded data from user-defined model files instead of hard-coded files. An NWS local AWIPS application called AGRID was used to accomplish this. In addition, SMG needed to be able to define the pressure levels for the model data, instead of hard-coding the bottom level as 300 mb and the top level as 150 mb. This paper describes the initial development of the Anvil Forecast Tool for MIDDS, followed by the migration of the tool to AWIPS in Phase I. It then gives a detailed presentation of the Phase II improvements to the AWIPS tool.

  11. FLUORINATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, T.S.

    1957-10-29

    A process for the fluorination of uranium metal is described. It is known that uranium will react with liquid chlorine trifluoride but the reaction proceeds at a slow rate. However, a mixture of a halogen trifluoride together with hydrogen fluoride reacts with uranium at a significantly faster rate than does a halogen trifluoride alone. Bromine trifluoride is suitable for use in the process, but chlorine trifluoride is preferred. Particularly suitable is a mixture of ClF/sub 3/ and HF having a mole ratio (moles

  12. Recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Apffel, F.

    1987-03-03

    A process is described for manufacturing carbon black and hydrocarbons from discarded tires, comprising: introducing the tires into a reactor; pyrolyzing the tires in a pyrolysis reaction vessel substantially in the absence of artificially introduced oil heating media at a temperature and pressure and for a reaction time sufficient to cause the tires to dissociate into a vapor phase and a solid phase; the pyrolyzing step including directly, internally heating the tires in the reaction vessel using microwave energy; producing carbon black from the solid phase; and processing the vapor phase to produce hyrocarbons.

  13. Semiconductor processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The primary thrust of the semiconductor processing is outlined. The purpose is to (1) advance the theoretical basis for bulk growth of elemental and compound semiconductors in single crystal form, and (2) to develop a new experimental approaches by which semiconductor matrices with significantly improved crystalline and chemical perfection can be obtained. The most advanced approaches to silicon crystal growth is studied. The projected research expansion, directed toward the capability of growth of 4 inch diameter silicon crystals was implemented. Both intra and interdepartmental programs are established in the areas of process metallurgy, heat transfer, mass transfer, and systems control. Solutal convection in melt growth systems is also studied.

  14. Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Woldy, P.N.; Kaufman, H.C.; Dach, M.M.; Beall, J.F.

    1981-02-03

    This version of Texaco's gasification process for high-ash-content solids is not extended to include the production of superheated steam, as described in US Patent 4,247,302. The hot, raw gas stream passes through fewer coolers, producing a high-pressure steam instead of a superheated steam.

  15. Coating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A black chrome coating, originally developed for spacecraft solar cells, led to the development of an efficient flat plate solar collector. The coating, called Chromonyx, helps the collector absorb more heat. Olympic Solar Corporation was formed to electroplate the collector. The coating technique allows 95% of the sun's energy to be utilized. The process is widely used.

  16. SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Stoughton, R.W.

    1961-10-24

    A process for separating tetravalent plutonium from aqueous solutions and from niobium and zirconium by precipitation on lanthanum oxalate is described. The oxalate ions of the precipitate may be decomposed by heating in the presence of an oxidizing agent, forming a plutonium compound readily soluble in acid. (AEC)

  17. Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Carol Ann; McDonald, Sandy

    This publication contains instructional materials for teacher and student use for a course in information processing. The materials are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 10 units. Each instructional unit contains some or all of the basic components of a unit of instruction: performance…

  18. Radiative processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, J. E.; Leovy, C.; Anderson, D. E., Jr.; Anderson, G. P.; Dickinson, R. E.; Drayson, S. R.; Fels, S.; Hall, L. A.; Kiehl, J.; Mentall, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    Solar radiation and the processes that control its deposition in the Earth atmosphere are considered. The published data obtained since 1978 define a reference solar spectral irradiance for use in atmospheric chemical and dynamical studies, while long term satellite measurements are now providing information on variations in the output of the Sun over a range of time scales. As concerns absorption of solar radiation in the atmosphere, new cross section data for molecular oxygen and ozone are now available. Line-by-line calculations used to predict infrared flux divergences, both as regards assumptions made in radiative transfer calculations and in the spectroscopic parameters used as inputs are examined. Also examined are the influence of radiative processes on planetary scale wave activity, photochemical acceleration of radiative damping, and the breakdown of local thermodynamic equilibrium at mesospheric altitudes.

  19. Restoration Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  20. Process Monitor

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-12-01

    This library is used to get process information (eg memory and timing). By setting an environment variable, the runtime system loads libprocmon.so while loading your executable. This library causes the SIGPROF signal to be triggered at time intervals. The procmon signal handler calls various system routines (eg clock_gettime, malinfo, getrusage, and ioctl {accessing the /proc filesystem}) to gather information about the process. The information is then printed to a file which can be viewed graphicallymore » via procmon_plot.pl. This information is obtained via a sampling approach. As with any sampling approach, the information it gathers will not be completely accurate. For example, if you are looking at memory high-water mark the memory allocation and freeing could have occurred between samples and thus would not be "seen" by this program. See "Usage" below for environment variables that affect this monitor (eg time between sampling).« less

  1. Fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzen, N.W.

    1982-02-23

    Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

  2. Hydropyrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Ullman, Alan Z.; Silverman, Jacob; Friedman, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for producing a methane-enriched gas wherein a hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrogen-containing pyrolysis gas at an elevated temperature and pressure to produce a product gas mixture including methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The improvement comprises passing the product gas mixture sequentially through a water-gas shift reaction zone and a gas separation zone to provide separate gas streams of methane and of a recycle gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane for recycle to the process. A controlled amount of steam also is provided which when combined with the recycle gas provides a pyrolysis gas for treatment of additional hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material. The amount of steam used and the conditions within the water-gas shift reaction zone and gas separation zone are controlled to obtain a steady-state composition of pyrolysis gas which will comprise hydrogen as the principal constituent and a minor amount of carbon monoxide, steam and methane so that no external source of hydrogen is needed to supply the hydrogen requirements of the process. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment, conditions are controlled such that there also is produced a significant quantity of benzene as a valuable coproduct.

  3. Ceramic Processing

    SciTech Connect

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  4. Processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    To implement the analysis techniques and to provide end-to-end processing, a system was designed with the following capabilities: receive and catalog data from many sources; organize the data on mass storage for rapid access; edit for reasonableness; create new data sets by sorting on parameter, averaging and merging; provide statistical analysis and display tools; and distribute data on demand. Consideration was given to developing a flexible system that could meet immediate workshop needs and respond to future requirements. System architecture and data set details implemented are discussed.

  5. Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A new spinoff product was derived from Geospectra Corporation's expertise in processing LANDSAT data in a software package. Called ATOM (for Automatic Topographic Mapping), it's capable of digitally extracting elevation information from stereo photos taken by spaceborne cameras. ATOM offers a new dimension of realism in applications involving terrain simulations, producing extremely precise maps of an area's elevations at a lower cost than traditional methods. ATOM has a number of applications involving defense training simulations and offers utility in architecture, urban planning, forestry, petroleum and mineral exploration.

  6. Lithospheric processes

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, W.S.; Wohletz, K.; Fehler, M.C.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was to improve understanding of the origin and evolution of the Earth`s lithosphere by studying selected processes, such as deformation and magmatic intrusion during crustal extension, formation and extraction of mantle melts, fluid transport of heat and mass, and surface processes that respond to deep-seated events. Additional objectives were to promote and develop innovative techniques and to support relevant educational endeavors. Seismic studies suggest that underplating of crust by mantle melts is an important crustal-growth mechanism, that low-angle faults can be seismogenic, and that shear deformation creates mantle anisotropy near plate boundaries. Results of geochemical work determined that magmas from oceanic intraplate islands are derived from a uniform depth in the upper mantle, whereas melts erupted at mid-ocean ridges are mixed from a range of depths. The authors have determined the extent and style of fluid infiltration and trace-element distribution in natural magmatic systems, and, finally, investigated {sup 21}Ne as a tool for dating of surficial materials.

  7. Process Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Axiomatics Corporation developed a shunting Dielectric Sensor to determine the nutrient level and analyze plant nutrient solutions in the CELSS, NASA's space life support program. (CELSS is an experimental facility investigating closed-cycle plant growth and food processing for long duration manned missions.) The DiComp system incorporates a shunt electrode and is especially sensitive to changes in dielectric property changes in materials at measurements much lower than conventional sensors. The analyzer has exceptional capabilities for predicting composition of liquid streams or reactions. It measures concentrations and solids content up to 100 percent in applications like agricultural products, petrochemicals, food and beverages. The sensor is easily installed; maintenance is low, and it can be calibrated on line. The software automates data collection and analysis.

  8. Oligomerization process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  9. Etherification process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  10. WELDING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Zambrow, J.; Hausner, H.

    1957-09-24

    A method of joining metal parts for the preparation of relatively long, thin fuel element cores of uranium or alloys thereof for nuclear reactors is described. The process includes the steps of cleaning the surfaces to be jointed, placing the sunfaces together, and providing between and in contact with them, a layer of a compound in finely divided form that is decomposable to metal by heat. The fuel element members are then heated at the contact zone and maintained under pressure during the heating to decompose the compound to metal and sinter the members and reduced metal together producing a weld. The preferred class of decomposable compounds are the metal hydrides such as uranium hydride, which release hydrogen thus providing a reducing atmosphere in the vicinity of the welding operation.

  11. Etherification process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1990-08-21

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figs.

  12. Oligomerization process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1991-03-26

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figures.

  13. Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

  14. Crystallization process

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  15. Lithospheric processes

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, W.

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  16. Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grangeat, P.

    A new area of biology has been opened up by nanoscale exploration of the living world. This has been made possible by technological progress, which has provided the tools needed to make devices that can measure things on such length and time scales. In a sense, this is a new window upon the living world, so rich and so diverse. Many of the investigative methods described in this book seek to obtain complementary physical, chemical, and biological data to understand the way it works and the way it is organised. At these length and time scales, only dedicated instrumentation could apprehend the relevant phenomena. There is no way for our senses to observe these things directly. One important field of application is molecular medicine, which aims to explain the mechanisms of life and disease by the presence and quantification of specific molecular entities. This involves combining information about genes, proteins, cells, and organs. This in turn requires the association of instruments for molecular diagnosis, either in vitro, e.g., the microarray or the lab-on-a-chip, or in vivo, e.g., probes for molecular biopsy, and tools for molecular imaging, used to localise molecular information in living organisms in a non-invasive way. These considerations concern both preclinical research for drug design and human medical applications. With the development of DNA and RNA chips [1], genomics has revolutionised investigative methods for cells and cell processes [2,3]. By sequencing the human genome, new ways have been found for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life [4]. A revolution is currently under way with the analysis of the proteome [5-8], i.e., the complete set of proteins that can be found in some given biological medium, such as the blood plasma. The goal is to characterise certain diseases by recognisable signatures in the proteomic profile, as determined from a blood sample or a biopsy, for example [9-13]. What is at stake is the early detection of

  17. Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenko, Janis

    A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

  18. Hydrothermal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater

  19. Evaluation Of FWENC Process For Treatment Of MVST Sludges, Supernates, And Surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, JW

    2003-01-30

    In 1998, the Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) was awarded an 11-year contract to treat transuranic waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, including Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste. Their baseline tank waste process consists of: (1) Separating the supernate from the sludge, (2) Washing the sludge with water and adding this wash water to the supernate, (3) Stabilizing the supernate/wash water or the washed sludge with additives if either are projected to fail Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) Toxic Characteristics Leaching Protocol (TCLP) criteria, and (4) Stabilizing both the washed sludge and supernate/wash water by vacuum evaporation. An ''Optimum'' treatment procedure consisted of adding a specified quantity of two stabilizers--ThioRed{reg_sign} and ET Soil Polymer{reg_sign}--and an ''Alternate'' treatment simply increased the amount of ThioRed{reg_sign} added. This report presents the results of a study funded by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to provide Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) with independent laboratory data on the performance of the baseline process for treating the sludges, including washing the sludge and treating the wash water (although supernates were not included in the wash water tests). Two surrogate and seven actual tank wastes were used in this evaluation. Surrogate work, as well as the initial work with actual tank sludge, was based on an existing sludge sample from Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tank (BVEST) W23. One surrogate was required to be based on a surrogate previously developed to mimic the weighted average chemical composition of the MVST-BVEST using a simple mix of reagent grade chemicals and water, called the ''Quick and Dirty'' surrogate (QnD). The composition of this surrogate was adjusted toward the measured composition of W23 samples. The other surrogate was prepared to be more representative of the W23 sludge sample by precipitation of a nitrate solution at high pH, separating the solution

  20. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  1. Hydrocarbon Processing`s process design and optimization `96

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This paper compiles information on hydrocarbon processes, describing the application, objective, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Processes include: alkylation, ammonia, catalytic reformer, crude fractionator, crude unit, vacuum unit, dehydration, delayed coker, distillation, ethylene furnace, FCCU, polymerization, gas sweetening, hydrocracking, hydrogen, hydrotreating (naphtha, distillate, and resid desulfurization), natural gas processing, olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, refinery, styrene, sulfur recovery, and VCM furnace.

  2. Extensible packet processing architecture

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  3. 78 FR 73920 - Morgan 3 Wheeler Limited, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... review in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78). The petition, supporting... motorcycles do not fully comply with either paragraph S7.9.6.2(b) or paragraph S10.7.1.2.2 (depending on the... model M3W three-wheeled motorcycles manufactured during the period August 1, 2012 to August 14,...

  4. From High-Wheelers to High-Tech: Bicycle Manufacturing Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    The 1890s was the heyday for the bicycle in the United States. By 1896, bicycle manufacturing was a major industry with 300 established firms. Interest in bicycling, or "wheeling" as it was known then, grew rapidly into a national craze during the latter part of the 19th century. In 1890, American manufacturers produced nearly 30,000 bicycles, and…

  5. Definitive evaluation of Wheeler Reservoir sedments toxicity using juvenile freshwater mussels (Andodonta imbecillis Say)

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, D.C.

    1992-10-01

    Reservoir sediments near the Decatur, Alabama, industrial waterfront were screened for acute (9-day) toxicity to 8-day old freshwater mussels In 1990. only two locations, designated as stations Alpha (TRM 303.4L, Dry Branch Embayment) and Delta (TRM 301.lL), were found to be toxic to mussels. Toxicity correlated strongly with unionized ammonia measured daily In porewater samples during the study. A definitive study was conducted in 1991 to determine persistence of the toxicity observed In 1990 at the two locations and to determine levels (magnitude) of toxicity and the role of sediment ammonia and/or other sediment contaminants. The 1991 TVA study, reported herein, found reoccurring (persistent) toxicity at both locations. Porewater was toxic at concentrations of 100, 50, and 25 percent. Toxicity was not observed in samples diluted to 12.5 percent.

  6. Testing of Westinghouse hot gas candle filter at Foster Wheeler Karhula R and D Center

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, T.; Sellakumar, K.M.; Lippert, T.; Dennis, R.; Feldmann, H.; Brown, R.

    1996-12-31

    The main objectives of the project are to provide performance and environmental data to the design of a PCFB Demonstration project and evaluate Westinghouse advanced ceramic barrier filter system and candle materials. A total test duration of 1,000 to 1,500 hrs in three segments of 500 hrs each has been planned for evaluating the filter unit. A single cluster Westinghouse hot gas candle filter is being tested. The filter system, which houses 112 ceramic candles in three plenums, takes the full flue gas flow from the PCFB combustor. At full load operation (10 MW load, 10 Bar, 850 C), the nominal filtration velocity is 4.3 cm/s. FWEI and WEC have selected a set of advanced ceramic candle materials based on a state of the art evaluation of the material characteristics in the WEC facilities and earlier test experience at many coal-fired test sites including the 2000 hour testing at the Karhula PCFB pilot plant. The selection comprises the following four types of advanced ceramic candles: Schumacher FT-20; 3M SiCoNeX; Pall 326; and Coors mullite. The ICB has supplied coal and the sorbent. Tests have been in progress since November 1995 and are scheduled for completion by the middle of 1996. The filter unit performance so far has been very satisfactory at the nominal design conditions--10 to 12 bar (150 to 175 psis), 800 to 850 C (1,500 to 1,575 F), and nearly 100% dust removal. There was no visible evidence of any dust carry over into the clean side. This paper describes the performance of the filter including the pulse system and the mechanical package.

  7. Strong-field Breit-Wheeler pair production in short laser pulses: Relevance of spin effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, M. J. A.; Kamiński, J. Z.; Krajewska, K.; Müller, C.

    2016-07-01

    Production of electron-positron pairs in the collision of a high-energy photon with a high-intensity few-cycle laser pulse is studied. By utilizing the frameworks of laser-dressed spinor and scalar quantum electrodynamics, a comparison between the production of pairs of Dirac and Klein-Gordon particles is drawn. Positron energy spectra and angular distributions are presented for various laser parameters. We identify conditions under which predictions from Klein-Gordon theory either closely resemble or largely differ from those of the proper Dirac theory. In particular, we address the question to which extent the relevance of spin effects is influenced by the short duration of the laser pulse.

  8. 75 FR 68319 - Paulina Ranger District; Ochoco National Forest; Crook and Wheeler Counties, OR; Jackson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... other resources. Methods that would be used to reduce tree density and hazardous fuels are: non... shrub and grass communities from fire exclusion; stand density and forest fuels adjacent to arterial... forest by reducing stand density; promote the development of large trees for eventual woody...

  9. Processing Process: The Event of Making Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jack; Walker, Sydney

    2011-01-01

    The article takes up the notion of process and artmaking as an event to be understood neither as a singular moment of forces (e.g., artist, artwork, viewer, and/or site) coming together, nor as the "end" of a productive process that is then superseded by another event. Rather, the authors suggest that the artmaking process can be understood as an…

  10. Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.; Kang, Dohee

    1984-01-01

    In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

  11. A Distributed Processing Approach to Word Processing/Data Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Robert D.; Magnuson, Jerry R.

    1980-01-01

    A word processing system developed at the University of Kansas is described. A cost-benefit analysis of the system v standard typewriter, mag-card, and other advanced word processing systems is developed. Intangible benefits such as worker satisfaction and reduced training and editing needs are discussed, and possible uses outlined. (MSE)

  12. Blood Donation Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Donation Information > Blood Donation Process Blood Donation Process Page Content Donating blood is a safe, simple, ... this test, as well as during the donation process, is sterile, used only once and then disposed. ...

  13. Drug Development Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... public. More Information More in The Drug Development Process Step 1: Discovery and Development Step 2: Preclinical ...

  14. Blood Donation Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Donating Blood > Donation Process Printable Version Donation Process View Video Getting Ready for Your Donation The ... worry about. Make a Donation Appointment The Donation Process Step by Step Donating blood is a simple ...

  15. Special parallel processing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

  16. Desalination processes and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, L. J.

    1995-06-01

    Different desalination processes are evaluated for feed, capacity, performance, energy requirements, and cost. These include distillation, reverse osmosis, or electrodialysis. Detailed information is given on distillation processes and membrane processes.

  17. Solvent refining process

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, T.C.; Sequeira, A.J.; Smith, B.F.

    1981-10-13

    An improved process is described for solvent refining lubricating oil base stocks from petroleum fractions containing both aromatic and nonaromatic constituents. The process utilizes n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as a selective solvent for aromatic hydrocarbons wherein the refined oil fraction and the extract fraction are freed of final traces of solvent by stripping with gaseous ammonia. The process has several advantages over conventional processes including a savings in energy required for the solvent refining process, and reduced corrosion of the process equipment.

  18. Conscious processing and the process goal paradox.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Richard; Hardy, Lew

    2010-06-01

    The three experiments reported here examined the process goal paradox, which has emerged from the literature on goal setting and conscious processing. We predicted that skilled but anxious performers who adopted a global movement focus using holistic process goals would outperform those who used part-oriented process goals. In line with the conscious processing hypothesis, we also predicted that performers using part process goals would experience performance impairment in test compared with baseline conditions. In all three experiments, participants performed motor tasks in baseline and test conditions. Cognitive state anxiety increased in all of the test conditions. The results confirmed our first prediction; however, we failed to find unequivocal evidence to support our second prediction. The consistent pattern of the results lends support to the suggestion that, for skilled athletes who perform under competitive pressure, using a holistic process goal that focuses attention on global aspects of a motor skill is a more effective attentional focus strategy than using a part process goal. PMID:20587818

  19. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  20. Making process improvement 'stick'.

    PubMed

    Studer, Quint

    2014-06-01

    To sustain gains from a process improvement initiative, healthcare organizations should: Explain to staff why a process improvement initiative is needed. Encourage leaders within the organization to champion the process improvement, and tie their evaluations to its outcomes. Ensure that both leaders and employees have the skills to help sustain the sought-after process improvements. PMID:24968631

  1. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.; Bonk, D.

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  2. Hyperspectral processing in graphical processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Michael E.; Winter, Edwin M.

    2011-06-01

    With the advent of the commercial 3D video card in the mid 1990s, we have seen an order of magnitude performance increase with each generation of new video cards. While these cards were designed primarily for visualization and video games, it became apparent after a short while that they could be used for scientific purposes. These Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) are rapidly being incorporated into data processing tasks usually reserved for general purpose computers. It has been found that many image processing problems scale well to modern GPU systems. We have implemented four popular hyperspectral processing algorithms (N-FINDR, linear unmixing, Principal Components, and the RX anomaly detection algorithm). These algorithms show an across the board speedup of at least a factor of 10, with some special cases showing extreme speedups of a hundred times or more.

  3. Image processing applied to laser cladding process

    SciTech Connect

    Meriaudeau, F.; Truchetet, F.

    1996-12-31

    The laser cladding process, which consists of adding a melt powder to a substrate in order to improve or change the behavior of the material against corrosion, fatigue and so on, involves a lot of parameters. In order to perform good tracks some parameters need to be controlled during the process. The authors present here a low cost performance system using two CCD matrix cameras. One camera provides surface temperature measurements while the other gives information relative to the powder distribution or geometric characteristics of the tracks. The surface temperature (thanks to Beer Lambert`s law) enables one to detect variations in the mass feed rate. Using such a system the authors are able to detect fluctuation of 2 to 3g/min in the mass flow rate. The other camera gives them information related to the powder distribution, a simple algorithm applied to the data acquired from the CCD matrix camera allows them to see very weak fluctuations within both gaz flux (carriage or protection gaz). During the process, this camera is also used to perform geometric measurements. The height and the width of the track are obtained in real time and enable the operator to find information related to the process parameters such as the speed processing, the mass flow rate. The authors display the result provided by their system in order to enhance the efficiency of the laser cladding process. The conclusion is dedicated to a summary of the presented works and the expectations for the future.

  4. Thermochemical water decomposition processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermochemical processes which lead to the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water without the consumption of any other material have a number of advantages when compared to other processes such as water electrolysis. It is possible to operate a sequence of chemical steps with net work requirements equal to zero at temperatures well below the temperature required for water dissociation in a single step. Various types of procedures are discussed, giving attention to halide processes, reverse Deacon processes, iron oxide and carbon oxide processes, and metal and alkali metal processes. Economical questions are also considered.

  5. Unconventional olefin processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y.C.

    1982-11-01

    Ethylene and coproducts are produced from steam cracking of hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, butane, naphtha and gas oil in tubular reactor coils installed in externally fired heaters. Due to increasing costs of raw materials and uncertainty of supply, there were flurries of research and development for alternative feedstocks and processes. Alternative processes include crude or residual oil cracking processes, ethanol dehydration processes and syngas based processes. In this series of articles the state-of-the-art for these processes is reviewed and they are assessed for their potential for commercialization.

  6. Digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Euclid

    2004-01-01

    Digital image processing is now commonplace in radiology, nuclear medicine and sonography. This article outlines underlying principles and concepts of digital image processing. After completing this article, readers should be able to: List the limitations of film-based imaging. Identify major components of a digital imaging system. Describe the history and application areas of digital image processing. Discuss image representation and the fundamentals of digital image processing. Outline digital image processing techniques and processing operations used in selected imaging modalities. Explain the basic concepts and visualization tools used in 3-D and virtual reality imaging. Recognize medical imaging informatics as a new area of specialization for radiologic technologists. PMID:15352557

  7. Acoustic signal processing toolbox for array processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tien; Whipps, Gene T.

    2003-08-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed an acoustic signal processing toolbox (ASPT) for acoustic sensor array processing. The intent of this document is to describe the toolbox and its uses. The ASPT is a GUI-based software that is developed and runs under MATLAB. The current version, ASPT 3.0, requires MATLAB 6.0 and above. ASPT contains a variety of narrowband (NB) and incoherent and coherent wideband (WB) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and beamforming algorithms that have been researched and developed at ARL. Currently, ASPT contains 16 DOA and beamforming algorithms. It contains several different NB and WB versions of the MVDR, MUSIC and ESPRIT algorithms. In addition, there are a variety of pre-processing, simulation and analysis tools available in the toolbox. The user can perform simulation or real data analysis for all algorithms with user-defined signal model parameters and array geometries.

  8. Nonlinear Markov processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, T. D.

    2008-06-01

    Some elementary properties and examples of Markov processes are reviewed. It is shown that the definition of the Markov property naturally leads to a classification of Markov processes into linear and nonlinear ones.

  9. GREENSCOPE: Sustainable Process Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA researchers are responding to environmental problems by incorporating sustainability into process design and evaluation. EPA researchers are also developing a tool that allows users to assess modifications to existing and new chemical processes to determine whether changes in...

  10. Infrared processing of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  11. The requirements discovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Dean, F.F.

    1997-02-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

  12. Gas-separation process

    DOEpatents

    Toy, Lora G.; Pinnau, Ingo; Baker, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    A process for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material.

  13. Materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and possible advantages of processing materials in a nongravitational field are considered. Areas of investigation include biomedical applications, the processing of inorganic materials, and flight programs and funding.

  14. Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  15. News: Process intensification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conservation of materials and energy is a major objective to the philosophy of sustainability. Where production processes can be intensified to assist these objectives, significant advances have been developed to assist conservation as well as cost. Process intensification (PI) h...

  16. Process evaluation distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

  17. INNOVATIVE THERMAL TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper contains discussions of several innovative thermal processes for treating or destroying hazardous wastes. Processes discussed can be included in the categories wet oxidation, molten glass, fluidized bed incineration, pyrolysis, molten salt, electric reactors, and plasma...

  18. WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was made at pilot scale of a variety of processes for dewatering and stabilization of waste activated sludge from a pure oxygen activated sludge system. Processes evaluated included gravity thickening, dissolved air flotation thickening, basket centrifugation, scroll cent...

  19. Laser Processing Architecture for Improved Material Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, Frank E.; Helvajian, Henry

    This chapter presents a novel architecture and software-hardware design system for materials processing techniques that are widely applicable to laser direct-write patterning tools. This new laser material processing approach has been crafted by association with the genome and genotype concepts, where predetermined and prescribed laser pulse scripts are synchronously linked with the tool path geometry, and each concatenated pulse sequence is intended to induce a specific material transformation event and thereby express a particular material attribute. While the experimental approach depends on the delivery of discrete amplitude modulated laser pulses to each focused volume element with high fidelity, the architecture is highly versatile and capable of more advanced functionality. The capabilities of this novel architecture fall short of the coherent spatial control techniques that are now emerging, but can be readily applied to fundamental investigations of complex laser-material interaction phenomena, and easily integrated into commercial and industrial laser material processing applications. Section 9.1 provides a brief overview of laser-based machining and materials processing, with particular emphasis on the advantages of controlling energy deposition in light-matter interactions to subtly affect a material's thermodynamic properties. This section also includes a brief discussion of conventional approaches to photon modulation and process control. Section 9.2 comprehensively describes the development and capabilities of our novel laser genotype pulse modulation technique that facilitates the controlled and precise delivery of photons to a host material during direct-write patterning. This section also reviews the experimental design setup and synchronized photon control scheme, along with performance tests and diagnostic results. Section 9.3 discusses selected applications of the new laser genotype processing technique, including optical property variations

  20. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  1. The plasma hearth process: Process residuals characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Leatherman, G.L.; Geimer, R.; Batdorf, J.; Hassel, G.; Wolfe, P.; Carney, K.P.

    1994-12-31

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature waste treatment process being developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Department of Energy (DOE) that destroys hazardous organics while stabilizing radionuclides and hazardous metals in a vitreous slag waste form. The PHP has potential application for the treatment of a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level and transuranic (TRU) mixed waste categories. DOE, through the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is conducting a three phase development project to ready the PHP for implementation in the DOE complex.

  2. Polar processing project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, C. N.; Davies, W. J.; Goycochea, J. F.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to explore the use of polar processing techniques in SIGINT-related signal processing applications. An investigation of ways to apply the CORDIC arithmetic algorithm to signal processing problems, and an application of the TMC2330 Coordinate Transformer chip in a coprocessor or accelerator board for a Sun workstation are covered.

  3. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  4. Change Processes in Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on change processes in organizations. "Mid-stream Corrections: Decisions Leaders Make during Organizational Change Processes" (David W. Frantz) analyzes three organizational leaders to determine whether and how they take corrective actions or adapt their decision-making processes when…

  5. How yogurt is processed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This month’s Processing column on the theme of “How Is It Processed?” focuses on yogurt. Yogurt is known for its health-promoting properties. This column will provide a brief overview of the history of yogurt and the current market. It will also unveil both traditional and modern yogurt processing t...

  6. Image-Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Apple Image-Processing Educator (AIPE) explores ability of microcomputers to provide personalized computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in digital image processing of remotely sensed images. AIPE is "proof-of-concept" system, not polished production system. User-friendly prompts provide access to explanations of common features of digital image processing and of sample programs that implement these features.

  7. The Natural Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Teacher-educator and researcher Daniel L. Kohut suggests in "Musical Performance: Learning Theory and Pedagogy" that there are many problems that result from the way music teachers often teach. Most teachers focus on the process, not the goal. The Natural Learning Process that Kohut advocates is the same process that young children use when they…

  8. Current Duplicating Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groneman, Nancy

    1978-01-01

    While business instructors are still teaching spirit and stencil duplicating processes, most businesses now use copiers or offset printing processes. The article discusses offset and copier skills needed by office workers, pointing out that the processes being taught should be compatible with those used in business. (MF)

  9. Process Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, James B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses process analytical chemistry as a discipline designed to supply quantitative and qualitative information about a chemical process. Encourages academic institutions to examine this field for employment opportunities for students. Describes the five areas of process analytical chemistry, including off-line, at-line, on-line, in-line, and…

  10. How tofu is processed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This month’s Processing column will continue the theme of “How Is It Processed?” The column will focus on tofu, which is sometimes called “the cheese of Asia.” It is a nutritious, protein-rich bean curd made by coagulating soy milk. There are many different types of tofu, and they are processed in a...

  11. Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Apelian,Diran

    2002-01-10

    Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

  12. Processes for metal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowersox, David F.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the processing of plutonium at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and operation illustrating concepts that may be applicable to the processing of lunar materials. The toxic nature of plutonium requires a highly closed system for processing lunar surface materials.

  13. Comprehension Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

  14. Process for purifying alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Spitzer, D.P.; Lipp, D.W.; Rothenberg, A.S.; Panzer, H.P.

    1988-01-05

    In a process for separating insoluble red mud from Bayer process streams the improvement is described which comprises contacting and mixing a Bayer process stream with a tertiary polyamine having a molecular weight of at least about 10,000 in an amount effective to reduce the iron content thereof.

  15. The Concept of "Process".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Vanessa

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the term "process" using definitions from a small desk dictionary. Claims that communication theory reflects a process point of view. Describes how most models of the communication process are similar to that delineated by Aristotle. Discusses current business communication texts in light of these models. (JD)

  16. Metallurgical processing: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The items in this compilation, all relating to metallurgical processing, are presented in two sections. The first section includes processes which are general in scope and applicable to a variety of metals or alloys. The second describes the processes that concern specific metals and their alloys.

  17. Process mapping: A user-friendly tool for process improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, M.L.; Levine, L.O.

    1993-09-01

    Process maps aid administrative process improvement efforts by documenting processes in a rigorous yet understandable way. Icons, graphics, and text support process documentation, analysis, and improvement.

  18. Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

    2012-01-01

    The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

  19. Statistical Process Control for KSC Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Roger G.; Delgado, Hector; Tilley, Randy

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) served as the basis for a research effort into statistical process control for KSC processing. The effort entailed several tasks and goals. The first was to develop a customized statistical process control (SPC) course for the Safety and Mission Assurance Trends Analysis Group. The actual teaching of this course took place over several weeks. In addition, an Internet version of the same course complete with animation and video excerpts from the course when it was taught at KSC was developed. The application of SPC to shuttle processing took up the rest of the summer research project. This effort entailed the evaluation of SPC use at KSC, both present and potential, due to the change in roles for NASA and the Single Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC). Individual consulting on SPC use was accomplished as well as an evaluation of SPC software for KSC use in the future. A final accomplishment of the orientation of the author to NASA changes, terminology, data format, and new NASA task definitions will allow future consultation when the needs arise.

  20. Biomass process handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  1. An improved plating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, John C.

    1994-01-01

    An alternative to the immersion process for the electrodeposition of chromium from aqueous solutions on the inside diameter (ID) of long tubes is described. The Vessel Plating Process eliminates the need for deep processing tanks, large volumes of solutions, and associated safety and environmental concerns. Vessel Plating allows the process to be monitored and controlled by computer thus increasing reliability, flexibility and quality. Elimination of the trivalent chromium accumulation normally associated with ID plating is intrinsic to the Vessel Plating Process. The construction and operation of a prototype Vessel Plating Facility with emphasis on materials of construction, engineered and operational safety and a unique system for rinse water recovery are described.

  2. Evaluation of steelmaking processes

    SciTech Connect

    Fruehan, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Objective of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program is to develop a process for producing steel directly from ore and coal; the process should be less capital intensive, consume less energy, and have higher productivity. A task force was formed to examine available processes: trough, posthearth, IRSID, Electric Arc Furnace, energy optimizing furnace. It is concluded that there is insufficient incentive to replace a working BOF with any of these processes to refine hot metal; however, if new steelmaking capacity is required, IRSID and EOF should be considered. A fully continuous process should not be considered until direct ironmaking and continuous refining are perfected.

  3. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  4. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  5. Gas processing handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Brief details are given of processes including: BGC-Lurgi slagging gasification, COGAS, Exxon catalytic coal gasification, FW-Stoic 2-stage, GI two stage, HYGAS, Koppers-Totzek, Lurgi pressure gasification, Saarberg-Otto, Shell, Texaco, U-Gas, W-D.IGI, Wellman-Galusha, Westinghouse, and Winkler coal gasification processes; the Rectisol process; the Catacarb and the Benfield processes for removing CO/SUB/2, H/SUB/2s and COS from gases produced by the partial oxidation of coal; the selectamine DD, Selexol solvent, and Sulfinol gas cleaning processes; the sulphur-tolerant shift (SSK) process; and the Super-meth process for the production of high-Btu gas from synthesis gas.

  6. Future Steelmaking Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. R. J. Fruehan

    2004-09-20

    There is an increasing demand for an ironmaking process with lower capital cost, energy consumption and emissions than a blast furnace. It is the hypothesis of the present work that an optimized combination of two reasonable proven technologies will greatly enhance the overall process. An example is a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) linked to a smelter (e.g., AISI, HIsmelt). The objective of this research is to select promising process combinations, develop energy, materials balance and productivity models for the individual processes, conduct a limited amount of basic research on the processes and evaluate the process combinations. Three process combinations were selected with input from the industrial partners. The energy-materials and productivity models for the RHF, smelter, submerged arc furnace and CIRCOFER were developed. Since utilization of volatiles in coal is critical for energy and CO{sub 2} emission reduction, basic research on this topic was also conducted. The process models developed are a major product developed in this research. These models can be used for process evaluation by the industry. The process combinations of an RHF-Smelter and a simplified CIRCOFER-Smelter appear to be promising. Energy consumption is reduced and productivity increased. Work on this project is continuing using funds from other sources.

  7. Processes and process development in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noda, T.

    1986-01-01

    The commercialization of solar power generation necessitates the development of low cost manufacturing method of silicon suitable for solar cells. The manufacturing methods of semiconductor grade silicon (SEG-Si) and the development of solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) in foreign countries was investigated. It was concluded that the most efficient method of developing such materials was the hydrogen reduction process of trichlorosilane (TCS), using a fluidized bed reactor. The low cost reduction of polysilicon requires cost reductions of raw materials, energy, labor, and capital. These conditions were carefully reviewed. The overall conclusion was that a development program should be based on the TCS-FBR process and that the experimental program should be conducted in test facilities capable of producing 10 tons of silicon granules per year.

  8. Eigenforms, Discrete Processes and Quantum Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Louis H.

    2012-05-01

    This essay is a discussion of the concept of eigenform, due to Heinz von Foerster, and its relationship with discrete physics and quantum mechanics. We interpret the square root of minus one as a simple oscillatory process - a clock, and as an eigenform. By taking a generalization of this identification of i as a clock and eigenform, we show how quantum mechanics emerges from discrete physics.

  9. Soviet optical processing research

    SciTech Connect

    VanderLugt, A.; Attard, A.E.; Cronin-Golomb, M.; Hartman, R.L.; Lee, J.N.; Morris, G.M.; Rhodes, W.T.

    1991-04-01

    Optical processing techniques are used to transform, manipulate, or transmit information. The Soviet Union has vigorously pursued optical processing since the 1960s. This report summarizes Soviet capabilities in hardware, particularly in materials and devices, as well as their capability in applications such as image processing and signal processing/computing. Soviet work in optical signal processing may be characterized as follows: good in terms of fundamental science of materials; capable of producing good materials (often on a par with the West); curious lack of activity with ferroelectric liquid crystals; unique capability in biochrome materials; good capabilities in waveguide devices; good research on spatial light modulators using electro-optic materials; lacking in fabrication techniques for devices; good in terms of statistical analysis of expected system performance; lacking in microelectronic support capabilities; and general lack of innovation for new signal processing architectures. 400 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Computers for symbolic processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wah, Benjamin W.; Lowrie, Matthew B.; Li, Guo-Jie

    1989-01-01

    A detailed survey on the motivations, design, applications, current status, and limitations of computers designed for symbolic processing is provided. Symbolic processing computations are performed at the word, relation, or meaning levels, and the knowledge used in symbolic applications may be fuzzy, uncertain, indeterminate, and ill represented. Various techniques for knowledge representation and processing are discussed from both the designers' and users' points of view. The design and choice of a suitable language for symbolic processing and the mapping of applications into a software architecture are then considered. The process of refining the application requirements into hardware and software architectures is treated, and state-of-the-art sequential and parallel computers designed for symbolic processing are discussed.

  11. Spitzer Telemetry Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

  12. Pultrusion process characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, James G.; Hackett, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Pultrusion is a process through which high-modulus, lightweight composite structural members such as beams, truss components, stiffeners, etc., are manufactured. The pultrusion process, though a well-developed processing art, lacks a fundamental scientific understanding. The objective here was to determine, both experimentally and analytically, the process parameters most important in characterizing and optimizing the pultrusion of uniaxial fibers. The effects of process parameter interactions were experimentally examined as a function of the pultruded product properties. A numerical description based on these experimental results was developed. An analytical model of the pultrusion process was also developed. The objective of the modeling effort was the formulation of a two-dimensional heat transfer model and development of solutions for the governing differential equations using the finite element method.

  13. Fjords: Processes and products

    SciTech Connect

    Syvitski, J.P.M.; Burrell, D.C.; Skei, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Fjords are a major feature of coasts and provide geologists and oceanographers with an excellent environment for studying and modeling coastal processes and products. This book brings together and integrates an enormous amount of information on fjords and provides the reader with a thorough, interdisciplinary account of current research with emphasis on sedimentary processes. The processes demonstrated in fjords are often relevant to the estuarine or open ocean environment.

  14. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  15. TEP process flow diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Wilms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan; Coons, James; Kubic, William

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  16. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  17. Containerless processing technology analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Research on acoustic levitation, air-jet levitation, and heat transfer from molten samples is reported. The goal was to obtain a better understanding and improving the quality of containerless processing systems. These systems are applied to the processing of materials in situations in which contact with a container must be avoided, and have potential application in both ground based and orbiting laboratories. Containerless processing is reviewed. The development of glasses from materials which normally crystallize upon cooling, are studied.

  18. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  19. Future integrated design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The design process is one of the sources used to produce requirements for a computer system to integrate and manage product design data, program management information, and technical computation and engineering data management activities of the aerospace design process. Design activities were grouped chronologically and explored for activity type, activity interface, data quantity, and data flow. The work was based on analysis of the design process of several typical aerospace products, including both conventional and supersonic airplanes and a hydrofoil design. Activities examined included research, preliminary design, detail design, manufacturing interface, product verification, and product support. The design process was then described in an IPAD environment--the future.

  20. Diesel engine combustion processes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Diesel Engine Combustion Processes guides the engineer and research technician toward engine designs which will give the ``best payoff`` in terms of emissions and fuel economy. Contents include: Three-dimensional modeling of soot and NO in a direct-injection diesel engine; Prechamber for lean burn for low NOx; Modeling and identification of a diesel combustion process with the downhill gradient search method; The droplet group micro-explosions in W/O diesel fuel emulsion sprays; Combustion process of diesel spray in high temperature air; Combustion process of diesel engines at regions with different altitude; and more.

  1. Solvent extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Woodle, R.A.

    1982-01-19

    A solvent refining process is disclosed utilizing n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent in which primary extract from the extraction zone is cooled to form a secondary raffinate and secondary extract and the secondary and primary raffinates are blended to produce an increased yield of product of desired quality. In a preferred embodiment of the process, the lubricating oil feedstock to the process is first contacted with a stripping medium previously used in the process for the recovery of solvent from at least one of the product streams whereby solvent contained in said stripping medium is recovered therefrom.

  2. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

    1998-06-09

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

  3. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  4. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  5. JSME scatterometer data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A software system was developed which processes digitized scatterometer data from the 13.3 GHz, 1.6 GHz and 400 MHz scatterometer systems. In addition to this, the hardware capability has been developed to recover the raw analog radar signals and the aircraft parameters from an ADAS data stream in a digital format for processing by the software package. Software for the preparation of data reports and chart presentation of scattering coefficients time histories has also been developed. This report documents the development of the software, describes key components of the processing system and presents examples of the processed data and procedure for software operation.

  6. Central waste processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept for processing spacecraft type wastes has been evaluated. The feasibility of reacting various waste materials with steam at temperatures of 538 - 760 C in both a continuous and batch reactor with residence times from 3 to 60 seconds has been established. Essentially complete gasification is achieved. Product gases are primarily hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. Water soluble synthetic wastes are readily processed in a continuous tubular reactor at concentrations up to 20 weight percent. The batch reactor is able to process wet and dry wastes at steam to waste weight ratios from 2 to 20. Feces, urine, and synthetic wastes have been successfully processed in the batch reactor.

  7. Biased predecision processing.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Aaron L

    2003-07-01

    Decision makers conduct biased predecision processing when they restructure their mental representation of the decision environment to favor one alternative before making their choice. The question of whether biased predecision processing occurs has been controversial since L. Festinger (1957) maintained that it does not occur. The author reviews relevant research in sections on theories of cognitive dissonance, decision conflict, choice certainty, action control, action phases, dominance structuring, differentiation and consolidation, constructive processing, motivated reasoning, and groupthink. Some studies did not find evidence of biased predecision processing, but many did. In the Discussion section, the moderators are summarized and used to assess the theories. PMID:12848220

  8. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  9. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  10. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  11. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  13. EARSEC SAR processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protheroe, Mark; Sloggett, David R.; Sieber, Alois J.

    1994-12-01

    Traditionally, the production of high quality Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery has been an area where a potential user would have to expend large amounts of money in either the bespoke development of a processing chain dedicated to his requirements or in the purchase of a dedicated hardware platform adapted using accelerator boards and enhanced memory management. Whichever option the user adopted there were limitations based on the desire for a realistic throughput in data load and time. The user had a choice, made early in the purchase, for either a system that adopted innovative algorithmic manipulation, to limit the processing time of the purchase of expensive hardware. The former limits the quality of the product, while the latter excludes the user from any visibility into the processing chain. Clearly there was a need for a SAR processing architecture that gave the user a choice into the methodology to be adopted for a particular processing sequence, allowing him to decide on either a quick (lower quality) product or a detailed slower (high quality) product, without having to change the algorithmic base of his processor or the hardware platform. The European Commission, through the Advanced Techniques unit of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Institute for Remote Sensing at Ispra in Italy, realizing the limitations on current processing abilities, initiated its own program to build airborne SAR and Electro-Optical (EO) sensor systems. This program is called the European Airborne Remote Sensing Capabilities (EARSEC) program. This paper describes the processing system developed for the airborne SAR sensor system. The paper considers the requirements for the system and the design of the EARSEC Airborne SAR Processing System. It highlights the development of an open SAR processing architecture where users have full access to intermediate products that arise from each of the major processing stages. It also describes the main processing stages in the overall

  14. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  15. The Educational Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Coll. of Education, Carlton, Victoria.

    This book consists of 18 selected papers that focus on the broad topic of the educational process. All the papers were originally presented at the Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Australian College of Education, which was held in May 1973. Titles of the papers include "The Educational Process: The Raw Material,""Towards a Sociology of…

  16. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  17. Space processing applications bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This special bibliography lists 724 articles, papers, and reports which discuss various aspects of the use of the space environment for materials science research or for commercial enterprise. The potentialities of space processing and the improved materials processes that are made possible by the unique aspects of the space environment are emphasized. References identified in April, 1978 are cited.

  18. Hyperspectral image processing methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  19. METAL PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.

    1958-08-12

    A process ts described for obtaining a closely bonded coating of steel or iron on uranium. The process consists of providing, between the steel and uramium. a layer of silver. amd then pressure rolling tbe assembly at about 600 deg C until a reduction of from l0 to 50% has been obtained.

  20. Planning and Management Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Ying C.

    The planning technique or device, regardless of its degree of sophistication, is only a tool and cannot be substituted for effective managers. The planning process must be an integral part of the entire management process, which often evolves over many generations of trial and error. The function of planning and management entails the continuous,…

  1. How hummus is processed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This month’s column will continue the theme of “How Is It Processed?” The food to be discussed this month is hummus. Hummus is known for its healthfulness. This column will provide a brief overview of the history of hummus and the current market. It will also unveil hummus processing techniques....

  2. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  3. Building Successful Cleaning Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to build a successful cleaning process in order to most effectively maintain school facilities, explaining that the cleaning processes used plays a critical role in productivity. Focuses on: developing a standardized system; making sure that employees have the right tools for the work they perform; training employees; tracking and…

  4. A Textbook Selection Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Daniel R.; Bondavalli, Bonnie J.

    In response to the problem facing college faculties of choosing textbooks that are both "readable" by students and adequate in content coverage, a text selection process has been developed that can be used with or without the aid of a reading specialist. The first step in the process, a preliminary check, examines each proposed text's publication…

  5. Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-09-01

    This document represents the roadmap for Processing Technology Research in the US Mining Industry. It was developed based on the results of a Processing Technology Roadmap Workshop sponsored by the National Mining Association in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. The Workshop was held January 24 - 25, 2000.

  6. Gas-separation process

    DOEpatents

    Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.; Baker, R.W.

    1994-01-25

    A process is described for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material. 6 figures.

  7. Hybrid quantum information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  8. Food-Processing Wastes.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2016-10-01

    Literature published in 2015 and early 2016 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes. PMID:27620095

  9. Processing of plastics

    PubMed Central

    Spaak, Albert

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the processing of plastic materials from the handling of polymers in the pellet and powder form to manufacturing of a plastic fabricated product. Various types of equipment used and melt processing ranges of various polymer formulations to make the myriad of plastic products that are commercially available are discussed. PMID:1175556

  10. HEPA filter dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.