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Sample records for bering sea sediments

  1. LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL OF SEDIMENT IN THE NORTHERN BERING SEA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, William J.

    1985-01-01

    The liquefaction potential of sediment in Norton Sound and the northern Bering Sea was evaluated by estimating the liquefaction susceptibility of the material from in-situ and laboratory tests in terms of earthquake and wave loads required to liquefy the material, and then comparing estimated behavior with anticipated loadings caused by frequent storm waves in the relatively shallow water depths and infrequent earthquakes. In-situ cone penetration tests (CPT) were performed at 13 stations. After the CPT data were transformed into equivalent standard penetration test (SPT) blow counts, analyses were performed that determined earthquake accelerations and sustained relative storm wave heights that would cause liquefaction. Vibratory core samples, up to 6 m long, were obtained in silty sand grading to sandy silt near many of the CPT locations. Results of cyclic triaxial tests performed on those samples were used to calculate earthquake accelerations and sustained storm wave heights that would liquefy the sediment.

  2. Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Much of the Bering Sea is clear in this SeaWiFS image. The large expanse of bright aquamarine water is clearly visible. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The skies of the Bering Sea were relatively clear again in this SeaWiFS image showing a band of aquamarine colored water. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  4. Structure and sediment distribution in the western Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabinowitz, P. D.; Cooper, A.

    1977-01-01

    Eleven seismic reflection profiles across Shirshov Ridge and the adjacent deep-water sedimentary basins (Komandorsky and Aleutian Basins) are presented to illustrate the sediment distribution in the western Bering Sea. A prominent seismic reflecting horizon, Reflector P (Middle-Late Miocene in age), is observed throughout both the Aleutian and Komandorsky Basins at an approximate subbottom depth of 1 km. This reflector is also present, in places, on the flanks and along the crest of Shirshov Ridge. The thickness of sediments beneath Reflector P is significantly different within the two abyssal basins. In the Aleutian Basin, the total subbottom depth to acoustic basement (basalt?) is about 4 km, while in the Komandorsky Basin the depth is about 2 km. Shirshov Ridge, a Cenozoic volcanic feature that separates the Aleutian and Komandorsky Basins, is an asymmetric bathymetric ridge characterized by thick sediments along its eastern flank and steep scarps on its western side. The southern portion of the ridge has more structural relief that includes several deep, sediment-filled basins along its summit. Velocity data from sonobuoy measurements indicate that acoustic basement in the Komandorsky Basin has an average compressional wave velocity of 5.90 km/sec. This value is considerably larger than the velocities measured for acoustic basement in the northwestern Aleutian Basin (about 5.00 km/sec) and in the central Aleutian Basin (5.40-5.57 km/sec). In the northwestern Aleutian Basin, the low-velocity acoustic basement may be volcaniclastic sediments or other indurated sediments that are overlying true basaltic basement. A refracting horizon with similar velocities (4.6-5.0 km/sec) as acoustic basement dips steeply beneath the Siberian continental margin, reaching a maximum subbottom depth of about 8 km. The thick welt of sediment at the base of the Siberian margin may be the result of sediment loading or tectonic depression prior to Late Cenozoic time. ?? 1977.

  5. A climate-related oxidizing event in deep-sea sediment from the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, J.V.; Dean, W.E.; Klise, D.H.; Baldauf, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Many cores from the deep basins of the Bering Sea have a thin oxidized zone within otherwise reduced sediment. This oxidized zone began to form about 6000 yr ago and represents an interval of about 3200 yr. Mineralogically, the oxidized and reduced sediments are similar, but chemically they differ. Concentrations of Fe and C are lower, and concentrations of Mn, Ba, Co, Mo, and Ni are higher in the oxidized than in the reduced sediment. Mn is enriched about 10-fold in the oxidized zone relative to its concentration in the reduced sediment, Mo about threefold, and Ba, Co, and Ni about twofold. These data suggest that the oxidized zone developed diagenetically as the result of the balance between the flux of organic matter and the available dissolved oxygen in bottom and interstitial waters. We propose that the Bering Sea was substantially ice covered when global glacial conditions prevailed. during the transition to global interglacial conditions, seasonal meltwater from thawing sea ice formed a lens of fresh water that decreased organic productivity. During the winter seasons, however, sea ice reformed and caused downwelling of dense, oxygen-rich waters to recharge bottom waters. The combination of lower organic productivity and more oxygen-rich bottom water allowed oxidized sediment to accumulate. Once full interglacial conditions were established, the volume of sea ice produced was insufficient to affect either productivity or the supply of dissolved oxygen and so bottom conditions again became reducing. Similar events probably occurred during the onset of global glacial conditions, and similar oxidized layers probably formed at these times. Such oxidized zones are highly unstable, however, in a reducing environment and, once buried beyond the influence of bacterial and infaunal activities, are depleted of their available oxygen and converted to reduced sediment. ?? 1982.

  6. Mercury distribution in ancient and modern sediments of northeastern Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C. Hans; Pierce, D.E.; Leong, K.W.; Wang, F.F.

    1972-01-01

    A reconnaissance of surface and subsurface sediments to a maximum depth of 244 feet below the sea floor shows that natural mercury anomalies from 0.2 to 1.3 ppm have been present in northeastern Bering Sea since early Pliocene. The anomalies and mean values are highest in modern beach (maximum 1.3 and mean 0.22 ppm Hg) and nearshore subsurface gravels (maximum 0.6 and mean .06 ppm Hg) along the highly mineralized Seward Peninsula and in organic rich silt (maximum 0.16 and mean 0.10 ppm Hg) throughout the region; the mean values are lowest in offshore sands (0.03 ppm Hg) . Although gold mining may be partially responsible for high mercury levels in the beaches near Nome, Alaska, equally high or greater concentrations of mercury occur in ancient glacial sediments immediately offshore (0.6 ppm) and in modern unpolluted beach sediments at Bluff (0.45 - 1.3 ppm); this indicates that the contamination effects of mining may be no greater than natural concentration processes in the Seward Peninsula region. The background content of mercury (0.03) throughout the central area of northeastern Bering Sea is similar to that elsewhere in the world. The low mean values (0.04 ppm) even immediately offshore from mercury-rich beaches, suggests that in the surface sediments of northeastern Bering Sea, the highest concentrations are limited to the beaches near mercury sources; occasionally, however, low mercury anomalies occur offshore in glacial drift derived from mercury source regions of Chukotka and Seward Peninsula and reworked by Pleistocene shoreline processes. The minimal values offshore may be attributable to beach entrapment of heavy minerals containing mercury and/or dilution effects of modern sedimentation.

  7. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengwei; Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Yanguang; Dong, Linsen; Jiao, Liping; Hu, Limin; Fan, Dejiang

    2016-03-15

    To analyze the distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and evaluate their potential ecological risks, the concentrations of 16 PAHs were measured in 43 surface sediment samples from the Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean. Total PAH (tPAH) concentrations ranged from 36.95 to 150.21 ng/g (dry weight). In descending order, the surface sediment tPAH concentrations were as follows: Canada Basin>northern Chukchi Sea>Chukchi Basin>southern Chukchi Sea>Aleutian Basin>Makarov Basin>Bering Sea shelf. The Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean mainly received PAHs of pyrogenic origin due to pollution caused by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. The concentrations of PAHs in the sediments of the study areas did not exceed effects range low (ERL) values. PMID:26806662

  8. The relationship between sea ice break-up, water mass variation, chlorophyll biomass, and sedimentation in the northern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. W.; Janout, M. A.; Frey, K. E.; Pirtle-Levy, R.; Guarinello, M. L.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Lovvorn, J. R.

    2012-06-01

    The northern Bering Sea shelf is dominated by soft-bottom infauna and ecologically significant epifauna that are matched by few other marine ecosystems in biomass. The likely basis for this high benthic biomass is the intense spring bloom, but few studies have followed the direct sedimentation of organic material during the bloom peak in May. Satellite imagery, water column chlorophyll concentrations and surface sediment chlorophyll inventories were used to document the dynamics of sedimentation to the sea floor in both 2006 and 2007, as well as to compare to existing data from the spring bloom in 1994. An atmospherically-derived radionuclide, 7Be, that is deposited in surface sediments as ice cover retreats was used to supplement these observations, as were studies of light penetration and nutrient depletion in the water column as the bloom progressed. Chlorophyll biomass as sea ice melted differed significantly among the three years studied (1994, 2006, 2007). The lowest chlorophyll biomass was observed in 2006, after strong northerly and easterly winds had distributed relatively low nutrient water from near the Alaskan coast westward across the shelf prior to ice retreat. By contrast, in 1994 and 2007, northerly winds had less northeasterly vectors prior to sea ice retreat, which reduced the westward extent of low-nutrient waters across the shelf. Additional possible impacts on chlorophyll biomass include the timing of sea-ice retreat in 1994 and 2007, which occurred several weeks earlier than in 2006 in waters with the highest nutrient content. Late winter brine formation and associated water column mixing may also have impacts on productivity that have not been previously recognized. These observations suggest that interconnected complexities will prevent straightforward predictions of the influence of earlier ice retreat in the northern Bering Sea upon water column productivity and any resulting benthic ecosystem re-structuring as seasonal sea ice retreats in

  9. Bering Sea in Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The surface waters of the Bering Sea around the Pribilof Islands, off Alaska's west coast, exhibited a dark green color on May 15, 2002, in this SeaWiFS true-color image. The green color of the currents there suggests the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Careful inspection reveals some a reddish tinges of light reflected by this bloom, particularly in a long east to west band just south of the Pribilof Islands, and just north of the Aleutian Island chain (disappearing toward the lower righthand corner of this scene beneath the cloud bank). Some scientists speculate this could be another Phaeocystis bloom, similar to the bloom of this species that was observed in these waters roughly this time last year. Such blooms are typically accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor in the immediate vicinity. The light brown color of the surface waters along the Alaskan shoreline are probably due to suspended sediments washed off from the land. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE

  10. Repeated pulses of vertical methane flux recorded in glacial sediments from the southeast Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Mea S.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Birgel, Daniel; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2011-06-01

    There is controversy over the role of marine methane hydrates in atmospheric methane concentrations and climate change during the last glacial period. In this study of two sediment cores from the southeast Bering Sea (700 m and 1467 m water depth), we identify multiple episodes during the last glacial period of intense methane flux reaching the seafloor. Within the uncertainty of the radiocarbon age model, the episodes are contemporaneous in the two cores and have similar timing and duration as Dansgaard-Oeschger events. The episodes are marked by horizons of sediment containing 13C-depleted authigenic carbonate minerals; 13C-depleted archaeal and bacterial lipids, which resemble those found in ANME-1 type anaerobic methane oxidizing microbial consortia; and changes in the abundance and species distribution of benthic foraminifera. The similar timing and isotopic composition of the authigenic carbonates in the two cores is consistent with a region-wide increase in the upward flux of methane bearing fluids. This study is the first observation outside Santa Barbara Basin of pervasive, repeated methane flux in glacial sediments. However, contrary to the "Clathrate Gun Hypothesis" (Kennett et al., 2003), these coring sites are too deep for methane hydrate destabilization to be the cause, implying that a much larger part of the ocean's sedimentary methane may participate in climate or carbon cycle feedback at millennial timescales. We speculate that pulses of methane in these opal-rich sediments could be caused by the sudden release of overpressure in pore fluids that builds up gradually with silica diagenesis. The release could be triggered by seismic shaking on the Aleutian subduction zone caused by hydrostatic pressure increase associated with sea level rise at the start of interstadials.

  11. Coccolithophorids in the Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This clear SeaWiFS image shows the bright blooms of coccolithophores in the Bering Sea off the coast of Alaska.. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. Implication for the occurrence of low temperature smectite to illite reaction in the Bering Sea slope sediments (IODP Expedition 323)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijiri, A.; Wakaki, S.; Murayama, M.; Inagaki, F.

    2014-12-01

    The smectite to illite (S-I) reaction has been recognized as a diagenetic process, which typically occurs at relatively high temperature deep sediments over 60°C, impacting on in-situ physical and geochemical conditions. Recent experimental studies showed that anaerobic microbial respiration possibly contributes to promote the S-I reaction at low temperatures by reduction of Fe (III) in smectite (Kim et al. 2004). Nevertheless, the occurrence of low temperature S-I reaction has not been observed in natural marine sediments. We present here an implication for the occurrence of low temperature S-I reaction (<40°C) in the Bering Sea slope sediments, which is based on pore water chemistry and clay mineralogy in sediments drilled down to ~800 m below seafloor (mbsf) at Sites U1343, and U1344 (Bering Sea slope), and U1341 (Bowers Ridge) during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 323. Chemical analyses of pore water from the slope sediments showed that chloride concentrations were slightly decreased from 560 mM near the seafloor to 500 mM at 700 mbsf. Dissolved potassium concentrations decreased from 10 mM to 6 mM. δ18O and δD of pore water increased from 0‰ to 1.5‰ and decreased from -2‰ to -10‰ with increasing depth, respectively. These trends can be attributed to the addition of dehydrated water and the potassium uptake by the S-I reaction. Such trends were not observed from the Bowers Ridge. Illite/smectite mixed layers indicating the intermediate stage of the S-I reaction, were identified only from the slope sediments based on XRD analyses. Concentration ratios of potassium and magnesium in the clay-sized fraction from the slope sediments increased with increasing depth below 300 mbsf, suggesting the potassium uptake into illite by the S-I reaction in-situ. The thermal gradient at Sites U1343 and U1344 was 49.0°C/km and 53.3°C/km, respectively, indicating that the temperature range in the cored sediments is generally lower than 40°C. Based

  13. Alaska and Bering Sea Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Alaska was relatively clear as was part of the Bering Sea where the aquamarine bloom is still visible in this SeaWiFS image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. New Constraints on Gas and Gas Hydrate Estimates in the Bering Sea using an Automated Sediment Physics Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, W. T.; Martin, K. M.; Barth, G. A.; Scholl, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a technique to invert vertical sound speed profiles, like those obtained from reflection seismic data, for grain and pore fluid properties. We have applied this process to seismic data from the Bering Sea to better constrain gas and gas hydrate concentrations. The inversion is based on iterative forward modeling of the sediment constituents and pressure-temperature (PT) regime to match the observed sound speed profile. Inversion input can be either interval or stacking velocities, and we avoid the assumption that stacking velocities are the same as root mean square average velocities. We use a series of constituent sediment physics models whose inputs are mainly porosity, gas saturation, temperature, pressure, effective pressure and grain type (for calculation of effective elastic moduli). The value of this approach is that every model run in the forward algorithm is geologically consistent. Vast portions of model space are eliminated from searching because, e.g. gas hydrate cannot exist outside its PT stability zone. Of particular interest in the Bering Sea are large (~5 km wide) anomalies in seismic reflection profiles almost certainly associated with gas accumulation at the base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS). We applied the inversion across one of these anomalies using stacking velocities from finely discretized semblance scans of seismic common midpoint gathers. Preliminary results suggest that little or no gas or gas hydrate need be present in areas away from the anomaly, in order to match the observed velocity profile. Directly over the center of the anomaly, the significantly reduced velocity below the BGHS requires at least 1-2% gas saturation, and the mildly elevated velocity above the BGHS requires 5-15% gas hydrate saturation.

  15. New Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Smear Slides in Pelagic and Hemi-Pelagic Sediments of the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, M. K.; Aiello, I. W.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Petrographic microscopy of smear slides is the standard method to initially investigate marine sediments in core sediment studies (e.g. IODP expeditions). The technique is not commonly used in more complex analysis due to concerns over the subjectivity of the method and variability in operator training and experience. Two initiatives sponsored by Ocean Leadership, a sedimentology training workshop and a digital reference of smear slide components (Marsaglia et al., 2013) have been implemented to address the need for advanced training. While the influence of subjectivity on the quality of data has yet to be rigorously tested, the lack of standardization in the current method of smear slide analysis (SSA) remains a concern. The relative abundance of the three main components, (total diatoms, silt-to-sand sized siliciclastics, and clay minerals) of high and low density Bering Sea hemi-pelagic sediments from the ocean margin (Site U144; Site U1339) and pelagic sediments from the open-ocean (Site U1340) were analyzed. Our analyses show visual estimation is a reproducible method to quantify the relative abundance of the main sediment components. Furthermore, we present a modified method for SSA, with procedural changes objectively guided by statistical analyses, including constraints to increase randomness and precision in both the preparation and analysis of the smear slide. For example, repeated measure ANOVAs found a smear slide could be accurately quantified by counting three fields of view. Similarly, the use of replicate smear slides to quantify a sample was analyzed. Finally, the data produced from this modified SSA shows a strong correlation to continuously logged physical parameters of sediment such as gamma ray attenuation (Site U1339 r2= 0.41; Site U1340 r2= 0.36). Therefore, the modified SSA combined with other independent methods (e.g. laser particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and physical properties) can be a very effective tool for the

  16. Mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic characterization of authigenic carbonates from the methane-bearing sediments of the Bering Sea continental margin (IODP Expedition 323, Sites U1343-U1345)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, C.; Blanc-Valleron, M.-M.; Caquineau, S.; März, C.; Ravelo, A. C.; Takahashi, K.; Alvarez Zarikian, C.

    2016-03-01

    During Expedition 323 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program to the Bering Sea (July 5-September 4, 2009), three sites were drilled along the Bering Sea northeastern continental margin [U1343 down to 745 meters below sea floor (mbsf), U1344 (745 mbsf), U1345 (150 mbsf)]. Diagenetic carbonates are present at all sites within the clayey, diatom-rich oozes of the Bering Sea, where pore waters are also characterized by extremely high methane concentrations. We here present mineralogical, elemental and isotopic data obtained from the authigenic carbonate-rich intercalations within the clay-rich Pleistocene sediments deposited along the Bering Sea continental margin. The mineralogy of the authigenic carbonates is generally represented by composite mixtures of very small crystals of magnesian calcite, dolomite, and iron-rich carbonates, with the latter phases occurring below 260 mbsf at Site U1343, below 200 mbsf at Site U1344, and below 130 mbsf at Site U1345. Element geochemistry shows that Ca, Mg, Fe, Ba, Mn, Sr and U are enriched in the carbonate-rich intercalations relative to the background sediments due to their incorporation into the carbonates and into other authigenic phases (e.g., barite and pyrite). The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of the authigenic carbonate minerals show that they were sequentially precipitated from pore waters at different temperatures (i.e., different burial depths) and with different isotopic compositions of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The authigenic Mg-calcite precipitated early during diagenesis and shallow burial from a 13C-depleted DIC pool, whereas dolomite and Fe-rich carbonates formed during later diagenesis and deeper burial from a 13C-enriched DIC pool. These authigenic carbonate occurrences are interpreted as resulting from microbial sulfate reduction combined with anaerobic oxidation of methane, and methanogenesis that was intimately linked to the alteration of silicates, especially iron-rich clay minerals.

  17. Seismic Velocity and Thickness of Sediments Beneath the Aleutian Basin, Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheirer, D. S.; Barth, G. A.; Sliter, R. W.; Hart, P. E.; Childs, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The thickness and seismic velocity structure of sediments of the Aleutian Basin were mapped during a 2011 multichannel seismic (MCS) cruise of the R/V Langseth. Combined with legacy MCS, sonobuoy, and scientific drilling data, the Langseth observations allowed us to study the history of sedimentation in this area. Semblance velocity analyses from common-depth-point gathers of the 8-km-long streamer data were conducted at-sea every 6.25 km. Post-cruise, these semblance analyses were refined and supplemented with new analyses where significant basement topography is present. The flat-lying nature of both the seafloor and the within-sediment reflectors allowed determination of interval velocity and thickness values with high precision using the Dix equation. Two prominent bottom-simulating reflections (BSRs) are common within the sediment column: a shallower one inferred to represent the base of gas hydrate stability, and a deeper one inferred to represent the diagenetic transformation from opal-A to opal-CT. This latter transition was reached by the one deep hole (Site 190, DSDP Leg19) drilled into the Aleutian Basin, where the lithologic contrast prevented further penetration. The gas hydrate BSR is associated with subvertical velocity-amplitude anomalies, and the opal A/CT transition is associated with a large decrease in reflector amplitudes beneath it, indicating the decrease in acoustic impedance contrasts associated with diagenetic dewatering. Seismic interval velocities range from 1600 m/sec at the top of the sediment column to 2800-3500 m/sec at its base. The largest step in interval velocity occurs at the opal A/CT transition. Interval velocities are laterally continuous over many tens of kilometers, and this continuity allows the generation of seismic travel-time vs. sediment thickness relationships across the basin. A second-degree polynomial relationship between time and thickness, developed by regression of all of the semblance velocity analyses from the

  18. Paleomagnetic field variability and chronostratigraphy of Brunhes-Chron deep-sea sediments from the Bering Sea: IODP Expedition 323

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Steve; Stoner, Joseph; Okada, Makoto; Mortazavi, Emily

    2016-03-01

    IODP Expedition 323 recovered six complete and replicate records of Brunhes-Chron paleomagnetic field variability (0-780,000 years BP) in 2820 m core depth below sea floor (CSF) of deep-sea sediments. On shipboard, we made more than 220,000 paleomagnetic measurements on the recovered sediments. Since then, we have u-channel sampled more than 300 m of Brunhes Chron sediments to corroborate our shipboard measurements and improve our paleomagnetic and rock magnetic understanding of these sediments. Several intervals of distinctive paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) have been identified that appear to be correlatable among sites 1343, 1344, and 1345. One magnetic field excursion is recorded in sediments of sites 1339, 1343, 1344, and 1345. We identify this to be excursion 7α/Iceland Basin Event (192,000 years BP), which is also seen in the high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean (Channell et al., 1997). We have verified in u-channels the placement of the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary (780,000 years BP) at sites 1341 and 1343. Finally, we have developed a medium-quality relative paleointensity record for these sediments that is correlatable among the sites, even though it is still biased by large-amplitude environmental variability. On the basis of these observations we have built a magnetic chronostratigraphy of Expedition 323 sediments suitable for regional correlation and dating over the last 1 million years, and compared this with oxygen-isotope chronostratigraphy from sites U1339 and U1345.

  19. Geochemistry of sedimentary organic carbon in the shelf sediments from the Bering Sea: multiple proxy and implication for the sea ice change for the past century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Limin; Shi, Xuefa; Liu, Yanguang

    2016-04-01

    Based on the two multi-core sediment samples (BL16 and BL10) taken from the Fifth Chinese National Arctic Expedition cruise, the geochemical characteristics and sequestration of sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) over the past century in the western Bering Sea were discussed, and the results showed that there existed a stable depositional regime in the study area according to the vertical distribution of the 210Pb profiles and its relationship with the core depth, thus, the past seventy years sedimentary record could be established in the two short sediment cores, respectively. As in the core BL16, there existed a good correlation between the TOC and total nitrogen (TN) as well as the grain size profiles, suggesting a consistent provenance for the sedimentary organic components and a dominant control of sediment grain size towards the OM burial; on the other hand, the core BL10 from the upper slope was more composed of relatively coarser sediments with a poor relation between the TOC and TN, which may caused by the complex depositional regime, various OM input and microorganism origin. A clear shift among the TOC and CaCO3 abundance in the upper sections (about twenty years ago) were observed in both two cores, which could be impacted by the recent regional warming in the arctic area and ocean acidification. The sedimentary TOC sequestration in the two cores were estimated as 3400 mmol C m-2/a and 1500 mmol C m-2/a, respectively, then after the examination of the preservation of sedimentary TOC and with a regional comparison for the TOC sink fluxes, the relatively higher sequestration of TOC in the study area could be constrained by the higher marine productivity, quick POC export from the upper water column, effective metabolic processing and higher sedimentation rates within the seabed.

  20. Release of Methane from Bering Sea Sediments During the Last Glacial Period

    SciTech Connect

    Mea Cook; Lloyd Keigwin

    2007-11-30

    Several lines of evidence suggest that during times of elevated methane flux the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) was positioned near the sediment-water interface. We studied two cores (from 700 m and 1457 m water depth) from the Umnak Plateau region. Anomalously low d13C and high d18O in benthic and planktonic foraminifera in these cores are the consequence of diagenetic overgrowths of authigenic carbonates. There are multiple layers of authigenic-carbonate-rich sediment in these cores, and the stable isotope compositions of the carbonates are consistent with those formed during anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The carbonate-rich layers are associated with biomarkers produced by methane-oxidizing archaea, archaeol and glyceryl dibiphytanyl glyceryl tetraether (GDGT). The d13C of the archaeol and certain GDGTs are isotopically depleted. These carbonate- and AOM-biomarker-rich layers were emplaced in the SMTZ during episodes when there was a high flux of methane or methane-rich fluids upward in the sediment column. The sediment methane in the Umnak Plateau region appears to have been very dynamic during the glacial period, and interacted with the ocean-atmosphere system at millennial time scales. The upper-most carbonate-rich layers are in radiocarbon-dated sediment deposited during interstitials 2 and 3, 28-20 ka, and may be associated with the climate warming during this time.

  1. Laminated sediments in the Bering Sea reveal atmospheric teleconnections to Greenland climate on millennial to decadal timescales during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, H.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Gersonde, R.; Esper, O.; Lamy, F.; Arz, H.; Kuhn, G.; Tiedemann, R.

    2014-12-01

    During the last glacial termination, the upper North Pacific Ocean underwent dramatic and rapid changes in oxygenation that lead to the transient intensification of oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), recorded by the widespread occurrence of laminated sediments on circum-Pacific continental margins. We present a new laminated sediment record from the mid-depth (1100 m) northern Bering Sea margin that provides insight into these deglacial OMZ maxima with exceptional, decadal-scale detail. Combined ultrahigh-resolution micro-X-ray-fluorescence (micro-XRF) data and sediment facies analysis of laminae reveal an alternation between predominantly terrigenous and diatom-dominated opal sedimentation. The diatomaceous laminae are interpreted to represent spring/summer productivity events related to the retreating sea ice margin. We identified five laminated sections in the deglacial part of our site. Lamina counts were carried out on these sections and correlated with the Bølling-Allerød and Preboreal phases in the North Greenland Ice Core (NGRIP) oxygen isotope record, indicating an annual deposition of individual lamina couplets (varves). The observed rapid decadal intensifications of anoxia, in particular within the Bølling-Allerød, are tightly coupled to short-term warm events through increases in regional export production. This dependence of laminae formation on warmer temperatures is underlined by a correlation with published Bering Sea sea surface temperature records and δ18O data of planktic foraminifera from the Gulf of Alaska. The rapidity of the observed changes strongly implies a close atmospheric teleconnection between North Pacific and North Atlantic regions. We suggest that concomitant increases in export production and subsequent remineralization of organic matter in the Bering Sea, in combination with oxygen-poor waters entering the Being Sea, drove down oxygen concentrations to values below 0.1 mL L-1 and caused laminae preservation. Calculated benthic

  2. Pollen evidence for late pleistocene bering land bridge environments from Norton Sound, Northeastern Bering Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, T.A.; Phillips, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    After more than half a century of paleoenvironmental investigations, disagreements persist as to the nature of vegetation type and climate of the Bering land bridge (BLB) during the late Wisconsin (Sartan) glacial interval. Few data exist from sites on the former land bridge, now submerged under the Bering and Chukchi Seas. Two hypotheses have emerged during the past decade. The first, based on pollen data from Bering Sea islands and adjacent mainlands of western Alaska and Northeast Siberia, represents the likely predominant vegetation on the Bering land bridge during full-glacial conditions: graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation associated with cold, dry winters and cool, dry summer climate. The second hypothesis suggests that dwarf birch-shrub-herb tundra formed a broad belt across the BLB, and that mesic vegetation was associated with cold, snowier winters and moist, cool summers. As a step towards resolving this controversy, a sediment core from Norton Sound, northeastern Bering Sea was radiocarbon dated and analyzed for pollen content. Two pollen zones were identified. The older, bracketed by radiocarbon ages of 29,500 and 11,515 14C yr BP, contains pollen assemblages composed of grass, sedge, wormwood, willow, and a variety of herb (forb) taxa. These assemblages are interpreted to represent graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation that developed under an arid, cool climate regime. The younger pollen zone sediments were deposited about 11,515 14C yr BP, when rising sea level had begun to flood the BLB. This younger pollen zone contains pollen of birch, willow, heaths, aquatic plants, and spores of sphagnum moss. This is interpreted to represent a Lateglacial dwarf birch-heath-willow-herb tundra vegetation, likely associated with a wetter climate with deeper winter snows, and moist, cool summers. This record supports the first hypothesis, that graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation extended into the lowlands of the BLB during full glacial conditions of the

  3. Color Difference in Bering Sea Phytoplankton Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is considerable color variation in the phytoplankton blooms in the Bering Sea -- from the aquamarine west of Nunivak Island to the almost reddish patch west of St. Matthew Island to the green eddy astride the International dateline at 60 North latitude and 178 East longitude. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  4. A Major Ecosystem Shift in the Northern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Overland, James E.; Moore, Sue E.; Farley, Ed V.; Carmack, Eddy C.; Cooper, Lee W.; Frey, Karen E.; Helle, John H.; McLaughlin, Fiona A.; McNutt, S. Lyn

    2006-03-01

    Until recently, northern Bering Sea ecosystems were characterized by extensive seasonal sea ice cover, high water column and sediment carbon production, and tight pelagic-benthic coupling of organic production. Here, we show that these ecosystems are shifting away from these characteristics. Changes in biological communities are contemporaneous with shifts in regional atmospheric and hydrographic forcing. In the past decade, geographic displacement of marine mammal population distributions has coincided with a reduction of benthic prey populations, an increase in pelagic fish, a reduction in sea ice, and an increase in air and ocean temperatures. These changes now observed on the shallow shelf of the northern Bering Sea should be expected to affect a much broader portion of the Pacific-influenced sector of the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Introduction to Pliocene-Pleistocene paleoceanography of the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kozo; Ravelo, A. Christina; Okazaki, Yusuke

    2016-03-01

    High resolution paleoceanography of the Pliocene-Pleistocene is important in understanding climate forcing mechanisms and associated environmental changes during this major transition from global warmth to the Ice Ages. This is particularly true in high latitude marginal seas such as the Bering Sea. The Bering Sea has been very sensitive to changes in global climate during interglacial and glacial, or Milankovitch, time scales. This is due to significant changes in water circulation, land-ocean interaction, and sea-ice formation. With the aim to reveal the climate and oceanographic history of the Bering Sea over the past 5 My, IODP Expedition 323 cored a total of 5741 m of sediment (97.4% recovery) at seven sites in 2009 on D/V JOIDES Resolution covering three regions: the Umnak Plateau, the Bowers Ridge, and the Bering Slope. The water depths of the drill sites range from 818 m to 3174 m, allowing for the characterization of past vertical water mass distribution including changes in the oxygen minimum zone. The four deepest holes range from 600 m to 745 m below the seafloor, and resulted in the recovery of long sediment sequences ranging from 1.9 My to 5 My in age. Following the expedition, two sampling parties at Kochi Core Center (for acquisition of ca. 58,000 subsamples) and two scientific meetings were conducted in order to proceed with the analyses of sediment core samples and discussions. Here, pertinent results, primarily from IODP Expedition 323, are consolidated as a single special volume of Deep-Sea Research Part II Topical Studies in Oceanography.

  6. Modern modes of provenance and dispersal of terrigenous sediments in the North Pacific and Bering Sea: implications and perspectives for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Biskaborn, Boris K.; Ramisch, Arne; Ren, Jian; Zhang, Yongzhan; Gersonde, Rainer; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    During expedition 202 aboard the RV Sonne in 2009, 39 seafloor surface sediment sites were sampled over a wide sector of the North Pacific and adjoining Bering Sea. The data served to infer land-ocean linkages of terrigenous sediment supply in terms of major sources and modes of sediment transport within an over-regional context. This is based on an integrated approach dealing with grain-size analysis, bulk mineralogy and clay mineralogy in combination with statistical data evaluation (end-member modelling of grain-size data, fuzzy cluster analysis of mineralogical data). The findings on clay mineralogy served to update those of earlier work extracted from the literature. Today, two processes of terrigenous sediment supply prevail in the study area: far-distance aeolian sediment supply to the pelagic North Pacific, and hemipelagic sediment dispersal from nearby land sources via ocean currents along the continental margins and island arcs. Aeolian particles show the finest grain sizes (clay and fine silt), whereas hemipelagic sediments have high abundances of coarse silt. Exposed sites on seamounts and the continental slope are partly swept by strong currents, leading to residual enrichment of fine sand. Four sediment sources can be distinguished on the basis of distinct index minerals revealed by statistical data analysis: dust plumes from central Asia (quartz, illite), altered materials from the volcanic regions of Kamchatka and the Aleutian Arc (smectite), detritus from the Alaskan Cordillera (chlorite, hornblende), and fluvial detritus from far-eastern Siberia and the Alaska mainland (quartz, feldspar, illite). These findings confirm those of former studies but considerably expand the geographic range of this suite of proxies as far south as 39°N in the open North Pacific. The present integrated methodological approach proved useful in identifying the major modern processes of terrigenous sediment supply to the study region. This aspect deserves attention in

  7. Modern modes of provenance and dispersal of terrigenous sediments in the North Pacific and Bering Sea: implications and perspectives for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Biskaborn, Boris K.; Ramisch, Arne; Ren, Jian; Zhang, Yongzhan; Gersonde, Rainer; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    During expedition 202 aboard the RV Sonne in 2009, 39 seafloor surface sediment sites were sampled over a wide sector of the North Pacific and adjoining Bering Sea. The data served to infer land-ocean linkages of terrigenous sediment supply in terms of major sources and modes of sediment transport within an over-regional context. This is based on an integrated approach dealing with grain-size analysis, bulk mineralogy and clay mineralogy in combination with statistical data evaluation (end-member modelling of grain-size data, fuzzy cluster analysis of mineralogical data). The findings on clay mineralogy served to update those of earlier work extracted from the literature. Today, two processes of terrigenous sediment supply prevail in the study area: far-distance aeolian sediment supply to the pelagic North Pacific, and hemipelagic sediment dispersal from nearby land sources via ocean currents along the continental margins and island arcs. Aeolian particles show the finest grain sizes (clay and fine silt), whereas hemipelagic sediments have high abundances of coarse silt. Exposed sites on seamounts and the continental slope are partly swept by strong currents, leading to residual enrichment of fine sand. Four sediment sources can be distinguished on the basis of distinct index minerals revealed by statistical data analysis: dust plumes from central Asia (quartz, illite), altered materials from the volcanic regions of Kamchatka and the Aleutian Arc (smectite), detritus from the Alaskan Cordillera (chlorite, hornblende), and fluvial detritus from far-eastern Siberia and the Alaska mainland (quartz, feldspar, illite). These findings confirm those of former studies but considerably expand the geographic range of this suite of proxies as far south as 39°N in the open North Pacific. The present integrated methodological approach proved useful in identifying the major modern processes of terrigenous sediment supply to the study region. This aspect deserves attention in

  8. New Coccolithophore Bloom in Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the fourth year in a row it appears as if there is a bloom of coccolithophores-marine single-celled plants with calcite scales-in the Bering Sea off the coast of Alaska. Similar blooms were rare before 1997, but they have appeared every year since then. Scientists believe the coccolithophore blooms are the result of changing wind patterns in the region. Weaker than normal winds fail to mix the water of the Bering Sea, resulting in the growth of coccolithophores instead of other types of phytoplankton. Seabird populations have also been changing as a result of this climate change. The Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, saw the coccolith-brightened waters of the Bering Sea in 1997, 1998, and 1999. The waters have looked fairly bright again this winter and spring, as seen in this SeaWiFS image acquired April 29, 2000. But scientists are unsure whether this year's phenomenon is caused by living coccolithophorids, re-suspended coccoliths, or something else. Like all phytoplankton, coccolithophores contain chlorophyll and have the tendency to multiply rapidly near the surface. Yet, in large numbers, coccolithophores periodically shed their tiny scales, called 'coccoliths,' by the bucketful into the surrounding waters. The calcium-rich coccoliths turn the normally dark water a bright, milky aquamarine, making coccolithophore blooms easy to spot in satellite imagery. The edge of the whitish cloud in the water seen in this image is roughly 50 kilometers off the West Coast of Alaska. For more information see: SeaWiFS home page Changing Currents Color the Bering Sea a New Shade of Blue Image courtesy SeaWiFS project

  9. Sediment classification using neural networks: An example from the site-U1344A of IODP Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Maheswar; Maiti, Saumen

    2016-03-01

    A novel approach based on the concept of Bayesian neural network (BNN) has been implemented for classifying sediment boundaries using downhole log data obtained during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea slope region. The Bayesian framework in conjunction with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)/hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) learning paradigm has been applied to constrain the lithology boundaries using density, density porosity, gamma ray, sonic P-wave velocity and electrical resistivity at the Hole U1344A. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our supervised classification methodology by comparing our findings with a conventional neural network and a Bayesian neural network optimized by scaled conjugate gradient method (SCG), and tested the robustness of the algorithm in the presence of red noise in the data. The Bayesian results based on the HMC algorithm (BNN.HMC) resolve detailed finer structures at certain depths in addition to main lithology such as silty clay, diatom clayey silt and sandy silt. Our method also recovers the lithology information from a depth ranging between 615 and 655 m Wireline log Matched depth below Sea Floor of no core recovery zone. Our analyses demonstrate that the BNN based approach renders robust means for the classification of complex lithology successions at the Hole U1344A, which could be very useful for other studies and understanding the oceanic crustal inhomogeneity and structural discontinuities.

  10. 76 FR 68658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... is opening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and... Pacific ocean perch specified for the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  11. Paleoceanographic conditions in the western Bering Sea as a response to global sea level changes and remote climatic signals during the last 180 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsepyan, E. A.; Ivanova, E. V.; Gulev, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    We present results from the sediment core SO201-2-85KL retrieved from the western Bering Sea that recovered the past 180 000 years. For the first time, the intense dissolution of calcareous microfossils has been established when the Bering Strait was open during the glacioeustatic sea level rise. Possible mechanisms of climatic teleconnections between remote regions are considered.

  12. Influence of the Yukon River on the Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Kenneson G.; Mcroy, C. Peter

    1988-01-01

    Physical and biological oceanography of the northern Bering Sea including the influence of the Yukon River were studied. Satellite data acquired by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor were used to detect sea surface temperatures and suspended sediments. Shipboard measurements of temperature, salinity and nutrients were acquired through the Inner Shelf Transfer and Recycling (ISHTAR) project and were compared to digitally enhanced and historical satellite images. The satellite data reveal north-flowing, warm water along the Alaskan coast that is highly turbid with complex patterns of surface circulation near the Yukon River delta. To the west near the Soviet Union, cold water, derived from an upwelling, mixes with shelf water and also flows north. The cold and warm water coincide with the Anadyr, Bering Shelf and Alaskan coastal water masses. Generally, warm Alaskan coastal water forms near the coast and extends offshore as the summer progresses. Turbid water discharged by the Yukon River progresses in the same fashion but extends northward across the entrance to Norton Sound, attaining its maximum surface extent in October. The Anadyr water flows northward and around St. Lawrence Island, but its extent is highly variable and depends upon mesoscale pressure fields in the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea.

  13. Repeated occurrences of methanogenic zones, diagenetic dolomite formation and linked silicate alteration in southern Bering Sea sediments (Bowers Ridge, IODP Exp. 323 Site U1341)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrmann, L. M.; Ockert, C.; Mix, A. C.; Gussone, N.; Teichert, B. M. A.; Meister, P.

    2016-03-01

    Diagenetic precipitates, such as dolomite, and the chemistry of residual deeply buried porewater often represent the only traces of past biogeochemical activity in marine sediments. A 600 m thick sedimentary section, recently drilled at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1341 on Bowers Ridge (southern Bering Sea), provides insight into such a 4.3 Ma old paleo-diagenetic archive. Hard-lithified calcite-dolomite layers, and laminae of disseminated carbonate, were recovered in diatom-rich sediments over a depth range of 400 m. Carbon isotope values of the diagenetic carbonates between -16.6 and -14.4‰ (VPDB) and strontium isotope ratios of dolomites close to past seawater values suggest carbonate precipitation induced by the production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) during elevated rates of organic carbon mineralization, primarily via sulfate reduction, at shallow sediment depth below the paleo-seafloor. Diagenetic carbonates at 280-440 m below seafloor were likely also produced by the intermittent onset of sulfate reduction coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) at sulfate-methane transition zones (SMTZ). These microbially mediated processes do not occur in the sediment at this site at present but were likely connected to the presence of a methanogenic zone at 2.58-2.51 Ma. A minimum in sulfate concentrations in modern porewaters and low sedimentary Ba/Al ratios resulting from former sulfate depletion are reminiscent of the presence of this large methanogenic zone. The minimum in sulfate concentrations is reflected in a minimum in magnesium concentrations, less radiogenic strontium and isotopically light calcium in the porewater. It is proposed that magnesium was removed from the porewater during carbonate precipitation and volcanic ash alteration which occurred in the former methanogenic zone and also released strontium with a less radiogenic isotope ratio and isotopically light calcium into the porewater. The isotopic composition of

  14. Pleistocene Deep Sea ostracods from the Bering Sea (IODP expedition 323)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Zarikian, Carlos A.

    2016-03-01

    The study presents the first Pleistocene (0-1.9 Ma) record of Deep Sea ostracods from the Bering Sea, derived primarily from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 323, Site U1344 (59°3.0‧N, 179°12.2‧W, 3171 m of water depth). Deep Sea ostracod abundances in the Bering Sea sediments are some of the lowest that have been recorded in bathyal and abyssal marine environments (<1 specimen per sediment gram). In comparison, benthic foraminifera are several orders of magnitude more abundant in the same samples. The humble ostracod assemblage at Site U1344 is predominantly composed of deep water species Krithe sawanensis, Fallacihowella sp. A, Cytheropteron spp., Eucytherura sp., Argilloecia toyamaensis, and Bradleya mesembrina. Less abundant taxa include Munseyella melzeri, Munseyella ristveti, Cluthia sp., Robertsonites hanaii, and Microcythere mediostriata. Some of these taxa (e.g. Fallacihowella sp. A, Bradleya mesembrina, Microcythere mediostriata) are reported for the first time in the North Pacific. The predominance of the genera Krithe, Fallacihowella, Cytheropteron and Argilloecia indicates cold, ventilated bottom waters. The deep Bering Sea ostracod assemblage shares many common and closely related species with continental slope faunas from the Gulf of Alaska, the Okhotsk Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and even the subpolar North Atlantic. A few continental shelf ostracods, such as species of Munseyella and Robertsonites, are present at Sites U1344 and U1343, in the northern slope of the Aleutian Basin. The presence of shallow water ostracods at the Bering Sea slope sites is possibly explained by sea ice rafting. Exceptionally low ostracod abundance in the U1344 record did not permit evaluating links between ostracod faunas and paleoceanographic conditions; however, an increase in ostracod occurrences throughout the middle Pleistocene at Site U1344 appears to correlate with general sea ice expansion in the Bering Sea. High primary surface productivity, high

  15. 75 FR 41123 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea Subarea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... the southern boundary of Statistical Area 400 at the Bering Strait. Area 514 of the Bering Sea subarea... nonpelagic trawling near the Bering Strait. The Council intended for the entire northern portion of the... area of the Bering Sea subarea near the Bering Strait that is currently open to nonpelagic...

  16. Sand waves on an epicontinental shelf: Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, M.E.; Nelson, C.H.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Sand waves and current ripples occupy the crests and flanks of a series of large linear sand ridges (20 km ?? 5 km ?? 10 m high) lying in an open-marine setting in the northern Bering Sea. The sand wave area, which lies west of Seward Peninsula and southeast of Bering Strait, is exposed to the strong continuous flow of coastal water northward toward Bering Strait. A hierarchy of three sizes of superimposed bedforms, all facing northward, was observed in successive cruises in 1976 and 1977. Large sand waves (height 2 m; spacing 200 m) have smaller sand waves (height 1 m; spacing 20 m) lying at a small oblique angle on their stoss slopes. The smaller sand waves in turn have linguoid ripples on their stoss slopes. Repeated studies of the sand wave fields were made both years with high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, side-scan sonographs, underwater photographs, current-meter stations, vibracores, and suspended-sediment samplers. Comparison of seismic and side-scan data collected along profile lines run both years showed changes in sand wave shape that indicate significant bedload transport within the year. Gouge marks made in sediment by keels of floating ice also showed significantly different patterns each year, further documenting modification to the bottom by sediment transport. During calm sea conditions in 1977, underwater video and camera observations showed formation and active migration of linguoid and straight-crested current ripples. Current speeds 1 m above the bottom were between 20 and 30 cm/s. Maximum current velocities and sand wave migration apparently occur when strong southwesterly winds enhance the steady northerly flow of coastal water. Many cross-stratified sand bodies in the geologic record are interpreted as having formed in a tidal- or storm-dominated setting. This study provides an example of formation and migration of large bedforms by the interaction of storms with strong uniform coastal currents in an open-marine setting. ?? 1981.

  17. Seismic/Well Integration, IODP Expedition 323, Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, G.; Iodp Expedition 323 Shipboard Scientists

    2010-12-01

    IODP Expedition 323 drilled seven sites to explore the paleoceanographic history of the Bering sea. Four of the sites were logged to record in situ the variations in physical and lithological properties associated with the sedimentation history and its relationship to global climate changes. The sites logged were chosen to optimize the time dedicated to logging operations while recording the diversity of the environments drilled during the expedition. Hole U1339D was located in the easternmost part of the Bering Sea, near the modern Alaskan Stream entry; Hole U1341D was located on the western side of the Bowers Ridge, in the southern part of the Bering Sea; and Holes U1343E and U1344A were in locations proximal to the modern sea ice extent and the Bering Strait gateway, near the edge of the continental shelf. Some logs such as the spectral gamma ray provide a continuous characterization of the changes in lithology, sediment source and cyclicity over the deposition history. The density, resistivity and sonic logs are sensitive to these changes, but can also identify variations in physical properties associated with consolidation, diagenesis or pore filling material. In addition, the integration of the compressional velocity log (Vp) into synthetic seismograms provides a tie between the depth of observations in the well and the travel time to the corresponding reflectors in the seismic lines crossing the hole. The lithological interpretation can then be extended beyond the drill site along the seismic lines and into the regional seismic stratigraphy. Because of the poorly consolidated nature of the sediments, the formation Vp is very close to the borehole fluid velocity and shipboard data were not reliable. A complete post cruise reprocessing of the sonic waveforms was necessary to draw accurate Vp. The reprocessed data were then used to generate synthetic seismograms and complete the integration of sites U1341, U1343 and U1344 with seismic lines from Hakuhou

  18. 78 FR 73110 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... ocean perch (POP) in the Bering Sea subarea of the BSAI under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) (78 FR 13813, March... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  19. How Does Climate Change Affect the Bering Sea Ecosystem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigler, Michael F.; Harvey, H. Rodger; Ashjian, Carin J.; Lomas, Michael W.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Van Pelt, Thomas I.

    2010-11-01

    The Bering Sea is one of the most productive marine ecosystems in the world, sustaining nearly half of U.S. annual commercial fish catches and providing food and cultural value to thousands of coastal and island residents. Fish and crab are abundant in the Bering Sea; whales, seals, and seabirds migrate there every year. In winter, the topography, latitude, atmosphere, and ocean circulation combine to produce a sea ice advance in the Bering Sea unmatched elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere, and in spring the retreating ice; longer daylight hours; and nutrient-rich, deep-ocean waters forced up onto the broad continental shelf result in intense marine productivity (Figure 1). This seasonal ice cover is a major driver of Bering Sea ecology, making this ecosystem particularly sensitive to changes in climate. Predicted changes in ice cover in the coming decades have intensified concern about the future of this economically and culturally important region. In response, the North Pacific Research Board (NPRB) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) entered into a partnership in 2007 to support the Bering Sea Project, a comprehensive $52 million investigation to understand how climate change is affecting the Bering Sea ecosystem, ranging from lower trophic levels (e.g., plankton) to fish, seabirds, marine mammals, and, ultimately, humans. The project integrates two research programs, the NSF Bering Ecosystem Study (BEST) and the NPRB Bering Sea Integrated Ecosystem Research Program (BSIERP), with substantial in-kind contributions from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  20. An introduction to the Bering Sea Project: Volume III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomas, Michael W.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.

    2014-11-01

    The Bering Sea is sensitive to spatial and temporal changes in the seasonal ice cover that acts as a major organizing factor and driver of the ecosystem. During winter, atmospheric forcing, latitude, and ocean circulation combine to produce a massive expanse of seasonal ice, which in cold years can cover the eastern Bering Sea shelf from Bering Strait to the Alaska Peninsula. In spring, the retreating ice, long daylight hours, and nutrient-rich ocean waters result in intense marine productivity. This burst of spring production, together with more episodic summer and early fall production, provides the energy that ultimately sustains nearly half of the US annual commercial fish landings as well as providing food and cultural value to thousands of Bering Sea coastal and island residents. However, predicted major changes in ice cover in the coming decades (Overland et al., 2012) have intensified concern over the future of this economically and culturally important region.

  1. Influence of the Yukon River on the Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, K.; Mcroy, C. P.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose is to use satellite data to study relationships between discharge of the Yukon River to currents and biologic productivity in the northern Bering Sea. Amended specific objectives are: to develop thermal, sediment and chlorophyll surface maps using thematic mapping (TM) data of the discharge of the Yukon River and the Alaska Coastal Current during the ice free season; to develop a historical model of the distribution of the Yukon River discharge and the Alaska Coastal Current using LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MMS) and NOAA satellite imagery; and to use high resolution TM data to define the surface dynamics of the front between the Alaska Coastal Current and the Bering Shelf/Anadyr Current. LANDSAT MSS and TM, and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data were recorded during the 1985 ice-free period. The satellite data coincided with shipboard measurements acquired by Inner Self Transfer and Recycling scientists. Circumstances were such, that on July 5 and July 22, all three sensors recorded data that has been registered to a common map projection and map base, then contrast stretched, color composited, and density sliced.

  2. Identification of the Holocene-Pleistocene boundary in the Bering Sea by diatoms.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldauf, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The modern diatom flora from surface sediment of the Navarin Basin region of the Bering Sea is dominated by Denticulopsis seminae and Nitzschia oceanica. D. seminae, a north boreal species, is most abundant in the deeper waters of the slope-basin regions, whereas N. oceanica, an Arctic species associated with ice cover, dominates the shallow shelf water. Downcore studies show that these species alternate in dominance within the late Quaternary sediments suggest climatic fluctuations.-from Author

  3. GLORIA side-scan imagery of Aleutian basin, Bering Sea slope and Abyssal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, P.R.; Cooper, A.K.; Gardner, J.V.; Karl, H.A.; Marlow, M.S.; Stevenson, A.J.; Huggett, Q.; Kenyon, N.; Parson, L.

    1987-05-01

    During July-September 1986, about 700,000 km/sup 2/ of continental slope and abyssal plain of the Aleutian basin, Bering Sea, were insonified with GLORIA (Geological Long Range Inclined Asdic) side-scane sonar. A sonar mosaic displays prominent geomorphic features including the massive submarine canyons of the Beringian and the northern Aleutian Ridge slopes and shows well-defined sediment patterns including large deep-sea channels and fan systems on the Aleutian basin abyssal plain. Dominant erosional and sediment transport processes on both the Beringian and the Aleutian Ridge slopes include varieties of mass movement that range from small debris flows and slides to massive slides and slumps of blocks measuring kilometers in dimension. Sediment-flow patterns that appear to be formed by sheet flow rather than channelized flow extend basinward from the numerous canyons and gullies that incise the slopes of the Beringian margin and of Bowers Ridge and some places along the Aleutian Ridge. These Beringian and Bowers canyon sediment sources, however, appear to have contributed less modern sediment to the Aleutian basin than the large, well-defined channel systems that emanate from Bering, Umnak, and Amchitka submarine canyons and extend for several hundred kilometers across the abyssal plain. This GLORIA imagery emphasizes the important contribution of the Aleutian Ridge to modern sedimentation in the deep Bering Sea.

  4. 76 FR 3089 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands Crab Permits AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... of a currently approved collection. The Crab Rationalization Program allocates Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities through...

  5. The Northern Bering Sea: An Arctic Ecosystem in Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Arctic systems can be rich and diverse habitats for marine life in spite of the extreme cold environment. Benthic faunal populations and associated biogeochemical cycling processes are influenced by sea-ice extent, seawater hydrography (nutrients, salinity, temperature, currents), and water column production. Benthic organisms on the Arctic shelves and margins are long-term integrators of overlying water column processes. Because these organisms have adapted to living at cold extremes, it is reasonable to expect that these communities will be among the most susceptible to climate warming. Recent observations show that Arctic sea ice in the North American Arctic is melting and retreating northward earlier in the season and the timing of these events can have dramatic impacts on the biological system. Changes in overlying primary production, pelagic-benthic coupling, and benthic production and community structure can have cascading effects to higher trophic levels, particularly benthic feeders such as walruses, gray whales, and diving seaducks. Recent indicators of contemporary Arctic change in the northern Bering Sea include seawater warming and reduction in ice extent that coincide with our time-series studies of benthic clam population declines in the shallow northern Bering shelf in the 1990's. In addition, declines in benthic amphipod populations have also likely influenced the movement of feeding gray whales to areas north of Bering Strait during this same time period. Finally a potential consequence of seawater warming and reduced ice extent in the northern Bering Sea could be the northward movement of bottom feeding fish currently in the southern Bering Sea that prey on benthic fauna. This would increase the feeding pressure on the benthic prey base and enhance competition for this food source for benthic-feeding marine mammals and seabirds. This presentation will outline recent biological changes observed in the northern Bering Sea ecosystem as documented in

  6. Spatial differences in persistent organochlorine pollutant concentrations between the Bering and Chukchi Seas (1993).

    PubMed

    Strachan, W M; Burniston, D A; Williamson, M; Bohdanowicz, H

    2001-01-01

    During August-September 1993, a joint Russian-United States expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas took place. Surface water samples were collected from 21 sites and separated into dissolved (duplicates) and suspended solids; 19 sediment and 6 air samples were also collected. These samples were analysed for 19 organochlorine pesticides, 11 chlorobenzenes and 113 PCB congeners. The report provides data on selected compounds which occured in > or = 75% of the water samples. Highest water concentrations were observed for HCH in open waters north and south of the Bering Strait, both regions being similar (alpha-HCH; 2.2 ng/L and lindane: 0.35 ng/L). Air levels observed were also constant (alpha-HCH; 0.041 ng/m3, lindane: 0.0093 ng/m3). Suspended solids and air particulares contributed little to the concentrations in their respective media, an observation common to all analytes except for the PCBs and the DDT residues. The sum of PCB concentrations in water were higher in the Bering Sea area compared to the Chukchi Sea (1.0 vrs 0.67 ng/L) and lower for air (0.46 vrs 0.23 ng/m3). Sum of DDT in water was higher in the Bering Sea than in the Chukchi Sea (0.23 vrs 0.15 ng/L) while in sediments and air, the Bering Sea concentrations were lower (0.95 vrs 1.6 ng/g and 36 vrs 56 pg/m3, respectively). Other organochlorine compounds for which data are presented include: pp'-DDE, pp'-DDT, dieldrin, HCB, 3 chlorobenzenes and 3 PCB congeners. Fluxes of all these chemicals through the Berin Strait are estimated; they ranged from 57 t/a (alpha-HCH) through 26 t/a (for sum of PCBs) to 0.2 t/a (pp'-DDE, dieldrin and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene). Fugacity ratios for the HCHs and PCBs indicate the alpha-HCH is degassing in both the Bering and Chukchi Seas and that the gamma-isomer is degassing in the Bering Sea and is close to equilibrium (weakly absorbing) in the Chuchi Sea; the sum of PCBs are strongly absorbing in both areas. PMID:11601531

  7. Shorebirds of the Eastern Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1981-01-01

    Largely on the basis of work conducted in western Alaska since 1975, we present an overview of the shorebird resources of the region and discuss their relationship to the littoral and supralittoral habitats of the area. Thirty species of shorebirds occur regularly and comprise an important component of the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem. For a third of these species the region supports the main Alaska population-for several species, the main North American population. In winter and spring littoral areas are generally ice-fast and little used by shorebirds. After breeding, there is a pronounced movement of shorebirds to coastal areas throughout the region. Populations regularly swell into the millions, many relying entirely on littoral habitats while undergoing molt and premigratory fat deposition. The extensive intertidal of the Yukon Delta and lagoons of the Alaska Peninsula are used by more species, in greater numbers, and for longer periods than other areas within the region. The timing of fall migration shows considerable variation by area, species, and age. The susceptibility of the most common shorebird species to disturbances from petroleum development is discussed.

  8. Pliocene cooling enhanced by flow of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Horikawa, Keiji; Martin, Ellen E.; Basak, Chandranath; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Seki, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Sakai, Saburo; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2015-01-01

    Warming of high northern latitudes in the Pliocene (5.33–2.58 Myr ago) has been linked to the closure of the Central American Seaway and intensification of North Atlantic Deep Water. Subsequent cooling in the late Pliocene may be related to the effects of freshwater input from the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait, disrupting North Atlantic Deep Water formation and enhancing sea ice formation. However, the timing of Arctic freshening has not been defined. Here we present neodymium and lead isotope records of detrital sediment from the Bering Sea for the past 4.3 million years. Isotopic data suggest the presence of Alaskan glaciers as far back as 4.2 Myr ago, while diatom and C37:4 alkenone records show a long-term trend towards colder and fresher water in the Bering Sea beginning with the M2 glaciation (3.3 Myr ago). We argue that the introduction of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean by 3.3 Myr ago preconditioned the climate system for global cooling. PMID:26119338

  9. Pliocene cooling enhanced by flow of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Keiji; Martin, Ellen E; Basak, Chandranath; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Seki, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Sakai, Saburo; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2015-01-01

    Warming of high northern latitudes in the Pliocene (5.33-2.58 Myr ago) has been linked to the closure of the Central American Seaway and intensification of North Atlantic Deep Water. Subsequent cooling in the late Pliocene may be related to the effects of freshwater input from the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait, disrupting North Atlantic Deep Water formation and enhancing sea ice formation. However, the timing of Arctic freshening has not been defined. Here we present neodymium and lead isotope records of detrital sediment from the Bering Sea for the past 4.3 million years. Isotopic data suggest the presence of Alaskan glaciers as far back as 4.2 Myr ago, while diatom and C37:4 alkenone records show a long-term trend towards colder and fresher water in the Bering Sea beginning with the M2 glaciation (3.3 Myr ago). We argue that the introduction of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean by 3.3 Myr ago preconditioned the climate system for global cooling. PMID:26119338

  10. Pliocene cooling enhanced by flow of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, Keiji; Martin, Ellen E.; Basak, Chandranath; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Seki, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Sakai, Saburo; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2015-06-01

    Warming of high northern latitudes in the Pliocene (5.33-2.58 Myr ago) has been linked to the closure of the Central American Seaway and intensification of North Atlantic Deep Water. Subsequent cooling in the late Pliocene may be related to the effects of freshwater input from the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait, disrupting North Atlantic Deep Water formation and enhancing sea ice formation. However, the timing of Arctic freshening has not been defined. Here we present neodymium and lead isotope records of detrital sediment from the Bering Sea for the past 4.3 million years. Isotopic data suggest the presence of Alaskan glaciers as far back as 4.2 Myr ago, while diatom and C37:4 alkenone records show a long-term trend towards colder and fresher water in the Bering Sea beginning with the M2 glaciation (3.3 Myr ago). We argue that the introduction of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean by 3.3 Myr ago preconditioned the climate system for global cooling.

  11. 77 FR 65838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area. This action is necessary to fully use the 2012 total allowable catch of Pacific ocean...

  12. 75 FR 68726 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area. This action is necessary to fully use the 2010 total allowable catch of Pacific ocean perch specified for the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management...

  13. Influences of sea ice on eastern Bering Sea phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Wang, Peng; Chen, Changping; Liang, Junrong; Li, Bingqian; Gao, Yahui

    2015-03-01

    The influence of sea ice on the species composition and cell density of phytoplankton was investigated in the eastern Bering Sea in spring 2008. Diatoms, particularly pennate diatoms, dominated the phytoplankton community. The dominant species were Grammonema islandica (Grunow in Van Heurck) Hasle, Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Grunow) Krieger, F. oceanica (Cleve) Hasle, Navicula vanhoeffenii Gran, Thalassiosira antarctica Comber, T. gravida Cleve, T. nordenskiöeldii Cleve, and T. rotula Meunier. Phytoplankton cell densities varied from 0.08×104 to 428.8×104 cells/L, with an average of 30.3×104 cells/L. Using cluster analysis, phytoplankton were grouped into three assemblages defined by ice-forming conditions: open water, ice edge, and sea ice assemblages. In spring, when the sea ice melts, the phytoplankton dispersed from the sea ice to the ice edge and even into open waters. Thus, these phytoplankton in the sea ice may serve as a "seed bank" for phytoplankton population succession in the subarctic ecosystem. Moreover, historical studies combined with these results suggest that the sizes of diatom species have become smaller, shifting from microplankton to nannoplankton-dominated communities.

  14. ISHTAR: Inner shelf transport and recycling in the Bering/Chukchi Seas

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, W.H.; Wirick, C.D.

    1991-02-01

    ISHTAR is a multi-disciplinary, multi-university ecosystem study designed to test the hypothesis that interannual changes of atmospheric forcing on water transport through the Bering Strait result in a two-fold to four-fold difference in: (1) the flux of nutrients from the shelf break of the northwestern Bering Sea; (2) the primary production north of St. Lawrence Island; (3) the burial of carbon in Chukchi Sea sediments; (4) the amount of energy passed up the food web; and finally (5) the chemical properties of the Arctic Ocean water transported south across the Greenland-Scotland ridge system. The northern Bering Sea extending from St. Lawrence Island to Bering Strait was chosen as the site for studying phytoplankton populations and their role in transporting organic carbon. The authors major scientific responsibilities in the ISHTAR program are to: (1) provide phytoplankton boundary conditions for models constructed by other components; (2) obtain time series suitable for identifying interannual variations in phytoplankton standing stocks; and (3) identify the dominant time and length scales of the phytoplankton distributions. In addition, they construct, maintain, calibrate, and deploy the moored fluorometers used to make the required measurements. 3 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. East Siberia and Bering Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On June 5, 2001 MODIS captured this true-color image of Eastern Siberia and the Bering Strait. To the right of the image is the western tip of Alaska's St. Lawrence Island. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  16. Assessment of gray whale feeding grounds and sea floor interaction in the northeastern Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.; Johnson, K.R.; Barber, John H.

    1983-01-01

    A dense ampeliscid amphipod community in Chirikov Basin and around St. Lawrence Island in the northeastern Bering Sea has been outlined by summarizing biological studies, analyzing bioturbation in sediment samples, and examining sea floor photos and videotapes. The amphipod population is associated with a homogeneous, relict fine-grained sand body 0.10-1.5 m thick that is deposited during the marine transgression over the Bering land bridge 8,000-10,000 yr B.P. Modern current and water mass movements and perhaps whale feeding activity prevent modern deposition in this area. The distribution of the transgressive sand sheet, associated amphipod community and feeding gray whales mapped by aerial survey correlate closely with three types of sea-floor pits observed on high (500 kHz) and low (105 kHz) resolution side-scan sonar; they are attributed to gray whale feeding traces and their subsequent current scour modification. The fresh and modified feeding pits are present in 22,000 km2 of the basin and they cover a total of 2 to 18% of the sea floor in different areas of the feeding region. The smallest size class of pits approximates whale mouth gape size and is assumed to represent fresh whale feeding pits. Fresh feeding disturbance of the sea floor is estimated to average about 5.7% for a full feeding season. Combined with information that 34% of the measured benthic biomass is amphipod prey species, and calculating the number of gray whale feeding days in the Alaskan waters plus amount consumed per day, it can be estimated that Chirikov Basin, 2% of the feeding area, supplies a minimum of 5.3 to 7.1% of the gray whale's food resource in the Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean. If a maximum of 50% of the fresh feeding features are assumed to be missed because they parallel side-scan beam paths, then a maximum whale food resource of 14.2% is possible in northeastern Bering Sea. Because of side-scan techniques and possible higher amphipod biomass estimates, a reasonable minimum

  17. Bering Sea earthquake of February 21, 1991: Active faulting along the Bering shelf edge

    SciTech Connect

    Abers, G.A. ); Ekstroem, G. ); Marlow, M.S.; Geist, E.L. )

    1993-02-10

    On February 21, 1991, an M[sub S] = 6.8 shallow earthquake occurred in the eastern Bering Sea in an area which previously has shown no significant seismic activity. The earthquake was located on the Bering Shelf close to the shelf edge, near one of the elongate basins (Zhemchun Basin) that follow the outer shelf. To better understand the causes of this unusual event, we relocated the earthquake and its aftershocks, determined its source mechanism and depth, and examined multichannel seismic observations of structures near the epicenter. The event was relocated from regional and teleseismic P and S arrival times using a nonlinear inverse technique, as were the 19 previous well-recorded Bering Sea earthquakes in global catalogs (1964-1987). The 1991 mainshock epicenter was located on the western flank of Zhemchug Basin. The only four previous events with small (< 1[degrees]) location errors relocated at the outer shelf near the Pribilof Islands. The focal mechanism for the 1991 event, determined by inversion of teleseismic, broadband body waves and centroid-moment tensor data, shows oblique normal faulting with the T-axis, oriented north-south. One nodal plane dips steeply to the northeast and strikes parallel to the basin axis, subparallel to faults that bound Zhemchug Basin. This earthquake may be due to slip on one of these normal faults, several of which are seen to offset young strata on a multichannel seismic line 30 km south of the earthquake. It has previously been suggested that the large canyons that cut the Bering Shelf and the adjacent outer-shelf basins are fault controlled, but this event and its aftershocks provide the first strong evidence to support the hypothesis that these structures are currently active and produce earthquakes. 34 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Distribution and abundance of decapod crustacean larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on commercial species. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.A.; Incze, L.S.; Wencker, D.L.; Armstrong, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Contents include: Distribution and abundance of king crab larvae, Paralithodes camtschatica and P. platypus in the southeast Bering Sea; Distribution and abundance of the larvae of tanner crabs in the southeastern Bering Sea; Distribution and abundance of other brachyuran larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on Erimacrus isenbeckii; Distribution and abundance of shrimp larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on pandalid species; Distribution and abundance of hermit crabs (Paguridae) in the southeasternBering Sea; Possible oil impacts on decapod larbae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphesis on the St. George Basin.

  19. Variation in sand body types on the eastern Bering Sea epicontinental shelf.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.; Dupre, W.R.; Field, M.E.; Howard, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The eastern epicontinental shelf of the Bering Sea is characterized by variations in river and glacial sediment supply, wave energy, tidal range (microtidal to mesotidal), and tidal, geostrophic, and storm-induced currents. These factors, combined with the effect of the Holocene rise in sea level, have resulted in the formation of a complex assemblage of generally linear sand bodies of similar morphology anad lithology, but different origins. The sand bodies are large features found from the present shoreline to tens of kilometers offshore, in water depths up to 50m. -from Authors

  20. The structure and origin of the large submarine canyons of the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, D. W.; Buffington, E.C.; Hopkins, D.M.; Alpha, T.R.

    1970-01-01

    Three exceptionally large and long submarine canyons - Bering, Pribilof, and Zhemchug - incise the continental slope underlying the southeastern Bering Sea. Bering Canyon, the world's longest known slope valley, is approximately 400 km long and has a volume of 4,300 km3. The volume of Pribilof Canyon is 1,300 km3 and that of Zhemchug is 8,500 km3; Zhemchug Canyon may well be the world's largest slope valley; most other large submarine canyons have volumes less than 500 km3. Pribilof and Zhemchug canyons are further distinguished by the headward bifurcation of their slope axes to form elongated trough-shaped basins behind the regionally projected position of the shelf edge. These troughs are superimposed over structural depressions formed by down-faulted basement rocks of Mesozoic and older ages. Prior to canyon cutting these depressions were filled with as much as 2,600 m of shallow-water diatomaceous, tuffaceous, and detrital sediments largely of Tertiary age. Deposition of these sediments took place concurrently with general margin subsidence of at least 2,000 m. The data and conclusions presented in this paper stress that the location, trend, and shape of the enormous submarine canyons cutting the Bering margin are structurally determined. However, axial cutting and headward erosion within the relatively unconsolidated Tertiary strata and the older, lithified basement rock is thought to have been caused by basinward-sliding masses of sediment; these unstable sediment bodies accumulated on the upper continental slope and outer shelf, probably near the mouths of major Alaskan rivers. Bering Canyon was periodically cut and filled by axial sedimentation during Late Tertiary and Quaternary time. Pribilof and Zhemchug canyons, however, are thought to have been excavated entirely during the Pleistocene. It is presumed that, during one or more periods of glacially lowered sea level, the Kuskokwim and Yukon rivers emptied into or near the heads of Pribilof and Zhemchug

  1. Bering Sea summary report: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the Bering Sea and their onshore impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Deis, J.; Pierson, R.; Kurz, F.

    1983-09-01

    Two federal offshore oil-and-gas lease sales have been held in the Bering Sea Subregion. Lease Sale 57, Norton Basin, was held on March 15, 1983. Lease Sale 70, St. George Basin, was held on April 12, 1983. The sale offered 479 tracts, of which 97 received bids. The Department of the Interior has indicated that it will accept 96 of the 97 high bids; however, to date, leases have not been awarded. The Department of the Interior was enjoined from issuing leases by the US District Court of Alaska because of possible impacts from postlease preliminary seismic activities on gray and right whales. In accordance with the Court's ruling, leases cannot be issued until the completion of a supplemental environmental impact statement, which is anticipated to occur in November 1983. Six lease offerings in the Bering Sea Subregion are scheduled through 1987. Six deep stratigraphic test wells are the only wells drilled to date in the Bering Sea Subregion. To date, oil companies have not submitted exploration plans for the Norton Basin Planning Area. Exploration in Norton Basin could begin in the summer of 1984, at the earliest. Exploration plans cannot be submitted for the St. George Basin Planning Area until the leases are awarded. At this time, various onshore areas are being considered as possible support bases for offshore oil-and-gas exploration. At this stage, before exploratory drilling has occurred and in the absence of a commercial discovery, plans for transporting petroleum from the Bering Sea to markets in the United States are unclear. The current estimates of risked resources for lands leased in Lease Sale 57, Norton Basin, are 33 million barrels of oil and 110 billion cubic feet of gas. Lease Sale 70, St. George Basin, estimates of risked resources for leased lands are 27 million barrels of oil and 310 billion cubic feet of gas. 55 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  2. 75 FR 37371 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Fisheries of the Bering Sea Subarea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... match the southern ] boundary of Statistical Area 400 at the Bering Strait. Area 514 of the Bering Sea... the NBSRA leaves an area open to nonpelagic trawling near the Bering Strait due to the wrong... development of Amendment 89 to the FMP (73 FR 43362, July 25, 2008). Amendment 89 established the Bering...

  3. Influence of the St. Lawrence island Polynya upon the Bering Sea benthos

    SciTech Connect

    Grebmeier, J.M.; Cooper, L.W. |

    1995-03-15

    The influence of a polynya, a persistent ice-free region, on water column production and subsequent transport to the shallow continental shelf benthos of the Bering Sea was evaluated by studying spatial patterns of organic material deposition, benthic biomass, community sediment metabolism, benthic population structure, and other potential indicators of enhanced organic carbon transport to benthic communities underlying the St. Lawrence Island Polynya. Despite suggestions that polynyas may be important localized centers of primary productions in polar waters, the authors found that the St. Lawrence Island Polynya does not obviously enhance the biomass of benthic communities directly below the polynya. However, southward flowing, baroclinic currents generated as a result of brine injection at the polynya edge do appear to have an influence on the biomass and ecological structure of Bering Sea benthic communities south of St. Lawrence Island. These currents appear to affect mean sediment oxygen consumption, surface organic carbon/nitrogen ratios, total organic content, and bottom water ammonia by sweeping phytodetrital matter south and to the west of the island. A particle-reactive, short-lived, natural radioisotope, {sup 7}Be, used as an indicator of rapid (days to weeks) deposition of particulate material from the water column, was detected only in surface sediments to the southwest of the island, indicating enhancement of particle deposition to the southwest of the island. Finally, the {sup 18}O content of tunicate cellulose was highest in the polynya region, consistent with increased filter feeding in the late winter when the polynya is present. The Anadyr Current, consisting of nutrient-rich, deeper Bering Sea water that is upwelled onto the shelf in the Gulf of Anadyr, flows west to east in the region south of St. Lawrence Island throughout the year and is the major forcing function for high production in the region. 76 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Influence of the St. Lawrence Island Polynya upon the Bering Sea benthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Cooper, Lee W.

    1995-03-01

    The influence of a polynya, a persistent ice-free region, on water column production and subsequent transport to the shallow continental shelf benthos of the Bering Sea was evaluated by studying spatial patterns of organic material deposition, benthic biomass, community sediment metabolism, benthic population structure, and other potential indicators of enhanced organic carbon transport to benthic communities underlying the St. Lawrence Island Polynya. Despite suggestions that polynyas may be important localized centers of primary production in polar waters, we found that the St. Lawrence Island Polynya does not obviously enhance the biomass of benthic communities directly below the polynya. However, southward flowing, baroclinic currents generated as a result of brine injection at the polynya edge do appear to have an influence on the biomass and ecological structure of Bering Sea benthic communities south of St. Lawrence Island. These currents appear to affect mean sediment oxygen consumption, surface organic carbon/nitrogen ratios, total organic content, and bottom water ammonia by sweeping phytodetrital matter south and to the west of the island. A particle-reactive, short-lived, natural radioisotope, 7Be, used as an indicator of rapid (days to weeks) deposition of particulate material from the water column, was detected only in surface sediments to the southwest of the island, indicating enhancement of particle deposition to the southwest of the island. Finally, the 18O content of tunicate cellulose was highest in the polynya region, consistent with increased filter feeding in the late winter when the polynya is present, and presumably promoting primary production in the open water. The Anadyr Current, consisting of nutrient-rich, deeper Bering Sea water that is upwelled onto the shelf in the Gulf of Anadyr, flows west to east in the region south of St. Lawrence Island throughout the year and is the major forcing function for high production in the region. The

  5. 75 FR 4491 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... necessary to fully use the 2010 A season total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these...

  6. 76 FR 70665 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian...) of Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea was established as 4,854 metric tons (mt) by the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011)....

  7. Side-scan sonar assessment of gray whale feeding in the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, K.R.; Nelson, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    Side-scan sonar was used to map and measure feeding pits of the California gray whale over 22,000 square kilometers of the northeastern Bering Sea floor. The distribution of pits, feeding whales, ampeliscid amphipods (whale prey), and a fine-sand substrate bearing the amphipods were all closely correlated. The central Chirikov Basin and nearshore areas of Saint Lawrence Island supply at least 6.5 percent of the total gray whale food resource in summer. While feeding, the whales resuspend at least 1.2 x 108 cubic meters of sediment annually; this significantly affects the geology and biology of the region.

  8. 75 FR 59687 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Economic Data Reports AGENCY: National Oceanic and... Fisheries Service (NMFS) manages the crab fisheries in the waters off the coast of Alaska under the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab. The Magnuson-Stevens...

  9. 50 CFR Table 43 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area 43 Table... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 43 Table 43 to Part 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area Longitude Latitude 1687... coordinate system is North American Datum 1983, Albers. * This boundary extends in a clockwise direction...

  10. 50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI... Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. (a) Purpose. This section's purpose is to implement the... Fishery Management Plan for the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs pursuant to § 679.2...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010...

  12. 50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010...

  14. 50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude...

  15. 50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude...

  16. 50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010...

  20. 50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude...

  1. Lack of geographic structure in mitochondrial DNA sequences of Bering Sea walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma.

    PubMed

    Shields, G F; Gust, J R

    1995-03-01

    We compared 511 nucleotides of mitochondrial DNA from 162 walleye pollock from 32 locations in the Bering Sea, the Shelikof Strait, and the Gulf of Alaska to learn about population structuring in this economically important species. Specifically, we tested for evidence of genetic heterogeneity among three sequence data sets: a 76-bp spacer, the control region, and spacers and control regions combined among six geographic regions: southwest Bering Sea, northern Bering Sea, western Aleutians, eastern Aleutians, the Donut Hole, and the Gulf of Alaska. No significant genetic heterogeneity was detected among spacer sequences or control regions, or spacers and control regions combined among areas of the Bering Sea. Slight genetic heterogeneity was detected when a "Western Bering" sample (southwest Bering and northern Bering) and an "Eastern Bering" sample (western Aleutians and eastern Aleutians) were compared. Presence of an abundant and widespread haplotype suggests recent establishment of the walleye pollock population in the Bering Sea. However, the ratio of nucleotide transitions to transversions in these pollock is extremely low, suggesting that the population may be old. Presence of a widespread and abundant haplotype, together with numerous rare ones, suggests a high variance in reproductive success for relatively few females, which may be disproportionately contributing to the survival of individual haplotypes. Sequencing of control regions in pollock may be less informative than conventional analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms or RFLP analysis of amplified variable sites. PMID:7749468

  2. Diatom evidence on Wisconsin and Holocene events in the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sancetta, C.; Robinson, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    Previous work on surface (modern) sediments has defined diatom species which appear to be good indicators of various oceanographic/ecologic conditions in the North Pacific Ocean and marginal seas. Three long cores from the eastern and northern sides of the Aleutian Basin show changes in species assemblage which can be interpreted in terms of changes in the ocean environment during the last glaciation (Wisconsin) and the Holocene. The early and late Wisconsin maxima were times of prolonged annual sea-ice cover and a short cool period of phytoplankton productivity during the ice-free season. The middle Wisconsin interstade, at least in the southern Bering Sea, had greater seasonal contrast than today, with some winter sea-ice cover, an intensified temperature minimum, and high spring productivity. Variations in clastic and reworked fossil material imply varying degrees of transport to the basin by Alaskan rivers. The results of Jouse?? from the central Bering Sea generally correspond with those presented here, although there are problems with direct comparison. ?? 1983.

  3. Improved method for correlating late Pleistocene/Holocene records from the Bering Sea: application of a biosiliceous/geochemical stratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morley, J.J.; Robinson, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    The combination of high-resolution siliceous biostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating provides a mechanism for detailed assessment of the depositional history in late Pleistocene sediments from the Bering Sea where average accumulation rates are uncharacteristically high compared to rates calculated for most other ocean basins. Vital to the development of this stratigraphy was the recognition that the abundance pattern of the radiolarian species Cycladophora davisiana in Bering Sea cores is quite similar to this species' previously correlated abundance curve in a late Pleistocene/Holocene record from the northwest Pacific. Comparison of this high-resolution stratigraphy with other recently developed floral and lithologic stratigraphies for late Pleistocene Bering Sea sediments shows that the various stratigraphies do not always yield identical results when applied to a particular sediment sequence. With this new stratigraphy based upon a combination of siliceous microfaunal abundance patterns and radiocarbon dating, one can identify reworking, discontinuities and other interruptions in the depositional sequence more precisely than with previously devised stratigraphies, thereby improving the correlation techniques for comparison of late Pleistocene/Holocene records from this marginal sea. ?? 1986.

  4. Environmental predictors of ice seal presence in the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Madden, Laura E

    2014-01-01

    Ice seals overwintering in the Bering Sea are challenged with foraging, finding mates, and maintaining breathing holes in a dark and ice covered environment. Due to the difficulty of studying these species in their natural environment, very little is known about how the seals navigate under ice. Here we identify specific environmental parameters, including components of the ambient background sound, that are predictive of ice seal presence in the Bering Sea. Multi-year mooring deployments provided synoptic time series of acoustic and oceanographic parameters from which environmental parameters predictive of species presence were identified through a series of mixed models. Ice cover and 10 kHz sound level were significant predictors of seal presence, with 40 kHz sound and prey presence (combined with ice cover) as potential predictors as well. Ice seal presence showed a strong positive correlation with ice cover and a negative association with 10 kHz environmental sound. On average, there was a 20-30 dB difference between sound levels during solid ice conditions compared to open water or melting conditions, providing a salient acoustic gradient between open water and solid ice conditions by which ice seals could orient. By constantly assessing the acoustic environment associated with the seasonal ice movement in the Bering Sea, it is possible that ice seals could utilize aspects of the soundscape to gauge their safe distance to open water or the ice edge by orienting in the direction of higher sound levels indicative of open water, especially in the frequency range above 1 kHz. In rapidly changing Arctic and sub-Arctic environments, the seasonal ice conditions and soundscapes are likely to change which may impact the ability of animals using ice presence and cues to successfully function during the winter breeding season. PMID:25229453

  5. Microzooplankton grazing in the Eastern Bering Sea in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoecker, Diane K.; Weigel, Alison; Goes, Joaquim I.

    2014-11-01

    Dilution experiments to estimate microzooplankton grazing on phytoplankton were conducted during the summers of 2008, 2009, and 2010 in the Eastern Bering Sea as part of the BEST-BSIERP integrated ecosystem project. All three summers followed cold springs in the Bering Sea. Average microzooplankton grazing coefficients were relatively similar among regions, ranging from 0.16 to 0.34 d-1 in simulated in situ incubations with mixed-layer water collected from the depth of the 55% Io isolume. In Off Shelf and Outer Shelf domains, microzooplankton consumed 67-78% of phytoplankton daily growth but in the Middle and Inner Shelf domains, microzooplankton grazing exceeded phytoplankton daily growth. Regional estimates of microzooplankton ingestion of phytoplankton carbon ranged from 4.4 to 11.0 μg C d-1, with highest ingestion in the Off Shelf, Outer Shelf, and Alaska Peninsula regions and, lower ingestion in the Middle Shelf and Inner Shelf regions. On the northern Middle Shelf, a deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) occurred at most stations. Grazing coefficients in the DCM were similar in magnitude to coefficients in the corresponding mixed layer. However, because of the higher phytoplankton biomass in the DCM, estimated microzooplankton ingestion and secondary production per liter were higher in the DCM than in the mixed layer. Measurements of photosynthetic quantum yields (Fv/Fm) in whole seawater and diluted treatments indicated that with some plankton assemblages, dilution had a negative effect on phytoplankton physiology and could have compromised their growth rates. This could have also resulted in an underestimation of microzooplankton grazing. Nevertheless, it is clear that microzooplankton grazing consumed most of the phytoplankton production in summer, and that microzooplankton were an important link in food webs supporting larger zooplankton and in carbon flow in the Eastern Bering Sea.

  6. Environmental Predictors of Ice Seal Presence in the Bering Sea

    PubMed Central

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Ice seals overwintering in the Bering Sea are challenged with foraging, finding mates, and maintaining breathing holes in a dark and ice covered environment. Due to the difficulty of studying these species in their natural environment, very little is known about how the seals navigate under ice. Here we identify specific environmental parameters, including components of the ambient background sound, that are predictive of ice seal presence in the Bering Sea. Multi-year mooring deployments provided synoptic time series of acoustic and oceanographic parameters from which environmental parameters predictive of species presence were identified through a series of mixed models. Ice cover and 10 kHz sound level were significant predictors of seal presence, with 40 kHz sound and prey presence (combined with ice cover) as potential predictors as well. Ice seal presence showed a strong positive correlation with ice cover and a negative association with 10 kHz environmental sound. On average, there was a 20–30 dB difference between sound levels during solid ice conditions compared to open water or melting conditions, providing a salient acoustic gradient between open water and solid ice conditions by which ice seals could orient. By constantly assessing the acoustic environment associated with the seasonal ice movement in the Bering Sea, it is possible that ice seals could utilize aspects of the soundscape to gauge their safe distance to open water or the ice edge by orienting in the direction of higher sound levels indicative of open water, especially in the frequency range above 1 kHz. In rapidly changing Arctic and sub-Arctic environments, the seasonal ice conditions and soundscapes are likely to change which may impact the ability of animals using ice presence and cues to successfully function during the winter breeding season. PMID:25229453

  7. Distribution of quaternary radiolaria in the Navarin Basin geologic province, Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blueford, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Radiolarians from the surface sediments of the Navarin Basin geologic province in the western part of the Bering Sea are more diverse and abundant than previous reports indicate. The shelf is dominated by two spongy radiolarian species groups (Stylochlamydium venustum and Spongotrochus glacialis groups), while the slope has more diversity. The distributions can in part be explained by present oceanographic conditions. Studies of five cores along the slope show that there is a faunal change within the top 5 m of sediment. The spongy radiolarians are more abundant in recent sediments but gradually decrease downcore as Cycladophora davisiana becomes the dominant species, which probably reflects an environmental change. The disappearance of Lynchnocanoma grande in the area occurred around 17,000 to 34,000 y BP, but more research is needed to confirm whether the extinction is a useful biostratigraphic marker. ?? 1983.

  8. Seasonal distribution of short-tailed shearwaters and their prey in the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, B.; Matsuno, K.; Labunski, E. A.; Kuletz, K. J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Watanuki, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Short-tailed shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris is one the of abundant marine top predators in the Pacific; this seabird spend its non-breeding period in the northern North Pacific during May-September and many visit the southern Chukchi Sea in July-September. We examined factors affecting this seasonal pattern of distribution by counting short-tailed shearwaters from boats. Their main prey, krill was sampled by NORPAC net in the southeastern Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands and in the Bering Strait/southern Chukchi Sea. Short-tailed shearwaters mainly distributed in the southeastern Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands (60 ± 473 birds km-2) in summer (July) but in the Bering Strait/southern Chukchi Sea (19 ± 91 birds km-2) in fall (September). In the Bering Strait/southern Chukchi Sea size of krill was greater in fall (9.6 ± 5.0 mm in total length) than in summer (1.9 ± 1.2 mm). Within the Bering Strait/southern Chukchi Sea in fall, short-tailed shearwaters occurred more frequently in cells (50 km × 50 km) where large krill was more abundant. Our results suggest that the seasonal northward movement of short-tailed shearwaters could be associated with the seasonal increase of large krill in the Bering Strait/southern Chukchi Sea. This study substantiates the importance of krill, which is advected from the Pacific, as a prey of top predators in the Arctic marine ecosystem.

  9. Mesozoic and Cenozoic structural trends under southern Bering Sea Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Marlow, M.S.; Cooper, A.K.

    1980-12-01

    Mesozoic rocks exposed near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula form an antiformal structure that flanks the southern side of Bristol Bay basin and that can be traced with geophysical data about 700 km offshore to the vicinity of the Pribilof Islands. Upper Jurassic sandstone and Upper Cretaceous mudstone dredged from the top and flanks of this structure near the islands confirm that Mesozoic rocks extend from the Alaska Peninsula to the Bering sea margin. The southern part of the Bering Sea Shelf is underlain by several large structural basins. These filled basins encompass an offshore area of about 31,000 sq km. Reflection profiles show that the surface of the offshore antiformal structures is an angular unconformity overlain by Cenozoic beds. The downdip trace of the unconformity in Bristol Bay basin is underlain by reflectors paralleling the contact, a relation suggesting that the basin and perhaps other shelf basins may be underlain by ancient Mesozoic depocenters. The bulk of the thick sections in these basins is, however, thought to be mainly Cenozoic in age. Strata in the basins are cut by high-angle growth faults. The faults commonly offset the seafloor, which implies that basin subsidence and filling continue to the present. Shallow-water diatomaceous mudstone of Eocene and Oligocene age dredged from the continental slope near the Pribilof Islands indicates that collapse of the margin and outer shelf basins began by at least early Tertiary time. In Mesozoic time, the Bering margin between Siberia and the Alaska Peninsula (Beringian margin) may have been a zone of either oblique underthrusting or transform motion between the North American and Pacific lithosphere (Kula plate.). This motion may have rifted the edge of the North American plate, resulting in the formation of a series of elongate basins and ridges paralleling the plate edge.

  10. Shallow-water habitat use by Bering Sea flatfishes along the central Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Thomas P.

    2016-05-01

    Flatfishes support a number of important fisheries in Alaskan waters and represent major pathways of energy flow through the ecosystem. Despite their economic and ecological importance, little is known about the use of habitat by juvenile flatfishes in the eastern Bering Sea. This study describes the habitat characteristics of juvenile flatfishes in coastal waters along the Alaska Peninsula and within the Port Moller-Herendeen Bay system, the largest marine embayment in the southern Bering Sea. The two most abundant species, northern rock sole and yellowfin sole, differed slightly in habitat use with the latter occupying slightly muddier substrates. Both were more common along the open coastline than they were within the bay, whereas juvenile Alaska plaice were more abundant within the bay than along the coast and used shallow waters with muddy, high organic content sediments. Juvenile Pacific halibut showed the greatest shift in distribution between age classes: age-0 fish were found in deeper waters (~ 30 m) along the coast, whereas older juveniles were found in the warmer, shallow waters within the bay, possibly due to increased thermal opportunities for growth in this temperature-sensitive species. Three other species, starry flounder, flathead sole, and arrowtooth flounder, were also present, but at much lower densities. In addition, the habitat use patterns of spring-spawning flatfishes (northern rock sole, Pacific halibut, and Alaska plaice) in this region appear to be strongly influenced by oceanographic processes that influence delivery of larvae to coastal habitats. Overall, use of the coastal embayment habitats appears to be less important to juvenile flatfishes in the Bering Sea than in the Gulf of Alaska.

  11. Fisheries imaging radar surveillance test /FIRST/ - Bering Sea test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, E. G.; Ivey, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    A joint NOAA, U.S. Coast Guard and NASA program is being conducted to determine if a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, such as planned for NASA's SEASAT, can be useful in monitoring fishing vessels within the newly established 200-mile fishing limit. As part of this program, data gathering field operations were conducted over concentrations of foreign fishing vessels in the Bering Sea off Alaska in April 1976. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed synthetic aperture L-band radar which was flown aboard the NASA Convair 990 aircraft, with a Coast Guard cutter and C-130 aircraft simultaneously gathering data to provide both radar imagery and sea truth information on the vessels being imaged. Results indicate that synthetic aperture radar systems have potential for all weather detection, enumeration and classification of fishing vessels.

  12. The role of the Bering Sea in the global climate: Preliminary results of the IODP Expedition 323, Bering Sea paloceanography (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Sakai, S.; Iijima, K.; Sugisaki, S.; Oguri, K.; Takahashi, K.; Asahi, H.; Ikehara, M.; Onodera, J.; Ijiri, A.; Okazaki, Y.; Horikawa, K.; Mix, A. C.; Ravelo, A. C.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Scieintific Party Of Iodp Expedition 323

    2010-12-01

    ABSTRACT BODY: The IODP Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea was the first expedition to recover continuous marine sediment sections to investigate high-resolution paleoceanography at the most northern region of the North Pacific during 5 Ma. Drill sites explored in the Bowers Ridge region (Sites U1340 and U1341) provide complete sequences for the last 5 myrs, including Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG), and drill sites at the continental slope of the Aleutian Basin (Sites U1343 and U1344) provide complete sequences for the last 2 myrs, including the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT) with drastic changes in the character of glacial-interglacial cycles. Post cruise age models of the drilled sequences are constructed using oxygen isotope stratigraphy, tephrachronology, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, along with onboard bio- and magneto-stratigraphy. Astronomical calibration of high-resolution non-destructive core measurement data provides additional age control, and shows that sedimentation rates during interglacials are two to three times higher than that of glacials. Marine primary productivity changes dramatically during the Plio-Pleistocene. Si /Al ratio measured using non-destructive XRF scanning by TATSCAN-F2 is consistent with discrete biogenic silica content, and exhibits large glacial-interglacial cycles. The productivity is relatively high, similar to that of today’s “green-belt”, during the interglacial periods with increasing glacial-interglacial variability after NHG, and even larger amplitude variations during last 500 kyrs. Significant large peaks of biogenic carbonate detected by TATSCAN-F2 occur during every deglaciation period (in the early stage of warming) during the Pleistocene. The increase in biogenic carbonate is related to enhanced terrigenous nutrient supply mainly from the continental shelf exposed during the glacial periods. During the middle and later part of the interglacial, carbonate content becomes significant

  13. Depositional and erosional features of the inner shelf, northeastern Bering Sea.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.E.; Thor, D.R.; Swisher, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Sonographs and bathymetric profiles from water depths less than 15m in the Nome-Solomon, Port Clarence, and Yukon Delta areas of the Alaskan Bering Sea coast show features generated by waves, currents, and drifting ice. The surficial sediments in the Nome-Solomon and Port Clarence areas range in grain size from sand to boulder gravel and have many surface features visible on sonographs, whereas the sediments off the Yukon Delta are fine sands and silts that have few such features. Materials in the Nome-Solomon and Port Clarence areas have been seggregated by grain size into ribbons and irregular, elongate, and lobate patches. Coarse sand and fine gravel patches and ribbons are characterized by symmetrical ripples generated by storm waves. Ice-gouged furrows occur in all the nearshore areas studied.-from Authors

  14. Changes in the distribution and abundance of albatrosses in the eastern Bering Sea: 1975-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuletz, Kathy J.; Renner, Martin; Labunski, Elizabeth A.; Hunt, George L.

    2014-11-01

    A number of marine species are showing poleward shifts in their distributions in response to climate warming. Three albatross species frequent the Bering Sea, the Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis), the black-footed (Phoebastria nigripes), and the endangered short-tailed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus). To determine if albatrosses changed their distribution or abundance in the eastern Bering Sea between 1975 and 2010, we examined at-sea survey data using the North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database. Within our study area, all three species of albatross occurred most frequently in the waters of the Aleutian Islands. In the eastern Bering Sea, all three species were most abundant near the shelf break, and in particular in the vicinity of the major submarine canyons in the shelf slope. Starting in the 1990s, population densities increased for all three albatross species, with a marked increase in the 2000s. In the 2000s, there was also an increase in the frequency at which albatrosses were recorded in the central and northern Bering Sea. Both black-footed and short-tailed albatrosses shifted the centers of their Bering Sea distributions northward. The Laysan albatross center of distribution shifted southward due to increased numbers along the southern shelf break, but densities also increased northward. We suggest that the observed changes in distribution and abundance of the three albatross species in the eastern Bering Sea may have been responses to an increase in the availability of squid, their primary prey, there. Additionally, the expansion of the distribution of the short-tailed albatross in the eastern Bering Sea may represent the reclamation of its previous range, now that the population is beginning to recover from near extinction caused by over harvesting. We suggest that predicted increases in ocean temperatures and northward movement of prey could result in albatrosses and other marine apex predators foraging farther north along the Bering Sea shelf and

  15. The nutrient, salinity, and stable oxygen isotope composition of Bering and Chukchi Seas waters in and near the Bering Strait

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, L.W. |; Whitledge, T.E.; Grebmeier, J.M. |; Weingartner, T.

    1997-06-01

    Seawater nutrient, salinity, and oxygen 18 data collected from 1990 to 1993 in the Bering and Chukchi Seas were used to identify potential sources of nutrients and water masses that result in formation of the Arctic Ocean upper halocline and its associated nutrient maximum. Water matching the {delta}{sup 18}O values of the Arctic Ocean upper halocline and containing sufficient, or a nearly sufficient, nutrient and salinity concentration was collected in subsurface waters in the summer in portions of the Bering Sea, particularly the Gulf of Anadyr. However, nutrient concentrations significantly declined in this north flowing water over the shallow continental shelf before it reached the Bering Strait, as a consequence of biological utilization, and dilution with nutrient-poor and oxygen 18-depleted fresh water. Therefore it does not appear likely that the flow of unaltered water through the Bering Strait in the summer plays a critical role in the formation of the Arctic Ocean upper halocline. The role of other mechanisms for contributing Pacific-derived waters to the Arctic Ocean nutrient maximum is considered.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  16. 76 FR 3090 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Arbitration AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... for Gulf of Alaska groundfish fisheries, arbitration system, monitoring, economic data collection, and cost recovery fee collection. The Crab Rationalization Program Arbitration System is established by...

  17. Hydrography and biological resources in the western Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khen, G. V.; Basyuk, E. O.; Vanin, N. S.; Matveev, V. I.

    2013-10-01

    The variability of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrients (phosphate and silicate) in the west Bering Sea in the Russian Exclusive Economic Zone (REZ) since 1950 and the influence of these factors on the distribution and dynamics of hydrobionts were studied. Since 1950, the sea surface temperature has been gradually increasing, although non-significant cooling occurred in the last decade. In contrast, in the 50-200 m depth range, the temperature has been cooling. During the last 60 years, the salinity decreased by 0.30, 0.06-0.10 and 0.04 at the sea surface, at the 100-200 m layer and at the depth of 500 m, respectively, resulting in a strengthening of the vertical stability and weakening of the vertical water exchange. As a consequence, the oxygen concentrations at depths down to 1000 m decreased during this period. Phosphate and silicate concentrations increased during the last 40 years. The water exchange with the North Pacific (based on the discharge through the Kamchatka Strait) from the mid-1960s to the early 1990s was 2-3-fold higher than in the 1950s or from the mid-1990s to 2010. During the periods of weakened water exchange, the herring population sharply increased, while during periods of strengthened water exchange, pollock biomass increased. The increase of codfishes, flounders and sculpin biomass at the sea shelf during the second half of the 20th century coincided with sea surface warming. Since 2007, the westward water transport from the Aleutian Basin was almost half that during 2002-06, while the northward stream from Near Strait noticeably increased. The populations of immature chum, sockeye and chinook in the REZ declined because of their weakened input from the US zone, and these species were distributed mainly in the northern and eastern Russian waters. Taking into account the cooling since the middle of the last decade, the change in the intensity and direction of the Aleutian Low and Siberian High trends, and the westward

  18. Geologic history of the continental margin of North America in the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, D. W.; Buffington, E.C.; Hopkins, D.M.

    1968-01-01

    The North American continental margin beneath the Bering Sea is nearly 1,300 km long and extends from Alaska to eastern Siberia. The margin is a canyon-scarred 3,200-3,400-m high escarpment separating one of the world's largest epicontinental seas (the shallow Bering Sea) and the Aleutian Basin (the deep-water Bering Sea), a marginal oceanic basin distinguished by having its southern boundary formed by the Aleutian Ridge. Three geomorphic provinces can be recognized: a southeastern province characterized by a gentle continental slope (lacking V-shaped canyons) and an outlying continental borderland (formed by Umnak Plateau); a central province distinguished by a steep canyon-scarred slope, and a northwestern province having a gentler and, apparently, less eroded continental slope. Continuous seismic reflection profiles show that the margin is constructed of three major structural-stratigraphic units: (1) an acoustic basement underlying the outer shelf and upper slope; (2) an overlying main layered sequence; and (3) a stratified rise unit underlying and forming the continental rise at the base of the slope. The existing margin evolved with downbowing and faulting of the acoustic basement, an older margin probably of Late Mesozoic age, consisting in part of well-indurated siltstone and mudstone, in Early Tertiary time. Concomitant with subsidence as much as 1,500 m of main-layered-sequence strata were draped over the basement. Intense canyon cutting, presumed to have been caused by the rapid deposition of unstable masses of riverborn sediment over the outer shelf and upper slope, is thought to have begun in Late Tertiary and Quaternary time. Concurrent with canyon cutting, submarine fans, consisting of turbidites forming the rise unit, accrued at the base of the continental slope. Subsidence of the continental margin during the Tertiary may be related to foundering ("oceanization") of a continental block to form the Aleutian Basin, or to simple isostatic depression

  19. Natural Gas and Hydrate Accumulations in the Aleutian Basin of the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, G. A.; Scholl, D. W.; Childs, J. R.

    2003-12-01

    The deep water Aleutian Basin of the Bering Sea is a major storehouse of trapped greenhouse gases. Preliminary volume estimates based on seismic reflection observations easily approach 1000 Tcf of natural gas within the basin. USGS seismic reflection data from the deep water (>3500 m) Bering Sea region include over 20,000 km of single channel profiles coincident with GLORIA sonar tracks acquired during the 1986-7 EEZscan program, plus several older multichannel lines also crossing the deep water Aleutian and Bowers Basins. These airgun-source data all provide images from seafloor to basement, over 3 km of penetration. The basin fill includes generally horizontal and uniform sedimentary reflection sequences, comprising predominantly mudstones and distal turbidites, upon oceanic crust of probable Cretaceous age. In seismic reflection images of these flat-lying sediments, methane chimneys overlain by hydrate caps stand out as distinctive velocity pseudostructures. These velocity-amplitude anomaly structures ("VAMPs") characteristically include a zone of velocity pull-up (attributed to high-seismic-velocity hydrate within the sediment) directly overlying a zone of velocity push-down (attributed to low-seismic-velocity gas in the pore spaces). A prominent hydrate bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is also present throughout the basin. Within the VAMPs, the BSR roughly separates the pull-up from the push-down. Hundreds of VAMPs have been imaged, and thousands must exist within the deep water basin. Individual examples vary widely in lateral extent, focused appearance, and amplitude effects. Some also present a seafloor manifestation of slight doming. Five example case studies are presented, focusing particularly on interval travel time anomalies and quantitative interpretation in terms of presence of hydrate and free gas. Individual large VAMPs (1-3 km across, ˜30 ms pull-up, ˜80 ms push-down) are estimated to contain gas volumes (including hydrate) similar to those of

  20. A reassessment of primary production and environmental change in the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Zachary W.; van Dijken, Gert L.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2011-08-01

    Regarded as one of the world's most productive marine environments, the Bering Sea is widely thought to be rapidly warming and losing sea ice. Such changes would be expected to have dramatic impacts on primary producers, with cascading effects on upper trophic levels, including this region's vast commercial fisheries resources. Here, we use satellite-derived sea ice concentration, sea surface temperature, and ocean color data as input to a primary productivity algorithm to take stock of environmental change and primary production in the Bering Sea. Results show that, rather than declining, mean annual sea ice extent in the Bering Sea has exhibited no significant change over the satellite sea ice record (1979-2009). Furthermore, significant warming during the satellite sea surface temperature record (1982-2009) is mainly limited to the summer months, when all regions of the Bering Sea warmed. This warming suggests increasing stratification during the phytoplankton growth season. Despite certain hot spots of primary production and a strong pulse in the spring, the rate of annual area-normalized primary production in the Bering Sea (124 g C m-2 yr-1) is below the global mean (140 g C m-2 yr-1). Between 1998 and 2007, basin-wide annual primary production ranged from 233 to 331 Tg C yr-1 under the influence of highly variable sea ice and temperature conditions. By comparing warm, low-ice years (2001-2005) with cold, high-ice years (1998-2000 and 2006-2007), we speculate that Bering Sea primary productivity is likely to rise under conditions of future warming and sea ice loss.

  1. Quantifying the influence of sea ice on ocean microseism using observations from the Bering Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsai, Victor C.; McNamara, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Microseism is potentially affected by all processes that alter ocean wave heights. Because strong sea ice prevents large ocean waves from forming, sea ice can therefore significantly affect microseism amplitudes. Here we show that this link between sea ice and microseism is not only a robust one but can be quantified. In particular, we show that 75–90% of the variability in microseism power in the Bering Sea can be predicted using a fairly crude model of microseism damping by sea ice. The success of this simple parameterization suggests that an even stronger link can be established between the mechanical strength of sea ice and microseism power, and that microseism can eventually be used to monitor the strength of sea ice, a quantity that is not as easily observed through other means.

  2. Deglacial Timing and Dynamics of Paleoclimate Variations in the Bering Sea and Subarctic Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, Lester; Kuehn, Hartmut; Gersonde, Rainer; Esper, Oliver; Arz, Helge; Lohmann, Gerrit; Tiedemann, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    One characteristic of the last glacial termination is the widespread decrease of mid-depth oxygen concentrations in the world ocean in intermediate water depth (i.e. above c. 2000 m). The resulting expansion of oxygen minimum zones is connected with the deposition of high-resolution, laminated sediments throughout the subarctic North Pacific, providing the potential to study marine archives with a high temporal resolution, combined with the possibility to establish relatively precise chronostratigraphic frameworks. From a comprehensive collection of sediment cores retrieved during R/V Sonne cruise SO202 INOPEX, we investigated sites in the Bering Sea that featured laminated deglacial facies. Sedimentary layer countings of laminated sections, AMS 14C measurements of foraminifera and correlation to the NGRIP Greenland oxygen isotope ice core record, aided by high-resolution micro-XRF data, X-ray images and supplementary geochemical data gave detailed information about the processes that led to laminae formation and provided the basis for establishing paleoceanographic reconstructions with exceptional temporal resolution, possibly on sub-decadal timescales. We selected one partly laminated, mid-depth key site from 1100 m water depth on the northeastern Bering Shelf slope to further investigate the timing, and surface - intermediate water development during the Termination I. A correlation between the NGRIP oxygen isotope reference record and our layer countings revealed that the laminations represent annual layered sediments (varves) and the presence of these laminations is tightly coupled to submillennial, short-term warm phases, especially during the Bølling-Allerød. The latter point strongly argues for a close atmospheric teleconnection between the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. As a result of our correlation approach we created an age model that is partly independent from radiocarbon dates in the varved time intervals. We used our resulting

  3. Sub-Regional Sea Ice Preferences of Pacific Walrus in the Bering Sea Using SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, A.; Mahoney, A. R.; Eicken, H.; Johnson, M. A.; Ray, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Pacific walrus (O. r. divergens) uses winter sea ice in the Bering Sea for numerous parts of its natural history including courtship, foraging, and migration. Recent and predicted loss of sea ice has caused the Pacific walrus to be considered for an elevated status under the Endangered Species Act. Study of the ice conditions during this period is required to investigate changes in the Bering Sea ice pack and its effects on walrus sustainability. Using Radarsat-1 data and second-order texture statistics, a classification system was devised to separate sea ice into three distinguishable classes based on walrus needs of open water availability in the pack ice: discontinuous pack ice, continuous pack ice, and open water. Classifications are performed on sub-regional image areas to facilitate classification of heterogeneous seascapes which are thought to be distinguishable by walrus. Spatial, as well as temporal, changes in the seascape cover, based on the classification, are achieved. These results are then combined with ship-based observations of walrus to quantify walrus habitat preference. The three-class algorithm has a success rate of 94% for the discontinuous ice and continuous pack ice. Radarsat-1 images from 2004 - 2008 were analyzed for changes in seasonal and annual discontinuous ice extent. After classification, the spatial extent of discontinuous ice was found to vary throughout 2004 - 2008 in the Bering Sea shelf. Walrus are also shown to prefer discontinuous pack far from the southernmost ice edge. Maps of walrus habitat preference and persistent areas of sea ice seascapes are created and then can be used for the walrus' status consideration under the Endangered Species Act in addition to general species management issues.

  4. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation...

  9. Divergent movements of walrus and sea ice in the Nothern Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Kwok, Ron; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Douglas, David C.

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens is a large Arctic pinniped of the Chukchi and Bering Seas. Reductions of sea ice projected to occur in the Arctic by mid-century raise concerns for conservation of the Pacific walrus. To understand the significance of sea ice loss to the viability of walruses, it would be useful to better understand the spatial associations between the movements of sea ice and walruses. We investigated whether local-scale (~1 to 100 km) walrus movements correspond to movements of sea ice in the Bering Sea in early spring, using locations from radio-tracked walruses and measures of ice floe movements from processed synthetic aperture radar satellite imagery. We used generalized linear mixed-effects models to analyze the angle between walrus and ice floe movement vectors and the distance between the final geographic position of walruses and their associated ice floes (displacement), as functions of observation duration, proportion of time the walrus was in water, and geographic region. Analyses were based on 121 walrus-ice vector pairs and observations lasting 12 to 36 h. Angles and displacements increased with observation duration, proportion of time the walrus spent in the water, and varied among regions (regional mean angles ranged from 40° to 81° and mean displacements ranged from 15 to 35 km). Our results indicated a lack of correspondence between walruses and their initially associated ice floes, suggesting that local areas of walrus activities were independent of the movement of ice floes.

  10. Late Quaternary paleoceanography of the Pervenets Canyon area of the Bering Sea: evidence from the diatom flora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starratt, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    Sediments from three gravity cores from an east-west shelf-to-slope transect along the axis of Pervenets Canyon in the northern Navarin basin, Bering Sea were analyzed for diatoms. The diatom floras present in the cores were divided into four assemblages. The Bering Basin (deep water open ocean) and Sea Ice (ice cover at least six months per year) Assemblages were dominant in each core. The taxa that comprise the Bering Shelf Assemblage (continental shelf) indicate that downslope transport plays only a minor part in the development of the thanatocenoses. The presence (up to 10% of the total valve count) of the Productivity Assemblage, which consists mainly of poorly silicified, easily dissolved taxa, indicates that nutrient flux is relatively high in the region. Several taxa can be used as proxy indicators for specific water masses. The relative downcore abundance of these taxa was used to approximate the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary (recognized in Core 80-65 at a depth of about 75 cm). -from Author

  11. Geologic evolution of the Bering Sea Komandorksy deep basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, N.A.

    1986-07-01

    The deep-water Komandorsky basin is located in the southwestern part of the Bering Sea. On the east, it is separated from the Aleutian basin by the submerged Shirshov Ridge; on the west, it is bordered by structures of the north Kamchatka accretionary prism. The Komandorsky basin is characterized by strongly dissected relief of it acoustic basement, which is overlain by a 1.5 to 2.0-km thick sedimentary cover. The western part of the basin is occupied by a rift zone, which is characterized by modern seismicity and high heat flow. It is considered to be the axial zone of Miocene-Pleistocene spreading. On the north terrace of the Komandorsky island arc, traced active volcanos provide evidence that subduction is occurring under the arc from the north. The spreading rift zone is reflected on the continent in Miocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks, characterized by typical oceanic tholeiitic composition. The Komandorsky basin formed as a result of spreading during the Maestrichtian. Spreading within the basin occurred during the early and middle Oligocene and the late Miocene. East and west of the spreading axis, accretionary prisms formed. The latter are observed along the western flank of the Shirshov Ridge and on the eastern sides of the Kamchatka Peninsula and Koraginsky Island.

  12. 76 FR 43658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2011/2012 crab fishing year so...

  13. 76 FR 44297 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery Resources.... SUMMARY: The Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Rationalization Program (CR Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. Amendment 30 would amend...

  14. 75 FR 43147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2010/2011 crab fishing year so...

  15. 77 FR 44216 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... recovery under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2012/2013 crab fishing year....

  16. 78 FR 46577 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2013/2014 crab fishing year so...

  17. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and... and Aleutian Island Directed Pollock Fishery Management Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook...

  18. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and... and Aleutian Island Directed Pollock Fishery Management Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook...

  19. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and... and Aleutian Island Directed Pollock Fishery Management Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook...

  20. 75 FR 30779 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Stock Assessment of Eastern Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Alaska; Stock Assessment of Eastern Bering Sea Pollock; Peer Review Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... a peer review of the agency's stock assessment of Eastern Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). The CIE, operated by Northern Taiga Ventures, Inc., provides independent peer reviews of...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  4. 76 FR 76902 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins in the Bering Sea Subarea of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(a)(3) the... the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  11. 76 FR 49417 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...NMFS proposes regulations that would implement Amendment 93 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP). This proposed rule would amend the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Amendment 80 Program to modify the criteria for forming and participating in a harvesting cooperative. This action is necessary to encourage greater......

  12. 78 FR 42023 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... under Sec. 679.2(d)(1)(iii) on June 11, 2013 (78 FR 35771, June 14, 2013). As of July 8, 2013, NMFS has... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI) of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

  13. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... GOA (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and apportionment of non-specified reserves (76 FR 53840, August 30... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and...

  14. 50 CFR 600.1106 - Longline catcher processor subsector Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... chapter defined as groundfish area/species endorsements. (c) Reduction loan amount. The reduction...

  15. 50 CFR 600.1106 - Longline catcher processor subsector Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... chapter defined as groundfish area/species endorsements. (c) Reduction loan amount. The reduction...

  16. 50 CFR 600.1106 - Longline catcher processor subsector Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... chapter defined as groundfish area/species endorsements. (c) Reduction loan amount. The reduction...

  17. 50 CFR 600.1106 - Longline catcher processor subsector Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... chapter defined as groundfish area/species endorsements. (c) Reduction loan amount. The reduction...

  18. 76 FR 13593 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Amendments 18 and 19 were published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), and are located at 50 CFR part 680... these fisheries. The Council developed sideboards to prevent Bering Sea snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio... the GOA Pacific cod fishery. However, in order to enable those Bering Sea snow crab quota...

  19. 75 FR 69361 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). The harvest specification for the 2010 Pacific ocean... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In...

  20. Summertime synoptic variability of frontal systems in the northern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawarkiewicz, Glen; Haney, J. Christopher; Caruso, Michael J.

    1994-04-01

    Hydrographic observations in the northern Bering Sea during August and September 1987 indicate the presence of a front dividing relatively warm, fresh Bering Shelf Water from relatively cool, saline Anadyr Water along the western and northern coasts of St. Lawrence Island near Anadyr Strait. A buoyant layer 20 m thick with surface salinities as low as 29.5 practical salinity units and a maximum temperature of 10°C was present adjacent to the island. The surface outcrop of the front migrated 80 km north during the nine-day time period of the hydrographic observations. Surface thermal patterns suggest that this front may extend the length of the northern coastline of St. Lawrence Island during the summer. The front veers north and passes through the Bering Strait, where temperature differences as large as 6°C exist across the strait. An examination of the water mass properties of the Bering Sea suggests that the buoyant water north of St. Lawrence Island is Bering Shelf Water which has been carried northward through Anadyr Strait. The baroclinic transport (assuming no flow at the bottom) associated with the front is 0.07 Sv, which is roughly a third of the seasonal increase in transport through the Bering Strait in the summer.

  1. Bowers Swell: Evidence for a zone of compressive deformation concentric with Bowers Ridge, Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marlow, M. S.; Cooper, A. K.; Dadisman, S.V.; Geist, E.L.; Carlson, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    Bowers Swell is a newly discovered bathymetric feature which is up to 90 m high, between 12 and 20 km wide, and which extends arcuately about 400 km along the northern and eastern sides of Bowers Ridge. The swell was first revealed on GLORIA sonographs and subsequently mapped on seismic reflection and 3.5 kHz bathymetric profiles. These geophysical data show that the swell caps an arcuate anticlinal ridge, which is composed of deformed strata in an ancient trench on the northern and eastern sides of Bowers Ridge. The trench fill beneath the swell is actively deforming, as shown by faulting of the sea floor and by thinning of the strata across the crest of the swell. Thinning and faulting of the trench strata preclude an origin for the swell by simple sediment draping over an older basement high. We considered several models for the origin of Bowers Swell, including folding and uplift of the underlying trench sediment during the interaction between the Pacific plate beneath the Aleutian Ridge and a remnant oceanic slab beneath Bowers Ridge. However, such plate motions should generate extensive seismicity beneath Bowers Ridge, which is aseismic, and refraction data do not show any remnant slab beneath Bowers Ridge. Another origin considered for Bowers Swell invokes sediment deformation resulting from differential loading and diapirism in the trench fill. However, diapirism is not evident on seismic reflection profiles across the swell. We favour a model in which sediment deformation and swell formation resulted from a few tens of kilometers of low seismicity motion by intraplate crustal blocks beneath the Aleutian Basin. This motion may result from the translation of blocks in western Alaska to the south-west, forcing the movement of the Bering Sea margin west of Alaska into the abyssal Aleutian Basin. ?? 1990.

  2. Condition of groundfish resources of the eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bakkala, R.G.; Low, L.; Ito, D.H.; Narita, R.E.; Ronholt, L.L.

    1983-03-01

    This report contains an assessment of the condition of groundfish and squid in the eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region through 1982. The assessments are based on species-by-species analyses of the data collected from the commercial fishery and research vessel surveys. Most of the resources in the Bering Sea-Aleutians management region are in good condition, including walleye pollock, Pacific cod, the flatfishes, and Atka mackerel. Pacific cod and yellowfin sole are in excellent condition and at historic high levels of abundance.

  3. Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: Mean seasonal cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linghan; McClean, Julie L.; Miller, Arthur J.; Eisenman, Ian; Hendershott, Myrl C.; Papadopoulos, Caroline A.

    2014-12-01

    The seasonal cycle of sea ice variability in the Bering Sea, together with the thermodynamic and dynamic processes that control it, are examined in a fine resolution (1/10°) global coupled ocean/sea-ice model configured in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The ocean/sea-ice model consists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE). The model was forced with time-varying reanalysis atmospheric forcing for the time period 1970-1989. This study focuses on the time period 1980-1989. The simulated seasonal-mean fields of sea ice concentration strongly resemble satellite-derived observations, as quantified by root-mean-square errors and pattern correlation coefficients. The sea ice energy budget reveals that the seasonal thermodynamic ice volume changes are dominated by the surface energy flux between the atmosphere and the ice in the northern region and by heat flux from the ocean to the ice along the southern ice edge, especially on the western side. The sea ice force balance analysis shows that sea ice motion is largely associated with wind stress. The force due to divergence of the internal ice stress tensor is large near the land boundaries in the north, and it is small in the central and southern ice-covered region. During winter, which dominates the annual mean, it is found that the simulated sea ice was mainly formed in the northern Bering Sea, with the maximum ice growth rate occurring along the coast due to cold air from northerly winds and ice motion away from the coast. South of St Lawrence Island, winds drive the model sea ice southwestward from the north to the southwestern part of the ice-covered region. Along the ice edge in the western Bering Sea, model sea ice is melted by warm ocean water, which is carried by the simulated Bering Slope Current flowing to the northwest, resulting in the S-shaped asymmetric ice edge. In spring and fall, similar thermodynamic and dynamic

  4. Modeling of storm surges in the Bering Sea and Norton Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Walter R.; Kowalik, Zygmunt

    1986-04-01

    Sea level, currents, and ice distribution are studied in the Bering Sea during storm events. The ice and ice edge are incorporated into storm surge model. The interaction of wind, ice, and water is expressed by the normal and tangential stresses. A numerical grid is established for the Bering Sea, and a second refined grid is constructed for Norton Sound. Construction of open boundary conditions for the water and ice motion and numerical questions related to the application of a large frictional coefficient for ice are also discussed. Storm events from February and March 1982 are analyzed and compared with observations of bottom pressure and ice motion made by NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory in the Bering Sea and sea level observations at Stebbins, Alaska. The influence of the ice on the storm surge propagation is shown, particularly that of the fast ice in Norton Sound. The model reproduces several observed features of the ice distribution in the Bering Sea, including the "race track" region off Nome, the polynya south of Saint Lawrence Island, and the movement of the ice edge.

  5. Is the Climate of Bering Sea Warming and Affecting the Ecosystem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, James E.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.

    2004-08-01

    Observations from the Bering Sea are good indicators of decadal shifts in climate, as the Bering is a transition region between the cold, dry Arctic air mass to the north, and the moist, relatively warm maritime air mass to the south. The Bering Sea is also a transition region between Arctic and sub-Arctic ecosystems; this boundary can be loosely identified with the extent of winter sea-ice cover. Like a similar transition zone in the eastern North Atlantic, the Bering Sea is experiencing a northward biogeographical shift in response to changing temperature and atmospheric forcing. If this shift continues over the next decade, it will have major impacts on commercial and subsistence harvests as Arctic species are displaced by sub-Arctic species. The stakes are enormous, as this rich and diverse ecosystem currently provides 47% of the U.S. fishery production by weight, and is home to 80% of the U.S. sea bird population, 95% of northern fur seals, and major populations of Steller sea lions, walrus, and whales.

  6. Sea ice retreat alters the biogeography of the Bering Sea continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Mueter, Franz J; Litzow, Michael A

    2008-03-01

    Seasonal ice cover creates a pool of cold bottom water on the eastern Bering Sea continental shelf each winter. The southern edge of this cold pool, which defines the ecotone between arctic and subarctic communities, has retreated approximately 230 km northward since the early 1980s. Bottom trawl surveys of fish and invertebrates in the southeastern Bering Sea (1982-2006) show a coincident reorganization in community composition by latitude. Survey catches show community-wide northward distribution shifts, and the area formerly covered by the cold pool has seen increases in total biomass, species richness, and average trophic level as subarctic fauna have colonized newly favorable habitats. Warming climate has immediate management implications, as 57% of variability in commercial snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) catch is explained by winter sea ice extent. Several measures of community distribution and structure show linear relationships with bottom temperature, suggesting warming climate as the primary cause of changing biogeography. However, residual variability in distribution not explained by climate shows a strong temporal trend, suggesting that internal community dynamics also contribute to changing biogeography. Variability among taxa in their response to temperature was not explained by commercial status or life history traits, suggesting that species-specific responses to future warming will be difficult to predict. PMID:18488598

  7. Linkages between sea-ice coverage, pelagic-benthic coupling, and the distribution of spectacled eiders: observations in March 2008, 2009 and 2010, northern Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, L.W.; Sexson, M.G.; Grebmeier, J.M.; Gradinger, R.; Mordy, C.W.; Lovvorn, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Icebreaker-based sampling in the northern Bering Sea south of St. Lawrence Island in March of 2008, 2009, and 2010 has provided new data on overall ecosystem function early in the annual productive cycle. While water-column chlorophyll concentrations (−2 integrated over the whole water column) are two orders of magnitude lower than observed during the spring bloom in May, sea-ice algal inventories of chlorophyll are high (up to 1 g m−3 in the bottom 2-cm of sea-ice). Vertical fluxes of chlorophyll as measured in sediment traps were between 0.3 to 3.7 mg m−2 d−1 and were consistent with the recent deposition (days to weeks time scale) of chlorophyll to the surface sediments (0–25 mg m−2 present at 0–1 cm). Sediment oxygen respiration rates were lower than previous measurements that followed the spring bloom, but were highest in areas of known high benthic biomass. Early spring release of sedimentary ammonium occurs, particularly southeast of St. Lawrence Island, leading to bottom-water ammonium concentrations of >5 µM. These data, together with other physical, biological, and nutrient data are presented here in conjunction with observed sea-ice dynamics and the distribution of an apex predator, the Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri). Sea-ice dynamics in addition to benthic food availability, as determined by sedimentation processes, play a role in the distribution of spectacled eiders, which cannot always access the greatest biomass of their preferred bivalve prey. Overall, the data and observations indicate that the northern Bering Sea is biologically active in late winter, but with strong atmospheric and hydrographic controls. These controls pre-determine nutrient and chlorophyll distributions, water-column mixing, as well as pelagic-benthic coupling.

  8. Linkages between sea-ice coverage, pelagic-benthic coupling, and the distribution of spectacled eiders: Observations in March 2008, 2009 and 2010, northern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. W.; Sexson, M. G.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Gradinger, R.; Mordy, C. W.; Lovvorn, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    Icebreaker-based sampling in the northern Bering Sea south of St. Lawrence Island in March of 2008, 2009, and 2010 has provided new data on overall ecosystem function early in the annual productive cycle. While water-column chlorophyll concentrations (<25 mg m-2 integrated over the whole water column) are two orders of magnitude lower than observed during the spring bloom in May, sea-ice algal inventories of chlorophyll are high (up to 1 g m-3 in the bottom 2-cm of sea-ice). Vertical fluxes of chlorophyll as measured in sediment traps were between 0.3 and 3.7 mg m-2 d-1 and were consistent with the recent deposition (days' to weeks' time scale) of chlorophyll to the surface sediments (0-25 mg m-2 present at 0-1 cm). Sediment oxygen respiration rates were lower than previous measurements that followed the spring bloom, but were highest in areas of known high benthic biomass. Early spring release of sedimentary ammonium occurs, particularly southeast of St. Lawrence Island, leading to bottom-water ammonium concentrations of >5 µM. These data, together with other physical, biological, and nutrient data, are presented here in conjunction with observed sea-ice dynamics and the distribution of an apex predator, the Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri). Sea-ice dynamics in addition to benthic food availability, as determined by sedimentation processes, play a role in the distribution of spectacled eiders, which cannot always access the greatest biomass of their preferred bivalve prey. Overall, the data and observations indicate that the northern Bering Sea is biologically active in late winter, but with strong atmospheric and hydrographic controls. These controls pre-determine nutrient and chlorophyll distributions, water-column mixing, as well as pelagic-benthic coupling.

  9. Genetic stock identification of immature chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) in the western Bering Sea, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Minho; Kim, Suam; Low, Loh-Lee

    2016-03-01

    Genetic stock identification studies have been widely applied to Pacific salmon species to estimate stock composition of complex mixed-stock fisheries. In a September-October 2004 survey, 739 chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) specimens were collected from 23 stations in the western Bering Sea. We determined the genetic stock composition of immature chum salmon based on the previous mitochondria DNA baseline. Each regional estimate was computed based on the conditional maximum likelihood method using 1,000 bootstrap resampling and then pooled to the major regional groups: Korea - Japan - Primorie (KJP) / Russia (RU) / Northwest Alaska (NWA) / Alaska Peninsula - Southcentral Alaska - Southeast Alaska - British Columbia - Washington (ONA). The stock composition of immature chum salmon in the western Bering Sea was a mix of 0.424 KJP, 0.421 RU, 0.116 NWA, and 0.039 ONA stocks. During the study period, the contribution of Asian chum salmon stocks gradually changed from RU to KJP stock. In addition, North American populations from NWA and ONA were small but present near the vicinity of the Russian coast and the Commander Islands, suggesting that the study areas in the western Bering Sea were an important migration route for Pacific chum salmon originating both from Asia and North America during the months of September and October. These results make it possible to better understand the chum salmon stock composition of the mixed-stock fisheries in the western Bering Sea and the stock-specific distribution pattern of chum salmon on the high-seas.

  10. Late Quaternary Provenance and Flow Regime Reconstruction through Sedimentologic and Geochemical Evidence from the Bering/Chukchi Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelto, B. M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Kocis, J. J.; Petsch, S.

    2013-12-01

    The last 20 kyr have been marked by great changes in the Arctic, as the Laurentide Ice Sheet melted and led to the submergence of the Bering Land Bridge and the re-opening of the Bering Strait (BS). The BS is a narrow connection (about 85 km wide) between the Arctic and Pacific Oceans averaging less than 50 m in depth, with present-day flow of seawater northward through the BS, from the Pacific to the Arctic. This flow is of vital importance to global ocean circulation through its role in formation and stability of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). An open BS is believed to speed dispersal of North Atlantic freshwater anomalies, both by keeping thermohaline circulation strong, and through reversals of flow through the BS when the North Atlantic is hosed with freshwater. When the BS is closed, these anomalies cannot efficiently dissipate and thermohaline circulation is weakened, which is considered a factor in climate perturbations outside of orbital forcing. Given the period of flux and transition in the Arctic following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the paleoceanographic history of the Bering and Chukchi Seas post-LGM, is important to an understanding of Arctic Ocean circulation, and consequent climate impacts. Today the Arctic is in a period of rapid change, multi-year sea ice is disappearing, and the continuation of climatic stability of the Holocene appears to be at an end. Comprehension of the functioning of the Arctic as a dynamic system is essential to predict future response of the system to change, such as seawater salinity-density changes, lowered sea and land albedo, and rising temperatures. Changes in BS throughflow intensity and direction during deglaciation and submergence of the Bering Land Bridge are proposed and supported in modeling simulations, and are thought to occur during millennial-scale climate changes. We have conducted a coupled sedimentological and geochemical investigation of a suite of marine sediment cores from the Bering and

  11. A Pliocene to recent history of the Bering Sea at Site U1340A, IODP Expedition 323

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroynowski, Zuzia; Ravelo, Anna Christina; Andreasen, Dyke

    2015-12-01

    Fossil diatoms are the principal component of Bering Sea sediments and reflect the paleoceanographic history of the region. Diatom accumulation rates and relative abundances at International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1340A are presented. Overall, the total diatom productivity record from 4.9 Ma to the present day reveals a fourfold reduction at circa 4.2 Ma from ~45 × 107 down to 11 × 107 valves/g (wet sediment), signifying a major shift in the upwelling and/or nutrient regime, coinciding with the end of the late Miocene-early Pliocene bloom identified in the eastern equatorial Pacific and California margin. Further abrupt shifts in the diatom assemblage occur at (1) 2.78-2.55 Ma, (2) 2.0-1.8 Ma, and (3) 1.0-0.88 Ma. (1) At 2.78-2.55 Ma, the appearance of sea ice-related species marks the regional cooling associated with the expansion of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, subsequent development of stratified, nutrient-depleted waters, and increased influence of Western Basin Water masses (most likely due to the suppressed inflow of the Alaskan Stream). (2) Rapid cooling between 2.0 and 1.8 Ma indicates increased sea ice duration and/or frequency. This, coupled with low sea level stands caused prolonged closure of the Aleutian Passes, coupled with further increased Western Basin Water inflow. (3) The shift to 100 ka glacial/interglacial cycles at the middle-Pleistocene transition (1.0-0.88 Ma) marked an increase in upwelling-related species, indicating enhanced surface water mixing. These records confirm that the development and changing dynamics of sea ice in the Bering Sea played a major role in sub-Arctic Ocean circulation and is an integral component of global climate change.

  12. From the Pacific to the Arctic: Paleoclimatic History of the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, A. C.; Davies, M. H.; Praetorius, S.; Cook, M. S.; Prahl, F. G.; Schmittner, A.; Asahi, H.; Belanger, C. L.; Stoner, J. S.; St-Onge, G.; Jaeger, J. M.; Gulick, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Gateway to the Arctic, ranging from the high North Pacific through the Bering Sea and Bering Strait, remains among the poorest known components of the global climate system; its paleoclimate record is undersampled, misunderstood, and filled with controversy. We know relatively little about the history of Cordilleran ice beyond the last deglaciation; there are vigorous disagreements about the sign, let alone the magnitude, of sea-surface temperate changes and sea-ice cover. The causes of subsurface ocean change and linkages to surface climate are debated, and various models disagree on many aspects. This region is a sensitive part of the climate system, potentially poised near a threshold and with the power to influence North American and global heat and moisture transports through its influence on westerly winds and planetary waves. Little deep or intermediate water forms here today due to excess freshwater input relative to evaporation, but this may have changed in the past, with major consequences for oceanic heat transports, chemical budgets, and the global carbon cycle. Here we compare the records from the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea from the sea surface to the abyss. The Gulf of Alaska, recently drilled by IODP Expedition 341, is dominated by massive input of terrigenous sediments, freshwater flows off the continent that fuels a vigorous coastal current, and boundary downwelling adjacent to the iron-limited subpolar gyre. This region offers a high-resolution view of dynamic advances and retreats of the seaward outlets of Cordilleran Ice Sheet; isostatic responses of the shelf to ice loading reduces the local influence of global sealevel sealevel. In contrast, the Bering Sea, drilled in 2009 by IODP Expedition 323, is a relatively isolated basin, highly biogenic in character, and displays a response to global sealevel change relative to its mostly unglaciated shelf and intermittent subaerial exposure of Beringia, with more frequent intervals

  13. Arctic sea ice decline: Projected changes in timing and extent of sea ice in the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic region is warming faster than most regions of the world due in part to increasing greenhouse gases and positive feedbacks associated with the loss of snow and ice cover. One consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades?a decline that is projected to continue by state-of-the-art models. Many stakeholders are therefore interested in how global warming may change the timing and extent of sea ice Arctic-wide, and for specific regions. To inform the public and decision makers of anticipated environmental changes, scientists are striving to better understand how sea ice influences ecosystem structure, local weather, and global climate. Here, projected changes in the Bering and Chukchi Seas are examined because sea ice influences the presence of, or accessibility to, a variety of local resources of commercial and cultural value. In this study, 21st century sea ice conditions in the Bering and Chukchi Seas are based on projections by 18 general circulation models (GCMs) prepared for the fourth reporting period by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007. Sea ice projections are analyzed for each of two IPCC greenhouse gas forcing scenarios: the A1B `business as usual? scenario and the A2 scenario that is somewhat more aggressive in its CO2 emissions during the second half of the century. A large spread of uncertainty among projections by all 18 models was constrained by creating model subsets that excluded GCMs that poorly simulated the 1979-2008 satellite record of ice extent and seasonality. At the end of the 21st century (2090-2099), median sea ice projections among all combinations of model ensemble and forcing scenario were qualitatively similar. June is projected to experience the least amount of sea ice loss among all months. For the Chukchi Sea, projections show extensive ice melt during July and ice-free conditions during August, September, and October by the end of the century, with high agreement

  14. Divergent patterns of recent sea ice cover across the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas of the Pacific Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Karen E.; Moore, G. W. K.; Cooper, Lee W.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.

    2015-08-01

    Over the past three decades of the observed satellite record, there have been significant changes in sea ice cover across the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas of the Pacific Arctic Region (PAR). Satellite data reveal that patterns in sea ice cover have been spatially heterogeneous, with significant declines in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas, yet more complex multi-year variability in the Bering Sea south of St. Lawrence Island. These patterns in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas have intensified since 2000, indicating a regime shift in sea ice cover across the northern portion of the PAR. In particular, satellite data over 1979-2012 reveal localized decreases in sea ice presence of up to -1.64 days/year (Canada Basin) and -1.24 days/year (Beaufort Sea), which accelerated to up to -6.57 days/year (Canada Basin) and -12.84 days/year (Beaufort Sea) over the 2000-2012 time period. In contrast, sea ice in the Bering Sea shows more complex multi-year variability with localized increases in sea ice presence of up to +8.41 days/year since 2000. The observed increases in sea ice cover since 2000 in the southern Bering Sea shelf region are observed in wintertime, whereas sea ice losses in the Canada Basin and Beaufort Sea have occurred during summer. We further compare sea ice variability across the region with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) wind and air temperature fields to determine the extent to which this recent variability is driven by thermal vs. wind-driven processes. Results suggest that for these localized areas that are experiencing the most rapid shifts in sea ice cover, those in the Beaufort Sea are primarily wind driven, those offshore in the Canada Basin are primarily thermally driven, and those in the Bering Sea are influenced by elements of both. Sea ice variability (and its drivers) across the PAR provides critical insight into the forcing effects of recent shifts in climate and its likely

  15. Late Pleistocene- Holocene transgressive sedimentation in deltaic and non-deltaic areas of the northeastern Bering epicontinental shelf.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of late Pleistocene and Holocene surface sediments on the northern Bering Seafloor is patchy and dependent upon locations of seafloor bedrock and pre-late Pleistocene glacial debris, late Holocene river sediment influx, and modern strong bottom currents. Seafloor vibracores and high-resolution profiles record two different sedimentary environments in the northern Bering shelf: late Pleistocene-Holocene shoreline transgression in Chirikov Basin, and Holocene deposition from the Yukon River in Norton Sound.-from Author

  16. 75 FR 69597 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific cod in the Bering...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 679 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Statistical and Reporting Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... Islands Statistical and Reporting Areas ER15NO99.000 b. Coordinates Code Description 300 Russian waters... Islands and straight lines between the islands connecting the following coordinates in the order...

  18. Results of the fourth joint U.S.-Russian Bering and Chukchi Seas expedition (BERPAC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important to monitor the status of arctic oceans especially in terms of the impact human activities are making on these sensitive ecosystems. This is a compilation of research findings from a joint US/Russian expedition to the Bering and Chukchi seas that focuses on the significance of long-t...

  19. 50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. 600.1103 Section 600.1103 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Specific Fishery or Program...

  20. 50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. 600.1103 Section 600.1103 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Specific Fishery or Program...

  1. An inverse modeling study of circulation in the Eastern Bering Sea during 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panteleev, Gleb; Yaremchuk, Max; Francis, Oceana; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Weingartner, T.; Zhang, J.

    2016-06-01

    A two-way nested 4d-variational data assimilation system is implemented in the Eastern Bering Sea (EBS) to investigate changes in circulation and thermodynamic state for a 3.8 year period. Assimilated observations include data from 19 moorings deployed on the shelf and in the Bering Strait, 1705 hydrographic stations occupied during eight surveys, and remotely sensed sea surface temperature and sea surface height (SSH) data. Validation of the presented 4dVar reanalysis against the output of two sequential data-assimilative systems (the Bering Ecosystem Study ice-ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (BESTMAS) and the Arctic Cap Nowcast-Forecast System (ACNFS)) has shown that the product is more consistent with the observed transports in the Bering Strait and in the EBS interior both in terms of their magnitude and time variability. Analysis of the data-optimized solution quantifies a sequence of wind-forced events that resulted in the anomalous heat and freshwater transports through the Bering Strait, including a 28 day long flow reversal that occurred in November 2009 and carried Siberian Coastal Current water down to the Gulf of Anadyr. Lagrangian study of the Arctic-bound Pacific waters indicates the extreme importance of the cross-shelf exchange along the path of the Bering Slope Current and quantifies the spectrum of residence times for the waters entering EBS through Unimak Pass and through Aleutian passages. Residence times in the EBS cold pool are diagnosed to be 2-3 times longer than those in the surrounding waters.

  2. Summer distributions of forage fish in the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker-Stetter, Sandra L.; Horne, John K.; Farley, Edward V.; Barbee, David H.; Andrews, Alexander G.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Nomura, Jennifer M.

    2013-10-01

    Juvenile and small adult fish, typically called forage fish, are an important but poorly studied part of the eastern Bering Sea (EBS) ecosystem. Acoustic and trawl data from a non-target survey were used to evaluate distributions of capelin (Mallotus villosus), age-0 Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), and age-0 walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma, herein pollock) in 2006-2010. Within the surface zone (15 m to ~35 m, evaluated 2006-2010), capelin occurred throughout the EBS but primarily in the middle shelf. Capelin were also present in the midwater zone (~35 m to 0.5 m off-bottom) in both 2009 and 2010 (evaluated 2009-2010), and resulted in water column zone (15 m to 0.5 m off-bottom) distributions that differed from surface zone characterizations. Age-0 Pacific cod occurred primarily in the surface zone of the middle and outer shelf regions in all years. As midwater and surface zone age-0 Pacific cod were often coincident, water column zone distributions in 2009-2010 were similar to surface zone distributions. Age-0 pollock were found in the EBS surface zone in all years, primarily in the middle and outer shelf regions. High densities of age-0 pollock occurred in the midwater zone in 2006-2007 and 2009-2010. Water column zone distributions of age-0 pollock were similar to surface zone distributions in 2006-2007, but differed in 2009-2010 due to low numbers of age-0 pollock in the surface zone and presence of high densities in the midwater zone of the outer shelf region. While general patterns in capelin distribution in the surface zone were similar between the present and the previous studies, the acoustic-trawl characterization suggested that capelin densities were high in the middle shelf region. As expected, surface zone distributions of age-0 Pacific cod and age-0 pollock were similar to previous characterizations. Observed high densities of midwater age-0 pollock have not been described by previous studies. Annual abundance indices based on bottom or

  3. Organochlorine and butyltin residues in walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) from Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and Japan Sea.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Ana P X; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine (OC) and toxic butyltin compounds (BTs) were determined in walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) collected from Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea and Japan Sea, during 1991 and 1992. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) and its metabolites were the most abundant compounds ranging up to 3200 and 2500 ng/g on lipid weight, respectively, followed by chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the liver of walleye pollock. Concentrations of HCHs and HCB in walleye pollock from these remote areas were higher than those in fishes from the western North Pacific and Japanese coastal waters, indicating atmospheric transport of these compounds to higher latitude regions such as Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska and/or local input around northern Japan Sea. The concentrations of other OCs were generally comparable to those in fishes from North Pacific Ocean and Japanese waters but significantly lower than in cod-like fishes from North Atlantic and European countries. Among sampling locations, walleye pollock from Japan Sea showed higher concentrations of DDTs and HCHs compared to fishes from Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska, suggesting greater input of these compounds around Japan Sea. Slower declining trend of DDTs and CHLs and an increasing pattern of PCBs concentrations were found in walleye pollock from Bering Sea during 1982-1992. This may imply a continuous input of these compounds by long-range transport and/or long-term persistency in these cold regions. Compared to the fishes from Japan Sea, walleye pollock from Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska showed higher proportions of alpha-HCH and p,p'-DDE in the composition of HCH isomers and DDT compounds, respectively. This suggests selective transportability of these compounds during long-range transport to higher latitude remote areas. Concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) in the muscle of walleye pollock ranged from 1.1 to

  4. Lithologic expressions of glacial/interglacial and millennial-scale variability in the Pacific sub-Arctic record during the Pleistocene (Bering Sea, IODP Exp. 323)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, M.; Aiello, I. W.

    2012-12-01

    Diatom-rich, Pleistocene sediments collected in the Bering Sea during IODP Exp. 323 in the Bering Slope (Sites U1339 and U1344) and at the Bowers Ridge (Site U1340) show prominent variability of physical properties (e.g. bulk density), lithology and in the preservation of diatom valves. Using the shipboard physical property data in combination with newly generated smear slide counts and laser particle size (LPS) analyses we were able to quantify the sedimentary components for statistical analysis. Our data confirm that bulk density is negatively correlated with mean grain size (~30%) and abundance of diatoms (~40%) while it positively correlates with clay size particles (~20%) and silt-size siliciclastic particles (~20%). However, clay size particles and silt-size siliciclastic show no significant correlation, suggesting independent sources. We also found that diatom valve integrity is correlated with the abundance of diatoms (~40%) suggesting that diatom preservation increases with increasing opal fluxes. Finally, we found a surprisingly low correlation (only ~30%) between abundance of clay minerals (from smear slide counts) and percent clay-sized particles (LPS); SEM analysis supports the interpretation that a significant portion of clay-sized particles could derive from the dissolution/fragmentation of diatom biosilica. In conclusion, more than 40% of lithologic variability in the Bering Sea sediments reflects changes in the abundance of diatoms and siliciclastic particles: glacial/stadial (interglacial/interstadial) conditions were characterized by lower (higher) primary productivity, higher (lower) terrigenous input, and diatom valve dissolution and formation of clay-size biosilica particles (higher diatom valve preservation). Our approach offers new insights on the links between changes in sedimentation and oceanography at different scales of climate variability in the Bering Sea and potentially in other similar high latitude basins.

  5. Bering Sea radiolarian biostratigraphy and paleoceanography at IODP Site U1341 during the last four million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikenoue, Takahito; Okazaki, Yusuke; Takahashi, Kozo; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Radiolarian assemblages in sediment cores were investigated at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1341 on Bowers Ridge in the southern Bering Sea. Radiolarian biozones at Site U1341 spanned the last 4 My from the youngest Amphimelissa setosa Zone (late Quaternary), via the Stylatractus universes Zone, the Eucyrtidium matuyamai Zone and a part of the Cycladophora sakaii Zone (middle to late Pliocene). The A. setosa Zone, newly proposed in this paper, is well correlated with the Botryostrobus aquilonaris Zone in the North Pacific Ocean. The bottom of the S. universus and top of the E. matuyamai Zones are emended in this paper by using the first common occurrence of A. setosa. Seventeen radiolarian datum points were identified at Site U1341 and tied to the geomagnetic and oxygen isotope stratigraphy. Radiolarian assemblages during the last 4 My showed a turnover from subarctic-transitional species (Spongopyle osculosa and Larcopyle buetschlii) to subarctic species (Ceratospyris borealis) between 3.6 and 2.4 Ma, corresponding to the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). Recent polar species (A. setosa and Actinomma boreale) appeared abundantly after the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT, 1.2-0.8 Ma). Repeated numbers of individual peaks of the abundances of Cycladophora davisiana, dwelling in cold and well-ventilated intermediate water, suggest intermediate to deep water formation in the Bering Sea during the last 1 My.

  6. First data on the Cenozoic section of the Bering Sea Chukchi Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulis, L. S.; Agapitov, D. D.; Margulis, E. A.; Pylina, L. M.; Gladenkov, A. Yu.; Zhidkova, L. S.; Dmitrieva, T. V.; Fedorova, V. A.; Fregatova, N. A.

    2011-04-01

    The first deep hole (Tsentral'naya-1) drilled on the Russian shelf of the Bering Sea in 2002 recovered the Cenozoic sedimentary section up to depths of 2785 m1 This paper discusses results from the log, core, and slime study. The section is composed of Paleocene-Quaternary sediments. It comprises nine sequences (from the top downward): upper Miocene-Pliocene sandy-silty; middle-upper Miocene tuffaceous-diatomite, silty-sandy, shale-siltstone, and coquina-sandstone-siltstone; Eocene-lower Miocene coaliferous and sandstone-shale; Paleocene-lower Eocene volcano-sedimentary. These sequences are correlated with onshore stratigraphic units. The section includes three large unconformities: at the base of the Pliocene (depth of 380 m, base of the Aleksandrovka stratigraphic horizon), at the base of the middle Miocene (depth of 1390 m, base of the Avtakul Horizon), and, presumably, at the base of middle Eocene (depth of 1390 m, base of the Tanyurer Horizon). The last unconformity is accompanied by a kaolinite weathering crust. The section drilled into by Tsentral'naya-1 Hole shows common features for the Cenozoic sedimentary cover through the entire Anadyr basin, despite its significant facies variability.

  7. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... fishery in the Eastern Aleutian District and the Bering Sea subarea on September 1, 2010 (75 FR 53606... remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel,...

  8. Ecosystem dynamics of the Pacific-influenced Northern Bering and Chukchi Seas in the Amerasian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Cooper, Lee W.; Feder, Howard M.; Sirenko, Boris I.

    2006-10-01

    The shallow continental shelves and slope of the Amerasian Arctic are strongly influenced by nutrient-rich Pacific waters advected over the shelves from the northern Bering Sea into the Arctic Ocean. These high-latitude shelf systems are highly productive both as the ice melts and during the open-water period. The duration and extent of seasonal sea ice, seawater temperature and water mass structure are critical controls on water column production, organic carbon cycling and pelagic-benthic coupling. Short food chains and shallow depths are characteristic of high productivity areas in this region, so changes in lower trophic levels can impact higher trophic organisms rapidly, including pelagic- and benthic-feeding marine mammals and seabirds. Subsistence harvesting of many of these animals is locally important for human consumption. The vulnerability of the ecosystem to environmental change is thought to be high, particularly as sea ice extent declines and seawater warms. In this review, we focus on ecosystem dynamics in the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas, with a more limited discussion of the adjoining Pacific-influenced eastern section of the East Siberian Sea and the western section of the Beaufort Sea. Both primary and secondary production are enhanced in specific regions that we discuss here, with the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas sustaining some of the highest water column production and benthic faunal soft-bottom biomass in the world ocean. In addition, these organic carbon-rich Pacific waters are periodically advected into low productivity regions of the nearshore northern Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas off Alaska and sometimes into the East Siberian Sea, all of which have lower productivity on an annual basis. Thus, these near shore areas are intimately tied to nutrients and advected particulate organic carbon from the Pacific influenced Bering Shelf-Anadyr water. Given the short food chains and dependence of many apex predators on sea ice, recent

  9. Linkage of annual laminae formation in the Bering Sea and the Bølling-Allerød and Preboreal warm periods in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk, J.; Max, L.; Tiedemann, R.; Schulz, M.; Merkel, U.

    2011-12-01

    The cause of the wide-spread occurrence of laminated sediments in the North Pacific and its linkage to oceanographic and climatic changes in the North Atlantic are still elusive due to the limited number of sediment records and the poor preservation of carbonate-bearing sediments in the North Pacific. New results from both climate modelling and proxy data of the partly laminated sediment core SO201-2-114-KL from the western Bering Sea (1394 m WD) provide new insights into the origin of laminations in the Bering Sea and possible Atlantic-Pacific teleconnections during the last deglacial. Alkenone-based, reconstructed sea surface temperatures in conjunction with ultra high-resolution XRF scanning (step size of 100 μm) of the laminae reveal that their formation is linked to a warming in both, the North Atlantic and North Pacific. Spectral analyses support the interpretation that laminations represent varves which are formed by the seasonally alternating sediment input of ice-rafted detritus and biogenic material from ice margin-related blooming events. The δ13C variability of epibenthic foraminifera at the northwest Kamtchatka margin reveals reduced ventilation of the North Pacific Intermediate Water facilitating the laminae formation. This suggests an inverse pattern of overturning in the North Pacific and North Atlantic, in accordance with the suggested North Atlantic - North Pacific seesaw.

  10. Pacific Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) Resource Selection in the Northern Bering Sea

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; McDonald, Trent L.; Cooper, Lee W.; Hornsby, Fawn

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific walrus is a large benthivore with an annual range extending across the continental shelves of the Bering and Chukchi Seas. We used a discrete choice model to estimate site selection by adult radio-tagged walruses relative to the availability of the caloric biomass of benthic infauna and sea ice concentration in a prominent walrus wintering area in the northern Bering Sea (St. Lawrence Island polynya) in 2006, 2008, and 2009. At least 60% of the total caloric biomass of dominant macroinfauna in the study area was composed of members of the bivalve families Nuculidae, Tellinidae, and Nuculanidae. Model estimates indicated walrus site selection was related most strongly to tellinid bivalve caloric biomass distribution and that walruses selected lower ice concentrations from the mostly high ice concentrations that were available to them (quartiles: 76%, 93%, and 99%). Areas with high average predicted walrus site selection generally coincided with areas of high organic carbon input identified in other studies. Projected decreases in sea ice in the St. Lawrence Island polynya and the potential for a concomitant decline of bivalves in the region could result in a northward shift in the wintering grounds of walruses in the northern Bering Sea. PMID:24717979

  11. Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) resource selection in the Northern Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Jay, Chadwick V; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M; Fischbach, Anthony S; McDonald, Trent L; Cooper, Lee W; Hornsby, Fawn

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific walrus is a large benthivore with an annual range extending across the continental shelves of the Bering and Chukchi Seas. We used a discrete choice model to estimate site selection by adult radio-tagged walruses relative to the availability of the caloric biomass of benthic infauna and sea ice concentration in a prominent walrus wintering area in the northern Bering Sea (St. Lawrence Island polynya) in 2006, 2008, and 2009. At least 60% of the total caloric biomass of dominant macroinfauna in the study area was composed of members of the bivalve families Nuculidae, Tellinidae, and Nuculanidae. Model estimates indicated walrus site selection was related most strongly to tellinid bivalve caloric biomass distribution and that walruses selected lower ice concentrations from the mostly high ice concentrations that were available to them (quartiles: 76%, 93%, and 99%). Areas with high average predicted walrus site selection generally coincided with areas of high organic carbon input identified in other studies. Projected decreases in sea ice in the St. Lawrence Island polynya and the potential for a concomitant decline of bivalves in the region could result in a northward shift in the wintering grounds of walruses in the northern Bering Sea. PMID:24717979

  12. Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) resource selection in the northern Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; McDonald, Trent L.; Cooper, Lee W.; Hornsby, Fawn

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific walrus is a large benthivore with an annual range extending across the continental shelves of the Bering and Chukchi Seas. We used a discrete choice model to estimate site selection by adult radio-tagged walruses relative to the availability of the caloric biomass of benthic infauna and sea ice concentration in a prominent walrus wintering area in the northern Bering Sea (St. Lawrence Island polynya) in 2006, 2008, and 2009. At least 60% of the total caloric biomass of dominant macroinfauna in the study area was composed of members of the bivalve families Nuculidae, Tellinidae, and Nuculanidae. Model estimates indicated walrus site selection was related most strongly to tellinid bivalve caloric biomass distribution and that walruses selected lower ice concentrations from the mostly high ice concentrations that were available to them (quartiles: 76%, 93%, and 99%). Areas with high average predicted walrus site selection generally coincided with areas of high organic carbon input identified in other studies. Projected decreases in sea ice in the St. Lawrence Island polynya and the potential for a concomitant decline of bivalves in the region could result in a northward shift in the wintering grounds of walruses in the northern Bering Sea.

  13. 20th-century glacial-marine sedimentation in Vitus Lake, Bering Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, B.F.; Post, A.; Carlson, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    Vitus Lake, the ice-marginal basin at the southeastern edge of Bering Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A., is a site of modern, rapid, glacial-marine sedimentation. Rather than being a fresh-water lake, Vitus Lake is a tidally influenced, marine to brackish embayment connected to the Pacific Ocean by an inlet, the Seal River. Vitus Lake consists of five deep bedrock basins, separated by interbasinal highs. Glacial erosion has cut these basins as much as 250 m below sea level. High-resolution seismic reflection surveys conducted in 1991 and 1993 of four of Vitus Lake's basins reveal a complex, variable three-component acoustic stratigraphy. Although not fully sampled, the stratigraphy is inferred to be primarily glacial-marine units of (1) basal contorted and deformed glacial-marine and glacial sediments deposited by basal ice-contact processes and submarine mass-wasting; (2) acoustically well-stratified glacial-marine sediment, which unconformably overlies the basal unit and which grades upward into (3) acoustically transparent or nearly transparent glacial-marine sediment. Maximum thicknesses of conformable glacial-marine sediment exceed 100 m. All of the acoustically transparent and stratified deposits in Vitus Lake are modern in age, having accumulated between 1967 and 1993. The basins where these three-part sequences of "present-day" glacial-marine sediment are accumulating are themselves cut into older sequences of stratified glacial and glacial-marine deposits. These older units outcrop on the islands in Vitus Lake. In 1967, as the result of a major surge, glacier ice completely filled all five basins. Subsequent terminus retreat, which continued through August 1993, exposed these basins, providing new locations for glacial-marine sediment accumulation. A correlation of sediment thicknesses measured from seismic profiles at specific locations within the basins, with the year that each location became ice-free, shows that the sediment accumulation at some locations

  14. Plio-Pleistocene biostratigraphy and surface water masses in the Bering Sea: planktonic foraminiferal evidence from IODP Site U1340 and Site U1343

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husum, Katrine

    2015-04-01

    The Pliocene - Pleistocene evolution of surface water masses in the Bering Sea is not well understood, and the aim of this study is to establish a Plio-Pleistocene planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy for the Bering Sea and investigate changes of the surface water circulation. The Bering Sea is a marginal sea of the North Pacific connected to the Arctic Ocean through the Bering Strait providing the only connection and exchange of waters between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans in the Northern Hemisphere. IODP Site U1340 and Site U1343 in the Bering Sea have been investigated with regard to planktonic foraminifers and fragmentation. The base of Site U1340 dates back to the Early Pliocene and the base of Site U1343 to the Early Pleistocene. Site U1340 is situated at Bowers Ridge, southern Bering Sea, under the axis of the Alaskan Stream transporting warm water into the Bering Sea. Site U1343, is situated near to the gateway to the Arctic Ocean in the northern Bering Sea. At both sites there are none or very few planktonic foraminifers during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene. After 1.3-1.4 Ma the planktonic foraminifers are continuously present for most of the samples examined. Three stratigraphic events have been identified in this study: 1) the first occurrence (FO) of Neogloboquadrina inglei is observed at 1.4 - 1.5 Ma, 2) the change in the coiling ratio of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma from right to left at 1.2 Ma, and 3) the last occurrence (LO) of N. inglei at 0.7 Ma. The oldest event may be affected by poor preservation of foraminifers in older sediments. However, the ages of the latter two events seem to agree with the dating of the same events at the Californian margin observed by Kucera and Kennett (2000) implying that these events are robust regional events for the entire northern Pacific. Multivariate analyses of the quantitative planktonic foraminifer data show three main faunal assemblages. The oldest assemblage from 1.3 - 1.4 Ma to 1.2 Ma is

  15. The application of ERTS imagery to monitoring Arctic sea ice. [mapping ice in Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bowley, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS-1 imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft. The results of the investigation demonstrate that ERTS-1 imagery has substantial practical application for monitoring arctic sea ice. Ice features as small as 80-100 m in width can be detected, and the combined use of the visible and near-IR imagery is a powerful tool for identifying ice types. Sequential ERTS-1 observations at high latitudes enable ice deformations and movements to be mapped. Ice conditions in the Bering Sea during early March depicted in ERTS-1 images are in close agreement with aerial ice observations and photographs.

  16. Microzooplankton grazing impact in the Bering Sea during spring sea ice conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherr, Evelyn B.; Sherr, Barry F.; Ross, Celia

    2013-10-01

    Microzooplankton grazing impact on phytoplankton in the Bering Sea during spring was assessed in 2008, 2009 and 2010 using two-point dilution assays. Forty-nine experiments were completed in a region encompassing shelf to slope waters, including the 70 m line along the edge of the shelf. A variety of conditions were encountered, with a concomitant range of trophic states, from pre-bloom low chlorophyll-a (Chl-a)<3 μg l-1 during heavy ice cover to late spring open water diatom blooms with Chl-a up to 40 μg l-1. Microzooplankton biomass was dominated by large heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates. Both athecate and thecate dinoflagellates, as well as some species of ciliates, fed on diatom cells and chains. Other types of protists, notably thecate amoebae and parasitoid flagellates, were also observed preying on diatoms. Total microzooplankton biomass ranged from 0.1 to 109 μg C l-1 and was positively related to Chl-a concentration. Significant rates of microzooplankton herbivory were found in 55% of dilution experiments. Maximum grazing rate was 0.49 d-1, and average grazing rate, including experiments with no significant grazing, was 0.09±0.10 d-1. Phytoplankton intrinsic growth rates varied from slightly negative growth to >0.4 d-1. Microzooplankton grazing was significant in both non-bloom and bloom conditions, averaging 46±75% of phytoplankton daily growth. Based on the amount of phytoplankton carbon consumed, we estimated potential microzooplankton community growth rates of up to 1.3 d-1. Our results confirm the importance of protist grazers in planktonic food webs of high latitude ecosystems. We also conclude that our finding of significant grazing by microzooplankton on spring blooms in the Bering Sea does not support theories about phytoplankton bloom formation based on escape from grazing, due either to predation resistance or to slow growth of herbivorous protists at cold temperature.

  17. A shape and compositional analysis of ice-rafted debris in cores from IODP Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadd, Kelsie; Foley, Kristen

    2016-03-01

    Sediment cores recovered during IODP Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea, northern Pacific, contained numerous ice-rafted debris (IRD) clasts up to 85 mm in length. The physical properties (including roundness and sphericity) of 136 clasts from the working half of the cores, a subsample of the total clast number, were analysed and their composition determined using standard petrographic techniques. After removal of pumice and possible fall-in derived material from the clast population, a total of 86 clasts from the original collection were considered to be IRD. While roundness and sphericity vary greatly in the clast population, the IRD are predominately discoid in shape with oblate/prolate indices typically between -5 and 5. There are four time periods over the approximately 4.5 Ma sample interval, 0.36-0.67 Ma, 0.82-1.06 Ma 1.54-1.77 Ma and >3.28 Ma, where there are no IRD in the sample set for sites of the Bering slope, suggesting that these times may have been ice-free. Most clasts show some rounding and are likely to have spent time on beaches with wave action. Wave action on beaches suggests periods of no ice or only seasonal sea-ice. The low roundness values of other clasts, however, suggest they underwent little working and, therefore, the presence of glaciers or more permanent sea-ice at times in those locations. The abundance of rounded and unfaceted clasts as IRD suggests a lack of large ice sheets in the area during cool periods. Clast composition of the IRD is divided into four broad groups, basalt and andesite, granite and metamorphic, sedimentary, and felsic volcanic. The granite and metamorphic and more mature sedimentary lithologies are most likely derived from the Alaskan continental margin, while the extrusive igneous clasts could be derived from a variety of volcanic sources surrounding the Bering Sea, both emergent now or emergent at times of lower sea level. There is only a poor correlation with IRD abundance and marine isotope stages (MIS) for

  18. Quantifying the Relationship between Sea Ice Concentration, Insolation, and the Molecular Fossil IP25: an Example from the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caissie, B.; Sharko, C. J.; Kocis, J. J.; Petsch, S.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Masse, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a remarkable decrease in Arctic sea ice extent and duration. However, it is unknown if similarly rapid decreases in sea ice occurred in the past during orbitally-driven warmings. To address this question, the molecular fossil IP25 is used as an indicator of the presence of sea ice. IP25 is a monounsaturated, highly branched isoprenoid selectively biosynthesized by diatoms associated with seasonal sea ice. However, correlation of IP25 concentrations with environmental conditions is not well constrained. Core-top calibrations are needed to quantify reconstructions of IP25-based sea ice concentrations in down-core studies. Here we report IP25 measured in a suite of surface sediment samples (n=59) in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. We use principal component and regression analysis to correlate IP25 with other geochemical data and spring (MAMJ) environmental variables. We then present a proxy for spring sea ice concentration that is based on IP25 concentration, insolation, and sea ice concentration. Diatoms dominate primary productivity in the Bering and Chukchi seas. Satellite-derived spring sea ice concentration in the study area ranges from 0% to 100% ice coverage. We measured IP25, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and grain-size (GS) in each surface sample. IP25 is present in all surface samples. Notably, TOC-normalized IP25 values are higher in the Chukchi Sea (460-2000 μg/gTOC) than the Bering Sea (40-680 μg/gTOC). These values are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than in the North Atlantic, also a seasonally ice covered region. We calculated a metric we call "insolation on ice" which is the product of isolation and sea-ice concentration. Because the ice-related bloom is light limited, in the spring, blooms occur only once the light becomes intense enough to sustain photosynthesis under the ice. Furthermore, insolation displays considerable variation on Milankovitch time scales. Insolation on ice is a way to quantify

  19. The Bering Sea Project Archive: a Prototype for Improved Discovery and Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, D.; Mayernik, M. S.; Daniels, M. D.; Moore, J. A.; Williams, S. F.; Allison, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Bering Sea Project was a research program from 2007 through 2012 that sought to understand the impacts of climate change and dynamic sea ice cover on the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem. More than 100 scientists engaged in field data collection, original research, and ecosystem modeling to link climate, physical oceanography, plankton, fishes, seabirds, marine mammals, humans, traditional knowledge and economic outcomes. Over the six-year period of the program hundreds of multidisciplinary datasets coming from a variety of instrumentation and measurement platforms within thirty-one categories of research were processed and curated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL). For the investigator proposing a field project, the researcher performing synthesis, or the modeler seeking data for verification, the easy discovery and access to the most relevant data is of prime importance. The heterogeneous products of oceanographic field programs such as the Bering Sea Project challenge the ability of researchers to identify which data sets, people, or tools might be relevant to their research, and to understand how certain data, instruments, or methods were used to produce particular results.EOL, as a partner in the NSF funded EarthCollab project, is using linked open data to permit the direct interlinking of information and data across platforms and projects. We are leveraging an existing open-source semantic web application, VIVO, to address connectivity gaps across distributed networks of researchers and resources and identify relevant content, independent of location. We will present our approach in connecting ontologies and integrating them within the VIVO system, using the Bering Sea Project datasets as a case study, and will provide insight into how the geosciences can leverage linked data to produce more coherent methods of information and data discovery across large multi-disciplinary projects.

  20. Climate-mediated changes in zooplankton community structure for the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Andrews, Alexander G.

    2014-11-01

    Zooplankton are critical to energy transfer between higher and lower trophic levels in the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem. Previous studies from the southeastern Bering Sea shelf documented substantial differences in zooplankton taxa in the Middle and Inner Shelf Domains between warm and cold years. Our investigation expands this analysis into the northern Bering Sea and the south Outer Domain, looking at zooplankton community structure during a period of climate-mediated, large-scale change. Elevated air temperatures in the early 2000s resulted in regional warming and low sea-ice extent in the southern shelf whereas the late 2000s were characterized by cold winters, extensive spring sea ice, and a well-developed pool of cold water over the entire Middle Domain. The abundance of large zooplankton taxa such as Calanus spp. (C. marshallae and C. glacialis), and Parasagitta elegans, increased from warm to cold periods, while the abundance of gelatinous zooplankton (Cnidaria) and small taxa decreased. Biomass followed the same trends as abundance, except that the biomass of small taxa in the southeastern Bering Sea remained constant due to changes in abundance of small copepod taxa (increases in Acartia spp. and Pseudocalanus spp. and decreases in Oithona spp.). Statistically significant changes in zooplankton community structure and individual species were greatest in the Middle Domain, but were evident in all shelf domains, and in both the northern and southern portions of the eastern shelf. Changes in community structure did not occur abruptly during the transition from warm to cold, but seemed to begin gradually and build as the influence of the sea ice and cold water temperatures persisted. The change occurred one year earlier in the northern than the southern Middle Shelf. These and previous observations demonstrate that lower trophic levels within the eastern Bering Sea respond to climate-mediated changes on a variety of time scales, including those shorter than

  1. Atmospheric organochlorine pollutants and air-sea exchange of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, D.A.; Bidleman, T.F.; Rice, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been found in Arctic fish, marine mammals, birds, and plankton for some time. The lack of local sources and remoteness of the region imply long-range transport and deposition of contaminants into the Arctic from sources to the south. While on the third Soviet-American Joint Ecological Expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas (August 1988), high-volume air samples were taken and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated camphenes, and chlordane (listed in order of abundance, highest to lowest) were quantified. The air-sea gas exchange of HCH was estimated at 18 stations during the cruise. Average alpha-HCH concentrations in concurrent atmosphere and surface water samples were 250 pg m-3 and 2.4 ng L-1, respectively, and average gamma-HCH concentrations were 68 pg m-3 in the atmosphere and 0.6 ng L-1 in surface water. Calculations based on experimentally derived Henry's law constants showed that the surface water was undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere at most stations (alpha-HCH, average 79% saturation; gamma-HCH, average 28% saturation). The flux for alpha-HCH ranged from -47 ng m-2 day-1 (sea to air) to 122 ng m-2 d-1 (air to sea) and averaged 25 ng m-2 d-1 air to sea. All fluxes of gamma-HCH were from air to sea, ranged from 17 to 54 ng m-2 d-1, and averaged 31 ng m-2 d-1.

  2. Atmospheric organochlorine pollutants and air-sea exchange of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Bering and Chukchi seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinckley, Daniel A.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Rice, Clifford P.

    1991-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been found in Arctic fish, marine mammals, birds, and plankton for some time. The lack of local sources and remoteness of the region imply long-range transport and deposition of contaminants into the Arctic from sources to the south. While on the third Soviet-American Joint Ecological Expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas (August 1988), high-volume air samples were taken and analyzed for Organochlorine pesticides. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated camphenes, and chlordane (listed in order of abundance, highest to lowest) were quantified. The air-sea gas exchange of HCH was estimated at 18 stations during the cruise. Average α-HCH concentrations in concurrent atmosphere and surface water samples were 250 pg m-3 and 2.4 ng L-1, respectively, and average γ-HCH concentrations were 68 pg m-3 in the atmosphere and 0.6 ng L-1 in surface water. Calculations based on experimentally derived Henry's law constants showed that the surface water was undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere at most stations (α-HCH, average 79% saturation; γ-HCH, average 28% saturation). The flux for α-HCH ranged from -47 ng m-2 day-1 (sea to air) to 122 ng m-2 d-1 (air to sea) and averaged 25 ng m-2 d-1 air to sea. All fluxes of γ-HCH were from air to sea, ranged from 17 to 54 ng m-2 d-1, and averaged 31 ng m-2 d-1.

  3. Foods of Spectacled Eiders Somateria fischeri in the Bering Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.R.; Piatt, J.F.; Trust, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    The winter diet of Spectacled Eiders living in marine habitats is known only from two individuals described by Cottam (1939). Here we examine marine diets from 36 stomachs collected near St. Lawrence Island, Bering Sea, Alaska, during May-June in 1987 and 1992. All Spectacled Eiders ate Mollusca, including Gastropoda (snails; frequency of occurrence 20.0%; sole taxon 0.0%) and Bivalvia (bivalves; 80.0%; 48.0%), and Crustacea (barnacles, amphipods and crabs; 30.6%; 0.0%). One bird ate a cod. The predominant species group eaten was Macoma Clams (72.0%; 36.0%). Prey species of Spectacled Eiders occur predominantly in waters 25-60 m deep in the Bering Sea. To obtain these prey, especially the bivalves, on the winter area Spectacled Eiders must forage in waters exceeding 40 m. We speculate that Spectacled Eiders regularly forage at depths of 45-70 m throughout winter.

  4. Simulation of phytoplankton distribution and variation in the Bering-Chukchi Sea using a 3-D physical-biological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haoguo; Wang, Jia; Liu, Hui; Goes, Joaquim

    2016-06-01

    A three-dimensional physical-biological model has been used to simulate seasonal phytoplankton variations in the Bering and Chukchi Seas with a focus on understanding the physical and biogeochemical mechanisms involved in the formation of the Bering Sea Green Belt (GB) and the Subsurface Chlorophyll Maxima (SCM). Model results suggest that the horizontal distribution of the GB is controlled by a combination of light, temperature, and nutrients. Model results indicated that the SCM, frequently seen below the thermocline, exists because of a rich supply of nutrients and sufficient light. The seasonal onset of phytoplankton blooms is controlled by different factors at different locations in the Bering-Chukchi Sea. In the off-shelf central region of the Bering Sea, phytoplankton blooms are regulated by available light. On the Bering Sea shelf, sea ice through its influence on light and temperature plays a key role in the formation of blooms, whereas in the Chukchi Sea, bloom formation is largely controlled by ambient seawater temperatures. A numerical experiment conducted as part of this study revealed that plankton sinking is important for simulating the vertical distribution of phytoplankton and the seasonal formation of the SCM. An additional numerical experiment revealed that sea ice algae account for 14.3-36.9% of total phytoplankton production during the melting season, and it cannot be ignored when evaluating primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Geological and operational summary, North Aleutian Shelf Coast No. 1 well, Bering Sea, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.F.

    1988-11-01

    Discusses the first continental offshore stratigraphic test well drilled in the North Aleutian Basin Planning Area, Bering Sea, Alaska. The well was drilled to determine the hydrocarbon potential of the area. The report covers drilling operations; lithology and core data; velocity analysis; geologic setting and tectonic framework; seismic stratigraphy; well-log interpretation and lithostratigraphy; paleontology and biostratigraphy; geothermal gradient; organic geochemistry; abnormal formation pressure; geologic hazards and shallow geology; and environmental considerations.

  6. Possible deep-water gas hydrate accumulations in the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, Ginger A.; Scholl, David W.; Childs, Jonathan R.

    2006-01-01

    Seismic reflection images from the deep-water Aleutian and Bowers Basins of the Bering Sea contain many hundreds of acoustic Velocity-AMPlitude (VAMP) anomalies, each of which may represent a large accumulation of natural gas hydrate. Against a backdrop of essentially horizontal sedimentary reflections, the VAMP anomalies stand out as both high-amplitude bright spots and zones of vertically aligned horizon distortions. The VAMPs are interpreted as natural gas chimneys overlain by concentrated hydrate caps.

  7. Identification of multiple nursery habitats of skates in the eastern Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Hoff, G R

    2016-05-01

    The use of more than a single nursery habitat type is examined for oviparous elasmobranchs using data summarized from studies conducted on the Alaska skate Bathyraja parmifera and the Aleutian skate Bathyraja aleutica in the eastern Bering Sea. The eastern Bering Sea skate species use two discrete areas as nurseries, one for egg deposition and a second for newly emergent juveniles. Egg deposition sites were located along the outer shelf and upper slope near canyons in the eastern Bering Sea. Newly emergent juveniles were found along the outer and middle shelf for B. parmifera and deep-slope for B. aleutica, suggesting that habitat used by newly emergent juvenile skates is distinct from habitat used for egg deposition and embryo development. In reviewing many studies on oviparous elasmobranchs, similar patterns emerge of habitat use during their early life history. To distinguish these distinct habitats, appropriate terminology is proposed. Egg case nursery is suggested for areas of egg deposition and juvenile nursery is suggested for areas where juveniles aggregate after emergence. Criteria to describe each habitat type are outlined. PMID:27062636

  8. Spawning phenology and geography of Aleutian Islands and eastern Bering Sea Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidetcher, Sandra K.; Hurst, Thomas P.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Logerwell, Elizabeth A.

    2014-11-01

    Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) is an economically and ecologically important species in the southeastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, yet little is known about the spawning dynamics of Pacific cod in these regions. To address this knowledge gap, we applied a gross anatomical maturity key for Pacific cod to describe temporal and spatial patterns of reproductive status over three winter spawning seasons: 2005, 2006, and 2007. Maturity status of female Pacific cod was assessed by fishery observers during sampling of commercial catches and used to construct maps showing spawning activity in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. Most spawning activity was observed on the Bering Sea shelf and Aleutian Island plateaus between 100 and 200 m depth. Data for those days when a high percentage of spawning stage fish were observed were used to identify areas with concentrations of spawning fish. Spawning concentrations were identified north of Unimak Island, in the vicinity of the Pribilof Islands, at the shelf break near Zhemchug Canyon, and adjacent to islands in the central and western Aleutian Islands along the continental shelf. The spawning season was found to begin in the last days of February or early March and extend through early to mid-April. Variation in spawning time (averaging ~10 days between years) may have been associated with a change from warm (2005) to cold (2007) climate conditions during the study period. Our information on Pacific cod spawning patterns will help inform fishery management decisions, models of spawning and larval dispersal and the spatial structure of the stock.

  9. Conservation engineering outreach: Curriculum development and evaluation of Smart Fishing in the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Christine Honan

    The purpose of this project to was to 1) develop, 2) instruct, 3) evaluate, and 4) revise a 5th-12th grade fisheries conservation engineering outreach program entitled Smart Fishing and the Bering Sea (SFBS). Fishery resources are important to Alaska and Alaskans, but present complex conservation challenges including user conflicts and concerns about unsustainable fishing practices. Increasing Alaska residents' environmental literacy will enhance natural resource management decisions regarding fisheries. The intent of the SFBS program is to introduce students to ecological and economical factors that drive conservation engineering in the Bering Sea pollock fishery. I instructed the SFBS program to 93 students from four different public and private institutions in Anchorage, Alaska. My observations and participants' pre- and post-program concept maps were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the SFBS curriculum. Participants gained content knowledge from this fishery outreach program about the Bering Sea and commercial fishing. Program evaluation analysis and results were used to revise the curriculum and make suggestions to SFBS stakeholders.

  10. Wandering terranes in southern Alaska: The Aleutia Microplate and implications for the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlow, Michael S.; Cooper, Alan K.

    1983-04-01

    Paleomagnetic and geological data suggest that much of southern Alaska is a collage of tectonostratigraphic terranes which originated in Mesozoic time at paleolatitudes far south of their present position. The time of `docking' of the terranes against cratonic Alaska is critical to defining their amalgamated size and extent during their northward motion as well as their role in the evolution of the Bering Sea. One of the largest of the tectonostratigraphic terranes, the Peninsular terrane of south central and southwestern Alaska, extends offshore along the outer Bering Sea continental margin (Beringia). Paleomagnetic data suggest that this terrane has moved northward through all of Cenozoic time, but geologic data imply that the terrane had accreted to Alaska by the end of the Mesozoic. In early Cenozoic time the eastern part of the Aleutian arc appears to have been superimposed on the Peninsular terrane, and postulated northward Cenozoic motion of the terrane would therefore have required northward motion of the arc. Two accretion models, based on docking times for terranes in Alaska, are proposed, and they illustrate that large areas of the abyssal Bering Sea, the Alaska Peninsula, the Aleutian arc, and the Beringian continental margin may be part of a superterrane or microplate called Aleutia (microplate as defined by Beck et al. (1980), i.e., a microplate is a displaced segment of lithosphere that has crustal roots, whereas a superterrane is an amalgamation of terranes which may or may not be rootless). Model A implies that the Aleutian arc developed in situ on the southern edge of Aleutia after the microplate had docked. In model B, the final docking time of the Peninsular terrane is late Cenozoic, which implies that the Aleutia microplate encompasses a mammoth area that includes parts of southern Alaska, the Alaska Peninsula, the southern Beringian margin, the abyssal Bering Sea (Kula plate), and the Aleutian arc. If model A is correct, the docking time of

  11. Penultimate and last glacial cycles in the western Bering Sea: evidence from micropaleontological and sedimentary records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsepyan, Ekaterina; Ivanova, Elena; Murdmaa, Ivar

    2014-05-01

    The short- and long-term variability of sea-surface bioproductivity, intermediate-water oxygenation, sea ice conditions and bottom current velocities are inferred from the high-resolution multi-proxy study based on benthic (BF) and planktonic (PF) foraminiferal assemblages and sedimentary record of the 18m-long Core SO201-2-85KL (western Bering Sea). Early MIS 6 is characterized by a very low seasonal bioproductivity, moderate bottom-water oxygenation, and expanded seasonal sea ice conditions, as documented by the abundant phytodetritus species Alabaminella weddelensis, Islandiella norcrossi and Epistominella arctica, suboxic group of BF, and high accumulation rates of gravel grains, respectively. Middle MIS 6 is represented by intercalation of green diatomaceous ooze and grey clayey silt layers with sharp peaks of BF abundance in green interbeds. These spikes might result either from short-term events of enhanced sea surface bioproductivity or from lateral BF transport by intensified bottom currents, as it is demonstrated by high-amplitude variations of the clay/silt ratio. Rather high seasonal productivity and northward migration of the sea ice margin are reconstructed for the late MIS 6 that is also characterized by a slight increase in the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. Strong dissolution of calcareous microfossils is revealed for MIS 5.5-5.1 when the Bering Strait was open. Dissolution might be caused by an excess of carbon dioxide in the bottom-water due to an abundant organic matter decay and/or to an influence of the old CO2-rich deep water. MIS 4 - early Termination I is characterized by a dominance of glacial benthic foraminiferal assemblages that implies low bioproductivity conditions. A prevalence of suboxic BF group suggests moderate bottom-water oxygenation. Sea ice rafting occurred in the western Bering Sea during MIS 4 - early Termination I but the drifted ice was not so dense as during MIS 6. The well-known productivity spikes at B

  12. Determination of multiple toxins in whelk and clam samples collected from the Chukchi and Bering seas.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Chen, Huidan; Qiu, Jiangbing; Lin, Heshan; Gu, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Buccinidae whelk Neptunea varicifera (Dall), Cardiidae clam Serripes laperousii (Deshayes), and two unknown species of whelk and clam were collected from the Arctic Chukchi Sea and sub-Arctic Bering Sea in July 2014. In this study, the mollusk samples were analyzed by different liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for multiple shellfish toxins, including okadaic acid (OA), pectenotoxin (PTX), yessotoxin (YTX), azaspiracid (AZA), cyclic imines (CI), and saxitoxin (STX) groups. PTX2 (≈2.0 μg kg(-1) whole tissues) was detected exclusively in the clam S. laperousii collected from the Chukchi Sea. OA and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were restricted to mollusk samples collected from the Bering Sea, and OA was the dominant component of the whelk N. varicifera (63 μg kg(-1) digestive gland) and an unknown species of whelk (6.8 μg kg(-1) digestive gland). Spirolide-1 (SPX1) was confirmed in most samples except for the whelk N. varicifera collected from the Bering Sea. The highest content of SPX1 (≈18.5 μg kg(-1) digestive gland) occurred in the whelk N. varicifera collected from the Chukchi Sea, along with the suspected presence of SPX-C, SPX-D and didesMe-SPX-C. YTX, as well as its derivatives 45-OH-YTX and 45,46,47-Trinor-YTX, were found in all samples, with the highest YTX content (66 μg kg(-1) digestive gland) present in the whelk N. varicifera collected from the Chukchi Sea. Interestingly, STX and dcSTX were measured only in the whelk N. varicifera and unknown species of clam collected from the Chukchi Sea. No AZA-group toxins, gymnodimine (GYM), or pinnatoxin G were found in any samples analyzed. Results demonstrated that the mollusk samples were contaminated by multiple shellfish toxins in the Chukchi and Bering seas. This study highlights the need to monitor potentially toxic microalgae in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions, as well as species of mollusk that may be included in future commercial or

  13. Pliocene-Pleistocene paleo-productivity changes in the Bering Sea: results from IODP Expedition 323 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, K.; Ravelo, A. C.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Nagashima, T.; Kanematsu, Y.; Hioki, Y.; Ikehara, M.; Kim, S.; Khim, B.; Aiello, I. W.; Onodera, J.; Radi, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Stroynowski, Z. N.; Asahi, H.; Chen, M.; Colmenero-Hidalgo, E.; Husum, K.; Ijiri, A.; Kender, S.; Lund, S.; Okada, M.; Okazaki, Y.; Horikawa, K.; Seki, O.; Iodp Expedition 323 Shipboard Scientists

    2010-12-01

    IODP Exp 323 drilled 7 sites to study Bering Sea paleoceanography, and recovered 5741 m of high quality sediments with high sedimentation rates covering the last 5 myrs. The sites included hemipelagic Bowers Ridge and a N-S transect of slope sites proximal to the Bering shelf, covering water depths from 818 to 3174 m. The bulk of the cores were obtained with APC and thus the disturbance was minimal so that detailed high resolution paleoceanographic studies are feasible for the first time in this high latitude climate sensitive Pacific marginal sea setting. Objectives include the characterization of changes that occurred in the Bering Sea around the times of (1) onset of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG, 2.7 Ma); (2) Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT, ca. 1 Ma); and (3) glacial-interglacial cycles (<1 Ma). Changes in biological productivity can be depicted by studying diatom assemblages together with biogenic opal concentrations. Extent of sea-ice cover can be monitored by examining sea-ice related diatoms, dinoflagellates and Cycladophora davisiana, an intermediate water dwelling radiolarian taxon whose %values increase when sea-ice cover becomes extensive. Biogenic opal values typically range from 10 to 60% at Bowers Ridge, whereas those at slope sites typically range from 5 to 25% because of dilution by siliciclastics despite high productivity underneath the Green Belt (with the exception of site U1339 which has ca. 50% biogenic opal due to its isolated location on a topographic high beyond the shelf break). Sea-ice cover, illustrated by sea-ice related Thalassiosira antarctica spores and others, occurred more extensively at the slope sites and further north than Bowers Ridge, reflecting an anticyclonic circulation pattern in both the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Since the main entry points of the relatively warm Pacific waters of the Alanskan Stream were located at the central to the western end of the Aleutians, Bowers Ridge sites are influenced by Pacific

  14. Passive microwave characteristics of the Bering Sea ice cover during Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX) West

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Gloersen, P.; Wilheit, T. T.; Calhoon, C.

    1984-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements of the Bering Sea were made with the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory during February. Microwave data were obtained with imaging and dual-polarized, fixed-beam radiometers in a range of frequencies from 10 to 183 GHz. The high resolution imagery at 92 GHz provides a particularly good description of the marginal ice zone delineating regions of open water, ice compactness, and ice-edge structure. Analysis of the fixed-beam data shows that spectral differences increase with a decrease in ice thickness. Polarization at 18 and 37 GHz distinguishes among new, young, and first-year sea ice types.

  15. Coupled wind-forced controls of the Bering-Chukchi shelf circulation and the Bering Strait throughflow: Ekman transport, continental shelf waves, and variations of the Pacific-Arctic sea surface height gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Seth L.; Weingartner, Thomas J.; Hedstrom, Katherine S.; Aagaard, Knut; Woodgate, Rebecca; Curchitser, Enrique; Stabeno, Phyllis J.

    2014-06-01

    We develop a conceptual model of the closely co-dependent Bering shelf, Bering Strait, and Chukchi shelf circulation fields by evaluating the effects of wind stress over the North Pacific and western Arctic using atmospheric reanalyses, current meter observations, satellite-based sea surface height (SSH) measurements, hydrographic profiles, and numerical model integrations. This conceptual model suggests Bering Strait transport anomalies are primarily set by the longitudinal location of the Aleutian Low, which drives oppositely signed anomalies at synoptic and annual time scales. Synoptic time scale variations in shelf currents result from local wind forcing and remotely generated continental shelf waves, whereas annual variations are driven by basin scale adjustments to wind stress that alter the magnitude of the along-strait (meridional) pressure gradient. In particular, we show that storms centered over the Bering Sea excite continental shelf waves on the eastern Bering shelf that carry northward velocity anomalies northward through Bering Strait and along the Chukchi coast. The integrated effect of these storms tends to decrease the northward Bering Strait transport at annual to decadal time scales by imposing cyclonic wind stress curl over the Aleutian Basin and the Western Subarctic Gyre. Ekman suction then increases the water column density through isopycnal uplift, thereby decreasing the dynamic height, sea surface height, and along-strait pressure gradient. Storms displaced eastward over the Gulf of Alaska generate an opposite set of Bering shelf and Aleutian Basin responses. While Ekman pumping controls Canada Basin dynamic heights (Proshutinsky et al., 2002), we do not find evidence for a strong relation between Beaufort Gyre sea surface height variations and the annually averaged Bering Strait throughflow. Over the western Chukchi and East Siberian seas easterly winds promote coastal divergence, which also increases the along-strait pressure head, as

  16. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.011...

  17. A year in the acoustic world of bowhead whales in the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Christopher W.; Berchok, Catherine L.; Blackwell, Susanna B.; Hannay, David E.; Jones, Josh; Ponirakis, Dimitri; Stafford, Kathleen M.

    2015-08-01

    Bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, in the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort (BCB) population, experience a variable acoustic environment among the regions they inhabit throughout the year. A total of 41,698 h of acoustic data were recorded from 1 August 2009 through 4 October 2010 at 20 sites spread along a 2300 km transect from the Bering Sea to the southeast Beaufort Sea. These data represent the combined output from six research teams using four recorder types. Recorders sampled areas in which bowheads occur and in which there are natural and anthropogenic sources producing varying amounts of underwater noise. We describe and quantify the occurrence of bowheads throughout their range in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas over a 14-month period by aggregating our acoustic detections of bowhead whale sounds. We also describe the spatial-temporal variability in the bowhead acoustic environment using sound level measurements within a frequency band in which their sounds occur, by dividing a year into three, 4-month seasons (Summer-Fall 2009, August-November 2009: Winter 2009-2010, December 2009-March 2010: and Spring-Summer 2010, April-July 2010) and their home range into five zones. Statistical analyses revealed no significant relationship between acoustic occurrence, distance offshore, and water depth during Summer-Fall 2009, but there was a significant relationship during Spring-Summer 2010. A continuous period with elevated broadband sound levels lasting ca. 38 days occurred in the Bering Sea during the Winter 2009-2010 season as a result of singing bowheads, while a second period of elevated levels lasting at least 30 days occurred during the early spring-summer season as a result of singing bearded seals. The lowest noise levels occurred in the Chukchi Sea from the latter part of November into May. In late summer 2009 very faint sounds from a seismic airgun survey approximately 700 km away in the eastern Beaufort Sea were detected on Chukchi recorders. Throughout

  18. A macrodescriptor perspective of ecological attributes for the Bering and Barents Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megrey, Bernard A.; Aydin, Kerim Y.

    2009-10-01

    The eastern Bering Sea (EBS) and Barents Sea (BS) are both high-latitude, subarctic ecosystems that share many similar biophysical and trophic characteristics, and support valuable commercial fisheries. In this paper we compare system-level characteristics that make the Bering and Barents Sea ecosystems unique. We use Ecopath models and systems ecology macrodescriptor metrics applied to the two marine ecosystems to identify key areas of differences and similarities. Metrics calculated include number of species, number of interactions or trophic links, connectivity of the system, number of interactions per species, a measure of directed connectance, and an assessment of overall web interaction strength. In addition, number of basal species, number of top predators, total number of intermediate species, number of cannibals, number of cycles, number of omnivores, number of predators for a prey item, number of prey items for a predator, predator to prey ratio, and other indices were enumerated. Calculated food-web metrics for the eastern Bering and Barents Seas are compared between systems as well as with other similar metrics from published sources. We attempt to relate these observations to the questions of the uniqueness of marine food webs, implications for system stability, how climate impacts the physical environment, how the physical environment affects the structure of fish communities in each sea, and how changes in the physical environment affect the production of fish and the ability of the Bering and Barents Seas to support stable fisheries and productive ecosystems. Results show that the average number of trophic steps from primary producers to predators is shorter in the EBS. In the EBS, trophic pathways are shorter and more linear, there are more benthic species (flatfish and crabs) and there are both pelagic and benthic food webs. The BS is mainly a pelagic ecosystem. More production flows to the detritus pool in the BS most likely due to its deeper

  19. Paleoproductivity and paleoceanography of the last 4.3 Myrs at IODP Expedition 323 Site U1341 in the Bering Sea based on biogenic opal content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Shinya; Takahashi, Kozo; Kanematsu, Yoshiyuki; Asahi, Hirofumi; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Ravelo, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    Site U1341 in the southern Bering Sea was drilled and cored down to 600 meters below sea-floor (mbsf) during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323, covering a nearly complete record of the last 4.3 million years (Myrs). Analyses of the biogenic opal content of sediments at the site provide detailed and useful information on past biological productivity and paleoceanographic changes that occurred in the region including shifts in the oceanographic condition during the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG) and the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT). An overall decreasing trend in the %biogenic opal record, combined with evidence from microfossil assemblages, indicates a gradual shift in environmental conditions during the last 4.3 Myrs, from warm and nutrient-rich conditions to cool conditions with sea-ice. On the other hand, biogenic opal mass accumulation rates (MAR) were high during 2.6-2.1 Ma after the intensification of the NHG, unlike in the western North Pacific. High biological productivity during this specific interval is consistent with the results of previous studies in the other Marginal Seas, possibly suggesting that iron leakage from the Bering Continental Shelf occurred. After the MPT, the data suggest that there was sea-ice expansion and discharge of lithogenic matter during glacial periods, and high productivity during interglacial periods.

  20. Retrospective analysis of Bering Sea bottom trawl surveys: regime shift and ecosystem reorganization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conners, M. E.; Hollowed, A. B.; Brown, E.

    2002-10-01

    This paper compiles data from bottom trawl surveys using variations on a 400-mesh eastern trawl gear into a 38-year time series (1963-2000), using a robust index of median catch per unit effort (CPUE) as an indicator of regional abundance. Time series are presented for three index sites in the southeastern Bering Sea: the inner shelf in Bristol Bay, the middle shelf north of Unimak Island, and the outer shelf near the Pribilof Islands. All three sites show strong evidence of a shift in benthic biomass and community structure in the early to mid-1980s. During this period, all three sites showed substantial increases in the abundances of walleye pollock, Pacific cod, rock sole, flathead sole, cartilaginous fishes (skates) and non-crab benthic invertebrates. Species composition, especially of flatfish, differs at the three sites, but the trend for groundfish abundance to increase was consistent at all three sites. The similarity in trends both across the region and across both commercial and unexploited groups suggests to us that a complete reorganization of benthic and demersal food webs may have taken place. The timing of change in trawl catch weight is consistent with effects of the strong regime shift observed in climate indices in 1976-1977. There is little evidence of similar biological responses to subsequent, less pronounced changes in climate. Our data are also consistent with recently documented shifts in ecosystem dynamics resulting from changes in ice cover and thermal structure in the eastern Bering Sea. Our analysis indicates that there was a much higher biomass of groundfish at all three sites during 1980-2000 than in 1960-1980. This result provides evidence against the hypothesis that the overall productivity of the eastern Bering Sea has decreased. The precipitous decline of the endangered Steller sea lion in this region from 1975-1985 was concurrent with an overall increase in abundance of groundfish prey.

  1. Methane Content and Distribution of Natural Gas Hydrate Accumulations in the Deep-Water Basins of the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, G. A.; Scholl, D. W.; Childs, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic reflection images from the deep-water (>3500 m) Aleutian and Bowers Basins of the Bering Sea indicate an abundant presence of natural gas and gas hydrate. Distinctive velocity-amplitude anomalies, or VAMPs, stand out as both velocity pseudostructures and gas bright spots within the otherwise horizontal and uniform sedimentary reflection sequences. These are interpreted as methane chimneys overlain by interstitial gas hydrate caps. Hundreds of VAMPs have been imaged throughout the Bering Sea; several thousand are inferred to exist. Ongoing USGS development of an interpretive seismic database presents an opportunity to quantify the hydrate content of individual VAMPs and to explore the distribution of major and minor anomalies relative to basement topography, silica diagenesis features, ancient subduction boundary structures and sediment sources. We present quantitative estimates of the size and methane content of representative large VAMP structures, based on seismic reflection interval-time anomalies. Time-average and frame-component effective medium velocity models are used to relate hydrate concentration to velocity anomaly. For this specific case, differences between the two models are minimal for hydrate concentrations <35% of pore space. To facilitate modeling of sediment dominated by diatomaceous ooze, grain-scale elastic moduli for diatom frustules are back-calculated to be ~5 GPa, assuming shear and bulk modulus are equal. Maximum velocity anomaly observed within the VAMPs is +235 m/s in the hydrate zone, relative to a background P-wave velocity of 1600 m/s. This corresponds to hydrate concentration ~40% of pore space (or ~20% of bulk rock). Hydrate distribution appears to be lithologically controlled within a section of alternating turbidite and diatomaceous sediments. It is preferentially located in a zone ~40 to 90 m above the gas hydrate BSR. Free gas is most concentrated immediately below the hydrate BSR, which lies at ~360 m bsf. Evidence for

  2. Satellite color observations of spring blooming in Bering Sea shelf waters during the ice edge retreat in 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Clark, Dennis K.

    1987-01-01

    The temporal and spatial development of the ice-edge bloom and the spring open-water bloom on the eastern Bering Sea shelf was studied using CZCS images of the eastern Bering Sea between April 27 and July 22, 1980. Images of the Norton Sound area taken during the period of ice breakup show that the influence of ice melt on phytoplankton growth is particularly significant where the ice is actively melting. Significant levels (5-30 mg/cu m) of chlorophyll could be seen trailing the ice pack as it melted and moved northward and westward in late April and early May. In the ice-free eastern Bering Sea midsummer image, a northwesterly oriented band of high pigment concentration was seen in the area of the outer domain, suggesting periodic offshore movements of shelf waters.

  3. Distribution of Arctic and Pacific copepods and their habitat in the northern Bering and Chukchi seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Hiroko; Matsuno, Kohei; Fujiwara, Amane; Onuka, Misaki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ueno, Hiromichi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    The advection of warm Pacific water and the reduction in sea ice in the western Arctic Ocean may influence the abundance and distribution of copepods, a key component of food webs. To quantify the factors affecting the abundance of copepods in the northern Bering and Chukchi seas, we constructed habitat models explaining the spatial patterns of large and small Arctic and Pacific copepods separately. Copepods were sampled using NORPAC (North Pacific Standard) nets. The structures of water masses indexed by principle component analysis scores, satellite-derived timing of sea ice retreat, bottom depth and chlorophyll a concentration were integrated into generalized additive models as explanatory variables. The adequate models for all copepods exhibited clear continuous relationships between the abundance of copepods and the indexed water masses. Large Arctic copepods were abundant at stations where the bottom layer was saline; however they were scarce at stations where warm fresh water formed the upper layer. Small Arctic copepods were abundant at stations where the upper layer was warm and saline and the bottom layer was cold and highly saline. In contrast, Pacific copepods were abundant at stations where the Pacific-origin water mass was predominant (i.e. a warm, saline upper layer and saline and a highly saline bottom layer). All copepod groups showed a positive relationship with early sea ice retreat. Early sea ice retreat has been reported to initiate spring blooms in open water, allowing copepods to utilize more food while maintaining their high activity in warm water without sea ice and cold water. This finding indicates that early sea ice retreat has positive effects on the abundance of all copepod groups in the northern Bering and Chukchi seas, suggesting a change from a pelagic-benthic-type ecosystem to a pelagic-pelagic type.

  4. Polychaete assemblage as surrogate for prey availability in assessing southeastern Bering Sea flatfish habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Cynthia; Yang, Mei-Sun; Jewett, Stephen C.; Naidu, A. S.

    2013-02-01

    The flatfish yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera), northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra), and Alaska plaice (Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus) in the southeastern Bering Sea prey mainly on infauna. Spatial correspondence between their stomach contents and infauna assemblages across habitat types was examined to identify indices of prey availability for flatfish habitat characterization and quality assessment. Benthic samples and flatfish stomachs were collected in 2009 near the Alaska Peninsula in the southeastern Bering Sea. Polychaetes and bivalves were the most dominant infauna groups, each comprising 35-60% by weight in each infauna sample. These two were also the only prey groups that frequently averaged > 50% of stomach content by weight. Bivalves dominated the infauna biomass on the relatively sandy inner shelf (0-50 m depth). The muddier middle shelf (50-100 m) had the highest infauna biomass, which was dominated by polychaetes. Diet compositions of the flatfish varied spatially in correspondence with the infauna assemblage. Polychaetes were prevalent in all flatfish diets on the middle shelf, even yellowfin sole whose typical primary prey are amphipods and bivalves. Polychaete-rich habitats are potentially prime for flatfish as polychaetes are readily utilized where available and generally have high nutritional value. Flatfish did not select for specific polychaete taxa, so an index of habitat quality could be based on the biomass of aggregate polychaetes or on dominant polychaete families of the region. Under normal environmental conditions, the three flatfish have slightly-offset spatial distributions, enabling each to utilize different infauna assemblages across the shelf. However, during cold phases in the Bering Sea ecosystem, as when this study was conducted, a cold pool of < 2 °C bottom water from the spring ice melt extends over the middle shelf in summer. This physiological barrier displaces all three flatfish to the inner shelf, intensifying

  5. Cold Regime interannual variability of primary and secondary producer community composition in the southeastern Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Beth A; Miksis-Olds, Jennifer; Goes, Joaquim I

    2015-01-01

    Variability of hydrographic conditions and primary and secondary productivity between cold and warm climatic regimes in the Bering Sea has been the subject of much study in recent years, while interannual variability within a single regime and across multiple trophic levels has been less well-documented. Measurements from an instrumented mooring on the southeastern shelf of the Bering Sea were analyzed for the spring-to-summer transitions within the cold regime years of 2009-2012 to investigate the interannual variability of hydrographic conditions, primary producer biomass, and acoustically-derived secondary producer and consumer abundance and community structure. Hydrographic conditions in 2012 were significantly different than in 2009, 2010, and 2011, driven largely by increased ice extent and thickness, later ice retreat, and earlier stratification of the water column. Primary producer biomass was more tightly coupled to hydrographic conditions in 2012 than in 2009 or 2011, and shallow and mid-column phytoplankton blooms tended to occur independent of one another. There was a high degree of variability in the relationships between different classes of secondary producers and hydrographic conditions, evidence of significant intra-consumer interactions, and trade-offs between different consumer size classes in each year. Phytoplankton blooms stimulated different populations of secondary producers in each year, and summer consumer populations appeared to determine dominant populations in the subsequent spring. Overall, primary producers and secondary producers were more tightly coupled to each other and to hydrographic conditions in the coldest year compared to the warmer years. The highly variable nature of the interactions between the atmospherically-driven hydrographic environment, primary and secondary producers, and within food webs underscores the need to revisit how climatic regimes within the Bering Sea are defined and predicted to function given changing

  6. Interannual and decadal variability in zooplankton communities of the southeast Bering Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napp, Jeffrey M.; Baier, Christine T.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Coyle, Kenneth O.; Shiga, Naonobu; Mier, Kathy

    2002-12-01

    The southeastern Bering Sea shelf ecosystem is an important fishing ground for fin- and shellfish, and is the summer foraging grounds for many planktivorous seabirds and marine mammals. In 1997 and 1998, Northern Hemisphere climate anomalies affected the physical and biological environment of the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. The resulting anomalous conditions provided a valuable opportunity to examine how longer-term climate change might affect this productive ecosystem. We compared historical and recent zooplankton biomass and species composition data for the southeastern Bering Sea shelf to examine whether or not there was a response to the atmosphere-ocean-ice anomalies of 1997 and 1998. Summer zooplankton biomass (1954-1994) over the southeastern shelf did not exhibit a decline as previously reported for oceanic stations. In addition, zooplankton biomass in 1997 and 1998 was not appreciably different from other years in the time series. Spring concentrations of numerically abundant copepods ( Acartia spp., Calanus marshallae, and Pseudocalanus spp.), however, were significantly higher during 1994-1998 than 1980-1981; spring concentrations of Metridia pacifica and Neocalanus spp. were not consistently different between the two time periods. Neocalanus spp. was the only taxon to have consistent differences in stage composition between the two time periods—CV copepodites were much more prevalent in May of the 1990s than early 1980s. Since relatively high zooplankton concentrations were observed prior to 1997, we do not attribute the high concentrations observed in the summers of 1997 and 1998 directly to the acute climate anomalies. With the present data it is not possible to distinguish between increased production (control from below) and decreased predation (control from above) to explain the recent increase in concentrations of the species examined.

  7. Dispersal and behavior of pacific halibut hippoglossus stenolepis in the bering sea and Aleutian islands region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seitz, A.C.; Loher, T.; Norcross, B.L.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, it is assumed that eastern Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis belong to a single, fully mixed population extending from California through the Bering Sea, in which adult halibut disperse randomly throughout their range during their lifetime. However, we hypothesize that hali but dispersal is more complex than currently assumed and is not spatially random. To test this hypo thesis, we studied the seasonal dispersal and behavior of Pacific halibut in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). Pop-up Archival Transmitting tags attached to halibut (82 to 154 cm fork length) during the summer provided no evidence that individuals moved out of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region into the Gulf of Alaska during the mid-winter spawning season, supporting the concept that this region contains a separate spawning group of adult halibut. There was evidence for geographically localized groups of halibut along the Aleutian Island chain, as all of the individuals tagged there displayed residency, with their movements possibly impeded by tidal currents in the passes between islands. Mid-winter aggregation areas of halibut are assumed to be spawning grounds, of which 2 were previously unidentified and extend the species' presumed spawning range ~1000 km west and ~600 km north of the nearest documented spawning area. If there are indeed independent spawning groups of Pacific halibut in the BSAI, their dynamics may vary sufficiently from those of the Gulf of Alaska, so that specifically accounting for their relative segregation and unique dynamics within the larger population model will be necessary for correctly predicting how these components may respond to fishing pressure and changing environmental conditions.?? Inter-Research 2011.

  8. Cold Regime Interannual Variability of Primary and Secondary Producer Community Composition in the Southeastern Bering Sea

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, Beth A.; Miksis-Olds, Jennifer; Goes, Joaquim I.

    2015-01-01

    Variability of hydrographic conditions and primary and secondary productivity between cold and warm climatic regimes in the Bering Sea has been the subject of much study in recent years, while interannual variability within a single regime and across multiple trophic levels has been less well-documented. Measurements from an instrumented mooring on the southeastern shelf of the Bering Sea were analyzed for the spring-to-summer transitions within the cold regime years of 2009–2012 to investigate the interannual variability of hydrographic conditions, primary producer biomass, and acoustically-derived secondary producer and consumer abundance and community structure. Hydrographic conditions in 2012 were significantly different than in 2009, 2010, and 2011, driven largely by increased ice extent and thickness, later ice retreat, and earlier stratification of the water column. Primary producer biomass was more tightly coupled to hydrographic conditions in 2012 than in 2009 or 2011, and shallow and mid-column phytoplankton blooms tended to occur independent of one another. There was a high degree of variability in the relationships between different classes of secondary producers and hydrographic conditions, evidence of significant intra-consumer interactions, and trade-offs between different consumer size classes in each year. Phytoplankton blooms stimulated different populations of secondary producers in each year, and summer consumer populations appeared to determine dominant populations in the subsequent spring. Overall, primary producers and secondary producers were more tightly coupled to each other and to hydrographic conditions in the coldest year compared to the warmer years. The highly variable nature of the interactions between the atmospherically-driven hydrographic environment, primary and secondary producers, and within food webs underscores the need to revisit how climatic regimes within the Bering Sea are defined and predicted to function given

  9. Petrography and geologic significance of Upper Jurassic rocks dredged near Pribilof Islands, southern Bering Sea continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Vallier, T.L.; Underwood, M.B.; Jones, D.L.; Gardner, J.V.

    1980-06-01

    Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) sandstone and siltstone dredged from a probable submerged marine terrace near St. George Island (Pribilof Islands) in the southern Bering Sea are correlative with the upper part of the Naknek Formation exposed on the Alaska Peninsula and with rocks dredged from the continental slope. The rocks have higher percentages of volcanic components than those of the Naknek Formation collected from the Alaska Peninsula. This discovery increases the known regional extent of Upper Jurassic rocks and suggests that they underlie a large part of the continental margin in the St. George Basin region of the southern Bering Sea. 3 figures, 1 table.

  10. Aircraft and satellite passive microwave observations of the Bering Sea ice cover during MIZEX West

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Gloersen, P.; Wilheit, T. T., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements of the Bering Sea were made with the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory during February. Microwave data were obtained with imaging and dual-polarized, fixed-beam radiometers in a range of frequencies from 10 to 183 GHz. The high resolution imagery at 92 GHz provides a particularly good description of the marginal ice zone delineating regions of open water, ice compactness, and ice-edge structure. Analysis of the fixed-beam data shows that spectral differences increase with a decrease in ice thickness. Polarization at 18 and 37 GHz distinguishes among new, young, and first-year ice types.

  11. Interference fringes on GLORIA side-scan sonar images from the Bering Sea and their implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huggett, Q.J.; Cooper, A. K.; Somers, M.L.; Stubbs, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    GLORIA side-scan sonographs from the Bering Sea Basin show a complex pattern of interference fringes sub-parallel to the ship's track. Surveys along the same trackline made in 1986 and 1987 show nearly identical patterns. It is concluded from this that the interference patterns are caused by features in the shallow subsurface rather than in the water column. The fringes are interpreted as a thin-layer interference effect that occurs when some of the sound reaching the seafloor passes through it and is reflected off a subsurface layer. The backscattered sound interferes (constructively or desctructively) with the reflected sound. Constructive/destructive interference occurs when the difference in the length of the two soundpaths is a whole/half multiple of GLORIA's 25 cm wavelength. Thus as range from the ship increases, sound moves in and out of phase causing bands of greater and lesser intensity on the GLORIA sonograph. Fluctuations (or 'wiggles') of the fringes on the GLORIA sonographs relate to changes in layer thickness. In principle, a simple three dimensional image of the subsurface layer may be obtained using GLORIA and bathymetric data from adjacent (parallel) ship's tracks. These patterns have also been identified in images from two other systems; SeaMARC II (12 kHz) long-range sonar, and TOBI (30 kHz) deep-towed sonar. In these, and other cases world-wide, the fringes do not appear with the same persistence as those seen in the Bering Sea. ?? 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  12. Orbital-scale benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope stratigraphy at the northern Bering Sea Slope Site U1343 (IODP Expedition 323) and its Pleistocene paleoceanographic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahi, H.; Kender, S.; Ikehara, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Takahashi, K.; Ravelo, A. C.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Khim, B. K.; Leng, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    A continuous composite oxygen isotope (δ18O) stratigraphy from benthic foraminifera in the Bering Sea was reconstructed in order to provide insight into understanding sea-ice evolution in response to Northern Hemisphere Glaciation. Oxygen isotope records from multiple species of benthic foraminifera at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323 Site U1343 (54°33.4‧N, 176°49.0‧E, water depth 1950 m) yield a highly refined orbital-scale age model spanning the last 1.2 Ma, and a refined age model between 1.2 and 2.4 Ma. An inter-species calibration was used to define species offsets and to successfully obtain a continuous composite benthic δ18O record, correlated with the global composite benthic δ18O stack curve LR04 to construct an orbital-scale age model. The consistency of the benthic δ18O stratigraphy with biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy confirms the reliability of both methods for constraining age. The time difference between cyclic changes in sedimentary physical properties and glacial-interglacial cycles since 0.8 Ma is notable, and suggests that physical properties alone cannot be used to construct an orbital-scale age model. Amplitude changes in physical properties and a significant drop in the linear sedimentation rate during glacials after 0.9 Ma indicate that the glacial sea-ice edge extended beyond the Bering Sea Slope (Site U1343) at this time.

  13. Ice rafting of fine-grained sediment, a sorting and transport mechanism, Beaufort Sea, Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, P.W.; Reimnitz, E.; Fox, D.

    1982-01-01

    The presence of turbid, sediment-rich fast ice in the Arctic is a major factor affecting transport of fine-grained sediment. Observers have documented the widespread, sporadic occurrence of sediment- rich fast ice in both the Beaufort and Bering Seas. The occurrence of sediment in only the upper part of the seasonal fast ice indicates that sediment-rich ice forms early during ice growth. The most likely mechanism requires resuspension of nearshore bottom sediment during storms, accompanied by formation of frazil ice and subsequent lateral advection before the fast ice is stabilized. We estimate that the sediment incorporated in the Beaufort ice canopy formed a significant proportion of the seasonal influx of terrigenous fine-grained sediment. The dominance of fine-grained sediment suggests that in the Arctic and sub-Arctic these size fractions may be ice rafted in greater volumes than the coarse fraction of traditionally recognized ice-rafted sediment. -from Authors

  14. Latitudinal trends and temporal shifts in the catch composition of bottom trawls conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Duane E.; Lauth, Robert R.

    2012-06-01

    Latitudinal species diversity gradients are well known in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems throughout the world. However, trends in relative abundance and other shifts in community structure with latitude, which can be more sensitive to environmental shifts such as climate change, have received less attention. Here we investigate latitudinal trends in the seafloor community of the eastern Bering Sea using catches of fishes and epibenthic invertebrates in bottom trawl surveys conducted from 1982 to 2010. Our results indicate that the overall biomass of the epibenthic community declines with increasing latitude in the eastern Bering Sea. This latitudinal trend is primarily driven by declining fish catches in the northern Bering Sea, which in turn reflects changes in the structure of the fish community. The fish fauna in northern latitudes is increasingly dominated by gadids, though the species composition of the gadid fauna also changes with latitude, with smaller species becoming more common in the north. The biomass of the invertebrate megafauna remains relatively consistent throughout the eastern Bering Sea, but invertebrates make up a larger proportion of the catch in bottom trawls conducted at higher latitudes. The epibenthic invertebrate megafauna in the eastern Bering Sea is composed primarily of sea stars (Asteriidae) and oregoniid crabs (Chionoecetes and Hyas), though no clear latitudinal trends in the invertebrate community are evident. Limited trawl data from the eastern Chukchi Sea indicate that the fish community farther north is even more heavily dominated by gadids, and the epibenthic invertebrate community is dominated by asteriid sea stars. Temperature data from bottom trawl surveys in the southeastern Bering Sea over the past decade indicate that there was a distinct temperature shift around 2005, and the relatively warm years of 2001-2005 were followed by five relatively cold years. This shift in the summer temperature regime of the Bering

  15. Evolution and hydrocarbon potential of Navarin basin, Bering Sea, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Steffy, D.A.

    1985-02-01

    The Navarin basin consists of three en echelon subbasins filled with more than 26,000 ft of layered Tertiary sedimentary rock. The subbasins initially formed as a result of extensional deformation associated with oblique subduction of the Kula plate beneath the North American plate in the Late Cretaceous to early tertiary. By the late Eocene, the fragment of the Kula plate, which now floors the Aleutian basin, was isolated by initiation of subduction at the present Aleutian arc. Active graben growth and major faulting ceased by the late Oligocene. Regional subsidence, controlled primarily by crustal cooling, initiated a second phase of sedimentation within and beyond structurally defined subbasins of pre-late Oligocene. The Navarin basin COST 1 well suggests that since the late Eocene, sedimentation within the three subbasins consisted of predominantly marine mudstone and siltstone and minor amounts of sandstone. Regressive events in the middle and late Oligocene, however, exposed older Tertiary and Mesozoic basement highs to wave-base erosion, which may have formed aprons of coarser grained detritus along the subbasins flanks. Eocene and early Oligocene marine sediments with good liquid hydrocarbon source potential and favorable levels of thermal maturity were present at the well site. This marine sequence thickens toward the deeper parts of the basin, indicating that a significant amount of source rock may be present next to traps associated with basement highs.

  16. Middle pleistocene mollusks from St. Lawrence Island and their significance for the paleo-oceanography of the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, D.M.; Rowland, R.W.; Patton, W.W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Drift, evidently of Illinoian age, was deposited on St. Lawrence Island at the margin of an ice cap that covered the highlands of the Chukotka Peninsula of Siberia and spread far eastward on the continental shelf of northern Bering Sea. Underlying the drift on the northwestward part of the island are mollusk-bearing beds deposited during the Kotzebuan Transgression. A comparison of mollusk faunas from St. Lawrence Island, Chukotka Peninsula, and Kotzebue Sound suggests that the present northward flow through Bering and Anadyr Straits was reversed during the Kotzebuan Transgression. Cold arctic water penetrated southward and southwestward bringing an arctic fauna to the Gulf of Anadyr. Warmer Pacific water probably entered eastern Bering Sea, passed eastward and northeastward around eastern and northern St. Lawrence Island, and then became entrained in the southward currents that passed through Anadyr Strait. ?? 1972.

  17. Bering Strait, Alaska, United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer run off from the Yukon River, the source of which is hidden by clouds on image right, is filling the Norton Sound (image center) with brownish sediment. The Bering Sea (image left) appears to be supporting a large phytoplankton population, as blue-green swirls are evident from north to south in this true-color MODIS image of Alaska. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  18. 40Ar-39Ar dating and tectonic implications of volcanic rocks recovered at IODP Hole U1342A and D on Bowers Ridge, Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Keiko; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Scholl, David W.; Hyodo, Hironobu; Takahashi, Kozo; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Kumagai, Hidenori

    2016-03-01

    During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), a total of 41.54 m of basement rock, consolidated volcaniclastic sediment, was recovered beneath a thin sediment cover. The drilled site is at the eastern end of the crestal area of Bowers Ridge, a north and westward sweeping offshoot of the Aleutian Arc into the Bering Sea. The volcanic sequence recovered from Holes U1342A and U1342D was divided into six major lithologic units. We used the single grain 40Ar-39Ar dating method performed by step-wise heated laser fusion technique to date andesites of Unit 1. Thereby two ages of Oligocene volcanism (34-32 Ma, 28-26 Ma) were distinguished each other according to our 40Ar-39Ar data. These ages refute a hypothesized Cretaceous origin in the North Pacific as an exotic arc massif or sector of the Hawaiian-Emperor chain and indicate that the Bowers Ridge is a Bering-Sea formed arc or remnant arc that ceased forming in the latest Oligocene to the earliest Miocene time.

  19. Hindcast storm events in the Bering Sea for the St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet Regions, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, Li H.; McCall, Robert T.; van Rooijen, Arnold; Norris, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study provides viable estimates of historical storm-induced water levels in the coastal communities of Gambell and Savoonga situated on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, as well as Unalakleet located at the head of Norton Sound on the western coast of Alaska. Gambell, Savoonga, and Unalakleet are small Native Villages that are regularly impacted by coastal storms but where little quantitative information about these storms exists. The closest continuous water-level gauge is at Nome, located more than 200 kilometers from both St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet. In this study, storms are identified and quantified using historical atmospheric and sea-ice data and then used as boundary conditions for a suite of numerical models. The work includes storm-surge (temporary rise in water levels due to persistent strong winds and low atmospheric pressures) modeling in the Bering Strait region, as well as modeling of wave runup along specified sections of the coast in Gambell and Unalakleet. Modeled historical water levels are used to develop return periods of storm surge and storm surge plus wave runup at key locations in each community. It is anticipated that the results will fill some of the data void regarding coastal flood data in western Alaska and be used for production of coastal vulnerability maps and community planning efforts.

  20. Physical and biochemical properties of the euphausiids Thysanoessa inermis, Thysanoessa raschii, and Thysanoessa longipes in the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, H. Rodger; Pleuthner, Rachel L.; Lessard, Evelyn J.; Bernhardt, Megan J.; Tracy Shaw, C.

    2012-06-01

    Euphausiids are an integral part of the Bering Sea ecosystem, linking primary production to upper level trophic levels as both consumers and prey. Species native to this region extend over a range of geographic provinces and serve as a critical component of the movement of energy through the food web. As one facet of the BEST-BSIERP Bering Sea program, we determined the proximate composition and essential allometric relationships of multiple species of euphausiids collected over three years in the eastern Bering Sea. Three euphausiid species were examined: Thysanoessa inermis, Thysanoessa raschii, and Thysanoessa longipes. While the three species were similar with respect to size, T. inermis had the highest average wet and dry weights per size class, as well as highest carbon and caloric concentrations. Among the three species, T. inermis and T. longipes had similar lipid concentrations, with T. longipes showing higher average lipid concentrations. Empirical equations were developed to describe fundamental relationships between length, weight, PC/PN, and calorie and lipid content for the three species over the full range of sizes encountered in the study area. Such relationships increase our understanding of how euphausiids contribute to the carbon budget and energy input in the eastern Bering Sea system and help to define realistic parameters for ongoing and future modeling efforts.

  1. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and an apportionment from the non-specified reserve of groundfish (76 FR 17360, March 29, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(2), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...

  2. 76 FR 71269 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). In... groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). The harvest specification for the 2011 Greenland turbot... objectives of the fishery management plan for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area....

  3. 75 FR 792 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    .../processors using hook-and-line in the BSAI under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on November 16, 2009 (74 FR 59918... catcher Pacific cod by catcher/processors using hook-and-line gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands.../processors using hook-and-line gear in the BSAI. Classification This action responds to the best...

  4. 77 FR 32037 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012), NMFS closed the directed fishery for... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... RIN 0648-XC052 in the keyword search. Locate the document you wish to comment on from the...

  5. 76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...NMFS has requested the Center for Independent Experts (CIE) to conduct a peer review of the agency's economic data collection program for the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands crab fisheries managed under the BSAI Crab Rationalization program. The CIE, operated by Northern Taiga Ventures, Inc., provides independent peer reviews of NMFS's fisheries stock assessments and other science products. The......

  6. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system. 600.1104 Section 600.1104 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS...

  7. 77 FR 74161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Program. Regulations implementing these amendments were published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), and are... blue king crab, and Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab. The North Region is north of 54 20' N... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery...

  8. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system. 600.1104 Section 600.1104 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS...

  9. 77 FR 40341 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Notice of Public Workshop for Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...NMFS and the Alaska Fishery Science Center (AFSC) will hold a public workshop in Seattle, WA, to review draft revisions to the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Economic Data Reports (EDR) currently required from catcher vessels, catcher/processors, shoreside processors, and stationary floating crab processors participating in the BSAI Crab Rationalization...

  10. 78 FR 35771 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Regional Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  11. 75 FR 14498 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Regional... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  12. 78 FR 64891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Regional... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  13. 78 FR 64892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... by the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  14. 77 FR 26212 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  15. 76 FR 65975 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... by the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  16. 77 FR 39441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Regional... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  17. 75 FR 6129 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... BSAI (74 FR 7359, February 17, 2009). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Regional... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. ] SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  18. 76 FR 10780 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 1539... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  19. 78 FR 25878 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  20. 78 FR 16195 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC311 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and 2014 Harvest Specifications...

  1. 75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). The... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010) are revised as follows: 4,000 mt to the... incidental catch allowance ICA to the Amendment 80 cooperative in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  2. 78 FR 64892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to...

  3. 78 FR 64891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to...

  4. 78 FR 42718 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to...

  5. 75 FR 11778 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...NMFS announces final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications and prohibited species catch allowances for the groundfish fishery of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to establish harvest limits for groundfish during the 2010 and 2011 fishing years, and to accomplish the goals and objectives of the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the BSAI......

  6. Aircraft Measurements of Heat Fluxes Over Wind-Driven Coastal Polynyas in the Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Bernard; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Gasiewski, Albin J.

    2006-01-01

    The first estimates of the average bulk heat transfer coefficient for Arctic sea ice are presented as a function of mean ice thickness. Turbulent heat flux measurements made by the NASA P-3 over the St. Lawrence Island polynya (SLIP) and Kuskokwim Bay in the Bering Sea during AMSR-Ice03 were used to estimate the values of the heat transfer coefficient CH. Estimates of ice thickness were made from the algorithm of Perovich et al. using broadband albedos obtained from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data. Plots of CH as a function of ice thickness showed a nearly linear relationship for ice thicknesses in the range of 0-14 cm in the polynyas. Previous estimates of CH for different cases over the SLIP were 1.2 x 10(exp -3), but no estimates of ice thickness were available. These results will allow more accurate estimates of heat fluxes from the thin-ice areas of polynyas using satellite retrievals.

  7. Decadal Bering Sea seascape change: consequences for Pacific walruses and indigenous hunters.

    PubMed

    Ray, G Carleton; Hufford, Gary L; Overland, James E; Krupnik, Igor; McCormick-Ray, Jerry; Frey, Karen; Labunski, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The most significant factors currently affecting the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) population are climate change and consequent changes in sea-ice morphology and dynamics. This paper integrates recent physical sea-ice change in the Bering Sea with biological and ecological conditions of walruses in their winter-spring reproductive habitat. Historically, walrus in winter-spring depended on a critical mass of sea-ice habitat to optimize social networking, reproductive fitness, feeding behavior, migration, and energetic efficiency. During 2003-2013, our cross-disciplinary, multiscale analysis from shipboard observations, satellite imagery, and ice-floe tracking, reinforced by information from indigenous subsistence hunters, documented change of sea-ice structure from a plastic continuum to a "mixing bowl" of ice floes moving more independently. This fragmentation of winter habitat preconditions the walrus population toward dispersal mortality and will also negatively affect the availability of resources for indigenous communities. We urge an expanded research and management agenda that integrates walrus natural history and habitat more completely with changing sea-ice morphology and dynamics at multiple scales, while also meeting the needs of local communities. PMID:27039507

  8. Discovery of two new large submarine canyons in the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, P.R.; Karl, Herman A.

    1984-01-01

    The Beringian continental margin is incised by some of the world's largest submarine canyons. Two newly discovered canyons, St. Matthew and Middle, are hereby added to the roster of Bering Sea canyons. Although these canyons are smaller and not cut back into the Bering shelf like the five very large canyons, they are nonetheless comparable in size to most of the canyons that have been cut into the U.S. eastern continental margin and much larger than the well-known southern California canyons. Both igneous and sedimentary rocks of Eocene to Pliocene age have been dredged from the walls of St. Matthew and Middle Canyons as well as from the walls of several of the other Beringian margin canyons, thus suggesting a late Tertiary to Quaternary genesis of the canyons. We speculate that the ancestral Yukon and possibly Anadyr Rivers were instrumental in initiating the canyon-cutting processes, but that, due to restrictions imposed by island and subsea bedrock barriers, cutting of the two newly discovered canyons may have begun later and been slower than for the other five canyons. ?? 1984.

  9. BESMEX: Bering Sea marine mammal experiment. [with the primary target species being the walrus and bowhead whale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, G. C.; Wartzok, D.

    1974-01-01

    Predictive ecological models are being studied for the management and conservation of the walrus, and the bowhead whale in the Bering Sea. The influence of sea ice on the distribution, and carrying capacity of the area for these two mammals is to be investigated with the primary target species being the walrus. Remote sensing and radio tracking is considered a requirement for assessing the walrus ecosystem.

  10. Sea-ice habitat preference of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the Bering Sea: A multiscaled approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, Alexander Edward

    The goal of this thesis is to define specific parameters of mesoscale sea-ice seascapes for which walruses show preference during important periods of their natural history. This research thesis incorporates sea-ice geophysics, marine-mammal ecology, remote sensing, computer vision techniques, and traditional ecological knowledge of indigenous subsistence hunters in order to quantitatively study walrus preference of sea ice during the spring migration in the Bering Sea. Using an approach that applies seascape ecology, or landscape ecology to the marine environment, our goal is to define specific parameters of ice patch descriptors, or mesoscale seascapes in order to evaluate and describe potential walrus preference for such ice and the ecological services it provides during an important period of their life-cycle. The importance of specific sea-ice properties to walrus occupation motivates an investigation into how walruses use sea ice at multiple spatial scales when previous research suggests that walruses do not show preference for particular floes. Analysis of aerial imagery, using image processing techniques and digital geomorphometric measurements (floe size, shape, and arrangement), demonstrated that while a particular floe may not be preferred, at larger scales a collection of floes, specifically an ice patch (< 4 km2), was preferred. This shows that walruses occupy ice patches with distinct ice features such as floe convexity, spatial density, and young ice and open water concentration. Ice patches that are occupied by adult and juvenile walruses show a small number of characteristics that vary from those ice patches that were visually unoccupied. Using synthetic aperture radar imagery, we analyzed co-located walrus observations and statistical texture analysis of radar imagery to quantify seascape preferences of walruses during the spring migration. At a coarse resolution of 100 -- 9,000 km2, seascape analysis shows that, for the years 2006 -- 2008

  11. The role of ocean acidification in systemic carbonate mineral suppression in the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, Jeremy T.; Cross, Jessica N.; Bates, Nicholas R.

    2011-10-01

    Ocean acidification driven by absorption of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere is now recognized as a systemic, global process that could threaten diverse marine ecosystems and a number of commercially important species. The change in calcium carbonate (CaCO3) mineral saturation states (Ω) brought on by the reduction of seawater pH is most pronounced in high latitude regions where unique biogeochemical processes create an environment more susceptible to the suppression of Ω values for aragonite and calcite, which are critical to shell building organisms. New observations from the eastern Bering Sea shelf show that remineralization of organic matter exported from surface waters rapidly increases bottom water CO2 concentrations over the shelf in summer and fall, suppressing Ω values. The removal of CO2 from surface waters by high rates of phytoplankton primary production increases Ω values between spring and summer, but these increases are partly counteracted by mixing with sea ice melt water and terrestrial river runoff that have low Ω values. While these environmental processes play an important role in creating seasonally low saturation states, ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 has shifted Ω values for aragonite to below the saturation horizon in broad regions across the shelf for at least several months each year. Furthermore, we also report that calcite became undersaturated in September of 2009 in the bottom waters over the shelf. The reduction in CaCO3 mineral saturation states could have profound implications for several keystone calcifying species in the Bering Sea, particularly the commercially important crab fisheries.

  12. Interannual variability in stock abundance and body size of Pacific salmon in the central Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Y.; Azumaya, T.; Fukuwaka, M.; Davis, N.

    2002-10-01

    Variability in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and mean body size was examined for pink, chum and sockeye salmon collected with research gillnets in the central Bering Sea in July from 1972 to 2000. The CPUEs for all three species showed significant increasing trends, but with large interannual variability. The CPUE of pink salmon was higher in odd years than in even years, and abruptly increased in the odd years post-1989. Chum salmon also showed odd/even year fluctuations, which were out-of-phase with those of pink salmon. Sockeye salmon showed no biennial such fluctuations. The CPUEs of chum and sockeye salmon were higher during 1979-1984 and 1992-1998, but lower during 1985-1991, especially for younger age group such as ocean age 2 and 3. Data for sea surface temperature (SST) and abundances of chum and sockeye salmon during four periods (1972-1976, 1977-1984, 1985-1990, and 1991-2000) indicated a portion of chum and sockeye salmon were distributed in the northern Gulf of Alaska in 1985-1990, when SST in the Gulf of Alaska was low. However, the fish were more abundant in the Bering Sea in 1977-1984 and 1991-2000 when SST was relatively high in the Gulf of Alaska. Body size of pink salmon showed a significant decreasing trend. Chum and sockeye salmon also showed significant decreasing trends in body size at ocean age 3 and older ages, but not at ocean age 2. Significant negative relationships between CPUE and body size were found within species. No significant correlations were found between an Aleutian low pressure index (ALPI) with CPUE and body size, but the increases in CPUE around the late 1970s and early 1990s may be partly be the result of shifts in the distributions of chum and sockeye salmon caused by SST changes related to the regime shift in 1977 and 1989 identified by the ALPI.

  13. A variational inverse method for the reconstruction of general circulation fields in the Northern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasseur, Pierre P.

    1991-03-01

    The knowledge of the dynamical structures associated with the general circulation in the Northern Bering Sea and Bering Strait is improving as numerical models together with in situ observing systems become more and more sophisticated. The ultimate objective being the design of a realistic model, it is fundamental to confront the results stemming from numerical simulations with the extensive set of hydrographic data collected since the beginning of the century. A variational inverse model has been developed for the study of continental seas with the aim of reconstructing, on the basis of local measurements (such as CTD profiles carried out at isolated hydrographic stations), continuous fields of the state variables representative of the general circulation. A numerical inverse methodology based on a variational principle and a finite element discretization has been designed to generate dynamically consistent patterns, providing a practical tool for the visualization and the mathematical interpretation of observations. Horizontal distributions of temperature, salinity, nutrients, chlorophyll and other chemical tracers, as well as the horizontal transport of water are reconstructed by using synoptic data collected from the ISHTAR NSF Research Project. Among the three water masses that can be distinguished in the region, the Anadyr Stream is obviously the main source of nutrients for the whole basin. The trace of a permanent upwelling located close to the Siberian coast can be detected on a series of general circulation patterns representative of various tracers. The strong vertical motions resulting from this upwelling allow an intensive primary productivity and determine the particularly fertile conditions for the development of the ecosystem in the Chukchi Sea.

  14. Body size affects individual winter foraging strategies of thick-billed murres in the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Orben, Rachael A; Paredes, Rosana; Roby, Daniel D; Irons, David B; Shaffer, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Foraging and migration often require different energetic and movement strategies. Though not readily apparent, constraints during one phase might influence the foraging strategies observed in another. For marine birds that fly and dive, body size constraints likely present a trade-off between foraging ability and migration as smaller bodies reduce flight costs, whereas larger bodies are advantageous for diving deeper. This study examines individual wintering strategies of deep diving thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) breeding at three colonies in the south-eastern Bering Sea: St Paul, St George and Bogoslof. These colonies, arranged north to south, are located such that breeding birds forage in a gradient from shelf to deep-water habitats. We used geolocation time-depth recorders and stable isotopes from feathers to determine differences in foraging behaviour and diet of murres during three non-breeding periods, 2008-2011. Body size was quantified by a principal component analysis (wing, culmen, head+bill and tarsus length). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified winter foraging strategies based on individual movement, diving behaviour and diet (inferred from stable isotopes). Structural body size differed by breeding island. Larger birds from St Paul had higher wing loading than smaller birds from St George. Larger birds, mainly from St Paul, dove to deeper depths, spent more time in the Bering Sea, and likely consumed higher trophic-level prey in late winter. Three winter foraging strategies were identified. The main strategy, employed by small birds from all three breeding colonies in the first 2 years, was characterized by high residency areas in the North Pacific south of the Aleutians and nocturnal diving. In contrast, 31% of birds from St Paul remained in the Bering Sea and foraged mainly during the day, apparently feeding on higher trophic-level prey. Throat feather stable isotopes indicated that individuals exhibited flexibility in the use of this

  15. Carbon sources and trophic relationships of ice seals during recent environmental shifts in the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiway W; Springer, Alan M; Budge, Suzanne M; Horstmann, Lara; Quakenbush, Lori T; Wooller, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    Dramatic multiyear fluctuations in water temperature and seasonal sea ice extent and duration across the Bering-Chukchi continental shelf have occurred in this century, raising a pressing ecological question: Do such environmental changes alter marine production processes linking primary producers to upper trophic-level predators? We examined this question by comparing the blubber fatty acid (FA) composition and stable carbon isotope ratios of individual FA (δ¹³CFA) of adult ringed seals (Pusa hispida), bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), spotted seals (Phoca largha), and ribbon seals (Histriophoca fasciata), collectively known as "ice seals," sampled during an anomalously warm, low sea ice period in 2002-2005 in the Bering Sea and a subsequent cold, high sea ice period in 2007-2010. δ¹³C(FA) values, used to estimate the contribution to seals of carbon derived from sea ice algae (sympagic production) relative to that derived from water column phytoplankton (pelagic production), indicated that during the cold period, sympagic production accounted for 62-80% of the FA in the blubber of bearded seals, 51-62% in spotted seals, and 21-60% in ringed seals. Moreover, the δ¹³CFA values of bearded seals indicated a greater incorporation of sympagic FAs during the cold period than the warm period. This result provides the first empirical evidence of an ecosystem-scale effect of a putative change in sympagic production in the Western Arctic. The FA composition of ice seals showed clear evidence of resource partitioning among ringed, bearded, and spotted seals, and little niche separation between spotted and ribbon seals, which is consistent with previous studies. Despite interannual variability, the FA composition of ringed and bearded seals showed little evidence of differences in diet between the warm and cold periods. The findings that sympagic production contributes significantly to food webs supporting ice seals, and that the contribution apparently is less in

  16. Geology of Norton Basin and continental shelf beneath northwestern Bering Sea, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, M.A.; Patton, W.W. Jr.; Holmes, M.L.

    1982-03-01

    The rocks that floor the Norton basin and the northwestern Bering Sea are most likely of Precambrian and Paleozoic age, like those rocks that crop out around the basin. A maximum of 6.5 km of mainly Cenozoic strata lie over basement in the basin. On the basis of the geometry of reflections in seismic data, it is believed alluvial fans to be present deep in the basin and to border major basement fault blocks. These fans are the lowest units of the basin fill in many areas and consist of uppermost Cretaceous or lower Paleogene, possibly coal- and volcanic-rich rocks. Mainly clastic nonmarine sedimentary rocks overlie the fan deposits. The Neogene and Quaternary basin rocks apparently were deposited in a marine environment.

  17. Modeling haul-out behavior of walruses in Bering Sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, M.S.; Jay, C.V.; Fischbach, A.S.; Garlich-Miller, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding haul-out behavior of ice-associated pinnipeds is essential for designing and interpreting popula-tion surveys and for assessing effects of potential changes in their ice environments. We used satellite-linked transmitters to obtain sequential information about location and haul-out state for Pacific walruses, Odobenus rosmarus divergens (Il-liger, 1815), in the Bering Sea during April of 2004, 2005, and 2006. We used these data in a generalized mixed model of haul-out bout durations and a hierarchical Bayesian model of haul-out probabilities to assess factors related to walrus haul-out behavior, and provide the first predictive model of walrus haul-out behavior in sea ice habitat. Average haul-out bout duration was 9 h, but durations of haul-out bouts tended to increase with durations of preceding in-water bouts. On aver-age, tagged walruses spent only about 17% of their time hauled out on sea ice. Probability of being hauled out decreased with wind speed, increased with temperature, and followed a diurnal cycle with the highest values in the evening. Our haul-out probability model can be used to estimate the proportion of the population that is unavailable for detection in spring surveys of Pacific walruses on sea ice.

  18. Summertime atmosphere-ocean preconditionings for the Bering Sea ice retreat and the following severe winters in the North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanowatari, T.; Inoue, J.; Sato, K.; Kikuchi, T.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric responses to sea ice retreat in the Bering Sea have been linked to recent extreme winters in North America. We investigate the leading factor for the interannual variability of Bering sea ice concentration (SIC) in early winter (November-December), using canonical correlation analysis based on seasonally resolved atmosphere and ocean data for 1980-2014. We found that the 3-month leading (August-September) geopotential height at 500 hPa (Z500) in the Northern Hemisphere explains 29% of SIC variability. The spatial pattern of Z500 for positive sea ice anomalies is associated with negative anomalies over the Gulf of Alaska related to the Pacific Transition (PT) pattern. The heat budget analysis indicates that summertime atmospheric conditions influence SIC through the ocean temperature anomalies of the Alaskan Coastal Current forced by atmospheric turbulent heat fluxes. The PT pattern highly correlates with convective precipitation in the western subtropical Pacific, implying that tropical forcing is the likely cause for the recent extreme winters in North America. Our results present a major factor for interannual variability in the Bering Sea ice area, and further would contribute to the improvement of forecast skill for winter climate in North America.

  19. Climate program "stone soup": Assessing climate change vulnerabilities in the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littell, J. S.; Poe, A.; van Pelt, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is already affecting the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island region of Alaska. Past and present marine research across a broad spectrum of disciplines is shedding light on what sectors of the ecosystem and the human dimension will be most impacted. In a grassroots approach to extend existing research efforts, leveraging recently completed downscaled climate projections for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region, we convened a team of 30 researchers-- with expertise ranging from anthropology to zooplankton to marine mammals-- to assess climate projections in the context of their expertise. This Aleutian-Bering Climate Vulnerability Assessment (ABCVA) began with researchers working in five teams to evaluate the vulnerabilities of key species and ecosystem services relative to projected changes in climate. Each team identified initial vulnerabilities for their focal species or services, and made recommendations for further research and information needs that would help managers and communities better understand the implications of the changing climate in this region. Those draft recommendations were shared during two focused, public sessions held within two hub communities for the Bering and Aleutian region: Unalaska and St. Paul. Qualitative insights about local concerns and observations relative to climate change were collected during these sessions, to be compared to the recommendations being made by the ABCVA team of researchers. Finally, we used a Structured Decision Making process to prioritize the recommendations of participating scientists, and integrate the insights shared during our community sessions. This work brought together residents, stakeholders, scientists, and natural resource managers to collaboratively identify priorities for addressing current and expected future impacts of climate change. Recommendations from this project will be incorporated into future research efforts of the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands Landscape Conservation

  20. Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and assemblages in the Bering Sea during the Pliocene and Pleistocene: IODP sites U1340 and U1343

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husum, Katrine

    2016-03-01

    IODP Site U1340 and Site U1343 in the Bering Sea have been investigated with regard to planktonic foraminifers and fragmentation. The base of Site U1340 dates back to the Early Pliocene and the base of Site U1343 to the Early Pleistocene. Site U1340 is situated at Bowers Ridge, the southern Bering Sea. Site U1343 is situated near the gateway to the Arctic Ocean in the northern Bering Sea. At both sites there are none or very few planktonic foraminifers during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene. After 1.3-1.4 Ma the planktonic foraminifers are continuously present for most of the samples examined. Three stratigraphic events have been identified in this study. The first occurrence (FO) of Neogloboquadrina inglei is observed at 1.4-1.5 Ma, although this event may be affected by poor preservation of foraminifers in older sediments. The observed age of the change in the coiling ratio of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma from right to left at 1.2 Ma agrees with the dating of the same event at the Californian margin. The age of the last occurrence (LO) of N. inglei also seems to match the same event from the Californian margin at 0.7 Ma. This implies that these events are robust regional events for the entire northern Pacific. Multivariate analyses of the quantitative planktonic foraminifer data show three main faunal assemblages. The oldest assemblage from 1.3-1.4 Ma to 1.2 Ma is dominated by N pachyderma s.l. (dex) together with Globigerina bulloides. Other species in this fauna are N. inglei, N. pachyderma s.l. (sin), Globigerina umbilicata and Turborotalita quinqueloba. After 1.2 Ma the faunal assemblage is dominated by N. pachyderma s.l. (sin), but the remaining species are the same as before. At 0.7 Ma N. inglei disappears, whilst the remaining fauna assemblage stays the same, with N. pachyderma s.l. (sin) still dominating, reflecting subpolar-polar conditions. Prior to 1.4-1.3 Ma there are very few or no planktonic foraminifers. Low shell fragmentation and lower TOC

  1. A modeling study to explore on-shelf transport of oceanic zooplankton in the Eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, G. A.; Coyle, K. O.; Hedstrom, K.; Curchitser, E. N.

    2013-07-01

    The Eastern Bering Sea shelf is divided into distinct hydrographic domains by structural fronts. Despite frontal obstructions to cross-shelf transport, each year large oceanic copepods—primarily Neocalanus spp.—are known to dominate the biomass of the outer-shelf zooplankton communities, and in some years are advected into the middle-shelf domain. Using ROMS (the Regional Ocean Modeling System), coupled with a float tracking model designed to represent ontogenetic vertical migration behavior of Neocalanus, we explored the mechanisms, timing, and location of the transport of oceanic zooplankton onto the eastern Bering Sea shelf from overwintering sources along the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea shelf breaks, under a variety of environmental conditions. Our float tracking experiments suggest that the timing of on-shelf transport and the distribution of oceanic zooplankton on the shelf can vary substantially between one year and another. The Bering, Pribilof, and Zhemchug Canyons and Cape Navarin were all regions of elevated on-shelf float transport. Wind direction was the primary factor controlling inter-annual variability in the timing, amount, and location of the on-shelf transport of our Neocalanus floats. Float transport across the northern and southern shelves responded in opposite directions to inter-annual differences in wind forcing: southeasterly wind enhanced on-shelf transport of the Neocalanus floats along the southern shelf but suppressed on-shelf transport over the northern shelf. Conversely, northwesterly wind suppressed on-shelf zooplankton transport onto the southern shelf but promoted enhanced transport around Cape Navarin on the northern shelf. Transport of the Neocalanus floats onto the shelf can be very episodic, reflecting the short duration of winds that promote on-shelf transport. Relatively short (days to weeks) periods of southeasterly wind between March and April significantly impacted the number of floats transported onto the shelf. The

  2. Summertime atmosphere-ocean preconditionings for the Bering Sea ice retreat and the following severe winters in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanowatari, Takuya; Inoue, Jun; Sato, Kazutoshi; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric responses to sea ice retreat in the Bering Sea have been linked to recent extreme winters in North America. We investigate the leading factor for the interannual variability of Bering sea ice area (SIA) in early winter (November-December), using canonical correlation analysis based on seasonally resolved atmosphere and ocean data for 1980-2014. We found that the 3-month leading (August-September) geopotential height at 500 hPa (Z500) in the Northern Hemisphere explains 29% of SIA variability. The spatial pattern of Z500 for positive (negative) sea ice anomalies is associated with negative (positive) anomalies over the Gulf of Alaska related to the Pacific transition (PT) pattern. The heat budget analysis indicates that summertime atmospheric conditions influence SIA through the ocean temperature anomalies of the Alaskan Coastal Current forced by atmospheric turbulent heat fluxes. The PT pattern highly correlates with convective precipitation in the western subtropical Pacific, implying that weakened subtropical forcing is the likely cause for the recent extreme winters in North America. Our results present a major factor for interannual variability in the Bering SIA, and further would contribute to the improvement of forecasting winter climate in North America.

  3. Mooring observations of the thermal structure, salinity, and currents in the SE Bering Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokelet, E. D.; Stabeno, P. J.

    1997-10-01

    Utilizing recently developed deep-sea mooring technology, we present the first interannual time series measurements of the ocean temperature, salinity, and velocity fields in the Bering Sea basin. These were made during spring and summer of 1992 and 1993 and late winter to summer of 1994, in 2195 m of water. Results show a weak background flow of ˜5 cm/s with semidiurnal tides superimposed. Anticyclonic (clockwise) eddies pass by sporadically, inducing currents up to ˜80 cm/s and depressing the isopycnals and isotherms up to ˜200 m. The thermal structure in the upper 400 m shows a deep temperature maximum from warm Alaskan Stream inflows and a minimum above due to winter cooling. A sea surface cooling event was observed in the late winter of 1994, with cold water penetrating to ˜120-m depth. Spring warming begins in late April to early May of each year, marked by the arrival of the 3.75°C isotherm. The local wind plays little role in forcing ocean currents at the site except at the inertial frequency.

  4. High-resolution IP25-based reconstruction of sea-ice variability in the western North Pacific and Bering Sea during the past 18,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méheust, Marie; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Max, Lars; Riethdorf, Jan-Rainer

    2016-04-01

    Due to its strong influence on heat and moisture exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, sea ice is an essential component of the global climate system. In the context of its alarming decrease in terms of concentration, thickness and duration, understanding the processes controlling sea-ice variability and reconstructing paleo-sea-ice extent in polar regions have become of great interest for the scientific community. In this study, for the first time, IP25, a recently developed biomarker sea-ice proxy, was used for a high-resolution reconstruction of the sea-ice extent and its variability in the western North Pacific and western Bering Sea during the past 18,000 years. To identify mechanisms controlling the sea-ice variability, IP25 data were associated with published sea-surface temperature as well as diatom and biogenic opal data. The results indicate that a seasonal sea-ice cover existed during cold periods (Heinrich Stadial 1 and Younger Dryas), whereas during warmer intervals (Bølling-Allerød and Holocene) reduced sea ice or ice-free conditions prevailed in the study area. The variability in sea-ice extent seems to be linked to climate anomalies and sea-level changes controlling the oceanographic circulation between the subarctic Pacific and the Bering Sea, especially the Alaskan Stream injection though the Aleutian passes.

  5. Feeding ecology of age-0 walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in the southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasburger, Wesley W.; Hillgruber, Nicola; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Mueter, Franz J.

    2014-11-01

    Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) are of particular economic and ecological importance in the southeastern Bering Sea. The spatial and temporal overlap of early life stages of both species may explain their strongly correlated recruitment trends. Pelagic larvae and juveniles were collected during four research cruises in May, July and September of 2008, an exceptionally cold year, and their stomach contents were examined. Feeding success and diet composition of walleye pollock and Pacific cod were consistently different in spring, summer, and fall. Pacific cod larvae and juveniles always consumed larger and progressively fewer prey items per stomach than walleye pollock; this difference was particularly pronounced in the fall. Our data suggest that co-occurring early life stages of walleye pollock and Pacific cod were dividing prey resources rather than competing for them, at least during the exceptionally cold conditions in 2008 in the southeastern Bering Sea.

  6. 75 FR 38454 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skates Management in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ...The North Pacific Fishery Management Council submitted Amendments 95 and 96 to the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI)-as well as Amendment 87 to the FMP for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA)-to NMFS for review. If approved, Amendment 95 would move skates from the other species category to the target species category......

  7. Spring and fall phytoplankton blooms in a productive subarctic ecosystem, the eastern Bering Sea, during 1995-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigler, Michael F.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Mueter, Franz J.

    2014-11-01

    The timing and magnitude of phytoplankton blooms in subarctic ecosystems often strongly influence the amount of energy that is transferred through subsequent trophic pathways. In the eastern Bering Sea, spring bloom timing has been linked to ice retreat timing and production of zooplankton and fish. A large part of the eastern Bering Sea shelf (~500 km wide) is ice-covered during winter and spring. Four oceanographic moorings have been deployed along the 70-m depth contour of the eastern Bering Sea shelf with the southern location occupied annually since 1995, the two northern locations since 2004 and the remaining location since 2001. Chlorophyll a fluorescence data from the four moorings provide 37 realizations of a spring bloom and 33 realizations of a fall bloom. We found that in the eastern Bering Sea: if ice was present after mid-March, spring bloom timing was related to ice retreat timing (p<0.001, df=1, 24); if ice was absent or retreated before mid-March, a spring bloom usually occurred in May or early June (average day 148, SE=3.5, n=11). A fall bloom also commonly occurred, usually in late September (average day 274, SE=4.2, n=33), and its timing was not significantly related to the timing of storms (p=0.88, df=1, 27) or fall water column overturn (p=0.49, df=1, 27). The magnitudes of the spring and fall blooms were correlated (p=0.011, df=28). The interval between the spring and fall blooms varied between four to six months depending on year and location. We present a hypothesis to explain how the large crustacean zooplankton taxa Calanus spp. likely respond to variation in the interval between blooms (spring to fall and fall to spring).

  8. Foraging segregation of two congeneric diving seabird species breeding on St. George Island, Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Sato, Nobuhiko; Watanuki, Yutaka; Will, Alexis; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Takahashi, Akinori

    2016-04-01

    Subarctic environmental changes are expected to affect the foraging ecology of marine top predators, but the response to such changes may vary among species if they use food resources differently. We examined the characteristics of foraging behavior of two sympatric congeneric diving seabird: common (Uria aalge: hereafter COMUs) and thick-billed (U. lomvia: hereafter TBMUs) murres breeding on St. George Island, located in the seasonal sea-ice region of the Bering Sea. We investigated their foraging trip and flight durations, diel patterns of dive depth, and underwater wing strokes, along with wing morphology and blood stable isotope signatures and stress hormones. Acceleration-temperature-depth loggers were attached to chick-guarding birds, and data were obtained from 7 COMUs and 12 TBMUs. Both species showed similar mean trip duration (13.2 h for COMUs and 10.5 h for TBMUs) and similar diurnal patterns of diving (frequent dives to various depths in the daytime and less frequent dives to shallow depths in the nighttime). During the daytime, the dive depths of COMUs had two peaks in shallow (18.1 m) and deep (74.2 m) depths, while those of TBMUs were 20.2 m and 59.7 m. COMUs showed more frequent wing strokes during the bottom phase of dives (1.90 s-1) than TBMUs (1.66 s-1). Fish occurred more frequently in the bill loads of COMUs (85 %) than those of TBMUs (56 %). The δ15N value of blood was significantly higher in COMUs (14.5 ‰) than in TBMUs (13.1 ‰). The relatively small wing area (0.053 m2) of COMUs compared to TBMUs (0.067 m2) may facilitate their increased agility while foraging and allow them to capture more mobile prey such as larger fishes that inhabit deeper depths. These differences in food resource use may lead to the differential responses of the two murre species to marine environmental changes in the Bering Sea.

  9. Assigning king eiders to wintering regions in the Bering Sea using stable isotopes of feathers and claws

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, S.; Powell, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of wintering regions for birds sampled during the breeding season is crucial to understanding how events outside the breeding season may affect populations. We assigned king eiders captured on breeding grounds in northern Alaska to 3 broad geographic wintering regions in the Bering Sea using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes obtained from head feathers. Using a discriminant function analysis of feathers obtained from birds tracked with satellite transmitters, we estimated that 88 % of feathers were assigned to the region in which they were grown. We then assigned 84 birds of unknown origin to wintering regions based on their head feather isotope ratios, and tested the utility of claws for geographic assignment. Based on the feather results, we estimated that similar proportions of birds in our study area use each of the 3 wintering regions in the Bering Sea. These results are in close agreement with estimates from satellite telemetry and show the usefulness of stable isotope signatures of feathers in assigning marine birds to geographic regions. The use of claws is currently limited by incomplete understanding of claw growth rates. Data presented here will allow managers of eiders, other marine birds, and marine mammals to assign animals to regions in the Bering Sea based on stable isotope signatures of body tissues. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  10. Distribution of Arctic and Pacific copepods and their habitat in the northern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, H.; Matsuno, K.; Fujiwara, A.; Onuka, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Ueno, H.; Watanuki, Y.; Kikuchi, T.

    2015-11-01

    The advection of warm Pacific water and the reduction of sea-ice extent in the western Arctic Ocean may influence the abundance and distribution of copepods, i.e., a key component in food webs. To understand the factors affecting abundance of copepods in the northern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea, we constructed habitat models explaining the spatial patterns of the large and small Arctic copepods and the Pacific copepods, separately, using generalized additive models. Copepods were sampled by NORPAC net. Vertical profiles of density, temperature and salinity in the seawater were measured using CTD, and concentration of chlorophyll a in seawater was measured with a fluorometer. The timing of sea-ice retreat was determined using the satellite image. To quantify the structure of water masses, the magnitude of pycnocline and averaged density, temperature and salinity in upper and bottom layers were scored along three axes using principal component analysis (PCA). The structures of water masses indexed by the scores of PCAs were selected as explanatory variables in the best models. Large Arctic copepods were abundant in the water mass with high salinity water in bottom layer or with cold/low salinity water in upper layer and cold/high salinity water in bottom layer, and small Arctic copepods were abundant in the water mass with warm/saline water in upper layer and cold/high salinity water in bottom layers, while Pacific copepods were abundant in the water mass with warm/saline in upper layer and cold/high salinity water in bottom layer. All copepod groups were abundant in areas with deeper depth. Although chlorophyll a in upper and bottom layers were selected as explanatory variables in the best models, apparent trends were not observed. All copepod groups were abundant where the sea-ice retreated at earlier timing. Our study might indicate potential positive effects of the reduction of sea-ice extent on the distribution of all groups of copepods in the Arctic Ocean.

  11. Results of the US contribution to the joint US/USSR Bering Sea experiment. [atmospheric circulation and sea ice cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.; Chang, T. C.; Fowler, M. G.; Gloersen, P.; Kuhn, P. M.; Ramseier, R. O.; Ross, D. B.; Stambach, G.; Webster, W. J., Jr.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1974-01-01

    The atmospheric circulation which occurred during the Bering Sea Experiment, 15 February to 10 March 1973, in and around the experiment area is analyzed and related to the macroscale morphology and dynamics of the sea ice cover. The ice cover was very complex in structure, being made up of five ice types, and underwent strong dynamic activity. Synoptic analyses show that an optimum variety of weather situations occurred during the experiment: an initial strong anticyclonic period (6 days), followed by a period of strong cyclonic activity (6 days), followed by weak anticyclonic activity (3 days), and finally a period of weak cyclonic activity (4 days). The data of the mesoscale test areas observed on the four sea ice option flights, and ship weather, and drift data give a detailed description of mesoscale ice dynamics which correlates well with the macroscale view: anticyclonic activity advects the ice southward with strong ice divergence and a regular lead and polynya pattern; cyclonic activity advects the ice northward with ice convergence, or slight divergence, and a random lead and polynya pattern.

  12. Spring plankton dynamics in the Eastern Bering Sea, 1971-2050: Mechanisms of interannual variability diagnosed with a numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banas, Neil S.; Zhang, Jinlun; Campbell, Robert G.; Sambrotto, Raymond N.; Lomas, Michael W.; Sherr, Evelyn; Sherr, Barry; Ashjian, Carin; Stoecker, Diane; Lessard, Evelyn J.

    2016-02-01

    A new planktonic ecosystem model was constructed for the Eastern Bering Sea based on observations from the 2007-2010 BEST/BSIERP (Bering Ecosystem Study/Bering Sea Integrated Ecosystem Research Program) field program. When run with forcing from a data-assimilative ice-ocean hindcast of 1971-2012, the model performs well against observations of spring bloom time evolution (phytoplankton and microzooplankton biomass, growth and grazing rates, and ratios among new, regenerated, and export production). On the southern middle shelf (57°N, station M2), the model replicates the generally inverse relationship between ice-retreat timing and spring bloom timing known from observations, and the simpler direct relationship between the two that has been observed on the northern middle shelf (62°N, station M8). The relationship between simulated mean primary production and mean temperature in spring (15 February to 15 July) is generally positive, although this was found to be an indirect relationship which does not continue to apply across a future projection of temperature and ice cover in the 2040s. At M2, the leading direct controls on total spring primary production are found to be advective and turbulent nutrient supply, suggesting that mesoscale, wind-driven processes—advective transport and storminess—may be crucial to long-term trends in spring primary production in the southeastern Bering Sea, with temperature and ice cover playing only indirect roles. Sensitivity experiments suggest that direct dependence of planktonic growth and metabolic rates on temperature is less significant overall than the other drivers correlated with temperature described above.

  13. Holocene History of the Bering Sea Bowhead Whale ( Balaena mysticetus) in Its Beaufort Sea Summer Grounds off Southwestern Victoria Island, Western Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, Arthur S.; Savelle, James M.

    2001-05-01

    The fossil remains of 43 bowhead whales were mapped on the raised beaches of western Wollaston Peninsula, Victoria Island, Canadian Arctic, near the historic summer range limit of the Bering Sea stock in the Beaufort Sea. The elevations and radiocarbon ages of the remains demonstrate that the bowhead ranged commonly into the region following the submergence of Bering Strait at ca. 10,000 14C yr B.P. until ca. 8500 14C yr B.P. During the same interval, bowheads ranged widely from the Beaufort Sea to Baffin Bay. Subsequently, no whales reached Wollaston Peninsula until ca. 1500 14C yr B.P. Late Holocene populations evidently were small, or occupations were brief, in comparison to those of the early Holocene. Although the late Holocene recurrence may relate to the expansion of pioneering Thule whalers eastward from Alaska, there are few Thule sites and limited evidence of Thule whaling in the area surveyed to support this suggestion.

  14. Sea-level fluctuations and deep-sea sedimentation rates.

    PubMed

    Worsley, T R; Davies, T A

    1979-02-01

    Sediment accumulation rate curves from 95 drilled cores from the Pacific basin and sea-level curves derived from continental margin seismic stratigraphy show that high biogenous sediment accumulation rates correspond to low eustatic sea levels for at least the last 48 million years. This relationship fits a simple model of high sea levels producing lower land/sea ratios and hence slower chemical erosion of the continents, and vice versa. PMID:17734144

  15. Exploring Ideas About Why Methane Generation and Hydrate Formation Occur So Abundantly in the Bering Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, G. K.; Long, C.; Peacock, S.; Haacke, R.; Rossi, G.; Madrussani, G.; Foucher, J. P.; Nouze, H.; Reston, T.; Zillmer, M.; Mienert, J.; Vanneste, M.; Buenz, S.; Scholl, D. W.; Barth, G. A.; Childs, J. R.

    2003-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: Beneath the virtually flat surface of the abyssal floor (3700-4100 m) of the Bering Sea Basin, geophysical data record a regionally persistent BSR at a depth of ~450 m. Above vertical chimneys of ascending gas (~0.5 km in dia, 1-2 km in height) the horizontal attitude of the BSR is deflected (domed) upward at what are called VAMP (Velocity-Amplitude) structures. VAMPs are thought to record the massive deposition of interstitial hydrate that forms a velocity pull-up lens in a sequence of flat-lying turbidite and diatom beds. The areally extensive (~450,000 km2) BSR and abundance (thousands) of gas chimneys and associated VAMPs testify to high, basin-wide flux of methane. Why should this be so? Taking a basin analysis approach, the following combination of depositional, diagenetic, and oceanographic factors are hypothesized to be involved. SEDIMENT COLUMN: The basin floor is underlain by a 3-12-km thick sequence of mostly Eocene and younger mudstone and turbidite deposits, the Miocene, Pliocene, and Quaternary part of which is, or was, richly diatomaceous. During the past 2-3 Myr a ~1-km-thick, water- (porosity = 50-60%) and diatom-rich turbidite section accumulated rapidly over the latest Miocene basin floor. Below the turbidite sequence silica diagenesis has formed porcelaneous shale via the downsection conversion of the opal-A of diatom tests to opal-CT and, at great depths, chalcedonic quartz or chert. HEATFLOW: The average flux of heat across the basin floor is 55-60 mW/m2 (n= 31, range 42-90), which is higher than could be produced by its basement of Cretaceous oceanic crust. The near-sea floor thermal gradient is 50-60 deg C/km. PRODUCTIVITY: The Bering Sea Basin is one of Earth's most productive fishing grounds, a circumstance linked to the regional upwelling here of part of the nutrient-rich global conveyor belt of circulating thermohaline water. Drilling and dredging document that high surface water productivity, in particular for diatoms, has

  16. Spring Ice Chokes the Bering Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MODIS image of the Bering Sea, Bering Straight and southern Arctic Ocean acquired 7 May 2000. Image generated from MODIS band 2 (0.85 um) at 250 m spatial resolution. Detailed structure and leads in the ice pack are apparent. Ice flow from the Bering Strait southward to the Bearing Sea is seen in great detail. George Riggs, NASA GSFC

  17. Continuity and change in subsistence harvests in five Bering Sea communities: Akutan, Emmonak, Savoonga, St. Paul, and Togiak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, James A.; Braem, Nicole S.; Brown, Caroline L.; Hutchinson-Scarbrough, Lisa B.; Koster, David S.; Krieg, Theodore M.

    2013-10-01

    To document and quantify subsistence harvests of fish and wildlife resources, and provide topics for subsequent key respondent interviews to collect local and traditional knowledge (LTK) about the Bering Sea ecosystem, comprehensive household harvest surveys were conducted in four Bering Sea Alaska Native communities: Akutan, Emmonak, Savoonga, and Togiak. In a fifth community, St. Paul, annual programs to document two key subsistence resources, fur seals and sea lions, continued. Surveys documented relatively high and diverse subsistence harvests, consistent with earlier research that demonstrated the continuing economic, social, and cultural importance of subsistence uses of wild resources. The research also found differences in subsistence use patterns compared to previous years' studies, such as harvest levels, harvest composition, and diversity of resources used, although differences between study years were not uniform across communities. Survey respondents, as well as key respondents in subsequent interviews, identified a complex range of personal, economic, and environmental factors when comparing subsistence uses in the study year with other years, such as increasing costs of fuel and purchased food, commercial fisheries harvests and bycatch, more persistent storms and less predictable winds, and reduced sea ice. Such conditions affect resource abundance and locations as well as access to fish and wildlife populations, and may shape long-term trends. So far, as in the past, families and communities have adapted to changing economic, social, and environmental conditions, but the future is less clear if such changes intensify or accelerate. Local community residents should be essential partners in future efforts to understand these complex processes that affect the natural resources of the Bering Sea.

  18. Seasonal Storminess in the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shippee, N. J.; Atkinson, D. E.; Walsh, J. E.; Partain, J.; Gottschalck, J.; Marra, J.

    2012-12-01

    Annually, extra-tropical cyclones present a high impact natural hazard to the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan regions. In these regions, extensive subsistence and commercial fishing, new oil and gas field development, tourism, growing interest in and exploitation of new commercial shipping potential, and increasing military and Coast Guard activity, all represent potential parties impacted by storms in these waters. It is of interest to many parties to begin developing capacity to provide some indication of storm activity at a monthly- to seasonal-outlook (30 to 90 days) timeframe. Using storm track data from NOAA's Climate Prediction Center for the North Pacific and Alaskan region, an experimental seasonal storminess outlook product, using eigen-based methods similar to the operational seasonal temperature and precipitation products currently produced at NOAA CPC, has been created and tested in hindcast mode using predicted states of ENSO, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA), and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). A sample of the seasonal storminess outlook product will be shown along with a discussion of the utility of individual teleconnection patterns in the generation of the product.

  19. Origins of the subsurface ammonium maximum in the Southeast Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordy, Calvin W.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Righi, Dylan; Menzia, Frederick A.

    2008-08-01

    In the Bering Sea, it has long been argued that ammonium-rich bottom water from the middle shelf of Bristol Bay is tidally diffused seaward resulting in a mid-depth ammonium tongue over the outer shelf. Weak horizontal mean flows in the region (relative to an especially strong tidal component) support this contention. We examined the distribution of ammonium further north in the vicinity of the Pribilof Islands. On the middle shelf, bottom waters had concentrations of 4-7 μmol kg -1, and over the outer shelf there was a mid-depth ammonium tongue. Optimal multiparameter analysis of hydrographic data suggested that bottom waters from the middle shelf were prevalent across the outer shelf, and could account for this ammonium tongue. Drifter tracks demonstrated that middle shelf water was incorporated into a westward flow along the shelf break south of St. George Island, and mean flows derived from several decades of drifter tracks also show prominent cross-shelf advection in the region. This was consistent with a scalar argument suggesting that, in the vicinity of the Pribilof Islands, the seaward movement of middle shelf water, and loss of nitrogen over the middle shelf, was the result of advection rather than tidally driven lateral diffusion.

  20. The plume of the Yukon River in relation to the oceanography of the Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Kenneson G.; Mcroy, C. Peter; Ahlnas, Kristina; Springer, Alan

    1989-01-01

    The ecosystem of the northern Bering-Sea shelf was studied using data from the NOAA Very High Resolution Radiometer and AVHRR and the Landsat MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) in conjunction with shipboard measurements. Emphasis was placed on the influence of the Yukon River on this inner shelf environment and on the evaluation of the utility of the new Landsat TM data for oceanography. It was found that the patterns of water mass distribution obtained from satellite images agreed reasonably well with the areal patterns of temperature, salinity, and phytoplankton distributions. The AVHRR, MSS, and TM data show that the Yukon-River discharge is warmer and more turbid than the surrounding coastal water that originates to the south; thus, the Yukon water contributes to the higher temperatures and lower transmissivity of the coastal water. The high resolution of the TM thermal IR band made it possible to observe complex patterns and structures in the surface water that could not be resolved on previous data sets.

  1. Distribution and status of marine birds breeding along the coasts of the Chukchi and Bering seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Sealy, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    The Alaska coast fronting on the Chukchi and Bering seas, exclusive of the Aleutian Islands, supports seven complexes of marine bird colonies numbering more than 1 million birds each, nine colonies of 100,000 to almost 1 million birds, and many smaller colonies. Colonies are found on most headlands and islands and are dominated numerically by alcids and kittiwakes (Rissa sp.). Estuarine habitats (mainly the lowlands of northern Seward Peninsula, Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, and the north side of the Alaska Peninsula) are extremely important for breeding and migrating marine waterfowl, shorebirds, gulls (Larus sp.), and terns (Sterna sp.). Information on population size and distribution of breeding marine birds within this area is extensive for only a few of the more heavily hunted species of waterfowl. Except for the intensive and systematic censusing of a few colonies in this region, population data on cliff-, burrow-, and crevice-nesting birds are such that all but gross changes in numbers may go unnoticed, and if noticed they could not be measured.

  2. Recruitment variation of eastern Bering Sea crabs: Climate-forcing or top-down effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jie; Kruse, Gordon H.

    2006-02-01

    During the last three decades, population abundances of eastern Bering Sea (EBS) crab stocks fluctuated greatly, driven by highly variable recruitment. In recent years, abundances of these stocks have been very low compared to historical levels. This study aims to understand recruitment variation of six stocks of red king ( Paralithodes camtschaticus), blue king ( P. platypus), Tanner ( Chionoecetes bairdi), and snow ( C. opilio) crabs in the EBS. Most crab recruitment time series are not significantly correlated with each other. Spatial distributions of three broadly distributed crab stocks (EBS snow and Tanner crabs and Bristol Bay red king crab) have changed considerably over time, possibly related in part to the regime shift in climate and physical oceanography in 1976-1977. Three climate-forcing hypotheses on larval survival have been proposed to explain crab recruitment variation of Bristol Bay red king crab and EBS Tanner and snow crabs. Some empirical evidence supports speculation that groundfish predation may play an important role in crab recruitment success in the EBS. However, spatial dynamics in the geographic distributions of groundfish and crabs over time make it difficult to relate crab recruitment strength to groundfish biomass. Comprehensive field and spatially explicit modeling studies are needed to test the hypotheses and better understand the relative importance and compound effects of bottom-up and top-down controls on crab recruitment.

  3. Coupling primary production and terrestrial runoff to ocean acidification and carbonate mineral suppression in the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, Jeremy T.; Cross, Jessica N.; Bates, Nicholas R.

    2011-02-01

    Water column pH and carbonate mineral saturation states were calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity data collected over the eastern Bering Sea shelf in the spring and summer of 2008. The saturation states (Ω) of the two most important carbonate minerals, calcite (Ωcalcite) and aragonite (Ωaragonite) were strongly coupled to terrestrial runoff from the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers, primary production in the surface waters, and remineralization of organic matter at depth over the shelf. In spring, before ice melt occurred, pH over the shelf was largely confined to a range of 7.9-8.1 and Ωcalcite and Ωaragonite ranged from 1.5 to 3.0 and 0.8 to 2.0, respectively. At the stations closest to river outflows, aragonite was undersaturated in the water column from the surface to the bottom. During the summer sea ice retreat, high rates of primary production consumed DIC in the mixed layer, which increased pH and Ωcalcite and Ωaragonite. However, Ωcalcite and Ωaragonite decreased by ˜0.3 in the bottom waters over the middle and outer shelf. Over the northern shelf, where export production is highest, Ωaragonite decreased by ˜0.35 and became highly undersaturated. The observed suppression and undersaturation of Ωcalcite and Ωaragonite in the eastern Bering Sea are correlated with anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake into the ocean and will likely be exacerbated under business-as-usual emission scenarios. Therefore, ocean acidification could threaten some benthic and pelagic calcifying organisms across the Bering Sea shelf in the coming decades.

  4. Potential effects of temperature on the benthic infaunal community on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf: Possible impacts of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, K. O.; Konar, B.; Blanchard, A.; Highsmith, R. C.; Carroll, J.; Carroll, M.; Denisenko, S. G.; Sirenko, B. I.

    2007-11-01

    In the late 1950s, Soviet researchers collected benthic infaunal samples from the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Approximately 17 years later, researchers at University of Alaska Fairbanks also sampled the region to assess infaunal biomass and abundance. Here, the two data sets were examined to document patterns and reveal any consistent differences in infaunal biomass among major feeding groups between the two time periods. No significant differences in the geometric mean biomass of all taxa pooled were indicated between the two study periods (1958-1959=49.1 g m -2; 1975-1976=60.8 g m -2; P=0.14); however, significant differences were observed for specific functional groups, namely carnivores, omnivores and surface detritivores. Of the 64 families identified from both data sets from all functional groups, 21 showed statistically significant ( P⩽0.05) differences in mean biomass. Of the 21 families showing significant differences, 19 (91%) of the families had higher mean biomass in the 1975-1976 data set. The above differences suggest a trend toward higher overall infaunal biomass for specific functional groups during mid 1970s compared with the late 1950s. Temperature measurements and literature data indicate that the mid-1970s was an unusually cold period relative to the period before and after, suggesting a mechanistic link between temperature changes and infaunal biomass. Food-web relationships and ecosystem dynamics in the southeastern Bering Sea indicate that during cold periods, infaunal biomass will be elevated relative to warm periods due to elevated carbon flux to the benthos and exclusion of benthic predators on infaunal invertebrates by the cold bottom water on the shelf. As long-term observations of temperature and sea-ice cover indicate a secular warming trend on the Bering Sea shelf, the potential changes in food-web relationships could markedly alter trophic structure and energy flow to apex consumers, potentially impacting the commercial, tourist

  5. Oxygen isotopic composition of bottom seawater and tunicate cellulose used as indicators of water masses in the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas

    SciTech Connect

    Grebmeier, J.M. ); Cooper, L.W.; DeNiro, M.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Oxygen isotopic composition of bottom seawater and tunicate cellulose were used as short-term and long-term indicators, respectively, of water-mass characteristics in the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas. Oxygen isotopic composition of northeastern Bering Sea waters is influenced by Yukon River inflows of {sup 18}O-depleted continental water mixing with relatively {sup 18}O-enriched waters contributed by the Anadyr Current. Tunicate cellulose sampled under Alaska coastal water is more depleted in {sup 18}O than that collected under Bering shelf and Anadyr waters, which reflects the oxygen isotopic composition of these waters. Tunicate cellulose collected under the mixed Bering shelf water displays intermediate {delta} {sup 18}O values. Oxygen isotopic analyses of bottom seawater were used to determine the spatial location and influence of continental and coastal-derived precipitation and of sea-ice formation on water-mass structure on the continental shelf of the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of tunicate cellulose, averaged over multiple seasons, may serve as a long-term biochemical indicator of water-mass patterns in ice-covered polar regions where continuous sampling is impractical.

  6. A comparison of ship and Coastal Zone Color Scanner mapped distribution of phytoplankton in the southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Sambrotto, R. N.; Ray, G. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-one Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) images of the southeastern Bering Sea are examined in order to map the near-surface distribution of phytoplankton during 1979 and 1980. The information is compared with the mesoscale (100-1000 km) distribution of phytoplankton inferred from pooled ship sampling obtained during the Processes and Resources of the Bering Shelf (PROBES) intensive field study during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The imagery indicates that open-water phytoplankton blooms occur first in late April in coastal waters, peak in early May over the middle shelf, and decay rapidly afterwards, reaching concentration minima in June in both regions. These patterns show that the earlier ship observations are valid for most of the eastern Bering shelf. A very tight correlation is found between the PROBES surface chlorophyll a concentrations and mean mixed-layer chlorophyll concentrations. The significant discrepancies between CZCS and ship-based chlorophyll estimates may be due to aliasing in time by the CZCS. It is concluded that neither satellite nor ship alone can do an adequate job of characterizing the physics or biological dynamics of the ocean.

  7. Change in the Nd isotopic composition of the bottom water and detrital sediments on the Bering Slope over the last 500 kyrs with implications for the formation of the North Pacific Intermediate Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, K.; Huh, Y.; Han, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Bering Sea is a potential location for the formation of the North Pacific Intermediate/Deep Water (NPIW/NPDW) and may play an important role in the global heat distribution. We reconstructed the neodymium isotopic ratio (ɛNd) of authigenic Fe-Mn oxide coatings and detrital sediments on the Bering Slope (IODP Expedition 323 site U1345; water depth 1008 m) over the last 500 kyrs. The ɛNd is a quasi-conservative water mass tracer. We compared three different leaching techniques to assure that authigenic signals are captured without contamination from terrigenous sources: (1) leaching (3 hours) with 0.02 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HH) in 25% buffered acetic acid after decarbonation; sediment/solution (v/v) > 10, (2) leaching (1 hour) with 0.02 M HH in 25% buffered acetic acid without decarbonation; sediment/solution ~ 1, and (3) leaching (1 hour) with 0.005 M HH in 1.5% buffered acetic acid-0.003 M Na-EDTA without decarbonation; sediment/solution > 40. The low Al concentrations and less radiogenic ɛNdvalues indicated that method (2) is the most appropriate leaching process. The average ɛNd of the authigenic fraction over the last 500 kyrs is -3.3 ± 0.9 (1σ, n=38), with large temporal fluctuations. The ɛNd of authigenic and detrital fractions are well correlated (r2 ~ 0.66), suggesting that the bottom water composition in the Bering Sea was governed by terrigenous inflow from surrounding areas. Radiogenic ɛNd peaks (up to -1.9) seem to be influenced by radiogenic water inflow from the the Kamchatka or Aluetian arcs. The high bulk density and low b* values imply higher terrigenous versus biological contribution and enhanced sea ice formation. Subsequent brine formation would have triggered sinking of radiogenic surface water, forming the NPIW. On the other hand, non-radiogenic ɛNd troughs (down to -5.3) are observed at times of low bulk density and high b* values. We presume higher biological productivity which is supported by the high opal content at

  8. Geochemical characters of Quaternary tephra beds and their stratighraphic position in the sedimentary core drilled at the site U1343 in the central Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, K.; Asahi, H.; Nagatsuma, Y.; Kurihara, K.; Fukuoka, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Iijima, K.

    2012-12-01

    The project IODP exp.323 in the Bering Sea focused on analyzing long-term ocean and climate trends during 5 Ma, and drilled seven sites (sites 1339-1345). Up to now, the studies of long-term tephrochronology in this area are very rare, though a part of histories of several volcanoes and late Pleistocene to Holocene volcanisms and studies for geochemistry of magma were reported in detail. Our objectives are to reveal how many widespread tephras are found in the Bering Sea and which of volcanoes or volcanic zones provided them. First of all, we analyzed forty-eight tephra samples in the sedimentary core collected at site U1343, near the Bering self sloop. Sediments in site U1343 (57°33.4'N, 175°49.0'E, water depth 1956 mbsf, core length 779.18 m) include three paleomagnetic events (the BM boundary;0.788 Ma, Jaramillo; 0.998 Ma, Cobb Mountain;1.173 Ma). The bottom datum event is reported as 2.0-2.2 Ma (diatom) at 716.4 m. All tephra samples were washed by flesh water and decanting, dried up naturally, sieved by the mesh of dia.250, 125 and 63 micrometer. We observed every tephra under the binocular/polarizing microscopes, and analyzed major-element composition of volcanic glass shards by EPMA (10nA, 15kV, probe dia.10 micrometer). All samples include many kinds of volcanic glass shards (color: colorless to dark brown, form: bubble-wall type, pumice type, fiber type). Diameter of grain size is normally less 125 micrometer, and volcanic glass size in some layers is concentrated in the less 63 micrometer. Thickness of tephra samples is approximately 0.5 cm to 4 cm. In the basis of geochemicalc analysis of volcanic glass shards in 48 samples, though every sample includes volcanic glass shards, we can distinguish the two groups roughly; glass-rich samples (31 samples) and contaminated samples (17 samples). Contaminated samples include course sands (lithic fragments, rounded minerals, fossil fragments), besides volcanic glass shards. Number of contaminated samples

  9. Biomass, growth, and development of populations of herbivorous zooplankton in the southeastern Bering Sea during spring

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, J.; Smith, S.L.

    1985-09-01

    Two distinct communities of herbivorous zooplankton, separated by an oceanographic front, inhabit the continental shelf and slope of the southeastern Bering Sea during spring. The community over the outer shelf and slope is dominated by populations of large-sized oceanic copepods (mainly Neocalanus ssp.) that develop early in spring and attain maximum biomass and growth rates by mid- to late spring. Total biomass and growth rates of herbivores follow the spring outburst of phytoplankton; during April and May biomass increases from less than or equal to1 to approx.14 g C m/sup -2/ on the slope and to approx.10 g C m/sup -2/ on the outer shelf, and maximum growth rates >500 and approx.300 mg C m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ occure on the slope and outer shelf, respectively in May. The dominant species, N. plumchrus, grows from copepodid I and V between late March and early May, and after attaining maximum body weight in late May and early June it begins its downward migration. The inshore community on the middle shelf is dominated by the euphausiid Thysanoessa raschi in April and May and by the copepod Calanus marshallae in late May and early June. Total biomass (less than or equal to g C m/sup -2/) and growth rates (less than or equal to50 mg C m/sup -2/) of the inshore community are substantially lower than those of the offshore community and show a delayed response to the spring bloom of phytoplankton; both biomass and growth rates increase about one month after the bloom. Small herbivorous copepods contributed little to the total biomass and growth rates of either community and the cumulative community growth rates during April and May decreases from 18.3 g C m/sup -2/ on the slope to 2.5 g C m/sup -2/ on the middle shelf. 79 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Modeling marine protected areas for threatened eiders in a climatically changing Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Lovvorn, James R; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M; Cooper, Lee W; Bump, Joseph K; Richman, Samantha E

    2009-09-01

    Delineating protected areas for sensitive species is a growing challenge as changing climate alters the geographic pattern of habitats as well as human responses to those shifts. When human impacts are expected within projected ranges of threatened species, there is often demand to demarcate the minimum habitat required to ensure the species' persistence. Because diminished or wide-ranging populations may not occupy all viable (and needed) habitat at once, one must identify thresholds of resources that will support the species even in unoccupied areas. Long-term data on the shifting mosaic of critical resources may indicate ranges of future variability. We addressed these issues for the Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri), a federally threatened species that winters in pack ice of the Bering Sea. Changing climate has decreased ice cover and severely reduced the eiders' benthic prey and has increased prospects for expansion of bottom trawling that may further affect prey communities. To assess long-term changes in habitats that will support eiders, we linked data on benthic prey, sea ice, and weather from 1970 to 2001 with a spatially explicit simulation model of eider energy balance that integrated field, laboratory, and remote-sensing studies. Areas estimated to have prey densities adequate for eiders in 1970-1974 did not include most areas that were viable 20 years later (1993-1994). Unless the entire area with adequate prey in 1993-1994 had been protected, the much reduced viable area in 1999-2001 might well have been excluded. During long non-foraging periods (as at night), eiders can save much energy by resting on ice vs. floating on water; thus, loss of ice cover in the future might substantially decrease the area in which prey densities are adequate to offset the eiders' energy needs. For wide-ranging benthivores such as eiders, our results emphasize that fixed protected areas based on current conditions can be too small or inflexible to subsume long

  11. Early life ecology of Alaska plaice ( Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus) in the eastern Bering Sea: Seasonality, distribution, and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy-Anderson, Janet T.; Doyle, Miriam J.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Wilderbuer, Thomas K.

    2010-07-01

    We examined the patterns of abundance and distribution of Alaska plaice, Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus, eggs, larvae and pelagic juveniles over the southeastern Bering Sea shelf to better understand factors controlling transport and recruitment of flatfish in the Bering Sea. Ichthyoplankton data were derived from plankton surveys conducted in 1997, 1999, 2002, 2003, and 2005. Temperature, salinity, depth, and abundance of microzooplankton were measured concurrently. Eggs and larvae were primarily collected from depths < 200 m, with the majority occurring over bottom depths ranging 50-100 m. Eggs were present throughout the water column, though densities of preflexion stage larvae were concentrated at depths 10-20 m. There was no evidence of vertical migration for pre-flexion stages. Spawning in Alaska plaice occurs primarily east of Port Moller in April and May, and eggs and larvae appear to drift to the north and northeast, an observation based on satellite-tracked drifter information, model output, and collections of older, later-stage postlarvae. Connectivity between spawning areas and nursery habitats is likely influenced by wind forcing, so climate-mediated changes to dispersal trajectory or timing is expected to have significant impacts on recruitment in this species, though entrainment in consistent, directional currents may modify these effects.

  12. Dissolved zinc in the subarctic North Pacific and Bering Sea: Its distribution, speciation, and importance to primary producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakuba, Rachel Wisniewski; Saito, Mak A.; Moffett, James W.; Xu, Yan

    2012-06-01

    The eastern subarctic North Pacific, an area of high nutrients and low chlorophyll, has been studied with respect to the potential for iron to control primary production. The geochemistry of zinc, a critical micronutrient for diatoms, is less well characterized. Total zinc concentrations and zinc speciation were measured in near-surface waters on transects across the subarctic North Pacific and across the Bering Sea. Total dissolved zinc concentrations in the near-surface ranged from 0.10 nmol L-1 to 1.15 nmol L-1 with lowest concentrations in the eastern portions of both the North Pacific and Bering Sea. Dissolved zinc speciation was dominated by complexation to strong organic ligands whose concentration ranged from 1.1 to 3.6 nmol L-1 with conditional stability constants (K'ZnL/Zn') ranging from 109.3 to 1011.0. The importance of zinc to primary producers was evaluated by comparison to phytoplankton pigment concentrations and by performing a shipboard incubation. Zinc concentrations were positively correlated with two pigments that are characteristic of diatoms. At one station in the North Pacific, the addition of 0.75 nmol L-1 zinc resulted in a doubling of chlorophyll after 4 days.

  13. Phytoplankton and sediments in Yellow Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sediment and phytoplankton cloud the waters of the Yellow Sea in this true-color MODIS image acquired March 18, 2002. The swirls of sediment appear as a murky brownish blue color, while the phytoplankton are purely blue green and are concentrated around the small island in the lower right corner of the image.

  14. Effects of lead structure in Bering Sea pack ice on the flight costs of wintering spectacled eiders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bump, Joseph K.; Lovvorn, James R.

    2004-10-01

    In polar regions, sea ice is critical habitat for many marine birds and mammals. The quality of pack ice habitat depends on the duration and spacing of leads (openings in the ice), which determine access to water and air for diving endotherms, and how often and how far they must move as leads open and close. Recent warming trends have caused major changes in the extent and nature of sea ice at large scales used in climate models. However, no studies have analyzed lead structure in terms of habitat for ice-dependent endotherms, or effects of climate on ice habitat at scales relevant to their daily movements. Based on observations from an icebreaker and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, we developed methods to describe the dynamics and thermodynamics of lead structure relative to use by spectacled eiders ( Somateria fischeri) wintering in pack ice of the Bering Sea. By correlating lead structure with weather variables, we then used these methods to estimate changes in lead dynamics from 1945 to 2002, and effects of such changes on flight costs of the eiders. For 1991-1992, when images were available about every 3 days throughout winter, SAR images were divided among five weather regimes defined by wind speed, wind direction, and air temperature. Based on 12.5-m pixels, lead shape, compass orientation, and fetch across leads did not differ among the weather regimes. However, the five regimes differed in total area of open water, leads per unit area, and distance between leads. Lead duration was modeled based on air temperature, wind, and fetch. Estimates of mean daily flight time for eiders, based on lead duration and distance between neighboring leads, differed among regimes by 0 to 15 min. Resulting flight costs varied from 0 to 158 kJ day -1, or from 0% to 11% of estimated field metabolic rate. Over 57 winters (1945-2002), variation among years in mean daily flight time was most influenced by the north-south wind component, which determined pack divergence

  15. Trophic cascades and future harmful algal blooms within ice-free Arctic Seas north of Bering Strait: A simulation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, John J.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Chen, F. Robert; Lenes, Jason M.; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Cassano, John J.; Whitledge, Terry E.; Stockwell, Dean; Flint, Mikhail; Sukhanova, Irina N.; Christensen, John

    2011-11-01

    Within larger ice-free regions of the western Arctic Seas, subject to ongoing trophic cascades induced by past overfishing, as well as to possible future eutrophication of the drainage basins of the Yukon and Mackenzie Rivers, prior very toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) - first associated with ∼100 human deaths near Sitka, Alaska in 1799 - may soon expand. Blooms of calcareous coccolithophores in the Bering Sea during 1997-1998 were non-toxic harbingers of the subsequent increments of other non-siliceous phytoplankton. But, now saxitoxic dinoflagellates, e.g. Alexandrium tamarense, were instead found by us within the adjacent downstream Chukchi Sea during SBI cruises of 2002 and 2003. A previous complex, coupled biophysical model had been validated earlier by ship-board observations from the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas during the summer of 2002. With inclusion of phosphorus as another chemical state variable to modulate additional competition by recently observed nitrogen-fixers, we now explore here the possible consequences of altered composition of dominant phytoplankton functional groups [diatoms, microflagellates, prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis colonies, coccolithophores, diazotrophs, and dinoflagellates] in relation to increases of the toxic A. tamarense, responding to relaxation of grazing pressure by herbivores north of Bering Strait as part of a continuing trophic cascade. Model formulation was guided by validation observations obtained during 2002-2004 from: cruises of the SBI, CHINARE, and CASES programs; moored arrays in Bering Strait; other RUSALCA cruises around Wrangel Island; and SBI helicopter surveys of the shelf-break regions of the Arctic basin. Our year-long model scenarios during 2002-2003 indicate that post bloom silica-limitation of diatoms, after smaller simulated spring grazing losses, led to subsequent competitive advantages in summer for the coccolithophores, dinoflagellates, and diazotrophs. Immediate top-down control is exerted by imposed

  16. Remote Correlation of Paleoceanographic Events in the Northern Parts of Bering and Barents Seas during the Termination I and Early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Ovsepyan, E.; Murdmaa, I.; de Vernal, A.; Risebrobakken, B.; Seitkalieva, E.; Radionova, E.; Alekhina, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Barents and Bering seas are closely linked to the High Arctic and to the THC by marine gateways as well as by land-sea and ocean-atmosphere interactions. Our multi-proxy time series demonstrate that these remote seas exhibited dramatic changes during the deglaciation through a succession of global and regional paleoceanographic events including the beginning of Termination I (BT1), Heinrich-1 or Oldest Dryas (OD), Bølling-Allerød (B/A), Younger Dryas (YD) and early Holocene (EH). In the NW Barents Sea, the increased subsurface-to-bottom Atlantic water inflow via the Kvitøya-Erik Eriksen trough (cores S 2519 and S 2528) is inferred at the late OD, late B/A and late YD/EH transition. These events are generally coupled with the strengthened AMOC. A remarkable sea surface warming and sea ice retreat are documented at ~ 13 ka BP. Surface warming and strong Atlantic water inflow were followed by intense iceberg calving in the Erik Eriksen Trough as indicated by the high IRD content of Core S-2519. The rock fragments are unsorted and mainly angular suggesting their ice-rafted (likely iceberg-rafted) origin. Svalbard glaciers apparently derived the material dominated by black schistous mudstones, hard limestones with coral remains, fine-grained sandstones from nearby islands, and icebergs spread it in the Kvitøya-Erik Eriksen Trough during the early deglaciation. The ice rafted coarse terrigenous material supply during the BT1 is also suggested for the NW Bering Sea. In the NW Pacific, NW Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk, surface bioproductivity peaked at B/A and EH mainly due to the global warming, enhanced nutrient supply by surface currents from the flooded northeastern shelf, intensified vertical mixing and water exchange through the opened straits. Oxygen-depleted bottom water at intermediate depths characterized several locations including the NW Bering Sea (Core SO201-2-85KL).

  17. The Bering Sea ice cover during March 1979: Comparison of surface and satellite data with the Nimbus-7 SMMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, S.; Cavalieri, D. J.; Gloersen, P.; Mcnutt, S. L.

    1982-01-01

    During March 1979, field operations were carried out in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) of the Bering Sea. The field measurements which included oceanographic, meteorological and sea ice observations were made nearly coincident with a number of Nimbus-7 and Tiros-N satellite observations. The results of a comparison between surface and aircraft observations, and images from the Tiros-N satellite, with ice concentrations derived from the microwave radiances of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) are given. Following a brief discussion of the field operations, including a summary of the meteorological conditions during the experiment, the satellite data is described with emphasis on the Nimbus-7 SMMR and the physical basis of the algorithm used to retrieve ice concentrations.

  18. Synthesis of information on the effects of noise and disturbance on major haulout concentrations of Bering Sea pinnipeds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.R.; Burns, J.J.; Malme, C.I.; Davis, R.A.

    1989-02-17

    The study investigated the use of terrestrial haulout sites in the eastern Bering Sea by four species of pennipeds, northern fur seal, northern sea lion, harbor seal and pacific walrus. Historical information on the use of each site was summarized. Available information on the effects of airborne and waterborne noise, and human disturbance (from stationary and moving sources) was reviewed. The authors also conducted a detailed analysis of the acoustic environment of eight haulout sites that were representative of others used by each of the four species studied. The analyses included investigations of (1) characteristics airborne and underwater ambient noise, (2) characteristics of industrial noise sources, including aircraft, small boats, fishing trawlers and commercial cargo traffic, and (3) sound transmission loss in air, water, and through the air-water surface. As a means to evaluate the potential vulnerability of each haulout site to noise and disturbance, a quantitative rating system (IPSI) whereby an index of sensitivity was assigned to each site.

  19. Bering Strait

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Bering Strait     View Larger Image ... east, and Chukotskiy Poluostrov of Siberia to the west, the Bering Strait separates the United States and the Russian Federation by only 90 ... Diomede Islands, which are visible in the middle of the Bering Strait. The Artic Circle, at 66.5 degrees north latitude, runs through ...

  20. Volcano hazards and potential risks on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, T. C.; Winer, G. S.

    2009-05-01

    the island. Thus, a new vent could form at any place on the island, including St. Paul's insular shelf and areas farther offshore. Because of the remote location of St. Paul in the storm-lashed Bering Sea, risks related to volcano hazards may be greater than they would be in a different setting where more stable meteorological conditions prevail and access by monitoring and relief groups is less challenging.

  1. Bringing Real-Life Marine Science Experience to the Classroom: Results From a Teacher in the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavias, J. A.; Kelly, R. P.

    2008-12-01

    Many public school science teachers are "textbook" teachers who lack basic research experience. Conversely, many scientists fail to relate their findings back to the general public in a meaningful way. The ARMADA project, funded by the National Science Foundation, is an effective program that exposes teachers to real-world oceanographic experiences. Additionally, the ARMADA project provides opportunities for teachers to pass on first hand experiences from the research community to their classrooms. After participating in a month long cruise aboard the USCGC Healy during July 2008 as part of the Bering Sea Ecosystem Study (BEST), a new appreciation for field research was developed. As part of a group from the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography, first hand experience was gained on how marine scientists study the effects of global climate change in the Bering Sea. These experiences at sea have resulted in changes to the marine biology class curriculum to include the tools and techniques used by marine scientists to conduct their work. One lesson in particular discusses anthropogenic impacts on polar regions. In addition, students' attitudes toward the class have changed. For example, a lesson on global climate change from a teacher who has first hand experience of climate change research is far more effective than from one who lacks it. The effect of having a teacher who has unique field experience in front of the classroom on students is immeasurable. In addition, the presence of a teacher at sea encourages the scientists to reduce their work to the most significant observations and conclusions on a daily basis during the cruise, helping to prepare the scientists for future public communications. In this manner, the gap between science research and public education is reduced.

  2. Anthropogenic 129I in the North Pacific, Bering and Chukchi Seas, and Arctic Ocean in 2012-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, H.; Hasegawa, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kumamoto, Y.; Nishino, S.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2015-10-01

    Most of anthropogenic 129I in marine environment are due to discharge from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities at Sellafield (U.K.) and La Hague (France) for past few decades. The discharge raised 129I concentration in seawaters in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans to more than 109 atoms L-1, which is two orders of magnitude higher than that in other region. Recently, in March 2011, a large quantity of 129I was released into the western North Pacific due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. To evaluate the influence of these events, we have measured 129I concentration in seawaters in the northern North Pacific Ocean, Bering and Chukchi Seas, and Arctic Ocean in 2012-2013. The 129I concentrations were 1.0-1.8 × 107 atoms L-1 in the surface waters in the vicinity of 47°N 150°E-130°W North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Chukchi Sea (<74°N), which are equal to or lower than the 129I concentration level in surface water in the North Pacific Ocean before the F1NPP accident. The vertical profiles in the North Pacific were almost same as that observed in the western North Pacific before the F1NPP accident. The 129I distribution in seawater in the North Pacific to the Chukchi Sea revealed no significant increase of 129I concentration caused by the F1NPP accident. The 129I concentrations were 13-14 × 107 atoms L-1 in surface waters and 80 × 107 atoms L-1 at depths of 300 and 800 m in the Arctic Ocean.

  3. Surface nitrate utilization in the Bering sea since 180 kA BP: Insight from sedimentary nitrogen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riethdorf, Jan-Rainer; Thibodeau, Benoit; Ikehara, Minoru; Nürnberg, Dirk; Max, Lars; Tiedemann, Ralf; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2016-03-01

    We present high-resolution records of sedimentary nitrogen (δ15Nbulk) and carbon isotope ratios (δ13Cbulk) from piston core SO201-2-85KL located in the western Bering Sea. The records reflect changes in surface nitrate utilization and terrestrial organic matter contribution in submillennial resolution that span the last 180 kyr. The δ15Nbulk record is characterized by a minimum during the penultimate interglacial indicating low nitrate utilization (~62-80%) despite the relatively high export production inferred from opal concentrations along with a significant reduction in the terrestrial organic matter fraction (mterr). This suggests that the consumption of the nitrate pool at our site was incomplete and even more reduced than today (~84%). δ15Nbulk increases from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5.4 and culminates during the Last Glacial Maximum, which indicates that nitrate utilization in the Bering Sea was raised during cold intervals (MIS 5.4, 5.2, 4) and almost complete during MIS 3 and 2 (~93-100%). This is in agreement with previous hypotheses suggesting that stronger glacial stratification reduced the nutrient supply from the subeuphotic zone, thereby increasing the iron-to-nutrient ratio and therefore the nitrate utilization in the mixed surface layer. Large variations in δ15Nbulk were also recorded from 180 to 130 ka BP (MIS 6), indicating a potential link to insolation and sea-level forcing and its related feedbacks. Millennial-scale oscillations were observed in δ15Nbulk and δ13Cbulk that might be related to Greenland interstadials.

  4. Investigation of Glacial/Interglacial Periods Using IRD Flux Records from Site U1340A in the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, M. R.; Drake, M. K.; Mendoza, D.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    The rate of sea level rise has increased over the last decades in part due to enhanced ice sheet melting. The purpose of my project is to study the processes that control the growth and decay of ice sheets surrounding the Bering Sea. Two major orbital cycles affect ice sheet size: precession has periodicity of ~20 thousand years (kyr) and results in changes in the Earth-sun distance during each season, and obliquity has a period of 41 kyr and results in a shift in the Earth's axial tilt by 2.5 degrees. The Milankovitch theory states that glacial-interglacial cycles were caused by changes in summertime solar radiation, which varies at both precession and obliquity periodicities of 20 and 41 kyr. However, in some geologic periods, benthic foramininfera oxygen isotope records reveal only 41 kyr variability in global ice volume. Two theories, each with different implications regarding how ice sheets respond to solar heating, have been proposed to explain this discrepancy; Raymo et al. (2006) predict that individual ice sheets vary at both 20 and 41 kyr periodicities even if the sum total of global ice volume varies only at 41 kyr, while Huybers (2008) predicts that individual ice sheets vary only at the 41 kyr periodicity. To test these theories, we created a proxy record, from ~1.3 to 1.7 myrs ago, of local ice sheet dynamics using estimates of mass accumulation and flux of Ice Rafted Debris (IRD) from IODP Site U1340A in the Bering Sea. IRD, defined as terrigenous grains greater than 250μm, is transported by icebergs, and is used as a proxy to analyze changes in ice sheet size. We find evidence for ~20 kyr variability, suggesting that local ice sheets are sensitive to the peak intensity of summertime solar forcing. This work is a step in determining how ice sheets respond to changes in seasonal and annual average heating.

  5. Sediment reworking rates in deep sediments of the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Barsanti, M; Delbono, I; Schirone, A; Langone, L; Miserocchi, S; Salvi, S; Delfanti, R

    2011-07-01

    Different pelagic areas of the Mediterranean Sea have been investigated in order to quantify physical and biological mixing processes in deep sea sediments. Herein, results of eleven sediment cores sampled at different deep areas (> 2000 m) of the Western and Eastern Mediterranean Sea are presented. ²¹⁰Pb(xs) and ¹³⁷Cs vertical profiles, together with ¹⁴C dating, are used to identify the main processes characterising the different areas and, finally, controlling mixing depths (SML) and bioturbation coefficients (D(b)). Radionuclide vertical profiles and inventories indicate that bioturbation processes are the dominant processes responsible for sediment reworking in deep sea environments. Results show significant differences in sediment mixing depths and bioturbation coefficients among areas of the Mediterranean Sea characterised by different trophic regimes. In particular, in the Oran Rise area, where the Almeria-Oran Front induces frequent phytoplankton blooms, we calculate the highest values of sediment mixing layers (13 cm) and bioturbation coefficients (0.187 cm² yr⁻¹), and the highest values of ²¹⁰Pb(xs) and ¹³⁷Cs inventories. Intermediate values of SML and D(b) (~6 cm and ~0.040 cm² yr⁻¹, respectively) characterise the mesothrophic Algero-Balearic basin, while in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea mixing parameters (SML of 3 cm and D(b) of 0.011 cm² yr⁻¹ are similar to those calculated for the oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean (SML of 2 cm and D(b) of ~0.005 cm² yr⁻¹). PMID:21561644

  6. Sedimentation rate control on diagenesis, East China Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yan; Zheng, Hongbo; Kissel, Catherine; Laj, Carlo

    2011-08-01

    Diagenesis of ferrimagnetic minerals can alter the magnetic properties, erasing partially or entirely the original paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic signals, especially on continental margins where sedimentation rates are usually high. Understanding the mechanisms by which magnetic particles are affected by diagenesis is therefore critical for retrieving paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic information from sediments. High-resolution magnetic analysis was carried out on rapidly deposited (0.4-20 mm/year) Holocene sediments from the East China Sea (ECS) inner continental shelf. The primary magnetic mineral assemblage in the sediment core contains ferrimagnetic minerals, such as magnetite, with minor contributions from hematite. The magnetic properties vary down-core in two steps, due to post-depositional reductive diagenesis. The first occurs at depths of 0.15-1.1 m and is characterized by reduction of both magnetite and hematite in suboxic sediments. The suboxic-sulfate boundary (SSB) is therefore located at 1.1 m. We demonstrate that the depth of the SSB has negative relation to the average sedimentation rate in Chinese marginal seas. The second step change in magnetic properties occurs at 3.2-5.8 m, and contains two intervals with extremely low magnetic mineral content, each corresponding to dissolution fronts associated with the former and present position of the sulfate-methanic transition (SMT). These two intervals correlate well with abrupt changes in sedimentation rate and separate the anoxic zone into two parts: the sulfidic zone and the methanic zone. Our study suggests that sedimentation rate provides a dominant control on magnetic mineral diagenesis, at least in the Chinese marginal seas, which controls not only the type of redox zonation, but also the thicknesses of diagenetic zones.

  7. Bioavailability of lead in North Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, M.; Kröncke, I.

    1991-12-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary research programme, lead contents were measured in the polychaete Nephtys spp. and in the sea-urchin Echinocardium cordatum as well as in the respective sediment fractions <20 μm taken from the Dogger Bank proper and the eastern coastal North Sea. A lower lead content was generally observed in the organisms taken from the German Bight than in those from the Dogger Bank, especially from its northeastern part. It is possible to divide both areas according to the slope found in the linear regression of lead versus total organic carbon contents in sediments, which is twice as steep for the Dogger Bank as for the eastern North Sea. This criterium points to a difference in sediment quality with regard to toxic metal contamination. The sediment quality of the Dogger Bank seems to be twice as bad compared with that of the eastern North Sea. This is in good agreement with the differences found in lead contamination of the sediment-dwelling polychaetes from both areas. The results indicate that lead is primarily accumulated by food ingestion.

  8. Bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by gray whale and Pacific walrus from the western part of the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Lukyanova, Olga N

    2015-10-15

    The feeding habits of a gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and a Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), caught from the western Bering Sea in the summers of 2010 and 2011, have been studied, and concentration of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in their organs determined. The total OCP concentration (∑HCH+∑DDT) in muscles and liver of the gray whales varies from 297 to 3581 and from 769 to 13,808 ng/g lipids, respectively. The total OCP concentration (∑HCH+∑DDT) in muscles and liver of the Pacific walruses varies from 197 to 5659 and from 4856 to 90,263 ng/g lipids, respectively. The specifics of diet as a source of pesticide accumulation in these two marine mammal species are discussed. PMID:26169228

  9. Effects of CO2 and iron availability on rbcL gene expression in Bering Sea diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, H.; Sugie, K.; Yoshimura, T.; Suzuki, K.

    2014-12-01

    Iron (Fe) can limit phytoplankton productivity in approximately 40% of the global ocean, including high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. However, there is little information available on the impact of CO2-induced seawater acidification on natural phytoplankton assemblages in HNLC regions. We therefore conducted an on-deck experiment manipulating CO2 and Fe using Fe-deficient Bering Sea waters during the summer of 2009. The concentrations of CO2 in the incubation bottles were set at 380 and 600 ppm in the non-Fe-added (control) bottles and 180, 380, 600, and 1000 ppm in the Fe-added bottles. The phytoplankton assemblages were primarily composed of diatoms followed by haptophytes in all incubation bottles as estimated by pigment signatures throughout the 7 day incubation period. At the end of incubation, the relative contributions of diatoms to chlorophyll a biomass decreased significantly with increased CO2 levels in the controls, whereas minimal changes were found in the Fe-added treatments. These results indicate that, under Fe-deficient conditions, the growth of diatoms was negatively affected by the increase in CO2 availability. To confirm this, we estimated the expression and phylogeny of rbcL (which encodes the large subunit of RubisCO) mRNA in diatoms by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and clone library techniques, respectively. Interestingly, regardless of Fe availability, the expression and diversity of rbcL cDNA decreased in the high CO2 treatments (600 and 1000 ppm). The present study suggests that the projected future increase in seawater pCO2 could reduce the RubisCO activity of diatoms, resulting in a decrease in primary productivity and a shift in the food web structure of the Bering Sea.

  10. Effects of CO2 and iron availability on rbcL gene expression in Bering Sea diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, H.; Sugie, K.; Yoshimura, T.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-04-01

    Iron (Fe) can limit phytoplankton productivity in approximately 40% of the global ocean, including in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. However, there is little information available on the impact of CO2-induced seawater acidification on natural phytoplankton assemblages in HNLC regions. We therefore conducted an on-deck experiment manipulating CO2 and Fe using Fe-deficient Bering Sea water during the summer of 2009. The concentrations of CO2 in the incubation bottles were set at 380 and 600 ppm in the non-Fe-added (control) bottles and 180, 380, 600, and 1000 ppm in the Fe-added bottles. The phytoplankton assemblages were primarily composed of diatoms followed by haptophytes in all incubation bottles as estimated by pigment signatures throughout the 5-day (control) or 6-day (Fe-added treatment) incubation period. At the end of incubation, the relative contribution of diatoms to chlorophyll a biomass was significantly higher in the 380 ppm CO2 treatment than in the 600 ppm treatment in the controls, whereas minimal changes were found in the Fe-added treatments. These results indicate that, under Fe-deficient conditions, the growth of diatoms could be negatively affected by the increase in CO2 availability. To further support this finding, we estimated the expression and phylogeny of rbcL (which encodes the large subunit of RuBisCO) mRNA in diatoms by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and clone library techniques, respectively. Interestingly, regardless of Fe availability, the transcript abundance of rbcL decreased in the high CO2 treatments (600 and 1000 ppm). The present study suggests that the projected future increase in seawater pCO2 could reduce the RuBisCO transcription of diatoms, resulting in a decrease in primary productivity and a shift in the food web structure of the Bering Sea.

  11. Interannual summer variability in euphausiid populations on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during the recent cooling event (2008-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Hongsheng; Yu, Hao; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Rodger Harvey, H.

    2015-01-01

    The recent cooling in the eastern Bering Sea resulted in a series of cold years (2008-2010) marked by extensive ice coverage and late ice retreat. In the present study, we examined the spatial and temporal variability of three predominant euphausiid species Thysanoessa raschii, Thysanoessa inermis, and Thysanoessa longipes in the summers of 2008-2010. Simple box-and-whisker plots as well as generalized additive models (GLMs) were applied to examine habitat selection for three euphausiid species. The coefficients of dispersion were calculated for three species to examine potential changes in spatial patterns. Results showed that T. raschii was broadly distributed in the inner and middle domains. The abundance of T. raschii was related to water temperature, salinity and chlorophyll a concentration. T. inermis was primarily distributed in the middle domain and was related to water temperature and salinity. T. longipes was mostly distributed in the outer domain and was only related to salinity. The proportion of T. raschii, a coastal species in the inner and middle domains, showed large interannual variation with the highest in 2008 and the lowest in 2009 (a >50% decline). This same species did not show large interannual variation in the spatial distribution. T. longipes, a shelf species in the outer domain, did not show large interannual variation in abundance, but the center of mass distribution consistently shifted northward and offshore from 2008 to 2010. T. inermis, a coastal species in the middle and coastal domains, did not show large interannual variation in abundance and spatial distribution. In summary, euphausiid populations showed large spatial and temporal variability among cold years. Different species could be affected by different processes in the southeastern Bering Sea.

  12. Distribution of fish and macrozooplankton in ice-covered and open-water areas of the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Robertis, Alex; Cokelet, Edward D.

    2012-06-01

    The eastern Bering Sea shelf is a productive ecosystem with extensive commercial fisheries. Although the area is well-studied during summer months, little is known about the abundance and distribution of fish and macrozooplankton during periods of seasonal ice cover. The use of an icebreaker during the Bering Sea Ecosystem Study (BEST) provided a platform for spring acoustic surveys of fish and zooplankton in ice-covered areas for the first time. Icebreaker measurements were complemented with observations from conventional vessels during spring and summer. In spring, very little backscatter from fish (dominated by walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma) was observed in the ice-covered northern areas where near-bottom waters were cold (<˜0.5 °C), including areas where walleye pollock are abundant in summer. The majority of fish were observed within 40 km (and often slightly inside) the ice edge over similar seafloor depths as in summer. Together, these observations suggest that pollock, a dominant component of the ecosystem, shift their distribution to a more restricted geographic area in spring, following the ice edge southeast along the bathymetry, away from areas of cold water and extensive ice cover, then reoccupying these areas in summer. In contrast, acoustic backscatter attributed to zooplankton (likely dominated by euphausiids) was more evenly distributed, and less restricted by water temperature and ice cover. The implications of this seasonal shift in fish distribution are uncertain, but this may affect predator-prey interactions by reducing overlap of pollock with euphausiids, an important prey source, while increasing overlap of adult and juvenile pollock and potentially increasing cannibalism.

  13. Cetacean distribution and abundance in relation to oceanographic domains on the eastern Bering Sea shelf: 1999-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friday, Nancy A.; Waite, Janice M.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Moore, Sue E.

    2012-06-01

    Visual line transect surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf in association with pollock stock assessment surveys aboard the NOAA ship Miller Freeman in June and July of 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004. Transect survey effort ranged from 1188 km in 1999 to 3761 km in 2002. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were the most common large whale in all years except 2004 when humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) were more abundant. Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli) were the most common small cetacean in all years. Abundance estimates were calculated by year for each oceanographic domain: coastal, middle, and outer/slope. The middle and outer/slope domains were divided into two strata ("north" and "south") because of variable survey effort. The distribution and abundance of baleen whales changed between the earlier (colder) and later (warmer) survey years. Fin whales consistently occupied the outer shelf and secondarily the middle shelf, and their abundance was an order of magnitude greater in cold compared to warm years. Humpback whales "lived on the margin" of the northern Alaska Peninsula, eastern Aleutian Islands and Bristol Bay; their preferred habitat is possibly associated with areas of high prey availability due to nutrient upwelling and aggregation mechanisms. Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) occur shoreward of fin whales in the outer and middle shelf and in coastal habitats along the Alaska Peninsula. The highest abundance for this species was observed in a cold (1999) year. No clear relationship emerged for odontocetes with regard to warm and cold years. Dall's porpoise occupied both outer and middle domains and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) were more common in middle and coastal domains. This study provided a unique, broad-scale assessment of cetacean distribution and abundance on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and a baseline for future comparisons.

  14. Effects of seasonal and interannual variability in along-shelf and cross-shelf transport on groundfish recruitment in the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestfals, Cathleen D.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Duffy-Anderson, Janet T.; Ladd, Carol

    2014-11-01

    The Bering Sea responds rapidly to atmospheric perturbations and over the past several decades has experienced extreme variability in both its physical and biological characteristics. These changes can impact organisms that inhabit the region, particularly marine fishes, as normal current patterns to which reproductive habits are tuned can be disrupted, which, in turn, may influence recruitment and population dynamics. To understand the influence of ocean circulation on groundfish recruitment in the eastern Bering Sea, we examined transport along and across the Bering Slope derived from 23 years (1982-2004) of simulations from a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) ocean circulation model. We expected that changes in the strength and position of the Bering Slope Current (BSC) would affect recruitment in selected species (Pacific cod, walleye pollock, Greenland halibut, Pacific halibut, and arrowtooth flounder), and that circulation features along and across the shelf edge would be strongly influenced by atmospheric forcing. Variability in along-shelf transport at three transects along the path of the BSC, cross-shelf transport across the 100 and 200 m isobaths, and transport through Unimak Pass were examined. Strong seasonal and interannual variations in flow were observed, with transport typically highest during fall and winter months, coinciding with timing of spawning activity in the five species. Significant correlations were found between transport, BSC position, and groundfish recruitment. Pacific cod, in particular, benefitted from decreased along-shelf and on-shelf flow, while Pacific halibut recruitment increased in relation to increased on-shelf transport through southern canyons. The results of this study improve our understanding of variability in circulation and associated effects on groundfish recruitment in the eastern Bering Sea.

  15. Mesoscale eddies transport deep-sea sediments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanwei; Liu, Zhifei; Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Wenguang; Li, Jianru; Xu, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Mesoscale eddies, which contribute to long-distance water mass transport and biogeochemical budget in the upper ocean, have recently been taken into assessment of the deep-sea hydrodynamic variability. However, how such eddies influence sediment movement in the deepwater environment has not been explored. Here for the first time we observed deep-sea sediment transport processes driven by mesoscale eddies in the northern South China Sea via a full-water column mooring system located at 2100 m water depth. Two southwestward propagating, deep-reaching anticyclonic eddies passed by the study site during January to March 2012 and November 2012 to January 2013, respectively. Our multiple moored instruments recorded simultaneous or lagging enhancement of suspended sediment concentration with full-water column velocity and temperature anomalies. We interpret these suspended sediments to have been trapped and transported from the southwest of Taiwan by the mesoscale eddies. The net near-bottom southwestward sediment transport by the two events is estimated up to one million tons. Our study highlights the significance of surface-generated mesoscale eddies on the deepwater sedimentary dynamic process. PMID:25089558

  16. A comparison of the physics of the northern and southern shelves of the eastern Bering Sea and some implications for the ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Kachel, Nancy B.; Moore, Sue; Mordy, Calvin W.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Overland, James E.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Sigler, Michael F.

    2012-06-01

    Sufficient oceanographic measurements have been made in recent years to describe the latitudinal variation in the physics of the eastern Bering Sea shelf and the potential impact of climate change on the species assemblages in the two ecosystems (north and south). Many of the predicted ecosystem changes will result from alterations in the timing and extent of sea ice. It is predicted that the sea ice in the northern Bering Sea will be less common in May, but will continue to be extensive through April. In contrast, the southern shelf will have, on average, much less sea ice than currently observed, but with large interannual and multiyear variability until at least 2050. Thus, even under current climate warming scenarios, bottom temperatures on the northern shelf will remain cold. Based on biophysical measurements, the southern and northern ecosystems were divided by a North-South Transition at ˜60°N. The northern middle shelf was characterized by a freshwater lens at the surface, cold bottom temperatures, and a thicker pycnocline than found on the southern shelf. Subsurface phytoplankton blooms were common. In contrast, the southern shelf stratification was largely determined by temperature alone; the pycnocline was thin (often<3 m) and subsurface blooms were uncommon. Biological responses to climate warming could include greater north-south differences in zooplankton community structure, the transport of large Outer Shelf Domain crustacean zooplankton to the middle shelf, and the disappearance of two principal prey taxa (Calanus spp. and Thysanoessa spp.) of planktivorous fish, seabirds and whales. The response of commercially and ecologically important fish species is predicted to vary. Some species of fish (e.g., juvenile sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka) may expand their summer range into the northern Bering Sea; some (e.g., pink salmon, O. gorbuscha) may increase in abundance while still other species (e.g., walleye pollock and arrowtooth flounder

  17. Detecting temporal trends and environmentally-driven changes in the spatial distribution of bottom fishes and crabs on the eastern Bering Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotwicki, Stan; Lauth, Robert R.

    2013-10-01

    This study uses a 30-year time series of standardized bottom trawl survey data (1982-2011) from the eastern Bering Sea shelf to model patterns of summer spatial distribution for various bottom fishes and crabs in response to changes in the areal extent of the cold pool, time lag between surveys, and fluctuations in population abundance. This investigation is the first to include data for the 2006-2010 cold period and to use between-year comparisons of local and shelf-wide spatial indices to test specific responses to three different isothermal boundaries within the cold pool. Distributional shifts in population varied considerably among species and directional vectors for some species were greater in magnitude to the east or west than to the north or south; however, in general, eastern Bering Sea shelf populations shifted southward in response to the increasing cold pool size, and after accounting for differences in temperature and population abundance, there was still a temporal northward shift in populations over the last three decades despite the recent cooling trend. Model results for local and shelf-wide indices showed that survey time lag and cold pool extent had a greater effect on spatial distribution than population abundance, suggesting that density-independent mechanisms play a major role in shaping distribution patterns on the eastern Bering Sea shelf. The area enclosed by the 1 °C isotherm most commonly affects both local and shelf-wide spatial indices suggesting that 1 °C is a more important boundary for describing temperature preferences of eastern Bering Sea bottom fishes and crabs than is the 2 °C isotherm used for designating the physical boundary for the cold pool.

  18. Manifestation of the petrogeneration zones of Northern and the Bering seas in ground magnetic anomalies and anomalies of satellite Champ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, Tamara; Krasinsky, Egor; Petrova, Alevtina; Demina, Irina

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this paper are showed results of studying of specificity of a deep structure of zones of petrogeneration Northern and the Bering seas on aeromagnetic and satellite magnetometric datas. Research lateral and vertical heterogeneitys an earth's crust of Northern sea is carried out on the basis of the analysis of measurements of satellite Champ at height of 100 km and the digital database created on materials of sea shooting of a geomagnetic field, executed on non-magnetic schooner "Zarya". On sea measurements in Northern sea through large oil fields and gas ( Frigg, Ekofisk, Forties trough, Leman, etc.). Geomagnetic sections for an interval of depths from 1 up to 30 km are constructed. It has allowed to study character of distribution of magnetization of breeds of a cover, horizontal lamination intracore layers of an earth's crust and to allocate in zones petrogeneration synvertical fluidoconduct zones the channels described by alternation of not magnetic and low-magnetic layers. They were showed on geomagnetic sections as permeable zones quasi- laminated structures with the lowered magnetic properties in an interval of depths from 8 up to 28 km. Comparison to a map of the magnetic anomalies measured at height of 100 km by satellite Champ, has shown, that areas of the greatest petrocongestions North Sea рифта at height of 100 km are dated for a zone of gradients and a minimum of northeast displacement of regional anomalies of western and east blocks of Northern sea. It corresponds to representations about an orientation of a fissuring zone and the increased size of a geothermal gradient North Sea rift and is corresponded position allocated on hydromagnetic structures deep fluidoconduct channels. Thus, distribution to water areas of deposits of deposits is emphasized not only low-magnetic areas in a thickness of a sedimentary cover where they are directly located, but also by not magnetic lenses in breeds of the base spreading it in intervals of

  19. Sediment dispersal in the northwestern Adriatic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, C.K.; Sherwood, C.R.; Signell, R.P.; Bever, A.J.; Warner, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment dispersal in the Adriatic Sea was evaluated using coupled three-dimensional circulation and sediment transport models, representing conditions from autumn 2002 through spring 2003. The calculations accounted for fluvial sources, resuspension by waves and currents, and suspended transport. Sediment fluxes peaked during southwestward Bora wind conditions that produced energetic waves and strengthened the Western Adriatic Coastal Current. Transport along the western Adriatic continental shelf was nearly always to the south, except during brief periods when northward Sirocco winds reduced the coastal current. Much of the modeled fluvial sediment deposition was near river mouths, such as the Po subaqueous delta. Nearly all Po sediment remained in the northern Adriatic. Material from rivers that drain the Apennine Mountains traveled farther before deposition than Po sediment, because it was modeled with a lower settling velocity. Fluvial sediment delivered to areas with high average bed shear stress was more highly dispersed than material delivered to more quiescent areas. Modeled depositional patterns were similar to observed patterns that have developed over longer timescales. Specifically, modeled Po sediment accumulation was thickest near the river mouth with a very thin deposit extending to the northeast, consistent with patterns of modern sediment texture in the northern Adriatic. Sediment resuspended from the bed and delivered by Apennine Rivers was preferentially deposited on the northern side of the Gargano Peninsula, in the location of thick Holocene accumulation. Deposition here was highest during Bora winds when convergences in current velocities and off-shelf flux enhanced delivery of material to the midshelf. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Ichthyophonus-infected walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma (Pallas) in the eastern Bering Sea: a potential reservoir of infections in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    White, V C; Morado, J F; Friedman, C S

    2014-07-01

    In 2003, the Alaska walleye pollock industry reported product quality issues attributed to an unspecified parasite in fish muscle. Using molecular and histological methods, we identified the parasite in Bering Sea pollock as Ichthyophonus. Infected pollock were identified throughout the study area, and prevalence was greater in adults than in juveniles. This study not only provides the first documented report of Ichthyophonus in any fish species captured in the Bering Sea, but also reveals that the parasite has been present in this region for nearly 20 years and is not a recent introduction. Sequence analysis of 18S rDNA from Ichthyophonus in pollock revealed that consensus sequences were identical to published parasite sequences from Pacific herring and Yukon River Chinook salmon. Results from this study suggest potential for Ichthyophonus exposures from infected pollock via two trophic pathways; feeding on whole fish as prey and scavenging on industry-discharged offal. Considering the notable Ichthyophonus levels in pollock, the low host specificity of the parasite and the role of this host as a central prey item in the Bering Sea, pollock likely serve as a key Ichthyophonus reservoir for other susceptible hosts in the North Pacific. PMID:23941303

  1. Seabird sockeye salmon co-variation in the eastern Bering Sea: Phenology as an ecosystem indicator and salmonid predictor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydeman, William J.; Abraham, Christine L.; Vernon Byrd, G.

    2008-08-01

    Seabirds ( Rissa spp. and Uria spp.) and sockeye salmon ( Onchorhynchus nerka) of the eastern Bering Sea share similarities in their trophic ecology. We tested the role of seabirds as indicators of food web conditions that affect sockeye salmon at sea survival by investigating co-variation between seabirds breeding on the Pribilof Islands and returns of Bristol Bay sockeyes. We examined seabird phenology (hatching dates of eggs) against sockeye returns based on the year of ocean entry. Annual seabird hatching date was inversely related to sockeye returns, with the strongest co-variation found for sockeye which entered the ocean at 2 years of age (age 2 x smolts). The mechanism supporting this co-variation is unknown, but both birds and salmon may be responding to changes in prey availability (a "bottom-up" effect). The co-variation between seabird hatching date and sockeye returns supports the idea that variation in seabird breeding parameters indicates food web conditions that also affect other upper trophic level predators in marine systems. Coupling seabird phenology with existing annual predictions for Bristol Bay salmon may improve forecasts and fishery management.

  2. Seasonal and spatial variations of zooplankton in the central and southeastern Bering Sea during the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Youngshil; Kim, Suam; Lee, Wonchoel

    2006-05-01

    Hydrographic and plankton surveys were conducted over the basin and slope of the southeastern Bering Sea during April, June/July and September of 1994 and in June/July 1995, and seasonal and spatial variations of zooplankton community were investigated in relation to the oceanographic conditions. In July 1994, sea surface temperature (SST) ranged 5.3-8.7 °C, and the thermocline was between 30 and 50 m. In July 1995, however, SST was warmer (7.3-12.4 °C), and the thermocline was shallower (20-30 m). The thermal front at the shelf was also stronger in July 1995 than in July 1994. Surface salinity was higher in 1994 than 1995. A total of 17 taxonomic groups of zooplankton were identified from the plankton samples. In 1994, the highest density was observed in September. Copepods were the major taxon during all surveys. While some taxa such as euphausiids, ostracods, and Neocalanus spp. were most abundant in spring, others such as Calanus spp., Metridia pacifica, chaetognaths, and pteropods were most abundant in September. Adults and late-stage copepodites of Eucalanus bungii were abundant in spring, and were replaced by 1st-3rd stages of copepodites in summer. Zooplankton density was ca. 4 times higher in 1995 than in 1994, in part because of warm water temperature.

  3. Modeling spatial patterns of limits to production of deposit-feeders and ectothermic predators in the northern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovvorn, James R.; Jacob, Ute; North, Christopher A.; Kolts, Jason M.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Cooper, Lee W.; Cui, Xuehua

    2015-03-01

    Network models can help generate testable predictions and more accurate projections of food web responses to environmental change. Such models depend on predator-prey interactions throughout the network. When a predator currently consumes all of its prey's production, the prey's biomass may change substantially with loss of the predator or invasion by others. Conversely, if production of deposit-feeding prey is limited by organic matter inputs, system response may be predictable from models of primary production. For sea floor communities of shallow Arctic seas, increased temperature could lead to invasion or loss of predators, while reduced sea ice or change in wind-driven currents could alter organic matter inputs. Based on field data and models for three different sectors of the northern Bering Sea, we found a number of cases where all of a prey's production was consumed but the taxa involved varied among sectors. These differences appeared not to result from numerical responses of predators to abundance of preferred prey. Rather, they appeared driven by stochastic variations in relative biomass among taxa, due largely to abiotic conditions that affect colonization and early post-larval survival. Oscillatory tendencies of top-down versus bottom-up interactions may augment these variations. Required inputs of settling microalgae exceeded existing estimates of annual primary production by 50%; thus, assessing limits to bottom-up control depends on better corrections of satellite estimates to account for production throughout the water column. Our results suggest that in this Arctic system, stochastic abiotic conditions outweigh deterministic species interactions in food web responses to a varying environment.

  4. Late Pliocene to early Pleistocene (2.4-1.25 Ma) paleoproductivity changes in the Bering Sea: IODP expedition 323 Hole U1343E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunghan; Khim, Boo-Keun; Takahashi, Kozo

    2016-03-01

    Late Pliocene to early Pleistocene paleoproductivity changes in the Bering Sea were reconstructed using geochemical concentrations and mass accumulation rates (MARs) of CaCO3, biogenic opal, and total organic carbon (TOC), and sedimentary nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) at IODP Expedition 323 Hole U1343E, drilled in the northern slope area (1956 m deep) of the Bering Sea. CaCO3 concentration is generally low, but prominent CaCO3 peaks occur intermittently due to subseafloor authigenic carbonate formation rather than biogenic accumulation, regardless of glacial-interglacial variations. Biogenic opal concentrations reflect orbital-scale glacial-interglacial variations. However, TOC concentration did not show clear glacial-interglacial variation, probably due to poor preservation. The sedimentary δ15N values vary synchronously with biogenic opal concentration on orbital timescales. The co-varying pattern of opal productivity and δ15N values at Hole U1343E is a result of nutrient utilization controlled by diatom productivity in the Bering slope area where Fe is not a limiting factor. Biogenic opal and TOC MARs showed a temporal shift at around 1.9 Ma from a high productivity period under nutrient-enriched conditions to a low productivity period under relatively nutrient-depleted conditions. High diatom productivity with low δ15N values before 1.9 Ma is associated with abundant nutrient supply by upwelling in relation to strong surface current system. This productivity decrease at about 1.9 Ma was also found in the southern Bering Sea (Site U1341) and may be related to global opal reorganization.

  5. Foraging habitats of lactating northern fur seals are structured by thermocline depths and submesoscale fronts in the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Chad A.; Battaile, Brian C.; Cotté, Cédric; Trites, Andrew W.

    2013-04-01

    The relationships between fine-scale oceanographic features, prey aggregations, and the foraging behavior of top predators are poorly understood. We investigated whether foraging patterns of lactating northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) from two breeding colonies located in different oceanographic domains of the eastern Bering Sea (St. Paul Island—shelf; Bogoslof Island—oceanic) were a function of submesoscale oceanographic features. We tested this by tracking 87 lactating fur seals instrumented with bio-logging tags (44 St. Paul Island, 43 Bogoslof Island) during July-September, 2009. We identified probable foraging hotspots using first-passage time analysis and statistically linked individual areas of high-use to fine-scale oceanographic features using mixed-effects Cox-proportional hazard models. We found no overlap in foraging areas used by fur seals from the two islands, but a difference in the duration of their foraging trips—trips from St. Paul Island were twice as long (7.9 d average) and covered 3-times the distance (600 km average) compared to trips from Bogoslof Island. St. Paul fur seals also foraged at twice the scale (mean radius=12 km) of Bogoslof fur seals (6 km), which suggests that prey were more diffuse near St. Paul Island than prey near Bogoslof Island. Comparing first passage times with oceanographic covariates revealed that foraging hotspots were linked to thermocline depth and occurred near submesoscale surface fronts (eddies and filaments). St. Paul fur seals that mixed epipelagic (night) and benthic (day) dives primarily foraged on-shelf in areas with deeper thermoclines that may have concentrated prey closer to the ocean floor, while strictly epipelagic (night) foragers tended to use waters with shallower thermoclines that may have aggregated prey closer to the surface. Fur seals from Bogoslof Island foraged almost exclusively over the Bering Sea basin and appeared to hunt intensively along submesoscale fronts that may have

  6. Using GIS and Remote Sensing to Map the Bedrock Morphology of Bering Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder-Deaton, L. E.; Molnia, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    Subglacial environments are amongst the least known places on Earth. We have combined five different types of geophysical investigations in order to better understand the complex morphology of the >250 km long bed of Bering Glacier. The transect includes the bed segment underlying the present glacier and the segment previously under the glacier's seaward extension when it reached its maximum limit during the Pleistocene. This transect represents Bering Glacier's bed from the distal edge of the continental shelf, to its up-glacier point of origin east of the U.S.-Canadian border. The datasets used were: 1) marine air-gun and sparker seismic profiles used to define the bedrock morphology of Bering Trough, Bering Glacier's Pleistocene fiord cut into the Gulf of Alaska; 2) binary-explosive seismic refraction profiles used to confirm that fiord depth bedrock underlies the Bering Foreland coastal plain; 3) high-resolution mini-sparker seismic reflection profiles collected from Vitus Lake, Bering Glacier's ice marginal lake that confirm complex bed morphology buried under up to 100 m of recent glacial-marine sediment; 4) ice penetrating radar soundings used to measure the ice thickness and depth to bedrock at more than 30 Bering Glacier piedmont lobe locations; and 5) airborne monopulse radar profiles used for mapping nearly 190 km of glacier's current bed. Combining the results of these five geophysical investigations permits us to produce numerous cross-sections and maps that show the complexities of Bering Glacier's bedrock morphology. At its offshore end on the outer continental shelf, the bed is a trough as deep as 500 m below sea level. At its origin, east of the U.S.-Canadian Border the bed elevation is ~1,600 m above sea level.

  7. Comparison of environmental conditions in the Bering Sea and Davis Strait and the effects on microwave signature returns; March and April, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnutt, S. L.; Martin, S.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft data collected in the Bering Sea in March, 1979 using a 6.6 GH sub z (C Band) microwave radiometer and a 13.9 GH sub z (Ku Band) scatterometer, reinforce the difficulties in interpreting first year ice types found near the ice edge in a marginal ice zone. An ice interpretation scheme using data taken with a 13.3 GH sub z (Ku Band) scatterometer and a 19.4 GH sub z (K Band) radiometer in Davis Strait also shows ambiguity in the first year ice signal and indicates that ice interpretation becomes more difficult near the ice edge and under warmer conditions. This report also compares X Band SAR data taken in Davis Strait with similar imagery collected in the Bering Sea. Ice core samples from the Bering test area offer a basis for speculation on changes in ice morphology which affect the signature return at the ice edge, and help explain the difficulty of the sensors in discerning the two different ice types found on the photography and in the core samples.

  8. Preliminary genetic analysis of juvenile chum salmon from the Chukchi Sea and Bering Strait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The arctic region has experienced warming in recent years, resulting in decreased summer sea ice cover and increased sea surface temperatures. In September 2007, the U.S. BASIS survey extended surface trawling into the Chukchi Sea. Juvenile (young-of-the-year) chum salmon were collected at most stat...

  9. Comparison of spring-time phytoplankton community composition in two cold years from the western Gulf of Alaska into the southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Beth A.; Goes, Joaquim I.; McKee, Kali T.; do Rosario Gomes, Helga; Stabeno, Phyllis J.

    2014-11-01

    The Bering Sea is a highly productive ecosystem providing the main oceanographic connection between the North Pacific and Arctic oceans. The atmospheric connection with the Arctic Ocean leads to seasonal sea ice formation in the Bering Sea, the areal extent and timing of retreat of which have important implications for primary productivity and phytoplankton community composition in this region. Hydrographic data from cruises and satellite sea ice and sea surface temperature data in spring 2011 and 2012 suggest classification of these years as relatively warmer and colder years, respectively. Locations in the western Gulf of Alaska (Pavlof Bay), at the north end of an eastern pass through the Aleutian Islands (Unimak Pass), and on the continental shelf of the Bering Sea (M2) were visited in both years. Stratification was apparent on the shelf in 2012, while the water column was comparatively well-mixed at other locations in both years. Phytoplankton biomass was highest in 2011 overall and specifically on the shelf in both years, while minimal biomass was measured within the well-mixed Unimak Pass in 2012. Surface phytoplankton size distributions included substantial contributions of picoplankton (<3 μm) in 2011 (21-35%), while micro- (20-200 μm) and nanoplankton (3-20 μm) comprised 79% and 95% of biomass in Pavlof Bay and at M2, respectively, in 2012. Analyses of similarity revealed spatial variability in the phytoplankton assemblages within each year (2011: R=0.588, p<0.004; 2012: R=0.646, p<0.004). Additionally, between-year variability had a strong and significant effect on differences between assemblages across all locations (R=0.579, p<0.0003), likely masking differences between sites when years were grouped (R=0.134, p<0.079). These differences were likely driven by the dominance (up to 75% in Unimak Pass) of the colonial prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis sp. at all sites in 2011, resulting in reduced community diversity, compared to more widespread abundance of

  10. North Pacific right whale up-call source levels and propagation distance on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf.

    PubMed

    Munger, Lisa M; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2011-06-01

    Call source levels, transmission loss, and ambient noise levels were estimated for North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica) up-calls recorded in the southeastern Bering Sea in autumn of 2000 and 2001. Distances to calling animals, needed to estimate source levels, were based on two independent techniques: (1) arrival-time differences on three or more hydrophones and (2) shallow-water dispersion of normal modes on a single receiver. Average root-mean-square (rms) call source levels estimated by the two techniques were 178 and 176 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m, respectively, over the up-call frequency band, which was determined per call and averaged 90 to 170 Hz. Peak-to-peak source levels were 14 to 22 dB greater than rms levels. Transmission loss was approximately 15∗log(10)(range), intermediate between cylindrical and spherical spreading. Ambient ocean noise within the up-call band varied from 72 to 91 dB re 1 μPa(2)/Hz. Under average noise conditions, call spectrograms were detectable for whales at distances up to 100 km, but propagation and detection distance may vary depending on environmental parameters and anthropogenic noise. Obtaining distances to animals and acoustic detection range is a step toward using long-term passive acoustic recordings to estimate abundance for this critically endangered whale population. PMID:21682425

  11. Proximate composition, energetic value, and relative abundance of prey fish from the inshore eastern Bering Sea: Implications for piscivorous predators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, J.R.; Esler, Daniel; Schmutz, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Changing ocean conditions and subsequent shifts in forage fish communities have been linked to numerical declines of some piscivorous marine birds and mammals in the North Pacific. However, limited information about fish communities is available for some regions, including nearshore waters of the eastern Bering Sea, where many piscivores reside. We determined proximate composition and energetic value of a suite of potential forage fish collected from an estuary on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, during 2002 and 2003. Across species, energy density ranged from 14.5 to 20.7 kJ g−1 dry mass and varied primarily as a function of lipid content. Total energy content was strongly influenced by body length and we provide species-specific predictive models of total energy based on this relationship; some models may be improved further by incorporating year and date effects. Based on observed energetic differences, we conclude that variation in fish size, quantity, and species composition of the prey community could have important consequences for piscivorous predators.

  12. Patterns in connectivity and retention of simulated Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) larvae in the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richar, Jonathan I.; Kruse, Gordon H.; Curchitser, Enrique; Hermann, Albert J.

    2015-11-01

    The eastern Bering Sea (EBS) population of Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) has exhibited high variability in recruitment to the commercially exploited stock since the late 1970s. Concurrently, apparent shifts in crab distribution have also been observed. Larval advection patterns and associated local retention offer a potential mechanism for these observations. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was used to simulate larval Tanner crab advection patterns over 1978-2004 based on larval hatching sites inferred from the distributions of reproductive females sampled during annual National Marine Fisheries Service trawl surveys. Connectivity among EBS subregions was examined by comparing start and end float locations after 60 days of simulated drift. High levels of retention (>50% of floats) were observed in the majority of source subregions, and contributed significantly to the total number of endpoints in each region. Patterns in advection and resultant interregional connectivity were variable, with strongest sustained connectivity occurring along shelf, within individual domains. Increased settlement potential in the outer domain and southern middle domain after 1990 is consistent with an observed geographic shift in fishery productivity. Apparent reliance of Bristol Bay on local larval retention validates recent spatial fishery management to conserve this area as a subpopulation.

  13. Structure-Forming Corals and Sponges and Their Use as Fish Habitat in Bering Sea Submarine Canyons

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robert J.; Hocevar, John; Stone, Robert P.; Fedorov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    Continental margins are dynamic, heterogeneous settings that can include canyons, seamounts, and banks. Two of the largest canyons in the world, Zhemchug and Pribilof, cut into the edge of the continental shelf in the southeastern Bering Sea. Here currents and upwelling interact to produce a highly productive area, termed the Green Belt, that supports an abundance of fishes and squids as well as birds and marine mammals. We show that in some areas the floor of these canyons harbors high densities of gorgonian and pennatulacean corals and sponges, likely due to enhanced surface productivity, benthic currents and seafloor topography. Rockfishes, including the commercially important Pacific ocean perch, Sebastes alutus, were associated with corals and sponges as well as with isolated boulders. Sculpins, poachers and pleuronectid flounders were also associated with corals in Pribilof Canyon, where corals were most abundant. Fishes likely use corals and sponges as sources of vertical relief, which may harbor prey as well as provide shelter from predators. Boulders may be equivalent habitat in this regard, but are sparse in the canyons, strongly suggesting that biogenic structure is important fish habitat. Evidence of disturbance to the benthos from fishing activities was observed in these remote canyons. Bottom trawling and other benthic fishing gear has been shown to damage corals and sponges that may be very slow to recover from such disturbance. Regulation of these destructive practices is key to conservation of benthic habitats in these canyons and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:22470486

  14. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Sandra; Sage, Kevin; Rearick, Jolene; Fowler, Megan C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alehandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  15. Structure-forming corals and sponges and their use as fish habitat in Bering Sea submarine canyons.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert J; Hocevar, John; Stone, Robert P; Fedorov, Dmitry V

    2012-01-01

    Continental margins are dynamic, heterogeneous settings that can include canyons, seamounts, and banks. Two of the largest canyons in the world, Zhemchug and Pribilof, cut into the edge of the continental shelf in the southeastern Bering Sea. Here currents and upwelling interact to produce a highly productive area, termed the Green Belt, that supports an abundance of fishes and squids as well as birds and marine mammals. We show that in some areas the floor of these canyons harbors high densities of gorgonian and pennatulacean corals and sponges, likely due to enhanced surface productivity, benthic currents and seafloor topography. Rockfishes, including the commercially important Pacific ocean perch, Sebastes alutus, were associated with corals and sponges as well as with isolated boulders. Sculpins, poachers and pleuronectid flounders were also associated with corals in Pribilof Canyon, where corals were most abundant. Fishes likely use corals and sponges as sources of vertical relief, which may harbor prey as well as provide shelter from predators. Boulders may be equivalent habitat in this regard, but are sparse in the canyons, strongly suggesting that biogenic structure is important fish habitat. Evidence of disturbance to the benthos from fishing activities was observed in these remote canyons. Bottom trawling and other benthic fishing gear has been shown to damage corals and sponges that may be very slow to recover from such disturbance. Regulation of these destructive practices is key to conservation of benthic habitats in these canyons and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:22470486

  16. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R.; Fowler, Meg C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation. PMID:27104836

  17. Body Size Regression Formulae, Proximate Composition and Energy Density of Eastern Bering Sea Mesopelagic Fish and Squid.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Elizabeth H; Walker, William A; Thomason, James R

    2015-01-01

    The ecological significance of fish and squid of the mesopelagic zone (200 m-1000 m) is evident by their pervasiveness in the diets of a broad spectrum of upper pelagic predators including other fishes and squids, seabirds and marine mammals. As diel vertical migrators, mesopelagic micronekton are recognized as an important trophic link between the deep scattering layer and upper surface waters, yet fundamental aspects of the life history and energetic contribution to the food web for most are undescribed. Here, we present newly derived regression equations for 32 species of mesopelagic fish and squid based on the relationship between body size and the size of hard parts typically used to identify prey species in predator diet studies. We describe the proximate composition and energy density of 31 species collected in the eastern Bering Sea during May 1999 and 2000. Energy values are categorized by body size as a proxy for relative age and can be cross-referenced with the derived regression equations. Data are tabularized to facilitate direct application to predator diet studies and food web models. PMID:26287534

  18. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R; Fowler, Meg C; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128-0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation. PMID:27104836

  19. A sound budget for the southeastern Bering Sea: measuring wind, rainfall, shipping, and other sources of underwater sound.

    PubMed

    Nystuen, Jeffrey A; Moore, Sue E; Stabeno, Phyllis J

    2010-07-01

    Ambient sound in the ocean contains quantifiable information about the marine environment. A passive aquatic listener (PAL) was deployed at a long-term mooring site in the southeastern Bering Sea from 27 April through 28 September 2004. This was a chain mooring with lots of clanking. However, the sampling strategy of the PAL filtered through this noise and allowed the background sound field to be quantified for natural signals. Distinctive signals include the sound from wind, drizzle and rain. These sources dominate the sound budget and their intensity can be used to quantify wind speed and rainfall rate. The wind speed measurement has an accuracy of +/-0.4 m s(-1) when compared to a buoy-mounted anemometer. The rainfall rate measurement is consistent with a land-based measurement in the Aleutian chain at Cold Bay, AK (170 km south of the mooring location). Other identifiable sounds include ships and short transient tones. The PAL was designed to reject transients in the range important for quantification of wind speed and rainfall, but serendipitously recorded peaks in the sound spectrum between 200 Hz and 3 kHz. Some of these tones are consistent with whale calls, but most are apparently associated with mooring self-noise. PMID:20649201

  20. Body Size Regression Formulae, Proximate Composition and Energy Density of Eastern Bering Sea Mesopelagic Fish and Squid

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ecological significance of fish and squid of the mesopelagic zone (200 m–1000 m) is evident by their pervasiveness in the diets of a broad spectrum of upper pelagic predators including other fishes and squids, seabirds and marine mammals. As diel vertical migrators, mesopelagic micronekton are recognized as an important trophic link between the deep scattering layer and upper surface waters, yet fundamental aspects of the life history and energetic contribution to the food web for most are undescribed. Here, we present newly derived regression equations for 32 species of mesopelagic fish and squid based on the relationship between body size and the size of hard parts typically used to identify prey species in predator diet studies. We describe the proximate composition and energy density of 31 species collected in the eastern Bering Sea during May 1999 and 2000. Energy values are categorized by body size as a proxy for relative age and can be cross-referenced with the derived regression equations. Data are tabularized to facilitate direct application to predator diet studies and food web models. PMID:26287534

  1. Primary production response to seasonal-scale extremes in the Bering Sea simulated by the Community Earth System Model, version 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walston, J. M.; Gibson, G. A.; Walsh, J. E.

    2015-08-01

    The biological response to long-term trends and the co-occurrence of seasonal extremes of the physical environment and primary production in the eastern Bering Sea, as simulated by the Community Earth System Model (CESM1), are presented. This analysis covers the late-twentieth century (1950-2005) and focuses on critical drivers of the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem, including air temperature, sea ice area, wind mixing, and mixed layer depth. Primary production showed strong linear relationships to both air temperature and sea ice area during winter and spring. The only season that had a positive linear correspondence between wind mixing and primary production was summer. Over the fifty-five year period the CESM1 simulates a trend toward warmer air temperatures and a subsequent reduction in sea ice for every season; however, no trends were seen in seasonally averaged wind mixing or mixed layer depth. Corresponding to the air temperature increase was an increase in occurrence of positive seasonal extremes in primary production, as well as a reduction in negative production extremes. There were some instances of seasonal production extremes coinciding with seasonal extremes in the physical environment; however, neither these co-occurrences, nor the direction of the biological response to the physics, were robust throughout the study period.

  2. A deep-sea sediment transport storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Thomas F.; Williams, A. J.; Newell, A. R. M.

    1988-02-01

    Photographs taken of the sea bottom since the 1960s suggest that sediments at great depth may be actively resuspended and redistributed1. Further, it has been suspected that active resus-pension/transport may be required to maintain elevated concentrations of particles in deep-sea nepheloid layers. But currents with sufficient energy to erode the bottom, and to maintain the particles in suspension, have not been observed concurrently with large concentrations of particles in the deep nepheloid layer2-4. The high-energy benthic boundary-layer experiment (HEBBLE) was designed to test the hypothesis that bed modifications can result from local erosion and deposition as modelled by simple one-dimensional local forcing mechanics5. We observed several 'storms' of high kinetic energy and near-bed flow associated with large concentrations of suspended sediment during the year-long deployments of moored instruments at the HEBBLE study site. These observations, at 4,880 m off the Nova Scotian Rise in the north-west Atlantic, indicate that large episodic events may suspend bottom sediments in areas well removed from coastal and shelf sources.

  3. Comparison of warm and cold years on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf and some implications for the ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Kachel, Nancy B.; Moore, Sue E.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Sigler, Michael; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Zerbini, Alexandre N.

    2012-06-01

    The southeastern, middle shelf of the Bering Sea has exhibited extreme variability in sea ice extent, temperature, and the distribution and abundance of species at multiple trophic levels over the past four decades. From 1972-2000, there was high interannual variability of areal extent of sea ice during spring (March-April). In 2000, this shifted to a 5-year (2001-2005) period of low ice extent during spring, which transitioned to a 4-year (2007-2010) period of extensive sea ice. High (low) areal extent of sea ice in spring was associated with cold (warm) water column temperatures for the following 6-7 months. The ocean currents also differed between warm and cold years. During cold years, the monthly-mean currents over the shelf were largely westward, while in warm years the direction of currents was more variable, with northward flow during December-February and relatively weak flow during the remainder of the year. The types and abundance of zooplankton differed sharply between warm and cold years. This was especially true during the prolonged warm period (2001-2005) and cold period (2007-2010), and was less evident during the years of high interannual variability. During the warm period, there was a lack of large copepods and euphausiids over the shelf; however, their populations rebounded during cold period. Small crustacean zooplankton taxa did not appear to vary between and warm and cold years. For both walleye pollock and Pacific cod, year-class strength (recruitment) was low during the prolonged warm period, but improved during the following cold period. Year-class strength did not appear to vary as a function of warm and cold years during the period of high year-to-year variability. Also, recruitment of arrowtooth flounder (a predator of pollock and cod) did not appear influenced by the warm or cold years. Finally, the distribution and relative abundance of fin whales appeared to differ in warm and cold years, with fewer whales on the southeastern, middle

  4. Input of Terrestrial Palynomorphs since the Last Deglaciation from Sediments of the Chukchi Sea Shelf, Western Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delusina, I.; Kim, S. Y.; Nam, S. I.; Woo, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    We report the palynology of marine sediment core ARA02B/01A-GC from the Western margin of the shallow shelf of the Chukchi Sea in the Arctic, a site which was synchronously influenced by climatic changes during the last deglaciation with those in the Bering Strait. The core contains a rich concentration of continental palynomorphs, even though the coring location is quite a distance from land. The catchment area for the observed palynomorphs includes the territories of both North America (Alaska and North Canada) and Northern Siberia (Chukotka peninsula and Northern East-Siberian coast). Based on this fact, we can reconstruct a common paleoenvironmental history for this location and the Bering Strait during the postglacial interval. We hypothesize that palynomorphs were carried to the sea during low sea-ice coverage intervals by large rivers (Yukon, Mackenzie and Siberian rivers) and were then transferred by oceanic currents. During intervals of extensive sea-ice coverage the source of the palynomorphs was predominantly eroded shelf sediments. The percentage ratio of tree-herb pollen and spores in the palynomorph assemblages shows that favorable conditions for an increase in forest vegetation took place between ~8 and 4 kyr BP, which coincides with maximum freshwater input to the sea. During a climatic optimum at ~5 kyr BP, as inferred from the total dominance of tree and herb pollen, the Chukchi Sea was apparently warmer than today. This represents the maximum ice-free period for the sea. The low sea-ice interval ended ~3 kyr BP, as suggested by a sharp drop in tree pollen, a reduction in fresh water input, and a drop in the concentration of the algae Pediastrum. Our data correlate well with data from marine core HLY0501-5 from the Bering Strait (Polyak et al., 2009) for the interval of 10-8 kyr BP, but shows a divergence since ~4 kyr BP, which may correspond to the beginning of the differentiation of North American and East-Siberian ecosystem zones.

  5. Foraging Responses of Black-Legged Kittiwakes to Prolonged Food-Shortages around Colonies on the Bering Sea Shelf

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Rosana; Orben, Rachael A.; Suryan, Robert M.; Irons, David B.; Roby, Daniel D.; Harding, Ann M. A.; Young, Rebecca C.; Benoit-Bird, Kelly; Ladd, Carol; Renner, Heather; Heppell, Scott; Phillips, Richard A.; Kitaysky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that changes in southeastern Bering Sea foraging conditions for black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) have caused shifts in habitat use with direct implications for population trends. To test this, we compared at-sea distribution, breeding performance, and nutritional stress of kittiwakes in three years (2008–2010) at two sites in the Pribilof Islands, where the population has either declined (St. Paul) or remained stable (St. George). Foraging conditions were assessed from changes in (1) bird diets, (2) the biomass and distribution of juvenile pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in 2008 and 2009, and (3) eddy kinetic energy (EKE; considered to be a proxy for oceanic prey availability). In years when biomass of juvenile pollock was low and patchily distributed in shelf regions, kittiwake diets included little or no neritic prey and a much higher occurrence of oceanic prey (e.g. myctophids). Birds from both islands foraged on the nearby shelves, or made substantially longer-distance trips overnight to the basin. Here, feeding was more nocturnal and crepuscular than on the shelf, and often occurred near anticyclonic, or inside cyclonic eddies. As expected from colony location, birds from St. Paul used neritic waters more frequently, whereas birds from St. George typically foraged in oceanic waters. Despite these distinctive foraging patterns, there were no significant differences between colonies in chick feeding rates or fledging success. High EKE in 2010 coincided with a 63% increase in use of the basin by birds from St. Paul compared with 2008 when EKE was low. Nonetheless, adult nutritional stress, which was relatively high across years at both colonies, peaked in birds from St. Paul in 2010. Diminishing food resources in nearby shelf habitats may have contributed to kittiwake population declines at St Paul, possibly driven by increased adult mortality or breeding desertion due to high foraging effort and nutritional stress. PMID:24671108

  6. Seasonal distribution of suspended sediment in the Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Houjie; Wang, Aimei; Bi, Naishuang; Zeng, Xiangming; Xiao, Hehui

    2014-11-01

    Distribution of suspended sediment in the Bohai Sea and its seasonal variability were investigated based on the datasets obtained from four cruises carried out in different seasons in 2010 and 2012. The results indicate that the spatial distribution of suspended sediment in the Bohai Sea was dominated by the river input and coastal resuspension that depends on the type of local surface sediment and hydrodynamics. The suspended sediment was mostly concentrated in the southern Bohai Sea particularly around the Yellow River Delta in the summer season as impacted by the river plume but confined within a very limited area near the river mouth, whereas in winter-spring seasons sediment concentration became much higher as a result of active coastal resuspension induced by energetic wave actions in the shallow water. High sediment concentration was found in Liaodong Bay in winter-spring seasons when dynamics become strong but decrease significantly in summer seasons. The sediment concentration in the southern Bohai Strait was much higher than that in the northern part, suggesting evident sediment export to the Yellow Sea particularly in the winter-spring seasons. Strong seasonal variability of suspended sediment distribution in the Bohai Sea was consistent with the monsoon activity and associated wave actions and coastal currents that are varying seasonally. The dominance of seasonal monsoon signal and associated wave dynamics make the subaqueous Yellow River delta to be a major sink for the terrestrial sediment in the summer seasons, but transiting to a primary source in winter-spring seasons for sediment redistribution in the Bohai Sea and sediment export to the Yellow Sea. The seasonal patterns of suspended sediment distribution in the Bohai Sea and the dominance of monsoon activities may provide a good reference to understanding the sediment transport in the China Shelf Seas where sediment resuspension and coastal circulation are evidently driven by monsoon.

  7. Bioaccumulation of HCHs and DDTs in organs of Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) from the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Lukyanova, Olga N; Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Khristoforova, Nadezhda K

    2016-08-01

    Concentrations of isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (α-, β-, γ-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were assessed in organs of the pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), chum (Oncorhynchus keta), chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), caught near the Kuril Islands (the northern-western part of the Pacific Ocean), in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. Pesticides have been found to accumulate in fish organs in the following: muscles < liver < eggs < male gonads. The highest concentrations in muscles and liver have been recorded from sockeye. Of the DDT group, only DDE has been detected. The average concentration of HCHs + DDE in the muscles of pink, chum, chinook, and sockeye was 141, 125, 1241, 1641 ng/g lipids, respectively; and in the liver, 279, 183, 1305, 3805 ng/g lipids, respectively. The total concentration of HCHs isomers was higher than that of DDE. Average HCHs + DDE concentration in organs of salmon from study area is lower than that in salmon from Pacific coast of North America. PMID:27219293

  8. Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and≥18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (<25.0 mm SL) of both arrowtooth flounder and Kamchatka flounder is similar in the eastern Bering Sea; however, juvenile (≥25.0 mm SL) Kamchatka flounder occur closer to the shelf break and in deeper water than juvenile arrowtooth flounder. Condition was determined for larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

  9. Fluorescence, pigment and microscopic characterization of Bering Sea phytoplankton community structure and photosynthetic competency in the presence of a Cold Pool during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, Joaquim I.; Gomes, Helga do Rosario; Haugen, Elin M.; McKee, Kali T.; D'Sa, Eurico J.; Chekalyuk, Alexander M.; Stoecker, Diane K.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi; Sambrotto, Raymond N.

    2014-11-01

    Spectral fluorescence measurements of phytoplankton chlorophyll a (Chl a), phytoplankton phycobilipigments and variable fluorescence (Fv/Fm), are utilized with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) estimates of phytoplankton pigments and microscopic cells counts to construct a comprehensive picture of summer-time phytoplankton communities and their photosynthetic competency in the eastern Bering Sea shelf. Although the Bering Sea was ice-free during our study, the exceptionally cold winter that preceded the summer of 2008 when our cruise took place, facilitated the formation of a "Cold Pool" (<2 °C) and its entrapment at depth in the northern middle shelf. The presence of a strong pycnocline over the entire middle and outer shelves restricted inorganic nutrient fluxes into the surface waters resulting in phytoplankton populations that were photo-physiologically stressed due to nutrient limitation. Elevated Chl a concentrations recorded in the Green Belt along the shelf edge of the Bering Sea, were due to Phaeocystis pouchetii and nano-sized cryptophytes. Although inorganic nutrients were not limiting in the Green Belt, Fv/Fm values were low in all probability due to iron limitation. Phytoplankton communities in the low biomass surface waters of the middle shelf were comprised of prasinophytes, haptophytes, cryptophytes and diatoms. In the northern part of the middle shelf, a sinking bloom made up of the centric diatoms Chaeotoceros socialis, Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii and Porosira glacialis was located above the Cold Pool. The high biomass associated with this senescent bloom and its accretion above the pycnocline, suggests that the Cold Pool acts as a barrier, preventing sinking phytoplankton from reaching the bottom where they can become available to benthic organisms. We further posit that if summer-time storms are not energetic enough and the Cold Pool is not eroded, its presence facilitates the transfer of the large spring phytoplankton bloom to

  10. Puzzling mass movement features in the Navarinsky Canyon head, Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, P.R.; Karl, Herman A.; Edwards, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Two types of morphologic features in the head of Navarinsky Canyon are attributed to mass movement of near-surface sediment. A series of pull-aparts is located downslope of large sand waves. These pull-aparts, possibly induced by liquefaction, affect the upper 5 to 10 m of sandy sediment (water depths 350 to 600 m) on a 1o slope. A hummocky elongate mound of muddy sand (water depths 550 to 800 m) contains chaotic internal reflectors to a subbottom depth of 30 to 40 m and possibly is the product of a shallow slide. We speculate that Holocene seismicity is the likely triggering mechanism. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  11. Updated analysis of flatfish recruitment response to climate variability and ocean conditions in the Eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilderbuer, Thomas; Stockhausen, William; Bond, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    This study provides a retrospective analysis of the relationship between physical oceanography, biology and recruitment of three Eastern Bering Sea flatfish stocks: flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon), northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra), and arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) during the period 1978-2005. Stock assessment model estimates of recruitment and spawning stock size indicate that temporal patterns in productivity are consistent with decadal scale (or shorter) patterns in climate variability, which may influence marine survival during the early life history phases. Density-dependence (through spawning stock size) was statistically significant in a Ricker stock-recruit model of flatfish recruitment that included environmental terms. Wind-driven advection of northern rock sole and flathead sole larvae to favorable nursery grounds was found to coincide with years of above-average recruitment. Ocean forcing of Bristol Bay surface waters during springtime was mostly on-shelf (eastward) during the 1980s and again in the early 2000s, but was off-shelf (westerly) during the 1990s, corresponding with periods of good and poor recruitment, respectively. Finally, the Arctic Oscillation was found to be an important indicator of arrowtooth flounder productivity. Model results were applied to IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) future springtime wind scenarios to predict the future impact of climate on northern rock sole productivity and indicated that a moderate future increase in recruitment might be expected because the climate trends favor on-shelf transport but that density-dependence will dampen this effect such that northern rock sole abundance will not be substantially affected by climate change.

  12. Evidence of prolonged aragonite undersaturations in the bottom waters of the southern Bering Sea shelf from autonomous sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, Jeremy T.; Cross, Jessica N.; Monacci, Natalie; Feely, Richard A.; Stabeno, Phyllis

    2014-11-01

    The southeastern shelf of the Bering Sea is a dynamic area that experiences seasonal variability in primary production and remineralization of organic matter, both of which control the carbon biogeochemistry of the water column. Surface-water partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) is greatly reduced in summer by biological production, which increases carbonate mineral saturation states (Ω). In contrast, the export of large quantities of organic matter from surface blooms drives an active remineralization loop that sharply increases pCO2 near the bottom, lowering pH and suppressing Ω. New observations from moored biogeochemical sensors in 2011 showed that seasonal net community production lowers surface-water pCO2, causing large gradients between the ocean and atmosphere that are sustained throughout the summer, confirming that these waters likely remain supersaturated with respect to aragonite throughout the open water season. On the other hand, moored sensors deployed near the bottom showed that pCO2 levels exceed 500 μatm by early June and remain at these high levels well into the autumn months, indicating that the bottom waters are likely continuously undersaturated in aragonite for at least several months during each year. Only a small fraction of the increased pCO2 can currently be attributed to the intrusion of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere, while the majority is due to natural respiration processes. The biological impacts, along with the timing and duration of these undersaturation events, could play a role in the development of larval and juvenile calcifiers in the region and will change as anthropogenic CO2 concentrations continue to rise.

  13. Vertical changes in abundance, biomass and community structure of copepods down to 3000 m in the southern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, Tomoe; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2010-08-01

    Vertical changes in abundance, biomass and community structure of copepods down to 3000 m depth were studied at a single station of the Aleutian Basin of the Bering Sea (53°28'N, 177°00'W, depth 3779 m) on the 14th June 2006. Both abundance and biomass of copepods were greatest near the surface layer and decreased with increase in depth. Abundance and biomass of copepods integrated over 0-3000 m were 1,390,000 inds. m -2 and 5056 mg C m -2, respectively. Copepod carcasses occurred throughout the layer, and the carcass:living specimen ratio was the greatest in the oxygen minimum layer (750-100 m, the ratio was 2.3). A total of 72 calanoid copepod species belonging to 34 genera and 15 families occurred in the 0-3000 m water column (Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida and Poecilostomatoida were not identified to species level). Cluster analysis separated calanoid copepod communities into 5 groups (A-E). Each group was separated by depth, and the depth range of each group was at 0-75 m (A), 75-500 m (B), 500-750 m (C), 750-1500 m (D) and 1500-3000 m (E). Copepods were divided into four types based on the feeding pattern: suspension feeders, suspension feeders in diapause, detritivores and carnivores. In terms of abundance the most dominant group was suspension feeders (mainly Cyclopoida) in the epipelagic zone, and detritivores (mainly Poecilostomatoida) were dominant in the meso- and bathypelagic zones. In terms of biomass, suspension feeders in diapause (calanoid copepods Neocalanus spp. and Eucalanus bungii) were the major component (ca. 10-45%), especially in the 250-3000 m depth. These results are compared with the previous studies in the same region and that down to greater depths in the worldwide oceans.

  14. Basaltic volcanism in the Bering Sea: geochronology and volcanic evolution of St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winer, G. S.; Feeley, T. C.; Cosca, M. A.

    2004-07-01

    The evolution of a Pleistocene to Holocene basaltic volcanic field in the back-arc region of the Aleutian subduction system is investigated at St. Paul Island, Alaska, one of the youngest eruptive centers in the Bering Sea basalt province. New 40Ar/ 39Ar and 14C age determinations indicate that subaerial volcanic activity forming the island began as early as 540 ka and has continued nearly to the present; the youngest eruption occurred approximately 3230 years BP. Magmas erupted on St. Paul are basaltic with MgO contents ranging from 14 to 4 wt.% and phenocryst assemblages of olivine+clinopyroxene±plagioclase; all are alkalic. The surface of St. Paul is composed mainly of numerous tephra cones surrounded by coalescing, low-viscosity pahoehoe lava flows. A central highland spans the island from east to west and is constructed of relatively young eruptive centers where rocks show a minimum of weathering and little deformation by faulting. In contrast, older lava flows forming the wave-eroded base of the island are gently to moderately tilted and faulted. Geochronologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical data indicate that eruptive styles on St. Paul evolved from early, mostly effusive eruptions of chemically little evolved lavas that form the base of the island, to more explosive monogenetic scoria cones, to polygenetic centers forming shields by repeated effusive eruptions of evolved low-viscosity lavas. Localization of the monogenetic and polygenetic centers appears to be related to east-west and northeast-southwest trending fault and fissure systems, with polygenetic centers located at intersections of major structures. The combined volcanic and compositional changes on St. Paul Island suggest that the magmatic system as a whole may be trending toward eruption of more evolved magmas related to the progressive development of crustal magma chambers in which crystal fractionation and magmatic differentiation are occurring.

  15. Differential responses of seabirds to environmental variability over 2 years in the continental shelf and oceanic habitats of southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Kokubun, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Dale M.; Sato, Nobuhiko; Takahashi, Akinori; Will, Alexis P.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal sea-ice cover has been decreasing in the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, which might affect ecosystem dynamics and availability of food resources to marine top predators breeding in the region. In this study, we investigated the foraging responses of two seabird species, surface-foraging red-legged kittiwakes Rissa brevirostris (hereafter, RLKI) and pursuit-diving foraging thick-billed murres Uria lomvia (TBMU) to different marine environmental conditions over 2 years. At-sea distributions of RLKI and TBMU breeding on St. George Island, the largest seabird colony in the region, were recorded using GPS loggers, and blood samples were taken to examine their physiological condition and isotopic foraging niche in a given year. Between the study years, winter ice retreated earlier and summer water temperatures were relatively warmer in 2014 compared to those in 2013. RLKI foraging occurred mostly over the oceanic basin in both years. TBMU, however, foraged mostly over the shelf but showed a relatively higher use of the shelf break and oceanic basin in 2013. The foraging distances from the colony peaked at 250-300 km in 2013 and bimodally at 150-250 and 300-350 km in 2014 for RLKI and tended to be farther in 2013 compared to those in 2014 for TBMU. Plasma levels of corticosterone did not differ between the years in RLKI but differed in TBMU, showing higher levels of physiological stress incurred by murres in 2013, the year of relatively cooler sea surface temperatures with later sea-ice retreat. δ13N (a proxy of trophic level of prey) did not differ between the years in either RLKI or TBMU. These results suggest that the response of ecosystem dynamics to climate variability in the southeastern Bering Sea may differ between the ocean basin and continental shelf regions, which, in turn, may generate differential responses in seabirds relying on those habitats for foraging.

  16. Platinum group nuggets in deep sea sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Bates, B. A.; Wheelock, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of iron meteor oblation spheres in deep sea sediments was known for over a century. These spheres generally were believed to be composed of either pure magnetite and wustite or an oxide shell surrounding a NiFe metal core. A large number of 300 micron to 600 micron spheres found were pure oxide spheres, usually containing a solitary 10 micron platinum group nugget (pgn) composed almost entirely of group VIII metals. Twelve PGN's were analyzed and most had chondritic abundances with some depletions that correlate with element volatility. PGN formation by oxidation of a molten metal sphere entering the atmosphere cannot occur if the oxygen abundance in the atmosphere is less than half of its present value. The first appearance of PGN's in the geological record should mark when, in the Earth's history, oxygen rose to this level.

  17. Holocene palynomorph records since the last deglaciation from the Chukchi Sea shelf sediments, western Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So-Young; Nam, Seung-Il; Polyak, Leonid; Delusina, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Organic-walled microscopic organisms in marine sediments such as dinoflagellate cysts, pollen, spores and freshwater algae from the Chukchi Sea shelf sediment document spatial and temporal variations in the paleoenvironmental history in relation to regional climatic changes during the Holocene. The records presented here are derived from a sediment core from the shallow shelf of the Chukchi Sea in the western Arctic (core ARA02B/01A-GC), a site which allows us to assess the timing of the Bering Strait opening and its influence over the regional environmental system during the last post glacial interval. The sediment core contains a rich concentration of terrestrially derived pollen and spores, indicating considerable changes in vegetation over the catchment area including the territories of both North America (Alaska and Northern Canadian Arctic) and Northern Siberia (Chukotka peninsula and Northern East-Siberian coast) during the last 10 kyr BP. We speculate that the palynomorphs were predominantly supplied from eroded shelf sediments during intervals of extensive sea-ice coverage, while they were carried to the shelves by large rivers (Yukon, Mackenzie and Siberian rivers) and then transferred by oceanic currents during low sea-ice coverage intervals. In particular, the percentage ratio between tree-herb pollen and spores, and the algae Pediastrum in the palynomorph assemblages represent significant changes in the western Arctic vegetation associated with freshwater inputs, including increased forest vegetation between ~8 and 4 kyr BP, a climatic optimum at ~5 kyr BP and a termination of the low sea-ice interval at ~3 kyr BP. In parallel, marine palynomorphs (dinoflagellate cysts) document significant changes in the marine environments, typically for a prominent increase in dinoflagellate cyst concentrations as well as total organic carbon and nitrogen contents since ca. 8 kyr BP suggesting increased nutrient inputs and marine productivity in the study area. Our

  18. Feeding habits of Dall's porpoises ( Phocoenoides dalli) in the subarctic North Pacific and the Bering Sea basin and the impact of predation on mesopelagic micronekton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohizumi, Hiroshi; Kuramochi, Toshiaki; Kubodera, Tsunemi; Yoshioka, Motoi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2003-05-01

    We investigated the stomach contents of Dall's porpoises collected in pelagic waters spanning most of their range in the North Pacific and the Bering Sea. Analysis revealed the porpoises fed mainly on myctophid fishes in the subarctic North Pacific and on gonatid squids as well as myctophid fishes in the Bering Sea. Most of the prey items were mesopelagic micronekton, primarily fishes and squids that migrate vertically to shallower waters at night. Stomach content was greater during twilight hours, suggesting the porpoises foraged actively on myctophids at night in shallower waters. Stomach contents were strongly characterized by local mesopelagic prey fauna, and prey species selectivity was not apparent. The annual consumption by Dall's porpoises was estimated to be 2.0-2.8 million tons, or 4.7-6.5% of the biomass of mesopelagic fishes in the subarctic North Pacific, and may account for approximately 24-33% of the overall mortality of mesopelagic micronekton, especially myctophids. Myctophids are also common, but less important, prey of other subarctic predators. Dall's porpoises are likely the primary consumers of myctophids in the subarctic North Pacific. Since myctophids are the major component of the mesotrophic level, the trophic relationship between myctophids and Dall's porpoises is thought to be an important pathway of mass and energy in the pelagic food web in the subarctic North Pacific.

  19. Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Springer, Alan M; van Vliet, Gus B

    2014-05-01

    Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem. PMID:24706809

  20. A multivariate analysis of observed and modeled biophysical variability on the Bering Sea shelf: Multidecadal hindcasts (1970-2009) and forecasts (2010-2040)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Albert J.; Gibson, Georgina A.; Bond, Nicholas A.; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Muyin; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Eisner, Lisa; Cieciel, Kristin D.

    2013-10-01

    Coupled physical/biological models can be used to downscale global climate change to the ecology of subarctic regions, and to explore the bottom-up and top-down effects of that change on the spatial structure of subarctic ecosystems—for example, the relative dominance of large vs. small zooplankton in relation to ice cover. Here we utilize a multivariate statistical approach to extract the emergent properties of a coupled physical/biological hindcast of the Bering Sea for years 1970-2009, which includes multiple episodes of warming and cooling (e.g. the recent cooling of 2005-2009), and a multidecadal regional forecast of the coupled models, driven by an IPCC global model forecast of 2010-2040. Specifically, we employ multivariate empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to derive the spatial covariance among physical and biological timeseries from our simulations. These are compared with EOFs derived from spatially gridded measurements of the region, collected during multiyear field programs. The model replicates observed relationships among temperature and salinity, as well as the observed inverse correlation between temperature and large crustacean zooplankton on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Predicted future warming of the shelf is accompanied by a northward shift in both pelagic and benthic biomass.

  1. The distribution and timing of bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) vocalizations reflect changing environmental conditions in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIntyre, Kalyn Quintin

    The Arctic is experiencing dramatic shifts in climate that have led to changes in sea ice distribution, extent, and timing that pose adaptability challenges for Arctic species. Ice obligate species, such as the bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus, are inherently vulnerable to Arctic warming due to their reliance on seasonal sea ice as a platform for pupping and molting. Bearded seals are a highly vocal pan-Arctic species, in which males produce underwater vocal displays as part of courtship behavior during mating season. Bearded seal vocalizations were once believed to be a spring phenomenon, but results of this study have revealed year-round acoustic activity by bearded seals in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas (BCB). This new insight suggests that passive acoustic monitoring can be employed as an effective method to examine bearded seal distribution, migration patterns, and population structure year-round. This study provides a more complete understanding of bearded seal behavior and ecology through the analysis of year-round passive acoustic data collected in the BCB between 2008 and 2011. The BCB comprises three ecologically distinct bodies of water connected by the currents that flow northward from the Pacific Ocean through the Bering Strait and into the Arctic. The fine- and broad-scale oceanographic and physiographic variability that exists among the BCB may directly or indirectly (through sea ice conditions) affect bearded seal distributions. Analysis of seal vocal presence relative to sea ice distribution helped to clarify the relationships between bearded seal vocal behavior, habitat preferences and sea ice conditions. Regional and recording-site variability in call activity was largely related to sea ice conditions and geography, however oceanographic variability may contribute to the fine-scale variability in call activity that was present between closely located sites. This research provides a contemporary baseline of bearded seal distributions

  2. Paleogeographic sedimentation settings in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimonis, E. S.; Emelyanov, E. M.; Vaikutene, G.

    2008-10-01

    The grain-size and chemical composition of the bottom sediments and their diatom assemblages from the northern Baltic Sea is discussed. Characteristic layers are distinguished based on the lithostratgraphy and sediment core correlation, which reflect the transition from the lacustrine to marine sedimentation settings during the initial Holocene. Sediment cores demonstrate lateral variations in the sedimentation patterns during the marine (Yoldia Sea), the lacustrine (Ancylus Lake), and the subsequent marine (Littorina Sea) stages: first two stages were characterized by the clay deposition, while the latter one featured accumulation of silty-clayey and clayey muds in bottom depressions. Sea-level fluctuations and corresponding environmental changes are recorded in microlaminated sequences, in particular, sapropelic muds.

  3. A Comparison of Paleomagnetic Secular Variation during MIS 7-10 between the Bering Sea (IODP Ex. 323) and North Atlantic Ocean (ODP Leg 172): Implications for the space/time pattern of field and environmental variability (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, S.; Okada, M.; Acton, G.; Clement, B. M.; Stoner, J. S.; Platzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Detailed records of Brunhes paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 7-10 have been recovered from four IODP Ex. 323 sites in the Bering Sea (U1339, U1343-U1345) and four ODP Leg 172 sites from the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean (1060-1063). Reproducible records of PSV (both directions and paleointensity) have been recovered from three or more holes at each site and correlated among the four independent sites in each region. These PSV records provide an unprecedented database for considering patterns of long-term secular variation and evidence for excursional field behavior on a larger than individual regional scale. We will present reproducible evidence for sustained long-term secular variation in each region and assess the extent to which they may be interrelated. We have identified the times of magnetic field excursions 7α, 7β, 8α, 9α, and 9β in the Atlantic records and correlated those times to the Bering Sea records. There are no true excursions in the Bering Sea at those times, but several of these intervals mark the most anomalous field behavior in the Bering Sea during MIS 7-10. In both regions, the PSV also serves as a high-resolution chronostratigraphic tool for regional correlation of environmental variability. Both regions show clear, reproducible evidence among the sites for synchronous millennial-scale environmental variability that has not been diagnosed previously.

  4. [Microphallus kurilensis sp. nov., a new species of microphallids from the pygmaeus species group (Trematoda, Microphallidae) from the coastal areas of Okhotsk and Bering Seas].

    PubMed

    Galaktionov, K V; Regel', K V; Atrashkevich, G I

    2010-01-01

    The pygmaeus-species group is composed of close related species from the genus Microphallus in which metacercariae develop inside daughter sporocysts without encystment. Infection of periwinkles Littorina (Neritremna) spp. with intramolluscan stages of a new species of this group (Microphallus kurilensis sp. nov.) was recorded on the coasts of Sakhalin and Kuril islands, north of the Sea of Okhotsk and Chukchi Peninsula (the Bering Sea). Application of molecular methods allowed us to establish that M. kurilensis metacercariae are conspecific with one of the morphotypes of microphallid adults obtained from the intestine of the Pacific common eider (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum), which was shot in the north of the Sea of Okhotsk (Galaktionov, Olson, and Blasco-Costa, in press). The adults of the same morphotype were recorded in the Pacific common eider from the northwestern part of the Bering Sea (Chukchi Peninsula). In the course of experimental infection of the slaty-backed gull Larus schistisagus chicks with metacercariae of M. kurilensis, few microphallid adults were obtained. These adults were identical in their morphology with specimens of the microphallid morphotype from the Pacific common eider, which had been identified as M. kurilensis based on molecular data. Morphological description of metacercaria and adult of M. kurilensis and list of their differences from the same developmental stages of other species from pygmaeus-group are provided. It is concluded that M. kurilensis is transmitted in the host system including periwinkle Littorina (Neritrema) and seaducks (predominately, Pacific common eider). Most probably, distribution of M. kurilensis is not limited by the north Asiatic coast but expanded to the North American coast of the Pacific Ocean. PMID:21427958

  5. New Scientific Drilling in the Bering Sea--Results Imply Contribution of Thermogenic Methane to Beringian Margin BSR and Miocene Termination of Subduction Beneath Bowers Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, D. W.

    2011-12-01

    METHANE BENEATH THE BERINGIAN MARGIN: Based on an acoustically prominent BSR (~450 m), it has long been surmised that large volumes of methane gas and methane hydrate occur within the Cenozoic deposits that thickly (5-10 km) drape the Beringian continental margin. In 2009, IODP Exp. 323 drilled three sites along the margin to recover the late Cenozoic paleoceanographic history stored there. On deck, warming sediment cores vigorously released interstitial methane gas. Disassociation of pore-space methane hydrate was inferred, but hydrate was not visually seen. P/T conditions at the BSR (24 C at 360 bars) matched those of the expected phase transition from methane gas below to methane hydrate above. Reflection records below bright sectors of the BSR display gas-blanking effects traceable to subsurface depths of several km, at which the thermal gradient of 50-55 deg C/km implies thermogenic methane would be generated. Since at least the early Miocene, surface water overlying the Beringian margin has been a biologically productive garden spot. Large quantities of organic matter can be expected to have accumulated in the underlying slope deposits. Deep, glacial-age canyon cutting, normal faulting, and diagenetic fracturing of siliceous shale (opal-A to opal-CT) provide venting paths for deep-generated methane. It is posited that ascending thermogenic methane importantly nourishes the sub-margin hydrate BSR. END OF SUBDUCTION AND ARC VOLCANISM AT BOWERS RIDGE: Submarine Bowers Ridge, which is not volcanically active, projects oddly northward and curvingly westward into the Bering Sea Basin from the mid point of the Aleutian Arc. The ridge rises as high as 3500 m to flatten near 600 m at wave-planed platforms cut across basement rock. The ridge's magnetic, velocity, and gravity characteristics are typical of an arc massif. A sediment-filled, trench-shaped trough along the base of the ridge's northern flank implies a former subduction zone underthrust the ridge to the

  6. Fatty acid and stable isotope characteristics of sea ice and pelagic particulate organic matter in the Bering Sea: tools for estimating sea ice algal contribution to Arctic food web production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiway W; Budge, Suzanne M; Gradinger, Rolf R; Iken, Katrin; Wooller, Matthew J

    2014-03-01

    We determined fatty acid (FA) profiles and carbon stable isotopic composition of individual FAs (δ(13)CFA values) from sea ice particulate organic matter (i-POM) and pelagic POM (p-POM) in the Bering Sea during maximum ice extent, ice melt, and ice-free conditions in 2010. Based on FA biomarkers, differences in relative composition of diatoms, dinoflagellates, and bacteria were inferred for i-POM versus p-POM and for seasonal succession stages in p-POM. Proportions of diatom markers were higher in i-POM (16:4n-1, 6.6-8.7%; 20:5n-3, 19.6-25.9%) than in p-POM (16:4n-1, 1.2-4.0%; 20:5n-3, 5.5-14.0%). The dinoflagellate marker 22:6n-3/20:5n-3 was highest in p-POM. Bacterial FA concentration was higher in the bottom 1 cm of sea ice (14-245 μg L(-1)) than in the water column (0.6-1.7 μg L(-1)). Many i-POM δ(13)C(FA) values were higher (up to ~10‰) than those of p-POM, and i-POM δ(13)C(FA) values increased with day length. The higher i-POM δ(13)C(FA) values are most likely related to the reduced dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) availability within the semi-closed sea ice brine channel system. Based on a modified Rayleigh equation, the fraction of sea ice DIC fixed in i-POM ranged from 12 to 73%, implying that carbon was not limiting for primary productivity in the sympagic habitat. These differences in FA composition and δ(13)C(FA) values between i-POM and p-POM will aid efforts to track the proportional contribution of sea ice algal carbon to higher trophic levels in the Bering Sea and likely other Arctic seas. PMID:24276772

  7. Topographic Change due to Sea Level Induced Asthenospheric Flow: A New Consideration in the Timing and Extent of the Bering Land Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickert, A. D.; Anderson, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Bering Strait served as a land route for Paleoindians and Pleistocene fauna migrating to and from the Americas and, when submerged, as a corridor for ocean circulation and the migration of marine creatures. The land bridge spanned 1600 kilometers from north to south at its greatest extent, most of which is between 40 and 60 meters below present-day sea level. Past efforts to characterize the history of the subaerial exposure of the land bridge have involved simply draping a post-last-glacial-maximum sea level curve onto the present-day bathymetry. Significant research over the past two and a half decades has been focused on dating the most recent submergence of the land bridge by recovering cores from the Bering and Chukchi shelves; the depths and ages of these coastal deposits constrain a local relative sea level curve. The use of local data is superior to the use of global data because the local data account for variations in the geoid and the paleoelevation at the site of the sample. However, the local data are not corrected for spatially variable uplift and subsidence of the seafloor due to asthenospheric flow in response to time-variable water pressure associated with changes in local sea level. Here we present results from a simple numerical model that illustrates how a shallow platform should deform in response to a glacial-cycle history of local sea level. In this model, lateral pressure gradients result from the rise and fall of a simulated ocean over a large-scale bump in topography that is shallow enough to emerge during a sea level cycle. These gradients drive flow in an asthenospheric channel, in which resultant changes in thickness produce changes in surface elevation. As sea level falls below an equilibrium elevation, bathymetric highs become pressure highs on the asthenosphere; the resulting divergent asthenospheric flow reduces the elevation of the high while raising the immediately adjacent topography. As sea level rises above an equilibrium

  8. Tectonics and petroleum potential of sedimentary basins in the Bering, Okhotsk, Japan seas, and island arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, L.E. )

    1993-09-01

    In this vast region located in the northwestern part of the Pacific rim, basins of two main genetic types possess petroleum potential. These two types are represented by basins of the recent active margin and basins of the transitional zone between analogs of the passive margin and the recent active margin. For basins of the active margin, the mean density of potential resources is estimated at 5000 MT/km[sup 2] or more. The total area of these basins is 324,000 km[sup 2] among which 120,000 km[sup 2] are in the Russian sector. Ultimate resources of hydrocarbons are estimated at 1.62 billing MT of oil equivalent. Basins of the zone, transitional from analogs of the passive margin to the recent active margin, are characterized by a number of factors favorable for petroleum occurrence. One of the important factors is the presence of rift trough and foredeeps that are potential sites for zones of oil and gas accumulation. The age of the rifts varies from the late Cretaceous through the Oligocene-Miocene in the Olyutorsky and Litke basins, to the Neogene in the Okhotsk Sea and Tatar-Japan basins. Only a small area of the rifts has been proven to contain zones of oil and gas accumulation. Based on the structural characteristics, the rifts are subdivided into oil-gas bearing, potentially oil-gas bearing, and nonprospective for hydrocarbon exploration. Potential hydrocarbon resources of basins of this type are estimated to be not less than 15.12 billion MT of oil equivalent including 9.2 billion MT in the Russian sector. New large zones of oil and gas accumulation are expected to be found both on the shallow shelf and in some deep-water basins such as in the Aleutian and Kuril basins.

  9. Sediment Bacterial Communities Reflect the History of a Sea Basin

    PubMed Central

    Lyra, Christina; Sinkko, Hanna; Rantanen, Matias; Paulin, Lars; Kotilainen, Aarno

    2013-01-01

    How entire microbial communities are structured across stratified sediments from the historical standpoint is unknown. The Baltic Sea is an ideal research object for historical reconstruction, since it has experienced many fresh- and brackish water periods and is depleted of dissolved oxygen, which increases the sediment's preservation potential. We investigated the bacterial communities, chemical elements (e.g. Cr, Pb Na, P, Sr and U) and sediment composition in a stratified sediment core dated by radiocarbon and spanning 8000 years of Baltic Sea history, using up-to-date multivariate statistics. The communities were analysed by 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The communities of the deep Early Litorina and surface Late Litorina Sea laminae were separated from the communities of the middle Litorina Sea laminae, which were associated with elevated concentrations of U and Sr trace elements, palaeo-oxygen and palaeosalinity proxies. Thus, the Litorina Sea laminae were characterized by past oxygen deficiency and salinity increase. The communities of the laminae, bioturbated and homogeneous sediments were differentiated, based on the same historical sea phases, with correct classifications of 90%. Palaeosalinity was one of the major parameters that separated the bacterial communities of the stratified sediments. A discontinuous spatial structure with a surprising increase in community heterogeneity was detected in Litorina Sea sediments from 388 to 422 cm deep, which suggests that a salinity maximum occurred in the central Gulf of Finland app. 6200–6600 years ago. The community heterogeneity decreased from the surface down to 306 cm, which reflected downcore mineralization. The plateau of the decrease was in the app. 2000-year-old sediment layers. Bacterial community data may be used as an additional tool in ocean-drilling projects, in which it is important to detect mineralization plateaus both to determine historically comparable

  10. Nutrient enrichment coupled with sedimentation favors sea anemones over corals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Hsin, Min-Chieh; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Fan, Tung-Yung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Lu, Chung-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2015-01-01

    Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs. PMID:25897844

  11. Nutrient Enrichment Coupled with Sedimentation Favors Sea Anemones over Corals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Hsin, Min-Chieh; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Fan, Tung-Yung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Lu, Chung-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2015-01-01

    Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs. PMID:25897844

  12. Absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter of the eastern Bering Sea in the summer with special reference to the influence of a cold pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Sa, E. J.; Goes, J. I.; Gomes, H.; Mouw, C.

    2014-06-01

    The absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are reported for the inner shelf, slope waters and outer shelf regions of the eastern Bering Sea during the summer of 2008, when a warm, thermally stratified surface mixed layer lay over a cold pool (< 2 °C) that occupied the entire middle shelf. CDOM absorption at 355 nm (ag355) and its spectral slope (S) in conjunction with excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed large variability in the characteristics of CDOM in different regions of the Bering Sea. PARAFAC analysis aided in the identification of three humic-like (components one, two and five) and two protein-like (a tyrosine-like component three, and a tryptophan-like component four) components. In the extensive shelf region, average absorption coefficients at 355 nm (ag355, m-1) and DOC concentrations (μM) were highest in the inner shelf (0.342 ± 0.11 m-1, 92.67 ± 14.60 μM) and lower in the middle (0.226 ± 0.05 m-1, 78.38 ± 10.64 μM) and outer (0.185 ± 0.05 m-1, 79.24 ± 18.01 μM) shelves, respectively. DOC concentrations, however were not significantly different, suggesting CDOM sources and sinks to be uncoupled from DOC. Mean spectral slopes S were elevated in the middle shelf (24.38 ± 2.25 μm-1) especially in the surface waters (26.87 ± 2.39 μm-1) indicating high rates of photodegradation in the highly stratified surface mixed layer, which intensified northwards in the northern middle shelf likely contributing to greater light penetration and to phytoplankton blooms at deeper depths. The fluorescent humic-like components one, two, and five were most elevated in the inner shelf most likely from riverine inputs. Along the productive "green belt" in the outer shelf/slope region, absorption and fluorescence properties indicated the presence of fresh and degraded autochthonous DOM. Near the Unimak Pass region of the Aleutian Islands, low DOC and ag355

  13. The relationship between sea ice concentration and the spatio-temporal distribution of vocalizing bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas from 2008 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIntyre, Kalyn Q.; Stafford, Kathleen M.; Conn, Paul B.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Boveng, Peter L.

    2015-08-01

    Bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) are widely distributed in the Arctic and sub-Arctic; the Beringia population is found throughout the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas (BCB). Bearded seals are highly vocal, using underwater calls to advertise their breeding condition and maintain aquatic territories. They are also closely associated with pack ice for reproductive activities, molting, and resting. Sea ice habitat for this species varies spatially and temporally throughout the year due to differences in underlying physical and oceanographic features across its range. To test the hypothesis that the vocal activity of bearded seals is related to variations in sea ice, passive acoustic data were collected from nine locations throughout the BCB from 2008 to 2011. Recording instruments sampled on varying duty cycles ranging from 20% to 100% of each hour, and recorded frequencies up to 8192 Hz. Spectrograms of acoustic data were analyzed manually to calculate the daily proportion of hours with bearded seal calls at each sampling location, and these call activity proportions were correlated with daily satellite-derived estimates of sea ice concentration. Bearded seals were vocally active nearly year-round in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas with peak activity occurring from mid-March to late June during the mating season. The duration of call activity in the Bering Sea was shorter, lasting typically only five months, and peaked from mid-March to May at the northernmost recorders. In all areas, call activity was significantly correlated with higher sea ice concentrations (p < 0.01). These results suggest that losses in ice cover may negatively impact bearded seals, not just by loss of habitat but also by altering the behavioral ecology of the BCB population.

  14. Aerial surveys of endangered cetaceans and other marine mammals in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska and southeastern Bering Sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brueggeman, J.J.; Green, G.A.; Grotefendt, R.A.; Chapman, D.G.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial surveys were conducted in the Northwestern Gulf of Alaska and southeastern Bering Sea to determine the abundance, distribution, and habitat use patterns of endangered cetaceans and other marine mammals. Four species of cetaceans listed by the Federal Government as endangered were observed: gray, humpback, finback, and sperm whales. Sightings were also made to seven nonendangered species of cetaceans: minke, Cuvier's beaked, Baird's beaked, belukha, and killer whales, and Dall and harbor porpoises. Results show that the project area is an important feeding ground for relatively large numbers of humpback and finback whales and lower numbers of gray whale migration route between seasonal ranges. The project area also supports a variety of other marine mammals both seasonally and annually.

  15. Bottom-up and top-down controls of walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) on the Eastern Bering Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueter, Franz J.; Ladd, Carol; Palmer, Michael C.; Norcross, Brenda L.

    2006-02-01

    Control of walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) recruitment in the Eastern Bering Sea involves complex interactions between bottom-up and top-down processes, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. We used statistical models to test the leading hypotheses linking recruitment variability to biotic and abiotic factors. Consistent with a “cold-pool hypothesis”, recruitment of pollock was significantly stronger if winters preceding the larval (age-0) and juvenile stages (age-1) were mild. However, our results did not support the proposed top-down mechanism (cannibalism) underlying this hypothesis. Several empirical relationships support an “oscillating control hypothesis”. As predicted by it, the effect of ice conditions on survival during the larval and early juvenile stages was modified by the abundance of adult pollock, implying stronger bottom-up control when adult abundance (hence cannibalism) was low. The proposed bottom-up mechanism predicts that the survival of pelagic-feeding walleye pollock (benthic-feeding yellowfin sole), should be higher during years with an early (late) ice retreat, which was confirmed by our analysis. Our results also provide additional evidence for a “larval transport hypothesis”, which states that cannibalism of larval and juvenile pollock is reduced in years when strong northward advection separates juveniles from cannibalistic adults. In addition to testing existing hypotheses, we identified new relationships between spawner-to-recruit survival rates of walleye pollock and several indicators of mixed layer dynamics during the spring and summer. Survival rates and recruitment were significantly reduced when larval or early juvenile stages experienced a delay in the (non-ice-associated) spring bloom as a result of stormy spring conditions, suggesting that the timing of the spring bloom is critical to both first-feeding larvae and age-1 juveniles. Furthermore, a dome-shaped relationship between pollock survival

  16. A cross-shelf gradient in δ15N stable isotope values of krill and pollock indicates seabird foraging patterns in the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Nathan M.; Hoover, Brian A.; Heppell, Scott A.; Kuletz, Kathy J.

    2014-11-01

    Concurrent measurements of predator and prey δ15N isotope values demonstrated that a cross-shelf isotopic gradient can propagate through a marine food web from forage species to top-tier predators and indicate foraging areas at a scale of tens of kilometers. We measured δ13C and δ15N in muscle tissues of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) and black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), and in whole body tissues of walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and krill (Thysanoessa spp), sampled across the continental shelf break in the Bering Sea in 2008 and in 2009. We found significant basin-shelf differences at fine scales (<100 km) in δ15N among murres but not kittiwakes, and no such differences in δ13C in either seabird species at that scale. We then quantified the multi-trophic signal and spatial structure of a basin-shelf δ15Nitrogen gradient in the central and southern Bering Sea, and used it to contrast foraging patterns of thick-billed murres and kittiwakes on the open ocean. Seabird muscle δ15N values were compared to baselines created from measurements in krill and pollock tissues sampled concurrently throughout the study area. Krill, pollock, and murre tissues from northern, shallow, shelf habitat (<200 m) were enriched 1-2‰ in δ15N relative to samples taken from deeper habitats (>200 m) to the south and west. Krill δ15N baseline values predicted 35-42% of the variability in murre tissue values. Patterns between kittiwakes and prey were less coherent. The persistence of strong spatial autocorrelation among sample values, and a congruence of geospatial patterns in δ15N among murre and prey tissues, suggest that murres forage repeatedly in specific areas. Murre isotope values showed distinct geospatial stratification, coincident with the spatial distribution of three colonies: St. Paul, St. George, and Bogoslof. This suggests some degree of foraging habitat partitioning among colonies.

  17. Geoacoustic characteristics of surface sediments in the southern Korean Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Kim, D. C.; Lee, G.

    2012-12-01

    In the southwestern East Sea, South Sea, and southeastern Yellow Sea, surface sediment core samples were acquired to understand geoacoustic properties offshore of the Korean Peninsula. Some of the samples, sediment texture (mean grain size), physical properties, and compressional wave velocity were measured. And the other samples, we also converted from mean grain size data to sound velocity using empirical equation calculated from the existing data, and constructed the geoacoustic database. From these processes, we produced the distribution map of geoacoustic characteristics throughout the study area. The distribution map shows the considerably similar pattern to the mean grain size data. Coastal regions, particularly on the river mouths, mean grain sizes are generally small and sound velocity values are under 1,550 m/s. They are believed to present mud deposits from the adjacent rivers. Ulleung Basin, shows approximately 1,500 m/s sound velocity, the region is composed of fine sediments deposited in the deep sea environment. Mean grain size and sound velocity increases in the outer shelf, it is related to coarse relict sediment that deposited in the coastal environment during sea level lowstand. The distinguishing features of surface sediment such as fine coastal mud and coarser mid-shelf deposits, they are well reflected on the geoacoustic distribution map. It is possible to consider that, consequently, geoacoustic characteristics are in close connection with sediment texture and geophysical properties.

  18. Microhabitats of benthic foraminifera within deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corliss, Bruce H.

    1985-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera are protozoans found throughout the deep-sea environment, secreting a test of calcium carbonate or constructing a test of cemented sediment particles (agglutinated or arenaceous foraminifera). In typical deep-sea sediments, the organic cement of agglutinated taxa degrades upon burial in the sediment and, consequently, few specimens survive in the fossil record. In contrast, calcareous species are well preserved in most oceanic sediments, except at abyssal depths where most carbonate sediment is dissolved because of high levels of carbonate under-saturation of the bottom waters. Although benthic foraminifera have been widely used in studies of Cenozoic palaeoceanography, little is known about the ecology of deep-sea species. I present here an analysis of living (stained) benthic foraminifera within the upper 15 cm of deep-sea sediments, which reveals species-specific microhabitat preferences, with distinct morphological features found with epifaunal and infaunal species. The existence of infaunal habitats suggests that the distribution of certain foraminifera is not directly controlled by overlying bottom-water conditions, but by physicochemical conditions within the sediments. The microhabitat preferences may also explain interspecific carbon isotope differences, as existing data show that infaunal foraminifera generally have lower δ13C isotope values than epifaunal species.

  19. Gravitational failure of sea cliffs in weakly lithified sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Gravitational failure of sea cliffs eroded into weakly lithified sediment at several sites in California involves episodic stress-release fracturing and cantilevered block falls. The principal variables that influence the gravitational stability are tensional stresses generated during the release of horizontal confining stress and weakening of the sediment with increased saturation levels. Individual failures typically comprise less than a cubic meter of sediment, but large areas of a cliff face can be affected by sustained instability over a period of several days. Typically, only the outer meter or so of sediment is removed during a failure episode. In-place sediment saturation levels vary over time and space, generally being higher during the rainy season but moderate to high year-round. Laboratory direct-shear tests show that sediment cohesion decreases abruptly with increasing saturation level; the decrease is similar for all tested sediment if the cohesion is normalized by the maximum, dry-sediment cohesion. Large failures that extend over most or all of the height of the sea cliff are uncommon, but a few large wedge-shaped failures sometimes occur, as does separation of large blocks at sea cliff-gully intersections.

  20. Mass sediment failure and transport features revealed by acoustic techniques, Beringian Margin, Bering Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, P.R.; Karl, Herman A.; Edwards, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the largest single slide masses, including huge blocks tens of kilometers wide, occur on the rise of the central margin. Sliding of these blocks may have initiated the incision of some of the world's largest submarine canyons. One mass failure, particularly well defined by GLORIA, is 55 km long. This slide and others along the plateau are associated with diapiric-like structures indicative of relatively recent tectonism. -from Authors

  1. Sediment volume in the north polar sand seas of Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, N.; Greeley, R. )

    1990-07-10

    Data from studies of the cross-sectional area of terrestrial transverse dunes have been combined with maps of dune morphometry derived from Viking orbiter images to generate new estimates of sediment thickness and dune sediment volume in the north polar sand seas of Mars. A relationship between dune spacing and equivalent sediment thickness (EST) was developed from field data on Namibian and North American dunes and was applied to data on dune spacing and dune cover measured on Viking orbiter images to generate maps of dune sediment thickness for Martian north polar sand seas. There are four major sand seas in the north polar region of Mars, covering an area of 6.8 x 10{sup 5} km{sup 2}. Equivalent sediment thickness ranges between 0.5 and 6.1 m with a mean of 1.8 m. The sand seas contain a total of 1158 km{sup 3} of dune sediment, which may have been derived by erosion of polar layered deposits and concentrated in its present location by winds that change direction seasonally.

  2. Differential responses of seabirds to inter-annual environmental change in the continental shelf and oceanic habitats of southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, N.; Kikuchi, D. M.; Sato, N.; Takahashi, A.; Will, A.; Kitaysky, A. S.; Watanuki, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Seasonal sea-ice cover has been decreasing in the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, which might affect ecosystem dynamics and availability of food resources to marine top predators breeding in the region. In this study, we investigated the foraging responses of two seabird species, surface-foraging red-legged kittiwakes Rissa brevirostris (hereafter, RLKI) and pursuit-diving foraging thick-billed murres Uria lomvia (TBMU) to the inter-annual change in environmental conditions. Between the study years, winter ice retreated earlier and summer water temperatures were warmer in 2014 compared to those in 2013. At-sea distributions of RLKI and TBMU breeding on St. George Island, the largest seabird colony in the region, were recorded using GPS loggers, and blood samples were taken to examine their physiological condition and isotopic foraging niche in a given year. RLKI foraging occurred mostly over the oceanic basin in both years. TBMU, however, foraged mostly over the shelf, but showed a relatively higher use of the shelf break and oceanic basin in the colder year, 2013. The foraging distances from the colony peaked at 250-300 km in 2013 and, bimodally, at 150-250 and 300-350 km in 2014 for RLKI, and tended to be farther in 2013 compared to those in 2014 for TBMU. Plasma levels of corticosterone did not differ between years in RLKI, but differed in TBMU, showing higher levels of physiological stress incurred by murres during the colder year, 2013. δ13N (a proxy of trophic level of prey) did not differ between the years in either RLKI or TBMU, while δ13C (a proxy of prey origin) were lower in 2014 than in 2013 in both species, suggesting possible differences in influx of oceanic prey items into foraging areas. These results suggest that the response of ecosystem dynamics to climate variability in the southeast Bering Sea may differ between the ocean basin and continental shelf regions, which, in turn, may generate differential responses in seabirds relying on those

  3. Modelling of contemporary sedimentation in the Azov Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokina, V.; Berdnikov, S.; Venevsky, S.

    2009-04-01

    Contemporary sedimentation in the Azov Sea was estimated spatially detailed mathematical model for transport and sedimentation of the particulate matter. The model TRASEAS includes dynamic of suspended and eposited terrigenous matter in water column and at the bottom and accounts for realistic bathymetry. Distinct spatiotemporal features of the terrigenous sedimentation in the second half of the 20th century were recognized. The decrease in the accumulation of terrigenous sediments and diminishing in the areas with a negative balance of the terrigenous matter was found. This was related to the 2.5-fold fall in the volumes of the matter supplied from land. In general, during the second half of the 20thcentury the rate of sedimentation decreased from 1000 to 400 g/m2/year with spatial variation. In the central part of the sea, which is relatively far from source of terrigenous matter, the rate of sedimentation has value of about 300 g/m2/year. In Taganrog Bay and in the inner sea , areas with a negative balance of terrigenous sedimentation increased up to 30%.

  4. Deep-sea methane seep sediments in the Okhotsk Sea sustain diverse and abundant anammox bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shao, Sudong; Luan, Xiwu; Dang, Hongyue; Zhou, Haixia; Zhao, Yakun; Liu, Haitao; Zhang, Yunbo; Dai, Lingqing; Ye, Ying; Klotz, Martin G

    2014-02-01

    Marginal sea methane seep sediments sustain highly productive chemosynthetic ecosystems and are hotspots of intense biogeochemical cycling. Rich methane supply stimulates rapid microbial consumption of oxygen; these systems are thus usually hypoxic to anoxic. This and reported evidence for resident nitrogen fixation suggest the presence of an anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacterial community in methane seep sediments. To test this hypothesis, we employed detection of genes encoding 16S rRNA gene and hydrazine dehydrogenase (hzo) to investigate the structure, abundance and distribution of the anammox bacterial community in the methane seep sediments of the Okhotsk Sea. Diverse complements of Candidatus Scalindua-related 16S rRNA and hzo gene sequences were obtained. Most of the deep-sea sites harbored abundant hzo genes with copy numbers as high as 10(7)  g(-1) sediment. In general, anammox bacterial signatures were significantly more abundant in the deep-water sediments. Sediment porewater NO3-, NOx- (i.e. NO3- + NO2-), NOx-/NH4+ and sediment silt content correlated with in situ distribution patterns of anammox bacterial marker genes, likely because they determine anammox substrate availability and sediment geochemistry, respectively. The abundance and distribution of anammox bacterial gene markers indicate a potentially significant contribution of anammox bacteria to the marine N cycle in the deep-sea methane seep sediments. PMID:24164560

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxia; Duan, Xiaoyong

    2015-10-01

    Increasing pollution pressures were placed in the coastal and estuarine ecosystems in China because of the elevated pollutants discharged from various sources. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment were closely linked to human activities, which have been intensively studied for their geochemical interest as markers. In this review, the status of PAH contamination in China Sea was assessed by comprehensive reviews of the concentrations, sources, and fates of PAHs in sediments of China Sea. PAH concentrations in China Sea sediments decreased from north to south due to the higher emissions in North China. Atmosphere was probably the main carrier of PAHs in the north due to the higher contents of atmospheric fine particles and higher wind speeds. However, riverine inputs were probably the most important sources of PAHs in the coastal sediments of South China due to higher rainfall. PMID:26341340

  6. Presence of oxygen and aerobic communities from sea floor to basement in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, Steven; Inagaki, Fumio; Zarikian, Carlos Alvarez; Abrams, Lewis J.; Dubois, Nathalie; Engelhardt, Tim; Evans, Helen; Ferdelman, Timothy; Gribsholt, Britta; Harris, Robert N.; Hoppie, Bryce W.; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Kallmeyer, Jens; Kim, Jinwook; Lynch, Jill E.; McKinley, Claire C.; Mitsunobu, Satoshi; Morono, Yuki; Murray, Richard W.; Pockalny, Robert; Sauvage, Justine; Shimono, Takaya; Shiraishi, Fumito; Smith, David C.; Smith-Duque, Christopher E.; Spivack, Arthur J.; Steinsbu, Bjorn Olav; Suzuki, Yohey; Szpak, Michal; Toffin, Laurent; Uramoto, Goichiro; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiko T.; Zhang, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Ziebis, Wiebke

    2015-04-01

    The depth of oxygen penetration into marine sediments differs considerably from one region to another. In areas with high rates of microbial respiration, O2 penetrates only millimetres to centimetres into the sediments, but active anaerobic microbial communities are present in sediments hundreds of metres or more below the sea floor. In areas with low sedimentary respiration, O2 penetrates much deeper but the depth to which microbial communities persist was previously unknown. The sediments underlying the South Pacific Gyre exhibit extremely low areal rates of respiration. Here we show that, in this region, microbial cells and aerobic respiration persist through the entire sediment sequence to depths of at least 75 metres below sea floor. Based on the Redfield stoichiometry of dissolved O2 and nitrate, we suggest that net aerobic respiration in these sediments is coupled to oxidation of marine organic matter. We identify a relationship of O2 penetration depth to sedimentation rate and sediment thickness. Extrapolating this relationship, we suggest that oxygen and aerobic communities may occur throughout the entire sediment sequence in 15-44% of the Pacific and 9-37% of the global sea floor. Subduction of the sediment and basalt from these regions is a source of oxidized material to the mantle.

  7. MISR Sights the Bering Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    With the Seward Peninsula of Alaska to the east, and Chukotskiy Poluostrov of Siberia to the west, the Bering Strait separates the United States and the Russian Federation by only 90 kilometers. It is named for Danish explorer Vitus Bering, who spotted the Alaskan mainland in 1741 while leading an expedition of Russian sailors. This view of the region was captured by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on August 18, 2000 during Terra orbit 3562.

    The boundary between the US and Russia lies between Big and Little Diomede Islands, which are visible in the middle of the Bering Strait. The Arctic Circle, at 66.5 degrees north latitude, runs through the Arctic Ocean in the top part of this image. This circle marks the southernmost latitude for which the Sun does not rise above the horizon on the day of the winter solstice. At the bottom of this image is St. Lawrence Island. Situated in the Bering Sea, it is part of Alaska and home to Yupik Eskimos.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. For more information: http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov

  8. Absorption and fluorescence properties of the eastern Bering Sea in the summer with special reference to the influence of a Cold Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Sa, E. J.; Goes, J. I.; Gomes, H.; Mouw, C.

    2013-12-01

    The absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are reported for the inner shelf, slope waters and outer shelf regions of the eastern Bering Sea during the summer of 2008, when a warm, thermally stratified surface mixed layer lay over a Cold Pool (< 2 °C) that occupied the entire middle shelf. CDOM absorption at 355 nm (ag355) and its spectral slope (S) in conjunction with excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed large variability in the characteristics of CDOM in different regions of the Bering Sea. PARAFAC analysis aided in the identification of three humic-like (components 1, 2 and 5) and two protein-like (a tyrosine-like component 3, and a tryptophan-like component 4) components. In the extensive shelf region, average absorption coefficients at 355 nm (ag355 m-1) and DOC concentrations (μM) were highest in the inner shelf (0.342 ± 0.11 m-1, 92.67 ± 14.60 μM) and lower in the middle (0.226 ± 0.05 m-1, 78.38 ± 10.64 μM) and outer (0.176 ± 0.05 m-1, 80.73 ± 18.11 μM) shelves, respectively. Mean spectral slopes S were elevated in the middle shelf (24.38 ± 2.25 μm-1) especially in the surface waters (26.87 ± 2.39 μm-1) indicating high rates of photodegradation in the highly stratified surface mixed layer, which intensified northwards in the northern middle shelf likely contributing to greater light penetration and to phytoplankton blooms at deeper depths. The fluorescent humic-like components 1, 2, and 5 were most elevated in the inner shelf most likely from riverine inputs. Measurements at depth in slope waters (> 250 m) revealed low values of ag355 (0.155 ± 0.03 m-1) and S (15.45 ± 1.78 μm-1) indicative of microbial degradation of CDOM in deep waters. DOC concentrations, however were not significantly different suggesting CDOM sources and sinks to be uncoupled from DOC. Along the productive "green belt" in the outer shelf/slope region, absorption and

  9. ENAA studies of pollution in anoxic Black Sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Duliu, Octavian G; Cristache, Carmen; Oaie, Gheorghe; Culicov, Otilia A; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Toma, Magdalena

    2009-06-01

    The vertical distributions of five potential pollutants - Zn, As, Br, Sn, and Sb - were determined via epithermal neutron activation in the upper 50cm of unconsolidated sediments from the Black Sea, which were collected 600m below sea surface. This analysis demonstrated increasing concentrations towards the upper limits of sediments, which were greater than alert concentrations in the case of As and Br, and in accordance with Romanian Environment Regulations. The utilization of Chernobyl (137)Cs as a time marker allowed for dating of this region to the last 100 years. PMID:19261305

  10. Palaeomagnetism of greigite bearing sediments from the Dead Sea, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, U.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Negendank, J. F. W.

    2007-03-01

    Detailed magnetostratigraphic investigations were carried out on five sediment cores obtained from three sites on the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, Israel. The sediments are heterogeneous, composed of fine clastic layers alternating with authigenic aragonite. The magnetic remanence is carried by Ti-magnetite and greigite, reflecting a detrital as well as an authigenic phase. Directions of the characteristic remanent magnetization were obtained from stepwise AF-demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetization and subsequent principle component analysis. The acquisition of a gyroremanent magnetization in a noticeable amount of the samples could be linked to core disturbances. The depth-age models, based on AMS14C datings on plant remains, yielded an age of 10.04 ka cal. BP for the base of the longest profile from site Ein Gedi, a continuous lacustrine sediment sequence. The profiles from the two other sites representing near shore sedimentation are interrupted by a hiatus in sedimentation. Comparison of the inclination and declination records from all Dead Sea cores and nearby sited lakes suggest that low frequency variations documented in the Dead Sea sediments are likely of geomagnetic origin.

  11. Mangrove Sedimentation and Response to Relative Sea-Level Rise.

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, C D; Rogers, K; McKee, K L; Lovelock, C E; Mendelssohn, I A; Saintilan, N

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions, related primarily to elevation and hydroperiod, influence mangrove distributions; this review considers how these distributions change over time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks, and tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas measurements made using surface elevation tables and marker horizons provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in a continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics. PMID:26407146

  12. Mangrove Sedimentation and Response to Relative Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Rogers, K.; McKee, K. L.; Lovelock, C. E.; Mendelssohn, I. A.; Saintilan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions, related primarily to elevation and hydroperiod, influence mangrove distributions; this review considers how these distributions change over time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks, and tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas measurements made using surface elevation tables and marker horizons provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in a continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics. *

  13. Mangrove sedimentation and response to relative sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodroffe, CD; Rogers, K.; Mckee, Karen L.; Lovelock, CE; Mendelssohn, IA; Saintilan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions influence mangrove distributions, primarily related to elevation and hydroperiod; this review considers how these adjust through time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks; tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon, but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas Surface Elevation Table-Marker Horizon measurements (SET-MH) provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  14. Cetacean distribution and abundance in relation to oceanographic domains on the eastern Bering Sea shelf, June and July of 2002, 2008, and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friday, Nancy A.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Waite, Janice M.; Moore, Sue E.; Clapham, Phillip J.

    2013-10-01

    As part of the Bering Sea Project, cetacean surveys were conducted to describe distribution and estimate abundance on the eastern Bering Sea shelf. Three marine mammal observers conducted visual surveys along transect lines sampled during the Alaska Fisheries Science Center walleye pollock assessment survey in June and July of 2008 and 2010. Distribution and abundance in 2008 and 2010 (cold years) are compared with results from a similar survey conducted in 2002 (a warm year), as the only three years that the entire survey area was sampled; patterns largely match those previously observed. Abundance estimates for comparable areas in 2002, 2008 and 2010 were as follows: humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae): 231 (CV=0.63), 436 (CV=0.45), and 675 (CV=0.80); fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus): 419 (CV=0.33), 1368 (CV=0.34), and 1061 (CV=0.38); minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata): 389 (CV=0.52), 517 (CV=0.69), and 2020 (CV=0.73); Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli): 35,303 (CV=0.53), 14,543 (CV=0.32), and 11,143 (CV=0.32); and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena): 1971 (CV=0.46), 4056 (CV=0.40), and 833 (CV=0.66). It should be noted that these abundance estimates are not corrected for biases due to perception, availability, or responsive movement. Estimates for humpback, fin and minke whales increased from 2002 to 2010, while those for harbor and Dall's porpoise decreased; trends were significant for fin whales. It is likely that changes in estimated abundance are due at least in part to shifts in distribution and not just changes in overall population size. Annual abundance estimates were examined by oceanographic domain. Humpback whales were consistently concentrated in coastal waters north of Unimak Pass. Fin whales were broadly distributed in the outer domain and slope in 2008 and 2010, but sightings were sparse in 2002. Minke whales were distributed throughout the study area in 2002 and 2008, but in 2010 they were concentrated in the outer domain and

  15. Changes in sediment processes across the western Irish Sea front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimmer, M.; Gowen, R. J.; Stewart, B. M.

    2003-04-01

    Sediment characteristics, sediment respiration (oxygen uptake and sulphate reduction) and sediment-water nutrient exchange, in conjunction with water column structure and phytoplankton biomass were measured at five stations across the western Irish Sea front in August 2000. The transition from thermally stratified (surface to bottom temperature difference of 2.3 °C) to isothermal water (14.3 °C) occurred over a distance of 13 km. The influence of the front on phytoplankton biomass was limited to a small region of elevated near surface chlorophyll (2.23 mg m -3; 50% > biomass in mixed waters). The front clearly marked the boundary between depositional sediments (silt/clays) with elevated sediment pigment levels (≈60 mg m -2) on the western side, to pigment impoverished (<5 mg m -2) sand, through to coarse sand and shell fragments on the eastern side. Maximal rates of sedimentary respiration on the western stratified side of the front e.g. oxygen uptake S2 (852 μmol O 2 m -2 h -1) and sulphate reduction at S1 (149 μmol SO 42- m -2 h -1), coupled to significant efflux of nitrate and silicate at the western stations indicate closer benthic-pelagic coupling in the western Irish Sea. Whether this simply reflects the input of phytodetritus from the overlying water column or entrapment and settlement of pelagic production from other regions of the Irish Sea cannot yet be resolved.

  16. 77 FR 52674 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... cumulative impacts to be addressed in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Steller Sea Lion... 2010 environmental assessment and biological opinion prepared for the Steller sea lion protection...-7228. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A description of the legal authority, history of the Steller sea...

  17. Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities: Volume 10, Basin analysis, formation and stability of gas hydrates of the Aleutian Trench and the Bering Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Krason, J.; Ciesnik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Four major areas with inferred gas hydrates are the subject of this study. Two of these areas, the Navarin and the Norton Basins, are located within the Bering Sea shelf, whereas the remaining areas of the Atka Basin in the central Aleutian Trench system and the eastern Aleutian Trench represent a huge region of the Aleutian Trench-Arc system. All four areas are geologically diverse and complex. Particularly the structural features of the accretionary wedge north of the Aleutian Trench still remain the subjects of scientific debates. Prior to this study, suggested presence of the gas hydrates in the four areas was based on seismic evidence, i.e., presence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). Although the disclosure of the BSRs is often difficult, particularly under the structural conditions of the Navarin and Norton basins, it can be concluded that the identified BSRs are mostly represented by relatively weak and discontinuous reflectors. Under thermal and pressure conditions favorable for gas hydrate formation, the relative scarcity of the BSRs can be attributed to insufficient gas supply to the potential gas hydrate zone. Hydrocarbon gas in sediment may have biogenic, thermogenic or mixed origin. In the four studied areas, basin analysis revealed limited biogenic hydrocarbon generation. The migration of the thermogenically derived gases is probably diminished considerably due to the widespread diagenetic processes in diatomaceous strata. The latter processes resulted in the formation of the diagenetic horizons. The identified gas hydrate-related BSRs seem to be located in the areas of increased biogenic methanogenesis and faults acting as the pathways for thermogenic hydrocarbons.

  18. Novel pyropheophorbide steryl esters in Black Sea sediments

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.L.; Repeta, D.J. )

    1991-07-01

    A series of non-polar chlorophyll degradation products (NPCs) with greater than 10 components has been isolated from Black Sea sediment and identified as pyropheophorbide steryl esters by visible and mass spectrometry. These compounds have been previously observed in seawater and sediment trap samples, and may be formed during grazing of phytoplankton by zooplanktonic herbivores. In Black Sea sediments, NPCs constitute 14% of the total phorbins determined spectroscopically at 660 nm, and 39% of the total chlorophyll degradation products measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. NPCs therefore constitute a significant sedimentary sink for chlorophyll. The distribution of sterols released by hydrolysis of NPCs most closely resembles sterols in suspended particulate matter collected from the euphotic zone and is quite different from the distribution of solvent-extractable sterols in sediments. Sterols extracted from sediemtns have high concentrations of 4-methylsterols and high stanol/stenol ratios. BNPC-derived sterols have very low concentrations of 4-methylsterols and low stanol/stenol ratios. The authors suggest that these differences reflect an enhanced preservation of HPCs in sediments relative to free sterols and phorbins. As a result, the original production of sterols in the euphotic zone may be more closely approximated by the distribution of NPC-derived sterols than by the distribution of free sterols in sediments.

  19. Iron cycling microbial communities in sediments of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Carolina; Delwig, Olaf; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Dähnke, Kirstin; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2014-05-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of iron is a key early diagenetic process. However, limited information exists about the diversity and metabolic pathways of microorganisms linked to iron cycling in marine sediments. The goal of this study was to determine the bacterial community diversity in sediments showing ongoing dissimilatory iron reduction using 454-pyrosequencing as a first step in characterizing microorganisms potentially involved in iron reduction. For this purpose, two 35 cm cores were sampled from ferruginous sediments in the Skagerrak (SK) and the Bothnian Bay (BB) from the North-Sea Baltic Sea and the northern Baltic Sea respectively. Pore water profiles showed Fe2+ and Mn2+ levels of ~140-150 µM throughout the core below a 6 cm thick oxidized surface layer in SK sediments and ~300 µM below a 2 cm thick surface layer in BB sediments. Dissolved sulphide levels were below detection in both sediments. No significant depletion of SO42- occurred at both sites, further supported by stable S and O isotope analyses of dissolved sulfate at SK site. Only very minor net sulfate reduction is suggested here from the trend in sulphur isotope signatures, in agreement with previously reported gross microbial sulphate rate measurements (Canfield et al., 1993;GCA). Based on these biogeochemical constraints, Fe reduction in the studied sediments is therefore dominated by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction, while cryptic Fe-S-cycling can be largely excluded. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate Proteobacteria as the dominating microbial group in these sediments. Potential iron and manganese reducing bacteria included Geobacteraceae, Pelobacteraceae, Shewanellaceae, and Oceanospirillales. Additionally, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present. Also, Fe-oxidizers were present and their occurrence correlated in depth with a Fe-oxide-rich layer, most likely a former buried Fe-oxidation front. Gene sequences point to the presence of Mariprofundus in SK sediments and

  20. Sediment dynamics in the Adriatic Sea investigated with coupled models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Carniel, Sandro; Cavaleri, Luigi; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Das, Himangshu; Doyle, James D.; Harris, Courtney K.; Niedoroda, Alan W.; Perkins, Henry; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Pullen, Julie; Reed, Christopher W.; Russo, Aniello; Sclavo, Mauro; Signell, Richard P.; Traykovski, Peter A.; Warner, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Several large research programs focused on the Adriatic Sea in winter 2002-2003, making it an exciting place for sediment dynamics modelers (Figure 1). Investigations of atmospheric forcing and oceanic response (including wave generation and propagation, water-mass formation, stratification, and circulation), suspended material, bottom boundary layer dynamics, bottom sediment, and small-scale stratigraphy were performed by European and North American researchers participating in several projects. The goal of EuroSTRATAFORM researchers is to improve our ability to understand and simulate the physical processes that deliver sediment to the marine environment and generate stratigraphic signatures. Scientists involved in the Po and Apennine Sediment Transport and Accumulation (PASTA) experiment benefited from other major research programs including ACE (Adriatic Circulation Experiment), DOLCE VITA (Dynamics of Localized Currents and Eddy Variability in the Adriatic), EACE (the Croatian East Adriatic Circulation Experiment project), WISE (West Istria Experiment), and ADRICOSM (Italian nowcasting and forecasting) studies.

  1. Interannual and regional variability in distribution and ecology of juvenile pollock and their prey in frontal structures of the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodeur, Richard D.; Wilson, Matthew T.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Doyle, Miriam; Napp, Jeffrey M.

    2002-12-01

    The distribution, size, length-specific weight, growth, and feeding of age-0 walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) were examined along with their prey distribution patterns in two contrasting transects over a 4-year period (1994-1997) in relation to biophysical properties of frontal regions around the Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea. There were significant interannual differences in catch of age-0 pollock, but transect and habitat differences (inshore vs. front vs. offshore) were not significant for either catch or size of pollock. There were significant variations in length-specific weight and growth of pollock, but the trends were inconsistent. Copepods dominated the zooplankton biomass in all habitats and years; there were no consistent differences in the densities of the dominant zooplankton taxa among the habitats. There were, however, strong habitat and transect differences in juvenile pollock diet, particularly for the larger and presumably rarer prey taxa (euphausiids, chaetognaths, fish). We did not find any evidence that occupying a particular habitat was beneficial to young pollock, although other factors (e.g. bioenergetic advantage and predation refuge) that we did not examine here could have been more variable and critical to pollock survival. In a physically dynamic system such as the Pribilof Islands, age-0 pollock may need to continuously search for optimal conditions of high prey availability and low predation pressure.

  2. The relationship between pink salmon biomass and the body condition of short-tailed shearwaters in the Bering Sea: can fish compete with seabirds?

    PubMed

    Toge, Kanako; Yamashita, Rei; Kazama, Kentaro; Fukuwaka, Masaaki; Yamamura, Orio; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2011-09-01

    Seabirds and large fishes are important top predators in marine ecosystems, but few studies have explored the potential for competition between these groups. This study investigates the relationship between an observed biennial change of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) biomass in the central Bering Sea (23 times greater in odd-numbered than in even-numbered years) and the body condition and diet of the short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris) that spends the post-breeding season there. Samples were collected with research gill nets over seven summers. Both species feed on krill, small fishes and squid. Although the mean pink salmon catch per unit effort (in mass) over the study region was not related significantly with shearwater's stomach content mass or prey composition, the pink salmon biomass showed a negative and significant relationship with the shearwater's body mass and liver mass (proxies of energy reserve). We interpret these results as evidence that fishes can negatively affect mean prey intake of seabirds if they feed on a shared prey in the pelagic ecosystem. PMID:21270043

  3. Shipborne observations of atmospheric black carbon aerosol particles over the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, and North Pacific Ocean during September 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taketani, Fumikazu; Miyakawa, Takuma; Takashima, Hisahiro; Komazaki, Yuichi; Pan, Xiaole; Kanaya, Yugo; Inoue, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosol particles using a highly sensitive online single particle soot photometer were performed on board the R/V Mirai during a cruise across the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, and North Pacific Ocean (31 August to 9 October 2014). The measured rBC mass concentrations over the Arctic Ocean in the latitudinal region > 70°N were in the range 0-66 ng/m3 for 1 min averages, with an overall mean value of 1.0 ± 1.2 ng/m3. Single-particle-based observations enabled the measurement of such low rBC mass concentrations. The effects of long-range transport from continents to the Arctic Ocean were limited during the observed period, which suggests that the low rBC concentration levels would prevail over the Arctic Ocean. An analysis of rBC mixing states showed that particles with a nonshell/noncore structure made a significant contribution to the rBC particles detected over the Arctic Ocean.

  4. Microbial community composition and diversity in Caspian Sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Nagissa; Robeson, Michael S; Castro, Hector F; Fortney, Julian L; Techtmann, Stephen M; Joyner, Dominique C; Paradis, Charles J; Pfiffner, Susan M; Hazen, Terry C

    2015-01-01

    The Caspian Sea is heavily polluted due to industrial and agricultural effluents as well as extraction of oil and gas reserves. Microbial communities can influence the fate of contaminants and nutrients. However, insight into the microbial ecology of the Caspian Sea significantly lags behind other marine systems. Here we describe microbial biomass, diversity and composition in sediments collected from three sampling stations in the Caspian Sea. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed the presence of a number of known bacterial and archaeal heterotrophs suggesting that organic carbon is a primary factor shaping microbial communities. Surface sediments collected from bottom waters with low oxygen levels were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria while surface sediments collected from bottom waters under hypoxic conditions were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria, specifically sulfate-reducing bacteria. Thaumarchaeota was dominant across all surface sediments indicating that nitrogen cycling in this system is strongly influenced by ammonia-oxidizing archaea. This study provides a baseline assessment that may serve as a point of reference as this system changes or as the efficacy of new remediation efforts are implemented. PMID:25764536

  5. Microbial community composition and diversity in Caspian Sea sediments

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Nagissa; Robeson, Michael S.; Castro, Hector F.; Fortney, Julian L.; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Joyner, Dominique C.; Paradis, Charles J.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2014-01-01

    The Caspian Sea is heavily polluted due to industrial and agricultural effluents as well as extraction of oil and gas reserves. Microbial communities can influence the fate of contaminants and nutrients. However, insight into the microbial ecology of the Caspian Sea significantly lags behind other marine systems. Here we describe microbial biomass, diversity and composition in sediments collected from three sampling stations in the Caspian Sea. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed the presence of a number of known bacterial and archaeal heterotrophs suggesting that organic carbon is a primary factor shaping microbial communities. Surface sediments collected from bottom waters with low oxygen levels were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria while surface sediments collected from bottom waters under hypoxic conditions were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria, specifically sulfate-reducing bacteria. Thaumarchaeota was dominant across all surface sediments indicating that nitrogen cycling in this system is strongly influenced by ammonia-oxidizing archaea. This study provides a baseline assessment that may serve as a point of reference as this system changes or as the efficacy of new remediation efforts are implemented. PMID:25764536

  6. Mercury in the northeastern Chukchi Sea: Distribution patterns in seawater and sediments and biomagnification in the benthic food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Austin L.; Hughes, Emily A.; Trocine, Robert P.; Trefry, John H.; Schonberg, Susan V.; McTigue, Nathan D.; Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Konar, Brenda; Cooper, Lee W.

    2014-04-01

    Mercury contamination in the atmosphere, snow and marine mammals of the Arctic has been a continuing environmental concern and the focus of many investigations. Much less is known about the distribution of Hg in seawater, sediments and organisms from lower trophic levels in the Arctic, especially the Chukchi Sea. The onset of sea-ice retreat, severe coastal erosion, enhanced primary productivity and offshore energy development in the northeastern Chukchi Sea (NECS) signal changes to a system for which we have limited data for potentially toxic chemicals. To help us better understand and explain any future changes, we present here a combined data set for Hg in seawater, sediments and the following organisms from the NECS: amphipods (Ampelisca macrocephala), clams (Astarte borealis), snow crabs (Chionoecetes opilio), arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) and whelks (Buccinum spp. and Neptunea heros). Concentrations of total dissolved Hg (THgd) averaged (±standard deviation) 2.8±1.4 pM in the NECS, ~2 times greater than values of 1.5±0.5 pM for the Bering Strait. Overall, consistently lower concentrations of THgd were found at depths with markedly higher concentrations of chlorophyll a. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) in sediments from the NECS averaged 31±10 ng g-1, correlated well with silt+clay, Al and TOC, and showed a long-term record consistent with the natural, background environment. Very localized occurrences of sediment with elevated THg concentrations were identified near two exploratory drilling sites where drilling mud and formation cuttings were discharged in 1989. Concentrations of sediment monomethylmercury (MMHg) averaged 0.15±0.07 ng g-1 and accounted for only 0.43±0.17% of the sediment THg. The lowest average value (± standard error) for THg in biota was found for A. borealis at 44±4 ng g-1 dry weight (d. wt.) with 33% of the THg present as MMHg. The highest average values for THg were identified for the whelks N. heros (195±29 ng g-1, d. wt) and

  7. Dynamics of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from Black Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowaczyk, N. R.; Arz, H. W.; Frank, U.; Kind, J.; Plessen, B.

    2012-10-01

    Investigated sediment cores from the southeastern Black Sea provide a high-resolution record from mid latitudes of the Laschamp geomagnetic polarity excursion. Age constraints are provided by 16 AMS 14C ages, identification of the Campanian Ignimbrite tephra (39.28±0.11 ka), and by detailed tuning of sedimentologic parameters of the Black Sea sediments to the oxygen isotope record from the Greenland NGRIP ice core. According to the derived age model, virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) positions during the Laschamp excursion persisted in Antarctica for an estimated 440 yr, making the Laschamp excursion a short-lived event with fully reversed polarity directions. The reversed phase, centred at 41.0 ka, is associated with a significant field intensity recovery to 20% of the preceding strong field maximum at ˜50 ka. Recorded field reversals of the Laschamp excursion, lasting only an estimated ˜250 yr, are characterized by low relative paleointensities (5% relative to 50 ka). The central, fully reversed phase of the Laschamp excursion is bracketed by VGP excursions to the Sargasso Sea (˜41.9 ka) and to the Labrador Sea (˜39.6 ka). Paleomagnetic results from the Black Sea are in excellent agreement with VGP data from the French type locality which facilitates the chronological ordering of the non-superposed lavas that crop out at Laschamp-Olby. In addition, VGPs between 34 and 35 ka reach low northerly to equatorial latitudes during a clockwise loop, inferred to be the Mono lake excursion.

  8. Archaeal diversity in surface sediments of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas on Earth and known to be one of the global hot spots of biodiversity. Yet, little is known about the abundance, diversity, and distribution of archaea in it. In this study the diversity and distribution of archaea in the surface sediments of the South China Sea were investigated. The samples were collected from seven sites from south to north of the sea with water depths ranging from 1455 m to 3697 m. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the relative abundances of Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota species (OTUs at 2% cutoff) varied from site to site (Eury: 19.4%-67.6%, Cren: 32.4%-80.6%); however, they were about equal in species distribution (46.9% and 53.1%, respectively) for the total seven archaeal clone libraries. The Crenarchaeota predominates in MD05-2902 and MD05-2904 (80.6% and 70.4%); the Euryarchaeota predominates in MD05-2894 (67.6%). The archaeal groups MGI, MBGB, MCG and SAGMEG were dominant in most of the surface samples. MBGE was only dominant in MD05-2894 (64.7%). Overall, these results indicate that the community structures of archaea vary considerably in the surface sediments of the South China Sea.

  9. Cyclic sediment deposition within Amazon deep-sea fan

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, P.L.; Flood, R.D.

    1988-08-01

    The Upper and middle Amazon Fan has grown in a cyclic fashion. An individual deposition cycle consists of (1) a widespread basal, acoustically transparent seismic unit (interpreted as debris-flow deposits) that fills and levels preexisting topographic lows, and (2) a levee complex built of overlapping channel-levee systems. Two and possibly three cycles have been identified within the Amazon Fan. The levee complex beneath one debris flow originated from a different submarine canyon than did the levee complex above the debris flow, suggesting that these levee complexes formed during different sea level lowstands. Calculations based on present sediment discharge of the Amazon River suggest that an entire levee complex can form within the time span of a single glacial stage, such as the Wisconsin; however, the levee complex probably could not have formed during the relatively short time interval when sea level rose rapidly at the end of a glacial stage. The basal seismic units (debris-flow deposits) may have been deposited at any time during sea level fluctuations. Although seismic evidence suggests that this cyclic sedimentation pattern may be related to glacio-eustatic sea level variations, cyclic fan growth may be attributed to other processes as well. For example, a bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) observed within the upper fan appears to be a gas hydrate. Migration of the hydrate phase boundary during sea level fluctuations and diapiric activity may be mechanisms for initiating widespread debris flows. 10 figs.

  10. Biophysical transport model suggests climate variability determines distribution of Walleye Pollock early life stages in the eastern Bering Sea through effects on spawning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrik, Colleen M.; Duffy-Anderson, Janet T.; Mueter, Franz; Hedstrom, Katherine; Curchitser, Enrique N.

    2015-11-01

    The eastern Bering Sea recently experienced an anomalously warm period followed by an anomalously cold period. These periods varied with respect to sea ice extent, water temperature, wind patterns, and ocean circulation. The distributions of Walleye Pollock early life stages also differed between periods, with larval stages found further eastward on the shelf in warm years. Statistical analyses indicated that these spatial distributions were more closely related to temperature than to other covariates, though a mechanism has not been identified. The objective of this study was to determine if variable transport could be driving the observed differences in pollock distributions. An individual-based model of pollock early life stages was developed by coupling a hydrodynamic model to a particle-tracking model with biology and behavior. Simulation experiments were performed with the model to investigate the effects of wind on transport, ice presence on time of spawning, and water temperature on location of spawning. This modeling approach benefited from the ability to individually test mechanisms to quantitatively assess the impact of each on the distribution of pollock. Neither interannual variability in advection nor advances or delays in spawning time could adequately represent the observed differences in distribution between warm and cold years. Changes to spawning areas, particularly spatial contractions of spawning areas in cold years, resulted in modeled distributions that were most similar to observations. The location of spawning pollock in reference to cross-shelf circulation patterns is important in determining the distribution of eggs and larvae, warranting further study on the relationship between spawning adults and the physical environment. The different distributions of pollock early life stages between warm and cold years may ultimately affect recruitment by influencing the spatial overlap of pollock juveniles with prey and predators.

  11. High-Resolution Mg/Ca Ratios in a Coralline Red Alga as a Proxy for Bering Sea Temperature Variations and Teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfar, J.; Steffen, H.; Kronz, A.; Steneck, R. S.; Adey, W.; Lebednik, P. A.

    2009-05-01

    We present the first continuous high-resolution record of Mg/Ca variations within an encrusting coralline red alga of the species Clathromorphum nereostratum from Amchitka Island, Aleutian Islands. Mg/Ca ratios of individual growth increments were analyzed by measuring a single point electron microprobe transect yielding a resolution of 15 samples/year on average, generating a continuous record from 1830 to 1967 of algal Mg/Ca variations. Results show that Mg/Ca ratios in the high-Mg calcite skeleton display pronounced annual cyclicity and archive late spring to late fall sea surface temperature (SST) corresponding to the main season of algal growth. Mg/Ca values correlate well to local SST (ERSSTJun-Nov, 1902-1967; r = 0.73 for 5-year mean), as well as to an air temperature record from the same region. Our data correlate well to a shorter Mg/Ca record from a second site, corroborating the ability of the alga to reliably record regional environmental signals. In addition, Mg/Ca ratios relate well to a 29-year stable oxygen isotope time series measured on the same sample, which provides additional support for the use of Mg as a paleotemperature proxy in coralline red algae, that is, unlike stable oxygen isotopes, not influenced by salinity fluctuations. High spatial correlation to large-scale SST variability in the North Pacific is observed, with patterns of strongest correlation following the direction of major oceanographic features (i.e., the signature of the Alaska Current and the Alaskan Stream), which play a key role in the exchange of water masses between the North Pacific and the Bering Sea through Aleutian Island passages. The time series further displays significant teleconnections with the signature of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in the northeast Pacific and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

  12. Does location really matter? An inter-colony comparison of seabirds breeding at varying distances from productive oceanographic features in the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Ann; Paredes, Rosana; Suryan, Robert; Roby, Daniel; Irons, David; Orben, Rachael; Renner, Heather; Young, Rebecca; Barger, Christopher; Dorresteijn, Ine; Kitaysky, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Central place foragers, such as breeding seabirds, need to commute between their nests and foraging grounds, thus close proximity of the breeding colony to productive oceanographic features might be beneficial for seabird reproduction. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the at-sea foraging and breeding behavior of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) nesting at three colonies (Bogoslof, St. Paul, and St. George Islands) in the Bering Sea located at different distances from the productive continental shelf-break. We found that distances to feeding areas differed only during night trips among colonies. St. Paul murres foraged entirely on the shelf, whereas St. George murres commuted to the continental shelf-break at night and foraged on the shelf during the day. Bogoslof murres foraged in oceanic waters in close proximity to the colony. Murres breeding at the both Pribilof colonies spent less time attending nests and had higher levels of stress hormone corticosterone compared to murres breeding at Bogoslof, although chick-provisioning rates and fledging success were similar among the three colonies. Lower nest attendance and higher corticosterone suggest lower food availability in the Pribilof domain compared to the Bogoslof region. Murres breeding at the Pribilofs used different foraging strategies to buffer effects of food shortages on their reproduction: flight costs associated with longer distance night trips at St. George were presumably balanced by benefits of higher density and/or more lipid rich prey in the continental shelf-break regions, whereas the additional distance of St. Paul from the continental shelf-break may have outweighed any energetic gain. Murres exhibited a remarkable degree of plasticity of foraging strategies in response to changes in their food availability, but the breeding success of murres did not reflect either food limitations or the colony proximity to productive oceanographic features.

  13. Change in coccolith size and morphology due to response to temperature and salinity in coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) isolated from the Bering and Chukchi seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saruwatari, Kazuko; Satoh, Manami; Harada, Naomi; Suzuki, Iwane; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2016-05-01

    Strains of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) collected from the subarctic North Pacific and Arctic oceans in 2010 were established as clone cultures and have been maintained in the laboratory at 15 °C and 32 ‰ salinity. To study the physiological responses of coccolith formation to changes in temperature and salinity, growth experiments and morphometric investigations were performed on two strains, namely MR57N isolated from the northern Bering Sea and MR70N at the Chukchi Sea. This is the first report of a detailed morphometric and morphological investigation of Arctic Ocean coccolithophore strains. The specific growth rates at the logarithmic growth phases in both strains markedly increased as temperature was elevated from 5 to 20 °C, although coccolith productivity (estimated as the percentage of calcified cells) was similar at 10-20 % at all temperatures. On the other hand, the specific growth rate of MR70N was affected less by changes in salinity in the range 26-35 ‰, but the proportion of calcified cells decreased at high and low salinities. According to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations, coccolith morphotypes can be categorized into Type B/C on the basis of their biometrical parameters. The central area elements of coccoliths varied from thin lath type to well-calcified lath type when temperature was increased or salinity was decreased, and coccolith size decreased simultaneously. Coccolithophore cell size also decreased with increasing temperature, although the variation in cell size was slightly greater at the lower salinity level. This indicates that subarctic and arctic coccolithophore strains can survive in a wide range of seawater temperatures and at lower salinities with change in their morphology. Because all coccolith biometric parameters followed the scaling law, the decrease in coccolith size was caused simply by the reduced calcification. Taken together, our results suggest that calcification productivity may

  14. 77 FR 22750 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... groundfish fisheries since 1999 (64 FR 3437, January 22, 1999) and have been annually revised in 2000 through... FR 77535, December 13, 2010, corrected 75 FR 81921, December 29, 2010). The 2011 Steller sea lion... Alaska to prepare an EIS on the Steller sea lion protection measures implemented in January 2011 (75...

  15. Chemical composition of sediments from White Sea, Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamza, Olga; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Novigatsky, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    The White Sea, the only Russian inland sea, is located on the north of outlying districts of the European part of Russia, belongs to Arctic Ocean. Area of water of sea occupies about 90 tousend square kilometers. The sea can be divided into some general parts: neck, funnel, basin and 4 Bays: Dvina Bay, Kandalaksha Bay, Mezen Bay and Onega Bay. The purpose of this work was geochemical mapping of the surface sediments of this area. The main tasks were: compilation data base of element composition of the surface sediments, geochemical mapping of each element, research of the anormal concentration of elements on the surface. To detect the content of chemical elements several methods were used: atomic absorption spectrometry (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology); neutron activation analysis (Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry), total and organic carbon analysis, photometric method to detection Si, Al, P (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology). Bulk composition is one of the fundamental characteristics of sediments and bottom deposites of modern basins. Coarse-grained sediments with portion of pelitic component <50% is spread on the shallow area (Kandalaksha Bay), in areas with high hydrodynamic activity of near-bottom water. Under the conditions of their low activity, fine-grained facies are common(>80%). Character of elements distribution correlates with facial distribution of sediments from White Sea. According to litologic description, bottom surface of Dvina Bay is practically everywhere covered by layer of fine-grained sand. In the border area between Dvina Bay and White Sea basin on terraced subwater slope aleurite politic silts are abundant. They tend to exhange down the slope to clay silts. In Onega Bay fractions of non-deposition are observed. They are characterized by wide spread of thin blanket poorgraded sediments, which are likely to be relic. Relief of Kandalakscha Bay bottom is presented as alternation of abyssal fosses (near

  16. Fungal communities from methane hydrate-bearing deep-sea marine sediments in South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xintian; Cao, Lixiang; Tan, Hongming; Fang, Shu; Huang, Yali; Zhou, Shining

    2007-12-01

    To elucidate fungal diversity in methane hydrate-bearing deep-sea marine sediments in the South China Sea, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rRNA genes from five different sediment DNA samples were amplified and phylogenetically analyzed. Total five ITS libraries were constructed and 413 clones selected randomly were grouped into 24 restriction patterns by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA). ITS sequences of 44 representative clones were determined and compared with the GenBank database using gapped-BLAST. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the ITS sequences (71-97% similarity) were similar to those of Phoma, Lodderomyces, Malassezia, Cryptococcus, Cylindrocarpon, Hortaea, Pichia, Aspergillus and Candida. The remaining sequences were not associated to any known fungi or fungal sequences in the public database. The results suggested that methane hydrate-bearing deep-sea marine sediments harbor diverse fungi. This is the first report on fungal communities from methane hydrate-bearing deep-sea marine sediments in South China Sea. PMID:18059498

  17. Distribution of phosphorus in the eastern Adriatic Sea sediments (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijević, Slavica; Bogner, Danijela; Kušpilić, Grozdan; Veža, Jere

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is very important nutrient for the eastern Adriatic Sea owing to its limiting role in the primary production. Orthophosphate concentrations are low (median HPO42- value: 0.039 µmol dm-3) as a consequence of relatively small number of freshwater inflows and cyclonic circulation of oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean water masses. Due to anthropogenic influence in coastal areas such as bays, estuaries and channel waters, P concentrations increment occurred leading to the formation of trophic gradient from the open sea towards the coast. As marine sediment presents the ultimate sink for particulate organic P from the water column, as well as for inorganic P forms, knowledge about distribution of different sediment P species is of great importance for understanding the burial, diagenesis and environmental geochemical significance of P. This paper presents results of P distribution at the eastern Adriatic sites of different trophic status (open sea, channel, estuary, semi-enclosed bay under the anthropogenic influence and fish farms) during 2002-2012. In the water column dissolved and particulate inorganic and organic P were analyzed. In all sediments total phosphorus (organic and inorganic P) was determined, while at certain sites beside organic P, inorganic P forms were examined using modified SEDEX methods (P in biogenic - P-FD; authigenic - P-AUT and in detrital apatite - P-DET; phosphorus bound to iron oxides and hydroxides - P-Fe). Various geochemical variables in the water column and sediment (HPO42- concentration, sediment redox potential, granulometric composition, carbonate content, iron, organic carbon and total nitrogen content) were also investigated. Results proved total P concentrations range between 3 and 161 µmol g-1, with highest values at sites under the strong anthropogenic impact including fish farms, estuaries and bay areas. Major inorganic P species in the eastern Adriatic was P-Fe form. Fish debris P species P-FD, prevailed in

  18. Influence of timing of sea ice retreat on phytoplankton size during marginal ice zone bloom period in the Chukchi and Bering shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, A.; Hirawake, T.; Suzuki, K.; Eisner, L.; Imai, I.; Nishino, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Saitoh, S. I.

    2015-08-01

    Timing of sea ice retreat (TSR) as well as cell size of primary producers (i.e., phytoplankton) plays crucial roles in seasonally ice-covered marine ecosystem. Thus, it is important to monitor the temporal and spatial distribution of phytoplankton community size structure. Prior to this study, an ocean color algorithm has been developed to derive phytoplankton size index FL, which is defined as the ratio of chlorophyll a derived from the cells larger than 5 μm to the total chl a using satellite remote sensing for the Chukchi and Bering shelves. Using this method, we analyzed pixel-by-pixel relationships between FL during marginal ice zone (MIZ) bloom period and TSR over a period of 1998-2013. The influence of TSR on sea surface temperature (SST) and changes in ocean heat content (ΔOHC) during the MIZ bloom period were also investigated. A significant negative relationship between FL and TSR was widely found in the shelf region during MIZ bloom season. On the other hand, we found a significant positive (negative) relationship between SST (ΔOHC) and TSR. That is, earlier sea-ice retreat was associated with a dominance of larger phytoplankton during a colder and weakly stratified MIZ bloom season, suggesting that duration of nitrate supply, which is important for large-sized phytoplankton growth in this region (i.e., diatoms), can change according to TSR. In addition, under-ice phytoplankton blooms are likely to occur in years with late ice retreat, because sufficient light for phytoplankton growth can pass through the ice and penetrate into the water columns due to an increase in solar radiation toward the summer solstice. Moreover, we found not only the length of ice-free season but also annual median of FL positively correlated with annual net primary production (APP). Thus, both phytoplankton community composition and growing season are important for APP in the study area. Our findings showed quantitative relationship between the inter-annual variability of FL

  19. Influence of timing of sea ice retreat on phytoplankton size during marginal ice zone bloom period on the Chukchi and Bering shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, A.; Hirawake, T.; Suzuki, K.; Eisner, L.; Imai, I.; Nishino, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Saitoh, S.-I.

    2016-01-01

    The size structure and biomass of a phytoplankton community during the spring bloom period can affect the energy use of higher-trophic-level organisms through the predator-prey body size relationships. The timing of the sea ice retreat (TSR) also plays a crucial role in the seasonally ice-covered marine ecosystem, because it is tightly coupled with the timing of the spring bloom. Thus, it is important to monitor the temporal and spatial distributions of a phytoplankton community size structure. Prior to this study, an ocean colour algorithm was developed to derive phytoplankton size index FL, which is defined as the ratio of chlorophyll a (chl a) derived from cells larger than 5 µm to the total chl a, using satellite remote sensing for the Chukchi and Bering shelves. Using this method, we analysed the pixel-by-pixel relationships between FL during the marginal ice zone (MIZ) bloom period and TSR over the period of 1998-2013. The influences of the TSR on the sea surface temperature (SST) and changes in ocean heat content (ΔOHC) during the MIZ bloom period were also investigated. A significant negative relationship between FL and the TSR was widely found in the shelf region during the MIZ bloom season. However, we found a significant positive (negative) relationship between the SST (ΔOHC) and TSR. Specifically, an earlier sea ice retreat was associated with the dominance of larger phytoplankton during a colder and weakly stratified MIZ bloom season, suggesting that the duration of the nitrate supply, which is important for the growth of large-sized phytoplankton in this region (i.e. diatoms), can change according to the TSR. In addition, under-ice phytoplankton blooms are likely to occur in years with late ice retreat, because sufficient light for phytoplankton growth can pass through the ice and penetrate into the water columns as a result of an increase in solar radiation toward the summer solstice

  20. High-Precision 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology and Geology of St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska: Implications for Eruption Rates in the Bering Sea Basalt Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, T. C.; Cosca, M. A.; Hamblock, J. M.; Underwood, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    New high-precision 40Ar/39Ar ages and geologic mapping establish an eruptive chronology for St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska. St. George is part of the Bering Sea basalt province (BSBP), a group of 15 late Cenozoic (mostly < 6 Ma) alkalic to tholeiitic basaltic volcanic fields widely distributed on islands in the Bering Sea, along the west coast of Alaska, and along the coast of northeast Russia. Twelve samples of washed, but otherwise untreated, whole-rock basalts from St. George were cut with a micro-wire saw into chips ~3 mm3 in size and irradiated for 40Ar/39Ar analysis. The chips were incrementally heated with a CO2 laser equipped with an integrator lens, and analyzed using a NU Instruments Noblesse mass spectrometer equipped with a Faraday cup and two ion counting electron multipliers. Detector intercalibration was done using automated air pipettes. A minimum of 20 heating steps were measured per sample, with the data often defining age plateaux. Isochron plots of the data yield ages ranging from 1.57 ± 0.04 to 2.89 ± 0.11 Ma, with trapped 40Ar/36Ar ratios ranging from 312 to 330. The stratigraphic positions of the dated rocks are known directly from field relations and there are no discrepancies between the 40Ar/39Ar ages and this sequence. Geochemical data combined with the age data indicate no progressive petrologic trends during evolution of the magmatic system, except for intermittent eruption of distinctive plagioclase-phyric basalts with low to moderate MgO contents (7 - 5 wt%) beginning at ~2.0 Ma. The new age data combined with volume estimates indicate an average subaerial eruption rate of ~107 m3km-2yr-1, which is adjusted for 3% sedimentary and ultramafic basement rocks beneath the volcanic pile, an average vesicularity of 5%, and an assumed surficial erosion value of 20%. This rate is identical to the estimate (110 m3km-2yr-1) by Mukasa et al. (JGR 112, 2007) for St. George Island. Both estimates, however, do not account for

  1. Sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls by north sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booij, Kees; van der Meer, Jaap; Kwast, Diana; de Boer, Joost L.

    1997-05-01

    The sediment-water partition coefficients ( Kd) of 32 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and penta- and hexachloro benzene were determined for 37 spiked sediment samples from the southern North Sea, the German Bight and the Norwegian Channel. Organic-carbon contents for these sediments were in the range 0.02-2.4%. Log( Kd) values were in the range 1.4 to 5.3. The largest difference between the organic-carbon normalised partition coefficients ( Koc) for individual components amounted to a factor of 10. Koc values for coarse sediments were generally lower than values for fine sediments. The solids concentration effect was evaluated using the Non-Settling Particles model, the Solute Complexation model, the Implicit Adsorbate model, and the Particle Interaction model. The latter three models could be rejected on the basis of the experimental evidence. The validity of ordinary least-squares regression for estimating slope and intercept of log( Koc)-log( KKow) relations is discussed. Differences in sediment characteristics cause changes in the intercept of log( Koc)-log( Kow) relations, but not in the slope. KKoc values of PCB isomers are inversely related to the number of chlorine atoms in the ortho position relative to the inter-ring bond. The validity of the data for estimating field values of sorption coefficients is discussed.

  2. Numerical modelling of sediment transport in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnieri, A.; Souza, A. J.; Pinardi, N.; Traykovski, P.

    2014-06-01

    A new sediment transport model, considering currents, tides and waves is presented for the Adriatic Sea basin. The simulations concentrate on the winter of 2002-2003 because of field data availability and interesting intermittent processes occurrence. A process oriented analysis is performed to investigate the impact that Sirocco and Bora wind regimes have on sediment transport. The comparisons of the simulations with the observed data show that the model is capable to capture the main dynamics of sediment transport along the Italian coasts and the sediment concentration within the water column. This latter can reach values up to several g L-1, especially within the first centimetres above the bottom. The sediments are transported mainly southwards along the Italian coasts, consistently with the known literature results, except during Sirocco wind events, which can be responsible for reversing the coastal circulation in the northern area of the basin, and consequently the sediment transport. The resuspension of sediments is also related to the specific wave regimes induced by Bora and Sirocco, the former inducing resuspension events near the coasts while the latter causing a more diffused resuspension regime in the Northern Adriatic basin. Beside the realistic representation of short timescales resuspension/deposition events due to storms, the model was also used to investigate persistent erosion or deposition areas in the Adriatic Sea. Two main depocenters were identified: one, very pronounced, in the surroundings of the Po river delta, and another one a few kilometres off the coast in front of the Ancona promontory. A third region of accumulation, even if less intense, was found to be offshore the southernmost limit of the Gargano region. On the contrary the whole western coast within a distance of a few kilometres from the shore was found to be subject to prevailing erosion. The comparison with observed accumulation and erosion data shows that the model captures

  3. Bacterial methanogenesis in holocene sediments in the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lein, A.Y.; Namsaraev, B.B.; Trotsyuk, V.Y.; Ivanov, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    Soviet biologists have found evidence of viable methanogenic microorganisms in mud samples collected in 1978 from the Baltic Sea by the research ship Academician Kurchatov. Experiments with radioactive carbon and direct measurements of the samples' methane concentrations led to several conclusions: (1) the process of bacterial methanogenesis occurs mainly via carbon dioxide reduction, (2) the methanogenic intensity depends on the depth of the deposited sediment and its distance from land; shallow-water sediments found in gulfs produced more methane than deepwater ones taken from low spots, (3) organic-matter consumption during bacterial methane reduction makes up 0.14-7.9 mg of carbon/kg of wet mud per year; this is over 20 times less than during bacterial sulfate reduction, (4) The bulk of the methane generated migrates from the muds into the water and (5) marine sediments are undersaturated with methane, suggesting that the methane migrates via filtration of pore waters, not by diffusion.

  4. Quantifying the importance of sediment resuspension for the North Sea and Baltic Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Cara; Schrum, Corinna; Daewel, Ute; Fennel, Katja; Castaño Primo, Rocío

    2014-05-01

    Including sedimentary processes such as resuspension in marine coupled bio-physical models is crucial to realistically simulate the dynamics of biologically important chemical variables (e.g oxygen and the macro-nutrients nitrate, phosphate and silicate). These comprise diffusive release of dissolved nutrients and resuspension of particulate organic material, which occurs when a critical bottom shear stress (τcrit) acting on the sediment particles is exceeded. In global and regional modelling approaches sediment-water exchange is often parametrized by sedimentation and constant release rates and dynamic resuspension resolving the tidal cycle is often neglected in coupled physical-biological ecosystem models. During resuspension, sediment particles get transported back into the water column. Thereby, both the turbidity of the water and nutrient availability by releasing dissolved nutrients from the pore-water are changed. Since both light and nutrients are limiting factors in primary production, it is near by hand to suspect resuspension to play an important role in the growth of phytoplankton. Here, we assess the role of resuspension and its dynamic consideration for the modelled productivity and CO2 air-sea exchange in the North Sea and Baltic Sea using the coupled 3D physical-biological model ECOSMO. ECOSMO is a coupled hydrodynamic-sea ice-NPZD-carbonate-system model and is implemented for the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Its ecosystem module includes interactions between three functional groups of phytoplankton, two of zooplankton, detritus, oxygen, three nutrient cycles (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate) and sediment pools. In the North Sea, wind forcing and strong tides lead to a frequent exceedance of the critical bottom shear stress and therefore, resuspension events take place regularly, especially in the shallow coastal areas where the tidal range is largest. Here, the model results indicate a clear increase in estimated primary production when dynamical

  5. Zooplankton species composition, abundance and biomass on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during summer: The potential role of water-column stability and nutrients in structuring the zooplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Kenneth O.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.

    2008-08-01

    The southeastern Bering Sea sustains one of the largest fisheries in the United States, as well as wildlife resources that support valuable tourist and subsistence economies. The fish and wildlife populations in turn are sustained by a food web linking primary producers to apex predators through the zooplankton community. Recent shifts in climate toward warmer conditions may threaten these resources by altering productivity and trophic relationships in the ecosystem on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. We examined the zooplankton community near the Pribilof Islands and on the middle shelf of the southeastern Bering Sea in summer of 1999 and 2004 to document differences and similarities in species composition, abundance and biomass by region and year. Between August 1999 and August 2004, the summer zooplankton community of the middle shelf shifted from large to small species. Significant declines were observed in the biomass of large scyphozoans ( Chrysaora melanaster), large copepods ( Calanus marshallae), arrow worms ( Sagitta elegans) and euphausiids ( Thysanoessa raschii, T. inermis) between 1999 and 2004. In contrast, significantly higher densities of the small copepods ( Pseudocalanus spp., Oithona similis) and small hydromedusae ( Euphysa flammea) were observed in 2004 relative to 1999. Stomach analyses of young-of-the-year (age 0) pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) from the middle shelf indicated a dietary shift from large to small copepods in 2004 relative to 1999. The shift in the zooplankton community was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in water-column stability in 2004 relative to 1999, primarily due to warmer water above the thermocline, with a mean temperature of 7.3 °C in 1999 and 12.6 °C in 2004. The elevated water-column stability and warmer conditions may have influenced the zooplankton composition by lowering summer primary production and selecting for species more tolerant of a warm, oligotrophic environment. A time series of temperature from

  6. Sediments in Arctic sea ice: Implications for entrainment, transport and release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nurnberg, D.; Wollenburg, I.; Dethleff, D.; Eicken, H.; Kassens, H.; Letzig, T.; Reimnitz, E.; Thiede, Jorn

    1994-01-01

    Despite the Arctic sea ice cover's recognized sensitivity to environmental change, the role of sediment inclusions in lowering ice albedo and affecting ice ablation is poorly understood. Sea ice sediment inclusions were studied in the central Arctic Ocean during the Arctic 91 expedition and in the Laptev Sea (East Siberian Arctic Region Expedition 1992). Results from these investigations are here combined with previous studies performed in major areas of ice ablation and the southern central Arctic Ocean. This study documents the regional distribution and composition of particle-laden ice, investigates and evaluates processes by which sediment is incorporated into the ice cover, and identifies transport paths and probable depositional centers for the released sediment. In April 1992, sea ice in the Laptev Sea was relatively clean. The sediment occasionally observed was distributed diffusely over the entire ice column, forming turbid ice. Observations indicate that frazil and anchor ice formation occurring in a large coastal polynya provide a main mechanism for sediment entrainment. In the central Arctic Ocean sediments are concentrated in layers within or at the surface of ice floes due to melting and refreezing processes. The surface sediment accumulation in central Arctic multi-year sea ice exceeds by far the amounts observed in first-year ice from the Laptev Sea in April 1992. Sea ice sediments are generally fine grained, although coarse sediments and stones up to 5 cm in diameter are observed. Component analysis indicates that quartz and clay minerals are the main terrigenous sediment particles. The biogenous components, namely shells of pelecypods and benthic foraminiferal tests, point to a shallow, benthic, marine source area. Apparently, sediment inclusions were resuspended from shelf areas before and incorporated into the sea ice by suspension freezing. Clay mineralogy of ice-rafted sediments provides information on potential source areas. A smectite

  7. Paleoecology of late-glacial peats from the bering land bridge, Chukchi Sea shelf region, northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, S.A.; Short, S.K.; Phillips, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Insect fossils and pollen from late Pleistocene nonmarine peat layers were recovered from cores from the shelf region of the Chukchi Sea at depths of about 50 m below sea level. The peats date to 11,300-11,000 yr B.P. and provide a limiting age for the regional Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgression. The insect fossils are indicative of arctic coastal habitats like those of the Mackenzie Delta region (mean July temperatures = 10.6-14??C) suggesting that 11,000 yr ago the exposed Chukchi Sea shelf had a climate substantially warmer than modern coastal regions of the Alaskan north slope. The pollen spectra are consistent with the age assignment to the Birch Interval (14,000-9000 yr B.P.). The data suggest a meadow-like graminoid tundra with birch shrubs and some willow shrubs growing in sheltered areas. ?? 1992.

  8. Inactivated phosphorus by added aluminum in Baltic Sea sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Emil

    2014-12-01

    Decreased phosphorus (P) retention in aquatic sediments during hypoxic periods results in increased P recycling to the water column. To revert to less productive conditions in the enclosed bays of the Baltic Sea archipelago, increased sediment P burial capacity is needed. Aluminum (Al) addition is considered to be a cost-effective lake restoration method, as it improves sediment P burial capacity. However, little is known about its ability to permanently bind P in brackish systems. In summer 2000, Al sulfate granules were added to a hypoxic bottom area in the Östhammar bay, Sweden. Sediment core samples from the area were collected 10 years later. A peak in Al and P was detected at 20 cm sediment depth, reflecting the added Al and P trapped to it. Only part of the added Al was recovered, but the recovered Al (8 g Al/m2) trapped P at a ratio of 5:1 (molar). Chemical fractionation showed that P extracted as 'Al-P' constituted 55% of the trapped P, indicating that Al added also trapped P extracted as other P forms.

  9. Sea-ice processes in the Laptev Sea and their importance for sediment export

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eicken, H.; Reimnitz, E.; Alexandrov, V.; Martin, T.; Kassens, H.; Viehoff, T.

    1997-01-01

    Based on remote-sensing data and an expedition during August-September 1993, the importance of the Laptev Sea as a source area for sediment-laden sea ice was studied. Ice-core analysis demonstrated the importance of dynamic ice-growth mechanisms as compared to the multi-year cover of the Arctic Basin. Ice-rafted sediment (IRS) was mostly associated with congealed frazil ice, although evidence for other entrainment mechanisms (anchor ice, entrainment into freshwater ice) was also found. Concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in patches of dirty ice averaged at 156 g m-3 (standard deviation ?? = 140 g m-3), with a background concentration of 5 g m-3. The potential for sediment entrainment over the broad, shallow Laptev Sea shelf during fall freeze-up was studied through analysis of remote-sensing data and weather-station records for the period 1979-1994. Freeze-up commences on 26 September (?? = 7 d) and is completed after 19 days (?? = 6 d). Meteorological conditions as well as ice extent prior to and during freeze-up vary considerably, the open-water area ranging between 107 x 103 and 447 x 103 km2. Ice motion and transport of IRS were derived from satellite imagery and drifting buoys for the period during and after the expedition (mean ice velocities of 0.04 and 0.05 m s-1, respectively). With a best-estimate sediment load of 16 t km-2 (ranging between 9 and 46 t km-2), sediment export from the eastern Laptev Sea amounts to 4 x 10-6 t yr-1, with extremes of 2 x 10-6 and 11 x 106 t yr-1. Implications for the sediment budget of the Laptev shelf, in particular with respect to riverine input of SPM, which may be of the same order of magnitude, are discussed.

  10. Delineating ecological regions in marine systems: Integrating physical structure and community composition to inform spatial management in the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Matthew R.; Hollowed, Anne B.

    2014-11-01

    Characterizing spatial structure and delineating meaningful spatial boundaries have useful applications to understanding regional dynamics in marine systems, and are integral to ecosystem approaches to fisheries management. Physical structure and drivers combine with biological responses and interactions to organize marine systems in unique ways at multiple scales. We apply multivariate statistical methods to define spatially coherent ecological units or ecoregions in the eastern Bering Sea. We also illustrate a practical approach to integrate data on species distribution, habitat structure and physical forcing mechanisms to distinguish areas with distinct biogeography as one means to define management units in large marine ecosystems. We use random forests to quantify the relative importance of habitat and environmental variables to the distribution of individual species, and to quantify shifts in multispecies assemblages or community composition along environmental gradients. Threshold shifts in community composition are used to identify regions with distinct physical and biological attributes, and to evaluate the relative importance of predictor variables to determining regional boundaries. Depth, bottom temperature and frontal boundaries were dominant factors delineating distinct biological communities in this system, with a latitudinal divide at approximately 60°N. Our results indicate that distinct climatic periods will shift habitat gradients and that dynamic physical variables such as temperature and stratification are important to understanding temporal stability of ecoregion boundaries. We note distinct distribution patterns among functional guilds and also evidence for resource partitioning among individual species within each guild. By integrating physical and biological data to determine spatial patterns in community composition, we partition ecosystems along ecologically significant gradients. This may provide a basis for defining spatial management

  11. Modern processes controlling the sea bed sediment formation in Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanyuk, I.; Dmitrievsky, A.; Shapovalov, S.; Chaikina, O.; Akivis, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Barents Sea is one of the key regions for understanding of the postglacial history of the climate and circulation of the World Ocean. There are the limits of warm North Atlantic waters penetration to the Arctic and a zone of interaction between Atlantic and Arctic waters. The Barents Se's limits are the deep Norwegian Sea in the West, the Spitsbergen Island and the Franz Josef Land and the deep Nansen trough in the North, the Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the East and the North shore of Europe in the South. An analysis of Eurasian-Arctic continental margin shows correspondence between the rift systems of the shelf with those of the ocean. This relation can be observed in the central Arctic region. All the rift systems underlying the sediment basin are expressed in the sea bed relief as spacious and extensive graben valleys burnished by lobes. Two transverse trenches cross both shelf and continental slope, namely the Medvezhinsky trench between Norway and Spitsbergen in the West and the Franz Victoria trench between Spitsbergen and the Franz Josef Land in the North. The Barents and the Kara Seas are connected by the Kara Gate Strait and wide transverse trough of Saint Anna in the North-West. The recent assessment of the eolian solid sediment supply to the Barents Sea is about 0.904 tons. The Barents Sea as a whole should be considered as "starving" in terms of its feeding with solid sediment matter. Observations show the considerable part of the sea bottom to be free of Holocene sediment cover. The more ancient Quaternary units or bedrock can be seen at the bottom surface. This phenomenon is the most typical for arches of relatively shallow elevations. Thick accumulations of new sediments are connected with fjords. The amount of sea ice delivered from the Barents Sea to the Arctic Ocean is 35 km3 a year. This value should be added by iceberg delivery from the North island of Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Spitsbergen Island and North Norway but most of

  12. Coastal erosion vs riverline sediment discharge in the Arctic shelfx seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rachold, V.; Grigoriev, M.N.; Are, F.E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Reimnitz, E.; Kassens, H.; Antonow, M.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a comparison of sediment input by rivers and by coastal erosion into both the Laptev Sea and the Canadian Beaufort Sea (CBS). New data on coastal erosion in the Laptev Sea, which are based on field measurements and remote sensing information and existing data on coastal erosion in the CBS as well as riverine sediment discharge into both the Laptev Sea and the CBS are included. Strong regional differences in the percentages of coastal ero- sion and riverine sediment supply are observed. The CBS is dominated by the riverine sediment discharge (64.45x106 t a-1) mainly of the Mackenzie River. which is the largest single source of sediments in the Arctic. Riverine sediment discharge into the Laptev Sea amounts to 24.10x106 t a-1, more than 70% of which are related to the Lena River. In comparison with the CBS. the Laptev Sea coast on average delivers approximately twice as much sediment mass per kilometer, a result of higher erosion rates due to higher cliffs and seasonal ice melting. In the Laptev Sea sediment input by coastal erosion (58.4x106 t a-1) is therefore more important than in the CBS and the ratio between riverine and coastal sediment input amounts to 0.4. Coastal erosion supplying 5.6x106 t a-1 is less significant for the sediment budget of the CBS where riverine sediment discharge exceeds coastal sediment input by a factor of ca. 10.

  13. Horizontal distributions of surface chlorophyll a and nitrogenous nutrients near Bering Strait and Unimak Pass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Isao; Furuya, Ken; Otobe, Hirotake; Nakai, Toshisuke; Memoto, Takahisa; Hattori, Akihiko

    1982-02-01

    Surface temperature, salinity, nitrate,aammonium, and chlorophyll a were continuously monitored along a north-south transect across the Bering Strait and Unimak Pass region of the southeastern Bering Sea in July 1978. A cold water mass, rich in nitrate and chlorophyll a, north of the Bering Strait, was examined over a distance of 40 km; it was probably associated with local upwelling. Near Unimak Pass, chlorophyll a was inversely correlated with nitrate, suggesting rapid growth of phytoplankton in nutrient-rich Alaskan Stream water during its travel into the Bering Sea. Phytoplankton species composition was consistent with this inference.

  14. Modern sedimentation and extreme event in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Huang; Su, Chih-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    The South China Sea is the largest marginal sea of the northwest Pacific. It is situated at the plate boundary of the Eurasian, Philippine Sea, and Indian plates and also on the North Western Pacific corridor of typhoons. The unique tectonic and climatic environment makes it has to face the potential of seafloor destructions, like submarine landslides and slumps, and high sediment discharges which induced by typhoon from Philippine. In this study, we analysis the sediment properties of modern extreme event records in cores and attempt to evaluate the history of extreme events in the South China Sea. Twelve gravity cores were collected in the central South China Sea basin and around Taiping island by using R/V Ocean Research 1 from 2014 to 2015 and a series of analysis including multi-sensor core logger, XRF core scanner (Itrax), core surface images, X-radiographs, bulk density, grain size, Pb-210 chronology and X-ray diffractometer were conducted in this study. On core surface images, an obvious brownish oxidized layer exist in core top with higher Pb-210 activity beneath this oxidized layer, and we speculate this layer is caused by nature hazard. According to the sampling time, we conjecture the oxidized layer might formed by typhoon Haiyan in 2013. In addition, the Itrax data shows high manganese content only exist in this layer which might related to the modern industrial pollution delivered by typhoon induced flooding from Philippine. The sedimentation rate of the non-event years in these cores which derived from Pb-210 chronology method is about 0.02 ~0.03 cm/yr. On contrary, the event layer caused by Haiyan with a recorded maximum 87cm deposits in the South China Sea. This study aims to characterize the typhoon induced deposits in the turbidite layer and use it to identify whether the other event layers recorded in these cores were related to typhoon activities and to reconstruct the strong tropical cyclone history in the western Pacific.

  15. Sea-level responses to erosion and deposition of sediment in the Indus River basin and the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, Ken L.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Giosan, Liviu; Clift, Peter D.

    2015-04-01

    Changes in sea level are of wide interest because they shape the sedimentary geologic record, modulate flood-related hazards, and reflect Earth's climate. One driver of sea-level change is the erosion and deposition of sediment, which induces changes in sea level by perturbing Earth's crust, gravity field, and rotation axis. Here we use a gravitationally self-consistent global model to explore how sediment erosion and deposition affected sea level during the most recent glacial-interglacial cycle in the northeastern Arabian Sea and the Indus River basin, where fluvial sediment fluxes are among the highest on Earth. We drive the model with a widely used reconstruction of ice mass variations over the last glacial cycle and a sediment loading history that we constructed from published erosion and deposition rate measurements. Our modeling suggests that sediment fluxes from the Indus River are large enough to produce meter-scale changes in sea level near the Indus delta in as little as a few thousand years. These sea-level perturbations are largest closest to the center of the Indus delta, and they grow larger over time as sediment deposition increases. This implies that the elevation of sea-level markers near the Indus delta will be significantly altered by sediment transfer over millennial timescales, and that such deformation should be accounted for in studies that use paleo-sea-level markers to infer past ice sheet volume or explore local processes such as sediment compaction. Our analysis highlights the role that massive fluvial sediment fluxes play in driving sea-level changes over >1000-yr timescales from the Indus River, and, by implication, from other rivers with large sediment fluxes.

  16. Foraging segregation of two congeneric diving seabird species (common and thick-billed murres) breeding on St. George Island, Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubun, N.; Yamamoto, T.,; Sato, N.; Watanuki, Y.; Will, A.; Kitaysky, A. S.; Takahashi, A.

    2015-11-01

    Sub-arctic environmental changes are expected to affect the ecology of marine top predators. We examined the characteristics of foraging behavior of two sympatric congeneric diving seabirds, common (Uria aalge: hereafter COMU) and thick-billed (U. lomvia: hereafter TBMU) murres breeding on St. George Island located in the seasonal sea-ice region of the Bering Sea. We investigated their flight duration, diel patterns of dive depth, and underwater wing strokes, along with morphology and blood stable isotopes. Acceleration-temperature-depth data loggers were attached to chick-guarding birds, and behavioral data were obtained from 7 COMU and 12 TBMU. Both species showed similar trip duration (13.21 ± 4.79 h for COMU and 10.45 ± 7.09 h for TBMU) and similar diurnal patterns of diving (frequent dives to various depths in the daytime and less frequent dives to shallow depths in the nighttime). During the daytime, dive depths of COMU had two peaks in shallow (18.1 ± 6.0 m) and deep (74.2 ± 8.7 m) depths, while those of TBMU were 20.2 ± 7.4 m and 59.7 ± 7.9 m. COMU showed more frequent wing strokes during the bottom phase of dives (1.90 ± 0.11 s-1) than TBMU (1.66 ± 0.15 s-1). Fishes occurred with higher proportion in the bill-loads brought back to chicks in COMU (85 %) than in TBMU (56 %). δ15N value of blood was significantly higher in COMU (14.47 ± 0.27 ‰) than in TBMU (13.14 ± 0.36 ‰). Relatively small wing area (0.053 ± 0.007 m2) of COMU compared to TBMU (0.067 ± 0.007 m2) may make them more agile underwater and thus enable them to target more mobile prey including larger fishes that inhabit deeper depths. These differences in foraging behavior between COMU and TBMU might explain the differences in their responses to long-term marine environmental changes.

  17. Evidence for fractionation of Quaternary basalts on St. Paul Island, Alaska, with implications for the development of shallow magma chambers beneath Bering Sea volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, T. C.; Winer, G. S.

    1999-04-01

    St. Paul Island is the youngest volcanic center in the Bearing Sea basalt province. We have undertaken a field, petrographic, and geochemical study of select St. Paul volcanic rocks in order to better understand their differentiation; specifically, to test the hypothesis that magmas erupted from individual Bering Sea basaltic volcanoes are not related by shallow-level processes such as crystal fractionation. Petrographically, all of the St. Paul volcanic rocks are olivine-, plagioclase-, and clinopyroxene-phyric. Textural features and modal contents of olivine phenocrysts, however, vary widely throughout the spectrum of basalt compositions. Although differing in size and abundance, olivine phenocrysts in all rock compositions are euhedral and commonly skeletal, suggesting rapid growth during ascent or eruptive quenching. None, however, display reaction textures with surrounding groundmass liquid. Compositionally, the St. Paul volcanic rocks are basalts and tephritic basalts and all have high contents of normative nepheline (8% to 16%). Concentrations of many major and incompatible trace elements display no clear correlations with bulk-rock SiO 2 and MgO contents or modal abundances of phenocrysts, suggesting that much of the compositional diversity of these magmas reflects variable mantle sources and degrees of partial melting. Similarly, chondrite-normalized REE patterns show variable degrees of light REE enrichment (La n=70-90) that do not correlate with bulk-rock mg-numbers. In contrast, concentrations of compatible trace elements (Ni, Cr, and Co) are positively correlated with MgO contents and modal percentages of olivine phenocrysts. Maximum forsterite contents of olivine phenocryst cores in most St. Paul rocks decrease with decreasing bulk-rock mg-number and are similar to the calculated equilibrium range. This is evidence that the high mg-numbers are magmatic and do not result from olivine accumulation. Instead, major and compatible trace element mass

  18. Change in coccolith morphology by responding to temperature and salinity in coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) isolated from the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saruwatari, K.; Satoh, M.; Harada, N.; Suzuki, I.; Shiraiwa, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Strains of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) collected from the subarctic North Pacific and Arctic Oceans during the R/V MIRAI cruise in 2010 (MR10-05) were established as clone cultures and have been maintained in the laboratory at 15 °C and 32 ‰ salinity. To study the physiological responses of coccolith formation to changes in temperature and salinity, growth experiments and morphometric investigations were performed on two strains of MR57N isolated from the northern Bering Sea (56°58' N, 167°11' W) and MR70N at the Chukchi Sea (69°99' N, 168° W). This is the first report of a detailed morphometric and morphological investigation of Arctic Ocean coccolithophore strains. The specific growth rates at the logarithmic growth phases in both strains markedly increased as temperature was elevated from 5 to 20 °C, although coccolith productivity (the percentage of calcified cells) was similar at 10-20 % at all temperatures. On the other hand, the specific growth rate of strain MR70N was affected less by changes in salinity in the range 26-35 ‰, but the proportion of calcified cells decreased at high and low salinities. According to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations, coccolith morphotypes can be categorized into Type B/C on the basis of their biometrical parameters, such as length of the distal shield (LDS), length of the inner central area (LICA), and the thickness of distal shield elements. The central area elements of coccoliths varied from grilled type to closed type when temperature was increased or salinity was decreased, and coccolith size decreased simultaneously. Coccolithophore cell size also decreased with increasing temperature, although the variation in cell size was slightly greater at the lower salinity level. This indicates that subarctic and arctic coccolithophore strains can survive in a wide range of seawater temperatures and at lower salinities due to their marked morphometric adaptation ability. Because all

  19. Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    House, Kurt Zenz; Schrag, Daniel P; Harvey, Charles F; Lackner, Klaus S

    2006-08-15

    Stabilizing the concentration of atmospheric CO(2) may require storing enormous quantities of captured anthropogenic CO(2) in near-permanent geologic reservoirs. Because of the subsurface temperature profile of terrestrial storage sites, CO(2) stored in these reservoirs is buoyant. As a result, a portion of the injected CO(2) can escape if the reservoir is not appropriately sealed. We show that injecting CO(2) into deep-sea sediments below [corrected] 3,000-m water depth and a few hundred meters of sediment provides permanent geologic storage even with large geomechanical perturbations. At the high pressures and low temperatures common in deep-sea sediments, CO(2) resides in its liquid phase and can be denser than the overlying pore fluid, causing the injected CO(2) to be gravitationally stable. Additionally, CO(2) hydrate formation will impede the flow of CO(2)(l) and serve as a second cap on the system. The evolution of the CO(2) plume is described qualitatively from the injection to the formation of CO(2) hydrates and finally to the dilution of the CO(2)(aq) solution by diffusion. If calcareous sediments are chosen, then the dissolution of carbonate host rock by the CO(2)(aq) solution will slightly increase porosity, which may cause large increases in permeability. Karst formation, however, is unlikely because total dissolution is limited to only a few percent of the rock volume. The total CO(2) storage capacity within the 200-mile economic zone of the U.S. coastline is enormous, capable of storing thousands of years of current U.S. CO(2) emissions. PMID:16894174

  20. Sorption of radioactive contaminants by sediment from the Kara Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrmann, M.; Zhou, H.; Neiheisel, J.; Dyer, R.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify some of the parameters needed to perform near-field modeling of sites in the Kara Sea that were impacted by the disposal of radioactive waste. The parameters of interest are: the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for several important radionuclides, the mineralogy of the sediment, and the relationship of K{sub d} to liquid to solid ratio. Sediment from the Kara Sea (location: 73{degrees} 00` N, 58{degrees} 00` E) was sampled from a depth of 287 meters on August 23/24, 1992, during a joint Russian/Norwegian scientific cruise. Analysis of the material included mineralogy, grain size and total organic carbon. Uptake kinetics were determined for {sup 85}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}U, and {sup 241}Am and distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) were determined for these radionuclides using batch type experiments. Sorption isotherms were developed for {sup 85}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs to examine the effect that varying the concentration of a tracer has on the quantity of that tracer taken up by the solid. The effect of liquid to solid ratio on the uptake of contaminants was determined for {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs. In another set of experiments, the sediment was separated into four size fractions and uptake was determined for each fraction for {sup 85}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs. In addition, the sediment was analyzed to determine if it contains observable concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides.

  1. Composition of rare earth elements in settling particles collected in the highly productive North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea: Implications for siliceous-matter dissolution kinetics and formation of two REE-enriched phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Tasuku; Fu, Feng-fu; Hongo, Yayoi; Takahashi, Kozo

    2011-09-01

    Settling particles were sampled monthly for 1 year using an automated time-series sediment trap positioned at similar depths at two sites of high diatomaceous productivity in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. The particles were analyzed for rare earth elements (REEs) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with and without chemical treatment of the bulk samples to isolate siliceous fractions. The REE composition of the bulk samples is explained largely by the contribution of two distinct components: (i) carbonate with a higher REE concentration, a negative Ce anomaly and lighter REE (LREE) enrichment; (ii) opal with a lower REE concentration, a weaker negative Ce anomaly and heavier REE (HREE) enrichment. The siliceous fractions of settling particles are characterized by high Si/Al ratios (30-190), reflecting high diatom productivity at the studied sites. The La/Al ratio of the siliceous fraction is close to that of the upper crust, but the Lu/Al and Lu/La ratios are significantly higher than those of the upper crust or airborne particles, indicating the presence of excess HREEs in the siliceous fraction. Diatoms are believed to be important carriers of HREEs. The Ce anomaly, Eu anomaly, slope of the REE pattern, and ΣREE of the siliceous fraction vary exponentially with decreasing total mass flux. They can be well-reproduced according to the differential dissolution kinetics of elements in the order of Ce < lighter REEs (LREEs) < Eu = heavier REEs (HREEs) < Si from settling particles, where the dissolution rate is critically reduced through particle aggregation. This order is consistent with the vertical distribution of dissolved REEs and Si in oceans. The differential dissolution kinetics leads to HREE enrichment of the original diatoms and REE enrichment of dissolved diatoms. The Lu/Si ratio of the siliceous fraction of settling particles recovered from some of the highest diatom fluxes is identical to that of the two elements dissolved

  2. Incorporating Sediment Compaction Into a Gravitationally Self-consistent Model for Global Sea-level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, K.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2015-12-01

    In sedimentary deltas and fans, sea-level changes are strongly modulated by the deposition and compaction of marine sediment. The deposition of sediment and incorporation of water into the sedimentary pore space reduces sea level by increasing the elevation of the seafloor, which reduces the thickness of sea-water above the bed. In a similar manner, the compaction of sediment and purging of water out of the sedimentary pore space increases sea level by reducing the elevation of the seafloor, which increases the thickness of sea water above the bed. Here we show how one can incorporate the effects of sediment deposition and compaction into the global, gravitationally self-consistent sea-level model of Dalca et al. (2013). Incorporating sediment compaction requires accounting for only one additional quantity that had not been accounted for in Dalca et al. (2013): the mean porosity in the sediment column. We provide a general analytic framework for global sea-level changes including sediment deposition and compaction, and we demonstrate how sea level responds to deposition and compaction under one simple parameterization for compaction. The compaction of sediment generates changes in sea level only by changing the elevation of the seafloor. That is, sediment compaction does not affect the mass load on the crust, and therefore does not generate perturbations in crustal elevation or the gravity field that would further perturb sea level. These results have implications for understanding sedimentary effects on sea-level changes and thus for disentangling the various drivers of sea-level change. ReferencesDalca A.V., Ferrier K.L., Mitrovica J.X., Perron J.T., Milne G.A., Creveling J.R., 2013. On postglacial sea level - III. Incorporating sediment redistribution. Geophysical Journal International, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt089.

  3. Stable isotope signals of eutrophication in Baltic Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Maren; Larsen, Birger; Leivuori, Mirja; Vallius, Henry

    2000-07-01

    Increasing δ15N and δ13C values in coastal Baltic marine sediments are evaluated as indicator of changes in the trophic status of the ecosystem. The influence of eutrophication on the δ15N values was found to be so dominant that it even overprints the usually observed mixing gradient from terrestrial (low isotope values) to the marine environment (high isotope values). A distinct gradient in stable nitrogen isotope values from eutrophic coastal areas to open more oligotrophic waters in the central Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia was found. Our data show high δ15N values in surface sediments: 13‰ in the Oder Lagoon and the Pomeranian Bight, over 9‰ in the Gulf of Riga (Daugava River), 7‰ in the inner Gulf of Finland (Neva River), 6.5‰ in the Curonian Lagoon (Nemunas River), and 5.7‰ in the Gdansk Deep (Vistula River). In the Baltic Sea Proper, significantly lower δ15N values of 3-5‰ are found. A decrease in δ15N values with depth/age of the sediment was indicated in some cores that were analyzed down to 15-40 cm depth in 1-cm steps. There is a great overall difference between pre-industrial δ15N values in coastal sediments and recent ones of 2.3-10‰. As explanations for this increase are suggested, elevated nutrient δ15N values of waste water in combination with fractionation processes like nutrient uptake by phytoplankton and denitrification and nitrification processes in rivers discharging into the coastal water. Delta 13C values in sediment surfaces off the river estuaries primarily indicate differences between the inorganic carbon signatures of the rivers. However, since the δ13C values also decrease downcore, we contribute this change to increased primary production caused by the enhanced nutrient load. Since both stable isotope values in sediments ( δ13C and δ15N) correlate downcore, this strongly suggests that the anthropogenic nutrient loads in the rivers might be the reason for the changes of stable isotope values.

  4. Recent Sedimentation in the East Siberian Sea Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudarev, O.; Charkin, A.; Semiletov, I.; Vonk, J.; Gustafsson, Ö.; Andersson, P.; Pugach, S.

    2009-04-01

    The continental shelf of the East Siberian Sea (ESS) is the widest and shallowest in the World Ocean, yet it is the least explored. The wide shelf acts as an important region for terrestrial export, and processing of organic matter before the material is transported into the deeper basins of the Arctic Ocean. The ESS accumulates a strong terrestrial signal induced by summertime coastal erosion and riverine outflow (Kolyma and Indigirka). The latter is responsible for a seasonally, highly variable transport of significant amounts of suspended load onto the shelf. In the present study we summarize our sediment sizing results obtained in the shallow (< 40 m) ESS from hundreds of sediment samples obtained by Laboratory of Arctic Studies of the Pacific Oceanological Institute in cooperation with the International Arctic Research Center of the University Alaska Fairbanks based on expeditions during 1999-2007. Last summer (2008), in the framework of the International Siberian Shelf Study (ISSS-08) and in cooperation with Stockholm University we extended the study area to the outer shelf. Final product of this collaborative work is an updated lithological map, which describes the top layer of the sediment (a typical sample was taken from the upper 0-5 cm layer of bottom sediment). Nine lithological types of sediments, each in turn subdivided into various granulometric fractions, were identified and described in connection with hydrological and sedimentation conditions. These include: psammite medium-grained (Ps2) and fine-grained (Ps3), psammite aleuritic (PsA) and psammite pelitic (PsPl), aleurite pelitic (APl), pelite aleuritic (PlA), pelite (Pl), mictit psammitic (MPs) and mictit pelitic (MPl). Influence of coastal erosion as powerful source of fine-grained terrigenous material is shown in accumulation of sediments (APl, PlA, Pl) both on the open shelf and nearshore zone. Growing contribution of aleurite and psammite fractions accompanied with reduction of pelite

  5. Resource quality affects carbon cycling in deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Daniel J; Thornton, Barry; Hay, Steve; Zuur, Alain F; Nicol, Graeme W; McWilliam, Jenna M; Witte, Ursula F M

    2012-09-01

    Deep-sea sediments cover ~70% of Earth's surface and represent the largest interface between the biological and geological cycles of carbon. Diatoms and zooplankton faecal pellets naturally transport organic material from the upper ocean down to the deep seabed, but how these qualitatively different substrates affect the fate of carbon in this permanently cold environment remains unknown. We added equal quantities of (13)C-labelled diatoms and faecal pellets to a cold water (-0.7 °C) sediment community retrieved from 1080 m in the Faroe-Shetland Channel, Northeast Atlantic, and quantified carbon mineralization and uptake by the resident bacteria and macrofauna over a 6-day period. High-quality, diatom-derived carbon was mineralized >300% faster than that from low-quality faecal pellets, demonstrating that qualitative differences in organic matter drive major changes in the residence time of carbon at the deep seabed. Benthic bacteria dominated biological carbon processing in our experiments, yet showed no evidence of resource quality-limited growth; they displayed lower growth efficiencies when respiring diatoms. These effects were consistent in contrasting months. We contend that respiration and growth in the resident sediment microbial communities were substrate and temperature limited, respectively. Our study has important implications for how future changes in the biochemical makeup of exported organic matter will affect the balance between mineralization and sequestration of organic carbon in the largest ecosystem on Earth. PMID:22378534

  6. Shallow gas in Cenozoic sediments of the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trampe, Anna F.; Lutz, Rüdiger; Franke, Dieter; Thöle, Hauke; Arfai, Jashar

    2013-04-01

    Shallow petroleum systems in the southern North Sea are known for several decades but they were not actively explored for a long time. In recent years these unconventional shallow petroleum systems are studied in greater detail and one shallow gas field (A-12) is in production in the Netherlands. Additionally, oil was encountered in Miocene sandstones in the southern Danish North Sea (Lille John well) just north of the Danish-German border. Seismic amplitude anomalies are an indication for hydrocarbons in sediments. Therefore we have mapped the occurrence of seismic amplitude anomalies in the German North Sea based on more than 25.000 km of 2D seismic data and around 4.000 km2 of 3D seismic data. Amplitude anomalies are ubiquitous phenomena in the study area. These anomalies are not only caused by hydrocarbons but also by changing lithologies e.g. peat or fluid migration. Therefore several classes of seismic anomalies, e.g. bright spots, chimneys, blanking areas and velocity pull-down were mapped. Examples for these classes were studied with AVO (amplitude variation with offset) analyses to verify the existence or non-existence of gas in the sediments. Shallow gas can be produced and transported through the dense pipeline grid of the southern and central North Sea or it could be burned offshore close to wind parks in small power plants and the electric energy then transported through the existing power connections of the wind parks. Thus enabling a continuous energy supply during calm wind periods. This study is carried out within the framework of the project "Geoscientific Potential of the German North Sea (GPDN)" in which the Cenozoic sedimentary system was mapped in great detail. A detailed model of delta evolution (Baltic river system) was developed which serves as a structural framework. The studied interval is time equivalent to the Utsira formation which is used offshore Norway for sequestration of CO2. These different possibilities of using or exploiting

  7. Sea-level responses to sediment transport over the last ice age cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, K.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2013-12-01

    Sea-level changes over the last ice age cycle were instrumental in steering Earth's topographic evolution. These sea-level variations were driven by changes in surface mass loads, including not only ice and ocean mass variations but also the transfer of rock from eroding mountains to sedimentary deposits. Here we use an extended numerical model of ice age sea level (Dalca et al., 2013) to explore how sediment erosion and deposition affected global sea-level variations over the last ice age cycle. The model takes histories of ice and sediment loads as inputs, and it computes gravitationally self-consistent sea level responses by accounting for the deformational, gravitational, and rotational perturbations in the Earth's viscoelastic form. In these model simulations, we use published estimates of erosion rates, sedimentation rates, and ice sheet variations to constrain sediment and ice loading since the Last Interglacial. We explore sea-level responses to several erosional and depositional scenarios, and in each we quantify the relative contributions of crustal deformation and gravitational perturbation to the computed sea-level change. We also present a case study to illustrate the effects that sediment transfer can have on sea level at the regional scale. In particular, we focus on the region surrounding the Indus River, where fluvial sediment fluxes are among the highest on Earth. Preliminary model results suggest that sediment fluxes from Asia to the ocean are large enough to produce a significant response in sea level along the northeastern coast of the Arabian Sea. Moreover, they suggest that modeled sea-level histories are sensitive to the timing and spatial distribution of sediment erosion and deposition. For instance, sediment deposition along the continental shelf - which may have been the primary site of Indus River sediment deposition during the Holocene - produces a different sea-level response than sediment deposition on the deep-sea Indus Fan, where

  8. Copper in the sediment and sea surface microlayer near a fallowed, open-net fish farm.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, Clyde V; Fisher, E Brian

    2012-09-01

    Sediment and sea surface microlayer samples near an open-net salmon farm in Nova Scotia, were analysed for copper. Copper is a constituent of the feed and is an active ingredient of anti-foulants. The salmon farm was placed in fallow after 15 years of production. Sampling was pursued over 27 months. Elevated copper concentrations in the sediments indicated the farm site as a source. Bubble flotation due to gas-emitting sediments from eutrophication is a likely process for accumulating copper in the sea surface microlayer at enriched concentrations. Elevated and enriched concentrations in the sea surface microlayer over distance from the farm site led, as a result of wind-drift, to an enlarged farm footprint. The levels of copper in both sediments and sea surface microlayer exceeded guidelines for protection of marine life. Over the 27 months period, copper levels persisted in the sediments and decreased gradually in the sea surface microlayer. PMID:22704150

  9. Influence of small river derived sediment on the Northeastern South China Sea sedimentation processes in the last 40 K years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wan-Yen; Lin, Saulwood; Lou, Jiann-Yuh; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Liu, CharShine; Chen, Shing-Li; Wang, Yun-Shuen

    2015-04-01

    Small rivers derived particles are major source of sediment to the ocean in the present time. Small rivers in Taiwan are subjected to fast tectonic activity, high precipitation rate and erosion rate. The combined annual river particle load from small rivers on the Island of Taiwan is higher than that of the Mississippi River. A large fraction of those rivers particle may finding its way into the surrounding seas and ocean, e.g. South China Sea, East China Sea, and the Philippine Sea. Furthermore, due to the nature of particle transportation off rivers from Taiwan were connected by a number of canyon systems close by the river mouth, majority of those river particles were facilitated in delivering and deposited later further into the South China Sea deep basin. The objectives of this study are to understand spatial variations in sedimentation rates and to resolve the temporal differences in sedimentation in the Northeastern South China Sea region, and to evaluate influence of small river particles to the marginal sea. A set of cores was collected in overlying water depth within 1600 - 3300 m for mutilsensor core logging of magnetic susceptibility, density, and porosity. Foraminifera (G. sacculifer, G. conglobatus, O. universa) were picked and AMS C14 analyses for age determination. Grain size, organic carbon, carbonate and biogenic silica content were measured. The results show that large sedimentation rates difference existed in the study area. Earlier studies on sedimentation rate in the region west of our study area were in range of about 10 cm/kyr while our rates are about 20-40 cm/kyr and much higher near Taiwan. Bulk sedimentation rate were higher during the transition period between LGM and Holocene and lower during Holocene. Our results demonstrated that large quantity of particles from small rivers in Taiwan are and were major source of particle and are the dominating factor in controlling sediment deposition in the northeastern South China Sea.

  10. Regulation of CO2 Air Sea Fluxes by Sediments in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, William; Thomas, Helmuth; Hagens, Mathilde; Brenner, Heiko; Pätsch, Johannes; Clargo, Nicola; Salt, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    A multi-tracer approach is applied to assess the impact of boundary fluxes (e.g. benthic input from sediments or lateral inputs from the coastline) on the acid-base buffering capacity, and overall biogeochemistry, of the North Sea. Analyses of both basin-wide observations in the North Sea and transects through tidal basins at the North-Frisian coastline, reveal that surface distributions of the δ13C signature of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are predominantly controlled by a balance between biological production and respiration. In particular, variability in metabolic DIC throughout stations in the well-mixed southern North Sea indicates the presence of an external carbon source, which is traced to the European continental coastline using naturally-occurring radium isotopes (224Ra and 228Ra). 228Ra is also shown to be a highly effective tracer of North Sea total alkalinity (AT) compared to the more conventional use of salinity. Coastal inputs of metabolic DIC and AT are calculated on a basin-wide scale, and ratios of these inputs suggest denitrification as a primary metabolic pathway for their formation. The AT input paralleling the metabolic DIC release prevents a significant decline in pH as compared to aerobic (i.e. unbuffered) release of metabolic DIC. Finally, long-term pH trends mimic those of riverine nitrate loading, highlighting the importance of coastal AT production via denitrification in regulating pH in the southern North Sea.

  11. Diatom, silicoflagellate and ebridian biostratigraphy and paleoceanography in IODP 323 Hole U1343E at the Bering slope site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraishi, A.; Suto, I.; Onodera, J.; Takahashi, K.

    2016-03-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323 was dedicated to reconstruct the details of the Pliocene-Pleistocene paleoenvironmental conditions of the Bering Sea. In this study, fossil diatom assemblages from Hole U1343E were investigated to define diatom biostratigraphy and reveal paleoceanography of the Bering slope region throughout Pleistocene. As the results, four diatom zones with Neogene North Pacific Diatom zone codes (NPD) were determined from the Neodenticula seminae Zone (NPD 12) to the N. koizumii Zone (NPD 9). Diatom biohorizons defined in this study closely correspond with onboard data, but the distinct difference is recognized at the top of the N. koizumii. Additional four biostratigraphic zones estimated by three silicoflagellate and one ebridian datums suggest the core sediment age younger than 2.5 Ma. The fluctuations of several paleoenvironmental diatom indicators show that cold conditions with sea-ice existed throughout the duration of the interval studied as well as sea ice expansion occurred at ca. 1.9 Ma and ca. 0.9 Ma. Moreover, increases of neritic diatom species reveal a drop in sea level. Neodenticula seminae is the diatom tracer of the Aleutian Current and hence the decrease of this taxon suggests decrease in inflow of the North Pacific water mass. Although the sea levels must have been dropped during the cold time interval, the consistent occurrences of N. seminae indicate that the surface water circulation in the Bering Sea was significantly influenced by the Alaskan Stream at ca. 1.9 Ma. On the other hand, during the other cooling event at ca. 0.9 Ma, which corresponds to the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) event, an increase of neritic diatom species and decrease of N. seminae were observed. This suggests that coastal environmental conditions accompanied the sea level drop and that the inflow from the North Pacific was weakened. The increases of sea-ice and neritic diatom species suggest that the sea ice and coastal

  12. Sediment transport by sea ice in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Increasing importance due to changing ice conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, H.; Gradinger, R.; Gaylord, A.; Mahoney, A.; Rigor, I.; Melling, H.

    2005-12-01

    Sediment-laden sea ice is widespread over the shallow, wide Siberian Arctic shelves, with off-shelf export from the Laptev and East Siberian Seas contributing substantially to the Arctic Ocean's sediment budget. By contrast, the North American shelves, owing to their narrow width and greater water depths, have not been deemed as important for basin-wide sediment transport by sea ice. Observations over the Chukchi and Beaufort shelves in 2001/02 revealed the widespread occurrence of sediment-laden ice over an area of more than 100,000 km 2 between 68 and 74°N and 155 and 170°W. Ice stratigraphic studies indicate that sediment inclusions were associated with entrainment of frazil ice into deformed, multiple layers of rafted nilas, indicative of a flaw-lead environment adjacent to the landfast ice of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. This is corroborated by buoy trajectories and satellite imagery indicating entrainment in a coastal polynya in the eastern Chukchi Sea in February of 2002 as well as formation of sediment-laden ice along the Beaufort Sea coast as far eastward as the Mackenzie shelf. Moored upward-looking sonar on the Mackenzie shelf provides further insight into the ice growth and deformation regime governing sediment entrainment. Analysis of Radarsat Synthetic Aperture (SAR) imagery in conjunction with bathymetric data help constrain the water depth of sediment resuspension and subsequent ice entrainment (>20 m for the Chukchi Sea). Sediment loads averaged at 128 t km -2, with sediment occurring in layers of roughly 0.5 m thickness, mostly in the lower ice layers. The total amount of sediment transported by sea ice (mostly out of the narrow zone between the landfast ice edge and waters too deep for resuspension and entrainment) is at minimum 4×10 6 t in the sampling area and is estimated at 5-8×10 6 t over the entire Chukchi and Beaufort shelves in 2001/02, representing a significant term in the sediment budget of the western Arctic Ocean. Recent

  13. Regularities of Corg distribution in bottom sediments of the Russian part of the Sea of Azov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Yu. A.; Dotsenko, I. V.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Belov, A. A.; Loginov, E. A.

    2009-04-01

    The principal regularities were ascertained for the spatiotemporal distribution of organic carbon in the water and bottom sediments of the Russian part of the Sea of Azov. The relationships between allo- and autochthonous organic matter in water and bottom sediments from different parts of the sea aquatic area were found. The behavior of organic carbon in the water-bottom sediments system was characterized as the effect of the variability of hydrochemical, biological, and hydrological factors ad processes.

  14. Microbial Manganese and Sulfate Reduction in Black Sea Shelf Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Thamdrup, Bo; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Amann, Rudolf

    2000-01-01

    The microbial ecology of anaerobic carbon oxidation processes was investigated in Black Sea shelf sediments from mid-shelf with well-oxygenated bottom water to the oxic-anoxic chemocline at the shelf-break. At all stations, organic carbon (Corg) oxidation rates were rapidly attenuated with depth in anoxically incubated sediment. Dissimilatory Mn reduction was the most important terminal electron-accepting process in the active surface layer to a depth of ∼1 cm, while SO42− reduction accounted for the entire Corg oxidation below. Manganese reduction was supported by moderately high Mn oxide concentrations. A contribution from microbial Fe reduction could not be discerned, and the process was not stimulated by addition of ferrihydrite. Manganese reduction resulted in carbonate precipitation, which complicated the quantification of Corg oxidation rates. The relative contribution of Mn reduction to Corg oxidation in the anaerobic incubations was 25 to 73% at the stations with oxic bottom water. In situ, where Mn reduction must compete with oxygen respiration, the contribution of the process will vary in response to fluctuations in bottom water oxygen concentrations. Total bacterial numbers as well as the detection frequency of bacteria with fluorescent in situ hybridization scaled to the mineralization rates. Most-probable-number enumerations yielded up to 105 cells of acetate-oxidizing Mn-reducing bacteria (MnRB) cm−3, while counts of Fe reducers were <102 cm−3. At two stations, organisms affiliated with Arcobacter were the only types identified from 16S rRNA clone libraries from the highest positive MPN dilutions for MnRB. At the third station, a clone type affiliated with Pelobacter was also observed. Our results delineate a niche for dissimilatory Mn-reducing bacteria in sediments with Mn oxide concentrations greater than ∼10 μmol cm−3 and indicate that bacteria that are specialized in Mn reduction, rather than known Mn and Fe reducers, are important

  15. Devosia pacifica sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan-Yu; Sun, Cong; Pan, Jie; Zhang, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Huo, Ying-Yi; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2014-08-01

    A novel bacterial strain, NH131(T), was isolated from deep-sea sediment of South China Sea. Cells were strictly aerobic, Gram-stain negative, short rod-shaped and motile with a single lateral flagellum. Strain NH131(T) grew optimally at pH 6.5-7.0 and 25-30 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NH131(T) belonged to the genus Devosia, sharing the highest sequence similarity with the type strain, Devosia geojensis BD-c194(T) (96.2%). The predominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)ω7c, 11-methyl C(18 : 1)ω7c, C(18 : 0) and C(16 : 0). Ubiquinone 10 was the predominant ubiquinone. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipid, three glycolipids and two unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain NH131(T) was 63.0 mol%. On the basis of the results of polyphasic identification, it is suggested that strain NH131(T) represents a novel species of the genus Devosia for which the name Devosia pacifica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NH131(T) ( = JCM 19305(T) = KCTC 32437(T)). PMID:24827705

  16. Sediment source strength, transport pathways and accumulation patterns on the Siberian-Arctic's Chukchi and Laptev shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viscosi-Shirley, C.; Pisias, N.; Mammone, K.

    2003-07-01

    In this study, we estimate sediment source strength and determine sediment transport/accumulation patterns on the Chukchi and Laptev shelves for lithogenic material from several key source regions. In the western Laptev Sea, sediments from the Siberian flood basalt province account for <20% of surface sediments, while detritus from the eastern Laptev's Lena and Yana Rivers constitutes as much as 40% of seafloor sediments. Eastern Laptev Sea sediments similarly reflect inputs from multiple sources; here, however, local inputs from the Lena and Yana Rivers are most prevalent. Chukchi Sea sediments are more homogeneous in composition, with sediments originating from the Okhotsk-Chukotsk volcanic belt and Bering Strait inflow comprising over 60% of surface sediments except near Wrangel Island and along sections of the Siberian coast. In the Chukchi portion of our study area, the dominant sediment dispersal pathways are from the Bering Strait region to the north and from Long Strait to the east, into the central Chukchi Sea. There appears to be comparatively minimal sediment transport parallel to the Siberian coast at our sample sites (>40 m water depth). In contrast, at our Laptev Sea sites (typically >20 m water depth) sediments supplied by the Lena and Yana Rivers move primarily eastward/northeastward parallel to the coast, with relatively minimal transport to the west/northwest or north to the central shelf. Good correspondence between sediment accumulation patterns and currents on the Chukchi shelf indicates water circulation is an important sediment transport mechanism in this marginal sea. In the Laptev Sea, a combination of river outflow, cyclonic water circulation and the Siberian Coastal Current controls sediment distribution. We speculate that sediment ice rafting may also affect shelf sedimentation patterns through a combination of factors. Our findings have implications for the fate of particle reactive contaminants released to the Siberian continental

  17. Heavy metals in organisms and sediments from Turkish Coast of the Black Sea, 1997-1998.

    PubMed

    Topcuoğlu, S; Kirbaşoğlu, C; Güngör, N

    2002-02-01

    During the period 1997-1998, macroalgae, sea snail, mussel, fish and sediment samples were collected at different stations of the Turkish Black Sea coast in order to establish the concentration of selected heavy metals. Heavy metals analyzed were Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb and Cu. The results showed that the Turkish Black Sea coast is facing heavy metal pollution. The metal concentrations in macroalgae, sea snail, mussel and sediment samples are very high. However, Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations in anchovy fish decreased, while Co, Fe, Zn, Cr, Mn and Ni contents had changed when compared previous data. The metal levels in macroalgae did not follow the same pattern as concentrations in sediments at the same station. On the other hand, concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu in sea snail, mussel and fish samples were related to sediment data in the examined stations. PMID:11868661

  18. Seasonal transportation and deposition of the suspended sediments in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and the related mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Lulu; Zhong, Yi; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Ke; Huang, Lingling; Wang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The Yellow River is well known for high concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM), which is one of the most important SPM sources in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, China. The mechanisms of long-distance transport and deposition of the Yellow River sediment discharges are hot topics. Based on field observations in four different seasons of 2010-2011 and 15 numerical experiments, this work studied the seasonal sediment transportation and deposition in the Bohai and Yellow Seas. Results show that the horizontal distribution of suspended sediment concentration in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea is neither closely related to the Yellow River discharge in flood and dry seasons nor to the temperature and salinity distributions in winter and summer because most of the Yellow River-discharged sediments deposited near the river mouth. However, the winter northerly wind events, especially the winter storm events with high waves, are the major factors inducing the long-distance transport of the sediments from the Bohai Sea to the Yellow Sea. The net SPMs are transported to the Yellow Sea from the Bohai Sea in both winter and summer. The net SPM flux at the Bohai Strait is 14.0 Mt/year by the combined effects of tides, wind, and waves. The SPM is transported to the Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea for the generation of the mud wedge off the peninsula. The northern part of the mud wedge is related to the southerly wind in summer, and the southeastern part resulted from the winter northerly wind, especially the strong wind.

  19. Benthic activity in sediments of the northwestern Adriatic Sea: sediment oxygen consumption, macro- and meiofauna dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moodley, Leon; Heip, Carlo H. R.; Middelburg, Jack J.

    1998-12-01

    Benthic activity was examined at three stations (18 m water depth) in the northwestern Adriatic Sea. Carbon mineralisation rates, as based on sediment oxygen consumption rates, ranged from 54 to 89 g C m -2 y -1. The relatively high carbon mineralisation rates, large macrofaunal biomass (9 to 16 g C m -2) and macrofaunal production (11 to 19 g C m -2 y -1) provide evidence of high organic-matter input and intense benthic-pelagic coupling. This is further supported by the high dominance of the suspension-feeding bivalve Corbula gibba, which accounts for 52 to 63% of the total annual macrofaunal biomass production. Although the infaunal distribution of total macrofauna showed a sharp decline in densities and biomass with depth into the sediment, different patterns within the dominant taxa were observed. Whilst the bivalve Corbula gibba and the amphipod Ampelisca sp. were restricted to the surface layer, other species such as the dominant bivalve Mysella sp. and the gastropod Hyala sp. were not confined to a specific depth level and the majority of the populations occurred deeper than 5 cm into the sediment. Bioturbation, based on the occurrence of macrofauna, extended to at least 20 cm. Nematodes and foraminifera together formed 80 to 90% of the meiofaunal community in the upper 5 cm of the sediment. Annual mean densities ranged from 3.40 to 6.07×10 6 ind. m -2. Maximum abundance of meiofauna was not encountered at the station where maximum macrofaunal activity was recorded, and this could reflect the negative effect of biological interaction on meiofaunal densities in areas that have a high food supply.

  20. Iron sequestration in young deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldermann, Andre; Warr, Laurence; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Böttcher, Michael

    2014-05-01

    average) within the upper 25 m of sediment. Within the first 3 meters of the sedimentary pile, iron sequestration related to green clay formation is ~11 times higher than that of pyritization. Even at greater depths ≥ 3 mbsf, where the pyritization reaction becomes progressively more important and 29 to 66% of the initial detrital ferrihydrite input is almost dissolved, ~50% of iron sequestration can be attributed to glauconitization. Initial mass balance calculations of the sediment's iron budget indicate that iron sequestration at ODP Site 959 is mainly controlled by the competing rates of pyritization and glauconitization. Iron sequestration associated with early diagenetic green clay formation could significantly impact the bioavailability of reactive iron in marine aqueous systems and thus influence both the marine iron cycle and deep biosphere environment. The role of deep-water glauconitization on iron availability and sequestration should be considered in future ocean-atmospheric models of the iron biogeochemical cycle. Baldermann, A., Warr, L.N., Grathoff, G.H. & Dietzel, M. (2013) The rate and mechanism of deep-sea glauconite formation at the Ivory Coast-Ghana Marginal Ridge. Clays and Clay Minerals, 61, 258-276.

  1. Implications of sediment redistribution on modeled sea-level changes over millennial timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Sea level is a critical link in feedbacks among topography, tectonics, and climate. Over millennial timescales, changes in sea level reshape river networks, regulate organic carbon burial, influence sediment deposition, and set moving boundary conditions for landscape evolution. Sea-level changes influence tectonics by regulating rates and patterns of erosion and deposition, which perturb the surface loads that drive geodynamic processes at depth. These interactions are complex because sea-level changes are influenced by the geomorphic processes that they themselves modify, since sediment redistribution deforms the gravitational and crustal elevation fields that define sea level. A recent advance in understanding the coupling between sea level, tectonics, and topography was the incorporation of sediment redistribution into a gravitationally self-consistent sea-level model, which permits the computation of sea-level responses to erosion and deposition (Dalca et al., 2013, Geophysical Journal International). Here I use this model to quantify changes in sea level resulting from the erosion of some of the most rapidly eroding sites on Earth and the deposition of sediment offshore. These model results show that the sea-level fingerprints of sediment redistribution are strongly variable in space, and that they can represent a significant component of the total sea level change since the last interglacial. This work provides a basis for understanding a fundamental driver of landscape evolution at some of Earth's most geomorphically dynamic sites, and thus aids investigation of the couplings among tectonics, climate, and topography. References Dalca A.V., Ferrier K.L., Mitrovica J.X., Perron J.T., Milne G.A., Creveling J.R., 2013. On postglacial sea level - III. Incorporating sediment redistribution. Geophysical Journal International, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt089.

  2. Recent organic carbon sequestration in the shelf sediments of the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Limin; Shi, Xuefa; Bai, Yazhi; Qiao, Shuqing; Li, Li; Yu, Yonggui; Yang, Gang; Ma, Deyi; Guo, Zhigang

    2016-03-01

    This study provides an extensive depiction of regional scale sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) sequestration in the Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS), marginal system of the western Pacific Ocean. The spatial pattern of the sediment mass accumulation rate (MAR) in the BS and YS was summarized based on a 100-year timescale. The relatively higher MAR (3 - 7 g/cm2/y) in the Yellow River estuary, compared to the adjacent areas, indicate a predominant impact of river discharge on the modern sedimentation process in the BS. Relatively stable sedimentary environment in the offshore mud deposits of the BS and YS was also identified based on the along-core sediment composition and radionuclides profiles. The corresponding spatial pattern of grain size and TOC content suggest a hydrodynamic constraint on the sedimentary TOC accumulation. Moreover, in spite of the various TOC sources revealed by the bulk organic matter (OM) proxies (C/N ratio and δ13C), the restriction of these bulk parameters with potential masking of the signature of terrigenous OM was also identified. The average burial flux of TOC (15.3 g C/m2/y) was finally obtained with a total sequestration of 5.6 × 106 t C/y, suggesting that the BS and YS serve as a significant repository of sedimentary TOC. The overall organic carbon storage capacity of the BS and YS is mainly sustained by the fluvial/land-based OM input, high phytoplankton primary productivity, convergent hydrodynamic and stable depositional settings.

  3. Sustaining the Bering Ecosystem: A Social Science Research Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzhugh, B.; Huntington, H. P.; Pete, M. C.; Sepez, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Bering Sea is changing from an ice-dominated to an increasingly open water system. The over-arching goal of the NSF-supported Bering Ecosystem Study (BEST) is to understand the effects of climate variability and change on the Bering Sea ecosystem. To the people who are simultaneously a part of that ecosystem and rely on its productivity for life and work, climate change and its effects are among the top concerns. Sustaining the Bering Ecosystem articulates a vision and approaches for social science research as a component of the BEST Program (www.arcus.org/bering). This science plan seeks to initiate research to elucidate the dynamic relationship between the Bering Sea ecosystem and the humans who constitute an integral component of that system. To do so, this plan delineates a research program focused on three broad themes: 1. Impacts on humans: how past, current, and possible future changes in the Bering Sea ecosystem affect the health and well-being of people living and depending on this region for subsistence, employment, and cultural survival. 2. Human impacts: how changing human uses of the Bering Sea region affect the natural cycles of this ecosystem by moderating and/or accelerating systemic changes. 3. Dynamics of human and non-human natural systems: how the human-environmental dynamic has changed through time and may change in the future due to internal and external opportunities and pressures. These themes are developed in the context of a community-driven approach based on the concerns, goals, and interests of Bering Sea residents and other stakeholders of the region. This plan has been drafted through the collaboration of Bering Sea residents (primarily Alaska Natives) and non-resident stakeholders, social scientists, and natural scientists to focus efforts around research questions important to stakeholders, which in various ways center on issues of sustainability (of resources, economic opportunities, ways of life, and culture itself). The

  4. Rare earth elements in bottom sediments of major rivers around the Yellow Sea: implications for sediment provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhaokai; Lim, Dhongil; Choi, Jinyong; Yang, Shouye; Jung, Hoisoo

    2009-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) of 91 fine-grained bottom sediment samples from five major rivers in Korea (the Han, Keum, and Yeongsan) and China (the Changjiang and Huanghe) were studied to investigate their potential as source indicator for Yellow Sea shelf sediments, this being the first synthetic report on REE trends for bottom sediments of these rivers. The results show distinct differences in REE contents and their upper continental crust (UCC)-normalized patterns: compared to heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), light rare earth elements (LREEs) are highly enriched in Korean river sediments, in contrast to Chinese river sediments that have a characteristic positive Eu anomaly. This phenomenon is observed also in primary source rocks within the river catchments. This suggests that source rock composition is the primary control on the REE signatures of these river sediments, due largely to variations in the levels of chlorite and monazite, which are more abundant in Korean bottom river sediments. Systematic variations in ΣLREE/ΣHREE ratios, and in (La/Yb)-(Gd/Yb)UCC but also (La/Lu)-(La/Y)UCC and (La/Y)-(Gd/Lu)UCC relations have the greatest discriminatory power. These findings are consistent with, but considerably expand on the limited datasets available to date for suspended sediments. Evidently, the REE fingerprints of these river sediments can serve as a useful diagnostic tool for tracing the provenance of sediments in the Yellow Sea, and for reconstructing their dispersal patterns and the circulation system of the modern shelf, as well as the paleoenvironmental record of this and adjoining marginal seas.

  5. Clay Mineralogical Records in Sediments along the Shelf Break of the Eastern Andaman Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunsomboonsakul, S.; Liu, Z.; Sompongchaiyakul, P.; Snidvongs, A.; Krastel, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Andaman Sea as part of the northeastern Indian Ocean is located between the Irrawaddy delta coast of Myanmar in the north and Sumatra and the Malacca Strait in the south. Distribution of sediments in the Andaman Sea is strongly influenced by two prevailing monsoon seasons: northeast (November-April) and southwest (May-October) monsoons. However, the sedimentation process is little known. In this study, clay mineralogy has been inquired to indicate sediment transportation and provenance of the Andaman Sea sediments. Two sediment cores from offshore and surface sediments from two nearshore locations in the Andaman Sea were studied. The cores of 1.58 m (MASS-III-07) and 1.50 m (MASS-III-10) long were collected from a flat-top plateau protruded along the Andaman Sea shelf break off the west coast of Thailand (604 m and 632 m water depth, respectively). The plateau has been found during the MASS project in 2007. The surface sediments were collected from off Thailand coast to represent the middle part source and off Myanmar coast to represent the northern part source, respectively. Semiquantitative analyses of clay minerals were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to document clay mineralogical composition and distribution, and to reconstruct the chronological oceanic processes. The preliminary results reveal that the cores contain high smectite (65-79%) and kaolinite (9-18%), and low illite and chlorite contents (<10%). Although clay mineral contents of the two cores shows similar average compositions, the vertical profiles of distribution are displayed reversely particularly for smectite, kaolinite and illite. The results from core sediments suggest that the sediment transport in this area was strongly controlled by the plateau in addition to the current direction. In comparison of clay mineral compositions of the two cores with the surface sediments, it is implied that the potential terrigenous sediment input to the Andaman Sea was likewise from Myanmar than

  6. Distinguishing Terrestrial Organic Carbon in Marginal Sediments of East China Sea and Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Selvaraj; Lin, Baozhi; Wang, Huawei; Liu, Qianqian; Liu, Zhifei; Lou, Jiann-Yuh; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Mayer, Lawrence M.

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge about the sources, transport pathways and behavior of terrestrial organic carbon in continental margins adjoining to large rivers has improved in recent decades, but uncertainties and complications still exist with human-influenced coastal regions in densely populated wet tropics and subtropics. In these regions, the monsoon and other episodic weather events exert strong climatic control on mineral and particulate organic matter delivery to the marginal seas. Here we investigate elemental (TOC, TN and bromine-Br) and stable carbon isotopic (δ13C) compositions of organic matter (OM) in surface sediments and short cores collected from active (SW Taiwan) and passive margin (East China Sea) settings to understand the sources of OM that buried in these settings. We used sedimentary bromine to total organic carbon (Br/TOC) ratios to apportion terrigenous from marine organic matter, and find that Br/TOC may serve as an additional, reliable proxy for sedimentary provenance in both settings. Variations in Br/TOC are consistent with other provenance indicators in responding to short-lived terrigenous inputs. Because diagenetic alteration of Br is insignificant on shorter time scales, applying Br/TOC ratios as a proxy to identify organic matter source along with carbon isotope mixing models may provide additional constraints on the quantity and transformation of terrigenous organics in continental margins. We apply this combination of approaches to land-derived organic matter in different depositional environments of East Asian marginal seas.

  7. Prokaryote diversity and viral production in deep-sea sediments and seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Luna, Gian Marco; Magagnini, Mirko; Manini, Elena; Pusceddu, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    Despite the fact that marine prokaryotes and viruses have been increasingly investigated over the last decade, knowledge on prokaryote diversity and viral production in bathyal sediments is limited. We investigated microbial variables in the deep-sea sediments around two seamounts at 3000-m depth in the Tyrrhenian Sea and sediments located at the same depth, but not affected by the presence of the seamounts. We hypothesized that seamounts altered significantly prokaryotes-viruses interactions in surrounding deep-sea sediments. Sediments surrounding seamounts were characterised by prokaryotic abundances significantly higher than those observed in non-seamount sediments. Benthic viral production was about double in sediments close to seamounts than in non-seamount sediments, where virus turnover was up to 3 times lower. Total Bacteria, as assessed by CARD-FISH, dominated prokaryotic community structure, whereas Archaea accounted on average for approximately 10%. The fraction of Crenarchaeota was always higher than Euryarchaeota. Bacterial diversity, estimated using ARISA, was high, with up to 127 different microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in a single sample. Archaeal richness (determined using T-RFLP of the 16S rRNA gene) ranged from 12 to 20 OTUs, while Archaeal evenness was comprised between 0.529±0.018 and 0.623±0.08. Results represent a pointer for future investigations dealing with the interactions between viruses and prokaryotes in deep-sea sediments.

  8. Micromonospora yasonensis sp. nov., isolated from a Black Sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Veyisoglu, Aysel; Carro, Lorena; Guven, Kiymet; Cetin, Demet; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Goodfellow, Michael; Sahin, Nevzat

    2016-07-01

    A Micromonospora strain, designated DS3186(T), isolated from sediment collected from the Black Sea off the Yason Peninsula, Ordu, Turkey, was examinated using a polyphasic approach. The strain was found to have chemotaxonomic, morphological and phylogenetic properties consistent with its clasification in the genus Micromonospora. A comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain was closely related to the type strains of Micromonospora olivasterospora (99.0 %), Micromonospora equina (98.8 %), Micromonospora rhizosphaerae (98.8 %) and Micromonospora viridifaciens (98.8 %); low levels of DNA-DNA relatednes were found between the isolate and the M. olivasterospora and M. rhizosphaerae strains. Corresponding phylogenetic analysis based on partial gyrB gene sequences showed that strain DS3186(T) formed a subclade with the type strains of Micromonospora eburnea, M. equina, Micromonospora narathiwatensis and M. viridifaciens. Strain DS3186(T) was distinguished from its close phylogenetic neighbours using a combination of chemotaxonomic, morphological and physiological properties. Consequently, it is proposed that strain DS3186(T) represents a novel Micromonospora species for which the name Micromonospora yasonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DS3186(T) (=DSM 45980(T) = KCTC 29433(T)). PMID:27154186

  9. Chernobyl radionuclides in a Black Sea sediment trap.

    PubMed

    Buesseler, K O; Livingston, H D; Honjo, S; Hay, B J; Manganini, S J; Degens, E; Ittekkot, V; Izdar, E; Konuk, T

    The Chernobyl nuclear power station accident released large quantities of vaporized radionuclides, and, to a lesser extent, mechanically released small (less than 1-10 micron) aerosol particles. The total release of radioactivity is estimated to be out of the order of 1-2 x 10(18) Bq (3-5 x 10(7) Ci) not allowing for releases of the xenon and krypton gases. The 137Cs releases of 3.8 x 10(16) Bq from Chernobyl can be compared to 1.3 x 10(18) Bq 137Cs released due to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Chernobyl-derived radionuclides can be used as transient tracers to study physical and biogeochemical processes. Initial measurements of fallout Chernobyl radionuclides from a time-series sediment trap at 1,071 m during June-September 1986 in the southern Black Sea are presented. The specific activities of 137Cs, 144Ce and 106Ru in the trap samples (0.5-2, 4-12 and 6-13 Bq g-1) are independent of the particle flux while their relative activities reflect their rates of scavenging in the order Ce greater than Ru greater than Cs. PMID:3670387

  10. Tracing Viable Bacteria in Wadden Sea Sediments Using Phospholipid Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetters, H.; Sass, H.; Cypionka, H.; Rullkotter, J.

    2001-12-01

    Lipid analysis is a commonly used tool for chemotaxonomical characterization of bacterial strains. In particular, phospholipids - determined as polar lipid fatty acids (PLFA) - have proven to be appropriate biomarkers for viable bacterial cells. In this study the lipid content of different bacterial isolates from an intertidal mudflat (Wadden Sea, NW Germany) was investigated. To identify the phospholipids present in the isolated bacteria, fractionated lipid extracts were studied using HPLC-ESI-MS and -MS-MS. This technique gives information on types of phospholipids and their corresponding fatty acid substituents. It could be shown by cluster analyses that the combined information of phospholipid types and corresponding fatty acids allows a better differentiation of bacterial groups than fatty acid patterns determined after whole cell hydrolysis. Sedimentary microbial communities were studied by an interdisciplinary approach using microbiological as well as geochemical techniques. Characteristic phospholipids were traced in the sediment cores (0-70 cm) in order to estimate the relative contributions of different bacterial groups to the sedimentary microbial communities. Seasonal variations of environmental parameters (temperature, sulfate concentrations, oxygen availability etc.) and their influence on the microbial communities were studied.

  11. Spatial and temporal changes in microbial diversity of the Marmara Sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Kolukirik, M; Ince, O; Cetecioglu, Z; Celikkol, S; Ince, B K

    2011-11-01

    Spatial (10 different locations) and temporal (2 years) changes in characteristics of the Marmara Sea Sediments were monitored to determine interactions between the chemical and microbial diversity. The sediments were rich in terms of hydrocarbon, nitrate, Ni and microbial cell content.