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Sample records for beta sheet formation

  1. Conformational diversity in prion protein variants influences intermolecular [beta]-sheet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seungjoo; Antony, Lizamma; Hartmann, Rune; Knaus, Karen J.; Surewicz, Krystyna; Surewicz, Witold K.; Yee, Vivien C.

    2010-04-19

    A conformational transition of normal cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) to its pathogenic form (PrP{sup Sc}) is believed to be a central event in the transmission of the devastating neurological diseases known as spongiform encephalopathies. The common methionine/valine polymorphism at residue 129 in the PrP influences disease susceptibility and phenotype. We report here seven crystal structures of human PrP variants: three of wild-type (WT) PrP containing V129, and four of the familial variants D178N and F198S, containing either M129 or V129. Comparison of these structures with each other and with previously published WT PrP structures containing M129 revealed that only WT PrPs were found to crystallize as domain-swapped dimers or closed monomers; the four mutant PrPs crystallized as non-swapped dimers. Three of the four mutant PrPs aligned to form intermolecular {beta}-sheets. Several regions of structural variability were identified, and analysis of their conformations provides an explanation for the structural features, which can influence the formation and conformation of intermolecular {beta}-sheets involving the M/V129 polymorphic residue.

  2. Cytotoxicity of albebetin oligomers depends on cross-beta-sheet formation.

    PubMed

    Zamotin, Vladimir; Gharibyan, Anna; Gibanova, Natalia V; Lavrikova, Marika A; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Kirpichnikov, Michail P; Kostanyan, Irina A; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A

    2006-05-01

    Prefibrillar cytotoxicity was suggested as a common amyloid characteristic. We showed two types of albebetin prefibrillar oligomers are formed during incubation at pH 7.3. Initial round-shaped oligomers consist of 10-15 molecules determined by atomic force microscopy, do not bind thioflavin-T and do not affect viability of granular neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. They are converted into ca. 30-40-mers possessing cross-beta-sheet and reducing viability of neuronal cells. Neither monomers nor fibrils possess cytotoxicity. We suggest that oligomeric size is important for stabilising cross-beta-sheet core critical for cytotoxicity. As albebetin was used as a carrier-protein for drug delivery, examination of amyloidogenicity is required prior polypeptide biomedical applications. PMID:16638570

  3. Liquid Crystal Based Sensor to Detect Beta-Sheet Formation of Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadati, Monirosadat; Izmitli Apik, Aslin; Abbott, Nicholas L.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-03-01

    Protein aggregation into amyloid fibrils is involved in the progression of Alzheimer's, typeII diabetes and Huntington's diseases. Although larger aggregates remain important for clinical determination, small oligomers are of great interest due to their potentially toxic nature. It is therefore crucial to develop methods that probe the aggregation process at early stages and in the vicinity of biological membranes. Here, we present a simple method that relies on liquid crystalline materials and a Langmuir monolayer at the aqueous-liquid crystal (LC) interface. The approach is based on the LC's specific response to β-sheet structures, which abound in amyloid fibrils. When the system is observed under polarized light, the fibrils formed by amyloidogenic peptides give rise to the formation of elongated and branched structures in the LCs. Moreover, the PolScope measurements prove that the LCs are predominantly aligned along the fibrils when exposed to a β-sheet forming peptide. In contrast, non-amyloidogenic peptides form ellipsoidal domains of irregularly tilted LCs. This method is capable of reporting aggregation at lipid-aqueous interfaces at nanomolar concentrations of the peptide, and much earlier than commonly used fluorescence-based techniques. We thank Prof. Oleg D. Levrentovich and Young-Ki Kim from the Liquid Crystal Institute of Kent State University for the use of their PolScope instrument. This work was partially supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (P300P2_151342).

  4. The Promiscuity of [beta]-Strand Pairing Allows for Rational Design of [beta]-Sheet Face Inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei

    2009-06-17

    Recent studies suggest the dominant role of main-chain H-bond formation in specifying {beta}-sheet topology. Its essentially sequence-independent nature implies a large degree of freedom in designing {beta}-sheet-based nanomaterials. Here we show rational design of {beta}-sheet face inversions by incremental deletions of {beta}-strands from the single-layer {beta}-sheet of Borrelia outer surface protein A. We show that a {beta}-sheet structure can be maintained when a large number of native contacts are removed and that one can design large-scale conformational transitions of a {beta}-sheet such as face inversion by exploiting the promiscuity of strand-strand interactions. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures confirmed the success of the design and supported the importance of main-chain H-bonds in determining {beta}-sheet topology. This work suggests a simple but effective strategy for designing and controlling nanomaterials based on {beta}-rich peptide self-assemblies.

  5. Pattern formation in floating sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Hunter

    This thesis presents a study of two basic modes of deformation of a thin sheet: wrinkling and crumpling, viewed primarily in the context of an elastic sheet confined by capillary forces on a drop of liquid. First, it provides a brief conceptual background in the relevant physics of thin sheet mechanics and capillarity and introduces the general principles of wrinkling and crumpling. The problem of confining a circular sheet on an increasingly curved spherical drop is presented as a vehicle to explore these principles. At finite curvature, the sheet is seen to wrinkle around its outer edge. At large confinement, characteristic features of crumpling gradually dominate the pattern. The experimental observations in both regimes are analyzed separately. Analysis of images of the sheet in the wrinkled regime yield data for the number and length of the wrinkled zone, as a function of the experimental control parameter, the pressure. The length of the wrinkles is correctly described by a far-from-threshold theory, which describes a limiting regime in thin-sheet mechanics, distinguished by high 'bendability'. The validity of this theory is verified by the data for highly bendable, ultrathin sheets for the first time. The theory is based on the assumption that the wrinkles completely relax compressive stresses and therefore preserve the cylindrical symmetry of the stress field. The emergence of crumpling from the wrinkled shape is explored via evolution of visible features in the sheet as well as gaussian curvature measurements obtained by analyzing height maps from optical profilometry. The emergence of several length scales, increasing asymmetry in curvature distribution, the failure of wrinkle extent prediction and formation of d-cones associated with crumpling are all measured to locate the transition to a crumpled state. The value of gaussian curvature at the center of the sheet appears to follow the cylindrically symmetric prediction over the whole range of the experiment, suggesting that the onset of crumpling events does not affect the global shape of the sheet. Finally, analogous wrinkling and crumpling behavior of particle-laden interfaces is discussed. The spontaneous formation of conical defects in a curved 2D crystal is compared to the crumpling of a sheet on a drop, and insight from thin sheet mechanics is applied to the mysterious wrinkling of particle rafts. Some future directions for measuring wrinkling of sheets on negative curvature surfaces and deformations of fluid interfaces are proposed.

  6. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  7. Beating the Heat - Fast Scanning Melts Silk Beta Sheet Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebe, Peggy; Hu, Xiao; Kaplan, David L.; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Wurm, Andreas; Arbeiter, Daniela; Schick, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Beta-pleated-sheet crystals are among the most stable of protein secondary structures, and are responsible for the remarkable physical properties of many fibrous proteins, such as silk, or proteins forming plaques as in Alzheimer's disease. Previous thinking, and the accepted paradigm, was that beta-pleated-sheet crystals in the dry solid state were so stable they would not melt upon input of heat energy alone. Here we overturn that assumption and demonstrate that beta-pleated-sheet crystals melt directly from the solid state to become random coils, helices, and turns. We use fast scanning chip calorimetry at 2,000 K/s and report the first reversible thermal melting of protein beta-pleated-sheet crystals, exemplified by silk fibroin. The similarity between thermal melting behavior of lamellar crystals of synthetic polymers and beta-pleated-sheet crystals is confirmed. Significance for controlling beta-pleated-sheet content during thermal processing of biomaterials, as well as towards disease therapies, is envisioned based on these new findings.

  8. Beating the Heat - Fast Scanning Melts Silk Beta Sheet Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Cebe, Peggy; Hu, Xiao; Kaplan, David L.; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Wurm, Andreas; Arbeiter, Daniela; Schick, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Beta-pleated-sheet crystals are among the most stable of protein secondary structures, and are responsible for the remarkable physical properties of many fibrous proteins, such as silk, or proteins forming plaques as in Alzheimer's disease. Previous thinking, and the accepted paradigm, was that beta-pleated-sheet crystals in the dry solid state were so stable they would not melt upon input of heat energy alone. Here we overturn that assumption and demonstrate that beta-pleated-sheet crystals melt directly from the solid state to become random coils, helices, and turns. We use fast scanning chip calorimetry at 2,000?K/s and report the first reversible thermal melting of protein beta-pleated-sheet crystals, exemplified by silk fibroin. The similarity between thermal melting behavior of lamellar crystals of synthetic polymers and beta-pleated-sheet crystals is confirmed. Significance for controlling beta-pleated-sheet content during thermal processing of biomaterials, as well as towards disease therapies, is envisioned based on these new findings. PMID:23350037

  9. Beating the Heat: Fast Scanning Melts Beta Sheet Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebe, Peggy; Hu, Xiao; Kaplan, David; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Wurm, Andreas; Arbeiter, Daniella; Schick, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Beta-pleated-sheet crystals are among the most stable of protein secondary structures, and are responsible for the remarkable physical properties of many fibrous proteins, such as silk. Previous thinking was that beta-pleated-sheet crystals in the dry solid state would not melt upon input of heat energy alone. Indeed, at conventional heating rates (~1-50 °C/min), silk exhibits its glass transition (~175 °C), followed by cold crystallization, and then by immediate thermal degradation beginning at about 225 °C. Here we demonstrate that beta-pleated-sheet crystals can melt directly from the solid state to become random coils, helices, and turns. We use fast scanning chip calorimetry at 2,000 K/s to avoid thermal degradation, and report the first reversible thermal melting of protein beta-pleated-sheet crystals, exemplified by silk fibroin. The similarity between thermal melting behavior of lamellar crystals of synthetic polymers and beta-pleated-sheet crystals is confirmed. The authors acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation and German Academic Exchange Service DAAD; EZ acknowledges a European Union funded Marie Curie EST fellowship (ADVATEC); XH and DK acknowledge NIH P41 Tissue Engineering Resource Center.

  10. Enhancement of beta-sheet assembly by cooperative hydrogen bonds potential

    PubMed Central

    Levy-Moonshine, Ami; Amir, El-ad David; Keasar, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: The roughness of energy landscapes is a major obstacle to protein structure prediction, since it forces conformational searches to spend much time struggling to escape numerous traps. Specifically, beta-sheet formation is prone to stray, since many possible combinations of hydrogen bonds are dead ends in terms of beta-sheet assembly. It has been shown that cooperative terms for backbone hydrogen bonds ease this problem by augmenting hydrogen bond patterns that are consistent with beta sheets. Here, we present a novel cooperative hydrogen-bond term that is both effective in promoting beta sheets and computationally efficient. In addition, the new term is differentiable and operates on all-atom protein models. Results: Energy optimization of poly-alanine chains under the new term led to significantly more beta-sheet content than optimization under a non-cooperative term. Furthermore, the optimized structure included very few non-native patterns. Availability: The new term is implemented within the MESHI package and is freely available at http://cs.bgu.ac.il/∼meshi. Contact: chen.keasar@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19628506

  11. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.

    2009-07-24

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  12. Solubilization of beta-amyloid-(1-42)-peptide: reversing the beta-sheet conformation induced by aluminum with silicates.

    PubMed

    Fasman, G D; Perczel, A; Moore, C D

    1995-01-17

    Plaques are one of the two lesions found in the brain of patients with Alzheimer disease. Using a synthetic peptide corresponding to rat beta-amyloid-(1-42) (beta A4), circular dichroism (CD) analyses were performed to examine the effect of Na4SiO4 on the conformational state produced by Al3+. A previous study on fragments of neuronal proteins involved in tangle formation had shown a conformational transition from a beta-pleated sheet to a soluble random coil upon addition of Na4SiO4. In the present study, CD measurements showed that the beta-pleated sheet conformation of beta A4 induced by Al3+ was reversed to the random coil soluble form by the addition of Na4SiO4. The tight binding of SiO4(4-) with Al3+ provides the mechanism for this transition. These results provide insight into the role of aluminum in the Alzheimer diseased brain and suggests that investigation of the use of silicates as a therapeutic agent. PMID:7831292

  13. Determining Beta Sheet Crystallinity in Fibrous Proteins by Thermal Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao; Kaplan, David; Cebe, Peggy

    2007-03-01

    We report a study of self-assembled beta pleated sheets in Bombyx mori silk fibroin films using thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Crystallization of beta pleated sheets was effected either by heating the films above the glass transition temperature (Tg) and holding isothermally, or by exposure to methanol. The fractions of secondary structural components including random coils, alpha helices, beta pleated sheets, turns, and side chains, were evaluated using Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD) of the infrared absorbance spectra. As crystalline beta sheets form, the heat capacity increment from the TMDSC trace at Tg is systematically decreased and is linearly well correlated with beta sheet content determined from FSD. This analysis of beta sheet content can serve as an alternative to X-ray methods and may have wide applicability to other crystalline beta sheet forming proteins.

  14. Current Sheet Formation and Reconnection Dynamics in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Justin K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2009-05-01

    Current sheet formation is a necessary consequence of the evolution of the multi-polar magnetic field topologies that are ubiquitous throughout the solar corona. We present a very high-resolution study of 3D MHD current sheet formation and the resulting reconnection dynamics in an environment appropriate for the corona. The initial field consists of a translationally invariant, potential field with a null-point topology (i.e., 4-flux systems) and a low-beta plasma. A finite-extent, 3D Syrovatskii-type current sheet forms as a result of stressing of this system by a uniform, incompressible flow applied at the line-tied photospheric boundary. The system is assumed to be ideal, except for the presence of numerical resistivity. The fully 3-D evolution is calculated with very high resolution (9x and 10x refinement across the full extent of the current sheet) using the Adaptively Refined MHD Solver (ARMS). The initial evolution of this computationally-intensive simulation results in a current sheet with a nearly 30-to-1 aspect ratio, a significant fraction of the system characteristic length, that unexpectedly appears to be stable. In addition, up to this point in the evolution any magnetic reconnection that we observe is of the slow Sweet-Parker type. We expect, however, that as we continue stressing the field, the current sheet will become unstable and develop explosive dynamics. We discuss the implications of our results on coronal structure and activity, such as heating and eruptions. This work has been supported, in part, by the NASA HTP and SR&T programs.

  15. Beta-sheet is the bioactive conformation of the anti-angiogenic anginex peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Dings, Ruud P M; Arroyo, Monica M; Lockwood, Nathan A; van Eijk, Loes I; Haseman, Judy R; Griffioen, Arjan W; Mayo, Kevin H

    2003-01-01

    Anginex is a designed peptide 33mer that functions as a cytokine-like agent to inhibit angiogenesis. Although this short linear peptide has been shown by NMR and CD to form a nascent beta-sheet conformation in solution, the actual bioactive structure formed upon binding to its receptor on the surface of endothelial cells could be quite different. By using a series of double-cysteine disulphide-bridged analogues, we provide evidence in the present study that the beta-sheet is in fact the bioactive conformation of anginex. CD and NMR spectral analysis of the analogues indicate formation of a beta-sheet conformation. Three functional assays, endothelial cell proliferation, apoptosis and in vitro angiogenesis, were performed on all analogues. As long as the placement of disulphide bonds preserved the beta-strand alignment, as in the proposed bioactive conformation, bioactivities were preserved. Knowledge of the bioactive conformation of anginex will aid in the design of smaller molecule mimetics of this potent anti-angiogenic peptide. PMID:12708970

  16. Role of Polyalanine Domains in -Sheet Formation in Spider Silk Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Rabotyagova, O.; Cebe, P; Kaplan, D

    2010-01-01

    Genetically engineered spider silk-like block copolymers were studied to determine the influence of polyalanine domain size on secondary structure. The role of polyalanine block distribution on {beta}-sheet formation was explored using FT-IR and WAXS. The number of polyalanine blocks had a direct effect on the formation of crystalline {beta}-sheets, reflected in the change in crystallinity index as the blocks of polyalanines increased. WAXS analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of the sample with the largest number of polyalanine blocks. This approach provides a platform for further exploration of the role of specific amino acid chemistries in regulating the assembly of {beta}-sheet secondary structures, leading to options to regulate material properties through manipulation of this key component in spider silks.

  17. Microphase Separation Controlled Beta Sheet Crystallization Kinetics in Silk Fibroin Protein.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao; Lu, Qiang; Kaplan, David; Cebe, Peggy

    2009-03-01

    We investigate the mechanism of isothermal crystallization kinetics of beta-sheet crystals in silk multiblock fibrous proteins. The Avrami analysis kinetic theory, for studies of synthetic polymer crystal growth, is for the first time extended to investigate protein self-assembly in beta-sheet rich Bombyx mori silk fibroin samples, using time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and synchrotron real-time wide-angle X-ray scattering. Results indicate formation of beta sheet crystals in silk proteins is different from the 3-D spherulitic crystal growth found in synthetic homopolymers. Observations by scanning electron microscopy support the view that the protein structures vary during the different stages of crystal growth, and show a microphase separation pattern after chymotrypsin enzyme biodegradation. We present a model to explain the crystallization of the multiblock silk fibroin protein, by analogy to synthetic block copolymers. This model could be widely applicable in other proteins with multiblock (i.e., crystallizable and non-crystallizable) domains.

  18. Analysis of the factors that stabilize a designed two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Juan F; Syud, Faisal A; Gellman, Samuel H

    2002-06-01

    Autonomously folding beta-hairpins (two-strand antiparallel beta-sheets) have become increasingly valuable tools for probing the forces that control peptide and protein conformational preferences. We examine the effects of variations in sequence and solvent on the stability of a previously designed 12-residue peptide (1). This peptide adopts a beta-hairpin conformation containing a two-residue loop (D-Pro-Gly) and a four-residue interstrand sidechain cluster that is observed in the natural protein GB1. We show that the conformational propensity of the loop segment plays an important role in beta-hairpin stability by comparing 1 with (D)P--> N mutant 2. In addition, we show that the sidechain cluster contributes both to conformational stability and to folding cooperativity by comparing 1 with mutant 3, in which two of the four cluster residues have been changed to serine. Thermodynamic analysis suggests that the high loop-forming propensity of the (D)PG segment decreases the entropic cost of beta-hairpin formation relative to the more flexible NG segment, but that the conformational rigidity of (D)PG may prevent optimal contacts between the sidechains of the GB1-derived cluster. The enthalpic favorability of folding in these designed beta-hairpins suggests that they are excellent scaffolds for studying the fundamental mechanisms by which amino acid sidechains interact with one another in folded proteins. PMID:12021448

  19. A recipe for designing water-soluble, beta-sheet-forming peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, K. H.; Ilyina, E.; Park, H.

    1996-01-01

    Based on observations of solubility and folding properties of peptide 33-mers derived from the beta-sheet domains of platelet factor-4 (PF4), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and growth related protein (Gro-alpha), as well as other beta-sheet-forming peptides, general guidelines have been developed to aid in the design of water soluble, self-association-induced beta-sheet-forming peptides. CD, 1H-NMR, and pulsed field gradient NMR self-diffusion measurements have been used to assess the degree of folding and state of aggregation. PF4 peptide forms native-like beta-sheet tetramers and is sparingly soluble above pH 6. IL-8 peptide is insoluble between pH 4.5 and pH 7.5, yet forms stable, native-like beta-sheet dimers at higher pH. Gro-alpha peptide is soluble at all pH values, yet displays no discernable beta-sheet structure even when diffusion data indicate dimer-tetramer aggregation. A recipe used in the de novo design of water-soluble beta-sheet-forming peptides calls for the peptide to contain 40-50% hydrophobic residues, usually aliphatic ones (I, L, V, A, M) (appropriately paired and mostly but not always alternating with polar residues in the sheet sequence), a positively charged (K, R) to negatively charged (E, D) residue ratio between 4/2 and 6/2, and a noncharged polar residue (N, Q, T, S) composition of about 20% or less. Results on four de novo designed, 33-residue peptides are presented supporting this approach. Under near physiologic conditions, all four peptides are soluble, form beta-sheet structures to varying degrees, and self-associate. One peptide folds as a stable, compact beta-sheet tetramer, whereas the others are transient beta-sheet-containing aggregates. PMID:8819163

  20. Current Sheets Formation in Planetary Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Antonius; Hsieh, Min-Shiu; Hall, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Current sheet (CS) formation and thinning are common and fundamentally important processes in space and laboratory plasmas. CSs are always present in the interaction of plasmas of different origins and their presence is a necessary requirement for the onset of magnetic reconnection. The thinning of the near-Earth CS is highly important because it represents a major reconfiguration of the magnetotail from a mostly dipolar to a highly stretched magnetic field, which determines the conditions for substorm onset. Processes that can alter flux tube entropy include magnetic reconnection, energy loss into the ionosphere, gradients in energetic particle drifts, or kinetic processes that change the pressure or its isotropy. The plasma entropy increases with radial distance in the Jovian magnetosphere, which requires non-adiabatic heating during the outward plasma transport. The formation of CSs represents a fundamentally important and not-well-understood problem of planetary magnetotails and magnetodiscs.

  1. Propagating structure of alzheimer's {beta}-amyloid is parallel {beta}-sheet with residues in exact register.

    SciTech Connect

    Benzinger, T. L. S.; Gregory, D. M.; Burkoth, T. S.; Miller-Auer, H.; Lynn, D. G.; Botto, R. E.; Meredith, S. C.; Chemistry; Univ. of Chicago

    1998-11-10

    The pathognomonic plaques of Alzheimer's disease are composed primarily of the 39- to 43-aa {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) peptide. Crosslinking of A{beta} peptides by tissue transglutaminase (tTg) indicates that Gln15 of one peptide is proximate to Lys16 of another in aggregated A{beta}. Here we report how the fibril structure is resolved by mapping interstrand distances in this core region of the A{beta} peptide chain with solid-state NMR. Isotopic substitution provides the source points for measuring distances in aggregated A{beta}. Peptides containing a single carbonyl 13C label at Gln15, Lys16, Leu17, or Val18 were synthesized and evaluated by NMR dipolar recoupling methods for the measurement of interpeptide distances to a resolution of 0.2 Angstrom. Analysis of these data establish that this central core of A{beta} consists of a parallel {beta}-sheet structure in which identical residues on adjacent chains are aligned directly, i.e., in register. Our data, in conjunction with existing structural data, establish that the A{beta} fibril is a hydrogen-bonded, parallel {beta}-sheet defining the long axis of the A{beta} fibril propagation.

  2. Mechanism for the formation of plasmoids and kink waves in the heliospheric current sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Lee, L.C.; Wei, C.Q.; Akasofu, S.I.

    1987-09-18

    Satellite observations of the heliospheric current sheet indicate that the plasma flow velocity is low at the center of the current sheet and high on the two sides of current sheet. In this paper, we investigate the growth rates and eigenmodes of the sausage, kink, and tearing instabilities in the heliospheric current sheet with the observed sheared flow. These instabilities may lead to the formation of the plasmoids and kink waves in the solar wind. The results show that both the sausage and kink modes can be excited in the heliospheric current sheet with a growth time about 0.05-5 day. Therefore, these modes can grow during the transit of the solar wind from the Sun to the Earth. The sausage mode grows faster than the kink mode for beta at infinity < 1.5, while the streaming kink instability has a higher growth rate for beta at infinity > 1.5. Here beta at infinity is the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressures away from the current layer. If a finite resistivity is considered, the streaming sausage mode evolves into the streaming tearing mode with the formation of magnetic islands. We suggest that some of the magnetic clouds and plasmoids observed in the solar wind may be associated with the streaming sausage instability. Furthermore, it is found that a large-scale kink wave may develop in the region with a radial distance greater than 0.5-1.5 AU.

  3. Conversion of non-fibrillar {beta}-sheet oligomers into amyloid fibrils in Alzheimer's disease amyloid peptide aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Benseny-Cases, Nuria; Cocera, Mercedes; Cladera, Josep

    2007-10-05

    A{beta}(1-40) is one of the main components of the fibrils found in amyloid plaques, a hallmark of brains affected by Alzheimer's disease. It is known that prior to the formation of amyloid fibrils in which the peptide adopts a well-ordered intermolecular {beta}-sheet structure, peptide monomers associate forming low and high molecular weight oligomers. These oligomers have been previously described in electron microscopy, AFM, and exclusion chromatography studies. Their specific secondary structures however, have not yet been well established. A major problem when comparing aggregation and secondary structure determinations in concentration-dependent processes such as amyloid aggregation is the different concentration range required in each type of experiment. In the present study we used the dye Thioflavin T (ThT), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and electron microscopy in order to structurally characterize the different aggregated species which form during the A{beta}(1-40) fibril formation process. A unique sample containing 90 {mu}M peptide was used. The results show that oligomeric species which form during the lag phase of the aggregation kinetics are a mixture of unordered, helical, and intermolecular non-fibrillar {beta}-structures. The number of oligomers and the amount of non-fibrillar {beta}-structures grows throughout the lag phase and during the elongation phase these non-fibrillar {beta}-structures are transformed into fibrillar (amyloid) {beta}-structures, formed by association of high molecular weight intermediates.

  4. Thin Sheet Formation in Viscous Splash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Michelle; Nagel, Sidney

    2009-11-01

    Ambient air is crucial for creating a splash on smooth dry surfaces for both viscous and inviscid liquids.footnotetextL. Xu, Phys. Rev. E 75, 056316 (2007); L. Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 184505 (2005). In a viscous splash, the drop initially spreads in the form of a thick lamella until tejt at which time it emits a thin fluid sheet. We have previously shown that tejt is set by the ambient pressure and the liquid viscosity, and shows only a weak dependence on drop impact velocity and surface tension.footnotetextM. Driscoll et al., DFD 2008 BAPS.2008.DFD.AG.5 We have measured the thickness of the ejected sheet using absorption measurements of a dyed liquid drop. The ejected sheet has a thickness ˜10 μm that is approximately a tenth the thickness of the lamella preceding it. Using high-resolution, high-speed photography we have observed that as the ejected sheet expands, air bubbles are entrained into the trailing lamella. The bubble size increases as the lamella velocity decreases. Air entrainment ceases at a critical lamella velocity, vc˜1.2 m/s, which appears to be independent of drop impact velocity as well as the ambient pressure. At the critical velocity, the bubble radius is approximately 30 μm.

  5. Formation of current sheets in magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2014-07-15

    An ideal evolution of magnetic fields in three spatial dimensions tends to cause neighboring field lines to increase their separation exponentially with distance ℓ along the lines, δ(ℓ)=δ(0)e{sup σ(ℓ)}. The non-ideal effects required to break magnetic field line connections scale as e{sup −σ}, so the breaking of connections is inevitable for σ sufficiently large—even though the current density need nowhere be large. When the changes in field line connections occur rapidly compared to an Alfvén transit time, the constancy of j{sub ||}/B along the magnetic field required for a force-free equilibrium is broken in the region where the change occurs, and an Alfvénic relaxation of j{sub ||}/B occurs. Independent of the original spatial distribution of j{sub ||}/B, the evolution is into a sheet current, which is stretched by a factor e{sup σ} in width and contracted by a factor e{sup σ} in thickness with the current density j{sub ||} increasing as e{sup σ}. The dissipation of these sheet currents and their associated vorticity sheets appears to be the mechanism for transferring energy from a reconnecting magnetic field to a plasma. Harris sheets, which are used in models of magnetic reconnection, are shown to break up in the direction of current flow when they have a finite width and are in a plasma in force equilibrium. The dependence of the longterm nature of magnetic reconnection in systems driven by footpoint motion can be studied in a model that allows qualitative variation in the nature of that motion: slow or fast motion compared to the Alfvén transit time and the neighboring footpoints either exponentially separating in time or not.

  6. Multi-layer Parallel Beta-Sheet Structure of Amyloid Beta peptide (1-40) aggregate observed by discrete molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shouyong; Urbanc, Brigita; Ding, Feng; Cruz, Luis; Buldyrev, Sergey; Dokholyan, Nikolay; Stanley, H. E.

    2003-03-01

    New evidence shows that oligomeric forms of Amyloid-Beta are potent neurotoxins that play a major role in neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease. Detailed knowledge of the structure and assembly dynamics of Amyloid-Beta is important for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here we apply a two-atom model with Go interactions to model aggregation of Amyloid-Beta (1-40) peptides using the discrete molecular dynamics simulation. At temperatures above the transition temperature from an alpha-helical to random coil, we obtain two types of parallel beta-sheet structures, (a) a helical beta-sheet structure at a lower temperature and (b) a parallel beta-sheet structure at a higher temperature, both with inter-sheet distance of 10 A and with free edges which possibly enable further fibrillar elongation.

  7. Dichroic ratios in polarized Fourier transform infrared for nonaxial symmetry of beta-sheet structures.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, D

    1997-01-01

    The transition moments for the amide bands from beta-sheet peptide structures generally do not exhibit axial symmetry about the director in linearly polarized Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements on oriented systems. The angular dependences of the dichroic ratios of the amide bands are derived for beta-sheet structures in attenuated total reflection (ATR) and polarized transmission experiments on samples that are oriented with respect to the normal to the substrate and are randomly distributed with respect to the azimuthal angle in the plane of the orienting substrate. The orientational distributions of both the beta-strands and the beta-sheets are considered, and explicit expressions are given for the dichroic ratios of the amide I and amide II bands. The dichroic ratio of the amide II band, which is parallel polarized, can yield the orientation of the beta-strands directly, but to specify the orientations of the beta-sheets completely requires measurement of the dichroic ratios of both the amide I and amide II bands, or generally two bands with parallel and perpendicular polarizations. A random distribution in tilt of the planes of the beta-sheets does not give rise to equal dichroic ratios for bands with perpendicular and parallel polarizations, such as the amide I and amide II bands. The results are applied to previous ATR and polarized transmission FTIR measurements on a potassium channel-associated peptide, the Escherichia coli outer membrane protein OmpA, and the E. coli OmpF porin protein in oriented membranes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:9168046

  8. Characteristics of Amyloid-Related Oligomers Revealed by Crystal Structures of Macrocyclic [beta]-Sheet Mimics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cong; Sawaya, Michael R.; Cheng, Pin-Nan; Zheng, Jing; Nowick, James S.; Eisenberg, David

    2011-09-20

    Protein amyloid oligomers have been strongly linked to amyloid diseases and can be intermediates to amyloid fibers. {beta}-Sheets have been identified in amyloid oligomers. However, because of their transient and highly polymorphic properties, the details of their self-association remain elusive. Here we explore oligomer structure using a model system: macrocyclic peptides. Key amyloidogenic sequences from A{beta} and tau were incorporated into macrocycles, thereby restraining them to {beta}-strands, but limiting the growth of the oligomers so they may crystallize and cannot fibrillate. We determined the atomic structures for four such oligomers, and all four reveal tetrameric interfaces in which {beta}-sheet dimers pair together by highly complementary, dry interfaces, analogous to steric zippers found in fibers, suggesting a common structure for amyloid oligomers and fibers. In amyloid fibers, the axes of the paired sheets are either parallel or antiparallel, whereas the oligomeric interfaces display a variety of sheet-to-sheet pairing angles, offering a structural explanation for the heterogeneity of amyloid oligomers.

  9. Flanking Polyproline Sequences Inhibit [beta]-Sheet Structure in Polyglutamine Segments by Inducing PPII-like Helix Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, Gregory; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Pahl, Reinhard; Meredith, Stephen C.

    2008-06-24

    Polyglutamine (poly(Q)) expansion is associated with protein aggregation into {beta}-sheet amyloid fibrils and neuronal cytotoxicity. In the mutant poly(Q) protein huntingtin, associated with Huntington's disease, both aggregation and cytotoxicity may be abrogated by a polyproline (poly(P)) domain flanking the C terminus of the poly(Q) region. To understand structural changes that may occur with the addition of the poly(P) sequence, we synthesized poly(Q) peptides with 3-15 glutamine residues and a corresponding set of poly(Q) peptides flanked on the C terminus by 11 proline residues (poly(Q)-poly(P)), as occurs in the huntingtin sequence. The shorter soluble poly(Q) peptides (three or six glutamine residues) showed polyproline type II-like (PPII)-like helix conformation when examined by circular dichroism spectroscopy and were monomers as judged by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), while the longer poly(Q) peptides (nine or 15 glutamine residues) showed a {beta}-sheet conformation by CD and defined oligomers by SEC. Soluble poly(Q)-poly(P) peptides showed PPII-like content but SEC showed poorly defined, overlapping oligomeric peaks, and as judged by CD these peptides retained significant PPII-like structure with increasing poly(Q) length. More importantly, addition of the poly(P) domain increased the threshold for fibril formation to {approx} 15 glutamine residues. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and film CD showed that, while poly(Q) peptides with {ge} 6 glutamine residues formed {beta}-sheet-rich fibrils, only the longest poly(Q)-poly(P) peptide (15 glutamine residues) did so. From these and other observations, we propose that poly(Q) domains exist in a 'tug-of-war' between two conformations, a PPII-like helix and a {beta}-sheet, while the poly(P) domain is conformationally constrained into a proline type II helix (PPII). Addition of poly(P) to the C terminus of a poly(Q) domain induces a PPII-like structure, which opposes the aggregation-prone {beta}-sheet. These structural observations may shed light on the threshold phenomenon of poly(Q) aggregation, and support the hypothesized evolution of 'protective' poly(P) tracts adjacent to poly(Q) aggregation domains.

  10. Vibrational self-trapping in beta-sheet structures observed with femtosecond nonlinear infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bodis, Pavol; Schwartz, Erik; Koepf, Matthieu; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Rowan, Alan E; Nolte, Roeland J M; Woutersen, Sander

    2009-09-28

    Self-trapping of NH-stretch vibrational excitations in synthetic beta-sheet helices is observed using femtosecond infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. In a dialanine-based beta-sheet helix, the transient-absorption change upon exciting the NH-stretch mode exhibits a negative absorption change at the fundamental frequency and two positive peaks at lower frequencies. These two induced-absorption peaks are characteristic for a state in which the vibrational excitation is self-trapped on essentially a single NH-group in the hydrogen-bonded NH...OC chain, forming a small (Holstein) vibrational polaron. By engineering the structure of the polymer we can disrupt the hydrogen-bonded NH...OC chain, allowing us to eliminate the self-trapping, as is confirmed from the NH-stretch pump-probe response. We also investigate a trialanine-based beta-sheet helix, where each side chain participates in two NH...OC chains with different hydrogen-bond lengths. The chain with short hydrogen bonds shows the same self-trapping behavior as the dialanine-based beta-sheet helix, whereas in the chain with long hydrogen bonds the self-trapping is too weak to be observable. PMID:19791890

  11. On spontaneous formation of current sheets: Untwisted magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, R.; Low, B. C.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2010-11-15

    This is a study of the spontaneous formation of electric current sheets in an incompressible viscous fluid with perfect electrical conductivity, governed by the magnetohydrodynamic Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical solutions to two initial value problems are presented for a three-dimensional, periodic, untwisted magnetic field evolving, with no change in magnetic topology under the frozen-in condition and at characteristic fluid Reynolds numbers of the order of 500, from a nonequilibrium initial state with the fluid at rest. The evolution converts magnetic free energy into kinetic energy to be all dissipated away by viscosity so that the field settles into a minimum-energy, static equilibrium. The solutions demonstrate that, as a consequence of the frozen-in condition, current sheets must form during the evolution despite the geometric simplicity of the prescribed initial fields. In addition to the current sheets associated with magnetic neutral points and field reversal layers, other sheets not associated with such magnetic features are also in evidence. These current sheets form on magnetic flux surfaces. This property is used to achieve a high degree of the frozen-in condition in the simulations, by describing the magnetic field entirely in terms of the advection of its flux surfaces and integrating the resulting governing equations with a customized version of a general-purpose high-resolution (viz., nonoscillatory) hydrodynamical simulation code EULAG [J. M. Prusa et al., Comput. Fluids 37, 1193 (2008)]. Incompressibility imposes the additional global constraint that the flux surfaces must evolve with no change in the spatial volumes they enclose. In this approach, current sheet formation is demonstrated graphically by the progressive pressing together of suitably selected flux surfaces until their separation has diminished below the minimal resolved distance on a fixed grid. The frozen-in condition then fails in the simulation as the field reconnects through an effecting numerical resistivity. The principal results are related to the Parker theory of current-sheet formation and dissipation in the solar corona.

  12. The molecular organization of the beta-sheet region in Corneous beta-proteins (beta-keratins) of sauropsids explains its stability and polymerization into filaments.

    PubMed

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Eckhart, Leopold; Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    The hard corneous material of avian and reptilian scales, claws, beak and feathers is mainly derived from the presence of proteins formerly known as beta-keratins but now termed Corneous beta-proteins of sauropsids to distinguish them from keratins, which are members of the intermediate filament protein family. The modeling of the conserved 34 amino acid residues long central beta-sheet region of Corneous beta-proteins using an ab initio protein folding and structure prediction algorithm indicates that this region is formed by four antiparallel beta-sheets. Molecular dynamic simulations and Molecular Mechanics/Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) analysis showed that the disposition of polar and apolar amino acids within the beta-region gives rise to an amphipathic core whose stability is further increased, especially in an aqueous environment, by the association into a dimer due to apolar interactions and specific amino-acid interactions. The dimers in turn polymerize into a 3nm thick linear beta-filament due to van der Waals and hydrogen-bond interactions. It is suggested that once this nuclear core of anti-parallel sheets evolved in the genome of a reptilian ancestor of the extant reptiles and birds about 300 millions years ago, new properties emerged in the corneous material forming scales, claws, beaks and feathers in these amniotes based on the tendency of these unique corneous proteins to form stable filaments different from keratin intermediate filaments or sterical structures formed by other corneous proteins so far known. PMID:26965557

  13. Laminated morphology of nontwisting beta-sheet fibrils constructed via peptide self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Matthew S; Rajagopal, Karthikan; Schneider, Joel P; Pochan, Darrin J

    2005-11-30

    A synthetic peptide has been de novo designed that self-assembles into beta-sheet fibrils exhibiting a nontwisted, stacked morphology. The stacked morphology is constituted by 2.5 nm wide filaments that laterally associate to form flat fibril laminates exceeding 50 nm in width and micrometers in length. The height of each fibril is limited to the length of exactly one peptide monomer in an extended beta-strand conformation, approximately 7 nm. Once assembled, these highly ordered, 2-D structures are stable over a wide range of pH and temperature and exhibit characteristics similar to those of amyloid fibrils. Furthermore, the rate of assembly and degree of fibril lamination can be controlled with kinetic parameters of pH and temperature. Finally, the presence of a diproline peptide between two beta-sheet-forming strands in the peptide sequence is demonstrated to be an important factor in promoting the nontwisting, laminated fibril morphology. PMID:16305260

  14. Captides: Rigid Junctions between Beta Sheets and Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kier, Brandon L.; Andersen, Niels H.

    2014-01-01

    An extensive series of covalently linked small molecule-peptide adducts based on a terminally capped beta hairpin motif is reported. The constructs can be prepared by standard solid-phase fmoc chemistry with 1 to 4 peptide chains linked to small molecule hubs bearing carboxylic acid moieties. The key feature of interest is the precise, buried environment of the small molecule, and its rigid orientation relative to one or more short, but fully structured peptide chain(s). Most of this study employs a minimalist 9 residue “captide”, a capped β-turn, but we illustrate general applicability to peptides which can terminate in a beta strand. The non-peptide portion of these adducts can include nearly any molecule bearing one or more carboxylic acid groups. Fold-dependent rigidity sets this strategy apart from currently available bioconjugation methods, which typically engender significant flexibility between peptide and tag. Applications to catalyst enhancement, drug design, higher-order assembly, and FRET calibration rulers are discussed. PMID:24909552

  15. Reversible transition between alpha-helix and beta-sheet conformation of a transmembrane domain.

    PubMed

    Yassine, Wissam; Taib, Nada; Federman, Silvina; Milochau, Alexandra; Castano, Sabine; Sbi, Walid; Manigand, Claude; Laguerre, Michel; Desbat, Bernard; Oda, Reiko; Lang, Jochen

    2009-09-01

    Despite the important functions of protein transmembrane domains, their structure and dynamics are often scarcely known. The SNARE proteins VAMP/synaptobrevin and syntaxin 1 are implicated in membrane fusion. Using different spectroscopic approaches we observed a marked sensitivity of their transmembrane domain structure in regard to the lipid/peptide ratio. In the dilute condition, peptides corresponding to the complete transmembrane domain fold into an alpha-helix inserted at approximately 35 degrees to the normal of the membranes, an observation in line with molecular simulations. Upon an increase in the peptide/lipid ratio, the peptides readily exhibited transition to beta-sheet structure. Moreover, the insertion angle of these beta-sheets increased to 54 degrees and was accompanied by a derangement of lipid acyl chains. For both proteins the transition from alpha-helix to beta-sheet was reversible under certain conditions by increasing the peptide/lipid ratio. This phenomenon was observed in different model systems including multibilayers and small unilamellar vesicles. In addition, differences in peptide structure and transitions were observed when using distinct lipids (DMPC, DPPC or DOPC) thus indicating parameters influencing transmembrane domain structure and conversion from helices to sheets. The putative functional consequences of this unprecedented dynamic behavior of a transmembrane domain are discussed. PMID:19482005

  16. Thermally Induced Alpha-Helix to Beta-Sheet Transition in Regenerated Silk Fibers and Films

    SciTech Connect

    Drummy,L.; Phillips, D.; Stone, M.; Farmer, B.; Naik, R.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of thin films cast from regenerated solutions of Bombyx mori cocoon silk in hexafluoroisopropyl alcohol (HFIP) was studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction during heating. A solid-state conformational transition from an alpha-helical structure to the well-known beta-sheet silk II structure occurred at a temperature of approximately 140 degrees C. The transition appeared to be homogeneous, as both phases do not coexist within the resolution of the current study. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the films showed an endothermic melting peak followed by an exothermic crystallization peak, both occurring near 140 degrees C. Oriented fibers were also produced that displayed this helical molecular conformation. Subsequent heating above the structural transition temperature produced oriented beta-sheet fibers very similar in structure to B. mori cocoon fibers. Heat treatment of silk films at temperatures well below their degradation temperature offers a controllable route to materials with well-defined structures and mechanical behavior.

  17. BetaCore, a designed water soluble four-stranded antiparallel β-sheet protein

    PubMed Central

    Carulla, Natàlia; Woodward, Clare; Barany, George

    2002-01-01

    BetaCore is a designed ∼50-residue protein in which two BPTI-derived core modules, CM I and CM II, are connected by a 22-atom cross-link. At low temperature and pH 3, homo- and heteronuclear NMR data report a dominant folded (`f') conformation with well-dispersed chemical shifts, i, i+1 periodicity, numerous long-range NOEs, and slowed amide hydrogen isotope exchange patterns that is a four-stranded antiparallel β-sheet with nonsymmetrical and specific association of CM I and CM II. BetaCore `f' conformations undergo reversible, global, moderately cooperative, non-two-state thermal transitions to an equilibrium ensemble of unfolded `u' conformations. There is a significant energy barrier between `f' and `u' conformations. This is the first designed four-stranded antiparallel β-sheet that folds in water. PMID:12021452

  18. Predicting location and structure of beta-sheet regions using stochastic tree grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Mamitsuke, Hiroshi; Abe, Naoki

    1994-12-31

    We describe and demonstrate the effectiveness of a method of predicting protein secondary structures, {Beta}-sheet regions in particular, using a class of stochastic tree grammars as representational language for their amino acid sequence patterns. The family of stochastic tree grammars we use, the Stochastic Ranked Node Rewriting Grammars (SRNRG), is one of the rare families of stochastic grammars that are expressive enough to capture the kind of long-distance dependencies exhibited by the sequences of {Beta}-sheet regions, and at the same time enjoy relatively efficient processing. We applied our method on real data obtained from the HSSP database and the results obtained are encouraging: Using an SRNRG trained by data of a particular protein, our method was actually able to predict the location and structure of {Beta}-sheet regions in a number of different proteins, whose sequences are less than 25 percent homologous to the training sequences. The learning algorithm we use is an extension of the {open_quote}Inside-Outside{close_quote} algorithm for stochastic context free grammars, but with a number of significant modifications. First, we restricted the grammars used to be members of the {open_quote}linear{close_quote} subclass of SPLNRG, and devised simpler and faster algorithms for this subclass. Secondly, we reduced the alphabet size (i.e. the number of amino acids) by clustering them using their physicochemical properties, gradually through the iterations of the learning algorithm. Finally, we parallelized. our parsing algorithm to run on a highly parallel computer, a 32-processor CM-5, and were able to obtain a nearly linear speed-up. We emphasize that our prediction method already goes beyond what is possible by the homology-based approaches. We also stress that our method can predict the structure as well as the location of {Beta}-sheet regions, which was not possible by previous inverse protein folding methods.

  19. Formation of sheeting joints in Yosemite National Park, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, S. J.

    2009-04-01

    The formation of sheeting joints (i.e., "exfoliation joints"), opening mode fractures subparallel to the Earth's surface, has been a classic unresolved problem in geology. Diverse new observations and analyses support the hypothesis that sheeting joints develop in response to a near-surface tension induced by compressive stresses parallel to a convex slope (hypothesis 1) rather than the conventional explanation that the joints form as a result of removal of overburden by erosion (hypothesis 2). The opening mode displacements across the joints together with the absence of mineral precipitates within the joints mean that sheeting joints open in response to a near-surface tension normal to the surface (N) rather than a pressurized fluid. An absolute tension must arise in the shallow subsurface if a plot of N as a function of depth normal to the surface (z) has a positive slope at the surface (z=0). The differential equations of static equilibrium require that this slope (derivative) equals k2 P22 + k3 P33 - ?g cosβ, where k2 and k3 are the principal curvatures of the surface, P22 and P33 are the respective surface-parallel normal stresses along the principal curvatures, ? is the material density, g is gravitational acceleration, and β is the slope. This derivative will be positive and sheeting joints can open if the surface-parallel stress in at least one direction is sufficiently compressive (negative) and the curvature in that direction is sufficiently convex (negative). Hypotheses 1 and 2 are being tested using geologic mapping and aerial LIDAR data from Yosemite National Park, California. The abundance of sheeting joints on convex ridges there, where erosion is a local minimum, coupled with their scarcity in the adjacent concave valleys, where erosion is a local maximum, is consistent with hypothesis 1 but inconsistent with hypothesis 2. At several sites with sheeting joints, measurements of the current topographic curvatures and the current surface-parallel stresses, typically about -10 MPa, meet the requirement above. In apparent violation of hypothesis 1, however, sheeting joints occur locally at the bottom of Tenaya Canyon, one of the park's deepest glaciated, U-shaped (concave) canyons in Yosemite. The sheeting joints occur only where the canyon is convex in the downstream direction though, and that is the approximate direction of the most compressive stress based on nearby stress measurements. Apparently the effect of the least compressive stress acting across the valley, which acts to close the joints, is overcome by the effect of the most compressive stress acting along the down-valley convex curvature, which promotes the opening of the joints.

  20. Blue color formation of cyanobacteria with beta-cyclocitral.

    PubMed

    Harada, Ken-Ichi; Ozaki, Keiko; Tsuzuki, Sayaka; Kato, Hajime; Hasegawa, Masateru; Kuroda, Emilia K; Arii, Suzue; Tsuji, Kiyomi

    2009-11-01

    Volatile compounds, such as beta-cyclocitral, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol, from cyanobacteria showed a lytic activity against cyanobacteria. Particularly, beta-cyclocitral caused an interesting color change in the culture broth from green to blue during the lysis process. In the present study, the lytic behavior of various cyanobacteria with beta-cyclocitral was investigated, and a mechanism for the blue color formation was developed. beta-Cyclocitral lysed both the laboratory strains of any genera and bloom samples including many species of cyanobacteria, and caused the characteristic color change from green to blue. beta-Cyclocitral provided a characteristic behavior, such that the absorption maxima of chlorophyll-a and beta-carotene disappeared, but that of phycocyanin still remained after 12 h, which indicated that beta-cyclocitral decomposed chlorophyll-a and beta-carotene rapidly, so that the inherent colors from the tolerant water-soluble pigments became observable in the cultured broth. This phenomenon was confirmed by another experiment using Phormidium (NIES-611), which showed a pink color derived from phycoerythrin. beta-Cyclocitral was more easily oxidized when compared with similar aldehyde compounds, so that the pH of the solution quickly decreased to 4.5. An oxidation product of beta-cyclocitral in water solution was isolated and identified as 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid. This study provides support that beta-cyclocitral derived from cyanobacteria plays an important role in the lysis of cyanobacteria and participates in the blue color formation under natural conditions. PMID:19936836

  1. Inhibition by Aplidine of the aggregation of the prion peptide PrP 106-126 into beta-sheet fibrils.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Mar; Sadqi, Mourad; Muñoz, Victor; Avila, Jesús

    2003-10-15

    Aplidine, a cyclic peptide, from the tunicate Aplidium albican, prevents the in vitro aggregation into beta-sheet containing fibrils of the prion peptide 106-126 when co-incubated in a 1:1 molar ratio. The blocking of fibril formation induced by Aplidine has clear sequence specificity, being much stronger for the 106-126 prion peptide than for the beta-amyloid 25-35 peptide. In addition to the known ability of Aplidine to cross the plasmatic membrane, these results indicate that Aplidine is a potential leading compound for the development of therapeutic blockers of prion aggregation. PMID:14559120

  2. Design and biological activity of {beta}-sheet breaker peptide conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Sandra Cardoso, Isabel; Boerner, Hans; Pereira, Maria Carmo; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Coelho, Manuel

    2009-03-06

    The sequence LPFFD (iA{beta}{sub 5}) prevents amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) fibrillogenesis and neurotoxicity, hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as previously demonstrated. In this study iA{beta}{sub 5} was covalently linked to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and the activity of conjugates was assessed and compared to the activity of the peptide alone by in vitro studies. The conjugates were characterized by MALDI-TOF. Competition binding assays established that conjugates retained the ability to bind A{beta} with similar strength as iA{beta}{sub 5}. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that iA{beta}{sub 5} conjugates inhibited amyloid fibril formation, which is in agreement with binding properties observed for the conjugates towards A{beta}. The conjugates were also able to prevent amyloid-induced cell death, as evaluated by activation of caspase 3. These results demonstrated that the biological activity of iA{beta}{sub 5} is not affected by the pegylation process.

  3. Current sheet formation in a sheared magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yao; Huang, Yi-Min; Qin, Hong; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2015-11-01

    Recently a variational integrator for ideal magnetohydrodynamics in Lagrangian labeling has been developed using discrete exterior calculus. Its built-in frozen-in equation makes it optimal for studying current sheet formation. We use this scheme to study the Hahm-Kulsrud-Taylor problem, which considers the response of a 2D plasma magnetized by a sheared field under mirrored sinusoidal boundary perturbations. The equilibrium solutions are found to not converge with increasing spatial resolution, which suggests that there exists no smooth equilibrium that preserves the topology of the initial field exactly. Unlike previous studies that examine the current density output, we identify a singular current sheet from the converged part of the fluid mapping. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  4. Formation and dynamical history of the beta Pictoris system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, M.

    2014-09-01

    The structure of the beta Pic disk holds many clues to its formation and dynamical history. In particular there is strong evidence for sculpting by the beta Pic-b planet. For example, a warp in the disk at 80au is thought to be driven by the secular perturbations of that planet, and scattering of comets by beta Pic-b is thought to be the origin of the Falling Evaporating Bodies. A clump in the disk coincident with the warp, also at ~80au, provides clues to the outer planetary system which for now is poorly constrained. One possible origin for the clump is in trapping of comets into resonance with an outer planet currently at ~60au, with an alternative scenario being a giant impact between planetary embryos. This talk will consider the various disk structures and what they tell us about the formation and dynamical history of the beta Pictoris system.

  5. Factors contributing to decreased protein stability when aspartic acid residues are in {beta}-sheet regions.

    SciTech Connect

    Pokkuluri, P. R.; Cai, X.; Raffen, R.; Gu, M.; Stevens, F. J.; Schiffer, M.

    2002-07-01

    Asp residues are significantly under represented in {beta}-sheet regions of proteins, especially in the middle of {beta}-strands, as found by a number of studies using statistical, modeling, or experimental methods. To further understand the reasons for this under representation of Asp, we prepared and analyzed mutants of a {beta}-domain. Two Gln residues of the immunoglobulin light-chain variable domain (V{sub L}) of protein Len were replaced with Asp, and then the effects of these changes on protein stability and protein structure were studied. The replacement of Q38D, located at the end of a {beta}-strand, and that of Q89D, located in the middle of a {beta}-strand, reduced the stability of the parent immunoglobulin VL domain by 2.0 kcal/mol and 5.3 kcal/mol, respectively. Because the Q89D mutant of the wild-type V{sub L}-Len domain was too unstable to be expressed as a soluble protein, we prepared the Q89D mutant in a triple mutant background, V{sub L}-Len M4L/Y27dD/T94H, which was 4.2 kcal/mol more stable than the wild-type V{sub L}-Len domain. The structures of mutants V{sub L}-Len Q38D and V{sub L}-Len Q89D/M4L/Y27dD/T94H were determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.6 A resolution. We found no major perturbances in the structures of these QD mutant proteins relative to structures of the parent proteins. The observed stability changes have to be accounted for by cumulative effects of the following several factors: (1) by changes in main-chain dihedral angles and in side-chain rotomers, (2) by close contacts between some atoms, and, most significantly, (3) by the unfavorable electrostatic interactions between the Asp side chain and the carbonyls of the main chain. We show that the Asn side chain, which is of similar size but neutral, is less destabilizing. The detrimental effect of Asp within a {beta}-sheet of an immunoglobulin-type domain can have very serious consequences. A somatic mutation of a {beta}-strand residue to Asp could prevent the expression of the domain both in vitro and in vivo, or it could contribute to the pathogenic potential of the protein in vivo.

  6. An exact collisionless equilibrium for the Force-Free Harris Sheet with low plasma beta

    SciTech Connect

    Allanson, O. Neukirch, T. Wilson, F. Troscheit, S.

    2015-10-15

    We present a first discussion and analysis of the physical properties of a new exact collisionless equilibrium for a one-dimensional nonlinear force-free magnetic field, namely, the force-free Harris sheet. The solution allows any value of the plasma beta, and crucially below unity, which previous nonlinear force-free collisionless equilibria could not. The distribution function involves infinite series of Hermite polynomials in the canonical momenta, of which the important mathematical properties of convergence and non-negativity have recently been proven. Plots of the distribution function are presented for the plasma beta modestly below unity, and we compare the shape of the distribution function in two of the velocity directions to a Maxwellian distribution.

  7. Microphase Separation Controlled beta-Sheet Crystallization Kinetics in Fibrous Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, X.; Lu, Q; Kaplan, D; Cebe, P

    2009-01-01

    Silk is a naturally occurring fibrous protein with a multiblock chain architecture. As such, it has many similarities with synthetic block copolymers, including the possibility for e-sheet crystallization restricted within the crystallizable blocks. The mechanism of isothermal crystallization kinetics of e-sheet crystals in silk multiblock fibrous proteins is reported in this study. Kinetics theories, such as Avrami analysis which was established for studies of synthetic polymer crystal growth, are for the first time extended to investigate protein self-assembly in e-sheet rich Bombyx mori silk fibroin samples, using time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and synchrotron real-time wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The Avrami exponent, n, was close to 2 for all methods and crystallization temperatures, indicating formation of e-sheet crystals in silk proteins is different from the 3-D spherulitic crystal growth found in synthetic polymers. Observations by scanning electron microscopy support the view that the protein structures vary during the different stages of crystal growth, and show a microphase separation pattern after chymotrypsin enzyme biodegradation. We present a model to explain the crystallization of the multiblock silk fibroin protein, by analogy to block copolymers: crystallization of e-sheets occurs under conditions of geometrical restriction caused by phase separation of the crystallizable and uncrystallizable blocks. This crystallization model could be widely applicable in other proteins with multiblock (i.e., crystallizable and noncrystallizable) domains.

  8. Designing biomaterials exploiting beta-sheet forming peptides self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiani, Alberto

    2013-03-01

    The use of non-covalent self-assembly to construct materials has become a prominent strategy in material science offering practical routes for the construction of increasingly functional materials for a variety of applications ranging from electronic to biotechnology. A variety of molecular building blocks can be used for this purpose, one such block that has attracted considerable attention are de-novo designed peptides. The library of 20 natural amino acids offers the ability to play with the intrinsic properties of the peptide such as structure, hydrophobicity, charge and functionality allowing the design of materials with a wide range of properties. The beta-sheet motif is of particular interest as short peptides can be designed to form beta-sheet rich fibres that entangle and consequently form hydrogels. These hydrogels can be further functionalised using specific biological signals or drugs by synthesising functionalised peptides that are incorporated into the hydrogel network during the self-assembling process. This functionalisation approach is very attractive has it does not require any chemistry avoiding therefore the use of additional potentially toxic chemicals. It also offers the possibility to introduce multiple functionalities in a straightforward fashion. The hydrogels can also be made responsive through the use of enzymatic catalysis and/or conjugation with responsive polymers. In this presentation we will discuss the design opportunities offered by these peptides to create new functional biomaterials.

  9. Strength limit of entropic elasticity in beta-sheet protein domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keten, Sinan; Buehler, Markus J.

    2008-12-01

    Elasticity and strength of individual beta-sheet protein domains govern key biological functions and the mechanical properties of biopolymers including spider silk, amyloids, and muscle fibers. The worm-like-chain (WLC) model is commonly used to describe the entropic elasticity of polypeptides and other biomolecules. However, force spectroscopy experiments have shown pronounced deviations from the ideal WLC behavior, leading to controversial views about the appropriate elastic description of proteins at nanoscale. Here we report a simple model that explains the physical mechanism that leads to the breakdown of the WLC idealization in experiments by using only two generic parameters of the protein domain, the H-bond energy and the protein backbone’s persistence length. We show that a rupture initiation condition characterized by the free energy release rate of H-bonds characterizes the limit of WLC entropic elasticity of beta-sheet protein domains and the onset of rupture. Our findings reveal that strength and elasticity are coupled and cannot be treated separately. The predictions of the model are compared with atomic force microscopy experiments of protein rupture.

  10. Modulation of aggregate size- and shape-distributions of the amyloid-beta peptide by a designed beta-sheet breaker.

    PubMed

    Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Demeler, Borries; Meyer-Zaika, Wolfgang; Hochdrffer, Katrin; Schrader, Thomas; Willbold, Dieter

    2010-02-01

    A peptide with 42 amino acid residues (Abeta42) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of the Alzheimer's disease. It is highly prone to self aggregation leading to the formation of fibrils which are deposited in amyloid plaques in the brain of diseased individuals. In our study we established a method to analyze the aggregation behavior of the Abeta peptide with a combination of sedimentation velocity centrifugation and enhanced data evaluation software as implemented in the software package UltraScan. Important information which becomes accessible by this methodology is the s-value distribution and concomitantly also the shape-distribution of the Abeta peptide aggregates generated by self-association. With this method we characterized the aggregation modifying effect of a designed beta-sheet breaker molecule. This compound is built from three head-to-tail connected aminopyrazole moieties and represents a derivative of the already described Tripyrazole. By addition of this compound to a solution of the Abeta42 peptide the maximum of the s-value distribution was clearly shifted to smaller s-values as compared to solutions where only the vehicle DMSO was added. This shift to smaller s-values was stable for at least 7 days. The information about size- and shape-distributions present in aggregated Abeta42 solutions was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and by measurement of amyloid formation by thioflavin T fluorescence. PMID:19238376

  11. A method to predict edge strands in beta-sheets from protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Guilloux, Antonin; Caudron, Bernard; Jestin, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for rules allowing three-dimensional structure information to be derived from protein sequences. In this work, consideration of an elementary protein folding step allows protein sub-sequences which optimize folding to be derived for any given protein sequence. Classical mechanics applied to this system and the energy conservation law during the elementary folding step yields an equation whose solutions are taken over the field of rational numbers. This formalism is applied to beta-sheets containing two edge strands and at least two central strands. The number of protein sub-sequences optimized for folding per amino acid in beta-strands is shown in particular to predict edge strands from protein sequences. Topological information on beta-strands and loops connecting them is derived for protein sequences with a prediction accuracy of 75%. The statistical significance of the finding is given. Applications in protein structure prediction are envisioned such as for the quality assessment of protein structure models. PMID:24688737

  12. Translocation efficiency of apolipoprotein B is determined by the presence of beta-sheet domains, not pause transfer sequences.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Junji; Conlon, Donna M; Liang, John J; Fisher, Edward A; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2006-09-15

    Cotranslational translocation of apoB100 across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane is inefficient, resulting in exposure of nascent apoB on the cytosolic surface of the ER. This predisposes apoB100 to ubiquitinylation and targeting for proteasomal degradation. It has been suggested that pause transfer sequences (PTS) present throughout apoB cause inefficient translocation. On the other hand, our previous study demonstrated that the translocation efficiency of apoB100 is dependent on the presence of a beta-sheet domain between 29 and 34% of full-length apoB100 (Liang, J.-S., Wu, X., Jiang, H., Zhou, M., Yang, H., Angkeow, P., Huang, L.-S., Sturley, S. L., and Ginsberg, H. N. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 35216-35221); this region of apoB has no PTS. However, the effects of the beta-sheet domain may require the presence of PTS elsewhere in the N-terminal region of apoB100. To further investigate the roles of PTS and beta-sheet domains in the translocation of apoB100 across the ER, we transfected McArdle RH7777, HepG2, or Chinese hamster ovary cells with human albumin (ALB)/human apoB chimeric cDNA constructs: ALB/B12-17 (two PTS but no beta-sheet), ALB/B29-34 (beta-sheet but no PTS), ALB/B36-41 (two PTS and a beta-sheet), and ALB/B49-54 (neither PTS nor a beta-sheet). ALB/ALB1-40 served as a control. Compared with ALB/ALB1-40, secretion rates of ALB/B12-17, ALB/B29-34, and ALB/B36-41 were reduced. Secretion of ALB/B49-54 was similar to that of ALB/ALB1-40. However, only ALB/B29-34 and ALB/B36-41 had increased proteinase K sensitivity, ubiquitinylation, and increased physical interaction with Sec61alpha. These results indicate that the translocation efficiency of apoB100 is determined mainly by the presence of beta-sheet domains. PTS do not appear to affect translocation, but may affect secretion by other mechanisms. PMID:16854991

  13. Collective behavior in two-dimensional biological systems: Receptor clustering and beta-sheet aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chinlin

    We studied two particular biomedical systems which exhibit collective molecular behavior. One is clustering of tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNFR1), and another is β-sheet folding and aggregation. Receptor clustering has been shown to be a crucial step in many signaling events but its biological meaning has not been adequately addressed. Here, via a simple lattice model, we show how cells use this clustering machinery to enhance sensitivity as well as robustness. On the other hand, intracellular deposition of aggregated protein rich in β-sheet is a prominent cytopathological feature of most neurodegenerative diseases. How this aggregation occurs and how it responds to therapy is not completely understood. Here, we started from a reconstruction of the H-bond potential and carry out a full investigation of β-sheet thermodynamics as well as kinetics. We show that β-sheet aggregation is most likely due to molecular stacking and found that the minimal length of an aggregate mutant polymer corresponds well with the number observed in adult Huntington's disease. We have also shown that molecular agents such as dendrimers might fail at high-dose therapy; instead, a potential therapy strategy is to block β-turn formation. Our predictions can be used for future experimental tests and clinical trials.

  14. I. The design, synthesis, and structure of antiparallel beta-sheet and beta-strand mimics. II. The design of a scripted chemistry outreach program to high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, Amy Sue

    I. Protein structure is not easily predicted from the linear sequence of amino acids. An increased ability to create protein structures would allow researchers to develop new peptide-based therapeutics and materials, and would provide insights into the mechanisms of protein folding. Toward this end, we have designed and synthesized two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet mimics containing conformationally biased scaffolds and semicarbazide, urea, and hydrazide linker groups that attach peptide chains to the scaffold. The mimics exhibited populations of intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded beta-sheet-like conformers as determined by spectroscopic techniques such as FTIR, sp1H NMR, and ROESY studies. During our studies, we determined that a urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimic was able to tightly hydrogen bond to peptides in an antiparallel beta-sheet-like configuration. Several derivatives of the urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimic were synthesized. Preliminary data by electron microscopy indicate that the beta-strand mimics have an effect on the folding of Alzheimer's Abeta peptide. These data suggest that the urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimics and related compounds may be developed into therapeutics which effect the folding of the Abeta peptide into neurotoxic aggregates. II. In recent years, there has been concern about the low level of science literacy and science interest among Americans. A declining interest in science impacts the abilities of people to make informed decisions about technology. To increase the interest in science among secondary students, we have developed the UCI Chemistry Outreach Program to High Schools. The Program features demonstration shows and discussions about chemistry in everyday life. The development and use of show scripts has enabled large numbers of graduate and undergraduate student volunteers to demonstrate chemistry to more than 12,000 local high school students. Teachers, students, and volunteers have expressed their enjoyment of The UCI Chemistry Outreach Program to High Schools.

  15. Singularity formation and nonlinear evolution of a viscous vortex sheet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik

    2013-01-01

    We study Dhanak's model [J. Fluid Mech. 269, 265 (1994)], 10.1017/S0022112094001552 of a viscous vortex sheet in the sharp limit, to investigate singularity formations and present nonlinear evolutions of the sheets. The finite-time singularity does not disappear by giving viscosity to the vortex sheet, but is delayed. The singularity in the sharp viscous vortex sheet is found to be different from that of the inviscid sheet in several features. A discontinuity in the curvature is formed in the viscous sheet, similarly as the inviscid sheet, but a cusp in the vortex sheet strength is less sharpened by viscosity. Exponential decay of the Fourier amplitudes is lost by the formation of the singularity, and the amplitudes of high wavenumbers exhibit an algebraic decay, while in the inviscid vortex sheet, the algebraic decay of the Fourier amplitudes is valid from fairly small wavenumbers. The algebraic decay rate of the viscous vortex sheet is approximately -2.5, independent of viscosity, which is the same rate as the asymptotic analysis of the inviscid sheet. Results for evolutions of the regularized vortex sheets show that the roll-up is weakened by viscosity, and the regularization parameter has more significant effects on the fine-structure of the core than does viscosity.

  16. A mixed helix-beta-sheet model of the transmembrane region of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Ortells, M O; Lunt, G G

    1996-01-01

    We have modelled the transmembrane region of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as a mixed alpha-helical/beta-sheet structure. The model was mainly based on the crystal structure of a pore-forming toxin, heat-labile enterotoxin. This is a pentameric protein having a central pore or channel composed of five alpha-helices, one from each of the 5 B subunits that form this pentamer. The remainder of this structure is beta-sheet, loops and a short alpha-helix, not included in the model. The model uses this channel as a template to build the transmembrane region, from M1 to the middle of M3. The remainder of M3 and M4 were built de novo as alpha-helices. Great consideration was given to labelling data available for the transmembrane region. In general terms, the shape of the model agrees very well with that obtained independently by electron microscopic analysis and the secondary structure predicted by the model is in accord with that estimated independently by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The M2 helical region of the model is only slightly kinked, contrary to what is inferred from electron microscopic analysis, but has the same overall shape and form. On the membrane face of the model, the presence of deep pockets may provide the structural basis for the distinction between annular and non-annular lipid binding sites. Also, the transmembrane region is clearly asymmetric in the direction perpendicular to the membrane, and this may have strong influence on the surrounding lipid composition of each leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:9053903

  17. Reversible Hydrogel–Solution System of Silk with High Beta-Sheet Content

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Silkworm silk has been widely used as a textile fiber, as biomaterials and in optically functional materials due to its extraordinary properties. The β-sheet-rich natural nanofiber units of about 10–50 nm in diameter are often considered the origin of these properties, yet it remains unclear how silk self-assembles into these hierarchical structures. A new system composed of β-sheet-rich silk nanofibers about 10–20 nm in diameter is reported here, where these nanofibers formed into “flowing hydrogels” at 0.5–2% solutions and could be transformed back into the solution state at lower concentrations, even with a high β-sheet content. This is in contrast with other silk processed materials, where significant β-sheet content negates reversibility between solution and solid states. These fibers are formed by regulating the self-assembly process of silk in aqueous solution, which changes the distribution of negative charges while still supporting β-sheet formation in the structures. Mechanistically, there appears to be a shift toward negative charges along the outside of the silk nanofibers in our present study, resulting in a higher zeta potential (above −50 mV) than previous silk materials which tend to be below −30 mV. The higher negative charge on silk nanofibers resulted in electrostatic repulsion strong enough to negate further assembly of the nanofibers. Changing silk concentration changed the balance between hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic repulsion of β-sheet-rich silk nanofibers, resulting in reversible hydrogel–solution transitions. Furthermore, the silk nanofibers could be disassembled into shorter fibers and even nanoparticles upon ultrasonic treatment following the transition from hydrogel to solution due to the increased dispersion of hydrophobic smaller particles, without the loss of β-sheet content, and with retention of the ability to transition between hydrogel and solution states through reversion to longer nanofibers during self-assembly. These reversible solution-hydrogel transitions were tunable with ultrasonic intensity, time, or temperature. PMID:25056606

  18. Reversible hydrogel-solution system of silk with high beta-sheet content.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shumeng; Zhang, Xiuli; Lu, Qiang; Sheng, Weiqin; Liu, Lijie; Dong, Boju; Kaplan, David L; Zhu, Hesun

    2014-08-11

    Silkworm silk has been widely used as a textile fiber, as biomaterials and in optically functional materials due to its extraordinary properties. The β-sheet-rich natural nanofiber units of about 10-50 nm in diameter are often considered the origin of these properties, yet it remains unclear how silk self-assembles into these hierarchical structures. A new system composed of β-sheet-rich silk nanofibers about 10-20 nm in diameter is reported here, where these nanofibers formed into "flowing hydrogels" at 0.5-2% solutions and could be transformed back into the solution state at lower concentrations, even with a high β-sheet content. This is in contrast with other silk processed materials, where significant β-sheet content negates reversibility between solution and solid states. These fibers are formed by regulating the self-assembly process of silk in aqueous solution, which changes the distribution of negative charges while still supporting β-sheet formation in the structures. Mechanistically, there appears to be a shift toward negative charges along the outside of the silk nanofibers in our present study, resulting in a higher zeta potential (above -50 mV) than previous silk materials which tend to be below -30 mV. The higher negative charge on silk nanofibers resulted in electrostatic repulsion strong enough to negate further assembly of the nanofibers. Changing silk concentration changed the balance between hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic repulsion of β-sheet-rich silk nanofibers, resulting in reversible hydrogel-solution transitions. Furthermore, the silk nanofibers could be disassembled into shorter fibers and even nanoparticles upon ultrasonic treatment following the transition from hydrogel to solution due to the increased dispersion of hydrophobic smaller particles, without the loss of β-sheet content, and with retention of the ability to transition between hydrogel and solution states through reversion to longer nanofibers during self-assembly. These reversible solution-hydrogel transitions were tunable with ultrasonic intensity, time, or temperature. PMID:25056606

  19. Hybrid modeling of the formation and structure of thin current sheets in the magnetotail

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, M.; Winske, D.; Birn, J.

    1996-07-01

    Hybrid simulations are used to investigate the formation of a thin current sheet inside the plasma sheet of a magnetotail-like configuration. The initial equilibrium is subjected to a driving electric field qualitatively similar to what would be expected from solar wind driving. As a result, we find the formation of a raw current sheet, with a thickness of approximately the ion inertial length. The current density inside the current sheet region is supplied largely by the electrons. Ion acceleration in the cross-tail direction is absent due since the driving electric field fails to penetrate into the equatorial region.

  20. Equilibria, Dynamics, and Current Sheet Formation in Magnetically Confined Coronae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappazzo, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of magnetic fields in closed regions of solar and stellar coronae are investigated with a reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model in the framework of the Parker scenario for coronal heating. A novel analysis of reduced MHD equilibria shows that their magnetic fields have an asymmetric structure in the axial direction with variation length scale zℓ ˜ ℓB0/b, where B0 is the intensity of the strong axial guide field, b that of the orthogonal magnetic field component, and ℓ the scale of {\\boldsymbol{b}}. Equilibria are then quasi-invariant along the axial direction for variation scales larger than approximatively the loop length zℓ ≳ Lz, and increasingly more asymmetric for smaller variation scales zℓ ≲ Lz. The critical length zℓ ˜ Lz corresponds to the magnetic field intensity threshold b ˜ ℓB0/Lz. Magnetic fields stressed by photospheric motions cannot develop strong axial asymmetries. Therefore, fields with intensities below such a threshold evolve quasi-statically, readjusting to a nearby equilibrium, without developing nonlinear dynamics or dissipating energy. But stronger fields cannot access their corresponding asymmetric equilibria hence, they are out of equilibrium and develop nonlinear dynamics. The subsequent formation of current sheets and energy dissipation is necessary for the magnetic field to relax to equilibrium, since dynamically accessible equilibria have variation scales larger than the loop length zℓ ≳ Lz, with intensities smaller than the threshold b ≲ ℓB0/Lz. The dynamical implications for magnetic fields of interest to solar and stellar coronae are investigated numerically and the impact on coronal physics discussed.

  1. Membrane Pore Formation by Amyloid beta (25-35) Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Nabin; Tatulian, Suren

    Amyloid (A β) peptide contributes to Alzheimer's disease by a yet unidentified mechanism. One of the possible mechanisms of A β toxicity is formation of pores in cellular membranes. We have characterized the formation of pores in phospholipid membranes by the Aβ25 - 35 peptide (GSNKGAIIGLM) using fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. CD and FTIR identified formation of β-sheet structure upon incubation of the peptide in aqueous buffer for 2 hours. Unilamellar vesicles composed of a zwitterionic lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), and 70 % POPC plus 30 % of an acidic lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), are made in 30 mM CaCl2. Quin-2, a fluorophore that displays increased fluorescence upon Ca2+ binding, is added to the vesicles externally. Peptide addition results in increased Quin-2 fluorescence, which is interpreted by binding of the peptide to the vesicles, pore formation, and Ca2+ leakage. The positive and negative control measurements involve addition of a detergent, Triton X-100, which causes vesicle rupture and release of total calcium, and blank buffer, respectively.

  2. Benchmarking the Thermodynamic Analysis of Water Molecules Around a Model Beta Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Water molecules play a vital role in biological and engineered systems by controlling intermolecular interactions in the aqueous phase. Inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory provides a method to quantify solvent thermodynamics from molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations and provides an insight into intermolecular interactions. In this study, simulations of TIP4P-2005 and TIP5P-Ewald water molecules around a model beta sheet are used to investigate the orientational correlations and predicted thermodynamic properties of water molecules at a protein surface. This allows the method to be benchmarked and provides information about the effect of a protein on the thermodynamics of nearby water molecules. The results show that the enthalpy converges with relatively little sampling, but the entropy and thus the free energy require considerably more sampling to converge. The two water models yield a very similar pattern of hydration sites and these hydration sites have very similar thermodynamic properties, despite notable differences in their orientational preferences. The results also show that a protein surface affects the free energy of water molecules to a distance of approximately 4.0 Å, which is in line with previous work. In addition, all hydration sites have a favourable free energy with respect to bulk water, but only when the water-water entropy term is included. A new technique for calculating this term is presented and its use is expected to be very important in accurately calculating solvent thermodynamics for quantitative application. PMID:22457119

  3. Current Sheet Formation in a Conical Theta Pinch Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Hallock, Ashley K.; Choueiri, Edgar Y.

    2008-01-01

    Data from an inductive conical theta pinch accelerator are presented to gain insight into the process of inductive current sheet formation in the presence of a preionized background gas produced by a steady-state RF-discharge. The presence of a preionized plasma has been previously shown to allow for current sheet formation at lower discharge voltages and energies than those found in other pulsed inductive accelerator concepts, leading to greater accelerator efficiencies at lower power levels. Time-resolved magnetic probe measurements are obtained for different background pressures and pulse energies to characterize the effects of these parameters on current sheet formation. Indices are defined that describe time-resolved current sheet characteristics, such as the total current owing in the current sheet, the time-integrated total current ('strength'), and current sheet velocity. It is found that for a given electric field strength, maximums in total current, strength, and velocity occur for one particular background pressure. At other pressures, these current sheet indices are considerably smaller. The trends observed in these indices are explained in terms of the principles behind Townsend breakdown that lead to a dependence on the ratio of the electric field to the background pressure. Time-integrated photographic data are also obtained at the same experimental conditions, and qualitatively they compare quite favorably with the time-resolved magnetic field data.

  4. Development of the dual scintillator sheet and Phoswich detector for simultaneous Alpha- and Beta-rays measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B.K.; Kim, G.H.; Park, C.H.; Jung, Y.H.; Jung, C.H.; Lee, K.W.; Han, M.J.

    2007-07-01

    Thin sheet type of ZnS(Ag)/plastic dual scintillator for simultaneous counting of alpha- and beta-particles using a organic and inorganic scintillator widely used in the radiation measurement was manufactured, which could be applicable in the contamination monitoring systems. Counting materials were manufactured by solidification of the scintillator solution which mixed scintillator, solvent, and polymer. Prepared dual scintillator is a counting material which can simultaneously measure the alpha- and beta-particles. It was divided into two parts : an inorganic scintillator layer for alpha-particle detection and an organic one for beta-particle detection. The organic layer was composed of 2,5-diphenyloxazole [PPO] and 1,4,-bis[5-phenyl(oxazolyl)benzene] [POPOP] acting as the scintillator and polysulfone acting as the polymer. The inorganic layer was composed of ZnS(Ag) as scintillator and polysulfone as paste. The ZnS(Ag) scintillator layer was printed onto the organic layer using screen printing method. To estimate the detection ability of the prepared counting materials, alpha-particle emitting nuclide, Am-241, and beta emitting nuclide, Sr/Y-90, were used. The scintillations produced by interaction between radiation and scintillator were measured by photomultiplier tube. The overall counting results reveal that the developed detector is efficient for simultaneous counting of alpha- and beta-particles. For application test, the dual scintillator was fabricated with a Phoswich detector for monitoring the in-pipe alpha and beta contamination. To deploy inside a pipe, two types of Phoswich detectors, sheets and cylinders, were prepared. For in-pipe monitoring, it was found that the cylindrical type was excellent. In the study, polymer composite counting material and Phoswich detectors were prepared using organic and inorganic scintillator for detecting different radiations. In the future, it will be applied to the contamination monitoring system for nuclear decommissioning sites, waste treatment sites, and similar areas. (authors)

  5. The peculiarities of formation of thin current sheet in the Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropotkin, Alexey; Artemyev, Anton; Malova, Helmi; Domrin, Vladimir

    We investigate the process of self-consistent thinning of magnetotail current sheet in the presence of the evolving magnetic field normal component Bz, which usually decreases during the substorm growth phase. Using PIC codes to describe plasma processes with ions becoming demagnetized and electrons being considered as the cold neutralizing background, we show that the appearance of the self-consistent electric field component inside CS can lead to the current sheet thinning and to the appearance of an extremely thin current sheet with thickness close to the ion gyroradius. Due to particle [ExB] drift during the current sheet evolution, the enhanced trapping of ions near the current sheet central plane takes place. It is shown that the density of quasi-trapped particles around current sheet at the final stage depends on both the value of the initial magnetic field normal component Bz, and the speed of the Bz decrease. If the initial magnetic field normal component is less than about 0.14 of the tangential field at the edges, the trapped plasma density near the current sheet is small. As a result, the above mentioned extremely thin current sheet is formed. In the opposite case, when the initial normal component related to the tangential field is larger than 0.14, the density of trapped particles is much higher, which produces effective thickening of the current sheet. In both cases transient (Speiser) ions are the main current carriers, but in the second case local diamagnetic currents of the trapped plasma perturb the сurrent sheet profile making it thicker. Also trapped particles can be responsible for intense negative currents at the current sheet edges. During the Bz decrease, an additional effect of ion polarization drifts in the Y direction can compete with these negative diamagnetic fields of quasi-trapped ions. Therefore the ion dynamics is probably the general mechanism which contributes to the formation of thin current sheet and its fine structure.

  6. [Neutralization of static electricity charged on running vinyl chloride sheet by the use of soft beta-ray sources (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Itakura, K; Wada, N

    1978-04-01

    The feasibility of 147Pm and 3H beta-ray sources as static eliminator was experimentally investigated. A sheet of vinyl chloride of 0.1 mm in thickness was used as an example of electrified materials. Its surface charge densities before and after beta-ray neutralization were measured as the function of electrostatic charge changing the speed of the sheet and the distance between the beta-ray source and the sheet. With a 147Pm beta-ray source of 200mCi in effective activity, almost complete neutralization was found for the sheet with the charge density less than 6 X 10(-6) C/m2 running at the speed of 0.18 m/s. In the case of the running speed of 0.5 m/s frequently used in industry, the electrostatic charge below 3 X 10(6) C/m2, where corona discharger is not so effective, was also perfectly eliminated. It was found that the optimal distance between the beta-ray source and the sheet was 10 cm in the case of 147Pm. The use of 3H beta-ray source of 1 Ci was not satisfactory. These results demonstrate that 147 Pm beta-ray source operates most efficiently as static eliminator when the charge density of material and/or its moving speed is not high. PMID:663315

  7. Spontaneous formation of electric current sheets and the origin of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, B. C.; Wolfson, R.

    1988-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the continuous boundary motion of a sheared magnetic field in a tenuous plasma with an infinite electrical conductivity can induce the formation of multiple electric current sheets in the interior plasma. In response to specific footpoint displacements, the quadrupolar magnetic field considered is shown to require the formation of multiple electric current sheets as it achieves a force-free state. Some of the current sheets are found to be of finite length, running along separatrix lines of force which separate lobes of magnetic flux. It is suggested that current sheets in the form of infinitely thin magnetic shear layers may be unstable to resistive tearing, a process which may have application to solar flares.

  8. Effects of side-chain orientation on the 13C chemical shifts of antiparallel beta-sheet model peptides.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Myriam E; Vila, Jorge A; Scheraga, Harold A

    2007-02-01

    The dependence of the (13)C chemical shift on side-chain orientation was investigated at the density functional level for a two-strand antiparallel beta-sheet model peptide represented by the amino acid sequence Ac-(Ala)(3)-X-(Ala)(12)-NH(2) where X represents any of the 17 naturally occurring amino acids, i.e., not including alanine, glycine and proline. The dihedral angles adopted for the backbone were taken from, and fixed at, observed experimental values of an antiparallel beta-sheet. We carried out a cluster analysis of the ensembles of conformations generated by considering the side-chain dihedral angles for each residue X as variables, and use them to compute the (13)C chemical shifts at the density functional theory level. It is shown that the adoption of the locally-dense basis set approach for the quantum chemical calculations enabled us to reduce the length of the chemical-shift calculations while maintaining good accuracy of the results. For the 17 naturally occurring amino acids in an antiparallel beta-sheet, there is (i) good agreement between computed and observed (13)C(alpha) and (13)C(beta) chemical shifts, with correlation coefficients of 0.95 and 0.99, respectively; (ii) significant variability of the computed (13)C(alpha) and (13)C(beta) chemical shifts as a function of chi(1) for all amino acid residues except Ser; and (iii) a smaller, although significant, dependence of the computed (13)C(alpha) chemical shifts on chi(xi) (with xi > or = 2) compared to chi(1) for eleven out of seventeen residues. Our results suggest that predicted (13)C(alpha) and (13)C(beta) chemical shifts, based only on backbone (phi,psi) dihedral angles from high-resolution X-ray structure data or from NMR-derived models, may differ significantly from those observed in solution if the dihedral-angle preferences for the side chains are not taken into account. PMID:17180547

  9. Current sheet formation and the plasmoid instability in large, hyperresistive Hall MHD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Sullivan, Brian; Huang, Yi-Min

    2010-11-01

    Recently, it has become clear that in high Lundquist number, resistive MHD simulations of magnetic reconnection, a super-Alfvénic plasmoid instability may significantly alter the dynamics of the reconnection process. Collisionless particle-in-cell simulations also exhibit copious plasmoid formation. Resistive Hall MHD simulations have been only recently shown to demonstrate similar behavior. Here it is found that not only resistive current sheets, but also current sheets in the presence of hyperresistivity or electron viscosity can exhibit violent plasmoid formation. We delineate the requirements for plasmoid formation in Hall MHD systems under such conditions. For sufficiently large Hall MHD systems, there exists a range of hyperresistivity for which plasmoids appear significant in generating sub-ion skin depth scale current sheets and in triggering Hall reconnection. In the plasmoid-unstable regime, previously obtained scaling laws for the dependence of the reconnection rate on hyperresistvity are altered, leading to regime where the reconnection rate becomes weakly dependent on hyperresistivity.

  10. Estradiol improves cerebellar memory formation by activating estrogen receptor beta.

    PubMed

    Andreescu, Corina E; Milojkovic, Bogdan A; Haasdijk, Elize D; Kramer, Piet; De Jong, Frank H; Krust, Andrée; De Zeeuw, Chris I; De Jeu, Marcel T G

    2007-10-01

    Learning motor skills is critical for motor abilities such as driving a car or playing piano. The speed at which we learn those skills is subject to many factors. Yet, it is not known to what extent gonadal hormones can affect the achievement of accurate movements in time and space. Here we demonstrate via different lines of evidence that estradiol promotes plasticity in the cerebellar cortex underlying motor learning. First, we show that estradiol enhances induction of long-term potentiation at the parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapse, whereas it does not affect long-term depression; second, we show that estradiol activation of estrogen receptor beta receptors in Purkinje cells significantly improves gain-decrease adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, whereas it does not affect general eye movement performance; and third, we show that estradiol increases the density of parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses, whereas it does not affect the density of climbing fiber synapses. We conclude that estradiol can improve motor skills by potentiating cerebellar plasticity and synapse formation. These processes may be advantageous during periods of high estradiol levels of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. PMID:17913916

  11. The solubilization of model Alzheimer tangles: reversing the beta-sheet conformation induced by aluminum with silicates.

    PubMed

    Fasman, G D; Moore, C D

    1994-11-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles are one of two lesions found in the brain of Alzheimer disease victims. With synthetic peptide fragments of human neurofilament NF-M17 (Glu-Glu-Lys-Gly-Lys-Ser-Pro- Val-Pro-Lys-Ser-Pro-Val-Glu-Glu-Lys-Gly, phosphorylated and unphosphorylated), CD studies were done to examine the effect of sodium orthosilicate on the conformational state produced by Al3+ on fragments of neuronal proteins. Previous studies had shown a conformational transition from alpha-helix and random to beta-pleated sheet upon addition of Al3+ to both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated peptides. If sufficient quantities of Al3+ are added, the peptide precipitates from solution. The ability to reverse or slow the progression of aggregation was examined. Al3+ binding was reversed with 1-2 molar equivalents of sodium orthosilicate (with respect to Al3+), altering the conformation from beta-sheet to random coil and resulting in a CD spectrum similar to that of the initial peptide. The tight binding of the SiO4(4-) with the Al3+ provides the mechanism for this transition. These results provide additional information toward understanding the role of aluminum in the Alzheimer diseased brain and suggest the investigation of the possible use of silicates as a therapeutic agent. PMID:7972040

  12. Self-trapped vibrational states in synthetic beta-sheet helices.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Erik; Bodis, Pavol; Koepf, Matthieu; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Rowan, Alan E; Woutersen, Sander; Nolte, Roeland J M

    2009-08-21

    Femtosecond vibrational pump-probe spectroscopy on beta-helical polyisocyanopeptides reveals vibrational self-trapping in the well-defined hydrogen-bonded side groups that is absent when non-hydrogen bonded monomers are mixed in. PMID:19641806

  13. I32E and V36K double mutation in beta2-sheet abrogates amyloid beta peptide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sarada; Mishra, Pradeep Kumar; Bandopadhyay, Debashree

    2010-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, wherein, the accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide as cytotoxic oligomers leads to neuropathologic changes. Transgenic mice with brain Abeta plaques immunized with aggregated Abeta have reduced amyloid burden and improved cognitive functions. However, such active immunization in humans led to a small but significant occurrence of meningoencephalitis in 6% AD volunteers due to Abeta induced toxicity. In an attempt to develop safer alternative vaccines, the design of a highly soluble peptide homologous to Abeta (Abeta-EK), that has a reduced amyloidogenic potential while maintaining the major immunogenic epitopes of Abeta is reported. More importantly, this homologue has been shown to be non-toxic, as this peptide failed to exert any observable effect on erythrocytes. The results of the present study suggests that immunization with non-toxic Abeta derivative may offer a safer therapeutic approach to AD, instead of using toxic Abeta fibrils. PMID:21117449

  14. Bond formation in ultrasonically welded aluminum sheet metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkosz, Daniel Edward

    Ultrasonic welding (USW), a solid state joining technology, has been used to bond aluminum alloys commonly used in the automotive industry. Bonding occurs due to USW's high frequency (˜20 kHz) in-plane vibration of sample interfaces while being held under moderate clamp pressure normal to the plane of vibration. Vibration and clamp pressure are transmitted into bond formation via contact with a weld-tip. To better understand how weld-tip geometry affected bond formation, experiments were conducted to quantify how tip geometry influenced plastic deformation characteristics between fully welded coupons of 0.9mm thick AA6111-T4 aluminum alloy. Weld-interface microstructure features were documented by optical microscopy and features quantified in a 19 point matrix. Correlation between microstructure features, such as rolling-wakes, and resulting weld bond strengths of more than 3.0kN is made. Weld zone microstructure features appear to result from deformation at and severe migration of the original weld interface during USW. To confirm this hypothesis, intrinsic and extrinsic markers were employed to monitor weld interface deformation characteristics. Various physical and analytical techniques were used in conjunction with these markers to show that joining of "like" and "dislike" aluminum samples is achieved through mechanical mixing of mating interfaces and not by elemental diffusion. It is also hypothesized that severe deformation of the original interface would result in areas of high residual strain within a formed weld zone. To investigate this and the influence that tip geometry may have on residual strain, fully welded samples were annealed at 500°C for a controlled period of time and recovery, recrystallization and grain growth characteristics were monitored. In all welds, initial recrystallization and grain growth occurred at the outer ends of weld zones and along weld interfaces where the most turbulent mixing and grain size reduction was observed. Similarity in how all welds responded to annealing indicates that the tip geometries investigated had little influence on resulting weld formation. This claim is further supported by lap-shear failure load data for welds made with these tips being within statistical error of each other.

  15. Beta sheets with a twist: the conformation of helical polyisocyanopeptides determined by using vibrational circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Erik; Liégeois, Vincent; Koepf, Matthieu; Bodis, Pavol; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Brocorens, Patrick; Beljonne, David; Nolte, Roeland J M; Rowan, Alan E; Woutersen, Sander; Champagne, Benoît

    2013-09-23

    Detailed information on the architecture of polyisocyanopeptides based on vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy in combination with DFT calculations is presented. It is demonstrated that the screw sense of the helical polyisocyanides can be determined directly from the C=N-stretch vibrational region of the VCD spectrum. Analysis of the VCD signals associated with the amide I and amide II modes provides detailed information on the peptide side-chain arrangement in the polymer and indicates the presence of a helical β-sheet architecture, in which the dihedral angles are slightly different to those of natural β-sheet helices. PMID:23939984

  16. Vibrational self-trapping in beta-sheet structures observed with femtosecond nonlinear infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodis, Pavol; Schwartz, Erik; Koepf, Matthieu; Cornelissen, Jeroen J. L. M.; Rowan, Alan E.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; Woutersen, Sander

    2009-09-01

    Self-trapping of NH-stretch vibrational excitations in synthetic β-sheet helices is observed using femtosecond infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. In a dialanine-based β-sheet helix, the transient-absorption change upon exciting the NH-stretch mode exhibits a negative absorption change at the fundamental frequency and two positive peaks at lower frequencies. These two induced-absorption peaks are characteristic for a state in which the vibrational excitation is self-trapped on essentially a single NH-group in the hydrogen-bonded NH⋯OC chain, forming a small (Holstein) vibrational polaron. By engineering the structure of the polymer we can disrupt the hydrogen-bonded NH⋯OC chain, allowing us to eliminate the self-trapping, as is confirmed from the NH-stretch pump-probe response. We also investigate a trialanine-based β-sheet helix, where each side chain participates in two NH⋯OC chains with different hydrogen-bond lengths. The chain with short hydrogen bonds shows the same self-trapping behavior as the dialanine-based β-sheet helix, whereas in the chain with long hydrogen bonds the self-trapping is too weak to be observable.

  17. EGCG Inhibited Lipofuscin Formation Based on Intercepting Amyloidogenic β-Sheet-Rich Structure Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shuxian; Yang, Heng; Zeng, Kewu; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Ni; Wang, Yingzi; Ye, Jing; Tu, Pengfei; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Background Lipofuscin (LF) is formed during lipid peroxidation and sugar glycosylation by carbonyl-amino crosslinks with biomacrolecules, and accumulates slowly within postmitotic cells. The environmental pollution, modern dietary culture and lifestyle changes have been found to be the major sources of reactive carbonyl compounds in vivo. Irreversible carbonyl-amino crosslinks induced by carbonyl stress are essentially toxiferous for aging-related functional losses in modern society. Results show that (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the main polyphenol in green tea, can neutralize the carbonyl-amino cross-linking reaction and inhibit LF formation, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Methods and Results We explored the mechanism of the neutralization process from protein, cell, and animal levels using spectrofluorometry, infrared spectroscopy, conformation antibodies, and electron microscopy. LF demonstrated an amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich with antiparallel structure, which accelerated the carbonyl-amino crosslinks formation and disrupted proteolysis in both PC12 cells and D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain aging mice models. Additionally, EGCG effectively inhibited the formation of the amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich structure of LF, and prevented its conversion into toxic and on-pathway aggregation intermediates, thereby cutting off the carbonyl-amino crosslinks. Conclusions Our study indicated that the amyloidogenic β-sheet structure of LF may be the core driving force for carbonyl-amino crosslinks further formation, which mediates the formation of amyloid fibrils from native state of biomacrolecules. That EGCG exhibits anti-amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich structure properties to prevent the LF formation represents a novel strategy to impede the development of degenerative processes caused by ageing or stress-induced premature senescence in modern environments. PMID:27030967

  18. Designed α-sheet peptides inhibit amyloid formation by targeting toxic oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Hopping, Gene; Kellock, Jackson; Barnwal, Ravi Pratap; Law, Peter; Bryers, James; Varani, Gabriele; Caughey, Byron; Daggett, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the toxic soluble-oligomeric form of different amyloid proteins share a common backbone conformation, but the amorphous nature of this oligomer prevents its structural characterization by experiment. Based on molecular dynamics simulations we proposed that toxic intermediates of different amyloid proteins adopt a common, nonstandard secondary structure, called α-sheet. Here we report the experimental characterization of peptides designed to be complementary to the α-sheet conformation observed in the simulations. We demonstrate inhibition of aggregation in two different amyloid systems, β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and transthyretin, by these designed α-sheet peptides. When immobilized the α-sheet designs preferentially bind species from solutions enriched in the toxic conformer compared with non-aggregated, nontoxic species or mature fibrils. The designs display characteristic spectroscopic signatures distinguishing them from conventional secondary structures, supporting α-sheet as a structure involved in the toxic oligomer stage of amyloid formation and paving the way for novel therapeutics and diagnostics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01681.001 PMID:25027691

  19. Research of vacancy defect formation on the surface of two-dimensional boron sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroznina, E. V.; Zhiganova, T. A.; Boroznin, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanism of vacancy defect formation on the surface of two types of BS: triangular BS (TBS), α-sheet (αBS) have been calculated within the model of molecular cluster with the use of quantum chemical MNDO scheme. The process of atomic vacancy formation of BS has been modeled by step-by-step abstraction of one central boron atom. Incremental method allowed us to build energy curves for vacancy formation process. The process of vacancy migration on the BS surface has also have been investigated, and more probable paths of migration have been found.

  20. Formation and Reconnection of Three-dimensional Current Sheets in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2010-07-01

    Current-sheet formation and magnetic reconnection are believed to be the basic physical processes responsible for much of the activity observed in astrophysical plasmas, such as the Sun's corona. We investigate these processes for a magnetic configuration consisting of a uniform background field and an embedded line dipole, a topology that is expected to be ubiquitous in the corona. This magnetic system is driven by a uniform horizontal flow applied at the line-tied photosphere. Although both the initial field and the driver are translationally symmetric, the resulting evolution is calculated using a fully three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic simulation with adaptive mesh refinement that resolves the current sheet and reconnection dynamics in detail. The advantage of our approach is that it allows us to directly apply the vast body of knowledge gained from the many studies of two-dimensional (2D) reconnection to the fully 3D case. We find that a current sheet forms in close analogy to the classic Syrovatskii 2D mechanism, but the resulting evolution is different than expected. The current sheet is globally stable, showing no evidence for a disruption or a secondary instability even for aspect ratios as high as 80:1. The global evolution generally follows the standard Sweet-Parker 2D reconnection model except for an accelerated reconnection rate at a very thin current sheet, due to the tearing instability and the formation of magnetic islands. An interesting conclusion is that despite the formation of fully 3D structures at small scales, the system remains close to 2D at global scales. We discuss the implications of our results for observations of the solar corona.

  1. Formation and Reconnection of Three-Dimensional Current Sheets in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Justin K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C.; Velli, M.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2010-05-01

    Current-sheet formation and magnetic reconnection are believed to be the basic physical processes responsible for much of the activity observed in astrophysical plasmas, such as interchange reconnection at the boundaries between coronal holes and helmet streamers in the Sun's corona. We investigate these processes for a magnetic configuration consisting of a uniform background field and an embedded line dipole, a topology that is expected to be ubiquitous in the corona. This magnetic system is driven by a uniform horizontal flow applied at the line-tied photosphere. Although both the initial field and the driver are translationally symmetric, the resulting evolution is calculated using a fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) simulation with adaptive mesh refinement that resolves the current sheet and reconnection dynamics in detail. The advantage of our approach is that it allows us to apply directly the vast body of knowledge gained from the many studies of 2D reconnection to the fully 3D case. We find that a current sheet forms in close analogy to the classic Syrovatskii 2D mechanism, but the resulting evolution is different than expected. The current sheet is globally stable, showing no evidence for a disruption or a secondary instability even for aspect ratios as high as 80:1. The global evolution generally follows the standard Sweet-Parker 2D reconnection model except for an accelerated reconnection rate at a very thin current sheet, due to the tearing instability and the formation of magnetic islands. An interesting conclusion is that despite the formation of fully 3D structures at small scales, the system remains close to 2D at global scales. We discuss the implications of our results for observations of the solar corona.

  2. Formation and Reconnection of Three-Dimensional Current Sheets in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    Current-sheet formation and magnetic reconnection are believed to be the basic physical processes responsible for much of the activity observed in astrophysical plasmas, such as the Sun s corona. We investigate these processes for a magnetic configuration consisting of a uniform background field and an embedded line dipole, a topology that is expected to be ubiquitous in the corona. This magnetic system is driven by a uniform horizontal flow applied at the line-tied photosphere. Although both the initial field and the driver are translationally symmetric, the resulting evolution is calculated using a fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) simulation with adaptive mesh refinement that resolves the current sheet and reconnection dynamics in detail. The advantage of our approach is that it allows us to apply directly the vast body of knowledge gained from the many studies of 2D reconnection to the fully 3D case. We find that a current sheet forms in close analogy to the classic Syrovatskii 2D mechanism, but the resulting evolution is different than expected. The current sheet is globally stable, showing no evidence for a disruption or a secondary instability even for aspect ratios as high as 80:1. The global evolution generally follows the standard Sweet- Parker 2D reconnection model except for an accelerated reconnection rate at a very thin current sheet, due to the tearing instability and the formation of magnetic islands. An interesting conclusion is that despite the formation of fully 3D structures at small scales, the system remains close to 2D at global scales. We discuss the implications of our results for observations of the solar corona. Subject Headings: Sun: corona Sun: magnetic fields Sun: reconnection

  3. Factors contributing to the formation of sheeting joints: A study of sheeting joints on a dome in Yosemite National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Kelly J.

    Sheeting joints (shallow, surface-parallel, opening-mode rock fractures) are widespread and have been studied for centuries. They are commonly attributed to removal of overburden by erosion, but erosion alone cannot open a sheeting joint. I test an alternative hypothesis that sheeting joints open in response to surface-parallel compression along a convex topographic surface using field observations, a large-scale fracture map, and analyses of stresses, slopes, and surface-curvatures (derived from aerial laser altimetry data) for a dome along Tenaya Creek in Yosemite National Park. Approximately 90% of the surface of detailed study is convex in at least one direction. Existing stresses and topography there can account for the nature and distribution of sheeting joints on the doubly-convex surfaces. Sheeting joints parallel and constitute the surface where the surface is doubly convex. Elsewhere, sheeting joints daylight, implying the surface has been eroded since the sheeting joints formed. My findings support the hypothesis.

  4. Dynamically stable beta-sheets in Cu-initiated misfolding of α-synuclein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Francis; Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2008-03-01

    The human protein α-synuclein has been implicated as a central constituent in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson disease it is even thought to be the causative link. α-synuclein can be stimulated to aggregate into deleterious fibrillar structures by mutation, metal binding, and agitation. In particular, Cu^2+ has been found in high concentrations in neural tissues of Parkinson sufferers. We propose a scenario involving the metal ion Cu^2+ as the misfolding β-sheet initiator of fibrillogenesis. A model fragment of the metal-bound protein was investigated using DFT to obtain conformational details of the energetically favorable geometries. Feasible β-sheet structures incorporating the DFT geometries were explored using heuristic β-sheet guidelines and inverse kinematics. The resulting structures were tested for dynamic stability by simulating the fully solvated protein by classical MD constrained by the DFT geometries. Our results indicate that dynamically stable structures exist and that the metal binding is directly responsible for initiating misfolding.

  5. Formation of betaA3/betaB2-crystallin mixed complexes: involvement of N- and C-terminal extensions.

    PubMed

    Werten, P J; Lindner, R A; Carver, J A; de Jong, W W

    1999-07-13

    The sequence extensions of the beta-crystallin subunits have been suggested to play an important role in the oligomerization of these eye lens proteins. This, in turn, may contribute to maintaining lens transparency and proper light refraction. In homo-dimers of the betaA3- and betaB2-crystallin subunits, these extensions have been shown by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy to be solvent-exposed and highly flexible. In this study, we show that betaA3- and betaB2-crystallins spontaneously form mixed betaA3/betaB2-crystallin complexes, which, from analytical ultracentrifugation experiments, are dimeric at low concentrations (<1 mg ml(-1)) and tetrameric at higher protein concentrations. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy reveals that in the betaA3/betaB2-crystallin tetramer, the N-terminal extensions of betaA3-crystallin remain water-exposed and flexible, whereas both N- and C-terminal extensions of betaB2-crystallin lose their flexibility. We conclude that both extensions of betaB2-crystallin are involved in protein-protein interactions in the betaA3/betaB2-crystallin hetero-tetramer. The extensions may stabilize and perhaps promote the formation of this mixed complex. PMID:10407150

  6. Probing the Nanosecond Dynamics of a Designed Three-Stranded Beta-Sheet with a Massively Parallel Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Voelz, Vincent A.; Luttmann, Edgar; Bowman, Gregory R.; Pande, Vijay S.

    2009-01-01

    Recently a temperature-jump FTIR study of a designed three-stranded sheet showing a fast relaxation time of ~140 20 ns was published. We performed massively parallel molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent to probe the structural events involved in this relaxation. While our simulations produce similar relaxation rates, the structural ensemble is broad. We observe the formation of turn structure, but only very weak interaction in the strand regions, which is consistent with the lack of strong backbone-backbone NOEs in previous structural NMR studies. These results suggest that either DPDP-II folds at time scales longer than 240 ns, or that DPDP-II is not a well-defined three-stranded ?-sheet. This work also provides an opportunity to compare the performance of several popular forcefield models against one another. PMID:19399235

  7. Six new candidate members of the alpha/beta twisted open-sheet family detected by sequence similarity to flavodoxin.

    PubMed

    Grandori, R; Carey, J

    1994-12-01

    Strong sequence similarity has been reported among WrbA (the Trp repressor-binding protein of Escherichia coli); Ycp4, a protein of unknown function from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae; P25, the pap1-dependent protein of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe; and the translation product of a partial cDNA sequence from rice seedling root (Oryza sativa, locus Ricr02421a; here referred to as RicR). Further homology search with the profile method indicates that all the above sequences are related to the flavodoxin family and, in turn, allows detection of the recently proposed flavodoxin-like proteins from E. coli, MioC and the hypothetical protein YihB. We discuss sequence conservation with reference to the known 3-dimensional structures of flavodoxins. Conserved sequence and hydrophobicity patterns, as well as residue-pair interaction potentials, strongly support the hypothesis that these proteins share the alpha/beta twisted open-sheet fold typical of flavodoxins, with an additional alpha/beta unit in the WrbA family. On the basis of the proposed structural homology, we discuss the details of the putative FMN-binding sites. Our analysis also suggests that the helix-turn-helix motif we identified previously in the C-terminal region of the WrbA family is unlikely to reflect a DNA-binding function of this new protein family. PMID:7756978

  8. Six new candidate members of the alpha/beta twisted open-sheet family detected by sequence similarity to flavodoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Grandori, R.; Carey, J.

    1994-01-01

    Strong sequence similarity has been reported among WrbA (the Trp repressor-binding protein of Escherichia coli); Ycp4, a protein of unknown function from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae; P25, the pap1-dependent protein of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe; and the translation product of a partial cDNA sequence from rice seedling root (Oryza sativa, locus Ricr02421a; here referred to as RicR). Further homology search with the profile method indicates that all the above sequences are related to the flavodoxin family and, in turn, allows detection of the recently proposed flavodoxin-like proteins from E. coli, MioC and the hypothetical protein YihB. We discuss sequence conservation with reference to the known 3-dimensional structures of flavodoxins. Conserved sequence and hydrophobicity patterns, as well as residue-pair interaction potentials, strongly support the hypothesis that these proteins share the alpha/beta twisted open-sheet fold typical of flavodoxins, with an additional alpha/beta unit in the WrbA family. On the basis of the proposed structural homology, we discuss the details of the putative FMN-binding sites. Our analysis also suggests that the helix-turn-helix motif we identified previously in the C-terminal region of the WrbA family is unlikely to reflect a DNA-binding function of this new protein family. PMID:7756978

  9. World Sheet Commuting beta-gamma CFT and Non-Relativistic StringTheories

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bom Soo

    2007-08-30

    We construct a sigma model in two dimensions with Galilean symmetry in flat target space similar to the sigma model of the critical string theory with Lorentz symmetry in 10 flat spacetime dimensions. This is motivated by the works of Gomis and Ooguri[1] and Danielsson et. al.[2, 3]. Our theory is much simpler than their theory and does not assume a compact coordinate. This non-relativistic string theory has a bosonic matter {beta}{gamma} CFT with the conformal weight of {beta} as 1. It is natural to identify time as a linear combination of {gamma} and {bar {gamma}} through an explicit realization of the Galilean boost symmetry. The angle between {gamma} and {bar {gamma}} parametrizes one parameter family of selection sectors. These selection sectors are responsible for having a non-relativistic dispersion relation without a nontrivial topology in the non-relativistic setup, which is one of the major differences from the previous works[1, 2, 3]. This simple theory is the non-relativistic analogue of the critical string theory, and there are many different avenues ahead to be investigated. We mention a possible consistent generalization of this theory with different conformal weights for the {beta}{gamma} CFT. We also mention supersymmetric generalizations of these theories.

  10. Efficient Traversal of Beta-Sheet Protein Folding Pathways Using Ensemble Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenker, Solomon; O'Donnell, Charles W.; Devadas, Srinivas; Berger, Bonnie; Waldispühl, Jérôme

    Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations can now predict ms-timescale folding processes of small proteins - however, this presently requires hundreds of thousands of CPU hours and is primarily applicable to short peptides with few long-range interactions. Larger and slower-folding proteins, such as many with extended β-sheet structure, would require orders of magnitude more time and computing resources. Furthermore, when the objective is to determine only which folding events are necessary and limiting, atomistic detail MD simulations can prove unnecessary. Here, we introduce the program tFolder as an efficient method for modelling the folding process of large β-sheet proteins using sequence data alone. To do so, we extend existing ensemble β-sheet prediction techniques, which permitted only a fixed anti-parallel β-barrel shape, with a method that predicts arbitrary β-strand/β-strand orientations and strand-order permutations. By accounting for all partial and final structural states, we can then model the transition from random coil to native state as a Markov process, using a master equation to simulate population dynamics of folding over time. Thus, all putative folding pathways can be energetically scored, including which transitions present the greatest barriers. Since correct folding pathway prediction is likely determined by the accuracy of contact prediction, we demonstrate the accuracy of tFolder to be comparable with state-of-the-art methods designed specifically for the contact prediction problem alone. We validate our method for dynamics prediction by applying it to the folding pathway of the well-studied Protein G. With relatively very little computation time, tFolder is able to reveal critical features of the folding pathways which were only previously observed through time-consuming MD simulations and experimental studies. Such a result greatly expands the number of proteins whose folding pathways can be studied, while the algorithmic integration of ensemble prediction with Markovian dynamics can be applied to many other problems.

  11. Venus - Volcanism and rift formation in Beta Regio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Harmon, J. K.; Hine, A. A.; Head, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A new high-resolution radar image of Beta Regio, a Venus highland area, confirms the presence of a major tectonic rift system and associated volcanic activity. The lack of identifiable impact craters, together with the apparent superposition of the Theia Mons volcanic structure on the rift system, suggest that at least some of the volcanic activity occurred in relatively recent geologic time. The presence of topographically similar highland areas elsewhere on Venus (Aphrodite Terra, Dali Chasma, and Diana Chasma) suggests that rifting and volcanism are significant processes on Venus.

  12. Venus: volcanism and rift formation in Beta regio.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D B; Head, J W; Harmon, J K; Hine, A A

    1984-10-12

    A new high-resolution radar image of Beta Regio, a Venus highland area, confirms the presence of a major tectonic rift system and associated volcanic activity. The lack of identifiable impact craters, together with the apparent superposition of the Theia Mons volcanic structure on the rift system, suggest that at least some of the volcanic activity occurred in relatively recent geologic time. The presence of topographically similar highland areas elsewhere on Venus (Aphrodite Terra, Dali Chasma, and Diana Chasma) suggests that rifting and volcanism are significant processes on Venus. PMID:17814347

  13. Swelling and folding as mechanisms of 3D shape formation in thin elastic sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Marcelo A.

    We work with two different mechanisms to generate geometric frustration on thin elastic sheets; isotropic differential growth and folding. We describe how controlled growth and prescribing folding patterns are useful tools for designing three-dimensional objects from information printed in two dimensions. The first mechanism is inspired by the possibility to control shapes by swelling polymer films, where we propose a solution for the problem of shape formation by asking the question, “what 2D metric should be prescribed to achieve a given 3D shape?”', namely the reverse problem. We choose two different types of initial configurations of sheets, disk-like with one boundary and annular with two boundaries. We demonstrate our technique by choosing four examples of 3D axisymmetric shapes and finding the respective swelling factors to achieve the desired shape. Second, we present a mechanical model for a single curved fold that explains both the buckled shape of a closed fold and its mechanical stiffness. The buckling arises from the geometrical frustration between the prescribed crease angle and the bending energy of the sheet away from the crease. This frustration increases as the sheet's area increases. Stiff folds result in creases with constant space curvature while softer folds inherit the broken symmetry of the buckled shape. We extend the application of our numerical model to show the potential to study multiple fold structures.

  14. Current sheet Formation in a Conical Theta Pinch Faraday Accelerator with Radio-Frequency Assisted Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Choueiri, Edgar Y.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    The inductive formation of current sheets in a conical theta pinch FARAD (Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge) thruster is investigated experimentally with time-integrated photography. The goal is to help in understanding the mechanisms and conditions controlling the strength and extent of the current sheet, which are two indices important for FARAD as a propulsion concept. The profiles of these two indices along the inside walls of the conical acceleration coil are assumed to be related to the profiles of the strength and extent of the luminosity pattern derived from photographs of the discharge. The variations of these profiles as a function of uniform back-fill neutral pressure (with no background magnetic field and all parameters held constant) provided the first clues on the nature and qualitative dependencies of current sheet formation. It was found that there is an optimal pressure for which both indices reach a maximum and that the rate of change in these indices with pressure differs on either side of this optimal pressure. This allowed the inference that current sheet formation follows a Townsend-like breakdown mechanism modified by the existence of a finite pressure-dependent radio-frequency-generated electron density background. The observation that the effective location of the luminosity pattern favors the exit-half of the conical coil is explained as the result of the tendency of the inductive discharge circuit to operate near its minimal self-inductance. Movement of the peak in the luminosity pattern towards the upstream side of the cone with increasing pressure is believed to result from the need of the circuit to compensate for the increase in background plasma resistivity due to increasing pressure.

  15. Landscape formation by past continental ice sheets: insights into the subglacial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Jan A.

    2014-05-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets are known as most powerful, climatically driven agents of large-scale sediment redistribution and landscape formation in the Earth system. During the Quaternary, repeated waxing and waning of continental ice sheets contributed to profound reshaping of the Earth surface and set the scene for the development of ecosystems in the post-glacial time. Despite the well-established impact of glaciers on the upper lithosphere the specific processes of glacial erosion, transport and deposition and the formation landforms at the ice-bed interface are contentious. In particular, the relative importance of direct ice impact versus the impact of glacial meltwater is highly controversial. Here, we focus on the southern peripheral area of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet hosting thick successions of soft, deformable sediments and examine some spectacular sediment/landform assemblages found nowadays in both terrestrial and marine settings to illustrate the nature of the subglacial processes. In order to decipher the past ice sheet behavior field, experimental and numerical approaches are combined. It is shown that the strength of the coupling between the ice and the bed that controls the response of the substratum to ice overriding and stress propagation depends primarily on the ability of the glacial system to evacuate meltwater from ice-bed interface. Strong coupling, locally enhanced by subglacial permafrost resulted in deeply rooted (100's of meters) glaciotectonic deformation reflected on the surface as ice-shoved hills whereas weak coupling promoted by water accumulating under the ice triggered the formation of deep (100's of meters) tunnel valley networks. Under the arteries of fast-flowing ice known as palaeo-ice streams, remoulding of soft sediments generated mega-scale glacial lineations and drumlins that hold the key to understanding glacier dynamics. The subglacial environment is envisaged as a four-dimensional mosaic of stable and deforming spots transient in time and space whose impact is embedded in the properties of sediment/landform systems.

  16. Formation and Degradation of Beta-casomorphins in Dairy Processing

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duc Doan; Johnson, Stuart Keith; Busetti, Francesco; Solah, Vicky Ann

    2015-01-01

    Milk proteins including casein are sources of peptides with bioactivity. One of these peptides is beta-casomorphin (BCM) which belongs to a group of opioid peptides formed from β-casein variants. Beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) has been demonstrated to be enzymatically released from the A1 or B β-casein variant. Epidemiological evidence suggests the peptide BCM 7 is a risk factor for development of human diseases, including increased risk of type 1 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases but this has not been thoroughly substantiated by research studies. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV-Vis and mass spectrometry detection as well as enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used to analyze BCMs in dairy products. BCMs have been detected in raw cow's milk and human milk and a variety of commercial cheeses, but their presence has yet to be confirmed in commercial yoghurts. The finding that BCMs are present in cheese suggests they could also form in yoghurt, but be degraded during yoghurt processing. Whether BCMs do form in yoghurt and the amount of BCM forming or degrading at different processing steps needs further investigation and possibly will depend on the heat treatment and fermentation process used, but it remains an intriguing unknown. PMID:25077377

  17. Penicillinase (beta-lactamase) formation by blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Kushner, D J; Breuil, C

    1977-03-01

    Beta-Lactamase (penicillinase) activity was found in a number of strains of blue-green algea. In some cases, this enzyme permitted algae to overcome the inhibitory effects of penicillin. Production and localization of beta-lactamase were studied in a unicellular species, Coccochloris elabens (strain 7003), and in a filamentous, nitrogen-fixing Anabaena species (strain 7120). When cells were grown in a neutral medium with NaNO3 as N source, the pH rose during growth; at a pH of about 10, most of the enzyme was expressed equally well in intact or disrupted cells. If the pH was kept near neutrality during growth by gassing with CO2 in N2 or by growth under conditions of N2 fixation, the enzyme remained cell-bound and cryptic for most of the growth phase, being measurable only after cells were disrupted. The enzymes from strains 7003 and 7120 had greater activity on benzyl penicillin and other penicillins than on cephalosporins. Some differences were observed in the "substrate proliles" of penicillinases from the two strains against different penicillins. PMID:15530

  18. Formation and Degradation of Beta-casomorphins in Dairy Processing.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc Doan; Johnson, Stuart Keith; Busetti, Francesco; Solah, Vicky Ann

    2015-01-01

    Milk proteins including casein are sources of peptides with bioactivity. One of these peptides is beta-casomorphin (BCM) which belongs to a group of opioid peptides formed from β-casein variants. Beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) has been demonstrated to be enzymatically released from the A1 or B β-casein variant. Epidemiological evidence suggests the peptide BCM 7 is a risk factor for development of human diseases, including increased risk of type 1 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases but this has not been thoroughly substantiated by research studies. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV-Vis and mass spectrometry detection as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used to analyze BCMs in dairy products. BCMs have been detected in raw cow's milk and human milk and a variety of commercial cheeses, but their presence has yet to be confirmed in commercial yoghurts. The finding that BCMs are present in cheese suggests they could also form in yoghurt, but be degraded during yoghurt processing. Whether BCMs do form in yoghurt and the amount of BCM forming or degrading at different processing steps needs further investigation and possibly will depend on the heat treatment and fermentation process used, but it remains an intriguing unknown. PMID:25077377

  19. Addition of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets Improves Bone Formation at an Ectopic Site.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifa; Li, Zhijin; Dai, Taiqiang; Zong, Chunlin; Liu, Yanpu; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) added to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets on bone formation at an ectopic site. We isolated MSCs and ADSCs from the same rabbits. We then prepared MSC sheets for implantation with or without ADSCs subcutaneously in the backs of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. We assessed bone formation at eight weeks after implantation by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. In osteogenic medium, MSCs grew to form multilayer sheets containing many calcium nodules. MSC sheets without ADSCs formed bone-like tissue; although neo-bone and cartilage-like tissues were sparse and unevenly distributed by eight weeks after implantation. In comparison, MSC sheets with ADSCs promoted better bone regeneration as evidenced by the greater density of bone, increased mineral deposition, obvious formation of blood vessels, large number of interconnected ossified trabeculae and woven bone structures, and greater bone volume/total volume within the composite constructs. Our results indicate that although sheets of only MSCs have the potential to form tissue engineered bone at an ectopic site, the addition of ADSCs can significantly increase the osteogenic potential of MSC sheets. Thus, the combination of MSC sheets with ADSCs may be regarded as a promising therapeutic strategy to stimulate bone regeneration. PMID:26848656

  20. Addition of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets Improves Bone Formation at an Ectopic Site

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifa; Li, Zhijin; Dai, Taiqiang; Zong, Chunlin; Liu, Yanpu; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) added to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets on bone formation at an ectopic site. We isolated MSCs and ADSCs from the same rabbits. We then prepared MSC sheets for implantation with or without ADSCs subcutaneously in the backs of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. We assessed bone formation at eight weeks after implantation by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. In osteogenic medium, MSCs grew to form multilayer sheets containing many calcium nodules. MSC sheets without ADSCs formed bone-like tissue; although neo-bone and cartilage-like tissues were sparse and unevenly distributed by eight weeks after implantation. In comparison, MSC sheets with ADSCs promoted better bone regeneration as evidenced by the greater density of bone, increased mineral deposition, obvious formation of blood vessels, large number of interconnected ossified trabeculae and woven bone structures, and greater bone volume/total volume within the composite constructs. Our results indicate that although sheets of only MSCs have the potential to form tissue engineered bone at an ectopic site, the addition of ADSCs can significantly increase the osteogenic potential of MSC sheets. Thus, the combination of MSC sheets with ADSCs may be regarded as a promising therapeutic strategy to stimulate bone regeneration. PMID:26848656

  1. Existing Data Format for Two-Parameter Beta-Gamma Histograms for Radioxenon

    SciTech Connect

    TW Bowyer; TR Heimbigner; JI McIntyre; AD McKinnon; PL Reeder; E Wittinger

    1999-03-23

    There is a need to establish a commonly acceptable format for storing beta-gated coincidence data for stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The current aerosol RMS type data format is not applicable for radioxenon in that the current format contains implicit assumptions specific to conventional gamma-ray spectrometry. Some assumptions in the current RMS format are not acceptable for the beta-gated spectra expected from the U.S. Department of Energy PNNL Automated Radioxenon Sampler-Analyzer (ARSA) and other similar systems under use or development from various countries. The RMS data format is not generally applicable for radioxenon measurements in the CTBT for one or more of the following main reasons: 1) The RMS format does not currently support 2-dimensional data. That is, the RMS data format is setup for a simple l-dimensional gamma-ray energy histogram. Current data available from the ARSA system and planned for other radioxenon monitors includes spectral information from gamma-rays and betas/conversion electrons. It is worth noting that the beta/conversion electron energy information will be used to separate the contributions from the different radioxenons. 2) The RMS data format assumes that the conversion between counts and activity can be calculated based (in part) on a simple calibration curve (detector efficiency curve) that depends only on energy of the gamma-ray. In the case of beta-gated gamma-ray spectra and for 2-dimensional spectra, there are generally two detector calibration curves that must be convoluted, the lower energy cutoff for the betas must be considered, and the energy acceptance window must be taken into account to convert counts into activity. . 3) The RMS format has header information that contains aerosol-specific information that allows the activity (Bq) calculated to be converted into a concentration (Bq/SCM). This calculation is performed by dividing the activity calculated (Bq) into number of standard cubic meters of air (SCM) passed through the filters. Most xenon-samplers do not have a 100% collection and transfer efficiency, and these efficiencies should not be assumed constant, so that the total volume flow through the sampler may not be used to convert activity into concentration. There is a pretty straightforward analogy that requires, instead, the total volume of xenon gas measured by the xenon station for the conversion. The following paper describes one possible file format for storing the multi-parameter beta-gamma coincidence spectra generated by the DOE PNNL ARSA sampler. This format proposal was generated as a draft guide to begin discussions.

  2. Dexamethasone inhibits the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts via down-regulation of beta3 integrin expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hee; Jun, Ji-Hae; Woo, Kyung Mi; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Kim, Gwan-Shik; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2006-08-01

    Although glucocorticoids are known to affect osteoclast differentiation and function, there have been conflicting reports about the effect of glucocorticoids on osteoclast formation, leading to the assumption that microenvironment and cell type influence their action. We explored the effect of the synthetic glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone on the formation of osteoclasts. Dexamethasone inhibited the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated osteoclasts without affecting the formation of TRAP-positive mononuclear cells in a coculture of mouse osteoblasts and bone marrow cells. Dexamethasone did not inhibit mRNA expression levels of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand and osteoprotegerin, the essential regulators of osteoclastogenesis. Dexamethasone down-regulated the expression of beta3 integrin mRNA and protein but did not alter expression of other osteoclast differentiation marker genes. Both dexamethasone and echistatin, a beta3 integrin function blocker, inhibited TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclast formation but not TRAP-positive mononuclear cell formation. These results suggest that dexamethasone inhibits the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts, at least in part, through the down-regulation of beta3 integrin, which plays an important role in the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts. PMID:16964765

  3. Formation of thin-current layer embedded in an ion scale current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2002-12-01

    We have recently found that a quick triggering of magnetic reconnection in an ion-scale current sheet is possible. For the quick triggering of magnetic reconnection, the lower-hybrid drift waves excited at the edges of the current sheet is indispensable. This wave excitation brings about formation of a thin magnetic neutral layer sustained by accelerated electrons, and this thin layer is subject to the quick reconnection. As such, the electron acceleration within the curent sheet is playing a crucial role in making the quick triggering available. We found that the electron acceleration process is strongly coupled with the non-linear evolution of the lower-hybrid drift instability. The inductive electric field, which is generated through change of the current profile, can efficiently accelerate meandering electrons around the magnetic neutral layer. As a result, elctric current in the thin layer is mostly carried by non-adiabatic electrons. We will show results of detailed analyses of this key process for the quick reonnection triggering.

  4. Low cost fabrication of sheet structure using a new beta titanium alloy, Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, R. S.; Davis, G. W.; Woods, C. A.; Royster, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Development efforts have been undertaken to improve the processing and structural efficiencies of advanced cold-formable beta Ti alloys, using the standard, hot-formed and rivetted construction of Ti-6Al-4V sheet structures as a basis for comparison. Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (Ti-15-3) beta alloy is formable, brazable and weldable in the solution-treated condition, and after aging displays mechanical properties suitable for postulated service in the -65 to 600 F temperature range. A novel methodology using cold-formed Ti-15-3 stringers and Ti-6Al-4V face sheets that are joined by means of an out-of-furnace isothermal brazing process, followed by low temperature aging, can reduce production costs by as much as 28 per cent. Structural efficiency has been demonstrated in room and elevated temperature crippling tests of small skin-stringer assemblies.

  5. Calcofluor fluorescence assay for wort beta-glucan in a microplate format

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widely-used fluorescent (Calcofluor) flow injection analysis method for determining the concentrations of beta-glucans in Congress worts from barley malts is adapted to microplate format. Adaptation of the Calcofluor assay to use widely available fluorescent microplate readers makes the assay m...

  6. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85beta regulates invadopodium formation

    PubMed Central

    Cariaga-Martínez, Ariel E.; Cortés, Isabel; García, Esther; Pérez-García, Vicente; Pajares, María J.; Idoate, Miguel A.; Redondo-Muñóz, Javier; Antón, Inés M.; Carrera, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The acquisition of invasiveness is characteristic of tumor progression. Numerous genetic changes are associated with metastasis, but the mechanism by which a cell becomes invasive remains unclear. Expression of p85β, a regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase, markedly increases in advanced carcinoma, but its mode of action is unknown. We postulated that p85β might facilitate cell invasion. We show that p85β localized at cell adhesions in complex with focal adhesion kinase and enhanced stability and maturation of cell adhesions. In addition, p85β induced development at cell adhesions of an F-actin core that extended several microns into the cell z-axis resembling the skeleton of invadopodia. p85β lead to F-actin polymerization at cell adhesions by recruiting active Cdc42/Rac at these structures. In accordance with p85β function in invadopodium-like formation, p85β levels increased in metastatic melanoma and p85β depletion reduced invadopodium formation and invasion. These results show that p85β enhances invasion by inducing cell adhesion development into invadopodia-like structures explaining the metastatic potential of tumors with increased p85β levels. PMID:25217619

  7. Effect of secondary structure on the potential of mean force for poly-L-lysine in the alpha-Helix and beta-sheet conformations

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, J.J.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    2001-10-30

    Because poly-L-lysine (PLL) can exist in the {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet conformation depending on solution preparation and solution conditions, PLL is a suitable candidate to probe the dependence of protein interactions on secondary structure. The osmotic second virial coefficient and weight-average molecular weight are reported from low-angle laser-light scattering measurements for PLL as a function of NaCl concentration, pH, and {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet content. Interactions between PLL molecules become more attractive as salt concentration increases due to screening of PLL charge by salt ions and at low salt concentration become more attractive as pH increases due to decreased net charge on PLL. The experimental results show that interactions are stronger for the {beta}-sheet conformation than for the {alpha}-helix conformation. A spherically-symmetric model for the potential of mean force is used to account for specific interactions not described by DLVO theory and to show how differences in secondary structure affect PLL interactions.

  8. Degradation and metabolite formation of 17beta-estradiol-3-sulphate in New Zealand pasture soils.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Frank F; Sarmah, Ajit K; Di, Hong J; Cameron, Keith C

    2009-02-01

    Estrogens-sulphates such as 17beta-estradiol-3-sulphate and estrone-3-sulphate are excreted by livestock in the urine. These conjugates are precursors to the free counterparts 17beta-estradiol and estrone, which are endocrine disrupting chemicals. In this study microcosm laboratory experiments were conducted in three pasture soils from New Zealand to study the aerobic degradation and metabolite formation kinetics of 17beta-estradiol-3-sulphate at three different incubation temperatures. The degradation of 17beta-estradiol-3-sulphate followed a first-order kinetic and the temperature dependence of the rate constants was sufficiently described by the Arrhenius equation. Degradation was different between the three investigated soils and the rate constants across the soils were significantly correlated to the arylsulphatase activity at 7.5 and 15 degrees C. Estrone-3-sulphate and 17beta-estradiol were identified as primary metabolites and estrone as a secondary metabolite. Results suggest arylsulphatase activity originating from soil microbial biomass is the main driver for the degradation of 17beta-estradiol-3-sulphate. PMID:18694598

  9. Cell autonomous requirement for TGF-beta signaling during odontoblast differentiation and dentin matrix formation.

    PubMed

    Oka, Shoji; Oka, Kyoko; Xu, Xun; Sasaki, Tomoyo; Bringas, Pablo; Chai, Yang

    2007-07-01

    TGF-beta subtypes are expressed in tissues derived from cranial neural crest cells during early mouse craniofacial development. TGF-beta signaling is critical for mediating epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, including those vital for tooth morphogenesis. However, it remains unclear how TGF-beta signaling contributes to the terminal differentiation of odontoblast and dentin formation during tooth morphogenesis. Towards this end, we generated mice with conditional inactivation of the Tgfbr2 gene in cranial neural crest derived cells. Odontoblast differentiation was substantially delayed in the Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre mutant mice at E18.5. Following kidney capsule transplantation, Tgfbr2 mutant tooth germs expressed a reduced level of Col1a1 and Dspp and exhibited defects including decreased dentin thickness and absent dentinal tubules. In addition, the expression of the intermediate filament nestin was decreased in the Tgfbr2 mutant samples. Significantly, exogenous TGF-beta2 induced nestin and Dspp expression in dental pulp cells in the developing tooth organ. Our data suggest that TGF-beta signaling controls odontoblast maturation and dentin formation during tooth morphogenesis. PMID:17449229

  10. Current sheet formation at a magnetic neutral line in Hall magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    2007-11-15

    The dynamics of a plasma in the vicinity of a neutral line of the magnetic field is considered in the framework of incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). A self-similar solution for the collapse to a current sheet is obtained. Numerical and analytical results are presented. In contrast to the standard incompressible MHD model in two dimensions, the Hall effect leads to the formation of finite-time singularities of the velocity derivatives and the electric current density at the neutral line. Analytical expressions are derived for the collapse time and the form of the solution near the singularity, which agree closely with the numerical results. If the ion skin depth is set to zero, the singularity formation time becomes infinite, corresponding to the standard MHD result. Implications of the results for Hall MHD models of fast magnetic reconnection are discussed.

  11. Current sheet formation at a magnetic neutral line in Hall magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    2007-11-01

    The dynamics of a plasma in the vicinity of a neutral line of the magnetic field is considered in the framework of incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). A self-similar solution for the collapse to a current sheet is obtained. Numerical and analytical results are presented. In contrast to the standard incompressible MHD model in two dimensions, the Hall effect leads to the formation of finite-time singularities of the velocity derivatives and the electric current density at the neutral line. Analytical expressions are derived for the collapse time and the form of the solution near the singularity, which agree closely with the numerical results. If the ion skin depth is set to zero, the singularity formation time becomes infinite, corresponding to the standard MHD result. Implications of the results for Hall MHD models of fast magnetic reconnection are discussed.

  12. High-Resolution Structure of a Self-Assembly-Competent Form of a Hydrophobic Peptide Captured in a Soluble [beta]-Sheet Scaffold

    SciTech Connect

    Makabe, Koki; Biancalana, Matthew; Yan, Shude; Tereshko, Valentina; Gawlak, Grzegorz; Miller-Auer, Hélène; Meredith, Stephen C.; Koide, Shohei

    2010-02-08

    {beta}-Rich self-assembly is a major structural class of polypeptides, but still little is known about its atomic structures and biophysical properties. Major impediments for structural and biophysical studies of peptide self-assemblies include their insolubility and heterogeneous composition. We have developed a model system, termed peptide self-assembly mimic (PSAM), based on the single-layer {beta}-sheet of Borrelia outer surface protein A. PSAM allows for the capture of a defined number of self-assembly-like peptide repeats within a water-soluble protein, making structural and energetic studies possible. In this work, we extend our PSAM approach to a highly hydrophobic peptide sequence. We show that a penta-Ile peptide (Ile{sub 5}), which is insoluble and forms {beta}-rich self-assemblies in aqueous solution, can be captured within the PSAM scaffold in a form capable of self-assembly. The 1.1-{angstrom} crystal structure revealed that the Ile{sub 5} stretch forms a highly regular {beta}-strand within this flat {beta}-sheet. Self-assembly models built with multiple copies of the crystal structure of the Ile5 peptide segment showed no steric conflict, indicating that this conformation represents an assembly-competent form. The PSAM retained high conformational stability, suggesting that the flat {beta}-strand of the Ile{sub 5} stretch primed for self-assembly is a low-energy conformation of the Ile{sub 5} stretch and rationalizing its high propensity for self-assembly. The ability of the PSAM to 'solubilize' an otherwise insoluble peptide stretch suggests the potential of the PSAM approach to the characterization of self-assembling peptides.

  13. Amyloid formation and inhibition of an all-beta protein: A study on fungal polygalacturonase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinisaz, Maryam; Ghasemi, Atiyeh; Larijani, Bagher; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh

    2014-02-01

    Theoretically, all proteins can adopt the nanofibrillar structures known as amyloid, which contain cross-beta structures. The all-beta folded proteins are particularly interesting in this regard, since they appear to be naturally more predisposed toward this structural arrangement. In this study, methanol has been used to drive the beta-helix protein polygalacturonase (PG), toward amyloid fibril formation. Congo red absorbance, thioflavin T fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and transmission electron microscopy have been used to characterize this process. Similar to other all-beta proteins, PG shows a non-cooperative fibrillation mechanism, but the structural changes that are monitored by CD indicate a different pattern. Furthermore, several compounds containing aromatic components were tested as potential inhibitors of amyloid formation. Another protein predominantly composed of alpha-helices (human serum albumin) was also targeted by these ligands, in order to get an insight into their potential anti-aggregation property toward structurally different proteins. Among tested compounds, silibinin and chlorpropamide were able to considerably affect both proteins fibrillation process.

  14. Involvement of transforming growth factor-beta in the formation of fibrotic lesions in carcinoid heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Waltenberger, J.; Lundin, L.; Oberg, K.; Wilander, E.; Miyazono, K.; Heldin, C. H.; Funa, K.

    1993-01-01

    Carcinoid heart disease is a complication of a neuroendocrine carcinoid tumor. Morphologically, it is characterized by the formation of fibrotic plaques with deposition of extracellular matrix in the subendocardium, frequently causing heart valve dysfunction and cardiac failure. Because members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family are known to stimulate fibroblasts in their production of extracellular matrix, we investigated the expression of the three isoforms of TGF-beta and the binding protein for latent TGF-beta 1 (LTBP) in carcinoid plaques of the right side of the heart, as well as from control tissue, using immunohistochemistry. Tissue specimens were obtained intraoperatively from nine consecutive patients undergoing valve replacement surgery. TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 3 were detected in the fibroblasts of all plaques analyzed, whereas TGF-beta 2 was only rarely expressed. The localization of LTBP was partly concordant with that of TGF-beta 1, but the positive staining for LTBP was extracellular. Sections from unaffected heart tissue contained few fibroblasts in the subendocardium, showing only weak or no immunostaining for TGF-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 and no staining for LTBP. These results suggest that TGF-beta may play a role in the proliferation of fibroblasts and their matrix production in carcinoid heart lesions. Images Figure 1 p75-a Figure 2 PMID:8424467

  15. Kinetics of beta-haematin formation from suspensions of haematin in aqueous benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Egan, Timothy J; Tshivhase, Mmboneni G

    2006-11-14

    Kinetics of beta-haematin (synthetic malaria pigment) formation from haematin have been studied in the presence of aqueous benzoic acid and derivatives of benzoic acid. Formation of the beta-haematin product is demonstrated by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. Reactions were followed by determining the fraction of unreacted haematin at various time points during the process via reaction of extracted aliquots with pyridine. The kinetics can be fitted to the Avrami equation, indicating that the process involves nucleation and growth. Reaction kinetics in stirred benzoic acid are similar to those previously observed in acetic acid, except that benzoic acid is far more active in promoting the reaction than acetic acid. The reaction reaches completion within 2 h in the presence of 0.050 M benzoic acid (pH 4.5, 60 degrees C). This compares with 1 h in the presence of 4.5 M acetic acid and 4 h in the presence of 2 M acetic acid. The reaction rate in benzoic acid is not affected if the stirring rate is decreased to zero, but very vigorous stirring appears to disrupt nucleation. The rate constant for beta-haematin formation in benzoic acid has a linear dependence on benzoic acid concentration and follows Arrhenius behaviour with temperature. There is a bell-shaped dependence on pH. This suggests that the haematin species in which one propionate group is protonated and the other is deprotonated is optimal for beta-haematin formation. When the reaction is conducted in para-substituted benzoic acid derivatives, the log of the rate constant increases linearly with the Hammett constant. These findings suggest that the role of the carboxylic acid may be to disrupt hydrogen bonding and pi-stacking in haematin, facilitating conversion to beta-haematin. The large activation energy for conversion of precipitated haematin to beta-haematin suggests that the reaction in vivo most likely involves direct nucleation from solution and probably does not occur in aqueous medium. PMID:17060988

  16. In vitro peroxidase oxidation induces stable dimers of beta-amyloid (1-42) through dityrosine bridge formation.

    PubMed

    Galeazzi, L; Ronchi, P; Franceschi, C; Giunta, S

    1999-03-01

    beta-amyloid (A beta) is a normal soluble peptide found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and other biological fluids. A beta fibrils are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) senile plaques. We have used purified soluble A beta (1-42) and A beta (12-28) peptides in order to determine the oxidative modification induced in these peptides by exposure to peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. We have demonstrated that under these in vitro conditions, dimeric forms of A beta (1-42) can be detected by high-resolution polyacrylamide SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Further experiments performed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and monitored by fluorescence detection, showed that the dimeric A beta (1-42) forms induced by the peroxidase reaction are the outcomes of dityrosine bridge formation. This cross-link results from the enzyme catalyzed oxidation. During this reaction, phenolic coupling of tyrosine residues of two A beta (1-42) peptides occurs. No detectable peroxidative modifications were observed with the A beta (12-28) peptide which lacks a tyrosine residue. Since oxidative stress is thought to be associated with AD, the experimental model described here can help in understanding the early events leading to chemical, structural and conformational modifications before the conversion of sA beta to amyloid fibrils and eventually the formation of senile plaques in AD. PMID:10211406

  17. Involvement of dopamine receptors and beta-arrestin in metamphetamine-induced inclusions formation in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Fornai, Francesco; Lenzi, Paola; Capobianco, Loredana; Iacovelli, Luisa; Scarselli, Pamela; Lazzeri, Gloria; De Blasi, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Exposure of PC12 cells to metamphetamine (MA) induces the formation of multilamellar structures (whorls) resembling autophagic granules that subsequently develop as intracellular inclusions. These inclusions stain for a variety of antigens belonging to the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Since MA-induced intracellular bodies require the presence of dopamine in the present study we analyzed the role of dopamine (DA) receptors in producing neuronal inclusions. Moreover, we investigated potential signaling pathways which could lead to ubiquitination in the presence of MA. Based on recent reports that ubiquitination of beta-adrenergic receptors is promoted by beta-arrestin which shuttles proteins from the plasma membrane to the ubiquitin proteasome system we investigated whether beta-arrestin is involved in MA-induced inclusion formation. Our experiments document that (i) beta-arrestin was associated with MA-induced intracellular bodies; (ii) MA induced a rapid and reversible ubiquitination of beta-arrestin; (iii) dopamine antagonists reduced both MA-induced beta-arrestin ubiquitination and intracellular whorls formation; (iv) the number of MA-induced intracellular bodies was reduced in cells transfected with the beta-arrestin dominant negative mutant, betaarrV53D and was increased by the persistently ubiquitinated beta-arrestin-ubiquitin fusion protein. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the involvement of beta-arrestin in MA-induced intracellular bodies and the participation of dopamine receptors in this process. PMID:18266935

  18. Frontier Formation, Wyoming: wave-dominated deltas, shelf sand sheets, tectonics, and eustacy in Interior seaway

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, R.D.

    1987-08-01

    Shale, sandstone, and minor conglomerate, coal, and bentonite of the Cenomanian to Coniacian Frontier Formation were deposited in wave-dominated deltas and shelf environments on the west side of the Interior seaway. Frontier hydrocarbon production occurs mostly where deltaic and shelf sandstones pinch out into marine shale (e.g., Powder River and Green River basins). Shelf sandstones are in sheets that extend for tens of kilometers offshore and downcurrent from deltaic sources. Core and outcrop show shelf sandstones to consists mostly of high-angle cross-stratification. Also present in shelf sandstones are numerous cross-set reactivation surfaces, scour surfaces, hummocky cross stratification, wave and current-ripple lamination, interbedded mudstone, and burrowing. Intermittent, storm-generated geostrophic flows are inferred to have been the major shelf sedimentation process. Storms apparently moved pebbles over 7 cm long. Frontier Formation thickness trends indicate a provenance mostly in the Idaho portion of the Sevier orogenic belt and suggest influence of large basement features on deposition. A question concerns influence of tectonics versus eustacy on sandstone occurrence. Comparison of sandstone ages with published coastal-onlap, eustacy, and transgressive-regressive curves allows correlation of the Torchlight, Wall Creek Member, Tuner Sandy Member, probably the Peay, and equivalent sandstones (and most production) with eustatic events, although simultaneous intrabasin deformation has been documented. Other sandstones of the Belle Fourche Member and the Emigrant Gap member and equivalents appear to have been controlled more by tectonic events.

  19. Nonlinear evolution of three-dimensional instabilities of thin and thick electron scale current sheets: Plasmoid formation and current filamentation

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg

    2014-07-15

    Nonlinear evolution of three dimensional electron shear flow instabilities of an electron current sheet (ECS) is studied using electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The dependence of the evolution on current sheet thickness is examined. For thin current sheets (half thickness =d{sub e}=c/ω{sub pe}), tearing mode instability dominates. In its nonlinear evolution, it leads to the formation of oblique current channels. Magnetic field lines form 3-D magnetic spirals. Even in the absence of initial guide field, the out-of-reconnection-plane magnetic field generated by the tearing instability itself may play the role of guide field in the growth of secondary finite-guide-field instabilities. For thicker current sheets (half thickness ∼5 d{sub e}), both tearing and non-tearing modes grow. Due to the non-tearing mode, current sheet becomes corrugated in the beginning of the evolution. In this case, tearing mode lets the magnetic field reconnect in the corrugated ECS. Later thick ECS develops filamentary structures and turbulence in which reconnection occurs. This evolution of thick ECS provides an example of reconnection in self-generated turbulence. The power spectra for both the thin and thick current sheets are anisotropic with respect to the electron flow direction. The cascade towards shorter scales occurs preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the electron flow.

  20. Use of Geodetic Laser Scanning to Evaluate the Curvature of Bedrock Surfaces in an Investigation of Sheeting Joint Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, S. J.; Mitchell, K.

    2007-12-01

    We are using aerial and tripod-mounted geodetic laser scanning (GLS) data, together with photography and large-scale geologic mapping, to investigate the formation of sheeting joints in Yosemite National Park. Sheeting joints are opening-mode fractures that form subparallel to the topography, and over broad areas in Yosemite they define the bedrock surface. Rock slabs bounded by sheeting joints superficially resemble the layers of an onion. Our hypothesis is that sheeting joints form where a tensile stress normal to the topographic surface exists in the shallow subsurface. This condition is met where k2 P22 + k3 P33 > γ cosβ, where k2 and k3 are the principal curvatures of the bedrock surface, P22 and P33 are the corresponding normal stresses parallel to the principal stresses, γ is the unit weight of the rock, and β is the slope angle. Sheeting joints are predicted where at least one of the principal curvatures is sufficiently convex (negative) and the corresponding normal stress is sufficiently compressive (negative). We use aerial GLS data with a vertical resolution of ~10 cm and a point spacing of ~1 m to measure the slope and curvature of the bedrock surface at the scale of a ridge or valley. We use tripod-mounted GLS data with a point spacing of ~5 cm, large-scale geologic mapping, and photographs to detect steps between consecutive sheeting joints, with the step height giving the sheet joint spacing. Outcrops hosting sheeting joints have a stair-step appearance with a distinctive curvature signature: high convex curvature at the top of a step, and high concave curvature at the step bottom. Steps between sheeting joints with a spacing of less than a meter or so are difficult to detect using the aerial GLS data. Apparently the interpolation of aerial data onto a grid, necessary for our curvature codes, and the smoothing of gridded data to filter out trees compromises the value of the aerial GLS data in detecting the step edges, even though the vertical resolution of the GLS data should be quite adequate for measuring the step height. A curvature code that does not require gridded data could help detect step edges. The steps can be detected readily with the tripod-mounted GLS data, large-scale geologic mapping, and photographs, which show shadows cast by the steps. Our analyses to date with all the data sets supports our hypothesis for sheet joint formation.

  1. Thermodynamic description of Beta amyloid formation using physicochemical scales and fractal bioinformatic scales.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J C

    2015-05-20

    Protein function depends on both protein structure and amino acid (aa) sequence. Here we show that modular features of both structure and function can be quantified economically from the aa sequences alone for the small (40,42 aa) plaque-forming (aggregative) amyloid beta fragments. Some edge and center features of the fragments are predicted. Bioinformatic scales based on β strand formation propensities and the thermodynamically second order fractal hydropathicity scale based on evolutionary optimization (self-organized criticality) are contrasted with the standard first order physicochemical scale based on complete protein (water-air) unfolding. The results are consistent with previous studies of these physicochemical factors that show that aggregative properties, even of beta fragments, are driven primarily by near-equilibrium hydropathic forces. PMID:25702750

  2. Two distinct β-sheet structures in Italian-mutant amyloid-beta fibrils: a potential link to different clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Hubin, Ellen; Deroo, Stéphanie; Schierle, Gabriele Kaminksi; Kaminski, Clemens; Serpell, Louise; Subramaniam, Vinod; van Nuland, Nico; Broersen, Kerensa; Raussens, Vincent; Sarroukh, Rabia

    2015-12-01

    Most Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are late-onset and characterized by the aggregation and deposition of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide in extracellular plaques in the brain. However, a few rare and hereditary Aβ mutations, such as the Italian Glu22-to-Lys (E22K) mutation, guarantee the development of early-onset familial AD. This type of AD is associated with a younger age at disease onset, increased β-amyloid accumulation, and Aβ deposition in cerebral blood vessel walls, giving rise to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). It remains largely unknown how the Italian mutation results in the clinical phenotype that is characteristic of CAA. We therefore investigated how this single point mutation may affect the aggregation of Aβ1-42 in vitro and structurally characterized the resulting fibrils using a biophysical approach. This paper reports that wild-type and Italian-mutant Aβ both form fibrils characterized by the cross-β architecture, but with distinct β-sheet organizations, resulting in differences in thioflavin T fluorescence and solvent accessibility. E22K Aβ1-42 oligomers and fibrils both display an antiparallel β-sheet structure, in comparison with the parallel β-sheet structure of wild-type fibrils, characteristic of most amyloid fibrils described in the literature. Moreover, we demonstrate structural plasticity for Italian-mutant Aβ fibrils in a pH-dependent manner, in terms of their underlying β-sheet arrangement. These findings are of interest in the ongoing debate that (1) antiparallel β-sheet structure might represent a signature for toxicity, which could explain the higher toxicity reported for the Italian mutant, and that (2) fibril polymorphism might underlie differences in disease pathology and clinical manifestation. PMID:26190022

  3. Analysis of Nugget Formation During Resistance Spot Welding on Dissimilar Metal Sheets of Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yi; Li, Jinglong

    2014-10-01

    The nugget formation of resistance spot welding (RSW) on dissimilar material sheets of aluminum and magnesium alloys was studied, and the element distribution, microstructure, and microhardness distribution near the joint interface were analyzed. It was found that the staggered high regions at the contact interface of aluminum and magnesium alloy sheets, where the dissimilar metal melted together, tended to be the preferred nucleation regions of nugget. The main technical problem of RSW on dissimilar metal sheets of aluminum and magnesium alloys was the brittle-hard Al12Mg17 intermetallic compounds distributed in the nugget, with hardness much higher than either side of the base materials. Microcracks tended to generate at the interface of the nugget and base materials, which affected weld quality and strength.

  4. Formation of a very thin current sheet in the near-earth magnetotail and the explosive growth phase of substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.; Zhang, L.; Choe, G. S.; Cai, H. J.

    1995-01-01

    A magnetofricional method is used to construct two-dimensional MHD equilibria of the Earth's magnetosphere for a given distribution of entropy functions(S = pV(exp gamma), where p is the plasma pressure and V is the tube volume per unit magnetic flux. It is found that a very thin current sheet with B (sub zeta) is less than 0.5 nu T and thickness less than 1000 km can be formed in the near-earth magnetotail (x is approximately -8 to -20R(sub e) during the growth phase of substorm. The tail current sheets are found to become thinner as the entropy or the entropy gradient increases. It is suggested that the new entropy anti-diffusion instability associated with plasma transport across field lines leads to magnetic field dipolarization and accelerates the formation of thin current sheet, which may explain the observed explosive growth phase of substorms.

  5. Repetitive formation and decay of current sheets in magnetic loops: An origin of diverse magnetic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhattacharyya, R.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2015-01-15

    In this work, evolution of an incompressible, thermally homogeneous, infinitely conducting, viscous magnetofluid is numerically explored as the fluid undergoes repeated events of magnetic reconnection. The initial magnetic field is constructed by a superposition of two linear force-free fields and has similar morphology as the magnetic loops observed in the solar corona. The results are presented for computations with three distinct sets of footpoint geometries. To onset reconnection, we rely on numerical model magnetic diffusivity, in the spirit of implicit large eddy simulation. It is generally expected that in a high Lundquist number fluid, repeated magnetic reconnections are ubiquitous and hence can lead to a host of magnetic structures with considerable observational importance. In particular, the simulations presented here illustrate formations of magnetic islands, rotating magnetic helices and rising flux ropes—depending on the initial footpoint geometry but through the common process of repeated magnetic reconnections. Further, we observe the development of extended current sheets in two case studies, where the footpoint reconnections generate favorable dynamics.

  6. Optimal heating condition of mouthguard sheet in vacuum-pressure formation: part 2 Olefin-based thermoplastic elastomer.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mutsumi; Koide, Kaoru

    2016-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to clarify the suitable heating conditions during vacuum-pressure formation of olefin copolymer sheets and to examine the sheet temperature at molding and the thickness of the molded mouthguard. Mouthguards were fabricated using 4.0-mm-thick olefin copolymer sheets utilizing a vacuum-pressure forming device, and then, 10 s of vacuum forming and 2 min of compression molding were applied. Three heating conditions were investigated. They were, defined by the degree of sagging observed at the center of the softened sheet (10, 15, or 20 mm lower than the clamp (H-10, H-15, or H-20, respectively)). The working model was trimmed to the height of 20 mm at the maxillary central incisor and 15 mm at the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar. The temperature on both the directly heated and the non-heated surfaces of the mouthguard sheet was measured by the radiation thermometer for each condition. The thickness of mouthguard sheets after fabrication was determined for the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp and buccal surface), and dimensional measurements were obtained using a measuring device. Differences in the thickness due to the heating condition of the sheets were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests. The temperature difference between the heated and non-heated surfaces was highest under H-10. Sheet temperature under H-15 and H-20 was almost the same. The thickness differences were noted at incisal edge, cusp, and buccal surface, and H-15 was the greatest. This study demonstrated that heating of the sheet resulting in sag of 15 mm or more was necessary for sufficient softening of the sheet and that the mouthguard thickness decreased with increased sag. In conclusion, sag of 15 mm can be recommended as a good indicator of appropriate molding timing for this material. PMID:26341504

  7. Protein secondary structures (alpha-helix and beta-sheet) at a cellular level and protein fractions in relation to rumen degradation behaviours of protein: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2005-11-01

    Studying the secondary structure of proteins leads to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein, and such an understanding of the structure of the whole protein is often vital to understanding its digestive behaviour and nutritive value in animals. The main protein secondary structures are the alpha-helix and beta-sheet. The percentage of these two structures in protein secondary structures influences protein nutritive value, quality and digestive behaviour. A high percentage of beta-sheet structure may partly cause a low access to gastrointestinal digestive enzymes, which results in a low protein value. The objectives of the present study were to use advanced synchrotron-based Fourier transform IR (S-FTIR) microspectroscopy as a new approach to reveal the molecular chemistry of the protein secondary structures of feed tissues affected by heat-processing within intact tissue at a cellular level, and to quantify protein secondary structures using multicomponent peak modelling Gaussian and Lorentzian methods, in relation to protein digestive behaviours and nutritive value in the rumen, which was determined using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System. The synchrotron-based molecular chemistry research experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, US Department of Energy. The results showed that, with S-FTIR microspectroscopy, the molecular chemistry, ultrastructural chemical make-up and nutritive characteristics could be revealed at a high ultraspatial resolution ( approximately 10 microm). S-FTIR microspectroscopy revealed that the secondary structure of protein differed between raw and roasted golden flaxseeds in terms of the percentages and ratio of alpha-helixes and beta-sheets in the mid-IR range at the cellular level. By using multicomponent peak modelling, the results show that the roasting reduced (P<0.05) the percentage of alpha-helixes (from 47.1 % to 36.1 %: S-FTIR absorption intensity), increased the percentage of beta-sheets (from 37.2 % to 49.8 %: S-FTIR absorption intensity) and reduced the alpha-helix to beta-sheet ratio (from 0.3 to 0.7) in the golden flaxseeds, which indicated a negative effect of the roasting on protein values, utilisation and bioavailability. These results were proved by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System in situ animal trial, which also revealed that roasting increased the amount of protein bound to lignin, and well as of the Maillard reaction protein (both of which are poorly used by ruminants), and increased the level of indigestible and undegradable protein in ruminants. The present results demonstrate the potential of highly spatially resolved synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy to locate 'pure' protein in feed tissues, and reveal protein secondary structures and digestive behaviour, making a significant step forward in and an important contribution to protein nutritional research. Further study is needed to determine the sensitivities of protein secondary structures to various heat-processing conditions, and to quantify the relationship between protein secondary structures and the nutrient availability and digestive behaviour of various protein sources. Information from the present study arising from the synchrotron-based IR probing of the protein secondary structures of protein sources at the cellular level will be valuable as a guide to maintaining protein quality and predicting digestive behaviours. PMID:16277766

  8. Protein Secondary Structures (alpha-helix and beta-sheet) at a Cellular Levle and Protein Fractions in Relation to Rumen Degradation Behaviours of Protein: A New Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,P.

    2007-01-01

    Studying the secondary structure of proteins leads to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein, and such an understanding of the structure of the whole protein is often vital to understanding its digestive behaviour and nutritive value in animals. The main protein secondary structures are the {alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheet. The percentage of these two structures in protein secondary structures influences protein nutritive value, quality and digestive behaviour. A high percentage of {beta}-sheet structure may partly cause a low access to gastrointestinal digestive enzymes, which results in a low protein value. The objectives of the present study were to use advanced synchrotron-based Fourier transform IR (S-FTIR) microspectroscopy as a new approach to reveal the molecular chemistry of the protein secondary structures of feed tissues affected by heat-processing within intact tissue at a cellular level, and to quantify protein secondary structures using multicomponent peak modelling Gaussian and Lorentzian methods, in relation to protein digestive behaviours and nutritive value in the rumen, which was determined using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System. The synchrotron-based molecular chemistry research experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, US Department of Energy. The results showed that, with S-FTIR microspectroscopy, the molecular chemistry, ultrastructural chemical make-up and nutritive characteristics could be revealed at a high ultraspatial resolution ({approx}10 {mu}m). S-FTIR microspectroscopy revealed that the secondary structure of protein differed between raw and roasted golden flaxseeds in terms of the percentages and ratio of {alpha}-helixes and {beta}-sheets in the mid-IR range at the cellular level. By using multicomponent peak modelling, the results show that the roasting reduced (P <0.05) the percentage of {alpha}-helixes (from 47.1% to 36.1%: S-FTIR absorption intensity), increased the percentage of {beta}-sheets (from 37.2% to 49.8%: S-FTIR absorption intensity) and reduced the {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio (from 0.3 to 0.7) in the golden flaxseeds, which indicated a negative effect of the roasting on protein values, utilisation and bioavailability. These results were proved by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System in situ animal trial, which also revealed that roasting increased the amount of protein bound to lignin, and well as of the Maillard reaction protein (both of which are poorly used by ruminants), and increased the level of indigestible and undegradable protein in ruminants. The present results demonstrate the potential of highly spatially resolved synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy to locate 'pure' protein in feed tissues, and reveal protein secondary structures and digestive behaviour, making a significant step forward in and an important contribution to protein nutritional research. Further study is needed to determine the sensitivities of protein secondary structures to various heat-processing conditions, and to quantify the relationship between protein secondary structures and the nutrient availability and digestive behaviour of various protein sources. Information from the present study arising from the synchrotron-based IR probing of the protein secondary structures of protein sources at the cellular level will be valuable as a guide to maintaining protein quality and predicting digestive behaviours.

  9. Value Clarification in the Social Studies: Six Formats of the Values Sheet. Research Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteel, J. Doyle; And Others

    One of the major goals of the social studies is to help students gain and refine skills in the area of value clarification. Value sheets, carefully planned activities designed to elicit value clarifying patterns of language from students, are one way of securing value clarification. Sheets, planned in conjunction with ongoing units of instruction,…

  10. A study of the formation and dynamics of the Earth's plasma sheet using ion composition data

    SciTech Connect

    Lennartsson, O.W.

    1994-04-01

    Over two years of data from the Lockheed Plasma Composition Experiment on the ISEE 1 spacecraft, covering ion energies between 100 eV/e and about 16 keV/e, have been analyzed in an attempt to extract new information about three geophysical issues: (1) solar wind penetration of the Earth's magnetic tail; (2) relationship between plasma sheet and tail lobe ion composition; and (3) possible effects of heavy terrestrial ions on plasma sheet stability.

  11. A study of the formation and dynamics of the Earth's plasma sheet using ion composition data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, O. W.

    1994-01-01

    Over two years of data from the Lockheed Plasma Composition Experiment on the ISEE 1 spacecraft, covering ion energies between 100 eV/e and about 16 keV/e, have been analyzed in an attempt to extract new information about three geophysical issues: (1) solar wind penetration of the Earth's magnetic tail; (2) relationship between plasma sheet and tail lobe ion composition; and (3) possible effects of heavy terrestrial ions on plasma sheet stability.

  12. Targets of TGF-beta signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans dauer formation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, T; Thomas, J H

    2000-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans dauer formation is controlled by multiple environmental factors. The chemosensory neuron ASI regulates dauer formation by secretion of DAF-7/TGF-beta, but the molecular targets of the DAF-7 ligand are incompletely defined and the cellular targets are unknown. We genetically characterized and cloned a putative transducer of DAF-7 signaling called daf-14 and found that it encodes a Smad protein. DAF-14 Smad has a highly unusual structure completely lacking the N-terminal domain found in all other Smad proteins known to date. daf-14 genetically interacts with daf-8, which encodes another Smad, and the interaction suggests partial functional redundancy between these two Smad proteins. We also studied the cellular targets of DAF-7 signaling by studying the sites of action of daf-14 and daf-4, the putative receptor for DAF-7. daf-14::gfp is expressed in multiple tissues that are remodeled during dauer formation. However, analysis of mosaics generated by free duplication loss and tissue-specific expression constructs indicate cell-nonautonomous function of daf-4, arguing against direct DAF-7 signaling to tissues throughout the animal. Instead, these experiments suggest the nervous system as a target of DAF-7 signaling and that the nervous system in turn regulates dauer formation by other tissues. PMID:10625546

  13. Vitamin C Treatment Promotes Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet Formation and Tissue Regeneration by Elevating Telomerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wei, F.L.; Qu, C.Y.; Song, T.L.; Ding, G.; Fan, Z.P.; Liu, D.Y.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, C.M.; Shi, S.; Wang, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    Cell sheet engineering has been developed as an alternative approach to improve mesenchymal stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration. In this study, we found that vitamin C (Vc) was capable of inducing telomerase activity in periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), leading to the up-regulated expression of extracellular matrix type I collagen, fibronectin, and integrin β1, stem cell markers Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog as well as osteogenic markers RUNX2, ALP, OCN. Under Vc treatment, PDLSCs can form cell sheet structures because of increased cell matrix production. Interestingly, PDLSC sheets demonstrated a significant improvement in tissue regeneration compared with untreated control dissociated PDLSCs and offered an effective treatment for periodontal defects in a swine model. In addition, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell sheets were also well constructed using this method. The development of Vc-mediated mesenchymal stem cell sheets may provide an easy and practical approach for cell-based tissue regeneration. PMID:22105792

  14. Dynamics of beta-amyloid peptide in cholesterol superlattice domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Anton; Zhu, Qing; Vaughn, Mark; Khare, Rajesh; Cheng, K.

    2006-10-01

    Presence of beta-amyloid peptide (beta-A) plagues in membranes of neuron cells is a clinical signature of Alzheimer disease. The onset of beta-A peptide aggregation occurs via a conformational transition from an alpha-helix state to a beta-sheet state. A gradual build-up of beta-A content in the neuronal extracellular space is another characteristic of the beta-A plague formation. Hypothetically, both the pathological conformation and the predominant localization of the beta-A can be a result of specific dynamic characteristics of the interphase between cellular membrane and extracellular milieu. In this study, the beta-A interphase problem has been investigated using a virtual membrane model implemented on the base of GROMACS molecular dynamics simulation package. The detailed folding pattern of beta-A has been examined using a novice interphase model comprised of a cholesterol supperlattice membrane and two water layers.

  15. Formation of Sheeting Joints as a Result of Compression Parallel to Convex Surfaces, With Examples from Yosemite National Park, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    The formation of sheeting joints has been an outstanding problem in geology. New observations and analyses indicate that sheeting joints develop in response to a near-surface tension induced by compressive stresses parallel to a convex slope (hypothesis 1) rather than by removal of overburden by erosion, as conventionally assumed (hypothesis 2). Opening mode displacements across the joints together with the absence of mineral precipitates within the joints mean that sheeting joints open in response to a near-surface tension normal to the surface rather than a pressurized fluid. Consideration of a plot of this tensile stress as a function of depth normal to the surface reveals that a true tension must arise in the shallow subsurface if the rate of that tensile stress change with depth is positive at the surface. Static equilibrium requires this rate (derivative) to equal P22 k2 + P33 k3 - ρ g cosβ, where k2 and k3 are the principal curvatures of the surface, P22 and P33 are the respective surface- parallel normal stresses along the principal curvatures, ρ is the material density, g is gravitational acceleration, and β is the slope. This derivative will be positive and sheeting joints can open if at least one principal curvature is sufficiently convex (negative) and the surface-parallel stresses are sufficiently compressive (negative). At several sites with sheeting joints (e.g., Yosemite National Park in California), the measured topographic curvatures and the measured surface-parallel stresses of about -10 MPa combine to meet this condition. In apparent violation of hypothesis 1, sheeting joints occur locally at the bottom of Tenaya Canyon, one of the deepest glaciated, U-shaped (concave) canyons in the park. The canyon-bottom sheeting joints only occur, however, where the canyon is convex downstream, a direction that nearly coincides with direction of the most compressive stress measured in the vicinity. The most compressive stress acting along the convex downstream curvature promotes the opening of the joints, whereas the compressive stress acting across the U-shaped valley promotes closure of the joints. Apparently the former more than compensates for the latter. Finally, the abundance of sheeting joints on convex ridges, where erosion is a local minimum, coupled with their scarcity in the adjacent concave valleys, where erosion is a local maximum, is consistent with hypothesis 1 but inconsistent with hypothesis 2.

  16. Biological activities and pore formation of Clostridium perfringens beta toxin in HL 60 cells.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Masahiro; Hayashi, Shinya; Morimitsu, Shinsuke; Sakurai, Jun

    2003-09-19

    Clostridium perfringens beta toxin is an important agent of necrotic enteritis. Of the 10 cell lines tested, only the HL 60 cell line was susceptible to beta toxin. The toxin induced swelling and lysis of the cell. Treatment of the cells with the toxin resulted in K+ efflux from the cells and Ca2+, Na+, and Cl- influxes. These events reached a maximum just before the cells were lysed by the toxin. Incubation of the cells with the toxin showed the formation of toxin complexes of about 191 and 228 kDa, which were localized in the domains that fulfilled the criteria of lipid rafts. The complex of 228 kDa was observed until 30 min after incubation, and only the complex of 191 kDa was remained after 60 min. Treatment of the cells with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin or cholesterol oxidase blocked binding of the toxin to the rafts and the toxin-induced K+ efflux and swelling. The toxin-induced Ca2+ influx and morphological changes were inhibited by an increase in the hydrodynamic diameter of polyethylene glycols from 200 to 400 and markedly or completely inhibited by polyethylene glycol 600 and 1000. However, these polyethylene glycols had no effect on the toxin-induced K+ efflux. The toxin induced carboxyfluorescein release from phosphatidyl-choline-cholesterol liposomes containing carboxyfluorescein and formed an oligomer with 228 kDa in a dose-dependent manner but did not form an oligomer with the 191-kDa complex. We conclude that the toxin acts on HL 60 cells by binding to lipid rafts and forming a functional oligomer with 228 kDa. PMID:12851396

  17. Diagnostics of basal conditions - the formation of extensive zones of surface ribs in ice-sheets and streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Sergienko, Olga V.; Creyts, Timothy T.

    2015-04-01

    Most if not all current predictions of the evolution of ice-streams to changes induced by global change assume static basal conditions. This is a result of current restrictions in the remote sensing of the ice-sheet basal physical environment, which cannot resolve the small-scale phenomena believed to control the basal traction. The search therefore is on for observable structures or features that are the result of the operation of basal processes. Any successful theory of ice-sheet basal processes would need to be able to explain such phenomena associated with or caused by special properties of the basal environment. We present one class of these phenomena, and also present tentative hypotheses as to their formation. Using recent high-resolution observations of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets topography, the computed driving stress and the inferred basal traction reveal broad-scale organization in 5-20 km band-like patterns in both quantities. The similarity of patterns on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets suggests that the flow of ice sheets is controlled by the same fundamental processes operating at their base, which control ice sheet sliding and are highly variable on relatively short spatial and temporal scales. The formation mechanism for these bands contains information about the operation of the sub-glacial system. There are three possible, non-exclusive causes of these ribs which we examine from a theoretical and evidential point-of-view (i) They are the surface response to similar bands in the basal topography, whose regularity would equally require an explanation in terms of basal processes. (ii) They are translating surface waves in the ice, supported by membrane stress gradients rather than by gradients in the basal resistance. (iii) The ribs are due to the development of a band-like structure in the basal shear stress distribution that is the result of a pattern-forming instability in sub-glacial till and water flow, perhaps related to the formation of sub-glacial landforms.

  18. The effect of low levels of dopants upon the formation and properties of beta-phase molybdenum nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, A.G.; Gallagher, J.G.; Hargreaves, J.S.J.; Mckay, D.; Rico, J.L.; Wilson, K.

    2010-03-15

    The addition of 1 wt% Pd, Au, Ni and Cu dopants has been demonstrated to strongly alter the morphology of beta-phase molybdenum nitride prepared by treatment of MoO{sub 3} with a 3/1 H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture at 750 deg. C. Furthermore, the addition of Pd significantly enhances the surface area and the formation of the nitride phase. It is proposed that the facile formation of molybdenum bronzes in this system is important in this respect. The dopants have also been observed to modify the denitridation characteristics of the beta-phase, with an overall reduction of the proportion of NH{sub 3} formed upon using a 3/1 H{sub 2}/Ar mixture with respect to the undoped sample. - Graphical abstract: Low levels of Pd, Au, Ni and Cu dopant have significant effects upon the morphology, formation and dentitridation characteristics of beta-phase molybdenum nitride.

  19. Oral Administration of Thioflavin T Prevents Beta Amyloid Plaque Formation in Double Transgenic AD Mice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sumit; Raymick, James; Ray, Balmiki; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Paule, Merle G; Schmued, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and most common cause of adult-onset dementia. The major hallmarks of AD are the formation of senile amyloid plaques made of beta amyloid and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) which are primarily composed of phosphorylated tau protein. Although numerous agents have been considered as providing protection against AD, identification of potential agents with neuroprotective ability is limited. Thioflavin T has been used in the past to stain amyloid beta plaques in brain. In this study, Thioflavin T (ThT) and vehicle (infant formula) were administered orally by gavage to transgenic (B6C3 APP PS1; AD-Tg) mice beginning at 4 months age and continuing until sacrifice at 9 months of age at 40 mg/kg dose. The number of amyloid plaques was reduced dramatically by ThT treatment in both male and female transgenic mice compared to those in control mice. Additionally, GFAP and Amylo-Glo labeling suggest that astrocytic hypertrophy is minimized in ThT-treated animals. Similarly, CD68 labeling, which detects activated microglia, along with Amylo-Glo labeling, suggests that microglial activation is significantly less in ThT-treated mice. Both Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 concentrations in blood rose significantly in the ThT-treated animals suggesting that ThT may inhibit the deposition, degradation, and/or clearance of Aβ plaques in brain. PMID:26510980

  20. Current sheet formation in a sheared force-free-magnetic field. [in sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, Richard

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study showing how continuous shearing motion of magnetic footpoints in a tenuous, infinitely conducting plasma can lead to the development of current sheets, despite the absence of such sheets or even of neutral points in the initial state. The calculations discussed here verify the earlier suggestion by Low and Wolfson (1988) that extended current sheets should form due to the shearing of a force-free quadrupolar magnetic field. More generally, this work augments earlier studies suggesting that the appearance of discontinuities - current sheets - may be a necessary consequence of the topological invariance imposed on the magnetic field geometry of an ideal MHD system by virtue of its infinite conductivity. In the context of solar physics, the work shows how the gradual and continuous motion of magnetic footpoints at the solar photosphere may lead to the buildup of magnetic energy that can then be released explosively when finite conductivity effects become important and lead to the rapid dissipation of current sheets. Such energy release may be important in solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and other eruptive events.

  1. Formation kinetics and structural features of Beta-amyloid aggregates by sedimented solute NMR.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Ivano; Gallo, Gianluca; Korsak, Magdalena; Luchinat, Claudio; Mao, Jiafei; Ravera, Enrico

    2013-09-23

    The accumulation of soluble toxic beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates is an attractive hypothesis for the role of this peptide in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. We have introduced sedimentation through ultracentrifugation, either by magic angle spinning (in situ) or preparative ultracentrifuge (ex situ), to immobilize biomolecules and make them amenable for solid-state NMR studies (SedNMR). In situ SedNMR is used here to address the kinetics of formation of soluble Aβ assemblies by monitoring the disappearance of the monomer and the appearance of the oligomers simultaneously. Ex situ SedNMR allows us to select different oligomeric species and to reveal atomic-level structural features of soluble Aβ assemblies. PMID:23821412

  2. Solvent effects on self-assembly of beta-amyloid peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, C L; Murphy, R M

    1995-01-01

    beta-amyloid peptide (A beta) is the primary protein component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease patients. Synthetic A beta spontaneously assembles into amyloid fibrils and is neurotoxic to cortical cultures. Neurotoxicity has been associated with the degree of peptide aggregation, yet the mechanism of assembly of A beta into amyloid fibrils is poorly understood. In this work, A beta was dissolved in several different solvents commonly used in neurotoxicity assays. In pure dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), A beta had no detectable beta-sheet content; in 0.1% trifluoroacetate, the peptide contained one-third beta-sheet; and in 35% acetonitrile/0.1% trifluoroacetate, A beta was two-thirds beta-sheet, equivalent to the fibrillar peptide in physiological buffer. Stock solutions of peptide were diluted into phosphate-buffered saline, and fibril growth was followed by static and dynamic light scattering. The growth rate was substantially faster when the peptide was predissolved in 35% acetonitrile/0.1% trifluoroacetate than in 0.1% trifluoroacetate, 10% DMSO, or 100% DMSO. Differences in growth rate were attributed to changes in the secondary structure of the peptide in the stock solvent. These results suggest that formation of an intermediate with a high beta-sheet content is a controlling step in A beta self-assembly. PMID:8527678

  3. Maturation induced internalization of beta 1-integrin by Xenopus oocytes and formation of the maternal integrin pool.

    PubMed

    Müller, A H; Gawantka, V; Ding, X; Hausen, P

    1993-07-01

    A pool of beta 1-integrin, ready to be inserted into the cleavage membranes, is present in the cytoplasm of the Xenopus egg, while its plasma membrane is devoid of this membrane protein (Gawantka et al., 1992). The underlying mechanisms that lead to this specific pattern of beta 1-integrin distribution in the egg have been investigated. beta 1-Integrin is present on the oocyte membrane throughout oogenesis. During maturation the oocyte membrane is cleared of beta 1-integrin via internalization of the protein by the oocyte. Synthesis of beta 1-integrin precursor is stimulated moderately in the maturing oocyte. At the same time processing of the precursor into the mature form of beta 1-integrin and its complexing with a putative alpha-chain is greatly accelerated. This way a maternal integrin pool accumulates in the mature oocyte. It is localized in conspicuous yolk free patches which contain large amounts of endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes and smooth vesicles. We suggest that membrane vesicles harbouring the beta 1-integrin are generated in these cytoplasmic regions and that this store of vesicles provides the material source for the rapid membrane formation during cleavage. PMID:7690240

  4. Double-stranded helical twisted beta-sheet channels in crystals of gramicidin S grown in the presence of trifluoroacetic and hydrochloric acids.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L; Grotenbreg, Gijsbert M; Overhand, Mark; van Raaij, Mark J

    2007-03-01

    Gramicidin S is a nonribosomally synthesized cyclic decapeptide antibiotic with twofold symmetry (Val-Orn-Leu-D-Phe-Pro)(2); a natural source is Bacillus brevis. Gramicidin S is active against Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria. However, its haemolytic toxicity in humans limits its use as an antibiotic to certain topical applications. Synthetically obtained gramicidin S was crystallized from a solution containing water, methanol, trifluoroacetic acid and hydrochloric acid. The structure was solved and refined at 0.95 A resolution. The asymmetric unit contains 1.5 molecules of gramicidin S, two trifluoroacetic acid molecules and ten water molecules located and refined in 14 positions. One gramicidin S molecule has an exact twofold-symmetrical conformation; the other deviates from the molecular twofold symmetry. The cyclic peptide adopts an antiparallel beta-sheet secondary structure with two type II' beta-turns. These turns have the residues D-Phe and Pro at positions i + 1 and i + 2, respectively. In the crystals, the gramicidin S molecules line up into double-stranded helical channels that differ from those observed previously. The implications of the supramolecular structure for several models of gramicidin S conformation and assembly in the membrane are discussed. PMID:17327677

  5. Structural characterization of the latent complex between transforming growth factor beta 1 and beta 1-latency-associated peptide.

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, G A; Dignam, J D; Gentry, L E

    1996-01-01

    The formation of a non-covalent complex between mature transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and its pro region, the beta 1-latency-associated peptide (beta 1-LAP), is important in regulating the activity of this multipotent growth factor. We have overexpressed simian beta 1-LAP in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to produce a cell line which secretes beta 1-LAP into the culture medium at > 1 mg/l, thus enabling structural studies of complex formation between beta 1-LAP and TGF-beta 1. The simian beta 1-LAP expressed in CHO cells reversed the growth inhibitory effect of exogenous TGF-beta 1 on Mv1Lu (mink lung epithelial) cells and was able to form a cross-linked complex with 125I-TGF-beta 1. Simian beta 1-LAP was purified to homogeneity by a combination of ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration, dye ligand chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography, with a yield of 15%. The purified protein had an apparent molecular mass of 114 kDa as determined by SDS/PAGE, which is greater than that determined for the transient expression of simian beta 1-LAP in COS-1 and for the simian precursor of TGF-beta 1 (pro-TGF-beta 1) in CHO cells, this major difference being due to more extensive glycosylation of beta 1-LAP expressed by this CHO clone. Far-UV CD spectroscopy of simian beta 1-LAP indicates a mostly beta-sheet structure, with extensive structural rearrangements occurring upon formation of the latent complex between TGF-beta 1 and beta 1-LAP. PMID:8546705

  6. Inhibition of bacterial cell wall-induced leukocyte recruitment and hepatic granuloma formation by TGF-beta gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Song, X; Zeng, L; Pilo, C M; Zagorski, J; Wahl, S M

    1999-10-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of streptococcal cell walls (SCW) into Lewis rats results in dissemination of SCW to the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and peripheral joints. The uptake of SCW by Kupffer cells in the liver initiates a chain of events largely mediated by T lymphocytes and macrophages. Local synthesis and secretion of cytokines and growth factors in response to the persistent SCW lead to the evolution and maintenance of a chronic T cell-dependent granulomatous response and result in granuloma formation and irreversible hepatic fibrosis. In an attempt to impede the development of the chronic granulomatous lesions in the liver, we injected a plasmid DNA encoding TGF-beta 1 i.m. to the SCW animals to determine the effect of TGF-beta 1 gene transfer on the course of liver inflammation and fibrosis. A single injection of plasmid DNA encoding TGF-beta 1 resulted in virtual abolition of the development of the SCW-induced hepatic granuloma formation and matrix expansion. TGF-beta 1 DNA not only reduced key proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IFN-gamma, and IL-18, but also inhibited both CXC and CC chemokine production, thereby blocking inflammatory cell recruitment and accumulation in the liver. Moreover, TGF-beta 1 gene delivery inhibited its own expression in the liver tissue, which is otherwise up-regulated in SCW-injected animals. Our study suggests that TGF-beta 1 gene transfer suppresses hepatic granuloma formation by blocking the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the liver, and thus may provide a new approach to the control of hepatic granulomatous and fibrotic diseases. PMID:10491005

  7. Effects of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 in Cerebellar Development: Role in Synapse Formation

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Ana P. B.; Diniz, Luan P.; Eller, Cristiane M.; de Matos, Beatriz G.; Martinez, Rodrigo; Gomes, Flávia C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Granule cells (GC) are the most numerous glutamatergic neurons in the cerebellar cortex and represent almost half of the neurons of the central nervous system. Despite recent advances, the mechanisms of how the glutamatergic synapses are formed in the cerebellum remain unclear. Among the TGF-β family, TGF-beta 1 (TGF-β1) has been described as a synaptogenic molecule in invertebrates and in the vertebrate peripheral nervous system. A recent paper from our group demonstrated that TGF-β1 increases the excitatory synapse formation in cortical neurons. Here, we investigated the role of TGF-β1 in glutamatergic cerebellar neurons. We showed that the expression profile of TGF-β1 and its receptor, TβRII, in the cerebellum is consistent with a role in synapse formation in vitro and in vivo. It is low in the early postnatal days (P1–P9), increases after postnatal day 12 (P12), and remains high until adulthood (P30). We also found that granule neurons express the TGF-β receptor mRNA and protein, suggesting that they may be responsive to the synaptogenic effect of TGF-β1. Treatment of granular cell cultures with TGF-β1 increased the number of glutamatergic excitatory synapses by 100%, as shown by immunocytochemistry assays for presynaptic (synaptophysin) and post-synaptic (PSD-95) proteins. This effect was dependent on TβRI activation because addition of a pharmacological inhibitor of TGF-β, SB-431542, impaired the formation of synapses between granular neurons. Together, these findings suggest that TGF-β1 has a specific key function in the cerebellum through regulation of excitatory synapse formation between granule neurons. PMID:27199658

  8. Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Han; Zhang, Kai; Qiao, Chunyan; Yuan, Anliang; Li, Daowei; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Ce; Xu, Xiaowei; Ni, Shilei; Zheng, Changyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate (PEI–al) nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(c)DNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI–al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI–al nanocomposites efficiently deliver the BMP-2 gene to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and that BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet is an effective way for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:24855355

  9. Structural basis for mechanical force regulation of the adhesin FimH via finger trap-like beta sheet twisting.

    PubMed

    Le Trong, Isolde; Aprikian, Pavel; Kidd, Brian A; Forero-Shelton, Manu; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Rajagopal, Ponni; Rodriguez, Victoria; Interlandi, Gianluca; Klevit, Rachel; Vogel, Viola; Stenkamp, Ronald E; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Thomas, Wendy E

    2010-05-14

    The Escherichia coli fimbrial adhesive protein, FimH, mediates shear-dependent binding to mannosylated surfaces via force-enhanced allosteric catch bonds, but the underlying structural mechanism was previously unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of FimH incorporated into the multiprotein fimbrial tip, where the anchoring (pilin) domain of FimH interacts with the mannose-binding (lectin) domain and causes a twist in the beta sandwich fold of the latter. This loosens the mannose-binding pocket on the opposite end of the lectin domain, resulting in an inactive low-affinity state of the adhesin. The autoinhibition effect of the pilin domain is removed by application of tensile force across the bond, which separates the domains and causes the lectin domain to untwist and clamp tightly around the ligand like a finger-trap toy. Thus, beta sandwich domains, which are common in multidomain proteins exposed to tensile force in vivo, can undergo drastic allosteric changes and be subjected to mechanical regulation. PMID:20478255

  10. Beta Cell Formation in vivo Through Cellular Networking, Integration and Processing (CNIP) in Wild Type Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Bruno; Hu, Wenchao; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2016-01-01

    Insulin replacement therapy is essential in type 1 diabetic individuals and is required in ~40- 50% of type 2 diabetics during their lifetime. Prior attempts at beta cell regeneration have relied upon pancreatic injury to induce beta cell proliferation, dedifferentiation and activation of the embryonic pathway, or stem cell replacement. We report an alternative method to transform adult non-stem (somatic) cells into pancreatic beta cells. The Cellular Networking, Integration and Processing (CNIP) approach targets cellular mechanisms involved in pancreatic function in the organ's adult state and utilizes a synergistic mechanism that integrates three important levels of cellular regulation to induce beta cell formation: (i) glucose metabolism, (ii) membrane receptor function, and (iii) gene transcription. The aim of the present study was to induce pancreatic beta cell formation in vivo in adult animals without stem cells and without dedifferentiating cells to recapitulate the embryonic pathway as previously published (1-3). Our results employing CNIP demonstrate that: (i) insulin secreting cells can be generated in adult pancreatic tissue in vivo and circumvent the problem of generating endocrine (glucagon and somatostatin) cells that exert deleterious effects on glucose homeostasis, and (ii) longterm normalization of glucose tolerance and insulin secretion can be achieved in a wild type diabetic mouse model. The CNIP cocktail has the potential to be used as a preventative or therapeutic treatment or cure for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26696016

  11. Differential effects of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in the medial prefrontal cortex during aversive and incidental taste memory formation.

    PubMed

    Reyes-López, J; Nuñez-Jaramillo, L; Morán-Guel, E; Miranda, M I

    2010-08-11

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a brain area crucial for memory, attention, and decision making. Specifically, the noradrenergic system in this cortex is involved in aversive learning, as well as in the retrieval of these memories. Some evidence suggests that this area has an important role during taste memory, particularly during conditioned taste aversion (CTA), a model of aversive memory. Despite some previous evidence, there is scarce information about the role of adrenergic receptors in the mPFC during formation of aversive taste memory and appetitive/incidental taste memory. The goal of this research was to evaluate the role of mPFC beta-adrenergic receptors during CTA acquisition/consolidation or CTA retrieval, as well as during incidental taste memory formation using the model of latent inhibition of CTA. The results showed that infusions in the mPFC of the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol before CTA acquisition impaired both short- and long-term aversive taste memory formation, and also that propranolol infusions before the memory test impaired CTA retrieval. However, propranolol infusions before pre-exposure to the taste during the latent inhibition procedure had no effect on incidental taste memory acquisition or consolidation. These data indicate that beta-adrenergic receptors in the mPFC have different functions during taste memory formation: they have an important role during aversive taste association as well as during aversive retrieval but not during incidental taste memory formation. PMID:20435101

  12. Origin of life. Primordial genetics: Information transfer in a pre-RNA world based on self-replicating beta-sheet amyloid conformers.

    PubMed

    Maury, Carl Peter J

    2015-10-01

    The question of the origin of life on Earth can largely be reduced to the question of what was the first molecular replicator system that was able to replicate and evolve under the presumably very harsh conditions on the early Earth. It is unlikely that a functional RNA could have existed under such conditions and it is generally assumed that some other kind of information system preceded the RNA world. Here, I present an informational molecular system that is stable, self-replicative, environmentally responsive, and evolvable under conditions characterized by high temperatures, ultraviolet and cosmic radiation. This postulated pregenetic system is based on the amyloid fold, a functionally unique polypeptide fold characterized by a cross beta-sheet structure in which the beta strands are arranged perpendicular to the fiber axis. Beside an extraordinary structural robustness, the amyloid fold possesses a unique ability to transmit information by a three-dimensional templating mechanism. In amyloidogenesis short peptide monomers are added one by one to the growing end of the fiber. From the same monomeric subunits several structural variants of amyloid may be formed. Then, in a self-replicative mode, a specific amyloid conformer can act as a template and confer its spatially encoded information to daughter molecular entities in a repetitive way. In this process, the specific conformational information, the spatially changed organization, is transmitted; the coding element is the steric zipper structure, and recognition occurs by amino acid side chain complementarity. The amyloid information system fulfills several basic requirements of a primordial evolvable replicator system: (i) it is stable under the presumed primitive Earth conditions, (ii) the monomeric building blocks of the informational polymer can be formed from available prebiotic compounds, (iii) the system is self-assembling and self-replicative and (iv) it is adaptive to changes in the environment and evolvable. PMID:26196585

  13. A High-Beta, Supersonic Plasma Flow and Shock Formation in Magnetic Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inutake, Masaaki; Ando, Akira; Hattori, Kunihiko; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Imasaki, Atsushi; Yagai, Tsuyoshi; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Fumitake; Ashino, Masashi

    2000-10-01

    Plasma acceleration and shock wave formation are investigated in the HITOP device of Tohoku University. A high-beta(>50%), and highly-ionized(>50%), flowing He-plasma is produced quasi-steadily(1ms) by an MPD arc jet and is injected into a cylindrical vacuum chamber (diameter: 0.8m, length: 3.3m) along various axial magnetic channels. Axial profiles of an ion acoustic Mach number Mi are measured by a Mach probe and a spectroscopic method. It is found that Mi is almost unity in a uniform magnetic field and Mi increases up to 3 in a diverging magnetic field. When a magnetic bump is added in the diverging field, a shock wave with a sudden decrease in Mi and increase in density is observed near the inlet of the bump region. The subsonic plasma flow is re-accelerated in the converging field. Mi attains to unity near the magnetic throat and increases up to 3 in the diverging region. The bump field works as a magnetic Laval nozzle. These phenomena are quite similar to those in a compressible gas flow through a conventional Laval nozzle.

  14. Design study of the geometry of the blanking tool to predict the burr formation of Zircaloy-4 sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Jisun Lee, Hyungyil Kim, Dongchul Kim, Naksoo

    2013-12-16

    In this work, we investigated factors that influence burr formation for zircaloy-4 sheet used for spacer grids of nuclear fuel roads. Factors we considered are geometric factors of punch. We changed clearance and velocity in order to consider the failure parameters, and we changed shearing angle and corner radius of L-shaped punch in order to consider geometric factors of punch. First, we carried out blanking test with failure parameter of GTN model using L-shaped punch. The tendency of failure parameters and geometric factors that affect burr formation by analyzing sheared edges is investigated. Consequently, geometric factor's influencing on the burr formation is also high as failure parameters. Then, the sheared edges and burr formation with failure parameters and geometric factors is investigated using FE analysis model. As a result of analyzing sheared edges with the variables, we checked geometric factors more affect burr formation than failure parameters. To check the reliability of the FE model, the blanking force and the sheared edges obtained from experiments are compared with the computations considering heat transfer.

  15. Presence of a glycine-cysteine-rich beta-protein in the oberhautchen layer of snake epidermis marks the formation of the shedding layer.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    The complex differentiation of snake epidermis largely depends on the variation in the production of glycine-cysteine-rich versus glycine-rich beta-proteins (beta-keratins) that are deposited on a framework of alpha-keratins. The knowledge of the amino acid sequences of beta-proteins in the snake Pantherophis guttatus has allowed the localization of a glycine-cysteine-rich beta-protein in the spinulated oberhautchen layer of the differentiating shedding complex before molting takes place. This protein decreases in the beta-layer and disappears in mesos and alpha-layers. Conversely, while the mRNA for a glycine-rich beta-protein is highly expressed in differentiating beta-cells, the immunolocalization for this protein is low in these cells. This discrepancy between expression and localization suggests that the epitope in glycine-rich beta-proteins is cleaved or modified by posttranslational processes that take place during the differentiation and maturation of the beta-layer. The present study suggests that among the numerous beta-proteins coded in the snake genome to produce epidermal layers with different textures, the glycine-cysteine-rich beta-protein marks the shedding complex formed between alpha- and beta-layers that allows for molting while its disappearance between the beta- and alpha-layers (mesos region for scale growth) is connected to the formation of the alpha-layers. PMID:24817366

  16. Numerical Modelling of Formation of Sheeted-Dyke Complex at Different Types of Mid-Ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, D.; Dahm, T.

    2004-12-01

    Magma dykes are the most important structural elements of oceanic crust. In this work, attention is concentrated on the origin of the sheeted-dyke complex. Generally, it is formed by solidification of episodic intrusions from magma reservoirs. Up to now, most models are qualitative and tend to neglect stress fields arising from dyke openings. In this model, heterogeneities of the stress field are calculated quantitatively and are taken into account. A modified boundary element code capable of simulating quasi-static finite-volume fluid-filled fracture growth and movement in an elastic lithosphere under inhomogeneous stress loading is used. Numerical models for slow to fast spreading ridges are presented. Slow spreading ridges, possessing magma reservoirs at the crust-mantle boundary with large extension perpendicular to the ridge, demand broad dyke injection zones with continuous magma supply, whereas melt ascent from crustal magma chambers at fast spreading ridges generates only narrow dyke injection zones. Despite the different origins of magma at slow and fast spreading ridges, the sheeted-dyke complex looks similar. Finally, ridges spreading at intermediate rates provide discontinuous magma supply for crust formation either by unstable crustal magma chambers or by feeding of the sheeted-dyke complex by underlying sills. Results of modelling are that stress fields caused by dyke emplacement cannot be neglected in any models for the formation of oceanic crust, since self-induced stress fields can locally surmount the effect of regional stress fields. For example, crossing and focussing of dykes may either lead to the development of volcanic centres with different spacing or to pooling of sills building up a whole layer, the behaviour being dependent e.g. on dyke lenghts. Moreover, the focussing of dykes may generate a cumulative stress field similar to that of an elliptical magma chamber in a kind of self-organising way. If a regional, extensional stress field is introduced additionally, both narrow and broad dyke injection zones result in parallelism of ascending dykes and thus favour the construction of a sheeted-dyke complex. Acknowledgments: The project is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG).

  17. Independent formation of DnaseI hypersensitive sites in the murine beta-globin locus control region.

    PubMed

    Bender, M A; Mehaffey, M G; Telling, A; Hug, B; Ley, T J; Groudine, M; Fiering, S

    2000-06-01

    Mammalian beta-globin loci are composed of multiple orthologous genes whose expression is erythroid specific and developmentally regulated. The expression of these genes both from the endogenous locus and from transgenes is strongly influenced by a linked 15-kilobase region of clustered DNaseI hypersensitive sites (HSs) known as the locus control region (LCR). The LCR encompasses 5 major HSs, each of which is highly homologous among humans, mice, and other mammals. To analyze the function of individual HSs in the endogenous murine beta-globin LCR, we have used homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells to produce 5 mouse lines, each of which is deficient for 1 of these major HSs. In this report, we demonstrate that deletion of the conserved region of 5'HS 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5/6 abolishes HS formation at the deletion site but has no influence on the formation of the remaining HSs in the LCR. Therefore, in the endogenous murine locus, there is no dominant or initiating site whose formation must precede the formation of the other HSs. This is consistent with the idea that HSs form autonomously. We discuss the implications of these findings for current models of beta-globin regulation. PMID:10828050

  18. Formation of adherens and communicating junctions coordinate the differentiation of the shedding-layer and beta-epidermal generation in regenerating lizard epidermis.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2014-06-01

    In the lizard epidermis, the formation of a stratified alpha- and beta-layer, separated by a shedding complex for molting, suggests that keratinocytes communicate in a coordinated manner after they leave the basal layers during the shedding cycle. I have therefore studied the localization of cell junctional proteins such as beta-catenin and connexins 43 and 26 during scale regeneration in lizard using immunocytochemistry. Beta-catenin is also detected in nuclei of basal cells destined to give rise to the Oberhäutchen and beta-cells suggesting activation of the Wnt-pathway during beta-cell differentiation. The observations show that cells of the entire shedding layer (clear and Oberhäutchen) and beta-layer are connected by beta-catenin (adherens junctions) and connexins (communicating junctions) during their differentiation. This likely cell coupling determines the formation of a distinct shedding and beta-layer within the regenerating epidermis. The observed pattern of cell junctional stratification suggests that after departing from the basal layer Oberhäutchen and beta-cells form a continuous communicating compartment that coordinates the contemporaneous differentiation along the entire scale. While the beta-layer matures the junctions are lost while other cell junctions are formed in the following mesos- and alpha-cell layers. This process determines the formation of layers with different texture (harder or softer) and the precise localization of the shedding layer within lizard epidermis. PMID:24860869

  19. Engineering stabilising beta-sheet interactions into a conformationally flexible region of the folding transition state of ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Bofill, Roger; Searle, Mark S

    2005-10-21

    Protein engineering studies suggest that the transition state for the folding of ubiquitin is highly polarised towards the N-terminal part of the sequence and involves a nucleus of residues within the beta-hairpin (residues 1-17) and main alpha-helix (residues 23-34). In contrast, the observation of small phi-values for residues in the C-terminal portion of the sequence (residues 35-76), coupled with a folding topology that results in a much higher contact order, suggests that fast folding of ubiquitin is dependent upon configurational flexibility in the C-terminal part of the polypeptide chain to ensure passage down a relatively smooth folding funnel to the native state. We show that the introduction of a small mini-hairpin motif as an extension of the native 43-50 hairpin stabilises local interactions in the C-terminal part of the sequence, resulting largely in a deceleration of the unfolding kinetics without perturbing the apparent two-state folding mechanism. However, a single-point Leu-->Phe substitution within the engineered hairpin sequence leads to the premature collapse of the denatured ensemble through the stabilisation of non-native interactions and the population of a compact intermediate. Non-linear effects in the kinetic data at low concentrations of denaturant suggest that the collapsed state, which is further stabilised in the presence of cosmotropic salts, may subsequently fold directly to the native state through a "triangular" reaction scheme involving internal rearrangement rather than unfolding and refolding. PMID:16169558

  20. Beta4 integrin-dependent formation of polarized three-dimensionalarchitecture confers resistance to apoptosis in normal and malignantmammary epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Valerie M.; Lelievre, Sophie; Lakins, Johnathon N.; Chrenek, Micah A.; Jones, Jonathan C.R.; Giancotti, Filippo; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-08-27

    Tumor cells can evade chemotherapy by acquiring resistanceto apoptosis. We investigated the molecular mechanism whereby malignantand nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells become insensitive toapoptosis. We show that regardless of growth status formation ofpolarized, three-dimensional structures driven by basement membraneconfers protection to apoptosis in both nonmalignant and malignantmammary epithelial cells. By contrast, irrespective of their malignantstatus, nonpolarized structures are sensitive to induction of apoptosis.Resistance to apoptosis requires ligation of beta4 integrins, whichregulates tissue polarity, hemidesmosome formation and NFkB activation.Expression of beta4 integrin that lacks the hemidesmosome targetingdomain interferes with tissue polarity and NFkB activation and permitsapoptosis. These results indicate that integrin-induced polarity maydrive tumor cell resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents via effects onNFkB.

  1. Formation of a quasi-one-dimensional current sheet in the laboratory experiment and in the Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkov, E. V.; Frank, A. G.; Artemyev, A. V.; Petrukovich, A. A.; Vasko, I. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional current sheets (CSs) generated in the CS-3D laboratory device are considered. Results obtained in the laboratory experiment are compared with spacecraft observations of CSs in the Earth's magnetotail. The longitudinal and transverse CS structures, as well as CS evolution during the thinning process are studied. It is demonstrated that the CSs obtained in the laboratory experiments and those observed by spacecraft possess common properties: they have the same dimensionless spatial scales, similar distributions of the normal component of the magnetic field along the sheet, and similar ratios between the current density and the normal component of the magnetic field. The results of comparison allow one to guess some details of the structure and dynamics of the Earth's magnetotail CS. In particular, on the basis of the laboratory experiment, it is concluded that the formation of a quasi-one-dimensional CS in the magnetotail at distances of x ˜ -15 R E from the Earth (where R E is the Earth' radius) is accompanied by the growth of the amplitude B 0 of the tangential component of the magnetic field and that the field B 0 in the quasi-stationary state increases tailward. The critical value of the current density is likely equal to , where N e is the electron density and is the ion thermal velocity. The current density cannot substantially exceed this value. Moreover, the CS thickness cannot be substantially smaller then the ion Larmor radius or the ion inertial length.

  2. Lactate adversely affects the in vitro formation of endothelial cell tubular structures through the action of TGF-{beta}1

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Stephan A. . E-mail: leoni.kunz-schughart@oncoray.de; Gaumann, Andreas; Wondrak, Marit; Eckermann, Christoph; Schulte, Stephanie; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Wheatley, Denys N.; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A.

    2007-07-15

    When lactate accumulation in a tumor microenvironment reaches an average concentration of 10-20 mM, it tends to reflect a high degree of malignancy. However, the hypothesis that tumor-derived lactate has a number of partially adverse biological effects on malignant and tumor-associated host cells requires further evidence. The present study attempted to evaluate the impact of lactate on the process of angiogenesis, in particular on the formation of tubular structures. The endothelial cell (EC) network in desmoplastic breast tumors is primarily located in areas of reactive fibroblastic stroma. We employed a fibroblast-endothelial cell co-culture model as in vitro angiogenesis system normally producing florid in vitro tubule formation to analyze this situation. In contrast to previous studies, we found that lactate significantly reduces EC network formation in a dose-dependent manner as quantified by semi-automated morphometric analyses following immunohistochemical staining. The decrease in CD31-positive tubular structures and the number of intersections was independent of VEGF supplementation and became more pronounced in the presence of protons. The number of cells, primarily of the fibroblast population, was reduced but cell loss could not be attributed to a decrease in proliferative activity or pronounced apoptotic cell death. Treatment with 10 mM lactate was accompanied by enhanced mRNA expression and release of TGF-{beta}1, which also shows anti-angiogenic activity in the model. Both TGF-{beta}1 and lactate induced myofibroblastic differentiation adjacent to the EC tubular structures. The lactate response on the EC network was diminished by TGF-{beta}1 neutralization, indicating a causal relationship between lactate and TGF-{beta}1 in the finely tuned processes of vessel formation and maturation which may also occur in vivo within tumor tissue.

  3. Thymosin Beta4 Regulates Cardiac Valve Formation Via Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transformation in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sun-Hye; Lee, Sangkyu; Bae, Jong-Sup; Jee, Jun-Goo; Cha, Hee-Jae; Lee, You Mie

    2014-01-01

    Thymosin beta4 (TB4) has multiple functions in cellular response in processes as diverse as embryonic organ development and the pathogeneses of disease, especially those associated with cardiac coronary vessels. However, the specific roles played by TB4 during heart valve development in vertebrates are largely unknown. Here, we identified a novel function of TB4 in endothelialmesenchymal transformation (EMT) in cardiac valve endocardial cushions in zebrafish. The expressions of thymosin family members in developing zebrafish embryos were determined by whole mount in situ hybridization. Of the thymosin family members only zTB4 was expressed in the developing heart region. Cardiac valve development at 48 h post fertilization was defected in zebrafish TB4 (zTB4) morpholino-injected embryos (morphants). In zTB4 morphants, abnormal linear heart tube development was observed. The expressions of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4, notch1b, and hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS) 2 genes were also markedly reduced in atrio-ventricular canal (AVC). Endocardial cells in the AVC region were stained with anti-Zn5 antibody reactive against Dm-grasp (an EMT marker) to observe EMT in developing cardiac valves in zTB4 morphants. EMT marker expression in valve endothelial cells was confirmed after transfection with TB4 siRNA in the presence of transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) by RT-PCR and immunofluorescent assay. Zn5-positive endocardial AVC cells were not observed in zTB4 morphants, and knockdown of TB4 suppressed TGF-?-induced EMT in ovine valve endothelial cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TB4 plays a pivotal role in cardiac valve formation by increasing EMT. PMID:24732964

  4. Thymosin beta4 regulates cardiac valve formation via endothelial-mesenchymal transformation in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun-Hye; Lee, Sangkyu; Bae, Jong-Sup; Jee, Jun-Goo; Cha, Hee-Jae; Lee, You Mie

    2014-04-01

    Thymosin beta4 (TB4) has multiple functions in cellular response in processes as diverse as embryonic organ development and the pathogeneses of disease, especially those associated with cardiac coronary vessels. However, the specific roles played by TB4 during heart valve development in vertebrates are largely unknown. Here, we identified a novel function of TB4 in endothelialmesenchymal transformation (EMT) in cardiac valve endocardial cushions in zebrafish. The expressions of thymosin family members in developing zebrafish embryos were determined by whole mount in situ hybridization. Of the thymosin family members only zTB4 was expressed in the developing heart region. Cardiac valve development at 48 h post fertilization was defected in zebrafish TB4 (zTB4) morpholino-injected embryos (morphants). In zTB4 morphants, abnormal linear heart tube development was observed. The expressions of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4, notch1b, and hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS) 2 genes were also markedly reduced in atrio-ventricular canal (AVC). Endocardial cells in the AVC region were stained with anti-Zn5 antibody reactive against Dm-grasp (an EMT marker) to observe EMT in developing cardiac valves in zTB4 morphants. EMT marker expression in valve endothelial cells was confirmed after transfection with TB4 siRNA in the presence of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) by RT-PCR and immunofluorescent assay. Zn5-positive endocardial AVC cells were not observed in zTB4 morphants, and knockdown of TB4 suppressed TGF-β-induced EMT in ovine valve endothelial cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TB4 plays a pivotal role in cardiac valve formation by increasing EMT.1. PMID:24732964

  5. Functional analysis of the beta and epsilon lycopene cyclase enzymes of Arabidopsis reveals a mechanism for control of cyclic carotenoid formation.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, F X; Pogson, B; Sun, Z; McDonald, K A; DellaPenna, D; Gantt, E

    1996-01-01

    Carotenoids with cyclic end groups are essential components of the photosynthetic membranes in all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. These lipid-soluble compounds protect against photooxidation, harvest light for photosynthesis, and dissipate excess light energy absorbed by the antenna pigments. The cyclization of lycopene (psi, psi-carotene) is a key branch point in the pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis. Two types of cyclic end groups are found in higher plant carotenoids: the beta and epsilon rings. Carotenoids with two beta rings are ubiquitous, and those with one beta and one epsilon ring are common; however, carotenoids with two epsilon rings are rare. We have identified and sequenced cDNAs that encode the enzymes catalyzing the formation of these two rings in Arabidopsis. These beta and epsilon cyclases are encoded by related, single-copy genes, and both enzymes use the linear, symmetrical lycopene as a substrate. However, the epsilon cyclase adds only one ring, forming the monocyclic delta-carotene (epsilon, psi-carotene), whereas the beta cyclase introduces a ring at both ends of lycopene to form the bicyclic beta-carotene (beta, beta-carotene). When combined, the beta and epsilon cyclases convert lycopene to alpha-carotene (beta, epsilon-carotene), a carotenoid with one beta and one epsilon ring. The inability of the epsilon cyclase to catalyze the introduction of a second epsilon ring reveals the mechanism by which production and proportions of beta,beta- and beta, epsilon-carotenoids may be controlled and adjusted in plants and algae, while avoiding the formation of the inappropriate epsilon,epsilon-carotenoids. PMID:8837512

  6. Magnetic neutral sheets in evolving fields. I - General theory. II - Formation of the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the hydrostatic equilibrium of a large-scale magnetic field embedded in a fluid with infinite electrical conductivity is considered. It is pointed out that a necessary condition for static equilibrium is the invariance of the small-scale pattern in the field along the large-scale direction. A varying topological pattern implies that no fluid pressure distribution exists for which the field is everywhere static. Magnetic neutral sheets form, and dynamical reconnection of the field takes place. It is shown here that the invariance is also a sufficient condition for the existence of a fluid pressure distribution producing static equilibrium. Even in the simplest cases, however, the requirements on the fluid pressure are extreme and, a priori, are unlikely. It is concluded that almost all twisted flux tubes packed together produce dynamical nonequilibrium and dissipation of their twisting. This is the basic effect underlying the long-standing conjecture that the shuffling of the footpoints of the bipolar magnetic fields in the sun is responsible for heating the active corona. Attention is then given to the consequences of this general dynamical dissipation in the magnetic fields that produce the active corona of the sun. The footpoints of the field are continually manipulated by the subphotospheric convection in such a way that the lines of force are continually wrapped and rotated about one another.

  7. β-sheet-like formation during the mechanical unfolding of prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Weiwei; Yoon, Gwonchan; Cao, Penghui; Eom, Kilho; Park, Harold S.

    2015-09-01

    Single molecule experiments and simulations have been widely used to characterize the unfolding and folding pathways of different proteins. However, with few exceptions, these tools have not been applied to study prion protein, PrPC, whose misfolded form PrPSc can induce a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we apply novel atomistic modeling based on potential energy surface exploration to study the constant force unfolding of human PrP at time scales inaccessible with standard molecular dynamics. We demonstrate for forces around 100 pN, prion forms a stable, three-stranded β-sheet-like intermediate configuration containing residues 155-214 with a lifetime exceeding hundreds of nanoseconds. A mutant without the disulfide bridge shows lower stability during the unfolding process but still forms the three-stranded structure. The simulations thus not only show the atomistic details of the mechanically induced structural conversion from the native α-helical structure to the β-rich-like form but also lend support to the structural theory that there is a core of the recombinant PrP amyloid, a misfolded form reported to induce transmissible disease, mapping to C-terminal residues ≈160-220.

  8. On the formation of the tunnel valleys of the southern Laurentide ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, Roger LeB.; Jennings, Carrie E.

    2006-06-01

    Catastrophic releases of meltwater, produced by basal melting and stored for decades in subglacial reservoirs at high pressure, may have been responsible for eroding the broad, deep tunnel valleys that are common along the margins of some lobes of the southern Laurentide ice sheet. We surmise that these releases began when the high water pressure was transmitted to the margin through the substrate. The water pressure in the substrate at the margin would then have been significantly above the overburden pressure, leading to sapping failure. Headward erosion of a conduit in the substrate (piping) could then tap the stored water, resulting in the outburst. In some situations, development of a siphon may have lowered the reservoir below its overflow level, thus tapping additional water. Following the flood, the seal could have reformed and the reservoir refilled, setting up conditions for another outburst. Order of magnitude calculations suggest that once emptied, a subglacial reservoir could refill in a matter of decades. The amount of water released during several outbursts appears to be sufficient to erode a tunnel valley. We think that tunnel valleys are most likely to have formed in this way where and when the glacier margin was frozen to the bed and permafrost extended from the glacier forefield several kilometers back under the glacier, as reservoirs would then have been larger and more common, and the seal more robust and more likely to reform after an outburst.

  9. 1-N-glycyl beta-oligosaccharide derivatives as stable intermediates for the formation of glycoconjugate probes.

    PubMed

    Manger, I D; Rademacher, T W; Dwek, R A

    1992-11-10

    Incubation of reducing sugars in ammonium bicarbonate was found to be a simple procedure for the formation of beta-D-glycosylamines of purified complex oligosaccharides in 70-80% yield. These provide valuable intermediates for the synthesis of a wide range of oligosaccharide probes and derivatives by acylation of the 1-amino function. The 1-amino function showed different rates of reactivity with different reagents. In general, interactions with large ring systems such as the fluorophores dansyl chloride and carboxyfluorescein gave 10-20% yields of products, which consisted of mixtures of both anomeric forms, whereas smaller acylating reagents gave near-quantitative yields of the desired beta-D-derivatives. Steric effects may explain differences in reactivity. N-Chloroacetamido derivatives could be obtained in high yield with retention of the beta-anomeric configuration. Subsequent ammonolysis of the chloroacetamido function afforded the corresponding N-glycyl beta-derivatives. The linker thereby introduced retains the amino function, possesses the useful properties of fixed anomeric configuration, improved stability, and uniform reactivity with a variety of reagents, and is structurally analogous to an asparagine side chain. The potential therefore exists for the generation of oligosaccharide derivatives tailored for different applications. PMID:1420188

  10. Elucidation of the self-assembly pathway of lanreotide octapeptide into beta-sheet nanotubes: role of two stable intermediates.

    PubMed

    Pouget, Emilie; Fay, Nicolas; Dujardin, Erik; Jamin, Nadège; Berthault, Patrick; Perrin, Lionel; Pandit, Anjali; Rose, Thierry; Valéry, Céline; Thomas, Daniel; Paternostre, Maïté; Artzner, Franck

    2010-03-31

    Nanofabrication by molecular self-assembly involves the design of molecules and self-assembly strategies so that shape and chemical complementarities drive the units to organize spontaneously into the desired structures. The power of self-assembly makes it the ubiquitous strategy of living organized matter and provides a powerful tool to chemists. However, a challenging issue in the self-assembly of complex supramolecular structures is to understand how kinetically efficient pathways emerge from the multitude of possible transition states and routes. Unfortunately, very few systems provide an intelligible structure and formation mechanism on which new models can be developed. Here, we elucidate the molecular and supramolecular self-assembly mechanism of synthetic octapeptide into nanotubes in equilibrium conditions. Their complex hierarchical self-assembly has recently been described at the mesoscopic level, and we show now that this system uniquely exhibits three assembly stages and three intermediates: (i) a peptide dimer is evidenced by both analytical centrifugation and NMR translational diffusion experiments; (ii) an open ribbon and (iii) an unstable helical ribbon are both visualized by transmission electron microscopy and characterized by small angle X-ray scattering. Interestingly, the structural features of two stable intermediates are related to the final nanotube organization as they set, respectively, the nanotube wall thickness and the final wall curvature radius. We propose that a specific self-assembly pathway is selected by the existence of such preorganized and stable intermediates so that a unique final molecular organization is kinetically favored. Our findings suggests that the rational design of oligopeptides can encode both molecular- and macro-scale morphological characteristics of their higher-order assemblies, thus opening the way to ultrahigh resolution peptide scaffold engineering. PMID:20199027

  11. Optimal Scaling in Solids Undergoing Ductile Fracture by Void Sheet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokoua, Landry; Conti, Sergio; Ortiz, Michael

    2014-04-01

    This work is concerned with the derivation of optimal scaling laws, in the sense of matching lower and upper bounds on the energy, for a solid undergoing ductile fracture. The specific problem considered concerns a material sample in the form of an infinite slab of finite thickness subjected to prescribed opening displacements on its two surfaces. The solid is assumed to obey deformation-theory of plasticity and, in order to further simplify the analysis, we assume isotropic rigid-plastic deformations with zero plastic spin. When hardening exponents are given values consistent with observation, the energy is found to exhibit sublinear growth. We regularize the energy through the addition of nonlocal energy terms of the strain-gradient plasticity type. This nonlocal regularization has the effect of introducing an intrinsic length scale into the energy. Under these assumptions, ductile fracture emerges as the net result of two competing effects: whereas the sublinear growth of the local energy promotes localization of deformation to failure planes, the nonlocal regularization stabilizes this process, thus resulting in an orderly progression towards failure and a well-defined specific fracture energy. The optimal scaling laws derived here show that ductile fracture results from localization of deformations to void sheets, and that it requires a well-defined energy per unit fracture area. In particular, fractal modes of fracture are ruled out under the assumptions of the analysis. The optimal scaling laws additionally show that ductile fracture is cohesive in nature, that is, it obeys a well-defined relation between tractions and opening displacements. Finally, the scaling laws supply a link between micromechanical properties and macroscopic fracture properties. In particular, they reveal the relative roles that surface energy and microplasticity play as contributors to the specific fracture energy of the material.

  12. Reconnection and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magnetic Flux Tubes: Energetics and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2006-12-01

    Line-tied magnetic fields play a central role in Parker's model of coronal heating [E. N. Parker, Astrophys. J., 174, 499, 1972]. Our previous result [C. S. Ng and A. Bhattacharjee, Phys. Plasmas, 5, 4028, 1998] shows that this model can be realized if a line-tied magnetic equilibrium produced by a smooth footpoint mapping becomes unstable and relaxes to a state with current sheets, leading to magnetic reconnection and heating. A flux-tube tectonics model driven by random footpoint motion [E. R. Priest, J. F. Heyvaerts, and A. M. Title, Astrophys. J., 576, 533, 2002] is revisited. It is shown that if the magnetic field is driven to a statistically steady state, a large current density inversely proportional to the square root of resistivity can fill the whole volume and thus results in a heating rate independent of resistivity. However, the field structures are likely to become unstable and reconnect before they can reach the statistically steady state. The three-dimensional line-tied island coalescence instability -- a possible instability in such systems -- is studied with numerical simulations. Magnetic reconnection in this configuration, which contains neither magnetic nulls nor closed field lines, is discussed. A generalization of the concept of quasi-separatrix layers and a new criterion for the detection of such layers is developed. The new criterion is shown to correlate strongly with reconnection sites. Scaling results from higher resolution simulations will be discussed. This research is supported by a National Science Foundation grant AST-0434322 and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. Global Simulations of Differentially Rotating Magnetized Disks: Formation of Low-beta Filaments and Structured Coronae.

    PubMed

    Machida; Hayashi; Matsumoto

    2000-03-20

    We present the results of three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the Parker-shearing instability in a differentially rotating torus initially threaded by toroidal magnetic fields. An equilibrium model of a magnetized torus is adopted as an initial condition. When beta0=Pgas&solm0;Pmag approximately 1 at the initial state, magnetic flux buoyantly escapes from the disk and creates looplike structures similar to those in the solar corona. Inside the torus, the growth of nonaxisymmetric magnetorotational (or Balbus & Hawley) instability generates magnetic turbulence. Magnetic field lines are tangled on a small scale, but on a large scale they show low azimuthal wavenumber spiral structure. After several rotation periods, the system oscillates around a state with beta approximately 5. We found that magnetic pressure-dominated (beta<1) filaments are created in the torus. The volume filling factor of the region in which betabeta regions may lead to violent flaring activities in accretion disks and in galactic gas disks. PMID:10702134

  14. The geologic mapping of Venus using C-1 format: Sheets 75N254, 60N263

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalimov, I. V.

    1992-01-01

    The results of geologic mapping of Venus, produced on the base of Magellan images, are presented. We submit two C-1 format geologic maps with the appropriate legend. The mapping territory was taken from Venera 15 and 16 missions and geologic maps were composed. Magellan images allow us to divide some types of the plains units to determine the lava flow direction and to map with better accuracy.

  15. Carbon Nanotube Inhibits the Formation of β-Sheet-Rich Oligomers of the Alzheimer's Amyloid-β(16-22) Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiyu; Luo, Yin; Derreumaux, Philippe; Wei, Guanghong

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is associated with the abnormal self-assembly of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into toxic β-rich aggregates. Experimental studies have shown that hydrophobic nanoparticles retard Aβ fibrillation by slowing down the nucleation process; however, the effects of nanoparticles on Aβ oligomeric structures remain elusive. In this study, we investigate the conformations of Aβ(16-22) octamers in the absence and presence of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) by performing extensive all-atom replica exchange molecular-dynamics simulations in explicit solvent. Our simulations starting from eight random chains demonstrate that the addition of SWCNT into Aβ(16-22) solution prevents β-sheet formation. Simulation starting from a prefibrillar β-sheet octamer shows that SWCNT destabilizes the β-sheet structure. A detailed analysis of the Aβ(16-22)/SWCNT/water interactions reveals that both the inhibition of β-sheet formation and the destabilization of prefibrillar β-sheets by SWCNT result from the same physical forces: hydrophobic and π-stacking interactions (with the latter playing a more important role). By analyzing the stacking patterns between the Phe aromatic rings and the SWCNT carbon rings, we find that short ring–centroid distances mostly favor parallel orientation, whereas large distances allow all other orientations to be populated. Overall, our computational study provides evidence that SWCNT is likely to inhibit Aβ(16-22) and full-length Aβ fibrillation. PMID:22067167

  16. Thin thrust sheet formation of the Kapuskasing structural zone revealed by Lithoprobe seismic reflection data

    SciTech Connect

    Geis, W.T. ); Cook, F.A. ); Green, A.G.; Milkereit, B.; Percival, J.A. ); West, G.F. )

    1990-06-01

    Regional and high-resolution seismic reflection data across the Kapuskasing structural zone in Ontario, Canada, image at least three significant thrust faults that are low angle, merge into a flat detachment on the west, and together were responsible for the uplift of amphibolite and granulite facies rocks. Their geometry resembles a ramp-and-flat style of deformation that results in a thin upper plate above the 10-12 km (about 4.0 s) detachment. Northwest-southeast horizontal shortening is estimated to be at least 55 km. This large amount of shortening implies that much of the Superior province was detached during the formation of the Kapuskasing structural zone.

  17. Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation of human amylin by N-alkylated amino acid and alpha-hydroxy acid residue containing peptides.

    PubMed

    Rijkers, Dirk T S; Höppener, Jo W M; Posthuma, George; Lips, Cornelis J M; Liskamp, Rob M J

    2002-09-16

    Amyloid deposits are formed as a result of uncontrolled aggregation of (poly)peptides or proteins. Today several diseases are known, for example Alzheimer's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mad cow disease, in which amyloid formation is involved. Amyloid fibrils are large aggregates of beta-pleated sheets and here a general method is described to introduce molecular mutations in order to achieve disruption of beta-sheet formation. Eight backbone-modified amylin derivatives, an amyloidogenic peptide involved in maturity onset diabetes, were synthesized. Their beta-sheet forming properties were studied by IR spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Modification of a crucial amide NH by an alkyl chain led to a complete loss of the beta-sheet forming capacity of amylin. The resulting molecular mutated amylin derivative could be used to break the beta-sheet thus retarding beta-sheet formation of unmodified amylin. Moreover, it was found that the replacement of this amide bond by an ester moiety suppressed fibrillogenesis significantly. Introduction of N-alkylated amino acids and/or ester functionalities-leading to depsipeptides-into amyloidogenic peptides opens new avenues towards novel peptidic beta-sheet breakers for inhibition of beta-amyloid aggregation. PMID:12298020

  18. Systemic administration of transforming growth factor-beta 2 prevents the impaired bone formation and osteopenia induced by unloading in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Machwate, M; Zerath, E; Holy, X; Hott, M; Godet, D; Lomri, A; Marie, P J

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of recombinant human transforming growth factor beta 2 (rhTGF-beta 2) administration on trabecular bone loss induced by unloading in rats. Hind limb suspension for 14 d inhibited bone formation and induced osteopenia as shown by decreased bone volume, calcium and protein contents in long bone metaphysis. Systemic infusion of rhTFG-beta 2 (2 micrograms/kg per day) maintained normal bone formation rate, and prevented the decrease in bone volume, bone mineral content, trabecular thickness and number induced by unloading. In vitro analysis of tibial marrow stromal cells showed that rhTGF-beta 2 infusion in unloaded rats increased the proliferation of osteoblast precursor cells, but did not affect alkaline phosphatase activity or osteocalcin production. Northern blot analysis of RNA extracted from the femoral metaphysis showed that rhTGF-beta 2 infusion in unloaded rats increased steady-state levels of type I collagen mRNA but not alkaline phosphatase mRNA levels. rhTGF-beta 2 infusion at the dose used had no effect on metaphyseal bone volume and formation, osteoblast proliferation or collagen expression in control rats. The results show that systemic administration of rhTGF-beta 2 enhances osteoblast precursor cell proliferation and type I collagen expression by osteoblasts, and prevents the impaired bone formation and osteopenia induced by unloading. Images PMID:7657798

  19. Separation of drug stereoisomers by the formation of. beta. -cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.W.; Ward, T.J.; Armstrong, R.D.; Beesley, T.E.

    1986-05-30

    For many drugs, only racemic mixtures are available for clinical use. Because different stereoisomers of drugs often cause different physiological responses, the use of pure isomers could elicit more exact therapeutic effects. Differential complexation of a variety of drug stereoisomers by immobilized ..beta..-cyclodextrin was investigated. Chiral recognition and racemic resolution were observed with a number of compounds from such clinically useful classes as ..beta..-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, sedative hypnotics, antihistamines, anticonvulsants, diuretics, and synthetic opiates. Separation of the diastereomers of the cardioactive and antimalarial cinchona alkaloids and of two antiestrogens was demonstrated as well. Three dimensional projections of ..beta..-cyclodextrin complexes of propanol, which is resolved by this technique, and warfarin, which is not, are compared. These studies have improved the understanding and application of the chiral interactions of ..beta..-cyclodextrin, and they have demonstrated a means to measure optical purity and to isolate or produce pure enantiomers of drugs. In addition, this highly specific technique could also be used in the pharmacological evaluation of enantiometric drugs. 27 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Cholesterol depletion by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin enhances myoblast fusion and induces the formation of myotubes with disorganized nuclei.

    PubMed

    Mermelstein, Cláudia S; Portilho, Débora M; Medeiros, Rommel B; Matos, Aline R; Einicker-Lamas, Marcelo; Tortelote, Giovane G; Vieyra, Adalberto; Costa, Manoel L

    2005-02-01

    The formation of a skeletal muscle fiber begins with the withdrawal of committed mononucleated precursors from the cell cycle. These myoblasts elongate while aligning with each other, guided by recognition between their membranes. This step is followed by cell fusion and the formation of long striated multinucleated myotubes. We used methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) in primary cultured chick skeletal muscle cells to deplete membrane cholesterol and investigate its role during myogenesis. MCD promoted a significant increase in the expression of troponin T, enhanced myoblast fusion, and induced the formation of large multinucleated myotubes with nuclei being clustered centrally and not aligned at the cell periphery. MCD myotubes were striated, as indicated by sarcomeric alpha-actinin staining, and microtubule and desmin filament distribution was not altered. Pre-fusion MCD-treated myoblasts formed large aggregates, with cadherin and beta-catenin being accumulated in cell adhesion contacts. We also found that the membrane microdomain marker GM1 was not present as clusters in the membrane of MCD-treated myoblasts. Our data demonstrate that cholesterol is involved in the early steps of skeletal muscle differentiation. PMID:15549398

  1. In vitro inhibition of beta-haematin formation, DNA interactions, antiplasmodial activity, and cytotoxicity of synthetic neocryptolepine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Van Miert, Sabine; Jonckers, Tim; Cimanga, Kanyanga; Maes, Louis; Maes, Bert; Lemière, Guy; Dommisse, Roger; Vlietinck, Arnold; Pieters, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Neocryptolepine, a minor alkaloid of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, was investigated as a lead for new antiplasmodial agents, because of its lower cytotoxicity than cryptolepine, the major alkaloid. Synthetic 2- or 3-substituted neocryptolepine derivatives were evaluated for their biological activity. In addition to the antiplasmodial activity (Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant) also the cytotoxicity (MRC-5 cells) was determined. Several compounds such as 2-bromoneocryptolepine showing higher and more selective antiplasmodial activity than neocryptolepine were obtained. Several functional assays and in vitro tests were used to obtain additional information on the mechanism of action, i.e., the beta-haematin formation inhibitory assay (detoxification of haem) and the DNA-methylgreen displacement assay (interaction with DNA). It could be demonstrated that the 2- or 3-substituted neocryptolepine derivatives investigated here have about the same potency to inhibit the beta-haematin formation as chloroquine, indicating that inhibition of haemozoin formation makes at least an important contribution to their antiplasmodial activity, although their in vitro antiplasmodial activity is still less than chloroquine. PMID:15582513

  2. Effects of the Formation of Al x Cu y Gradient Interfaces on Mechanical Property of Steel/Al Laminated Sheets by Introducing Cu Binding-Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Aili; Liu, Xinghai; Shi, Quanxin; Liang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Steel/Cu/Al laminated sheets were fabricated by two-pass hot rolling to improve the mechanical properties of steel/Al sheets. The bonding properties and deformability of the steel/Cu/Al sheets were studied. Steel/Al and steel/Cu/Al samples were rolled at 350°C for 15 min with the first-pass reduction of 40%, and then heated at 600°C for 5 min with different reductions. It was found that the steel/Cu/Al samples rolled by the second-pass reduction of 85% could endure the maximum 90° bend cycle times of 45, exhibiting excellent fatigue resistance as well as deformability. The steel/Al samples could only reach the maximum 90° bend cycle times of 20. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectrometer, and electron backscattered diffraction results showed that the preferred growth orientations of Cu, Al4Cu9, and Al2Cu on the steel/Cu/Al laminated sheets are {-1, 1, 2} <1, -1, 1>, {1, 0, 0} <0, 1, 0> and {-1, 1, 2} <1, -1, 1> {1, 1, 0} <0, 0, 1>. The orientation relationships between Cu and Al2Cu are {1, 1, 0}(fcc)//{1, 1, 0}(bct) and {1, 1, 1}(fcc)//{1, 1, 1}(bct). The improved bonding property and excellent fatigue resistance as well as deformability were mainly ascribed to the tight combination and consistent deformability across steel, Al, and the transition layers (Cu, Al4Cu9, and Al2Cu).

  3. Enzymes involved in the formation of 3 beta, 7 beta-dihydroxy-12-oxo-5 beta-cholanic acid from dehydrocholic acid by Ruminococcus sp. obtained from human intestine.

    PubMed

    Akao, T; Akao, T; Hattori, M; Namba, T; Kobashi, K

    1987-09-25

    Ruminococcus sp. PO1-3 from human intestinal flora reduced dehydrocholic acid to 3 beta-hydroxy-7,12-dioxo-5 beta-cholanic acid by means of the enzyme 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Akao, T., Akao, T., Hattori, M., Namba, T. and Kobashi, K. (1986) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 99, 1425-1431). This bacterium and its crude extract gave rise to another product, showing a lower RF value on TLC, from dehydrocholic acid. The product was identified as 3 beta, 7 beta-dihydroxy-12-oxo-5 beta-cholanic acid. The crude extract reduced 7-ketolithocholic acid and its methyl ester, but not 6-ketolithocholic acid and 12-ketochenodeoxycholic acid, in the presence of NADPH, and oxidized ursodeoxycholic acid and beta-muricholic acid, but not cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid and hydrocholic acid, in the presence of NADP+. Therefore, besides 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was shown to be present in this bacterium. The two dehydrogenases were clearly separated from each other by butyl-Toyopearl 650 M column chromatography. From dehydrocholic acid, 7 beta-hydroxy-3,12-dioxo-5 beta-cholanic acid was produced by 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3 beta, 7 beta-dihydroxy-12-oxo-5 beta-cholanic acid was produced by combination of two enzymes, 7 beta- and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. PMID:3477291

  4. Ectopic bone formation associated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins-2 using absorbable collagen sponge and beta tricalcium phosphate as carriers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Sung; Kim, Joon-Il; Kim, Jin; Choi, Seong-Ho; Chai, Jung-Kiu; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Cho, Kyoo-Sung

    2005-05-01

    The ectopic bone formation of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2(rhBMP-2) was evaluated using absorbable collagen sponges (ACS) and beta tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) as carriers in a rat subcutaneous assay model. Subcutaneous pockets were created on the back of rats. The pockets were implanted with rhBMP-2/ACS, rhBMP-2/beta-TCP, ACS alone, and beta-TCP alone. The rats were sacrificed at 2 or 8 weeks for histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. At 2 weeks, bone formation was evident in both the rhBMP-2/ACS and rhBMP-2/beta-TCP sites. At 8 weeks, the quantity of the new bone with a more advanced stage of remodeling had increased further in the rhBMP-2/beta-TCP sites. However, the newly formed bone observed at 2 weeks was not found in the rhBMP-2/ACS sites. On immunohistochemical observation, osteopontin staining was observed on both the rhBMP-2/ACS (2 weeks) and rhBMP-2/beta-TCP (2 and 8 weeks) sites. Osteocalcin was not detected in any of the samples. The lack of space-providing capacity of ACS may be one of the major factors responsible for its failure to maintain the newly induced bone. Therefore, a carrier for BMPs should provide space for bone formation and maturation during the more advanced healing stages. PMID:15585252

  5. Film formation and paper coating with poly ([beta]-hydroxyalkanoate), a biodegradable latex

    SciTech Connect

    Lauzier, C.A.; Monasterios, C.J.; Saracovan, I.; Marchessault, R.H. ); Ramsay, B.A. )

    1993-05-01

    An aqueous latex of a poly ([beta]-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) coated on paper imparted water imperviousness without changing mechanical properties. Hot-pressed films biodegraded faster than solvent cast films. The PHA coating on paper degraded totally in activated sludge within 12 days, leaving the cellulose matrix relatively untouched. Blends of PHA latexes with sodium carboxymethl cellulose, polystyrene latex, carboxylated styrenel butadiene latex, natural rubber latex, carboxylated styrenel butadiene latex; natural rubber latex, and starch powders form satisfactory films at room temperature.

  6. Synthetic peptides corresponding to human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH)-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induce uptake of 45Ca++ by liposomes: evidence for calcium-conducting transmembrane channel formation

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, P.; Santa-Coloma, T.A.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. )

    1991-06-01

    We have previously described FSH receptor-mediated influx of 45Ca++ in cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats and receptor-enriched proteoliposomes via activation of voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. We have further shown that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein or activation of adenylate cyclase. In the present study, we have identified regions of human FSH-beta-subunit which appear to be involved in mediating calcium influx. We screened 11 overlapping peptide amides representing the entire primary structure of hFSH-beta-subunit for their effects on 45Ca++ flux in FSH receptor-enriched proteoliposomes. hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induced uptake of 45Ca++ in a concentration-related manner. This effect of hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) was also observed in liposomes lacking incorporated FSH receptor. Reducing membrane fluidity by incubating liposomes (containing no receptor) with hFSH-beta-(1-15) or hFSH-beta-(51-65) at temperatures lower than the transition temperatures of their constituent phospholipids resulted in no significant (P greater than 0.05) difference in 45Ca++ uptake. The effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187, however, was abolished. Ruthenium red, a voltage-independent calcium channel antagonist, was able to completely block uptake of 45Ca++ induced by hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) whereas nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker specific for L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, was without effect. These results suggest that in addition to its effect on voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity, interaction of FSH with its receptor may induce formation of transmembrane aqueous channels which also facilitate influx of extracellular calcium.

  7. Driving Cartilage Formation in High-Density Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Aggregate and Sheet Constructs Without Exogenous Growth Factor Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Phuong N.; Solorio, Loran D.

    2014-01-01

    An attractive cell source for cartilage tissue engineering, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) can be easily expanded and signaled to differentiate into chondrocytes. This study explores the influence of growth factor distribution and release kinetics on cartilage formation within 3D hASC constructs incorporated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-loaded gelatin microspheres. The amounts of microspheres, TGF-β1 concentration, and polymer degradation rate were varied within hASC aggregates. Microsphere and TGF-β1 loading concentrations were identified that resulted in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production comparable to those of control aggregates cultured in TGF-β1-containing medium. Self-assembling hASC sheets were then engineered for the production of larger, more clinically relevant constructs. Chondrogenesis was observed in hASC-only sheets cultured with exogenous TGF-β1 at 3 weeks. Importantly, sheets with incorporated TGF-β1-loaded microspheres achieved GAG production similar to sheets treated with exogenous TGF-β1. Cartilage formation was confirmed histologically via observation of cartilage-like morphology and GAG staining. This is the first demonstration of the self-assembly of hASCs into high-density cell sheets capable of forming cartilage in the presence of exogenous TGF-β1 or with TGF-β1-releasing microspheres. Microsphere incorporation may bypass the need for extended in vitro culture, potentially enabling hASC sheets to be implanted more rapidly into defects to regenerate cartilage in vivo. PMID:24873753

  8. Cthrc1 is a novel inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta signaling and neointimal lesion formation.

    PubMed

    LeClair, Renée J; Durmus, Tahir; Wang, Qiaozeng; Pyagay, Peter; Terzic, Aleksandra; Lindner, Volkhard

    2007-03-30

    We identified collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (Cthrc1) as a novel gene expressed in the adventitia and neointima on arterial injury and found that it functionally increases cell migration while reducing collagen deposition. To address the in vivo role of Cthrc1, we generated transgenic mouse lines that constitutively overexpress Cthrc1. An intercross of 2 transgenic lines produced offspring with brittle bones caused by a reduction in collagenous bone matrix. Hemizygous Cthrc1 transgenic mice developed normally but neointimal lesion formation and adventitial collagen deposition in response to carotid artery ligation were significantly reduced compared with wild-type littermates. In 75% of Cthrc1 transgenic mice, cartilaginous metaplasia of medial smooth muscle cells was observed as assessed by Alcian blue staining and expression of the chondrocyte marker collagen type II. Transforming growth factor-beta signaling was reduced in smooth muscle cells of Cthrc1 transgenic arteries, as demonstrated by reduced phospho-Smad2/3 immunoreactivity, whereas Smad signaling related to bone morphogenetic proteins was unaffected. Similarly, primary smooth muscle cells and PAC1 smooth muscle cells overexpressing Cthrc1 had reduced levels of phospho-Smad2/3 as well as procollagen. Furthermore, Cthrc1 inhibited transforming growth factor-beta-sensitive reporter constructs in smooth muscle but not endothelial cells. These data indicate that Cthrc1 is a cell-type-specific inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta, which in turn impacts collagen type I and III deposition, neointimal formation, and dedifferentiation of smooth muscle cells. PMID:17322174

  9. Spontaneous Formation of Oligomers and Fibrils in Large-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations of A-beta Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Carol

    2013-03-01

    Protein aggregation is associated with serious and eventually-fatal neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. While atomic resolution molecular dynamics simulations have been useful in this regard, they are limited to examination of either oligomer formation by a small number of peptides or analysis of the stability of a moderate number of peptides placed in trial or known experimental structures. We describe large scale intermediate-resolution molecular dynamics simulations of the spontaneous formation of fibrils by systems containing large numbers (48) of peptides including A-beta (16-22), and A-beta (17-42) peptides. We trace out the aggregation process from an initial configuration of random coils to proto-filaments with cross- β structures and demonstrate how kinetics dictates the structural details of the fully formed fibril. Fibrillization kinetics depends strongly on the temperature. Nucleation and templated growth via monomer addition occur at and near a transition temperature above which fibrils are unlikely to form. Oligomeric merging and structural rearrangement are observed at lower temperatures. In collaboration with Mookyung Cheon, Iksoo Chang, Pusan University; and David Latshaw, North Carolina State University.

  10. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A and protein kinase C phosphorylate alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor subunits at distinct stages of receptor formation and maturation.

    PubMed

    Pollock, V V; Pastoor, T; Katnik, C; Cuevas, J; Wecker, L

    2009-02-18

    Neuronal nicotinic receptor alpha4 subunits associated with nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptors are phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC), but the stages of receptor formation during which phosphorylation occurs and the functional consequences of kinase activation are unknown. SH-EP1 cells transfected with DNAs coding for human alpha4 and/or beta2 subunits were incubated with (32)Pi, and PKA or PKC was activated by forskolin or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, respectively. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting of proteins from cells expressing alpha4beta2 receptors or only alpha4 subunits were used to identify free alpha4 subunits, and alpha4 subunits present in immature alpha4beta2 complexes and mature alpha4beta2 pentamers containing complex carbohydrates. In the absence of kinase activation, phosphorylation of alpha4 subunits associated with mature pentamers was three times higher than subunits associated with immature complexes. PKA and PKC activation increased phosphorylation of free alpha4 subunits on different serine residues; only PKC activation phosphorylated subunits associated with mature alpha4beta2 receptors. Activation of both PKA and PKC increased the density of membrane-associated receptors, but only PKC activation increased peak membrane currents. PKA and PKC activation also phosphorylated beta2 subunits associated with mature alpha4beta2 receptors. Results indicate that activation of PKA and PKC leads to the phosphorylation alpha4beta2 receptors at different stages of receptor formation and maturation and has differential effects on the expression and function of human alpha4beta2 receptors. PMID:19101612

  11. Formation of alpha and beta tantalum at the variation of magnetron sputtering conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasakina, E. O.; Sevostyanov, M. A.; Mikhaylova, A. B.; Baikin, A. S.; Sergienko, K. V.; Leonov, A. V.; Kolmakov, A. G.

    2016-02-01

    Nano- and microdimensional surface layers of α and β tantalum on flat NiTi, Ti, glass, etc. substrates were created. Structure and composition of samples were defined by SEM, AES and x-ray diffractometry. With increase in deposition time surface layer thickness not linearly increases. The transitional layer provide high adhesion of a surface layer to a substrate. Irrespective of summary sputtering time the β phase is formed in the beginning and at sputtering time more than 20 min on it α tantalum is deposited, while temperature remains below 150°C. Keywords: composite materials, surface layer, tantalum, alpha and beta phase, nitinol, corrosion resistance.

  12. Volcanism and rift formation in Beta Regio, Venus: New radar results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Head, J. W.; Harmon, J. K.; Hine, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    A high-resolution (approximately 2 km) image of Beta Regio, Venus, obtained with the Arecibo radar system, reveals additional details of its structure which seem to confirm past suggestions that this region consists of a rift system and associated volcanism. Numerous long linear features approximately parallel to the north-south trending trough discovered by the Pioneer-Venus Orbiter are interpreted as being indicative of extensive faulting and the detail for the radar reflectivity anomaly coincident with Theia Mons suggests that it is a major volcano situated on what would be the western bounding fault of the rift system.

  13. Volcanism and Rift Formation in Beta Regio, Venus: New Radar Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Head, J. W.; Harmon, J. K.; Hine, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    A high resolution (approximately 2 km) image of Beta Regio, Venus, obtained with the Arecibo radar system, reveals additional details of structure which seem to confirm past suggestions that this region consists of a rift system and associated volcanism. Numerous long linear features approximately parallel to the north-south trending trough discovered by the Pioneer-Venus Orbiter are interpreted as being indicative of extensive faulting and the detail for the radar reflectivity anomaly coincident with Theia Mons suggests that it is a major volcano situated on what would be the western bounding fault of the rift system.

  14. The cognitive effects of trauma: reversal of alpha function and the formation of a beta screen.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence J

    2005-04-01

    Following a brief review of Freud's writings on trauma, the author discusses relevant theories of Bion, and in particular the concepts of the alpha function and the beta screen. A clinical example is presented in which the patient's relatively recent trauma in adulthood had become fused with prior related experiences, leading to a propensity for repeated enactments in analysis and a failure to learn from experience. Drawing on the analyst's alpha function, the patient was gradually able to use mentalization to transform her rigidly structured traumatic organization. The author highlights the roles of dreams/dream associations and of screen memories in the patient's analysis. PMID:15889686

  15. Measles - Fact Sheet for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Redirect for the Measles fact sheet page. The current fact sheet can ... http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/diseases/child/measles.html Print page Share Compartir File Formats Help: ...

  16. Polio - Fact Sheet for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Redirect for the Polio fact sheet page. The current fact sheet can ... http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/diseases/child/polio.html Print page Share Compartir File Formats Help: ...

  17. Characterization of Sheet Fracture Patterns in Polygonal-Jointed Lavas at Kokostick Butte, OR, and Mazama Ridge, WA: Investigation and Interpretation of Their Formation and Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, R. W.; Lescinsky, D. T.

    2006-12-01

    Polygonal joints in lava flows ("columns") are commonly equant leading to a model of formation associated with cooling in an isotropic stress field. This model, however, does not explain rectangular columns, sheet-like fractures, fractures with crosscutting relationships, and fractures with orientations other than perpendicular to the cooling surface. These fracture patterns are often observed at glaciated volcanoes. The presence of preferential fracture orientations suggests an applied stress component likely due to environmental conditions such as the presence of glaciers or flow dynamics such as down-slope settling or flow margin inflation. During this study we investigated the formation and significance of these non-equant fracture patterns to propose a model for their formation. These `abnormal' fracture patterns have not been discussed in the literature and may be important to better understanding the cooling conditions of such lava flows. To test these possibilities we studied Kokostick Butte dacite flow, OR (near South Sister), and Mazama Ridge andesite flow at Mount Rainier, WA. Both of these flows have well developed sheet-like fractures and display evidence of ice-contact during eruption and emplacement. Sheet fractures are long and continuous fractures that have perpendicular connecting fractures forming rectangular columns. The sheet-like fractures are largely parallel to each other on the exposure surface and the connecting fractures vary locally from primary fractures (associated with cooling toward flow interior) to secondary fractures (associated with cooling by water infiltration). Detailed measurements of fracture orientations and spacing were collected at Kokostick Butte and Mazama Ridge to examine the relationship between the sheet fractures and flow geometry. Preliminary results support this relationship and suggest these patterns likely form due to shear associated with small amounts of flow advance by the rapidly cooling lava. Laboratory studies have been undertaken to complement the field observations and measurements. Starch- water experiments have been proven a useful analogue for lava column formation. Various experimental setups involving different mixture thicknesses and compression of the mixture were utilized to simulate the stresses acting during ponding of lava against glacial ice and to produce different fracture morphologies and patterns. Initial results show that compression of the starch slurry results in non-equant fracture patterns with some sheet-like fracturing present.

  18. Inhibition of beta-amyloid aggregation by fluorescent dye labels

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro, Mariana; Wellbrock, Thorben; Birch, David J. S.; Rolinski, Olaf J.

    2014-02-10

    The fluorescence decay of beta-amyloid's (Aβ) intrinsic fluorophore tyrosine has been used for sensing the oligomer formation of dye-labelled Aβ monomers and the results compared with previously studied oligomerization of the non-labelled Aβ peptides. It has been demonstrated that two different sized, covalently bound probes 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carbonyl and Hilyte Fluor 488 (HLF), alter the rate and character of oligomerization to different extents. The ability of HLF to inhibit formation of highly ordered structures containing beta-sheets was also shown. The implications of our findings for using fluorescence methods in amyloidosis research are discussed and the advantages of this auto-fluorescence approach highlighted.

  19. Inhibition of beta-amyloid aggregation by fluorescent dye labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, Mariana; Wellbrock, Thorben; Birch, David J. S.; Rolinski, Olaf J.

    2014-02-01

    The fluorescence decay of beta-amyloid's (Aβ) intrinsic fluorophore tyrosine has been used for sensing the oligomer formation of dye-labelled Aβ monomers and the results compared with previously studied oligomerization of the non-labelled Aβ peptides. It has been demonstrated that two different sized, covalently bound probes 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carbonyl and Hilyte Fluor 488 (HLF), alter the rate and character of oligomerization to different extents. The ability of HLF to inhibit formation of highly ordered structures containing beta-sheets was also shown. The implications of our findings for using fluorescence methods in amyloidosis research are discussed and the advantages of this auto-fluorescence approach highlighted.

  20. YY1 represses beta-casein gene expression by preventing the formation of a lactation-associated complex.

    PubMed Central

    Raught, B; Khursheed, B; Kazansky, A; Rosen, J

    1994-01-01

    Site-specific mutagenesis of the highly conserved milk box (-140 to -110) region suggested that beta-casein expression is regulated by a hormone-mediated relief of repression (M. Schmitt-Ney, W. Doppler, R. K. Ball, and B. Groner, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:3745-3755, 1991). However, when this sequence was placed upstream of a heterologous thymidine kinase promoter, it activated reporter gene expression. This apparent paradox was resolved when the trans-acting factor YY1, capable of acting as both a positive and negative regulator, was shown to interact with the milk box region, using bacterially expressed YY1 and specific oligonucleotide and antibody competition experiments. Second, it was demonstrated that extracts prepared from several cell types contained a protein(s) interacting with the mammary gland-specific factor (MGF) binding site, previously shown to be required for beta-casein promoter activity (Schmitt-Ney et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:3745-3755, 1991). Sequence analysis of this site revealed similarity to the gamma interferon-activated sequence, suggesting that MGF may be related to the stat91 signaling protein. Finally, using an oligonucleotide encompassing both the YY1 and MGF sites, we detected a slow-mobility complex only in extracts from mammary glands at late pregnancy and lactation (lactation-associated complex [LAC]). Site-specific mutation of the YY1 binding site led to an enhancement in LAC DNA binding activity, while mutation of the MGF site decreased detectable LAC. These results support a model in which lactogenic stimuli lead to a decrease in YY1 binding, and subsequent increased formation of LAC at a nearby binding site, to stimulate beta-casein transcription. Images PMID:8114709

  1. Formation of high-{beta} plasma and stable confinement of toroidal electron plasma in Ring Trap 1

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, H.; Yoshida, Z.; Morikawa, J.; Furukawa, M.; Yano, Y.; Kawai, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Vogel, G.; Mikami, H.

    2011-05-15

    Formation of high-{beta} electron cyclotron resonance heating plasma and stable confinement of pure electron plasma have been realized in the Ring Trap 1 device, a magnetospheric configuration generated by a levitated dipole field magnet. The effects of coil levitation resulted in drastic improvements of the confinement properties, and the maximum local {beta} value has exceeded 70%. Hot electrons are major component of electron populations, and its particle confinement time is 0.5 s. Plasma has a peaked density profile in strong field region [H. Saitoh et al., 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference EXC/9-4Rb (2010)]. In pure electron plasma experiment, inward particle diffusion is realized, and electrons are stably trapped for more than 300 s. When the plasma is in turbulent state during beam injection, plasma flow has a shear, which activates the diocotron (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instability. The canonical angular momentum of the particle is not conserved in this phase, realizing the radial diffusion of charged particles across closed magnetic surfaces. [Z. Yoshida et al., Phys Rev. Lett. 104, 235004 (2010); H. Saitoh et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 112111 (2010).].

  2. Diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia increases amyloid-beta formation and deposition in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, J-M; Portugal, G S; Kruger, W D; Wang, H; Gould, T J; Pratico, D

    2010-03-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been recognized as a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its underlying molecular mechanisms are still elusive. Here we show that HHcy induces an elevation of amyloid beta (Abeta) levels and deposition, as well as behavioral impairments, in a mouse model of AD-like amyloidosis, the Tg2576 mice. This elevation is not associated with significant change of the steady state levels of the Abeta precursor protein (APP), beta- or alpha-secretase pathways, nor with the Abeta catabolic pathways. By contrast, HHcy significantly reduces glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) Ser21/9 phosphorylation, but not total GSK3 protein levels. Similar results are obtained in brains homogenates from a genetic mouse model of HHcy. In vitro studies show that homocysteine increases Abeta formation, reduces phosphorylated GSK3 levels, without changes in total APP and its metabolism, and these effects are prevented by selective GSK3 inhibition. Overall, these data support a potential link between GSK3 and the pro-amyloidotic effect of HHcy in vivo and in vitro. PMID:19939226

  3. Complex formation equilibria of some beta-amino-alcohols with lead(II) and cadmium(II) in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Canepari, S; Carunchio, V; Castellano, P; Messina, A

    1998-12-01

    A study of complex formation equilibria of some beta-amino-alcohols with lead(II) and cadmium(II) ions at 25 degrees C and in 0.5 M KNO(3) is reported. The amino-alcohols considered are 2-amino-1-propanol, 2-amino-1-butanol, 2-amino-1-pentanol and 2-amino-1,3-propanediol. sec-Buthylamine and 2-amino-1-methoxy-propane have been also considered for comparison. The results are discussed in terms of ligand structure, paying attention to the number of hydroxyl groups and to the length of the alkyl residual. A weak contribution of the alcoholic oxygen in the coordination of cadmium(II) and the presence of a mixed hydroxyl species in lead(II) containing systems are hypothesized. PMID:18967412

  4. Pattern formation in icosahedral virus capsids: the papova viruses and Nudaurelia capensis beta virus.

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, C J; Day, L A

    1993-01-01

    The capsids of the spherical viruses all show underlying icosahedral symmetry, yet they differ markedly in capsomere shape and in capsomere position and orientation. The capsid patterns presented by the capsomere shapes, positions, and orientations of three viruses (papilloma, SV40, and N beta V) have been generated dynamically through a bottom-up procedure which provides a basis for understanding the patterns. A capsomere shape is represented in two-dimensional cross-section by a mass or charge density on the surface of a sphere, given by an expansion in spherical harmonics, and referred to herein as a morphological unit (MU). A capsid pattern is represented by an icosahedrally symmetrical superposition of such densities, determined by the positions and orientations of its MUs on the spherical surface. The fitness of an arrangement of MUs is measured by an interaction integral through which all capsid elements interact with each other via an arbitrary function of distance. A capsid pattern is generated by allowing the correct number of approximately shaped MUs to move dynamically on the sphere, positioning themselves until an extremum of the fitness function is attained. The resulting patterns are largely independent of the details of both the capsomere representation and the interaction function; thus the patterns produced are generic. The simplest useful fitness function is sigma 2, the average square of the mass (or charge) density, a minimum of which corresponds to a "uniformly spaced" MU distribution; to good approximation, the electrostatic free energy of charged capsomeres, calculated from the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation, is proportional to sigma 2. With disks as MUs, the model generates the coordinated lattices familiar from the quasi-equivalence theory, indexed by triangulation numbers. Using fivefold MUs, the model generates the patterns observed at different radii within the T = 7 capsid of papilloma and at the surface of SV40; threefold MUs give the T = 4 pattern of Nudaurelia capensis beta virus. In all cases examined so far, the MU orientations are correctly found. Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:8312492

  5. [The effect of a simulated inflammation procedure in simulated body fluid on bone-like apatite formation on porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics].

    PubMed

    Ji, Jingou; Ran, Junguo; Gou, Li; Wang, Fangfu; Sun, Luwei

    2004-08-01

    The formation of bone-like apatite on porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics in dynamic simulated body fluid (SBF) undergoing a simulated inflammation procedure (pH = 6.5) was investigated in order to study the mechanism of osteoinduction and build a new method to choose biomaterials with better bioactivity. The results showed that the surface of porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics which underwent a simulated inflammation procedure in dynamic SBF was more smooth. The light acidity in the simulated inflammation procedure would dissolve the fine grains and the parts possessing smaller curvature radius on the surface of porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics, which would reduce the bioceramics solubility. Followed in normal SBF (pH = 7.4), the amount of bone-like apatite formed on the porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics was less than that of porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics incubation in normal SBF all along. The results also showed that the amount of bone-like apatite formed on the porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics sintered by a microwave plasma was more than that of porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics sintered by a conventional furnace. PMID:15357425

  6. Influence of Interleukin-1 Beta on Platelet-Poor Plasma Clot Formation: A Potential Impact on Early Bone Healing

    PubMed Central

    Masci, Paul P.; Crawford, Ross; Xiao, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hematoma quality (especially the fibrin matrix) plays an important role in the bone healing process. Here, we investigated the effect of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) on fibrin clot formation from platelet-poor plasma (PPP). Methods Five-milliliter of rat whole-blood samples were collected from the hepatic portal vein. All blood samples were firstly standardized via a thrombelastograph (TEG), blood cell count, and the measurement of fibrinogen concentration. PPP was prepared by collecting the top two-fifths of the plasma after centrifugation under 400 × g for 10 min at 20°C. The effects of IL-1β cytokines on artificial fibrin clot formation from PPP solutions were determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal microscopy (CM), turbidity, and clot lysis assays. Results The lag time for protofibril formation was markedly shortened in the IL-1β treatment groups (243.8 ± 76.85 in the 50 pg/mL of IL-1β and 97.5 ± 19.36 in the 500 pg/mL of IL-1β) compared to the control group without IL-1β (543.8 ± 205.8). Maximal turbidity was observed in the control group. IL-1β (500 pg/mL) treatment significantly decreased fiber diameters resulting in smaller pore sizes and increased density of the fibrin clot structure formed from PPP (P < 0.05). The clot lysis assay revealed that 500 pg/mL IL-1β induced a lower susceptibility to dissolution due to the formation of thinner and denser fibers. Conclusion IL-1β can significantly influence PPP fibrin clot structure, which may affect the early bone healing process. PMID:26909757

  7. Mitochondrial beta-cyanoalanine synthase is essential for root hair formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    García, Irene; Castellano, José María; Vioque, Blanca; Solano, Roberto; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2010-10-01

    Cyanide is stoichiometrically produced as a coproduct of the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and is detoxified by β-cyanoalanine synthase enzymes. The molecular and phenotypical analysis of T-DNA insertion mutants of the mitochondrial β-cyanoalanine synthase CYS-C1 suggests that discrete accumulation of cyanide is not toxic for the plant and does not alter mitochondrial respiration rates but does act as a strong inhibitor of root hair development. The cys-c1 null allele is defective in root hair formation and accumulates cyanide in root tissues. The root hair defect is phenocopied in wild-type plants by the exogenous addition of cyanide to the growth medium and is reversed by the addition of hydroxocobalamin or by genetic complementation with the CYS-C1 gene. Hydroxocobalamin not only recovers the root phenotype of the mutant but also the formation of reactive oxygen species at the initial step of root hair tip growth. Transcriptional profiling of the cys-c1 mutant reveals that cyanide accumulation acts as a repressive signal for several genes encoding enzymes involved in cell wall rebuilding and the formation of the root hair tip as well as genes involved in ethylene signaling and metabolism. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial β-cyanoalanine synthase activity is essential to maintain a low level of cyanide for proper root hair development. PMID:20935247

  8. Natalizumab plus interferon beta-1a reduces lesion formation in relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Stuart, William H; Calabresi, Peter A; Confavreux, Christian; Galetta, Steven L; Rudick, Richard A; Lublin, Fred D; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Wynn, Daniel R; Fisher, Elizabeth; Papadopoulou, Athina; Lynn, Frances; Panzara, Michael A; Sandrock, Alfred W

    2010-05-15

    The SENTINEL study showed that the addition of natalizumab improved outcomes for patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) who had experienced disease activity while receiving interferon beta-1a (IFNbeta-1a) alone. Previously unreported secondary and tertiary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures are presented here. Patients received natalizumab 300 mg (n=589) or placebo (n=582) intravenously every 4 weeks plus IFNbeta-1a 30 microg intramuscularly once weekly. Annual MRI scans allowed comparison of a range of MRI end points versus baseline. Over 2 years, 67% of patients receiving natalizumab plus IFNbeta-1a remained free of new or enlarging T2-lesions compared with 30% of patients receiving IFNbeta-1a alone. The mean change from baseline in T2 lesion volume over 2 years decreased in patients receiving natalizumab plus IFNbeta-1a and increased in those receiving IFNbeta-1a alone (-277.5mm(3) versus 525.6mm(3); p<0.001). Compared with IFNbeta-1a alone, add-on natalizumab therapy resulted in a smaller increase in mean T1-hypointense lesion volume after 2 years (1821.3mm(3) versus 2210.5mm(3); p<0.001), a smaller mean number of new T1-hypointense lesions over 2 years (2.3 versus 4.1; p<0.001), and a slower rate of brain atrophy during the second year of therapy (-0.31% versus -0.40%; p=0.020). Natalizumab add-on therapy reduced gadolinium-enhancing, T1-hypointense, and T2 MRI lesion activity and slowed brain atrophy progression in patients with relapsing MS who experienced disease activity despite treatment with IFNbeta-1a alone. PMID:20236661

  9. Inhibition of islet amyloid polypeptide fibril formation by selenium-containing phycocyanin and prevention of beta cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoling; Ma, Lijuan; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng

    2014-10-01

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) fibril is the major constituent of amyloid deposits in pancreatic islets of type 2 diabetes. Misfolding and hIAPP fibril formation are thought to be important in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Studies have showed that selenium-containing phycocyanin (Se-PC) inhibited the fibrillation of hIAPP to form nanoscale particles, which is mainly by interfering with the combination between hIAPP. Small nanoscale oligomers tended to grow into larger nanoparticles and the size of nanoparticles increased with the incubation time. By interfering with the fibrillation of hIAPP and altering the structure, Se-PC alleviated hIAPP-induced cell apoptosis. Meantime, generation of ROS produced during the fibrillation process was inhibited, which was proposed to be the main factor for the hIAPP-cytotoxicity in beta cells. Taken together, Se-PC inhibited hIAPP fibrillation, thus suppressed the formation of ROS to show protective effect on hIAPP mediated cell apoptosis. Our studies provide useful information for our understanding of the interaction mechanisms of Se-PC on hIAPP structure and protective mechanisms on hIAPP cytotoxicity, presenting useful candidate for anti-diabetes drug development. PMID:25034964

  10. Co-translational formation and pharmacological characterization of beta1-adrenergic receptor/nanodisc complexes with different lipid environments.

    PubMed

    Rues, Ralf-Bernhardt; Dötsch, Volker; Bernhard, Frank

    2016-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are of key significance for biomedical research. Streamlined approaches for their efficient recombinant production are of pivotal interest in order to explore their intrinsic conformational dynamics and complex ligand binding behavior. We have systematically optimized the co-translational association and folding of G protein-coupled receptors with defined membranes of nanodiscs by cell-free expression approaches. Each optimization step was quantified and the ligand binding active fraction of the receptor samples could drastically be improved. The strategy was exemplified with a stabilized and a non-stabilized derivative of the turkey beta1-adrenergic receptor. Systematic lipid screens with preformed nanodiscs revealed that generation of ligand binding active conformations of the analyzed beta1-adrenergic receptors strongly depends on lipid charge, flexibility and chain length. The lipid composition of the nanodisc membranes modulates the affinities to a variety of ligands of both receptor derivatives. In addition, the thermostabilization procedure had a significant impact on specific ligand affinities of the receptor and abolished or reduced the binding of certain antagonists. Both receptors were highly stable after purification with optimized nanodisc membranes. The procedure avoids any detergent contact of the receptors and sample production takes less than two days. Moreover, even non-stabilized receptors can be analyzed and their prior purification is not necessary for the formation of nanodisc complexes. The established process appears therefore to be suitable as a new platform for the functional or even structural characterization of recombinant G protein-coupled receptors associated with defined lipid environments. PMID:26922884

  11. Beta-sheet secondary structure of the trimeric globular domain of C1q of complement and collagen types VIII and X by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and averaged structure predictions.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, K F; Haris, P I; Chapman, D; Reid, K B; Perkins, S J

    1994-01-01

    C1q plays a key role in the recognition of immune complexes, thereby initiating the classical pathway of complement activation. Although the triple-helix conformation of its N-terminal segment is well established, the secondary structure of the trimeric globular C-terminal domain is as yet unknown. The secondary structures of human C1q and C1q stalks and pepsin-extracted human collagen types I, III and IV (with no significant non-collagen-like structure) were studied by Fourier-transform i.r. spectroscopy in 2H2O buffers. After second-derivative calculation to resolve the fine structure of the broad amide I band, the Fourier-transform i.r. spectrum of C1q showed two major bands, one at 1637 cm-1, which is a characteristic frequency for beta-sheets, and one at 1661 cm-1. Both major bands were also detected for Clq in H2O buffers. Only the second major band was observed at 1655 cm-1 in pepsin-digested C1q which contains primarily the N-terminal triple-helix region. The Fourier-transform i.r. spectra of collagen in 2H2O also showed a major band at 1659 cm-1 (and minor bands at 1632 cm-1 and 1682 cm-1). It is concluded that the C1q globular heads contain primarily beta-sheet structure. The C-terminal domains of C1q show approximately 25% sequence identity with the non-collagen-like C-terminal regions of the short-chain collagen types VIII and X. To complement the Fourier-transform-i.r. spectroscopic data, averaged Robson and Chou-Fasman structure predictions on 15 similar sequences for the globular domains of C1q and collagen types VIII and X were performed. These showed a clear pattern of ten beta-strands interspersed by beta-turns and /or loops. Residues thought to be important for C1q-immune complex interactions with IgG and IgM were predicted to be at a surface-exposed loop. Sequence insertions and deletions, glycosylation sites, the free cysteine residue and RGD recognition sequences were also predicted to be at surface-exposed positions. Images Figure 4 PMID:8037678

  12. TGF-{beta} signals the formation of a unique NF1/Smad4-dependent transcription repressor-complex in human diploid fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Luciakova, Katarina; Kollarovic, Gabriel; Kretova, Miroslava; Sabova, Ludmila; Nelson, B. Dean

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} TGF-{beta} induces the formation of unique nuclear NF1/Smad4 complexes that repress expression of the ANT-2 gene. {yields} Repression is mediated through an NF1-dependent repressor element in the promoter. {yields} The formation of NF1/Smad4 complexes and the repression of ANT2 are prevented by inhibitors of p38 kinase and TGF-{beta} RI. {yields} NF1/Smad complexes implicate novel role for NF1 and Smad proteins in the regulation of growth. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the formation of a unique nuclear NF1/Smad complex in serum-restricted fibroblasts that acts as an NF1-dependent repressor of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene (ANT2) [K. Luciakova, G. Kollarovic, P. Barath, B.D. Nelson, Growth-dependent repression of human adenine nucleotide translocator-2 (ANT2) transcription: evidence for the participation of Smad and Sp family proteins in the NF1-dependent repressor complex, Biochem. J. 412 (2008) 123-130]. In the present study, we show that TGF-{beta}, like serum-restriction: (a) induces the formation of NF1/Smad repressor complexes, (b) increases binding of the complexes to the repressor elements (Go elements) in the ANT2 promoter, and (c) inhibits ANT2 expression. Repression of ANT2 by TGF-{beta} is eliminated by mutating the NF1 binding sites in the Go repressor elements. All of the above responses to TGF-{beta} are prevented by inhibitors of TGF-{beta} RI and MAPK p38. These inhibitors also prevent NF1/Smad4 repressor complex formation and repression of ANT2 expression in serum-restricted cells, suggesting that similar signaling pathways are initiated by TGF-{beta} and serum-restriction. The present finding that NF1/Smad4 repressor complexes are formed through TGF-{beta} signaling pathways suggests a new, but much broader, role for these complexes in the initiation or maintenance of the growth-inhibited state.

  13. DEFECT PROPERTIES IN beta-SiC UNDER IRRADIATION-FORMATION ENERGY OF INTERSTITIAL CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Y.; Morishita, K.; Kohyama, Akira; Heinisch, Howard L.; Gao, Fei

    2009-07-01

    Molecular dynamics and molecular statics calculations have been performed to evaluate the formation energy of self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in -SiC. For SIA-clusters with stoichiometric composition, an attempt has been made to fit the calculated data points to a polynomial function of cluster size n. The resultant equation EF=1.01n1+2.04n1/2 may indicate the applicability to a wide range of cluster sizes. This formalization will be useful for the development of accurate model on nucleation and growth of SIA-clusters, which is required for the modeling on irradiation-induced microstructural evolutions of materials in nuclear fusion reactors.

  14. Beta Thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... chromosomes 11 ß_ A person with beta thalassemia trait has one abnormal beta globin gene To understand ... one abnormal beta globin gene have beta thalassemia trait (also known as beta thalassemia minor). BETA THALASSEMIA ...

  15. Effect of tetracyclines on the dynamics of formation and destructuration of beta2-microglobulin amyloid fibrils.

    PubMed

    Giorgetti, Sofia; Raimondi, Sara; Pagano, Katiuscia; Relini, Annalisa; Bucciantini, Monica; Corazza, Alessandra; Fogolari, Federico; Codutti, Luca; Salmona, Mario; Mangione, Palma; Colombo, Lino; De Luigi, Ada; Porcari, Riccardo; Gliozzi, Alessandra; Stefani, Massimo; Esposito, Gennaro; Bellotti, Vittorio; Stoppini, Monica

    2011-01-21

    The discovery of methods suitable for the conversion in vitro of native proteins into amyloid fibrils has shed light on the molecular basis of amyloidosis and has provided fundamental tools for drug discovery. We have studied the capacity of a small library of tetracycline analogues to modulate the formation or destructuration of β2-microglobulin fibrils. The inhibition of fibrillogenesis of the wild type protein was first established in the presence of 20% trifluoroethanol and confirmed under a more physiologic environment including heparin and collagen. The latter conditions were also used to study the highly amyloidogenic variant, P32G. The NMR analysis showed that doxycycline inhibits β2-microglobulin self-association and stabilizes the native-like species through fast exchange interactions involving specific regions of the protein. Cell viability assays demonstrated that the drug abolishes the natural cytotoxic activity of soluble β2-microglobulin, further strengthening a possible in vivo therapeutic exploitation of this drug. Doxycycline can disassemble preformed fibrils, but the IC(50) is 5-fold higher than that necessary for the inhibition of fibrillogenesis. Fibril destructuration is a dynamic and time-dependent process characterized by the early formation of cytotoxic protein aggregates that, in a few hours, convert into non-toxic insoluble material. The efficacy of doxycycline as a drug against dialysis-related amyloidosis would benefit from the ability of the drug to accumulate just in the skeletal system where amyloid is formed. In these tissues, the doxycycline concentration reaches values several folds higher than those resulting in inhibition of amyloidogenesis and amyloid destructuration in vitro. PMID:21068391

  16. Formation and evolution of high-plasma-pressure region in the near-Earth plasma sheet: Precursor and postcursor of substorm expansion onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Tanaka, T.

    2015-08-01

    Cause of substorm expansion onset is one of the major problems in the magnetospheric study. On the basis of a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, Tanaka et al. (2010) suggested that formation and evolution of a high-pressure region (HPR) in the near-Earth plasma sheet could result in sudden intensification of the Region 1 field-aligned current and the westward auroral electrojet. In this sense, the formation and evolution of the HPR are a key in understanding the cause of the onset. On 5 April 2009, three probes of the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) were located at XGSM~-11 Re around the equator, which provide unique opportunity to investigate the spatial-temporal evolution of the HPR near the substorm expansion onset. Just before the onset, a positive excursion of the plasma pressure appeared at the outermost probe first, followed by the inner ones. Just after the onset, the opposite sequence took place. A positive excursion of the Y component of the current density was observed near the onset by the THEMIS probes and followed by a decrease trend. A similar variation was also found in the MHD simulation. All these features are consistent with the simulation result that a squeeze of the plasma from the plasma sheet results in the formation of the HPR before the onset and that the accumulated plasma spreads outward after the onset. The HPR is shown to be important for the dynamics of the magnetosphere during a substorm.

  17. Using ice-penetrating radars to date ice-rise formation and Late Holocene ice-sheet retreat in the Ronne Ice Shelf region, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingslake, Jonathan; Hindmarsh, Richard; King, Edward; Corr, Hugh

    2015-04-01

    The history of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the region currently occupied by the Ronne Ice Shelf is poorly known. This reflects a lack of accessible recently deglaciated surfaces, which prohibits conventional paleo glaciological techniques that can provide evidence of past ice-sheet extent and retreat, for example ocean coring or exposure-dating of geological material. We use a glaciological technique, Raymond Effect Dating, to constrain the retreat of the ice sheet through the Ronne Ice Shelf region. During two Antarctic field seasons, we used a pulse-echo ice-penetrating radar to image the base and internal stratigraphy of four ice rises - areas of grounded ice containing ice divides. Towing the radar with skidoos, we conducted over 2000 km of surveys on the Skytrain, Korff, Henry and Fowler Ice Rises and the ice shelf between them. We also used a step-frequency radar called pRES to measure the vertical ice flow in the vicinity of each ice divide. Isochronal ice layers imaged during the surveys deforming in a predictable way with ice flow, meaning that their shape contains information about past ice flow. Directly beneath ice divides the downward motion of the ice is impeded by an ice-dynamical phenomenon called the Raymond Effect. This causes layers beneath the divides to form 'Raymond Arches' that grow over time. We will present the data and simulate the growth of the Raymond Arches using our pRES-measured vertical ice velocities and date the onset of ice-divide flow at each ice rise by comparing the size of simulated arches to the arches imaged during our radar surveys. We consider the main sources of uncertainty associated with these ice-rise formation dates and discuss what they can tell us about the retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet through this region during the last few thousand years.

  18. Formation of [b3 - 1 + cat]+ ions from metal-cationized tetrapeptides containing beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid or epsilon-aminocaproic acid residues.

    PubMed

    Osburn, Sandra M; Ochola, Sila O; Talaty, Erach R; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2008-11-01

    The presence and position of a single beta-alanine (betaA), gamma-aminobutyric acid (gammaABu) or epsilon-aminocaproic acid (Cap) residue has been shown to have a significant influence on the formation of b(n)+ and y(n)+ product ions from a series of model, protonated peptides. In this study, we examined the effect of the same residues on the formation of analogous [b3 - 1 + cat]+ products from metal (Li+, Na+ and Ag+)-cationized peptides. The larger amino acids suppress formation of b3+ from protonated peptides with general sequence AAXG (where X = beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid or epsilon-aminocaproic acid), presumably because of the prohibitive effect of larger cyclic intermediates in the 'oxazolone' pathway. However, abundant [b3 - 1 + cat]+ products are generated from metal-cationized versions of AAXG. Using a group of deuterium-labeled and exchanged peptides, we found that formation of [b3 - 1 + cat]+ involves transfer of either amide or alpha-carbon position H atoms, and the tendency to transfer the atom from the alpha-carbon position increases with the size of the amino acid in position X. To account for the transfer of the H atom, a mechanism involving formation of a ketene product as [b3 - 1 + cat]+ is proposed. PMID:18449851

  19. Utility of tricalcium phosphate and osteogenic matrix cell sheet constructs for bone defect reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ueha, Tomoyuki; Akahane, Manabu; Shimizu, Takamasa; Uchihara, Yoshinobu; Morita, Yusuke; Nitta, Naoya; Kido, Akira; Inagaki, Yusuke; Kawate, Kenji; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of transplanting osteogenic matrix cell sheets and beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) constructs on bone formation in bone defects. METHODS: Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were prepared from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), and a porous TCP ceramic was used as a scaffold. Three experimental groups were prepared, comprised of TCP scaffolds (1) seeded with BMSCs; (2) wrapped with osteogenic matrix cell sheets; or (3) both. Constructs were implanted into a femoral defect model in rats and bone growth was evaluated by radiography, histology, biochemistry, and mechanical testing after 8 wk. RESULTS: In bone defects, constructs implanted with cell sheets showed callus formation with segmental or continuous bone formation at 8 wk, in contrast to TCP seeded with BMSCs, which resulted in bone non-union. Wrapping TCP constructs with osteogenic matrix cell sheets increased their osteogenic potential and resulting bone formation, compared with conventional bone tissue engineering TCP scaffolds seeded with BMSCs. The compressive stiffness (mean ± SD) values were 225.0 ± 95.7, 30.0 ± 11.5, and 26.3 ± 10.6 MPa for BMSC/TCP/Sheet constructs with continuous bone formation, BMSC/TCP/Sheet constructs with segmental bone formation, and BMSC/TCP constructs, respectively. The compressive stiffness of BMSC/TCP/Sheet constructs with continuous bone formation was significantly higher than those with segmental bone formation and BMSC/TCP constructs. CONCLUSION: This technique is an improvement over current methods, such as TCP substitution, and is useful for hard tissue reconstruction and inducing earlier bone union in defects. PMID:26131318

  20. Single and combined effects of alphavbeta3- and alpha5beta1-integrins on capillary tube formation in a human fibrinous matrix.

    PubMed

    Laurens, Nancy; Engelse, Marten A; Jungerius, Clarissa; Löwik, Clemens W; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Koolwijk, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    The fibrinous exudate of a wound or tumor stroma facilitates angiogenesis. We studied the involvement of RGD-binding integrins during tube formation in human plasma-derived fibrin clots and human purified fibrin matrices. Capillary-like tube formation by human microvascular endothelial cells in a 3D plasma-derived fibrinous matrix was induced by FGF-2 and TNF-alpha and depended largely on cell-bound u-PA and plasmin activities. While tube formation was minimally affected by the addition of either the alphavbeta3-integrin inhibiting mAb LM609 or the alpha5-integrin inhibiting mAb IIA1, the general RGD-antagonist echistatin completely inhibited this process. Remarkably, when alphavbeta3- and alpha5beta1-integrins were inhibited simultaneously, tube formation was reduced by 78%. It was accompanied by a 44% reduction of u-PA antigen accumulation and 41% less production of fibrin degradation products. alphavbeta5-integrin-blocking antibodies further enhanced the inhibition by mAb LM609 and mAb IIA1 to 94%, but had no effect by themselves. alphav-specific cRGD only inhibited angiogenesis when alpha5beta1-integrin was simultaneously blocked. Endostatin mimicked the effect of alpha5beta1-integrin and inhibited tube formation only in the presence of LM609 or cRGD (73 and 80%, respectively). Comparable results were obtained when purified fibrin matrices were used instead of the plasma-derived fibrinous matrices. These data show that blocking of tube formation in a fibrinous exudate requires the simultaneous inhibition of alphavbeta3- and alpha5beta1-integrins. This may bear impact on attempts to influence angiogenesis in a fibrinous environment. PMID:19449108

  1. AmrZ Beta-Sheet Residues Are Essential for DNA Binding and Transcriptional Control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Genes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Waligora, Elizabeth A.; Ramsey, Deborah M.; Pryor, Edward E.; Lu, Haiping; Hollis, Thomas; Sloan, Gina P.; Deora, Rajendar; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    AmrZ is a putative ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) transcriptional regulator. RHH proteins utilize residues within the β-sheet for DNA binding, while the α-helices promote oligomerization. AmrZ is of interest due to its dual roles as a transcriptional activator and as a repressor, regulating genes encoding virulence factors associated with both chronic and acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. In this study, cross-linking revealed that AmrZ forms oligomers in solution but that the amino terminus, containing an unordered region and a β-sheet, were not required for oligomerization. The first 12 unordered residues (extended amino terminus) contributed minimally to DNA binding. Mutagenesis of the AmrZ β-sheet demonstrated that residues 18, 20, and 22 were essential for DNA binding at both activation and repressor sites, suggesting that AmrZ utilizes a similar mechanism for binding to these sites. Mice infected with amrZ mutants exhibited reduced bacterial burden, morbidity, and mortality. Direct in vivo competition assays showed a 5-fold competitive advantage for the wild type over an isogenic amrZ mutant. Finally, the reduced infection phenotype of the amrZ-null strain was similar to that of a strain expressing a DNA-binding-deficient AmrZ variant, indicating that DNA binding and transcriptional regulation by AmrZ is responsible for the in vivo virulence defect. These recent infection data, along with previously identified AmrZ-regulated virulence factors, suggest the necessity of AmrZ transcriptional regulation for optimal virulence during acute infection. PMID:20709902

  2. Intrastriatal injection of interleukin-1 beta triggers the formation of neuromyelitis optica-like lesions in NMO-IgG seropositive rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe, disabling disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by the formation of astrocyte-destructive, neutrophil-dominated inflammatory lesions in the spinal cord and optic nerves. These lesions are initiated by the binding of pathogenic aquaporin 4 (AQP4)-specific autoantibodies to astrocytes and subsequent complement-mediated lysis of these cells. Typically, these lesions form in a setting of CNS inflammation, where the bloodbrain barrier is open for the entry of antibodies and complement. However, it remained unclear to which extent pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines contribute to the formation of NMO lesions. To specifically address this question, we injected the cytokines interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, interferon gamma and the chemokine CXCL2 into the striatum of NMO-IgG seropositive rats and analyzed the tissue 24 hours later by immunohistochemistry. Results All injected cytokines and chemokines led to profound leakage of immunoglobulins into the injected hemisphere, but only interleukin-1 beta induced the formation of perivascular, neutrophil-infiltrated lesions with AQP4 loss and complement-mediated astrocyte destruction distant from the needle tract. Treatment of rat brain endothelial cells with interleukin-1 beta, but not with any other cytokine or chemokine applied at the same concentration and over the same period of time, caused profound upregulation of granulocyte-recruiting and supporting molecules. Injection of interleukin-1 beta caused higher numbers of blood vessels with perivascular, cellular C1q reactivity than any other cytokine tested. Finally, the screening of a large sample of CNS lesions from NMO and multiple sclerosis patients revealed large numbers of interleukin-1 beta-reactive macrophages/activated microglial cells in active NMO lesions but not in MS lesions with comparable lesion activity and location. Conclusions Our data strongly suggest that interleukin-1 beta released in NMO lesions and interleukin-1 beta-induced production/accumulation of complement factors (like C1q) facilitate neutrophil entry and BBB breakdown in the vicinity of NMO lesions, and might thus be an important secondary factor for lesion formation, possibly by paving the ground for rapid lesion growth and amplified immune cell recruitment to this site. PMID:24252536

  3. Conformational Stability of Fibrillar Amyloid-Beta Oligomers via Protofilament Pair Formation – A Systematic Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Anna; Sticht, Heinrich; Horn, Anselm H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid- (A) oligomers play a crucial role in Alzheimer’s disease due to their neurotoxic aggregation properties. Fibrillar A oligomerization can lead to protofilaments and protofilament pairs via oligomer elongation and oligomer association, respectively. Small fibrillar oligomers adopt the protofilament topology, whereas fibrils contain at least protofilament pairs. To date, the underlying growth mechanism from oligomers to the mature fibril still remains to be elucidated. Here, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent on single layer-like protofilaments and fibril-like protofilament pairs of different size ranging from the tetramer to the 48-mer. We found that the initial U-shaped topology per monomer is maintained over time in all oligomers. The observed deviations of protofilaments from the starting structure increase significantly with size due to the twisting of the in-register parallel -sheets. This twist causes long protofilaments to be unstable and leads to a breakage. Protofilament pairs, which are stabilized by a hydrophobic interface, exhibit more fibril-like properties such as the overall structure and the twist angle. Thus, they can act as stable conformational templates for further fibril growth. Key properties like the twist angle, shape complementarity, and energetics show a size-dependent behavior so that small oligomers favor the protofilament topology, whereas large oligomers favor the protofilament pair topology. The region for this conformational transition is at the size of approximately twelve A monomers. From that, we propose the following growth mechanism from A oligomers to fibrils: (1) elongation of short protofilaments; (2) breakage of large protofilaments; (3) formation of short protofilament pairs; and (4) elongation of protofilament pairs. PMID:23936224

  4. [Beta]-Adrenergic Receptors in the Insular Cortex are Differentially Involved in Aversive vs. Incidental Context Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Isabel; Sabath, Elizabeth; Nunez-Jaramillo, Luis; Puron-Sierra, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine the effects of [beta]-adrenergic antagonism in the IC before or after inhibitory avoidance (IA) training or context pre-exposure in a latent inhibition protocol. Pretraining intra-IC infusion of the [beta]-adrenergic antagonist propranolol disrupted subsequent IA retention and impaired latent inhibition…

  5. Double Mantle Plume Upwelling—A Possible Formation Mechanism of Beta Plateau and Devana Chasma,Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, N.

    2009-12-01

    Ning Ding,Zuoxun Zeng,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan,430074,China NingDing.eagle@gmail.com Introduction:Venus represents a‘one plate planet’[1],and the uplift,fractures and volcanism in Beta Regio on Venus are considered to be formed by lithosphere uplift driven by a hot plume[2]. Based on the double peaking saddle landform,we suggest the tectonic pattern of double mantle plume upwelling to interpret the formation mechanism of Beta Plateau and Devana Chasma.We take a physical modeling to validate this possibility. Model:There is no ductile shear in Venus[3],so we use quartz sands to simulate the crust of Venus.We use two wood stickes 1.5cm in diameter rising from the rubber canvas slowly and straight till about half of the model,then falling down slowly and straight.The base is a hard rubber plate,in the center of which,there are two holes 3cm in diameter,and the distance between them is 5cm.The holes are covered by rubber canvas.We use the quartz sands in colours of white, red and black with particle size of 70 mess as the model materials. Result:Fig.1:At the beginning of the wood stickes upwelling,only fine radial cracks are formed above the upwelling from central to outside.With the upwelling continue,surface energy of the fine radial cracks increase and make the cracks unstable,finally,the fine radial cracks connect each other and form a fracture zone.And then the two mantle plume downwelling,the fracture zone is developed to form a chasma at the end. Fig.2:The four profiles all form reverse faults outside and normal faults inside.But the difference is the faults in the middle of the chasma goes deeper than others.It is the pattern of Beta Plateau where the tectonic rising is cut by Devana Chasma zone in the topographic features. Fig.3:From the tow fig., we can see two points similar:a.the elevation is high and distribution area is large around the area of two upwelling and it is high around the area of chasma,but the distribution area is small;b.both of them shows saddle shape and two highland connectting bya chasma. Discussion:Based on the‘Geology Map of V-17’,two highlands of Northern part of Devana Chasma,but the material Unit of North and South highland are different.The material Units of North highland are the oldest unit tt and t,the material Unit of South highland is pl and the material Unit of rift is r are both the youngest unit.From the Magellan SAR mosaic[5],we can clearly see Devana Chasma cut the material Unit of tt and pl.So the two highlands of Northern part of Devana Chasma are simultaneous formed.The younger material Unit of South highland of Northern part of Devana Chasma is because of the volcanic eruption of Theia Mons. Conclusion:The physical modeling validates the model of the double plume upwelling is a possible explanation. Acknowledgements:This research was supported by the National Teaching Bases For Geology(CUG)foundation funded. References:[1]I.López,Icarus2008[2]A.T.Basilevsky,Icarus2007[3]J.C.Aubele,2009,LPSC[4]A.V.Vezolainen,2003,Journalofgeophysicalres5earch[5]http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/images/v17_comp&v29_comp.pdf Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3a,3b

  6. Cloning, baculovirus expression, and characterization of a second mouse prolyl 4-hydroxylase alpha-subunit isoform: formation of an alpha 2 beta 2 tetramer with the protein disulfide-isomerase/beta subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Helaakoski, T; Annunen, P; Vuori, K; MacNeil, I A; Pihlajaniemi, T; Kivirikko, K I

    1995-01-01

    Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.11.2) catalyzes the posttranslational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in collagens. The vertebrate enzyme is an alpha 2 beta 2 tetramer, the beta subunit of which is a highly unusual multifunctional polypeptide, being identical to protein disulfide-isomerase (EC 5.3.4.1). We report here the cloning of a second mouse alpha subunit isoform, termed the alpha (II) subunit. This polypeptide consists of 518 aa and a signal peptide of 19 aa. The processed polypeptide is one residue longer than the mouse alpha (I) subunit (the previously known type), the cloning of which is also reported here. The overall amino acid sequence identity between the mouse alpha (II) and alpha (I) subunits is 63%. The mRNA for the alpha (II) subunit was found to be expressed in a variety of mouse tissues. When the alpha (II) subunit was expressed together with the human protein disulfide-isomerase/beta subunit in insect cells by baculovirus vectors, an active prolyl 4-hydroxylase was formed, and this protein appeared to be an alpha (II) 2 beta 2 tetramer. The activity of this enzyme was very similar to that of the human alpha (I) 2 beta 2 tetramer, and most of its catalytic properties were also highly similar, but it differed distinctly from the latter in that it was inhibited by poly(L-proline) only at very high concentrations. This property may explain why the type II enzyme was not recognized earlier, as an early step in the standard purification procedure for prolyl 4-hydroxylase is affinity chromatography on a poly(L-proline) column. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7753822

  7. Effect of dietary. beta. -carotene, vitamin A and selenium on formation of preneoplastic lesions in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Colford, J.; Parker, R.S.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of dietary ..beta..-carotene (BC), retinyl acetate (RA) and sodium selenite on formation of ..gamma..-glutamyltranspeptidase-positive foci in rat liver was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 50g, were fed for 16 wks semipurified diets supplemented with either BC (500 mg/kg diet), RA (6400 IU/kg diet for wks 1-7 and 10,000 IU/kg for wks 8-16), 1.8 ppm selenium (Se) or both 1.8 ppm Se and 500 mg/kg BC. The control diet contained 0.1 ppm Se and 3200 IU RA/kg diet. During wks 3-4 rats received 10 intragastric doses of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (0.4 mg/kg body weight/dose). Preneoplastic foci were quantitated at wk 16. Diet had no significant effect on growth rate or food consumption. None of the treatments resulted in significant differences in the number of foci per cm/sup 2/ liver section, but differences in focal size occurred. RA increased total focal area (mm/sup 2//cm/sup 2/ liver), while Se decreased focal area 5-fold. BC slightly decreased focal area. The combination of BC and Se was not as effective as Se alone. BC, RA, and BC-Se diets yielded equivalent levels of total liver retinol, which exceeded levels in control and Se rats by 30-fold. Livers from BC fed rats contained 4-5 ..mu..g BC/g liver. The different effects of dietary RA and BC on focal development may indicate a role for BC other than as a retinol precursor. The influence of each nutrient on focal size, but not number, implies they act during the post-initiation stage of focal development.

  8. Visualization of beta-sheets and side-chain clusters in two-dimensional periodic arrays of streptavidin on phospholipid monolayers by electron crystallography.

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Sakar, A J; Chiu, W

    1996-01-01

    The biotin-binding protein streptavidin was crystallized as two-dimensional periodic arrays on biotinylated phospholipid monolayers. Electron diffraction patterns and images of the arrays embedded in vitreous ice were recorded to near-atomic resolution. Amplitudes and phases of structure factors were computed and combined to produce a 3 A projection density map. The reliability of the map was verified by comparing it to the available x-ray atomic model of the molecule. Projection densities from beta-strands and some amino acid side chains were identified from the electron cryomicroscopy map. These results demonstrate the first near-atomic image of this type of protein periodic array by electron crystallography, which has a great potential to aid in the structural characterization of molecular arrays engineered on a monolayer for various basic or biotechnological applications. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:8770187

  9. A novel pyrrolidine imide catalyzed direct formation of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones from unmodified ketones and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Mei, Yujiang; Li, Hao; Wang, Jian

    2005-02-17

    A method for direct, stereoselective preparation of (E)-alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones from ketones and aldehydes, promoted by a novel pyrrolidine imide organocatalyst, has been developed in moderate to high yields. Unlike the Claisen-Schmidt condensation and Lewis acid catalyzed tandem aldol-dehydration processes, this method provides mild reaction conditions to access alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones from simple, unmodified ketones. [reaction: see text] PMID:15704904

  10. Inhibitory effect of Bifidobacterium longum cultures on the azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation and fecal bacterial beta-glucuronidase.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, N; Reddy, B S

    1994-12-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that consumption of fermented milk products and lactic bacterial cultures that are used to ferment the dairy products, decrease the incidence of certain types of cancer. The present study was designed to determine the effect of lyophilized cultures of Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum), a lactic bacteria, on the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced preneoplastic lesions such as aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in the colon and on fecal bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity in male F344 rats. At 5 weeks of age, groups of animals were fed the AIN-76A (control) and the experimental diets containing 1.5% and 3% lyophilized cultures of B. longum. At 10 weeks of age, all animals received sc injection of AOM dissolved in normal saline at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg body wt, once weekly for 2 weeks. The animals were necropsied 6 weeks after the last AOM injection, and the ACF were visualized under light microscopy in the formalin-fixed, unsectioned methylene blue-stained colons where they were distinguished by their increased size, more prominent epithelial cells, and pericryptal space. The cecal contents were analyzed for bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity. The feeding of lyophilized cultures of B. longum significantly inhibited the ACF formation (53%) and the crypt multiplicity in the colon. A significant decrease in the fecal bacterial beta-glucuronidase was also observed in the animals fed the diets containing Bifidobacterium supplements as compared with control diet. These results demonstrate that B. longum in diet influences the metabolic activity of certain types of intestinal microflora that are involved in the production of beta-glucuronidase. Furthermore, the findings also suggest that B. longum supplements inhibit ACF formation, an early preneoplastic marker of malignant potential in the process of colon carcinogenesis. PMID:7800683

  11. Calcium ion-induced formation of β-sheet/-turn structure leading to alteration of osteogenic activity of bone morphogenetic protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; He, Hongyan; Tian, Yu; Gan, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    Preserving bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) still remains a challenge in protein-based therapy. It is not known how Ca2+ released from extracellular matrix or existing in physiological environment influences bioactivity in situ till now. Here, effects of extracellular Ca2+ on conformation and osteogenic bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) were investigated systematically. In vitro results indicated that Ca2+ could bind rhBMP-2 rapidly and had no obvious effect on cell behaviors. Low concentration of Ca2+ (0.18 mM) enhanced rhBMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation, while high Ca2+ concentration (>1.80 mM) exerted negative effect. In vivo ectopic bone formation exhibited similar trend. Further studies by circular dichroism spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, together with cell culture experiments revealed at low concentration, weak interaction of Ca2+ and rhBMP-2 slightly increased β-sheet/-turn content and facilitated recognition of BMP-2 and BMPRIA. But, high Ca2+ concentration (>1.8 mM) induced formation of Ca-rhBMP-2 complex and markedly increased content of β-sheet/-turn, which led to inhibition binding of rhBMP-2 and BMPRIA and thus suppression of downstream Smad1/5/8, ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-associated protein kinase signaling pathways. Our work suggests osteogenic bioactivity of BMP-2 can be adjusted via extracellular Ca2+, which should provide guide and assist for development of BMP-2-based materials for bone regeneration. PMID:26212061

  12. Till formation under a soft-bedded palaeo-ice stream of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet, constrained using qualitative and quantitative microstructural analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narloch, Włodzimierz; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Wysota, Wojciech; Tylmann, Karol

    2015-08-01

    This study combines micro- and macroscale studies, laboratory experiments and quantitative analyses to decipher processes of till formation under a palaeo-ice stream and the nature of subglacial sediment deformation. Till micromorphology (grain lineations, grain stacks, turbate structures, crushed grains, intraclasts and domains), grain-size and till fabric data are used to investigate a basal till generated by the Vistula Ice Stream of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the last glaciation in north-central Poland. A comparison of microstructures from the in situ basal till and laboratory-sheared till experiments show statistical relationships between the number of grain lineations and grain stacks; and between the number of grain lineations and turbate structures. Microstructures in the in situ till document both brittle and ductile styles of deformation, possibly due to fluctuating basal water pressures beneath the ice stream. No systematic vertical and lateral trends are detected in the parameters investigated in the in situ till, which suggests a subglacial mosaic of relatively stable and unstable areas. This situation can be explained by an unscaled space-transgressive model of subglacial till formation whereby at any given point in time different processes operated in different places under the ice sheet, possibly related to the distance from the ice margin and water pressure at the ice-bed interface. A new quantitative measure reflecting the relationship between the number of grain lineations and grain stacks may be helpful in discriminating between pervasive and non-pervasive deformation and constraining the degree of stress heterogeneity within a deformed bed. Independent strain magnitude estimations revealed by a quantitative analysis of micro- and macro-particle data show low cumulative strain in the ice-stream till in the order of 10-102.

  13. Fibril stability in solutions of twisted Format="TEX"/>-sheet peptides: a new kind of micellization in chiral systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyrkova, I. A.; Semenov, A. N.; Aggeli, A.; Boden, N.

    2000-10-01

    The problem of fibril (fibre) formation in chiral systems is explored theoretically being supported by experiments on synthetic de novo 11-mer peptide forming self-assembled -sheet tapes. Experimental data unambiguously indicate that the tapes form fibrils of nearly monodisperse thickness ca. 8-10 nm. Fibril formation and stabilisation are attributed to inter-tape face-to-face attraction and their intrinsic twist, correspondingly. The proposed theory is capable of predicting the fibril aggregation number and its equilibrium twist in terms of molecular parameters of the primary tapes. The suggested novel mechanism of twist stabilisation of finite aggregates (fibrils) is different to the well-known stabilisation of micelles in amphiphilic systems, and it is likely to explain the formation and stability of fibrils in a wide variety of systems including proteinaceous amyloid fibres, sickle-cell hemoglobin fibres responsible for HbS anemia, corkscrew threads found in chromonics in the presence of chiral additives and native cellulose microfibrillar crystallites. The theory also makes it possible to extract the basic molecular parameters of primary tapes (inter-tape attraction energy, helical twist step, elastic moduli) from the experimental data.

  14. Stability of single sheet GNNQQNY aggregates analyzed by replica exchange molecular dynamics: Antiparallel versus parallel association

    SciTech Connect

    Vitagliano, Luigi; Esposito, Luciana; Pedone, Carlo; De Simone, Alfonso

    2008-12-26

    Protein and peptide aggregation into amyloid plaques is associated with a large variety of neurodegenerative diseases. The definition of the molecular bases of these pathologies is hampered by the transient nature of pre-fibrillar small-oligomers that are considered the toxic species. The ability of the peptide GNNQQNY to form amyloid-like structures makes it a good model to investigate the complex processes involved into amyloid fiber formation. By employing full atomistic replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations, we constructed the free energy surface of small assemblies of GNNQQNY to gain novel insights into the fiber formation process. The calculations suggest that the peptide exhibits a remarkable tendency to form both parallel and antiparallel {beta}-sheets. The data show that GNNQQNY preference for parallel or antiparallel {beta}-sheets is governed by a subtle balance of factors including assemblies' size, sidechain-sidechain interactions and pH. The samplings analysis provides a rationale to the observed trends.

  15. Formation of {beta}-nickel hydroxide plate-like structures under mild conditions and their optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, A.P. de; Lima, R.C.; Paris, E.C.; Li, M.S.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2011-10-15

    Nanostructural {beta}-nickel hydroxide ({beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2}) plates were prepared using the microwave-hydrothermal (MH) method at a low temperature and short reaction times. An ammonia solution was employed as the coordinating agent, which reacts with [Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} to control the growth of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nuclei. A trigonal {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} single phase was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and the crystal cell was constructed with structural parameters and atomic coordinates obtained from Rietveld refinement. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images revealed that the samples consisted of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates with a different particle size distribution. Broad absorption bands assigned as transitions of Ni{sup 2+} in oxygen octahedral sites were revealed by UV-vis spectra. Photoluminescence (PL) properties observed with a maximum peak centered in the blue-green region were attributed to different defects, which were produced during the nucleation process. We present a growth process scheme of the {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoplates. - Graphical abstract: Nanostructural {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} crystalline powders were prepared by rapid microwave-hydrothermal method for 1, 8 and 32 min. The hexagonal-shaped nanoplates obtained presented PL emission in the blue-green region and each decomposed component represents a different type of electronic transition, which can be linked to the structural arrangement or surface defects. Highlights: > Ammonia solution to control the growth of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nuclei. > Regular plates-shape related to crystallization-dissolution-recrystallization. > The surface states and lattice defects generated in growth mechanism of crystals. > Different defects produced in the growth process responsible by photoluminescence. > Each component of photoluminescence curve linked to structural arrangement or surface defects.

  16. Whooping Cough (Pertussis) - Fact Sheet for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Redirect for the Pertussis fact sheet page. The current fact sheet can ... http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/diseases/child/pertussis.html Print page Share Compartir File Formats Help: ...

  17. The Influence of Welding Parameters on the Nugget Formation of Resistance Spot Welding of Inconel 625 Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei Ashtiani, Hamid Reza; Zarandooz, Roozbeh

    2015-09-01

    A 2D axisymmetric electro-thermo-mechanical finite element (FE) model is developed to investigate the effect of current intensity, welding time, and electrode tip diameter on temperature distributions and nugget size in resistance spot welding (RSW) process of Inconel 625 superalloy sheets using ABAQUS commercial software package. The coupled electro-thermal analysis and uncoupled thermal-mechanical analysis are used for modeling process. In order to improve accuracy of simulation, material properties including physical, thermal, and mechanical properties have been considered to be temperature dependent. The thickness and diameter of computed weld nuggets are compared with experimental results and good agreement is observed. So, FE model developed in this paper provides prediction of quality and shape of the weld nuggets and temperature distributions with variation of each process parameter, suitably. Utilizing this FE model assists in adjusting RSW parameters, so that expensive experimental process can be avoided. The results show that increasing welding time and current intensity lead to an increase in the nugget size and electrode indentation, whereas increasing electrode tip diameter decreases nugget size and electrode indentation.

  18. Late Noachian and early Hesperian ridge systems in the south circumpolar Dorsa Argentea Formation, Mars: Evidence for two stages of melting of an extensive late Noachian ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Ailish M.; Head, James W.

    2015-05-01

    The Dorsa Argentea Formation (DAF), extending from 270°-100° E and 70°-90° S, is a huge circumpolar deposit surrounding and underlying the Late Amazonian South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLD) of Mars. Currently mapped as Early-Late Hesperian in age, the Dorsa Argentea Formation has been interpreted as volatile-rich, possibly representing the remnants of an ancient polar ice cap. Uncertain are its age (due to the possibility of poor crater retention in ice-related deposits), its mode of origin, the origin of the distinctive sinuous ridges and cavi that characterize the unit, and its significance in the climate history of Mars. In order to assess the age of activity associated with the DAF, we examined the ridge populations within the Dorsa Argentea Formation, mapping and characterizing seven different ridge systems (composed of nearly 4,000 ridges covering a total area of ~300,000 km2, with a cumulative length of ridges of ~51,000 km) and performing crater counts on them using the method of buffered crater counting to determine crater retention ages of the ridge populations. We examined the major characteristics of the ridge systems and found that the majority of them were consistent with an origin as eskers, sediment-filled subglacial drainage channels. Ridge morphologies reflect both distributed and channelized esker systems, and evidence is also seen that some ridges form looping moraine-like termini distal to some distributed systems. The ridge populations fall into two age groups: ridge systems between 270° and 0° E date to the Early Hesperian, but to the east, the Promethei Planum and the Chasmata ridge systems date to the Late Noachian. Thus, these ages, and esker and moraine-like morphologies, support the interpretation that the DAF is a remnant ice sheet deposit, and that the esker systems represent evidence of significant melting and drainage of meltwater from portions of this ice sheet, thus indicating at least some regions and/or periods of wet-based glaciation. The Late Noachian and Early Hesperian ages of the ridge systems closely correspond to the ages of valley network/open basin lake systems, representing runoff, drainage and storage of liquid water in non-polar regions of the surface of Mars. Potential causes of such wet-based conditions in the DAF include: 1) top-down melting due to atmospheric warming, 2) enhanced snow and ice accumulation and raising of the melting isotherm to the base of the ice sheet, or 3) basal melting associated with intrusive volcanism (volcano-ice interactions). The early phase of melting is closely correlated in time with valley network formation and thus may be due to global atmospheric warming, while the later phase of melting may be linked to Early Hesperian global volcanism and specific volcano-ice interactions (table mountains) in the DAF. Crater ages indicate that these wet-based conditions ceased by the Late Hesperian, and that further retreat of the DAF to its present configuration occurred largely through sublimation, not melting, thus preserving the extensive ridge systems. MARSIS radar data suggest that significant areas of layered, potentially ice-rich parts of the Dorsa Argentea Formation remain today.

  19. Influence of Water Content on the β-Sheet Formation, Thermal Stability, Water Removal, and Mechanical Properties of Silk Materials.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Kenjiro; Ishida, Kana; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Hikima, Takaaki; Numata, Keiji

    2016-03-14

    Silk, which has excellent mechanical toughness and is lightweight, is used as a structural material in nature, for example, in silkworm cocoons and spider draglines. However, the industrial use of silk as a structural material has garnered little attention. For silk to be used as a structural material, its thermal processability and associated properties must be well understood. Although water molecules influence the glass transition of silk, the effects of water content on the other thermal properties of silks are not well understood. In this study, we prepared Bombyx mori cocoon raw fibers, degummed fibers, and films with different water contents and then investigated the effects of water content on crystallization, degradation, and water removal during thermal processing. Thermal gravimetric analyses of the silk materials showed that water content did not affect the thermal degradation temperature but did influence the water removal behavior. By increasing the water content of silk, the water molecules were removed at lower temperatures, indicating that the amount of free water in silk materials increased; additionally, the glass transition temperature decreased with increasing water plasticization. Differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray scattering of the silk films also suggested that the water molecules in the amorphous regions of the silk films acted as a plasticizer and induced β-sheet crystallization. The plasticizing effect of water was not detected in silk fibers, owing to their lower amorphous content and mobility. The structural and mechanical characterizations of the silk films demonstrated the silk film prepared at RH 97% realized both crystallinity and ductility simultaneously. Thus, the thermal stability, mechanical, and other properties of silk materials are regulated by their water content and crystallinity. PMID:26835719

  20. Fibrates down-regulate IL-1-stimulated C-reactive protein gene expression in hepatocytes by reducing nuclear p50-NFkappa B-C/EBP-beta complex formation.

    PubMed

    Kleemann, Robert; Gervois, Philippe P; Verschuren, Lars; Staels, Bart; Princen, Hans M G; Kooistra, Teake

    2003-01-15

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major acute-phase protein in humans. Elevated plasma CRP levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CRP is predominantly expressed in hepatocytes and is induced by interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 under inflammatory situations, such as the acute phase. Fibrates are hypolipidemic drugs that act through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha). Fibrates have been shown to reduce elevated CRP levels in humans, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that different PPAR-alpha activators suppress IL-1-induced, but not IL-6-induced, expression of CRP in primary human hepatocytes and HuH7 hepatoma cells. Induction of CRP expression by IL-1 occurs at the transcriptional level. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments show that IL-1 induces CRP expression through 2 overlapping response elements, the binding sites for CCAAT-box/enhancer-binding protein-beta (C/EBP-beta) and p50-nuclear factor-kappaB (p50-NFkappaB). Cotransfection of C/EBP-beta and p50-NFkappaB enhances CRP promoter activity, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that the increase in CRP promoter activity by IL-1 is related to the generation and nuclear accumulation of C/EBP-beta-p50-NFkappaB complexes. Interestingly, PPAR-alpha activators reduce the formation of nuclear C/EBP-beta-p50-NFkappaB complexes, and thereby CRP promoter activity, by 2 mechanisms. First, PPAR-alpha increases IkappaB-alpha expression and thus prevents p50-NFkappaB translocation to the nucleus. Second, fibrates decrease hepatic C/EBP-beta and p50-NFkappaB protein levels in mice in a PPAR-alpha-dependent way. Our findings identify C/EBP-beta and p50-NFkappaB as novel targets for PPAR-alpha and provide a molecular explanation for the reduction of plasma CRP levels by fibrates. PMID:12393563

  1. FORMATION OF BETA-HYDROXYCARBONYLS FROM THE OH RADICAL-INITIATED REACTIONS OF SELECTED ALKENES (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    beta2.gif" BORDER=0 ALIGN="middle">-Hydroxycarbonyls can be formed from the gas-phase
    reactions of alkenes with the OH radical, both in the presence
    and in the absence of NO. To date, because of analytical
    difficulties, few data have been r...

  2. NF-E2 and GATA binding motifs are required for the formation of DNase I hypersensitive site 4 of the human beta-globin locus control region.

    PubMed

    Stamatoyannopoulos, J A; Goodwin, A; Joyce, T; Lowrey, C H

    1995-01-01

    The beta-like globin genes require the upstream locus control region (LCR) for proper expression. The active elements of the LCR coincide with strong erythroid-specific DNase I-hypersensitive sites (HSs). We have used 5' HS4 as a model to study the formation of these HSs. Previously, we identified a 101 bp element that is required for the formation of this HS. This element binds six proteins in vitro. We now report a mutational analysis of the HS4 HS-forming element (HSFE). This analysis indicates that binding sites for the hematopoietic transcription factors NF-E2 and GATA-1 are required for the formation of the characteristic chromatin structure of the HS following stable transfection into murine erythroleukemia cells. Similarly arranged NF-E2 and GATA binding sites are present in the other HSs of the human LCR, as well as in the homologous mouse and goat sequences and the chicken beta-globin enhancer. A combination of DNase I and micrococcal nuclease sensitivity assays indicates that the characteristic erythroid-specific hypersensitivity of HS4 to DNase I is the result of tissue-specific alterations in both nucleosome positioning and tertiary DNA structure. PMID:7828582

  3. A Simple Lattice Model That Captures Protein Folding, Aggregation and Amyloid Formation

    PubMed Central

    Abeln, Sanne; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Christopher M.; Frenkel, Daan

    2014-01-01

    The ability of many proteins to convert from their functional soluble state to amyloid fibrils can be attributed to inter-molecular beta strand formation. Such amyloid formation is associated with neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Molecular modelling can play a key role in providing insight into the factors that make proteins prone to fibril formation. However, fully atomistic models are computationally too expensive to capture the length and time scales associated with fibril formation. As the ability to form fibrils is the rule rather than the exception, much insight can be gained from the study of coarse-grained models that capture the key generic features associated with amyloid formation. Here we present a simple lattice model that can capture both protein folding and beta strand formation. Unlike standard lattice models, this model explicitly incorporates the formation of hydrogen bonds and the directionality of side chains. The simplicity of our model makes it computationally feasible to investigate the interplay between folding, amorphous aggregation and fibril formation, and maintains the capability of classic lattice models to simulate protein folding with high specificity. In our model, the folded proteins contain structures that resemble naturally occurring beta-sheets, with alternating polar and hydrophobic amino acids. Moreover, fibrils with intermolecular cross-beta strand conformations can be formed spontaneously out of multiple short hydrophobic peptide sequences. Both the formation of hydrogen bonds in folded structures and in fibrils is strongly dependent on the amino acid sequence, indicating that hydrogen-bonding interactions alone are not strong enough to initiate the formation of beta sheets. This result agrees with experimental observations that beta sheet and amyloid formation is strongly sequence dependent, with hydrophobic sequences being more prone to form such structures. Our model should open the way to a systematic study of the interplay between the factors that lead to amyloid formation. PMID:24454816

  4. TGF{beta}-mediated formation of pRb-E2F complexes in human myeloid leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Xiaotang

    2008-05-02

    TGF{beta} is well known for its inhibitory effect on cell cycle G1 checkpoint kinases. However, its role in the control of pRb-E2F complexes is not well established. TGF{beta} inhibits phosphorylation of pRb at several serine and threonine residues and regulates the association of E2F transcription factors with pRb family proteins. Recent studies found that predominantly E2F-4, p130, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) are found to bind to corresponding E2F-responsive promoters in G0/G1 phase. As cells progress through mid-G1, p130-E2F4 complex are replaced by p107-E2F4 followed by activators E2F1, 2, and 3. pRb was not detectable in the promoters containing the E2F-responsive site in cycling cells but was associated with E2F4-p130 complexes or E2F4-p107 complexes during G0/G1 phase. In human myeloid leukemia cell line, MV4-11, TGF{beta} upregulated pRb-E2F-4 and p130-E2F-4, and downregulated p107-E2F-4 complexes. However, pRB-E2F1 and pRb-E2F3 complexes were found in proliferating cells but not in TGF{beta} arrested G1 cells. In addition, electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay (EMSA) could not detect pRb-E2F DNA-binding activities either in S or G1 phase but exhibited the existence of p107-E2F4 in proliferating cells and p130-E2F4 complexes in TGF{beta}-arrested G1 cells, respectively. Our data suggest that p107 and p130, but not pRb, and the repressor E2F, but not activator E2Fs, play a critical role in regulating E2F-responsive gene expression in TGF{beta}-mediated cell cycle control in human myeloid leukemia cells.

  5. A calorimetric determination of the enthalpy of formation and a description of the defect structure of the ordered beta-phase /Ni, Cu/ /1-x/ Al/x/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henig, E. T.; Lukas, H. L.

    1988-01-01

    In order to describe thermodynamically the defect structure of an ordered B-Hume-Rothery phase, the heat of formation of (Ni,Cu)(1-x)Al(x) was measured at 1100 K as a function of concentration in the range x (sub Al) = 0.4 and 0.55 for three substitution rations x (sub Ni)/x (sub Cu) = infinity; 11; 5. The heat of formation of the NiAl beta-phase is strongly negative. For the stoichiometric composition it is -72.2 kJ/g-atom. On both the nickel-rich side and the aluminum-rich side the magnitude of the enthalpy of formation decreases linearly with concentration. Substitution of nickel for copper decreases the magnitude of the enthalpy of formation over the entire homogeneity range for the phase (Ni,Cu)(1-x)Al(x). The curve for the enthalpy of formation as well as the literature values for the chemical potential of aluminum are described with great accuracy by the disorder model of Wagner-Schottky.

  6. Synthesis of porous sheet-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microstructure by precipitation method and its potential applications in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Shanshan; Jing Xiaoyan; Liu Jingyuan; Wang Jun; Liu Qi; Zhao Yanhua; Jamil, Saba; Zhang Milin; Liu Lianhe

    2013-01-15

    Porous sheet-like cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were successfully synthesized by precipitation method combined with calcination of cobalt hydroxide precursors. The structure, morphology and porosity properties of the products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. The as-prepared sheet-like microstructures were approximately 2-3 {mu}m in average diameter, and the morphology of the cobalt hydroxide precursors was retained after the calcination process. However, it appeared a large number of uniform pores in the sheets after calcination. In order to calculate the potential catalytic activity, the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) has been analyzed, in which cobalt oxide played a role of an additive and the porous sheet-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microstructures exhibited high catalytic performance and considerable decrease in the thermal decomposition temperature of AP. Moreover, a formation mechanism for the sheet-like microstructures has been discussed. - Graphical abstract: Porous sheet-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} were synthesized by facile precipitation method combined with calcination of {beta}-Co(OH){sub 2} precursors. Thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetric analysis indicates potential catalytic activity in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of sheet-like {beta}-Co(OH){sub 2} precursors by precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous sheet-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} were obtained by calcining {beta}-Co(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible formation mechanism of porous sheet-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} has been discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous sheet-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} decrease the thermal decomposition temperature of ammonium perchlorate.

  7. Study on the Formation and Characterization of the Intermetallics in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy to Coated Steel Sheet Lap Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, H.; Ghosh, R. N.; Pal, T. K.

    2014-10-01

    Multimaterial fabrication such as joining of steel and aluminum is currently prominent in a variety of industries. Friction stir welding is a novel solid-state welding process that causes good joint strength between steel and aluminum. However, the phenomenon contributing significant strength at the interface is not yet clear. In the present study, the interface of the friction stir lap-welded aluminum and coated steel sheet having joint strength maximum (71.4 pct of steel base metal) and minimum, respectively, under two parameter combinations, i.e., 1000 rpm 50 mm min-1 and 500 rpm 100 mm min-1, was exclusively characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), concentration profile, and elemental mapping by electron-probe microanalysis. A TEM-assisted EDS study identifies the morphologies of large size Al13Fe4 and small size Fe3Al-type intermetallic compounds at the interface. The diffusion-induced intermetallic growth (thickness) measured from a backscattered image and concentration profile agreed well with the numerically calculated one. The growth of these two phases at 1000 rpm 50 mm min-1 is attributed to the slower cooling rate (~3.5 K/s) with higher diffusion time (44 seconds) along the interface in comparison to the same for 500 rpm 100 mm min-1 with faster cooling rate (~10 K/s) and less diffusion time (13.6 seconds). The formation of thermodynamically stable and hard intermetallic phase Al13Fe4 at 1000 rpm and travel speed 50 mm min-1 in amounts higher than 500 rpm and a travel speed of 100 mm min-1 results in better joint strength, i.e., 71.4 pct, of the steel base metal.

  8. Hydroxylated metabolites of beta- and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane: bacterial formation, stereochemical configuration, and occurrence in groundwater at a former production site.

    PubMed

    Raina, Vishakha; Hauser, Andrea; Buser, Hans Rudolf; Rentsch, Daniel; Sharma, Poonam; Lal, Rup; Holliger, Christof; Poiger, J Thomas; Müller, Markus D; Kohler, Hans-Peter E

    2007-06-15

    Although the use of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), one of the most popular insecticides after the Second World War, has been discontinued in many countries, problems remain from former production and waste sites. Despite the widespread occurrence of HCHs, the environmental fate of these compounds is not fully understood. In particular, environmental metabolites of the more persistent beta-HCH and delta-HCH have not been fully identified. Such knowledge, however, is important to follow degradation and environmental fate of the HCHs. In the present study, several hydroxy metabolites that formed during incubation of beta- and delta-HCH with the common soil microorganism Sphingobium indicum B90A were isolated, characterized, and stereochemically identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The metabolites were identified as isomeric pentachlorocyclohexanols (B1, D1) and tetrachlorocyclohexane-1,4-diols (B2, D2); delta-HCH additionally formed a tetrachloro-2-cyclohexen-1-ol (D3) and a trichloro-2-cyclohexene-1,4-diol (D4), most likely by hydroxylation of delta-pentachlorocyclohexene (delta-PCCH), initially formed by dehydrochlorination. The dehydrochlorinase LinA was responsible for conversion of delta-HCH into delta-PCCH, and the haloalkane dehalogenase LinB was responsible for the transformation of beta-HCH and delta-HCH into B1 and D1, respectively, and subsequently into B2 and D2, respectively. LinB was also responsible for transforming delta-PCCH into D3 and subsequently into D4. These hydroxylations proceeded in accordance with SN2 type reactions with initial substitution of equatorial Cls and formation of axially hydroxylated stereoisomers. The apparently high reactivity of equatorial Cls in beta- and delta-HCH toward initial hydroxylation by LinB of Sphingobium indicum B90A is remarkable when considering the otherwise usually higher reactivity of axial Cls. Several of these metabolites were detected in groundwater from a former HCH production site in Switzerland. Their presence indicates that these reactions proceed under natural environmental conditions and that the metabolites are of environmental relevance. PMID:17626427

  9. Beta amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau deposits in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Miklossy, J.; Miller, L.; Qing, H.; Radenovic, A.; Kis, A.; Vileno, B.; Laszlo, F.; Martins, R.N.; Waeber, G.; Mooser, V.; Bosman, F.; Khalili, K.; Darbinian, N.; McGeer, P.L.

    2008-08-25

    Strong epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes. To determine if amyloid beta (A{beta}) and hyperphosphorylated tau occurs in type 2 diabetes, pancreas tissues from 21 autopsy cases (10 type 2 diabetes and 11 controls) were analyzed. APP and tau mRNAs were identified in human pancreas and in cultured insulinoma beta cells (INS-1) by RT-PCR. Prominent APP and tau bands were detected by Western blotting in pancreatic extracts. Aggregated A{beta}, hyperphosphorylated tau, ubiquitin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein(a), IB1/JIP-1 and JNK1 were detected in Langerhans islets in type 2 diabetic patients. A{beta} was co-localized with amylin in islet amyloid deposits. In situ beta sheet formation of islet amyloid deposits was shown by infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS). LPS increased APP in non-neuronal cells as well. We conclude that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau are also associated with type 2 diabetes, highlighting common pathogenetic features in neurodegenerative disorders, including AD and type 2 diabetes and suggesting that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau may also occur in other organs than the brain.

  10. Sheet of osteoblastic cells combined with platelet-rich fibrin improves the formation of bone in critical-size calvarial defects in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifa; Hu, Hanqing; Li, Zhijin; Weng, Yanming; Dai, Taiqiang; Zong, Chunlin; Liu, Yanpu; Liu, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Techniques that use sheets of cells have been successfully used in various types of tissue regeneration, and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) can be used as a source of growth factors to promote angiogenesis. We have investigated the effects of the combination of PRF and sheets of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from bone marrow on the restoration of bone in critical-size calvarial defects in rabbits to find out whether the combination promotes bony healing. Sheets of MSC and PRF were prepared from the same donor. We then implanted the combined MSC and PRF in critical-size calvarial defects in rabbits and assessed bony restoration by microcomputed tomography (microCT) and histological analysis. The results showed that PRF significantly increased bony regeneration at 8 weeks after implantation of sheets of MSC and PRF compared with sheets of MSC alone (p=0.0048). Our results indicate that the combination of sheets of MSC and PRF increases bone regeneration in critical-size calvarial defects in rabbits, and provides a new way to improve skeletal healing. PMID:26781843

  11. Beta-hydroxybutyrate abrogates formation of bovine neutrophil extracellular traps and bactericidal activity against mammary pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Navit; Elazar, Sharon; Rosenshine, Ilan; Shpigel, Nahum Y

    2008-06-01

    Escherichia coli is an important bacterial species isolated from bovine mastitis. The rate of neutrophil recruitment into the mammary gland and their bactericidal activity largely affect the severity and outcome of the disease. Ketosis is a common metabolic disease, and affected dairy cows are known to have increased risk for mastitis and other infectious conditions. The disease is associated with high blood and milk levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), previously shown to negatively affect neutrophil function by unknown mechanisms. We show here that the mammary pathogenic E. coli strain P4 activates normal bovine neutrophils to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are highly bactericidal against this organism. Preincubation of these neutrophils with increasing concentrations (0.1 to 8 mmol/liter) of BHBA caused a fivefold decrease of E. coli P4 phagocytosis, though intracellular killing was unaffected. Furthermore, BHBA caused a 10-fold decrease in the NETs formed by E. coli P4-activated neutrophils and a similar decrease in NET bactericidal activity against this organism. These negative effects of BHBA on bovine neutrophils might explain the increased susceptibility of ketotic cows to mastitis and other infectious conditions. PMID:18411287

  12. Inhibition of lignin formation by L-alpha-aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionic acid, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase.

    PubMed

    Amrhein, N; Frank, G; Lemm, G; Luhmann, H B

    1983-01-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) seedlings grown for 9 days on filter paper soaked with 0.3 to 1 mM L-alpha-aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP), a potent inhibitor of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, had a greatly reduced anthocyanin content, and the cell walls of the xylem vessels did not stain with the phloroglucinol/HCl or safranine/astrablue reagents indicating the absence of lignin-like material. Furthermore, vanillin was detectable in nitro-benzene-oxidized lignin preparations only from control seedlings, but not from AOPP-treated seedlings. Scanning electron microscopy of hypocotyl cross sections revealed collapsed xylem vessels in seedlings grown in the presence of AOPP indicating that lignin is required for resistance against the tensile forces in the conducting cells of the xylem. AOPP enhanced the growth of cultured cells of Lonicera prolifera Rehd. while it inhibited the production of extracellular material that gave a positive reaction with phloroglucinol/HCl. PMID:6832164

  13. A biased probe analysis of potential well formation in an electron only, low beta Polywell magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Matthew; Khachan, Joe

    2013-05-15

    Orbital limited motion theory has been applied to two biased probes in a low beta Polywell. The cases studied include electron injection, magnetic field scaling, Polywell bias scaling, and radial position profiles. Langmuir's original orbital limited motion results for a monoenergetic electron beam are shown to be in excellent agreement for electron injection into the Polywell. A distribution function is proposed for the electron plasma characteristics in the centre of the magnetic null and confirmed with experimental results. A translational stage was used to measure the radial plasma potential profile. In other experiments, two probes were used to simultaneously measure the profiles in both the null and a position halfway along a corner cusp. The results confirm a radial potential well created by electron trapping in the device. In addition, we present preliminary results of the potential well scaling with the magnetic field, Polywell bias voltage, and the injected beam current. The electron population was found to maintain non-equilibrium in all cases studied.

  14. Generation of an rhBMP-2-loaded beta-tricalcium phosphate/hydrogel composite and evaluation of its efficacy on peri-implant bone formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Ryu, Mi Young; Baek, Hae-Ri; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Mee; Lee, Ji-Ho

    2014-10-01

    Dental implant insertion on a site with low bone quality or bone defect should be preceded by a bone graft or artificial bone graft insertion to heal the defect. We generated a beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and poloxamer 407-based hydrogel composite and penetration of the ?-TCP/hydrogel composite into the peri-implant area of bone was evaluated by porous bone block experiments. The maximum penetration depth for porous bone blocks and dense bone blocks were 524??m and 464??m, respectively. We report the in-vivo performance of a composite of ?-TCP/hydrogel composite as a carrier of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2), implanted into a rabbit tibial defect model. Three holes drilled into each tibia of eight male rabbits were (1) grafted with dental implant fixtures; (2) filled with ?-TCP/hydrogel composite (containing 5??g of rhBMP-2), followed by grafting of the dental implant fixtures. Four weeks later, bone-implant contact ratio and peri-implant bone formation were analyzed by radiography, micro-CT and histology of undecalcified specimens. The micro-CT results showed a significantly higher level of trabecular thickness and new bone and peri-implant new bone formation in the experimental treatment compared to the control treatment. Histomorphometry revealed a significantly higher bone-implant contact ratio and peri-implant bone formation with the experimental treatment. The use of ?-TCP/poloxamer 407 hydrogel composite as a carrier of rhBMP-2 significantly promoted new bone formation around the dental implant fixture and it also improved the quality of the new bone formed in the tibial marrow space. PMID:25135209

  15. Streaming sausage, kink and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with applications to the Earth's magnetotail

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.C.; Wang, S.; Wei, C.Q.; Tsurutani, B.T.

    1988-07-01

    In this paper, the growth rate and eigenmode structures of the streaming sausage and kink instabilities in a current sheet with a super-Alvenic flow are studied. Based on the linearized compressible profiles of the fastest growing mode which is either the streaming sausage mode or kink mode. The streaming sausage and kink instabilities, similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, are caused by the sheared plasma flow. The results show that for V/sub 0//sub m/ = 2 V/sub A//sub infinity/ the sausage mode grows faster than the kink mode when ..beta../sub infinity/<1.5. When ..beta../sub infinity/>1.5, the streaming kink instability has a higher growth rate. Here V/sub A//sub infinity/ is the Alfven velocity and ..beta../sub infinity/ is the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressures far away from the current layer, and V/sub 0//sub m/ is the maximum velocity of plasma flow at the current sheet. In addition, an analytical dispersion equation is obtained for an ideal four-layer model of the current sheet in the incompressible limit. In the presence of a finite resistivity, the mixed sausage-tearing mode or the streaming tearing mode may be excited, which leads to the formation of plasmoids in the magnetotail. As an application to the Earth's magnetotail, where super-Alfvenic plasma flows are observed in the plasma sheet and ..beta../sub infinity/approx. =0.1--0.3 in the lobes, it is suggested that the streaming sausage and streaming tearing instabilities may occur in the magnetotail.

  16. Multi-frequency characterization of radar backscatter and the formation of ice layers in the southeast percolation area of the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Forster, R. R.; Box, J. E.; Long, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between radar backscatter and the formation of ice layers in the southeast percolation area of the Greenland ice sheet is explored using two scatterometer data sets, 1999-2009 data acquired from NASA's Ku-band SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite (QSCAT), and 2009 data acquired from ESA's C-band advanced scatterometer (ASCAT) on the MetOp satellite, together with 1999-2009 annually dated ice layers from five firn cores acquired during the 2010 and 2011 Arctic Circle Traverse (ACT) campaigns. Snowpack stratigraphy within the southeast percolation area is complex and forms as the result of the seasonal progression of snow accumulation at the surface followed by melt water infiltration. Melt water may be retained in liquid form, or refreeze which creates scattering layers embedded within snow and firn layers at differing depths. Ice layers are created by shallow infiltration and refreezing of melt water at the surface or by downward percolation and lateral infiltration and refreezing of melt water at depth. Ice layers are spatially continuous over large areas and identified in firn core data. Ice pipes, lenses, and glands are created by the downward percolation of melt water at point locations, which subsequently refreezes at depth within percolation channels. Ice pipes, lenses, and glands are spatially discontinuous and rarely identified in firn core data, however, contribute to the microwave response as observed over the large-scale antenna footprint of a satellite- bourne scatterometer. Microwave signatures within this region exhibit what appear to be distinct seasonal responses to melt and refreeze events resulting in the formation of scattering layers within the snowpack, in the form of rapid relative increases and decreases in backscatter measurements followed by a step response in the signal. Two backscatter models identifying both the timing and spatial extent of the given parameter are derived from the observed responses: 1) a melt/refreeze model which estimates the thickness of the wet snow layer, and 2) an ice layer model which estimates increases in the density of the scattering layer. Modeled results using twice-daily 1999-2009 QSCAT enhanced resolution 'slice' data (~5 km) are compared with annually dated firn core ice layers. An approximate sub-annual timing of the formation of the firn core ice layers is established, as well as the large-scale spatial continuity of the ice layers between firn cores. Similarities and differences between firn core ice layer thicknesses and both modeled thickness of the wet snow layer and modeled density increases in the scattering layer are observed and characterized. A second comparison is made between modeled results, using near-daily 2009 QSCAT and ASCAT enhanced resolution 'egg' data (~10 km). Frequency dependent differences linked to the penetration depth are also characterized.

  17. Analysis of small latent transforming growth factor-beta complex formation and dissociation by surface plasmon resonance. Absence of direct interaction with thrombospondins.

    PubMed

    Bailly, S; Brand, C; Chambaz, E M; Feige, J J

    1997-06-27

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) is a pluripotent regulator of cell growth and differentiation. The growth factor is expressed as a latent complex that must be converted to an active form before interacting with its ubiquitous high affinity receptors. This conversion involves the release of the mature TGFbeta through disruption of the noncovalent interactions with its propeptide or latency associated protein (LAP). Complex formation or dissociation between LAP and TGFbeta plays a very important role in TGFbeta biological activity at different steps. To further characterize the kinetic parameters of this interaction, we have employed surface plasmon resonance biosensor methodology. Using this technique, we observed real time association of LAP with mature TGFbeta1. The complex formation showed an equilibrium Kd around 3-7 nM. Furthermore, we observed dissociation of the complex in the presence of extreme pH, chaotropic agents, or plasmin, confirming their effects on TGFbeta activation. The same approach was used to examine whether latent TGFbeta1 could interact with thrombospondins, previously described as activators of latent TGFbeta. Using this method, we could not detect any direct interaction of thrombospondins with either LAP alone, TGFbeta1 alone, or the small latent TGFbeta1 complex. This suggests that activation of latent TGFbeta1 complex by thrombospondins is through an indirect mechanism. PMID:9195938

  18. Soluble amyloid beta oligomers block the learning-induced increase in hippocampal sharp wave-ripple rate and impair spatial memory formation.

    PubMed

    Nicole, Olivier; Hadzibegovic, Senka; Gajda, Judyta; Bontempi, Bruno; Bem, Tiaza; Meyrand, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Post-learning hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SWRs) generated during slow wave sleep are thought to play a crucial role in memory formation. While in Alzheimer's disease, abnormal hippocampal oscillations have been reported, the functional contribution of SWRs to the typically observed spatial memory impairments remains unclear. These impairments have been related to degenerative synaptic changes produced by soluble amyloid beta oligomers (Aβos) which, surprisingly, seem to spare the SWR dynamics during routine behavior. To unravel a potential effect of Aβos on SWRs in cognitively-challenged animals, we submitted vehicle- and Aβo-injected mice to spatial recognition memory testing. While capable of forming short-term recognition memory, Aβ mice exhibited faster forgetting, suggesting successful encoding but an inability to adequately stabilize and/or retrieve previously acquired information. Without prior cognitive requirements, similar properties of SWRs were observed in both groups. In contrast, when cognitively challenged, the post-encoding and -recognition peaks in SWR occurrence observed in controls were abolished in Aβ mice, indicating impaired hippocampal processing of spatial information. These results point to a crucial involvement of SWRs in spatial memory formation and identify the Aβ-induced impairment in SWRs dynamics as a disruptive mechanism responsible for the spatial memory deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26947247

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance evidence for the dimer formation of beta amyloid peptide 1-42 in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol.

    PubMed

    Shigemitsu, Yoshiki; Iwaya, Naoko; Goda, Natsuko; Matsuzaki, Mizuki; Tenno, Takeshi; Narita, Akihiro; Hoshi, Minako; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease involves accumulation of senile plaques in which filamentous aggregates of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides are deposited. Recent studies demonstrate that oligomerization pathways of Aβ peptides may be complicated. To understand the mechanisms of Aβ(1-42) oligomer formation in more detail, we have established a method to produce (15)N-labeled Aβ(1-42) suited for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. For physicochemical studies, the starting protein material should be solely monomeric and all Aβ aggregates must be removed. Here, we succeeded in fractionating a "precipitation-resistant" fraction of Aβ(1-42) from an "aggregation-prone" fraction by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), even from bacterially overexpressed Aβ(1-42). However, both Aβ(1-42) fractions after 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) treatment formed amyloid fibrils. This indicates that the "aggregation seed" was not completely monomerized during HFIP treatment. In addition, Aβ(1-42) dissolved in HFIP was found to display a monomer-dimer equilibrium, as shown by two-dimensional (1)H-(15)N NMR. We demonstrated that the initial concentration of Aβ during the HFIP pretreatment altered the kinetic profiles of Aβ fibril formation in a thioflavin T fluorescence assay. The findings described here should ensure reproducible results when studying the Aβ(1-42) peptide. PMID:26772162

  20. Soluble amyloid beta oligomers block the learning-induced increase in hippocampal sharp wave-ripple rate and impair spatial memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Nicole, Olivier; Hadzibegovic, Senka; Gajda, Judyta; Bontempi, Bruno; Bem, Tiaza; Meyrand, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Post-learning hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SWRs) generated during slow wave sleep are thought to play a crucial role in memory formation. While in Alzheimer’s disease, abnormal hippocampal oscillations have been reported, the functional contribution of SWRs to the typically observed spatial memory impairments remains unclear. These impairments have been related to degenerative synaptic changes produced by soluble amyloid beta oligomers (Aβos) which, surprisingly, seem to spare the SWR dynamics during routine behavior. To unravel a potential effect of Aβos on SWRs in cognitively-challenged animals, we submitted vehicle- and Aβo-injected mice to spatial recognition memory testing. While capable of forming short-term recognition memory, Aβ mice exhibited faster forgetting, suggesting successful encoding but an inability to adequately stabilize and/or retrieve previously acquired information. Without prior cognitive requirements, similar properties of SWRs were observed in both groups. In contrast, when cognitively challenged, the post-encoding and -recognition peaks in SWR occurrence observed in controls were abolished in Aβ mice, indicating impaired hippocampal processing of spatial information. These results point to a crucial involvement of SWRs in spatial memory formation and identify the Aβ-induced impairment in SWRs dynamics as a disruptive mechanism responsible for the spatial memory deficits associated with Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26947247

  1. Structural modifications of human beta 2 microglobulin treated with oxygen-derived radicals.

    PubMed Central

    Capeillere-Blandin, C; Delaveau, T; Descamps-Latscha, B

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of human beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2m) with defined oxygen-derived species generated by treatment with gamma-radiation was studied. As assessed by SDS/PAGE, the hydroxyl radicals (.OH) caused the disappearance of the protein band at 12 kDa that represents beta 2m, and cross-linked the protein into protein bands stable to both SDS and reducing conditions. However, when .OH was generated under oxygen in equimolar combination with the superoxide anion radical (O2.-), the high-molecular-mass protein products were less represented, and fragmented derivatives were not obviously detectable. Exposure to .OH alone, or to .OH + O2.- in the presence of O2, induced the formation of beta 2m protein derivatives with a more acidic net electrical charge than the parent molecule. In contrast, O2.- alone had virtually no effect on molecular mass or pI. Changes in u.v. fluorescence during .OH attack indicated changes in conformation, as confirmed by c.d. spectrometry. A high concentration of radicals caused the disappearance of the beta-pleated sheet structure and the formation of a random coil structure. Loss of tryptophan and significant production of dityrosine (2,2'-biphenol type) were noted, exhibiting a clear dose-dependence with .OH alone or with .OH + O2.-. The combination of .OH + O2.- induced a pattern of changes similar to that with .OH alone, but more extensive for c.d. and tryptophan oxidation (2 Trp/beta 2m molecule), and more limited for dityrosine formation. Lower levels of these oxidative agents caused the reproducible formation of species at 18 and 25 kDa which were recognized by antibodies against native beta 2m. These findings provide a model for the protein pattern observed in beta 2m amyloidosis described in the literature. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1649598

  2. Formation of two-dimensional electron gas at AlGaN/GaN heterostructure and the derivation of its sheet density expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Guang; Zhao, De-Gang; Jiang, De-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Models for calculating the sheet densities of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in AlGaN/GaN, AlGaN/AlN/GaN, and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are provided. The detailed derivation process of the expression of 2DEG sheet density is given. A longstanding confusion in a very widely cited formula is pointed out and its correct expression is analyzed in detail. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61377020, 61376089, 61223005, and 61176126) and the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, China (Grant No. 60925017).

  3. Molecular basis for amyloid-[beta] polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Laganowsky, Arthur; Landau, Meytal; Zhao, Minglei; Soriaga, Angela B.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Flot, David; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberga, David

    2011-10-19

    Amyloid-beta (A{beta}) aggregates are the main constituent of senile plaques, the histological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. A{beta} molecules form {beta}-sheet containing structures that assemble into a variety of polymorphic oligomers, protofibers, and fibers that exhibit a range of lifetimes and cellular toxicities. This polymorphic nature of A{beta} has frustrated its biophysical characterization, its structural determination, and our understanding of its pathological mechanism. To elucidate A{beta} polymorphism in atomic detail, we determined eight new microcrystal structures of fiber-forming segments of A{beta}. These structures, all of short, self-complementing pairs of {beta}-sheets termed steric zippers, reveal a variety of modes of self-association of A{beta}. Combining these atomic structures with previous NMR studies allows us to propose several fiber models, offering molecular models for some of the repertoire of polydisperse structures accessible to A{beta}. These structures and molecular models contribute fundamental information for understanding A{beta} polymorphic nature and pathogenesis.

  4. Apolipoprotein E structural requirements for the formation of SDS-stable complexes with beta-amyloid-(1-40): the role of salt bridges.

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Nicholas M; Ladu, Mary Jo; Rajan, Chandrika; Getz, Godfrey S; Reardon, Catherine A

    2002-01-01

    Of the three major isoforms of human apolipoprotein E (apoE), apoE4 is a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease. Among possible neurologically relevant differences in the properties of apoE3 and apoE4 is the fact that apoE3 forms an SDS-stable complex with beta-amyloid-(1-40) (Abeta40) with greater avidity than does apoE4. This interaction may sequester potentially toxic species of Abeta or facilitate clearance. To understand more about this difference, we examined whether differences in salt bridges between apoE domains influence the capacity of apoE isoforms to form complexes with Abeta. In apoE3 there is a salt bridge between Arg-61 and Asp-65, while in apoE4 there are salt bridges between Arg-61 and Glu-255, and Arg-112 and Glu-109. Mutation of position 112, which is Cys in apoE3 and Arg in apoE4, to Ala or Lys abolished complex formation, while mutant apoE with Ser at this position retained the capacity to form complex. Substituting Ala for Glu-109 had no effect on the ability of either apoE4 or apoE3 to form complexes. On the other hand, substitution of Thr for Arg-61 in apoE3 abolished, and truncation of apoE3 at position 201 substantially lowered, but did not abolish, complex formation. Neither of these mutations within apoE4 had any affect on its complex formation with Abeta. These results suggest that the nature of the cysteine residue in apoE3 and interactions between the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of human apoE are important for the ability of apoE3 to form an SDS-stable complex with Abeta40. PMID:12015813

  5. Solid-state NMR analysis of the {beta}-strand orientation of the protofibrils of amyloid {beta}-protein

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, Takashi; Masuda, Yuichi; Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 ; Irie, Kazuhiro; Akagi, Ken-ichi; Monobe, Youko; Imazawa, Takayoshi; Takegoshi, K.

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supramolecular structure of A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by solid-state NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ala-21 residue in the A{beta}42 protofibrils is included in a slightly disordered {beta}-strand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The A{beta}42 protofibrils do not form intermolecular in-register parallel {beta}-sheets. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by abnormal deposition (fibrillation) of a 42-residue amyloid {beta}-protein (A{beta}42) in the brain. During the process of fibrillation, the A{beta}42 takes the form of protofibrils with strong neurotoxicity, and is thus believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AD. To elucidate the supramolecular structure of the A{beta}42 protofibrils, the intermolecular proximity of the Ala-21 residues in the A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C rotational resonance experiments in the solid state. Unlike the A{beta}42 fibrils, an intermolecular {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C correlation was not found in the A{beta}42 protofibrils. This result suggests that the {beta}-strands of the A{beta}42 protofibrils are not in an in-register parallel orientation. A{beta}42 monomers would assemble to form protofibrils with the {beta}-strand conformation, then transform into fibrils by forming intermolecular parallel {beta}-sheets.

  6. 17 CFR 229.1001 - (Item 1001) Summary term sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... holders. The summary term sheet is intended to serve as an overview of all material matters that are... format the most material terms of the proposed transaction. The summary term sheet must provide...

  7. 17 CFR 229.1001 - (Item 1001) Summary term sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... holders. The summary term sheet is intended to serve as an overview of all material matters that are... format the most material terms of the proposed transaction. The summary term sheet must provide...

  8. 17 CFR 229.1001 - (Item 1001) Summary term sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... holders. The summary term sheet is intended to serve as an overview of all material matters that are... format the most material terms of the proposed transaction. The summary term sheet must provide...

  9. Formation of non-beta 6.3-helical gramicidin channels between sequence-substituted gramicidin analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, J T; Providence, L L; Koeppe, R E; Andersen, O S

    1992-01-01

    Using the linear gramicidins as an example, we have previously shown how the statistical properties of heterodimeric (hybrid) channels (formed between the parent [Val1]gramicidin A (gA) and a sequence-altered analogue) can be used to assess whether the analogue forms channels that are structurally equivalent to the parent channels (Durkin, J. T., R. E. Koeppe II, and O. S. Andersen. 1990. J. Mol. Biol. 211:221-234). Generally, the gramicidins are tolerant of amino acid sequence alterations. We report here an exception. The optically reversed analogue, gramicidin M- (gM-) (Heitz, F., G. Spach, and Y. Trudelle. 1982. Biophys. J. 40:87-89), forms channels that are the mirror-image of [Val1]gA channels; gM- should thus form no hybrid channels with analogues having the same helix sense as [Val1]gA. Surprisingly, however, gM- forms hybrid channels with the shortened analogues des-Val1-[Ala2]gA and des-Val1-gC, but these channels differ fundamentally from the parent channels: (a) the appearance rate of these heterodimers is only approximately 1/10 of that predicted from the random assortment of monomers into conducting dimers, indicating the existence of an energy barrier to their formation (e.g., monomer refolding into a new channel-forming conformation); and (b), once formed, the hybrid channels are stabilized approximately 1,000-fold relative to the parent channels. The increased stability suggests a structure that is joined by many hydrogen bonds, such as one of the double-stranded helical dimers shown to be adopted by gramicidins in organic solvents (Veatch, W. R., E. T. Fossel, and E. R. Blout. 1974. Biochemistry. 13:5249-5256). PMID:1376164

  10. Study of formation of deep trapping mechanism by UV, beta and gamma irradiated Eu(3+) activated SrY2O4 and Y4Al2O9 phosphors.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Vikas; Kaur, Jagjeet; Parganiha, Yogita; Suryanarayana, N S; Murthy, K V R

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports the thermoluminescence properties of Eu(3+) doped different host matrix phosphors (SrY2O4 and Y4Al2O9). The phosphor is prepared by high temperature solid state reaction method. The method is suitable for large scale production and fixed concentration of boric acid using as a flux. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction technique and the crystallite size calculated by Scherer's formula. The prepared phosphor characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), thermoluminescence (TL) and Transmission Electron Microscopic (TEM) techniques. The prepared phosphors for different concentration of Eu(3+) ions were examined by TL glow curve for UV, beta and gamma irradiation. The UV 254nm source used for UV irradiation, Sr(90) source was used for beta irradiation and Co(60) source used for gamma irradiation. SrY2O4:Eu(3+)and Y4Al2O9:Eu(3+) phosphors which shows both higher temperature peaks and lower temperature peaks for UV, beta and gamma irradiation. Here UV irradiated sample shows the formation of shallow trap (surface trapping) and the gamma irradiated sample shows the formation of deep trapping. The estimation of trap formation was evaluated by knowledge of trapping parameters. The trapping parameters such as activation energy, order of kinetics and frequency factor were calculated by peak shape method. Here most of the peak shows second order of kinetics. The effect of gamma, beta and UV exposure on TL studies was also examined and it shows linear response with dose which indicate that the samples may be useful for TL dosimetry. Formation of deep trapping mechanism by UV, beta and gamma irradiated Eu(3+) activated SrY2O4 and Y4Al2O9 phosphors is discussed in this paper. PMID:26748019

  11. Alpha, beta-unsaturated lactones 2-furanone and 2-pyrone induce cellular DNA damage, formation of topoisomerase I- and II-DNA complexes and cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; Orta, Manuel Luis; Pastor, Nuria; Austin, Caroline A; Mateos, Santiago; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2013-09-12

    The alpha, beta-unsaturated lactones 2-furanone and 2-pyrone are part of the chemical structure of a variety of naturally occurring compounds (e.g., cardenolides, bufadienolides, acetogenins, coumarins, and food-flavoring furanones), some of which have shown anticancer activity and/or DNA damaging effects. Here we report that 2-furanone and 2-pyrone induce cellular DNA damage (assessed by the comet assay and the gamma-H2AX focus assay) and the formation of topoisomerase I- and topoisomerase II-DNA complexes in cells (visualized and quantified in situ by the TARDIS assay). Cells mutated in BRCA2 (deficient in homologous recombination repair) were significantly hypersensitive to the cytotoxic activity of 2-pyrone, therefore suggesting that BRCA2 plays an important role in the repair of DNA damage induced by this lactone. Both lactones were cytotoxic in A549 lung cancer cells at lower concentrations than in MRC5 non-malignant lung fibroblasts. The possible involvement of 2-furanone and 2-pyrone in the anticancer and DNA-damaging activities of compounds containing these lactones is discussed. PMID:23867916

  12. Proteopedia: Rossmann Fold: A Beta-Alpha-Beta Fold at Dinucleotide Binding Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanukoglu, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The Rossmann fold is one of the most common and widely distributed super-secondary structures. It is composed of a series of alternating beta strand (ß) and alpha helical (a) segments wherein the ß-strands are hydrogen bonded forming a ß-sheet. The initial beta-alpha-beta (ßaß) fold is the most conserved segment of Rossmann folds. As this segment…

  13. Effect of formation and state of interface on joint strength in friction stir spot welding for advanced high strength steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Koichi; Matsushita, Muneo; Ikeda, Rinsei; Oi, Kenji

    2014-08-01

    The tensile shear strength and cross tension strength of friction stir spot welded joints were evaluated in the cases of lap joints of 270 N/mm2 grade and 980 N/mm2 grade cold rolled steel sheets with respect to the stir zone area, hardness distribution, and interface condition between the sheets. The results suggested that both the tensile shear strength and cross tension strength were based on the stir zone area and its hardness in both grades of steel. The "hook" shape of the interface also affected the joint strength. However, the joining that occurred across the interfaces had a significant influence on the value of the joint strength in the case of the 270 N/mm2 grade steel.

  14. Glacial landforms on German Bank, Scotian Shelf: evidence for Late Wisconsinan ice-sheet dynamics and implications for the formation of De Geer moraines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Brian J.; Valentine, Page C.; Longva, Oddvar; Shaw, John

    2007-01-01

    The extent and behaviour of the southeast margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in Atlantic Canada is of significance in the study of Late Wisconsinan ice sheet-ocean interactions. Multibeam sonar imagery of subglacial, ice-marginal and glaciomarine landforms on German Bank, Scotian Shelf, provides evidence of the pattern of glacial-dynamic events in the eastern Gulf of Maine. Northwest-southeast trending drumlins and megaflutes dominate northern German Bank. On southern German Bank, megaflutes of thin glacial deposits create a distinct northwest-southeast grain. Lobate regional moraines (>10km long) are concave to the northwest, up-ice direction and strike southwest-northeast, normal to the direction of ice flow. Ubiquitous, overlying De Geer moraines (

  15. Beta experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

  16. Liquid sheet radiator apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An external flow, liquid sheet radiator apparatus adapted for space applications has as its radiating surface a thin stable liquid sheet formed by fluid flow through a very narrow slit affixed to the sheet generator. As a result of surface tension forces, the sheet has a triangular shape and is collected into a simply designed collector positioned at the apex of the triangle. The specific power for the liquid sheet is virtually the same as the droplet sheet specific power.

  17. Betaxanthin formation and free amino acids in hairy roots of Beta vulgaris var. lutea depending on nutrient medium and glutamate or glutamine feeding.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Hartmut; Mäck, Gisela

    2004-05-01

    Feeding of amino acids to hairy roots of the yellow beet (Beta vulgaris var. lutea) usually results in the formation of the respective betaxanthins. One exception is (S)-glutamate whose feeding leads to an increase in the betaxanthin vulgaxanthin I (glutamine as amino-acid moiety) instead of vulgaxanthin II (glutamate as amino-acid moiety). To elucidate this phenomenon, hairy roots were cultivated in modified standard medium and (S)-glutamate was fed. Under most nutrient conditions tested, glutamine and vulgaxanthin I in the tissue dominated over glutamate and vulgaxanthin II. Glutamate, opposed to glutamine, was readily metabolized so that its concentration was lower than that of glutamine. Maximum concentrations of glutamate were reached when the activity of glutamine synthetase was low. Even then, however, vulgaxanthin II stayed on a low level. In contrast, the level of vulgaxanthin I increased with increasing concentrations of glutamine in the tissue. Also 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was a major amino acid in the hairy roots. Its concentration reached maximum levels when (S)-glutamate, a GABA precursor, was fed, or when sucrose, the C source of the roots, was replaced by glucose. The respective GABA-betaxanthin, however, was hardly detectable. When both (S)-glutamate and glucose were supplied, the GABA concentration exceeded that of all other amino acids. Only then the GABA-betaxanthin could be characterized in small amounts. Interestingly, the level of the main betaxanthin, miraxanthin V, consisting of betalamic acid and dopamine, was most markedly reduced by a replacement of sucrose with glucose. We conclude that the reaction of betalamic acid with glutamate and GABA was considerably lower than with glutamine and dopamine, irrespective of the concentration of the amino acid in the tissue. Possible reasons will be discussed, also with respect to the occurrence of species-specific patterns of betaxanthins. PMID:15231409

  18. Ferrous-iron-induced oxidation in chicken liver slices as measured by hemichrome formation and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances: effects of dietary vitamin E and beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H J; Chen, H; Pellett, L J; Tappel, A L

    1993-07-01

    Hemichrome formation in chicken liver slices was determined by employing a Heme Protein Spectra Analysis Program (HPSAP) on the visible spectrum of the liver tissue. Relative hemichrome formation (RHF) in liver tissue exposed to ferrous iron for 1 h at 37 degrees C could be predicted according to the general catalytic equation RHF = k.[Fe2+]/(Ap + [Fe2+]), with k = 132 +/- 30, where the factor Ap represents the additive antioxidative potential in the liver tissue. RHF in Fe2+ exposed liver slices incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h correlated significantly with formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) (r = .77, P < .0001). RHF was found to decrease significantly with increasing vitamin E concentration in liver tissue exposed to ferrous iron (1 h, 37 degrees C). However, the influence of beta-carotene on RHF in ferrous-iron exposed liver slices (1 h, 37 degrees C) was less evident, as the concentration of Fe2+ was found to be decisive for whether beta-carotene acted as an antioxidant or a prooxidant under the conditions in question. Results in the liver slice model system regarding the effect of vitamin E and beta-carotene on iron overload were supported in a subsequent in vivo iron injection experiment with chicks. These observations indicate that RHF is a sensitive marker for ferrous-iron-induced oxidative damage in the present tissue slice system. PMID:8359710

  19. MESSENGER and Venus Express Observations of the Near-tail of Venus: Magnetic Flux Transport, Current Sheet Structure, and Flux Rope Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Sarantos, M.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Barabash, S.; Benna, M.; Fraenz, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Gold, R. E.; Ho, G. C.; Korth, H.; Krimigis, S. M.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Raines, J. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Zhang, T.-L.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    At 23:08 UT on 5 June 2007 the MESSENGER spacecraft reached its closest approach altitude (338 km) during its second flyby of Venus en route to its 2011 orbit insertion at Mercury. Whereas no measurements were collected during MESSENGER'S first Venus flyby in October 2006, the Magnetometer (MAG) and the Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) operated successfully throughout this second encounter. Venus provides the solar system's best example to date of a solar wind - ionosphere planetary interaction. We present MESSENGER observations of the near-tail of Venus with emphasis on determining the time scales for magnetic flux transport, the structure of the cross-tail current sheet at very low altitudes (approx. 300 to 1000 km), and the nature and origin of a magnetic flux rope observed in the current sheet. The availability of the simultaneous Venus Express upstream measurements provides a unique opportunity to examine the influence of solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field conditions on this planet's solar wind interaction at solar minimum.

  20. Structural Studies of Copper(I) Complexes of Amyloid-Beta Peptide Fragments: Formation of Two-Coordinate Bis(Histidine) Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, R.A.; Park, G.Young.; Siluvai, G.Sutha.; Blackburn, N.J.; Karlin, K.D.

    2009-05-18

    The beta bind: Copper(I) binds to amyloid {beta}-peptide fragments (see structure) as a stable bis(histidine), two-coordinate, near-linear complex, even in the presence of potential additional ligands. As has been proposed or assumed in other studies, the copper(I)-peptide complexes react with dioxygen to form the reactive oxygen species H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, without the need for a third histidine ligand to promote the chemistry.

  1. IO SUBSYSTEM 1 BETA

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-08-21

    "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" uses standard object-oriented principles to minimize dependencies between the underlying input or output database format and the client code (i.e., Sierra) using the io subsystem. The interface and priciples are simolar to the Facade pattern described in the "Design Patterns" book by Gamma, et.al. The software uses data authentication algorithms to ensure data input/output is consistent with model being defined. "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" is a database independent input/outputmore » library for finite element analysis, preprocessing, post processing, and translation programs.« less

  2. IO SUBSYSTEM 1 BETA

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, Greg

    2002-08-21

    "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" uses standard object-oriented principles to minimize dependencies between the underlying input or output database format and the client code (i.e., Sierra) using the io subsystem. The interface and priciples are simolar to the Facade pattern described in the "Design Patterns" book by Gamma, et.al. The software uses data authentication algorithms to ensure data input/output is consistent with model being defined. "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" is a database independent input/output library for finite element analysis, preprocessing, post processing, and translation programs.

  3. 4,6-O-[1-cyano-2-(2-iodophenyl)ethylidene] acetals. improved second-generation acetals for the stereoselective formation of beta-D-mannopyranosides and regioselective reductive radical fragmentation to beta-D-rhamnopyranosides. scope and limitations.

    PubMed

    Crich, David; Bowers, Albert A

    2006-04-28

    The [1-cyano-2-(2-iodophenyl)]ethylidene group is introduced as an acetal-protecting group for carbohydrate thioglycoside donors. The group is easily introduced under mild conditions, over short reaction times, and in the presence of a wide variety of other protecting groups by the reaction of the 4,6-diol with triethyl (2-iodophenyl)orthoacetate and camphorsulfonic acid, followed by trimethylsilyl cyanide and boron trifluoride etherate. The new protecting group conveys strong beta-selectivity with thiomannoside donors and undergoes a tin-mediated radical fragmentation to provide high yields of the synthetically challenging beta-rhamnopyranosides. The method is also applicable to the glucopyranosides when high alpha-selectivity is observed in the coupling reaction and alpha-quinovosides are formed selectively in the radical fragmentation step. In the galactopyranoside series, beta-glycosides are formed selectively on coupling to donors protected by the new system, but the radical fragmentation is unselective and gives mixtures of the 4- and 6-deoxy products. Variable-temperature NMR studies for the glycosylation step, which helped define an optimal protocol, are described. PMID:16626126

  4. Nkx6.1 and nkx6.2 regulate alpha- and beta-cell formation in zebrafish by acting on pancreatic endocrine progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Binot, A-C; Manfroid, I; Flasse, L; Winandy, M; Motte, P; Martial, J A; Peers, B; Voz, M L

    2010-04-15

    In mice, the Nkx6 genes are crucial to alpha- and beta-cell differentiation, but the molecular mechanisms by which they regulate pancreatic subtype specification remain elusive. Here it is shown that in zebrafish, nkx6.1 and nkx6.2 are co-expressed at early stages in the first pancreatic endocrine progenitors, but that their expression domains gradually segregate into different layers, nkx6.1 being expressed ventrally with respect to the forming islet while nkx6.2 is expressed mainly in beta-cells. Knockdown of nkx6.2 or nkx6.1 expression leads to nearly complete loss of alpha-cells but has no effect on beta-, delta-, or epsilon-cells. In contrast, nkx6.1/nkx6.2 double knockdown leads additionally to a drastic reduction of beta-cells. Synergy between the effects of nkx6.1 and nkx6.2 knockdown on both beta- and alpha-cell differentiation suggests that nkx6.1 and nkx6.2 have the same biological activity, the required total nkx6 threshold being higher for alpha-cell than for beta-cell differentiation. Finally, we demonstrate that the nkx6 act on the establishment of the pancreatic endocrine progenitor pool whose size is correlated with the total nkx6 expression level. On the basis of our data, we propose a model in which nkx6.1 and nkx6.2, by allowing the establishment of the endocrine progenitor pool, control alpha- and beta-cell differentiation. PMID:20122912

  5. Maternal antioxidants prevent beta cell apoptosis and promote formation of dual hormone-expressing endocrine cells in male offspring following fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure

    PubMed Central

    BRUIN, Jennifer E; WOYNILLOWICZ, Amanda K; HETTINGA, Bart P; TARNOPOLSKY, Mark A; MORRISON, Katherine M; GERSTEIN, Hertzel C; HOLLOWAY, Alison C

    2013-01-01

    Aim Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure causes beta cell oxidative stress and apoptosis in neonates, leading to adult-onset dysglycemia. The goal of this study was to determine whether an antioxidant intervention could prevent nicotine-induced beta cell loss. Methods Nulliparous female Wistar rats received daily subcutaneous injections of either saline or nicotine bitartrate (1.0 mg/kg/d) for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. Nicotine-exposed dams received either normal chow or diet containing antioxidants (1000 IU/kg vitamin E, 0.25% w/w coenzyme Q10 and 0.1% w/w alpha-lipoic acid) during mating, pregnancy and lactation; saline-exposed dams received normal chow. Pancreas tissue was collected from male offspring at 3 weeks of age to measure beta cell fraction, apoptosis, proliferation and the presence of cells co-expressing insulin and glucagon. Results The birth weight of the offspring born to nicotine-exposed dams receiving dietary antioxidants was significantly reduced. Most interestingly, the antioxidant intervention to nicotine-exposed dams prevented the beta cell loss and apoptosis observed in nicotine exposed male offspring whose mothers did not receive antioxidants. Male pups born to nicotine-treated mothers receiving antioxidants also had a trend towards increased beta cell proliferation and a significant increase in islets containing insulin/glucagon bi-hormonal cells relative to the other two treatment groups. Conclusion This study demonstrates that exposure to maternal antioxidants protects beta cells from the damaging effects of nicotine thus preserving beta cell mass. PMID:22385833

  6. Molecular contortionism - on the physical limits of serpin 'loop-sheet' polymers.

    PubMed

    Huntington, James A; Whisstock, James C

    2010-08-01

    Members of the serpin (serine protease inhibitor) superfamily fold into a metastable conformation that is crucial for proper function. As a consequence, serpins are susceptible to mutations that cause misfolding and the intracellular accumulation of pathogenic polymers. The mechanism of serpin polymerisation remains to be resolved, however, over the past two decades the 'loop-sheet' hypothesis has gained wide acceptance. In this mechanism the reactive centre loop of one serpin monomer inserts into the beta-sheet A of another (in trans), in a manner similar to what is seen for reactive centre loop-cleaved and latent conformations (in cis). The hypothesis has been refined in response to certain experimental data, but it has proved difficult to assess the various propositions without creating molecular models. Here we evaluate the loop-sheet mechanism by creating models of pentamers of the archetypal serpin alpha(1)-antitrypsin. We conclude that an inescapable consequence of the loop-sheet mechanism is polymer compaction and rigidity, properties that are inconsistent with the 'beads-on-a-string' morphology of polymers obtained from human tissue. The recent crystal structure of a domain-swapped serpin dimer suggests an alternative mechanism that is consistent with known polymer properties, including the requirement of partial unfolding to induce polymer formation in vitro, and polymerisation from a folding intermediate in vivo. PMID:20731544

  7. Wounding in lizards results in the release of beta-defensins at the wound site and formation of an antimicrobial barrier.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo; Celeghin, Andrea; Dalla Valle, Luisa

    2012-03-01

    After tail loss in lizards no infections occur indicating the presence of an effective anti-microbial barrier in the exposed tissues of the tail stump. Previous molecular studies on the lizard Anolis carolinensis have identified some beta-defensin-like genes and the deduced peptides that may be involved in anti-infective protection. The present study has analyzed the tissues of wounded and normal tails in lizards in order to immune-localize one of the beta-defensins previously found (AcBD15) and to detect variation in its gene expression during wounding. No immunoreactivity for this beta-defensin is present in normal tissues or in the epidermis of lizards, except for some sparse granulocytes. The latter are seen during the first 1-6 days after tail amputation and AcBD15 immunoreactivity is present in their granules. Degenerating granulocytes are incorporated, together with dead erythrocytes, platelets and keratinocytes into the scab. Real time RT-PCR and western blotting analysis indicates up-regulation of AcBD15 expression during wounding with respect to normal tissues, indicating that production, storage and release of this beta-defensin from granulocytes are active following wounding. The production of beta-defensins from granulocytes would allow protection of exposed tissues from microbial invasion avoiding a persistent inflammation, a process that leads to tissue regeneration. PMID:22001772

  8. The magnetohydrodynamics of current sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Examples of current sheets are summarized and their formation is described. A universal phenomenon in cosmic plasmas is the creation of sheets off intense current near X-type neutral points (where the magnetic field vanishes). These sheets are important as sites where the magnetic-field energy is converted efficiently into heat and bulk kinetic energy and where particles can be accelerated to high energies. Examples include disruptions in laboratory tokamaks, substorms in the earth's magnetosphere, and flares on the sun. The basic behavior of a one-dimensional sheet is presented, together with an account of the linear tearing-mode instability that can cause the field lines in such a sheet to reconnect. Such reconnection may develop in different ways: it may arise from a spontaneous instability or it may be driven, either from outside by motions or locally by a resistivity enhancement. Various processes are described that may occur during the nonlinear development of tearing, along with the many numerical and laboratory experiments that are aiding our understanding of this intriguing cosmical process.

  9. Experimental Study of Lower-hybrid Drift Turbulence in a Reconnecting Current Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, T. A.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R. M.; Trintchouck, F.

    2002-06-18

    The role of turbulence in the process of magnetic reconnection has been the subject of a great deal of study and debate in the theoretical literature. At issue in this debate is whether turbulence is essential for fast magnetic reconnection to occur in collisionless current sheets. Some theories claim it is necessary in order to provide anomalous resistivity, while others present a laminar fast reconnection mechanism based on the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law. In this work, a thorough study of electrostatic potential fluctuations in the current sheet of the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) [M. Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)] was performed in order to ascertain the importance of turbulence in a laboratory reconnection experiment. Using amplified floating Langmuir probes, broadband fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range (fLH approximately 5-15 MHz) were measured which arise with the formation of the current sheet in MRX. The frequency spectrum, spatial amplitude profile, and spatial correlation characteristics of the measured turbulence were examined carefully, finding consistency with theories of the lower-hybrid drift instability (LHDI). The LHDI and its role in magnetic reconnection has been studied theoretically for decades, but this work represents the first detection and detailed study of the LHDI in a laboratory current sheet. The observation of the LHDI in MRX has provided the unique opportunity to uncover the role of this instability in collisionless reconnection. It was found that: (1) the LHDI fluctuations are confined to the low-beta edge of current sheets in MRX; (2) the LHDI amplitude does not correlate well in time or space with the reconnection electric field, which is directly related to the rate of reconnection; and (3) significant LHDI amplitude persists in high collisionality current sheets where the reconnection rate is classical. These findings suggest that the measured LHDI fluctuations do not play an essential role in determining the reconnection rate in MRX.

  10. Secondary structure formation in peptide amphiphile micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirrell, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are capable of self-assembly into micelles for use in the targeted delivery of peptide therapeutics and diagnostics. PA micelles exhibit a structural resemblance to proteins by having folded bioactive peptides displayed on the exterior of a hydrophobic core. We have studied two factors that influence PA secondary structure in micellar assemblies: the length of the peptide headgroup and amino acids closest to the micelle core. Peptide length was systematically varied using a heptad repeat PA. For all PAs the addition of a C12 tail induced micellization and secondary structure. PAs with 9 amino acids formed beta-sheet interactions upon aggregation, whereas the 23 and 30 residue peptides were displayed in an apha-helical conformation. The 16 amino acid PA experienced a structural transition from helix to sheet, indicating that kinetics play a role in secondary structure formation. A p53 peptide was conjugated to a C16 tail via various linkers to study the effect of linker chemistry on PA headgroup conformation. With no linker the p53 headgroup was predominantly alpha helix and a four alanine linker drastically changed the structure of the peptide headgroup to beta-sheet, highlighting the importance of hydrogen boding potential near the micelle core.

  11. Electron Diffraction Evidence for the Ordering of Excess Nickel Atoms by Relation to Stoichiometry in Nickel-Rich Beta'-Nial Formation of a Nickel-Aluminum (Ni2al) Superlattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynaud, F.

    1988-01-01

    In electron diffraction patterns of nickel-rich beta-NiAl alloys, many anomalies are observed. One of these is the appearance of diffuse intensity maxima between the reflexions of the B2 structure. This is explained by the short-range ordering of the excess nickel atoms on the simple cubic sublattice occupied only by aluminum atoms in the stoichiometric, perfectly ordered NiAl alloy. After annealing Ni 37.5 atomic percent Al and Ni 37.75 atomic percent Al for 1 week at 300 and 400 C, the diffuse intensity maxima transformed into sharp superstructure reflexions. These reflexions are explained by the formation of the four possible variants of an ordered hexagonal superstructure corresponding to the Ni2Al composition. This structure is closely related to the Ni2Al3 structure (same space group) formed by the ordering of vacancies on the nickel sublattice in aluminum-rich beta-NiAl alloys.

  12. Gender-related effects of 17-{beta}-estradiol and B-hexachlorocyclohexane on liver tumor formation in medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, J.B.; Hinton, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    When medaka were acutely exposed to diethylnitrosamine (DEN), greater incidence of hepatocarcinoma was seen in female versus male fish. This is possibly related to elevated female endogenous estrogens, which increase liver weight and production of vitellogenin. To examine roles of estrogens in tumor modulation, 21-day old medaka were exposed to DEN (200 ppm for 24 hr.), then fed purified diets containing the estrogenic compound {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane ({beta}-HCH) or 17-{beta}estradiol (E2) for 6 months. Incidences of basophilic preneoplastic foci of cellular alteration in females receiving DEN and 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0 ppm E2 were three times the incidences in similarly-treated males. Also, incidences of basophilic foci in DEN + 0.1 ppm E2 males were significantly increased over DEN-only males and were equal to incidences in DEN-only females. Liver weights and hepatosomatic indices of males given 0.1 ppm E2 were not significantly different than females fed control diet. Females fed 0.01-10.0 ppm {beta}-HCH after DEN had 4--5 times greater incidences of basophilic foci as males. Gender-related effects on kinetics of growth rates and volumes of foci are being examined.

  13. Synthetic peptide homologous to beta protein from Alzheimer disease forms amyloid-like fibrils in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kirschner, D A; Inouye, H; Duffy, L K; Sinclair, A; Lind, M; Selkoe, D J

    1987-01-01

    Progressive amyloid deposition in senile plaques and cortical blood vessels may play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. We have used x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy to study the molecular organization and morphology of macromolecular assemblies formed by three synthetic peptides homologous to beta protein of brain amyloid: beta-(1-28), residues 1-28 of the beta protein; [Ala16]beta-(1-28), beta-(1-28) with alanine substituted for lysine at position 16; and beta-(18-28), residues 18-28 of the beta protein. beta-(1-28) readily formed fibrils in vitro that were similar in ultrastructure to the in vivo amyloid and aggregated into large bundles resembling those of senile plaque cores. X-ray patterns from partially dried, oriented pellets showed a cross-beta-conformation. A series of small-angle, equatorial maxima were consistent with a tubular fibril having a mean diameter of 86 A and a wall composed of pairs of cross-beta-pleated sheets. The data may also be consistent with pairs of cross-beta-sheets that are centered 71-A apart. [Ala16]beta-(1-28) formed beta-pleated sheet assemblies that were dissimilar to in vivo fibrils. The width of the 10-A spacing indicated stacks of about six sheets. Thus, substitution of the uncharged alanine for the positively charged lysine in the beta-strand region enhances the packing of the sheets and dramatically alters the type of macromolecular aggregate formed. beta-(18-28) formed assemblies that had even a greater number of stacked sheets, approximately equal to 24 per diffracting domain as indicated by the sharp intersheet reflection. Our findings on these homologous synthetic assemblies help to define the specific sequence that is required to form Alzheimer-type amyloid fibrils, thus providing an in vitro model of age-related cerebral amyloidogenesis. Images PMID:3477820

  14. Assessing the role of precursor cyclones on the formation of extreme Greenland blocking episodes and their impact on summer melting across the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Jordan T.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2015-12-01

    A 30 year climatology of North Atlantic cyclones from 1979 to 2008 is examined within the context of extreme Greenland blocking and accelerated surface melting across the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). A distinct class of North Atlantic cyclones, known as precursor cyclones, was identified as any extratropical cyclones originating to the west of Greenland blocks prior to the peak of blocking intensity. Composite map analysis reveals that precursor cyclones contributed to a significant intensification of extreme Greenland blocking episodes (GBEs) through the process of upper level wave amplification. Across all seasons, most extreme GBEs are associated with multiple precursor cyclones prior to peaking in intensity, and a majority of these cyclones have continental rather than oceanic origins. Over both the western and eastern sectors of Greenland, daily meltwater production simulated by the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional regional climate model is greater during extreme GBEs accompanied by precursor cyclones compared to extreme GBEs lacking a precursor cyclone. Based on an analysis of air parcel trajectories and North Atlantic SST anomalies, enhanced surface melting during the summer, particularly over southern and western Greenland, is strongly linked to the combination of vigorous adiabatic warming generated by subsiding air within the blocking anticyclones and warm air advection supplied by the precursor cyclones. With the increased frequency of extreme GBEs accompanied by precursor cyclones observed during a strong positive phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, recent long-term increases in GrIS surface melting can be partially attributed to the interaction of these atmospheric and oceanic processes.

  15. Superfund fact sheet: Exposure pathways. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes exposure pathways, the different manners in which people can be exposed to hazardous materials. Explanations of several pathways involving surface waters, ground water, air, soil, and the food chain are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no formal scientific training.

  16. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 15 April 2016 Key facts ... last for 2-7 days. Potential complications of Zika virus disease During large outbreaks in French Polynesia and ...

  17. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  18. Minimalist design of water-soluble cross-[beta] architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Biancalana, Matthew; Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei

    2010-08-13

    Demonstrated successes of protein design and engineering suggest significant potential to produce diverse protein architectures and assemblies beyond those found in nature. Here, we describe a new class of synthetic protein architecture through the successful design and atomic structures of water-soluble cross-{beta} proteins. The cross-{beta} motif is formed from the lamination of successive {beta}-sheet layers, and it is abundantly observed in the core of insoluble amyloid fibrils associated with protein-misfolding diseases. Despite its prominence, cross-{beta} has been designed only in the context of insoluble aggregates of peptides or proteins. Cross-{beta}'s recalcitrance to protein engineering and conspicuous absence among the known atomic structures of natural proteins thus makes it a challenging target for design in a water-soluble form. Through comparative analysis of the cross-{beta} structures of fibril-forming peptides, we identified rows of hydrophobic residues ('ladders') running across {beta}-strands of each {beta}-sheet layer as a minimal component of the cross-{beta} motif. Grafting a single ladder of hydrophobic residues designed from the Alzheimer's amyloid-{beta} peptide onto a large {beta}-sheet protein formed a dimeric protein with a cross-{beta} architecture that remained water-soluble, as revealed by solution analysis and x-ray crystal structures. These results demonstrate that the cross-{beta} motif is a stable architecture in water-soluble polypeptides and can be readily designed. Our results provide a new route for accessing the cross-{beta} structure and expanding the scope of protein design.

  19. Molecular structures of magnesium dichloride sheets and nanoballs.

    PubMed

    Luhtanen, Tommi N P; Linnolahti, Mikko; Pakkanen, Tapani A

    2004-07-12

    The structures and relative stabilities of (MgCl(2))(n)() sheetlike clusters and nanoballs were studied by quantum chemical methods. The sheets as discrete molecules were studied up to Mg(100)Cl(200). Their stabilities increase systematically as a function of the size of the sheet. Periodic ab initio calculations were performed for (001) monolayer sheets of alpha- and beta-MgCl(2), beta-sheet being slightly favored. Nanoballs were constructed from Archimedean polyhedra, producing tetrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral symmetries, and were studied up to Mg(60)Cl(120). Nanoballs prefer to take the shape of truncated cuboctahedron (Mg(48)Cl(96)). Comparisons to sheetlike clusters and periodic calculations suggest that magnesium dichloride nanoballs are stable. PMID:15236562

  20. Conformation transition of betaA in solution and on surface of lipid bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Liming; Reay, Andrew; Zhu, Qing; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kwan

    2007-10-01

    Beta amyloid (betaA) is a 39 to 43 residue peptide generated by a proteolytic cleavage of a large transmembrane amyloid precursor protein in neuronal membranes. The misfolding and self-aggregation of betaA, as well as its interactions with neuronal membranes, have been linked to the early onset of pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. The secondary structure conformational transition of betaA from an alpha-helix to beta-sheet in some key regions of the peptide represents an important signature of the complex misfolding behavior of betaA. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, the conformation changes of betaA in solution and on the surface of lipid bilayer containing nanodomains of cholesterol have been studied. Our results indicated that the appearance of beta-sheet structures depends strong on the initial structures of betaA and the arrangement of cholesterol molecules in the lipid bilayer.

  1. Copper(II) inhibits the formation of amylin amyloid in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ward, Benjamin; Walker, Karen; Exley, Christopher

    2008-02-01

    The amyloidogenic peptide amylin is found associated with pancreatic islet beta-cells and is implicated in the aetiology of type-2 diabetes mellitus. We have used fluorimetry and transmission electron microscopy to investigate in vitro the influence of Al(III), Fe(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II) on amylin amyloid formation under near-physiological conditions. Cu(II) at 10.0 microM inhibited amylin of 0.4 and 2.0 microM from forming amyloid fibrils while the same concentration of either Al(III) or Zn(II) promoted the formation of beta-pleated sheet structures. If amylin amyloid is cytotoxic to beta-cells then Cu(II) should protect against the degeneration of the islets in type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:18022240

  2. Dual folding pathways of an alpha/beta protein from all-atom ab initio folding simulations.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongxing; Wang, Zhi-Xiang; Wu, Chun; Duan, Yong

    2009-10-28

    Successful ab initio folding of proteins with both alpha-helix and beta-sheet requires a delicate balance among a variety of forces in the simulation model, which may explain that the successful folding of any alpha/beta proteins to within experimental error has yet to be reported. Here we demonstrate that it is an achievable goal to fold alpha/beta proteins with a force field emphasizing the balance between the two major secondary structures. Using our newly developed force field, we conducted extensive ab initio folding simulations on an alpha/beta protein full sequence design (FSD) employing both conventional molecular dynamics and replica exchange molecular dynamics in combination with a generalized-Born solvation model. In these simulations, the folding of FSD to the native state with high population (>64.2%) and high fidelity (C(alpha)-Root Mean Square Deviation of 1.29 A for the most sampled conformation when compared to the experimental structure) was achieved. The folding of FSD was found to follow two pathways. In the major pathway, the folding started from the formation of the helix. In the minor pathway, however, folding of the beta-hairpin started first. Further examination revealed that the helix initiated from the C-terminus and propagated toward the N-terminus. The formation of the hydrophobic contacts coincided with the global folding. Therefore the hydrophobic force does not appear to be the driving force of the folding of this protein. PMID:19894980

  3. MHD Ballooning Instability in the Plasma Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    C.Z. Cheng; S. Zaharia

    2003-10-20

    Based on the ideal-MHD model the stability of ballooning modes is investigated by employing realistic 3D magnetospheric equilibria, in particular for the substorm growth phase. Previous MHD ballooning stability calculations making use of approximations on the plasma compressibility can give rise to erroneous conclusions. Our results show that without making approximations on the plasma compressibility the MHD ballooning modes are unstable for the entire plasma sheet where beta (sub)eq is greater than or equal to 1, and the most unstable modes are located in the strong cross-tail current sheet region in the near-Earth plasma sheet, which maps to the initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the ionosphere. However, the MHD beq threshold is too low in comparison with observations by AMPTE/CCE at X = -(8 - 9)R(sub)E, which show that a low-frequency instability is excited only when beq increases over 50. The difficulty is mitigated by considering the kinetic effects of ion gyrorad ii and trapped electron dynamics, which can greatly increase the stabilizing effects of field line tension and thus enhance the beta(sub)eq threshold [Cheng and Lui, 1998]. The consequence is to reduce the equatorial region of the unstable ballooning modes to the strong cross-tail current sheet region where the free energy associated with the plasma pressure gradient and magnetic field curvature is maximum.

  4. Selective inhibition of Abeta fibril formation.

    PubMed

    Wood, S J; MacKenzie, L; Maleeff, B; Hurle, M R; Wetzel, R

    1996-02-23

    We describe here an inhibitor of in vitro fibril formation, hexadecyl-N-methylpiperidinium (HMP) bromide, which is selective for the Alzheimer's disease peptide Abeta. At 10 microM, its IC50 for inhibiting Abeta aggregation at pH 5.8, HMP bromide does not inhibit fibril formation by other amyloidogenic polypeptides nor does it affect the folding stability of the beta-sheet-rich immunoglobulin VL domain REI. In addition, small structural modifications of HMP bromide reduce or eliminate its ability to inhibit pH 5.8 aggregation of Abeta. These indications of specificity, plus the ability of the molecule to inhibit A beta aggregation at concentrations almost an order of magnitude below its critical micelle concentration, suggest a mechanism of inhibition other than micellar solubilization of Abeta. HMP bromide is required in approximately a 1:1 stoichiometry for effective inhibition at pH 5.8. Although stoichiometric amounts of HMP bromide with respect to total Abeta inhibit Abeta fibril formation at pH 7.4, the molecule is incapable, at lower concentrations, of blocking the seeding of fibril formation by small amounts of added Abeta fibrils. The results suggest the existence of a binding surface on A beta capable of binding amphipathic molecules such as HMP bromide and which, when occupied, precludes assembly of A beta into amyloid fibrils. Molecules that bind to this site with high specificity may prove to be useful therapeutic agents for preventing or retarding the cerebral amyloid plaque formation implicated in Alzheimer's disease pathology. PMID:8626745

  5. In-situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction of ErD2 (beta phase) formation during D2 loading.

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, James Frederick; Llobet, Anna; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Wixom, Ryan R.

    2008-06-01

    In an effort to better understand the structural changes occurring during hydrogen loading of erbium target materials, we have performed D{sub 2} loading of erbium metal (powder) with simultaneous neutron diffraction analysis. This experiment tracked the conversion of Er metal to the {alpha} erbium deuteride (solid-solution) phase and then on to the {beta} (fluorite) phase. Complete conversion to ErD{sub 2.0} was accomplished at 10 Torr D{sub 2} pressure with deuterium fully occupying the tetrahedral sites in the fluorite lattice. Increased D{sub 2} pressure (up to 500 Torr at 450 C) revealed {approx}10 % deuterium occupation of the octahedral sites. Subsequent vacuum pumping of the sample at 450 C removed octahedral site occupancy while maintaining tetrahedral deuterium occupancy, thereby yielding stoichiometric ErD{sub 2.0} {beta} phase.

  6. Molecular characterization of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency: formation of the enzyme complex is important for stabilization of both alpha- and beta-subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Ushikubo, S.; Aoyama, T.; Kamijo, T.; Wanders, R. J.; Rinaldo, P.; Vockley, J.; Hashimoto, T.

    1996-01-01

    Mitochondrial trifunctional protein (TP) is an enzyme complex with three activities: enoyl-CoA hydratase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. Studies on defects in this enzyme in patients with TP deficiency suggest that there are two types of defect. Patients in group 1 have normal amount of cross-reacting material by immunoblot and lack only long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. Patients in group 2 have a trace amount of cross-reacting material, with all three activities being low. We identified three patients in group 2, and analysis was made at the cDNA level. In patient 2, there was a heterozygous 71-bp deletion at position 110-180 in the alpha-subunit. In patients 1 and 3, there was an abnormal beta-subunit; patient 1 had an A-788-to-G substitution, and patient 3 had G-182-to-A and G-740-to-A substitutions in each of separate alleles. This is the first demonstration of disease-causing mutations in the beta-subunit. cDNA-expression experiments in patients' fibroblasts, using a vaccinia virus system, and gel filtration analysis, using patients' fibroblasts, revealed that the existence of both normal alpha- and beta-subunits, and possibly their association, are important for stabilizing TP and that A-788-to-G substitution on the beta-subunit in patient 1 seems to interfere with the association, the result being a rapid decomposition of TP. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8651282

  7. Formation of gamma'-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma plus beta (+Al2O3) equals gamma'(+Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%Al and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma'-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3) = gamma + beta (+ Al2O3), at 1640 plus or minus 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 plus or minus 0.2 at.%Al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + beta + Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 - 1640 K, and gamma'-Ni3Al forms via the peritectiod, gamma + beta (+ Al2O3) = gamma'(+ Al2O3), at 1633 plus or minus 1 K. This behavior is inconsistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma'-Ni3Al phase field.

  8. Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%Al and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2Al phase field.

  9. Protein Complex of Drosophila ATRX/XNP and HP1a Is Required for the Formation of Pericentric Beta-heterochromatin in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Emelyanov, Alexander V.; Konev, Alexander Y.; Vershilova, Elena; Fyodorov, Dmitry V.

    2010-01-01

    ATRX belongs to the family of SWI2/SNF2-like ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling molecular motor proteins. Mutations of the human ATRX gene result in a severe genetic disorder termed X-linked α-thalassemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome. Here we perform biochemical and genetic analyses of the Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of ATRX. The loss of function allele of the Drosophila ATRX/XNP gene is semilethal. Drosophila ATRX is expressed throughout development in two isoforms, p185 and p125. ATRX185 and ATRX125 form distinct multisubunit complexes in fly embryo. The ATRX185 complex comprises p185 and heterochromatin protein HP1a. Consistently, ATRX185 but not ATRX125 is highly concentrated in pericentric beta-heterochromatin of the X chromosome in larval cells. HP1a strongly stimulates biochemical activities of ATRX185 in vitro. Conversely, ATRX185 is required for HP1a deposition in pericentric beta-heterochromatin of the X chromosome. The loss of function allele of the ATRX/XNP gene and mutant allele that does not express p185 are strong suppressors of position effect variegation. These results provide evidence for essential biological functions of Drosophila ATRX in vivo and establish ATRX as a major determinant of pericentric beta-heterochromatin identity. PMID:20154359

  10. Spot welding of steel and aluminum using insert sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Oikawa, H.; Saito, T.; Yoshimura, T.

    1994-12-31

    Automobile industries have been increasingly interested in the use of aluminum and thus joining of steel and aluminum becomes of importance. The joining of the two types of metal raises a problem of brittle welds caused by the formation of intermetallic compounds. The authors solved the problem by using an insert sheet. This paper deals with the resistance spot welding of steel and aluminum sheets using insert sheets. The insert sheet used in the present development was a steel/aluminum clad sheet of the 0.8 mm thickness with 50% steel and 50% aluminum. The clad sheet was produced by warm rolling of steel and aluminum with a direct resistance heating process. Steel to be warm rolled was of EDDQ of the 0.4 mm thickness and aluminum was of JIS A1050 of 0.6 mm thickness. The mechanical properties of the insert clad sheets were in between those of the steel sheets and the aluminum sheets, while the clad sheets showed much better formability than the aluminum sheets. Resistance spot welding was conducted for 0.8 mm thick EDDQ steel sheets and 1.0 mm thick aluminum alloy (AL-5.5%Mg) sheets under the welding force of 1.96 kN, welding current ranging between 4.2 and 20.1 kA, and welding time from 0.5 to 10 cycles. The steel was spot welded to the steel side of the insert sheet while the aluminum was welded to the aluminum side. What the authors investigated were the applicable welding current range, nugget diameter, tensile shear strength, U-tension strength, and macro- and microstructures. In conclusion, steel sheets can be spot welded to aluminum sheets without difficulty by using clad sheets as insert materials while the strength level of the dissimilar metal spot welds is close to that of aluminum joints.

  11. Polyalanine and Abeta Aggregation Kinetics: Probing Intermediate Oligomer Formation and Structure Using Computer Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, Erin Melissa

    2011-12-01

    The aggregation of proteins into stable, well-ordered structures known as amyloid fibrils has been associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. Amyloid fibrils are long straight, and un-branched structures containing several proto-filaments, each of which exhibits "cross beta structure," -- ribbon-like layers of large beta sheets whose strands run perpendicular to the fibril axis. It has been suggested in the literature that the pathway to fibril formation has the following steps: unfolded monomers associate into transient unstable oligomers, the oligomers undergo a rearrangement into the cross-beta structure and form into proto-filaments, these proto-filaments then associate and grow into fully formed fibrils. Recent experimental studies have determined that the unstable intermediate structures are toxic to cells and that their presence may play a key role in the pathogenesis of the amyloid diseases. Many efforts have been made to determine the structure of intermediate oligomer aggregates that form during the fibrillization process. The goal of this work is to provide details about the structure and formation kinetics of the unstable oligomers that appear in the fibril formation pathway. The specific aims of this work are to determine the steps in the fibril formation pathway and how the kinetics of fibrillization changes with variations in temperature and concentration. The method used is the application of discontinuous molecular dynamics to large systems of peptides represented with an intermediate resolution model, PRIME, that was previously developed in our group. Three different peptide sequences are simulated: polyalanine (KA14K), Abeta17-40, and Abeta17-42; the latter two are truncated sequences of the Alzheimer's peptide. We simulate the spontaneous assembly of these peptide chains from a random initial configuration of random coils. We investigate aggregation kinetics and oligomer formation of a system of 192 polyalanine (KA14K) chains over a variety of temperatures and concentrations. The fibril formation pathway has the following steps: free monomers associate into small amorphous aggregates, those small amorphous aggregates grow, the amorphous aggregates rearrange into beta-sheets, and finally the beta-sheets stack into small fibrillar structures. The rate of fibril formation increases as concentration increases and temperature decreases; this faster fibril formation is the combination of several effects, including increased amorphous aggregate formation from free monomers, increased amorphous aggregate rearrangement into beta-sheets, and increased stacking into small fibrils. There is a competition between enthalpy and entropy that determine the behavior of the final structure in the system. At low temperature, enthalpy is dominant and the system produces multiple large fibrils, while at high temperature entropy is dominant and the system produces one or no large fibrils. As temperature increases and concentration decreases the intermediate structures that form, such as beta-sheets and large independent amorphous aggregates, are more stabilized which leads to slower fibril formation and fewer chains in the large final fibrillar structure. We study the formation of beta-sheets and small fibrillar structures for both Abeta17-40 and Abeta17-42 to determine the difference between the two sequences in aggregation kinetics and oligomer structure as a function of temperature. We observe that at low temperatures, both Abeta17-40 and Abeta17-42 form large amorphous aggregates with a small amount of beta-sheet character, at intermediate temperatures the peptides form a mixture of beta-sheets and fibrils that are surrounded by amorphous aggregates, and at high temperatures the peptides form small amorphous aggregates or remain isolated as free monomers. Abeta 17-42 forms fibrils over a larger temperature range than Abeta 17-40. The structure of the beta-sheets changes as temperature increases through the range conducive to fibril formation. Abeta17-42 goes through the transition from predominantly intra-strand hydrogen bonds to predominantly inter-strand hydrogen bonds in the beta-sheet structure at a higher temperature than Abeta17-40.

  12. Expansion of polyglutamine induces the formation of quasi-aggregate in the early stage of protein fibrillization.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motomasa; Machida, Yoko; Nishikawa, Yukihiro; Akagi, Takumi; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Fujisawa, Tetsuro; Nukina, Nobuyuki

    2003-09-01

    We examined the effects of the expansion of glutamine repeats on the early stage of protein fibrillization. Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and electron microscopic studies revealed that the elongation of polyglutamine from 35 to 50 repeats in protein induced a large assembly of the protein upon incubation at 37 degrees C and that its formation was completed in approximately 3 h. A bead modeling procedure based on SAXS spectra indicated that the largely assembled species of the protein, quasi-aggregate, is composed of 80 to approximately 90 monomers and a bowl-like structure with long and short axes of 400 and 190 A, respectively. Contrary to fibril, the quasi-aggregate did not show a peak at S = 0.21 A-1 corresponding to the 4.8-A spacing of beta-pleated sheets in SAXS spectra, and reacted with a monoclonal antibody specific to expanded polyglutamine. These results imply that beta-sheets of expanded polyglutamines in the quasi-aggregate are not orderly aligned and are partially exposed, in contrast to regularly oriented and buried beta-pleated sheets in fibril. The formation of non-fibrillary quasi-aggregate in the early phase of fibril formation would be one of the major characteristics of the protein containing an expanded polyglutamine. PMID:12815051

  13. Silver ion high pressure liquid chromatography provides unprecedented separation of sterols: application to the enzymatic formation of cholesta-5,8-dien-3 beta-ol.

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, B; Shey, J; Gerst, N; Wilson, W K; Schroepfer, G J

    1996-01-01

    We report that silver ion HPLC provides remarkable separations of C27 sterols differing only in the number or location of olefinic double bonds. This technique has been extended to LC-MS, analysis of purified components by GC, GC-MS, and 1H NMR, and to its use on a semipreparative scale. The application of this methodology for the demonstration of the catalysis, by rat liver microsomes, of the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesta-5,8-dien-3 beta-ol is also presented. PMID:8876182

  14. The iA{beta}5p {beta}-breaker peptide regulates the A{beta}(25-35) interaction with lipid bilayers through a cholesterol-mediated mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Vitiello, Giuseppe; CSGI , Florence ; Grimaldi, Manuela; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; D'Errico, Gerardino; CSGI , Florence

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p shows a significant tendency to deeply penetrates the hydrophobic core of lipid membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}(25-35) locates in the external region of the membrane causing a re-positioning of CHOL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p withholds cholesterol in the inner hydrophobic core of the lipid membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p prevents the A{beta}(25-35) release from the lipid membrane. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the deposition of aggregates of the {beta}-amyloid peptide (A{beta}) in the brain. A potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease is the use of synthetic {beta}-sheet breaker peptides, which are capable of binding A{beta} but unable to become part of a {beta}-sheet structure, thus inhibiting the peptide aggregation. Many studies suggest that membranes play a key role in the A{beta} aggregation; consequently, it is strategic to investigate the interplay between {beta}-sheet breaker peptides and A{beta} in the presence of lipid bilayers. In this work, we focused on the effect of the {beta}-sheet breaker peptide acetyl-LPFFD-amide, iA{beta}5p, on the interaction of the A{beta}(25-35) fragment with lipid membranes, studied by Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy, using spin-labeled membrane components (either phospholipids or cholesterol). The ESR results show that iA{beta}5p influences the A{beta}(25-35) interaction with the bilayer through a cholesterol-mediated mechanism: iA{beta}5p withholds cholesterol in the inner hydrophobic core of the bilayer, making the interfacial region more fluid and capable to accommodate A{beta}(25-35). As a consequence, iA{beta}5p prevents the A{beta}(25-35) release from the lipid membrane, which is the first step of the {beta}-amyloid aggregation process.

  15. W-Band Sheet Beam Klystron Design

    SciTech Connect

    Scheitrum, G.; Caryotakis, G.; Burke, A.; Jensen, A.; Jongewaard, E.a Krasnykh, A.; Neubauer, M.; Phillips, R.; Rauenbuehler, K.; /SLAC

    2011-11-11

    Sheet beam devices provide important advantages for very high power, narrow bandwidth RF sources like accelerator klystrons [1]. Reduced current density and increased surface area result in increased power capabi1ity, reduced magnetic fields for focusing and reduced cathode loading. These advantages are offset by increased complexity, beam formation and transport issues and potential for mode competition in the ovennoded cavities and drift tube. This paper will describe the design issues encountered in developing a 100 kW peak and 2 kW average power sheet beam k1ystron at W-band including beam formation, beam transport, circuit design, circuit fabrication and mode competition.

  16. Kinetic Studies of Inhibition of the Aβ(1–42) Aggregation Using a Ferrocene-tagged β-Sheet Breaker Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Yagnik, Gargey; Peng, Yong; Wang, Jianxiu; Xu, H. Howard; Hao, Yuanqiang; Liu, You-Nian; Zhou, Feimeng

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins/peptides has been closely linked to the neuropathology of several important neurological disorders. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides and their aggregation are believed to be at least partially responsible for the etiology of AD. The aggregate-inflicted cellular toxicity can be inhibited by short peptides whose sequence are homologous to segments of the Aβ(1–42) peptide responsible for β-sheet stacking (referred to as the β-sheet breaker peptides). Herein a water-soluble ferrocene (Fc)-tagged β-sheet breaker peptide (Fc-KLVFFK6) is used as an electrochemical probe for kinetic studies of the inhibition of the Aβ(1–42) fibrillation process and for determination of the optimal concentration of β-sheet breaker peptide for efficient inhibition. Our results demonstrated that Fc-KLVFFK6 interacts with the Aβ aggregates instantaneously in solution, and sub-stoichiometric amount of Fc-KLVFFK6 is sufficient to inhibit the formation of the Aβ oligomers and fibrils and to reduce the toxicity of Aβ(1–42). The interaction between Fc-KLVFFK6 and Aβ(1–42) follows a pseudo-first-order reaction, with a rate constant of 1.89 ± 0.05 × 10−4 s−1. Tagging β-sheet breaker peptides with a redox label facilitates design, screening, and rational use of peptidic inhibitors for impeding/altering Aβ aggregation. PMID:23232068

  17. Perforating Thin Metal Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Sheets only few mils thick bonded together, punched, then debonded. Three-step process yields perforated sheets of metal. (1): Individual sheets bonded together to form laminate. (2): laminate perforated in desired geometric pattern. (3): After baking, laminate separates into individual sheets. Developed for fabricating conductive layer on blankets that collect and remove ions; however, perforated foils have other applications - as conductive surfaces on insulating materials; stiffeners and conductors in plastic laminates; reflectors in antenna dishes; supports for thermal blankets; lightweight grille cover materials; and material for mockup of components.

  18. An alternative pathway to β-carotene formation in plant chromoplasts discovered by map-based cloning of Beta and old-gold color mutations in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Ronen, Gil; Carmel-Goren, Lea; Zamir, Dani; Hirschberg, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments in plants fulfill indispensable functions in photosynthesis. Carotenoids that accumulate as secondary metabolites in chromoplasts provide distinct coloration to flowers and fruits. In this work we investigated the genetic mechanisms that regulate accumulation of carotenoids as secondary metabolites during ripening of tomato fruits. We analyzed two mutations that affect fruit pigmentation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum): Beta (B), a single dominant gene that increases β-carotene in the fruit, and old-gold (og), a recessive mutation that abolishes β-carotene and increases lycopene. Using a map-based cloning approach we cloned the genes B and og. Molecular analysis revealed that B encodes a novel type of lycopene β-cyclase, an enzyme that converts lycopene to β-carotene. The amino acid sequence of B is similar to capsanthin-capsorubin synthase, an enzyme that produces red xanthophylls in fruits of pepper (Capsicum annum). Our results prove that β-carotene is synthesized de novo during tomato fruit development by the B lycopene cyclase. In wild-type tomatoes B is expressed at low levels during the breaker stage of ripening, whereas in the Beta mutant its transcription is dramatically increased. Null mutations in the gene B are responsible for the phenotype in og, indicating that og is an allele of B. These results confirm that developmentally regulated transcription is the major mechanism that governs lycopene accumulation in ripening fruits. The cloned B genes can be used in various genetic manipulations toward altering pigmentation and enhancing nutritional value of plant foods. PMID:10995464

  19. Self-assembly of the beta2-microglobulin NHVTLSQ peptide using a coarse-grained protein model reveals a beta-barrel species.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Wei, Guanghong; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2008-04-10

    Although a wide variety of proteins can assemble into amyloid fibrils, the structure of the early oligomeric species on the aggregation pathways remains unknown at an atomic level of detail. In this paper we report, using molecular dynamics simulations with the OPEP coarse-grained force field, the free energy landscape of a tetramer and a heptamer of the beta2-microglobulin NHVTLSQ peptide. On the basis of a total of more than 17 ns trajectories started from various states, we find that both species are in equilibrium between amorphous and well-ordered aggregates with cross-beta-structure, a perpendicular bilayer beta-sheet, and, for the heptamer, six- or seven-stranded closed and open beta-barrels. Moreover, analysis of the heptamer trajectories shows that the perpendicular bilayer beta-sheet is one possible precursor of the beta-barrel, but that this barrel can also be formed from a twisted monolayer beta-sheet with successive addition of chains. Comparison with previous aggregation simulations and the fact that nature constructs transmembrane beta-sheet proteins with pores open the possibility that beta-barrels with small inner diameters may represent a common intermediate during the early steps of aggregation. PMID:18341325

  20. Formation of filamentous tau aggregations in transgenic mice expressing V337M human tau.

    PubMed

    Tanemura, K; Akagi, T; Murayama, M; Kikuchi, N; Murayama, O; Hashikawa, T; Yoshiike, Y; Park, J M; Matsuda, K; Nakao, S; Sun, X; Sato, S; Yamaguchi, H; Takashima, A

    2001-12-01

    Formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is the most common feature in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we report the formation of filamentous tau aggregations having a beta-sheet structure in transgenic mice expressing mutant human tau. These mice contain a tau gene with a mutation of the frontotemporal dementia parkinsonism (FTDP-17) type, in which valine is substituted with methionine residue 337. The aggregation of tau in these transgenic mice satisfies all histological criteria used to identify NFTs common to human neurodegenerative diseases. These mice, therefore, provide a preclinical model for the testing of therapeutic drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders that exhibit NFTs. PMID:11741399

  1. Structure of beta-crystallite assemblies formed by Alzheimer beta-amyloid protein analogues: analysis by x-ray diffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, H.; Fraser, P. E.; Kirschner, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    To elucidate the relation between amyloid fibril formation in Alzheimer disease and the primary structure of the beta/A4 protein, which is the major component of the amyloid, we have been investigating the ability of peptides sharing sequences with beta/A4 to form fibrils in vitro. In previous studies we focused on the macroscopic morphology of the assemblies formed by synthetic peptides corresponding in sequence to different regions of this protein. In the present study we analyze the x-ray diffraction patterns obtained from these assemblies. All specimens showed wide angle reflections that could be indexed by an orthogonal lattice of beta-crystallites having unit cell dimensions a = 9.4 A, b = 7 A, and c = 10 A, where a refers to hydrogen bonding direction, b to polypeptide chain direction, and c to intersheet direction. Given the amino acid sequence of beta/A4 as NH2-DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVVIAT-COOH, we found that, based on their orientation and assembly, the analogues could be classified into three groups: Group A, residues 19-28, 13-28, 12-28, 11-28, 9-28, 1-28, 1-38, 1-40, 6-25, 11-25 and 34-42; Group B, residues 18-28, 17-28, and 15-28; and Group C, residues 22-35 and 26-33. For Groups A and C, the sharpest reflections were (h00), indicating that the assemblies were fibrillar, i.e., elongated in a single direction. Lateral alignment of the crystallites in Group A account for its cross-beta pattern, in which the hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) direction is the fiber (rotation) axis. By comparison, the beta-crystallites of Group C had no preferential orientation, thus giving circular scattering. For Group B, the sharpest reflections were (h0l) on the meridian, indicating that the assemblies were plate-like, i.e., extended in two directions. A series of equatorial Bragg reflections having a 40 A period indicated regular stacking of the plates, and the rotation axis was normal to the surface of the plates. Of the Group A peptides, the analogues 11-28 and 6-25 showed intensity maxima on the equator as well as on higher layer lines, indicating that the beta-crystallites are highly ordered relative to one another in the axial, H-bonding direction. This sampling of the layer lines by a larger period (60 A) suggests that the beta-crystallites are arrayed either in cylindrical or small restricted crystalline lattices. Consistent with its electron microscopic images, we modeled the structure as a tube with five or six f,-crystallites constituting the wall and with the individual crystallite, which either rotates freely or is restricted, made of five or fewer beta-pleated sheets. For the Group B peptides, the electron density projection along the b-axis was calculated from the observed intensities using phase combinations from fl-keratin.Amino acid side-chain positions were apparent and, when refined as 4-A-diameter spheres, led to a substantial decrease in the R-factors.For peptide 18-28 the electron density peaks, which are thought to correspond to side chains, were centered 3.3 A from the peptide backbone, whereas for peptides 17-28 and 15-28, these peaks were centered 1 A or more further from the backbone. Peaks having high electron density faced peaks having lower density, suggesting a favorable stereochemical arrangement of the residues. Thus, our analysis of the fiber x-ray patterns from beta/A4 peptides shows the organization of the beta-crystallites that form the wall of the amyloid fibrils as well as possible side-chain interactions. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8457674

  2. The influence of nearest-neighbor amino acids on the conformation of the middle amino acid in proteins: comparison of predicted and experimental determination of -sheets in concanavalin A.

    PubMed

    Kabat, E A; Wu, T T

    1973-05-01

    A 20 x 20 table of tripeptides has been compiled that may be used to locate beta-sheet breaking and alpha-helix breaking residues in proteins. It is based on the definition of an alpha-helical and a beta-sheet domain on the (varphi, Psi) map based on the occurrences of alpha-helices and beta-sheets in 12 known proteins whose sequence and three-dimensional structure have been determined. Each entry in the 20 x 20 table lists three numbers, the frequency of occurrences of the middle amino acid (n) in relation to its nearest neighbors (n - 1) and (n + 1) in the alpha-helical domain, the beta-sheet domain and outside these regions. The regions between two beta-sheet-breaking residues would be permissively beta-sheet regions. The sequence of concanavalin A has been examined in this manner and of the 13 beta-strands defined by x-ray crystallography, 10 were in agreement with the permissively beta-sheet regions and, in the remaining three, beta-sheet-breaking residues were the third in one, and the third, fourth, and fifth residues in another, and the sixth residue in the third from the beginning of the beta-strands. The findings provide strong support for the role of nearest-neighboring amino acids in determining secondary structure of proteins. PMID:4514316

  3. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ying; Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 ; Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min; Sun, Gui-yuan; Liu, Rui-tian

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  4. Complex formation of beta-cyclodextrin in aqueous media with poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)containing pendent perfluorooctanesulfonamido groups. Final Report, September 15, 1998 - September 14, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Thieo Hogen-Esch

    1999-11-01

    The effect of time on the viscosity of solutions of 0.50--1.0 weight % polyacrylamide copolymers containing 2-(N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamido)ethyl acrylate (FOSA) comonomer units was monitored at constant shear rates varying from 0.60 to 3.0 sec{sup {minus}1}. The viscosities decreased to a plateau over a period of about thirty minutes. The copolymer solutions sheared at much higher shear rates of 24 sec{sup {minus}1} showed pronounced shear thinning but regained most of their original viscosities after standing for 20 minutes. Heating the solutions less than one hour caused an increase in the low shear viscosity whereas longer heating times decreased solution viscosities presumably due to hydrolysis of the acrylate groups. Addition of beta-cyclodextrin to solutions of the hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide resulted in sharply decreased copolymer viscosities at cyclodextrin concentrations on the order of about 10{sup {minus}3} M. The above is consistent with competitive hydrophobic association of the perfluorocarbon groups of the copolymer with the cyclodextrin disrupting the mutual association of the perfluorocarbon groups.

  5. Current status of liquid sheet radiator research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.

    1993-01-01

    Initial research on the external flow, low mass liquid sheet radiator (LSR), has been concentrated on understanding its fluid mechanics. The surface tension forces acting at the edges of the sheet produce a triangular planform for the radiating surface of width, W, and length, L. It has been experimentally verified that (exp L)/W agrees with the theoretical result, L/W = (We/8)exp 1/2, where We is the Weber number. Instability can cause holes to form in regions of large curvature such as where the edge cylinders join the sheet of thickness, tau. The W/tau limit that will cause hole formation with subsequent destruction of the sheet has yet to be reached experimentally. Although experimental measurements of sheet emissivity have not yet been performed because of limited program scope, calculations of the emissivity and sheet lifetime is determined by evaporation losses were made for two silicon based oils; Dow Corning 705 and Me(sub 2). Emissivities greater than 0.75 are calculated for tau greater than or equal to 200 microns for both oils. Lifetimes for Me(sub 2) are much longer than lifetimes for 705. Therefore, Me(sub 2) is the more attractive working fluid for higher temperatures (T greater than or equal to 400 K).

  6. Emittance Measurements for a Thin Liquid Sheet Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englehart, Amy N.; McConley, Marc W.; Chubb, Donald L.

    1996-01-01

    The Liquid Sheet Radiator (LSR) is an external flow radiator that uses a triangular-shaped flowing liquid sheet as the radiating surface. It has potentially much lower mass than solid wall radiators such as pumped loop and heat pipe radiators, along with being nearly immune to micrometeoroid penetration. The LSR has an added advantage of simplicity. Surface tension causes a thin (100-300 microns) liquid sheet to coalesce to a point, causing the sheet flow to have a triangular shape. Such a triangular sheet is desirable since it allows for simple collection of the flow at a single point. A major problem for all external flow radiators is the requirement that the working fluid be of very low (approx. 10(sup -8) torr) vapor pressure to keep evaporative losses low. As a result, working fluids are limited to certain oils (such as used in diffusion pumps) for low temperatures (300-400 K) and liquid metals for higher temperatures. Previous research on the LSR has been directed at understanding the fluid mechanics of thin sheet flows and assessing the stability of such flows, especially with regard to the formation of holes in the sheet. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. The latest research has been directed at determining the emittance of thin sheet flows. The emittance was calculated from spectral transmittance data for the Dow Corning 705 silicone oil. By experimentally setting up a sheet flow, the emittance was also determined as a function of measurable quantities, most importantly, the temperature drop between the top of the sheet and the temperature at the coalescence point of the sheet. Temperature fluctuations upstream of the liquid sheet were a potential problem in the analysis and were investigated.

  7. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 193

    SciTech Connect

    Achterberg, E.; Capurro, O.A.; Marti, G.V.; Vanin, V.R.; Castro, R.M.

    2006-01-15

    The present revision of the properties for the nuclides belonging to the A = 193 mass chain contains many improvements, corrections and additions to the material presented in previous evaluations (1998Ar07, Nucl. Data Sheets 83, 921 (1998); 1990Sh30, Nucl, Data Sheets 61, 519 (1990)). Among these are measurement results for quadrupole moments, angular distribution coefficients, half-lives and g-factors, for both previously known and new transitions and levels. In addition, major changes to the previously known status of this mass chain consist in the inclusion of data for new superdeformed bands in {sup 193}Pb, and the creation of level schemes for {sup 193}Bi, {sup 193}Po and {sup 193}At. The latter were previously unavailable, except for a very limited attempt in the case of {sup 193}Po, which was not confirmed in later work. Furthermore, the {sup 193}Os beta decay was re-evaluated in order to account for new absolute intensity measurements.

  8. Signaling through the TGF Beta-Activin Receptors ALK4/5/7 Regulates Testis Formation and Male Germ Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, Jessica M.; van den Bergen, Jocelyn A.; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Sinclair, Andrew H.; Western, Patrick S.

    2013-01-01

    The developing testis provides an environment that nurtures germ cell development, ultimately ensuring spermatogenesis and fertility. Impacts on this environment are considered to underlie aberrant germ cell development and formation of germ cell tumour precursors. The signaling events involved in testis formation and male fetal germ cell development remain largely unknown. Analysis of knockout mice lacking single Tgf? family members has indicated that Tgf?'s are not required for sex determination. However, due to functional redundancy, it is possible that additional functions for these ligands in gonad development remain to be discovered. Using FACS purified gonadal cells, in this study we show that the genes encoding Activin's, TGF?'s, Nodal and their respective receptors, are expressed in sex and cell type specific patterns suggesting particular roles in testis and germ cell development. Inhibition of signaling through the receptors ALK4, ALK5 and ALK7, and ALK5 alone, demonstrated that TGF? signaling is required for testis cord formation during the critical testis-determining period. We also show that signaling through the Activin/NODAL receptors, ALK4 and ALK7 is required for promoting differentiation of male germ cells and their entry into mitotic arrest. Finally, our data demonstrate that Nodal is specifically expressed in male germ cells and expression of the key pluripotency gene, Nanog was significantly reduced when signaling through ALK4/5/7 was blocked. Our strategy of inhibiting multiple Activin/NODAL/TGF? receptors reduces the functional redundancy between these signaling pathways, thereby revealing new and essential roles for TGF? and Activin signaling during testis formation and male germ cell development. PMID:23342175

  9. Vertical plasma motions in prominence sheets observed by Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasenco, Olga; Velli, Marco; Berger, Thomas

    We analyze the approximately vertical motions inside prominence plasma observed by Hinode on 25 April 2007 in Hα line and 30 November 2006 in CaH line. Well-established observational facts are that all filaments (prominences on the limb) are composed of fine threads of similar dimensions, rooted in the photosphere and presumably tracing magnetic field lines, and that continuous counter-streaming motions occur along threads. We take into account the geometry of the prominence sheet and the viewing angle to reduce possible projection effect and more correctly interpret the nature of observational downward flows of denser and cooler plasma as well as the upward flow of hotter plasma which appears dark in the Hα and CaH spectral lines. The dark upflows exhibit turbulent flow properties such as vortex formation and shedding that are consistent with the properties of thermal starting plumes. Sometimes an illusion of dark upward motion is generated by rarefactions in the plasma sheet caused by the cooler denser downward flows. On both dates, we suspect there is probably more filament mass in the prominence that is visible in either the Hα or CaH lines. The source of the downward moving plasma may be located either higher above the visible upper edge of the prominence or on the far end of the prominence spine. The bright downward motions of the more cool and dense plasma may be partly due to the counter-streaming motion along the magnetic fields lines, or it may be due to the presence of rayleigh-taylor type or ballooning/interchange instabilities in the upper regions of the prominence, which are then stabilized lower down where the magnetic field is stronger and the plasma beta lower.

  10. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael E; Clark, Peter U; Ricken, Werner; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hostetler, Steven W; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood. We develop a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates that the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was within dating uncertainties synchronous with most sectors of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. Surface climate forcing of Antarctic mass balance would probably cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Our new data support teleconnections involving sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deep-water formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets. PMID:22144623

  11. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the last glacial maximum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, Michael E.; Clark, Peter U.; Ricken, Werner; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood. We develop a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates that the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was within dating uncertainties synchronous with most sectors of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. Surface climate forcing of Antarctic mass balance would probably cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Our new data support teleconnections involving sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deep-water formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets.

  12. Sand sheets show chevrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    In Saharan Africa, sand sheets stretch in virtually flat expanses for hundreds of kilometers. The sheets have been considered devoid not only of life but of regional landforms that might provide insight into the wind-driven processes of erosion and transport by which deserts sustain themselves and grow. Now a fresh, computer-enhanced look at satellite images of sand sheets in Egypt and Sudan by Ted Maxwell of the Smithsonian Institution's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies (Washington, D.C,) and C. Vance Haynes of the University of Arizona (Tucson) has led to the discovery of huge, flat sand dunes.

  13. Liquid sheet radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; White, K. Alan, III

    1987-01-01

    A new external flow radiator concept, the liquid sheet radiator (LSR), is introduced. The LSR sheet flow is described and an expression for the length/width (l/w), ratio is presented. A linear dependence of l/w on velocity is predicted that agrees with experimental results. Specific power for the LSR is calculated and is found to be nearly the same as the specific power of a liquid droplet radiator, (LDR). Several sheet thicknesses and widths were experimentally investigated. In no case was the flow found to be unstable.

  14. Liquid sheet radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; White, K. Allan, III

    1987-01-01

    A new external flow radiator concept, the liquid sheet radiator (LSR), is introduced. The LSR sheet flow is described and an expression for the length/width (l/w) ratio is presented. A linear dependence of l/w on velocity is predicted that agrees with experimental results. Specific power for the LSR is calculated and is found to be nearly the same as the specific power of a liquid droplet radiator (LDR). Several sheet thicknesses and widths were experimentally investigated. In no case was the flow found to be unstable.

  15. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; McDonald, Carolyn E.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  16. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

    1997-03-18

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

  17. Forced crumpling of self-avoiding elastic sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vliegenthart, G. A.; Gompper, G.

    2006-03-01

    Thin elastic sheets are important materials across length scales ranging from mesoscopic (polymerized membranes, clay platelets, virus capsids) to macroscopic (paper, metal foils). The crumpling of such sheets by external forces is characterized by the formation of a complex pattern of folds. We have investigated the role of self-avoidance, the fact that the sheets cannot self-intersect, for the crumpling process by large-scale computer simulations. At moderate compression, the force-compression relations of crumpled sheets for both self-avoiding and phantom sheets are found to obey universal power-law behaviours. However, self-avoiding sheets are much stiffer than phantom sheets and, for a given compression, develop many more folds. Moreover, self-avoidance is relevant already at very small volume fractions. The fold-length distribution for crumpled sheets is determined, and is found to be well-described by a log-normal distribution. The stiffening owing to self-avoidance is reflected in the changing nature of the sheet-to-sheet contacts from line-like to two-dimensionally extended with increasing compression.

  18. Beta structures of alternating polypeptides and their possible prebiotic significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brack, A.; Orgel, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of the commonest amino acids formed in prebiotic conditions suggests that the earliest form of genetic coding may have specified polypeptides with a strong tendency to form stable beta-sheet structures. Poly(Val-Lys), like other polypeptides in which hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues alternate, tends to form beta structures. It is shown that bilayers with a hydrophobic interior and a hydrophilic exterior may be present in aqueous solution.

  19. Bile acids of marsupials. 2. Hepatic formation of vulpecholic acid (1 alpha,3 alpha,7 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid) from chenodeoxycholic acid in a marsupial, Trichosurus vulpecula (Lesson).

    PubMed

    St Pyrek, J; Lee, S P; Thomsen, L; Tasman-Jones, C; Leydon, B

    1991-09-01

    Free vulpecholic acid (1 alpha,3 alpha,7 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic) is the major biliary component of the Australian opossum (Trichosurus vulpecula), accompanied only by a few percent of its taurine conjugate. In order to exclude a microbial involvement in its formation (i.e., secondary origin) four sets of experiments were performed. It was found that a) the level of vulpecholic acid remained unchanged in the bile of opossums fed with neomycin and kanamycin for 7 days prior to bile collection; b) it also remained unchanged after long bile drainage; c) in opossums prepared with biliary cannula, intraportally injected [24-14C]chenodeoxycholic acid was transformed to [24-14C]vulpecholic acid; and d) in a similar experiment, the detectable transformation of [1 alpha,2 alpha-3H2]cholesterol to vulpecholic acid was observed. In experiment c) 28-66% of the administered radioactivity was secreted in 2 h in the form of free biliary vulpecholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. Only a trace amount of the corresponding taurine conjugates (approximately 0.4%) was formed. Moreover, rapidly declining specific radioactivity of the unconjugated chenodeoxycholic acid indicated its probable participation in the native formation of vulpecholic acid. PMID:1753212

  20. Respirator Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Impact Sheets Worker Health Study Summaries Workplace Solutions Engineering and Physical Hazards Reports Order Publications Search NIOSHTIC- ... do not provide oxygen. If used in an environment with low oxygen levels, such as a fire, ...

  1. Avian Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Wildlife Work Group

    2004-12-01

    OAK-B135 After conducting four national research meetings, producing a document guiding research: Metrics and Methods for Determining or Monitoring Potential Impacts on Birds at Existing and Proposed Wind Energy Sites, 1999, and another paper, Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States, 2001, the subcommittee recognized a need to summarize in a short fact sheet what is known about avian-wind interaction and what questions remain. This fact sheet attempts to summarize in lay terms the result of extensive discussion about avian-wind interaction on land. This fact sheet does not address research conducted on offshore development. This fact sheet is not intended as a conclusion on the subject; rather, it is a summary as of Fall/Winter 2002.

  2. Sheet electron beam tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, Alexander Grenbeaux

    The DARPA HiFIVE project uses a pulsed electron sheet beam gun to power a traveling wave tube amplifier operating at 220 GHz. Presented is a method for characterizing the high current density 0.1 mm by 1 mm sheet electron beam. A tungsten tipped probe was scanned through the cross section of the sheet electron beam inside of a vacuum vessel. The probe was controlled with sub-micron precision using stepper motors and LabView computer control while boxcar averaging hardware sampled the pulsed beam. Matlab algorithms were used to interpret the data, calculate beam dimensions and current density, and create 2-dimensional cross section images. Full characterization of two separate HiFIVE sheet electron guns was accomplished and is also presented.

  3. Global ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  4. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  5. Energy information sheets

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  6. Cereal beta-glucans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal beta-glucans occur predominantly in oats and barley, but can be found in other cereals. Beta-glucan structure is a mixture of single beta-1,3-linkages and consecutive beta-1,4-linkages, and cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units typically make up 90-95% of entire molecule. Lichenase can hydr...

  7. A comparison of two different methods for formation of the beta phase in nanocomposites based on vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Lyudmila; Kiryakova, Dimitrina; Atanassov, Atanas

    2014-06-01

    Nanocomposite materials based on vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene copolymer and organically modified montmorillonite Cloisite®15A were prepared by two different methods: melt mixing and co-precipitation. The changes taking place in crystalline structure, tensile strength, thermal behavior and the formation of piezoelectric b-phase as a result of the polymer system dissolution in dimethyl sulfoxide were studied. The technological specificity of each method has certain effect on the properties of the obtained nanocomposites. The highest content of b-phase — 95 % was achieved by co-precipitation from the solution of vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene copolymer in dimethyl sulfoxide and 6 mass % content of Cloisite®15A. Despite the common view that the use of solvents and prolonged technological procedure lead to overall higher expenses, the obtained nanocomposites could be promising for the preparation of new piezo-materials.

  8. Molecular characterization of alpha-keratins in comparison to associated beta-proteins in soft-shelled and hard-shelled turtles produced during the process of epidermal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Dalla Valle, L; Michieli, F; Benato, F; Skobo, T; Alibardi, L

    2013-11-01

    The tough corneous layer in the carapace and plastron of hard-shelled turtles derives from the accumulation of keratin-associated beta-proteins (KAbetaPs, formerly called beta-keratins) while these proteins are believed to be absent in soft-shelled turtles. Our bioinformatics and molecular study has instead shown that the epidermis of the soft-shelled turtle Apalone spinifera expresses beta-proteins like or even in higher amount than in the hard-shelled turtle Pseudemys nelsoni. The analysis of a carapace cDNAs library has allowed the identification and characterization of three alpha-keratins of type I and of ten beta-proteins (beta-keratins). The acidic alpha-keratins probably combine with the basic beta-proteins but the high production of beta-proteins in A. spinifera is not prevalent over that of alpha-keratin so that their combination does not determine the formation of hard corneous material. Furthermore the presence of a proline and cisteine in the beta-sheet region of beta-proteins in A. spinifera may be unsuited to form hard masses of corneous material. The higher amount of beta-proteins over alpha-keratins instead occurs in keratinocytes of the hard and inflexible epidermis of P. nelsoni determining the deposition of hard corneous material. The study suggests that the hardness of the corneous layer derives not exclusively from the interactions between alpha-keratins with KAbetaPs but also from the different dynamic of accumulation and loss of corneocytes in the corneous layer of the hard shelled turtles where a prevalent accumulation and piling of corneocytes takes place versus the soft shelled turtle where a rapid turnover of the stratum corneum occurs. PMID:23794440

  9. Divergent effects of 17-{beta}-estradiol on human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell function diminishes TNF-{alpha}-induced neointima formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nintasen, Rungrat; Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center , University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT; Department of Tropical Pathology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University ; Riches, Kirsten; Mughal, Romana S.; Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center , University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT ; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Chaisri, Urai; Maneerat, Yaowapa; Turner, Neil A.; Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center , University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT ; Porter, Karen E.

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} augments neointimal hyperplasia in human saphenous vein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces detrimental effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol exerts modulatory effects on TNF-induced vascular cell functions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modulatory effects of estradiol are discriminatory and cell-type specific. -- Abstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition characterized by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). TNF-{alpha} can induce vascular endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) dysfunction, central events in development of neointimal lesions. The reduced incidence of CHD in young women is believed to be due to the protective effects of estradiol (E2). We therefore investigated the effects of TNF-{alpha} on human neointima formation and SMC/EC functions and any modulatory effects of E2. Saphenous vein (SV) segments were cultured in the presence of TNF-{alpha} (10 ng/ml), E2 (2.5 nM) or both in combination. Neointimal thickening was augmented by incubation with TNF-{alpha}, an effect that was abolished by co-culture with E2. TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner that was optimal at 10 ng/ml (1.5-fold increase), and abolished by E2 at all concentrations studied (1-50 nM). Surprisingly, E2 itself at low concentrations (1 and 5 nM) stimulated SV-SMC proliferation to a level comparable to that of TNF-{alpha} alone. SV-EC migration was significantly impaired by TNF-{alpha} (42% of control), and co-culture with E2 partially restored the ability of SV-EC to migrate and repair the wound. In contrast, TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC migration by 1.7-fold, an effect that was completely reversed by co-incubation with E2. Finally, TNF-{alpha} potently induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in both SV-EC and SV-SMC. However there was no modulation by E2 in either cell-type. In conclusion, TNF-{alpha} induced SV neointima formation, increased SMC proliferation and migration, impaired SV-EC migration and increased expression of adhesion molecules. E2 exerted distinct cell-type and function-specific modulation, the mechanisms underlying which are worthy of further detailed study.

  10. The thermographic nondestructive evaluation of iron aluminide green sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Michael Lee

    The recent development of manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of thin iron aluminide sheet requires advanced quantitative methods for on-line inspection. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for flaws and the development of appropriate flaw detection methods are key elements in an effective quality management system. The first step in the fabrication of thin FeAl alloy sheet is the formation of a green sheet by cold rolling FeAl powder mixed with organic binding agents. The green sheet composite has a bulk density, which is typically less than about 3.6 g/cc. The finished sheet, with a density of about 6.1 g/cc, is obtained using a series of process steps involving binder elimination, densification, sintering, and annealing. Non-uniformities within the green sheet are the major contributor to material failure in subsequent sheet processing and the production of non-conforming finished sheet. The production environment and physical characteristics of the composite provide for unique challenges in developing a rapid nondestructive inspection capability. The method must be non-contact due to the fragile nature of the composite. Limited access to the material also demands a one-sided inspection technique. An active thermographic method providing for 100% on-line inspection within an industrial, process has been developed. This approach is cost competitive with alternative technologies, such as x-ray imaging systems, and provides the required sensitivity to the variations in material composition. The mechanism of flaw formation and the transformation of green sheet flaws into defects that appear in intermediate and finished sheet products are described. A mathematical model which describes the green sheet heat transfer propagation, in the context of the inspection technique and the compact heterogeneity, is also presented. The potential for feedback within the production process is also discussed.

  11. New hydrolysis products of the beta-lactam antibiotic amoxicillin, their pH-dependent formation and search in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hirte, Kristin; Seiwert, Bettina; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is a widespread β-lactam-antibiotic and, together with some of its transformation products (TPs) originating from hydrolysis, a known environmental contaminant. To shed light on the abiotic degradation of AMX and the stability of its known TPs, laboratory hydrolysis experiments of AMX were carried out at pH 3, 7 and 11. Not only the rate of hydrolysis but also the pattern of TPs was strongly pH-dependent. The time courses of the obtained transformation products were analyzed by UPLC-HR-QToF-MS. AMX penicilloic acid (TP 1), AMX 2',5'-diketopiperazine (TP 2), AMX penilloic acid (TP 3) and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazinol (TP 4) were found at neutral pH. Surprisingly, the first three were not stable but transformed into 23 yet unknown TPs within three to four weeks. Seven TPs were tentatively identified, based on their product ion spectra and, where possible, confirmed with reference standards, e.g. penicillamine disulfide, 2-[amino(carboxy)methyl]-5,5-dimethyl-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and dehydrocarboxylated amoxicillin penilloic acid. Analysis of samples from municipal wastewater treatment plants confirmed these findings with TP 1 being the dominant TP in the influent and a shift towards TP 2, TP 3 and TP 4 in the effluents. The lab experiments predicted up to 13 consecutive TPs from TP 1, TP 2 and TP 3 under neutral conditions. Their detection from surface waters will be difficult, because their large number and slow formation kinetics will lead to comparatively low environmental concentrations. Nevertheless the abiotic degradation of TP 1, TP 2 and TP 3 to further TPs needs to be considered in future studies of the environmental fate of amoxicillin. PMID:26613181

  12. Effects of mutations in the {beta} subunit hinge domain on ATP synthase F{sub 1} sector rotation: Interaction between Ser 174 and Ile 163

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwagi, Sachiko; Iwamoto-Kihara, Atsuko; Kojima, Masaki; Nonaka, Takamasa; Futai, Masamitsu Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi

    2008-01-11

    A complex of {gamma}, {epsilon}, and c subunits rotates in ATP synthase (F{sub o}F{sub 1}) coupling with proton transport. Replacement of {beta}Ser174 by Phe in {beta}-sheet4 of the {beta} subunit ({beta}S174F) caused slow {gamma} subunit revolution of the F{sub 1} sector, consistent with the decreased ATPase activity [M. Nakanishi-Matsui, S. Kashiwagi, T. Ubukata, A. Iwamoto-Kihara, Y. Wada, M. Futai, Rotational catalysis of Escherichia coli ATP synthase F1 sector. Stochastic fluctuation and a key domain of the {beta} subunit, J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 20698-20704]. Modeling of the domain including {beta}-sheet4 and {alpha}-helixB predicted that the mutant {beta}Phe174 residue undergoes strong and weak hydrophobic interactions with {beta}Ile163 and {beta}Ile166, respectively. Supporting this prediction, the replacement of {beta}Ile163 in {alpha}-helixB by Ala partially suppressed the {beta}S174F mutation: in the double mutant, the revolution speed and ATPase activity recovered to about half of the levels in the wild-type. Replacement of {beta}Ile166 by Ala lowered the revolution speed and ATPase activity to the same levels as in {beta}S174F. Consistent with the weak hydrophobic interaction, {beta}Ile166 to Ala mutation did not suppress {beta}S174F. Importance of the hinge domain [phosphate-binding loop (P-loop)/{alpha}-helixB/loop/{beta}-sheet4, {beta}Phe148-{beta}Gly186] as to driving rotational catalysis is discussed.

  13. Absorption of Beta Particles in Different Materials: An Undergraduate Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The absorption of beta rays from a radioactive source in different materials was investigated by the use of a simple setup based on a Geiger counter and a set of absorber sheets. The number of electrons traversing the material was measured as a function of its thickness. Detailed GEANT simulations were carried out to reproduce the obtained

  14. Absorption of Beta Particles in Different Materials: An Undergraduate Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The absorption of beta rays from a radioactive source in different materials was investigated by the use of a simple setup based on a Geiger counter and a set of absorber sheets. The number of electrons traversing the material was measured as a function of its thickness. Detailed GEANT simulations were carried out to reproduce the obtained…

  15. Interhemispheric Ice-Sheet Synchronicity During the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. E.; Clark, P. U.; Kuhn, G.; Ricken, W.; Sprenk, D.

    2011-12-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood because only a few findings with robust chronologies exist for Antarctic ice sheets. We developed a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic ice sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was nearly synchronous with Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. As for the deglaciation, modeling studies suggest a late ice-sheet retreat starting around 14 ka BP and ending around 7 ka BP with a large impact of an unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and a small impact of a stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). However, the Weddell Sea sites studied here, as well as sites from the Scotia Sea, provide evidence that specifically the EAIS responded much earlier, possibly provided a significant contribution to the last sea-level rise, and was much more dynamic than previously thought. Deep-sea sediment sites from the central Scotia Sea "iceberg alley" show four phases of enhanced deposition of ice-rated detritus (IRD) occurred at 19.5, 16.5,14.5, and 12 ka. The first two relate to the two ice-sheet retreat signals documented for the Weddell Sea; the third phase indicates an Antarctic component to meltwater pulse 1a; the fourth phase falls roughly into period of the Younger Dryas. Our modeling studies show that surface climate forcing of Antarctic ice sheets would have likely increased ice mass balance during deglaciation, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. We propose that sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deepwater formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines provided the teleconnections to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets.

  16. Is the Greenland Ice Sheet bistable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Baum, Steven K.

    1995-06-01

    Ice core work on Greenland has produced dramatic evidence for an instability of the climate system in the North Atlantic sector. In this paper, we provide climate modeling results indicating another possible example of a multiple equilibrium climate state, where such behavior might apply to the ice sheet itself. Baseline sensitivity experiments, in which the Greenland Ice Sheet was removed, simulate summer temperatures on Greenland of about 10°C. This number varied between about 6 and 14°C depending on specification of vegetation type, elevation of Greenland, and orbital forcing. The implied hysteresis indicates that the present geographic configuration may have been sufficient to maintain an ice-free state prior to formation of the ice cap. Explanations for formation of the ice sheet therefore present a dilemma. Four possibilities involve undocumented Miocene-Pliocene CO2 excursions to values lower than present, a high sensitivity of the climate system, a variable sensitivity of the climate system, or significant problems with the climate model. A variable sensitivity is consistent with our results indicating a multiple steady state climate for Greenland. Although most CO2 scenarios do not predict a collapse of the Greenland Ice Sheet in the future, our results suggest that if it did, present boundary conditions may be sufficient to maintain Greenland in an ice-free environment even after the greenhouse effect has dissipated.

  17. Early Events in the Amyloid Formation of the A546T Mutant of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Induced Protein (TGFBIp) in Corneal Dystrophies Compared to the Non-Fibrillating R555W and R555Q Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Koldsø, Heidi; Andersen, Ole Juul; Nikolajsen, Camilla Lund; Scavenius, Carsten; Sørensen, Charlotte S.; Underhaug, Jarl; Runager, Kasper; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Enghild, Jan J.; Schiøtt, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    The human transforming growth factor beta induced protein (TGFBIp) is involved in several types of corneal dystrophies where protein aggregation and amyloid fibril formation severely impairs vision. Most disease-causing mutations are located in the last of four homologous fasciclin-1 (FAS1) domains of the protein, and it has been shown that when isolated, the fourth FAS1 domain (FAS1–4) mimics the behavior of full-length TGFBIp. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations and principal component analysis to study the wild type FAS1–4 domain along with three disease-causing mutations (R555W, R555Q, and A546T) to decipher any internal difference in dynamical properties of the domains that may explain their varied stabilities and aggregation properties. In addition, we use a protein-protein docking method in combination with chemical cross-linking experiments and mass spectrometry of the cross-linked species to obtain information about interaction faces between identical FAS1–4 domains. The results show that the pathogenic mutations A546T and R555W affect the packing in the hydrophobic core of FAS1–4 in different directions. We further show that the FAS1–4 monomers associate using their β-rich regions consistent with peptides observed to be part of the amyloid fibril core in lattice corneal dystrophy patients. PMID:26305369

  18. Poking a floating sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidovitch, Benny; Huang, Jiangshui; Menon, Narayanan; Russell, Thomas P.; Vella, Dominic

    2014-03-01

    Poking of liquid surface leads to a simple deformation of the surface, whose characteristic scale is nothing but the capillary length. In contrast, the poking of a circular solid sheet floating on a liquid bath demonstrates a surprisingly complex phenomenology, with numerous distinct length scales that are determined by the capillary length as well as by the poking amplitude and the stretching modulus of the sheet. The fundamental physical mechanism that underlies this complex response is intimately related to the emergence of an highly anisotropic stress, whose radial component is tensile and its hoop component is asymptotically compression-free. In this talk I will discuss the various parameter regimes that describe this problem and will identify the characteristic patterns of the poked sheet in these regimes. Experimental results will be presented and compared to theoretical predictions.

  19. Roles of the {beta} subunit hinge domain in ATP synthase F{sub 1} sector: Hydrophobic network formed by introduced {beta}Phe174 inhibits subunit rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi; Kashiwagi, Sachiko; Kojima, Masaki; Nonaka, Takamasa; Futai, Masamitsu

    2010-04-30

    The ATP synthase {beta} subunit hinge domain ({beta}Phe148 {approx} {beta}Gly186, P-loop/{alpha}-helixB/loop/{beta}-sheet4, Escherichia coli residue numbering) dramatically changes in conformation upon nucleotide binding. We previously reported that F{sub 1} with the {beta}Ser174 to Phe mutation in the domain lowered the {gamma} subunit rotation speed, and thus decreased the ATPase activity [M. Nakanishi-Matsui, S. Kashiwagi, T. Ubukata, A. Iwamoto-Kihara, Y. Wada, M. Futai, Rotational catalysis of Escherichia coli ATP synthase F{sub 1} sector. Stochastic fluctuation and a key domain of the {beta} subunit, J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 20698-20704.]. Homology modeling indicates that the amino acid replacement induces a hydrophobic network, in which the {beta}Met159, {beta}Ile163, and {beta}Ala167 residues of the {beta} subunit are involved together with the mutant {beta}Phe174. The network is expected to stabilize the conformation of {beta}{sub DP} (nucleotide-bound form of the {beta} subunit), resulting in increased activation energy for transition to {beta}{sub E} (empty {beta} subunit). The modeling further predicts that replacement of {beta}Met159 with Ala or Ile weakens the hydrophobic network. As expected, these two mutations experimentally suppressed the ATPase activities as well as subunit rotation of {beta}S174F. Furthermore, the rotation rate decreased with the increase of the strength in the hydrophobic network. These results indicate that the smooth conformational change of the {beta} subunit hinge domain is pertinent for the rotational catalysis.

  20. Ferulic acid destabilizes preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kenjiro; Hirohata, Mie; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS, would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported previously that curcumin (Cur) inhibits fA{beta} formation from A{beta} and destabilizes preformed fA{beta} in vitro. Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of ferulic acid (FA) on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 deg C in vitro. We next compared the anti-amyloidogenic activities of FA with Cur, rifampicin, and tetracycline. Ferulic acid dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-peptide, as well as their extension. Moreover, it destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. The overall activity of the molecules examined was in the order of: Cur > FA > rifampicin = tetracycline. FA could be a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for AD.

  1. Energy information sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  2. A Logical OR Redundancy within the Asx-Pro-Asx-Gly Type 1 {Beta}-Turn Motif

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jihun; Dubey, Vikash Kumar; Longo, Lian M.; Blaber, Michael

    2008-04-19

    Turn secondary structure is essential to the formation of globular protein architecture. Turn structures are, however, much more complex than either {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet, and the thermodynamics and folding kinetics are poorly understood. Type I {beta}-turns are the most common type of reverse turn, and they exhibit a statistical consensus sequence of Asx-Pro-Asx-Gly (where Asx is Asp or Asn). A comprehensive series of individual and combined Asx mutations has been constructed within three separate type I 3:5 G1 bulge {beta}-turns in human fibroblast growth factor-1, and their effects on structure, stability, and folding have been determined. The results show a fundamental logical OR relationship between the Asx residues in the motif, involving H-bond interactions with main-chain amides within the turn. These interactions can be modulated by additional interactions with residues adjacent to the turn at positions i + 4 and i + 6. The results show that the Asx residues in the turn motif make a substantial contribution to the overall stability of the protein, and the Asx logical OR relationship defines a redundant system that can compensate for deleterious point mutations. The results also show that the stability of the turn is unlikely to be the prime determinant of formation of turn structure in the folding transition state.

  3. Effect of temperature on the secondary structure of beta-lactoglobulin at pH 6.7, as determined by CD and IR spectroscopy: a test of the molten globule hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Qi, X L; Holt, C; McNulty, D; Clarke, D T; Brownlow, S; Jones, G R

    1997-01-01

    Previous CD measurements of changes in the conformation of beta-lactoglobulin at neutral pH as a function of temperature indicated the formation of a molten globule state above approx. 70 degrees C. New CD measurements are reported at temperatures up to 80 degrees C with an instrument on the Daresbury synchrotron radiation source which gives spectra of good signal-to-noise ratio down to 170 nm. IR spectra were recorded up to 94.8 degrees C with a ZnSe circle cell and a single simplified model of the substructure of the amide I' band was used to give the fractional contents of beta-sheet structure unambiguously and independently of the CD spectroscopy. The results of both techniques, however, were in agreement in showing a progressive loss of beta-sheet structure with increasing temperature, beginning below the denaturation temperature. Nevertheless, the CD spectroscopy showed a fairly abrupt loss of virtually all the helical conformation at approx. 65 degrees C. Comparison of the present results with other studies on the molten globule formed at acid pH in the lipocalin family suggests that above 65 degrees C a partly unfolded state is formed, possibly by destabilization of the intermolecular beta-strand I and the loss of the main helix, but it is not a classical molten globule transition. PMID:9164875

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET #21, Showing the house as restored since Survey. (Dormer windows omitted as not authentic) - Samuel des Marest House, River Road, New Milford, Bergen County, NJ

  5. 71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 3; DECEMBER 20, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Chaotic Charged Particle Motion and Acceleration in Reconnected Current Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Neishtadt, A. I.; Zimovets, I. V.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate charged particle dynamics and acceleration in the current sheet located in the reconnection outflow region. We consider parameter ranges corresponding to current sheets in the solar corona. We demonstrate a new effect of fast chaotization of charged particle motion due to effective geometrical destruction of adiabatic invariants in current sheets in the presence of a quite strong sheared magnetic field and a finite electric field. This fast chaotization results in particle acceleration and enhancement of effective collisionless conductivity. Additionally, chaotization of charged particle motion could lead to particle escape from the current sheet and corresponding formation of field-aligned beams. We also discuss different regimes of charged particle motion in the reconnected current sheet for wide parameter ranges.

  7. Simulating Thin Sheets: Buckling, Wrinkling, Folding and Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Roman; Stoop, Norbert; Wittel, Falk K.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2014-03-01

    Numerical simulations of thin sheets undergoing large deformations are computationally challenging. Depending on the scenario, they may spontaneously buckle, wrinkle, fold, or crumple. Nature's thin tissues often experience significant anisotropic growth, which can act as the driving force for such instabilities. We use a recently developed finite element model to simulate the rich variety of nonlinear responses of Kirchhoff-Love sheets. The model uses subdivision surface shape functions in order to guarantee convergence of the method, and to allow a finite element description of anisotropically growing sheets in the classical Rayleigh-Ritz formalism. We illustrate the great potential in this approach by simulating the inflation of airbags, the buckling of a stretched cylinder, as well as the formation and scaling of wrinkles at free boundaries of growing sheets. Finally, we compare the folding of spatially confined sheets subject to growth and shrinking confinement to find that the two processes are equivalent.

  8. beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( beta - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 85 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Asses

  9. Solar wind double ions beams and the heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, C. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Phillips, J. L.; Goldstein, B. E.; Balogh, A.

    1995-01-01

    Double ion beams are often observed in the solar wind, but little work has been done in relating these beams to structures within the solar wind. Double ion beams are observed as beams of a given ion species and charge state occurring at two different energies. We use the three-dimensional ion plasma instrument on board the Ulysses spacecraft to look for evidence of such beams associated with the heliospheric current sheet. In a subset chosen independently of plasma parameters consisting of 8 of cover 47 crossings of the current sheet made during the inecliptic phase of the Ulysses mission we find that these double ion beams are always present on either side of the current sheet. The double beams are present in both the proton and helium species. The secondary beam typically has a higher helium abundance, which suggests that these beams are formed in the helium-rich corona rather than in interplanetary space. The double beams are not present in the interior of the current sheet. Neither collisions nor effects of plasma beta can account for the disappearance of the double beams inside the current sheet in all eight cases. We postulate that these beams are formed by reconnection occurring near the Sun in the boundary region between the open field lines of the coronal holes and the closed field line region of the heliospheric current sheet. Such a scenario would be consistent with previous X ray measurements which suggect that reconnection is occurring in this region.

  10. Low-Temperature Forming of Beta Titanium Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, R. S.; Woods, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Low cost methods for titanium structural fabrication using advanced cold-formable beta alloys were investigated for application in a Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicle. This work focuses on improving processing and structural efficiencies as compared with standard hot formed and riveted construction of alpha-beta alloy sheet structure. Mechanical property data and manufacturing parameters were developed for cold forming, brazing, welding, and processing Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al sheet, and Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr on a more limited basis. Cost and structural benefits were assessed through the fabrication and evaluation of large structural panels. The feasibility of increasing structural efficiency of beta titanium structure by selective reinforcement with metal matrix composite was also explored.

  11. Effect of initial stagger selection on the handedness of Amyloid beta helical fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Ghattyvenkatakrishna, Pavan K; Cheng, Xiaolin; Uberbacher, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    Various structural models for Amyloid $\\beta$ fibrils derived from a variety of experimental techniques are currently available. However, this data cannot differentiate between the relative position of the two arms of the $\\beta$ hairpin called the stagger. Amyloid fibrils of various heirarchical levels form left--handed helices composed of $\\beta$ sheets. However it is unclear if positive, negative and neutral staggers all form the macroscopic left--handed helices. Studying this is important since the success of computational approaches to develop drugs for amyloidic diseases will depend on selecting the physiologically relevant structure of the sheets. To address this issue we have conducted extensive molecular dynamics simulations of Amyloid$\\beta$ sheets of various staggers and show that only negative staggers generate the experimentally observed left--handed helices while positive staggers generate the incorrect right--handed helices. The implications of this result extend in to all amyloidic--aggregation type diseases.

  12. Quick Information Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Trace Center.

    This compilation of "Trace Quick Sheets" provides descriptions, prices, and ordering information for products and services that assist with communication, control, and computer access for disabled individuals. Product descriptions or product sources are included for: adaptive toys and toy modifications; head pointers, light pointers, and…

  13. Quick Information Sheets. 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Trace Center.

    The Trace Center gathers and organizes information on communication, control, and computer access for handicapped individuals. The information is disseminated in the form of brief sheets describing print, nonprint, and organizational resources and listing addresses and telephone numbers for ordering or for additional information. This compilation…

  14. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  15. Ethanol Myths Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    Ethanol is a clean, renewable fuel that is helping to reduce our nation’s dependence on oil and can offer additional economic and environmental benefits in the future. This fact sheet is intended to address some common misconceptions about this important alternative fuel.

  16. GED Testing Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GED Testing Service, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This GED Testing fact sheet provides information on: (1) GED[R] Tests; (2) Versions and Editions of the GED Tests; (3) Earning a Credential; (4) GED Testing Service[R]; (5) History of the GED Tests; (6) Who Accepts the GED Credential; (7) Public/Private Partnership of GEDTS; (8) Renowned GED Credential Recipients; (9) GED Testing Numbers for 2008;…

  17. Youth Demographics. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mark Hugo; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet compares the numbers of 18-25 year-old residents and citizens by gender, race, ethnicity, geographic distribution, marital status, military status, unemployment, educational attainment, and assesses population trends from 1968-2006. It explores such demographic characteristics of young people using data from the March Annual…

  18. Insulation Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Heating and cooling account for 50-70% of the energy consumed in the average American home. Heating water accounts for another 20%. A poorly insulated home loses much of this energy, causing drafty rooms and high energy bills. This fact sheet discusses how to determine if your home needs more insulation, the additional thermal resistance (called…

  19. Algal Biofuels Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    This fact sheet provides information on algal biofuels, which are generating considerable interest around the world. They may represent a sustainable pathway for helping to meet the U.S. biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  20. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... through 15 months and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Printer friendly version[2 pages] ... receive their vaccines according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that ...

  1. BetaSearch: a new method for querying ?-residue motifs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Searching for structural motifs across known protein structures can be useful for identifying unrelated proteins with similar function and characterising secondary structures such as ?-sheets. This is infeasible using conventional sequence alignment because linear protein sequences do not contain spatial information. ?-residue motifs are ?-sheet substructures that can be represented as graphs and queried using existing graph indexing methods, however, these approaches are designed for general graphs that do not incorporate the inherent structural constraints of ?-sheets and require computationally-expensive filtering and verification procedures. 3D substructure search methods, on the other hand, allow ?-residue motifs to be queried in a three-dimensional context but at significant computational costs. Findings We developed a new method for querying ?-residue motifs, called BetaSearch, which leverages the natural planar constraints of ?-sheets by indexing them as 2D matrices, thus avoiding much of the computational complexities involved with structural and graph querying. BetaSearch exhibits faster filtering, verification, and overall query time than existing graph indexing approaches whilst producing comparable index sizes. Compared to 3D substructure search methods, BetaSearch achieves 33 and 240 times speedups over index-based and pairwise alignment-based approaches, respectively. Furthermore, we have presented case-studies to demonstrate its capability of motif matching in sequentially dissimilar proteins and described a method for using BetaSearch to predict ?-strand pairing. Conclusions We have demonstrated that BetaSearch is a fast method for querying substructure motifs. The improvements in speed over existing approaches make it useful for efficiently performing high-volume exploratory querying of possible protein substructural motifs or conformations. BetaSearch was used to identify a nearly identical ?-residue motif between an entirely synthetic (Top7) and a naturally-occurring protein (Charcot-Leyden crystal protein), as well as identifying structural similarities between biotin-binding domains of avidin, streptavidin and the lipocalin gamma subunit of human C8. PMID:22839199

  2. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. E.; Clark, P. U.; Ricken, W.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Hostetler, S. W.; Kuhn, G.

    2012-04-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood because only a few findings with robust chronologies exist for Antarctic ice sheets. We developed a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic ice sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates the advance to their maximum extent at 29 -28 ka, and retreat from their maximum extent at 19 ka was nearly synchronous with Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (Weber, M.E., Clark, P. U., Ricken, W., Mitrovica, J. X., Hostetler, S. W., and Kuhn, G. (2011): Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum. - Science, 334, 1265-1269, doi: 10.1126:science.1209299). As for the deglaciation, modeling studies suggest a late ice-sheet retreat starting around 14 ka BP and ending around 7 ka BP with a large impact of an unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and a small impact of a stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). However, the Weddell Sea sites studied here, as well as sites from the Scotia Sea, provide evidence that specifically the EAIS responded much earlier, possibly provided a significant contribution to the last sea-level rise, and was much more dynamic than previously thought. Using the results of an atmospheric general circulation we conclude that surface climate forcing of Antarctic ice mass balance would likely cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Furthermore, our new data support teleconnections involving a sea-level fingerprint forced from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets as indicated by gravitational modeling. Also, changes in North Atlantic Deepwater formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines may have contributed to synchronizing the hemispheric ice sheets.

  3. Binding of cationic peptides (KX)4K to DPPG bilayers. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the uncharged amino acid X drives formation of membrane bound β-sheets: A DSC and FT-IR study.

    PubMed

    Hädicke, André; Blume, Alfred

    2016-06-01

    The binding of cationic peptides of the sequence (KX)4K to lipid vesicles of negatively charged dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature dependent Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity of the uncharged amino acid X was changed from G (glycine) over A (alanine), Abu (α-aminobutyric acid), V (valine) to L (leucine). The binding of the peptides caused an increase of the phase transition temperature (Tm) of DPPG by up to 20°C. The shift depended on the charge ratio and on the hydrophobicity of the amino acid X. Unexpectedly, the upward shift of Tm increased with increasing hydrophobicity of X. FT-IR spectroscopy showed a shift of the CH2 stretching vibrations of DPPG to lower frequency, particularly for bilayers in the liquid-crystalline phase, indicating an ordering of the hydrocarbon chains when the peptides were bound. Changes in the lipid C=O vibrational band indicated a dehydration of the lipid headgroup region after peptide binding. (KG)4K was bound in an unordered structure at all temperatures. All other peptides formed intermolecular antiparallel β-sheets, when bound to gel phase DPPG. However, for (KA)4K and (KAbu)4K, the β-sheets converted into an unordered structure above Tm. In contrast, the β-sheet structures of (KV)4K and (KL)4K remained stable even at 80°C when bound to the liquid-crystalline phase of DPPG. Strong aggregation of DPPG vesicles occurred after peptide binding. For the aggregates, we suggest a structure, where aggregated single β-sheets are sandwiched between opposing DPPG bilayers with a dehydrated interfacial region. PMID:26903220

  4. Transfer of fibroblast sheets cultured on thermoresponsive dishes with membranes.

    PubMed

    Kawecki, Marek; Kraut, Małgorzata; Klama-Baryła, Agnieszka; Łabuś, Wojciech; Kitala, Diana; Nowak, Mariusz; Glik, Justyna; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Utrata-Wesołek, Alicja; Trzebicka, Barbara; Dworak, Andrzej; Szweda, Dawid

    2016-06-01

    In cell or tissue engineering, it is essential to develop a support for cell-to-cell adhesion, which leads to the generation of cell sheets connected by extracellular matrix. Such supports must be hydrophobic and should result in a detachable cell sheet. A thermoresponsive support that enables the cultured cell sheet to detach using only a change in temperature could be an interesting alternative in regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate plates covered with thermoresponsive polymers as supports for the formation of fibroblast sheets and to develop a damage-free procedure for cell sheet transfer with the use of membranes as transfer tools. Human skin fibroblasts were seeded on supports coated with a thermoresponsive polymer: commercial UpCell™ dishes (NUNC™) coated with thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and dishes coated with thermoresponsive poly(tri(ethylene glycol) monoethyl ether methacrylate) (P(TEGMA-EE)). Confluent fibroblast sheets were effectively cultured and harvested from both commercial PNIPAM-coated dishes and laboratory P(TEGMA-EE)-coated dishes. To transfer a detached cell sheet, two membranes, Immobilon-P(®) and SUPRATHEL(®), were examined. The use of SUPRATHEL for relocating the cell sheets opens a new possibility for the clinical treatment of wounds. This study established the background for implementing thermoresponsive supports for transplanting in vitro cultured fibroblasts. PMID:27153827

  5. Origami folding of polymer sheets by inkjet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Shaw, Brandi; Dickey, Michael D.; Genzer, Jan

    2015-03-01

    In analogy to the ancient Japanese art of paper folding (Origami), self-folding is an attractive strategy to induce the formation of three-dimensional (3D) objects with well-defined shapes and dimensions using conventional two-dimensional (2D) patterning techniques, such as lithography and inkjet printing. Self-folding can be applied in the areas of reconfigurable devices, actuators, and sensors. Here we demonstrate a simple method for self-folding of polymer sheets utilizing localized light absorption on selected areas of the pre-strained polymer sheet. The ink is patterned via a desktop printer and it defines the location of the `hinge' on the sheet. The inked areas on the 2D sheet absorb light preferentially, thus causing the polymer sheet to fold locally in the inked areas. The temperature gradients through the depth of the sheet induce localized shrinkage and the sheet folds within seconds. This patterned polymer sheets act as shape memory materials which can be programmed to fold into various 3D structures based on the nature of the light source, the shape and size of the ink patterns, and ink property. By controlling the aforementioned parameters we achieve a complete control of the time and degree of folding, which ultimately govern the final 3D shape of the folded object.

  6. The Physics of Ice Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassis, J. N.

    2008-01-01

    The great ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland are vast deposits of frozen freshwater that contain enough to raise sea level by approximately 70 m if they were to completely melt. Because of the potentially catastrophic impact that ice sheets can have, it is important that we understand how ice sheets have responded to past climate changes and…

  7. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 33 skill sheets for agricultural mechanics was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Some sheets teach operational procedures while others are for simple projects. Each skill sheet covers a single topic and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step construction or operational…

  8. The Physics of Ice Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassis, J. N.

    2008-01-01

    The great ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland are vast deposits of frozen freshwater that contain enough to raise sea level by approximately 70 m if they were to completely melt. Because of the potentially catastrophic impact that ice sheets can have, it is important that we understand how ice sheets have responded to past climate changes and

  9. Raman and AFM study of gamma irradiated plastic bottle sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Yasir; Kumar, Vijay; Dhaliwal, A. S.; Sonkawade, R. G.

    2013-02-05

    In this investigation, the effects of gamma irradiation on the structural properties of plastic bottle sheet are studied. The Plastic sheets were exposed with 1.25MeV {sup 60}Co gamma rays source at various dose levels within the range from 0-670 kGy. The induced modifications were followed by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Raman spectrum shows the decrease in Raman intensity and formation of unsaturated bonds with an increase in the gamma dose. AFM image displays rough surface morphology after irradiation. The detailed Raman analysis of plastic bottle sheets is presented here, and the results are correlated with the AFM observations.

  10. Interplay between the beta' clamp and the beta' jaw domains during DNA opening by the bacterial RNA polymerase at sigma54-dependent promoters.

    PubMed

    Wigneshweraraj, Siva R; Savalia, Dhruti; Severinov, Konstantin; Buck, Martin

    2006-06-23

    The bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a multi-subunit, structurally flexible, complex molecular machine, in which activities associated with DNA opening for transcription-competent open promoter complex (OC) formation reside in the catalytic beta and beta' subunits and the dissociable sigma subunit. OC formation is a multi-step process that involves several structurally conserved mobile modules of beta, beta', and sigma. Here, we present evidence that two flexible modules of beta', the beta' jaw and the beta' clamp and a conserved regulatory Region I domain of sigma(54), jointly contribute to the maintenance of stable DNA strand separation around the trancription start site in OCs formed at sigma(54)-dependent promoters. Clearly, regulated interplay between the mobile modules of the beta' and the sigma subunits of the RNAP appears to be necessary for stable OC formation. PMID:16725156

  11. Prediction of beta-strand packing interactions using the signature product.

    PubMed

    Brown, W Michael; Martin, Shawn; Chabarek, Joseph P; Strauss, Charlie; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2006-02-01

    The prediction of beta-sheet topology requires the consideration of long-range interactions between beta-strands that are not necessarily consecutive in sequence. Since these interactions are difficult to simulate using ab initio methods, we propose a supplementary method able to assign beta-sheet topology using only sequence information. We envision using the results of our method to reduce the three-dimensional search space of ab initio methods. Our method is based on the signature molecular descriptor, which has been used previously to predict protein-protein interactions successfully, and to develop quantitative structure-activity relationships for small organic drugs and peptide inhibitors. Here, we show how the signature descriptor can be used in a Support Vector Machine to predict whether or not two beta-strands will pack adjacently within a protein. We then show how these predictions can be used to order beta-strands within beta-sheets. Using the entire PDB database with ten-fold cross-validation, we have achieved 74.0% accuracy in packing prediction and 75.6% accuracy in the prediction of edge strands. For the case of beta-strand ordering, we are able to predict the correct ordering accurately for 51.3% of the beta-sheets. Furthermore, using a simple confidence metric, we can determine those sheets for which accurate predictions can be obtained. For the top 25% highest confidence predictions, we are able to achieve 95.7% accuracy in beta-strand ordering. [Figure: see text]. PMID:16365772

  12. Quantitative analysis of simvastatin and its beta-hydroxy acid in human plasma using automated liquid-liquid extraction based on 96-well plate format and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nanyan; Yang, Amy; Rogers, John Douglas; Zhao, Jamie J

    2004-01-27

    An assay based on automated liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of simvastatin (SV) and its beta-hydroxy acid (SVA) in human plasma. A Packard MultiProbe II workstation was used to convert human plasma samples collected following administration of simvastatin and quality control (QC) samples from individual tubes into 96-well plate format. The workstation was also used to prepare calibration standards and spike internal standards. A Tomtec Quadra 96-channel liquid handling workstation was used to perform LLE based on 96-well plates including adding solvents, separating organic from aqueous layer and reconstitution. SV and SVA were separated through a Kromasil C18 column (50 mm x 2 mm i.d., 5 microm) and detected by tandem mass spectrometry with a TurboIonspray interface. Stable isotope-labeled SV and SVA, 13CD(3)-SV and 13 CD(3)-SVA, were used as the internal standards for SV and SVA, respectively. The automated procedures reduced the overall analytical time (96 samples) to 1/3 of that of manual LLE. Most importantly, an analyst spent only a fraction of time on the 96-well LLE. A limit of quantitation of 50 pg/ml was achieved for both SV and SVA. The interconversion between SV and SVA during the 96-well LLE was found to be negligible. The assay showed very good reproducibility, with intra- and inter-assay precision (%R.S.D.) of less than 7.5%, and accuracy of 98.7-102.3% of nominal values for both analytes. By using this method, sample throughput should be enhanced at least three-fold compared to that of the manual procedure. PMID:14738932

  13. Formation of an active form of the interleukin-2/15 receptor beta-chain by insertion of the intracisternal A particle in a radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphoma and its role in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Ukai, Hideki; Ishii-Oba, Hiroko; Ukai-Tadenuma, Maki; Ogiu, Toshiaki; Tsuji, Hideo

    2003-06-01

    Although many reports suggest that aberrant regulation of cytokine signaling pathways via the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) induces tumorigenic transformation, constitutively active IL-2R in tumors has not been reported. We searched for genomic alteration of the IL-2/15R beta-subunit gene (IL-2/15R beta) in cytokine-independent cell lines established from radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphomas. In the TL34 cell line and its primary tumor, one of the IL-2/15R beta alleles was rearranged by the insertion of an intracisternal A particle (IAP) retrotransposon. The IAP-IL2/15R beta chimeric gene expressed chimeric mRNA in which IAP-coding Gag-Pol mRNA was fused to IL-2/15R beta mRNA and coded for Gag-Pol-IL-2/15R beta chimeric protein. Forced expression of the Gag-Pol-IL-2/15R beta chimeric cDNA in a mouse cytotoxic T-cell line (CTLL-2) converted IL-2-dependent cell growth to IL-2-independent growth, suggesting that the chimeric protein activates some of the IL-2 signaling pathways necessary for cell proliferation. Downregulation of the expression of the Gag-Pol-IL-2/15R beta chimeric protein in TL34 by antisense RNA inhibited cell growth, and concomitantly reduced the level of c-myc protein. These results suggest that the Gag-Pol-IL-2/15R beta is a constitutively active form that transmits proliferative signals by expressing downstream target genes, including c-myc. Thus, we demonstrated that the chimeric receptor gene produced by the insertion of an IAP functions as an oncogene by providing IL-2-independent autonomous growth potential. PMID:12766910

  14. TGF-beta signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Savage-Dunn, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    TGF-beta superfamily ligands play fundamental roles in the development and physiology of diverse animal species. Genetic and genomic analyses in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans have contributed to the understanding of TGF-beta-related signal transduction mechanisms. In this chapter, I describe the currently characterized TGF-beta-related signals and signal transduction cassettes in C. elegans. Homology searches of the genome identify five TGF-beta-related genes, for which functions have been identified for three. Two of the TGF-beta-related genes, daf-7 and dbl-1, function through conventional signaling pathways. These signaling pathways are comprised of ser/thr kinase receptors, Smads, and transcription co-factors. A third TGF-beta-related gene, unc-129, functions in axonal guidance using novel signaling mechanisms. Thus, TGF-beta-related signaling in C. elegans proceeds via both conserved and novel paradigms that can inform studies in other animal systems. PMID:18050404

  15. SHEET PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Henderson, O.A.

    1962-07-17

    An ion-electron plasma heating apparatus of the pinch tube class was developed wherein a plasma is formed by an intense arc discharge through a gas and is radially constricted by the magnetic field of the discharge. To avoid kink and interchange instabilities which can disrupt a conventional arc shortiy after it is formed, the apparatus is a pinch tube with a flat configuration for forming a sheet of plasma between two conductive plates disposed parallel and adjacent to the plasma sheet. Kink instabilities are suppressed by image currents induced in the conductive plates while the interchange instabilities are neutrally stable because of the flat plasma configuration wherein such instabilities may occur but do not dynamically increase in amplitude. (AEC)

  16. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  17. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  18. Stability of lubricated ice sheets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, Katarzyna N.; Worster, M. Grae

    2015-11-01

    A significant amount of the Antarctic ice sheet drains towards the ocean through a network of ice streams, fast-flowing regions of ice that are generally well lubricated at their base by a layer of water-saturated, sub-glacial sediment known as till. Although till has a complex, nonlinear rheology, it deforms viscously over large spatial scales with an effective viscosity much lower than that of ice. Its dynamical interaction with the overlying ice can initiate a spontaneous instability of ice flow resulting in the formation of ice streams. We examine this interaction both mathematically and experimentally by considering the viscous coupling between two layers of fluid spreading under gravity. A series of our recent fluid-mechanical experiments reveal a novel cross-flow fingering instability if the lower layer is less viscous. We perform a linear stability analysis and explain the instability mechanism in terms of a jump in hydrostatic pressure gradient, stabilised by horizontal shear at large wave numbers, and assess the possibility of this mechanism leading to ice-stream formation.

  19. Luminescence Chronology for the Formation of Glacial Lake Calgary, Southern Alberta, Canada: Age Constraints for the Initiation of the Late Pleistocene Retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from its Western Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyikwa, K.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial Lake Calgary in southern Alberta, Canada, was a Late Pleistocene proglacial lake that formed along the southwest margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS), dammed by the retreating ice sheet margin. Attempts to constrain the age of the lake using radiocarbon methods have been hampered by the lack of datable organic material. In an effort to apply an alternative chronometer, this study uses two optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating approaches to date fine grained sand and silt that were deposited in the lake during its existence. OSL dating determines the depositional ages of sediments by measuring the energy from ionizing radiation that is stored in mineral grains such as quartz and feldspar. Dividing the stored energy, also referred to as the paleodose, by the rate at which the dose accumulated, allows an age to be ascertained. In one method applied in this study, the paleodose stored in the feldspar component of the sediment is determined using normalized infrared stimulated luminescence signals acquired using a portable OSL reader. In the second method, blue optically stimulated luminescence signals obtained from quartz separates from the sediment by employing a regular OSL reader and standard protocols are used to determine the paleodose. After correcting the feldspar data for anomalous fading, the age results from the two dating approaches are compared. The ages signify a time period by which the LIS had retreated from the study area and, hence, serve as constraints for the initiation of the retreat of the ice sheet from its western limit. Advantages and limitations of the dating methods are briefly discussed. Constraining the chronology of the retreat of the LIS from western Canada allows for a better understanding of the driving forces behind ice sheet retreat. Secondly, assigning a temporal scale to the postglacial evolution of the environment of the region permits a better insight into the dynamics of the physical and biological environments of the time. Thirdly, the region is at the heart of the ice-free corridor that was ostensibly used by early humans to migrate southwards to populate the Americas ca. 16 ka ago. Hence, an improved deglaciation chronology would allow a more comprehensive evaluation of this concept.

  20. Latent TGF-[beta] structure and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Minlong; Zhu, Jianghai; Wang, Rui; Chen, Xing; Mi, Lizhi; Walz, Thomas; Springer, Timothy A.

    2011-09-16

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} is stored in the extracellular matrix as a latent complex with its prodomain. Activation of TGF-{beta}1 requires the binding of {alpha}v integrin to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-{beta} binding proteins. Crystals of dimeric porcine proTGF-{beta}1 reveal a ring-shaped complex, a novel fold for the prodomain, and show how the prodomain shields the growth factor from recognition by receptors and alters its conformation. Complex formation between {alpha}v{beta}6 integrin and the prodomain is insufficient for TGF-{beta}1 release. Force-dependent activation requires unfastening of a 'straitjacket' that encircles each growth-factor monomer at a position that can be locked by a disulphide bond. Sequences of all 33 TGF-{beta} family members indicate a similar prodomain fold. The structure provides insights into the regulation of a family of growth and differentiation factors of fundamental importance in morphogenesis and homeostasis.

  1. Dynamics of dikes versus cone sheets in volcanic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Olivier; Burchardt, Steffi; Hallot, Erwan; Mourgues, Régis; Bulois, Cédric

    2015-04-01

    Igneous sheet intrusions of various shapes, such as dikes and cone sheets, coexist as parts of complex volcanic plumbing systems likely fed by common sources. How they form is fundamental regarding volcanic hazards, but yet no dynamic model simulates and predicts satisfactorily their diversity. Here we present scaled laboratory experiments that reproduced dikes and cone sheets under controlled conditions (Galland et al., 2014). Our models show that their formation is governed by a dimensionless ratio (Π1), which describes the shape of the magma source, and a dynamic dimensionless ratio (Π2), which compares the viscous stresses in the flowing magma to the host-rock strength. Plotting our experiments against these two numbers results in a phase diagram evidencing a dike and a cone-sheet field, separated by a sharp transition that fits a power law. This result shows that dikes and cone sheets correspond to distinct physical regimes of magma emplacement in the crust. For a given host-rock strength, cone sheets preferentially form when the source is shallow, relative to its lateral extent, or when the magma influx velocity (or viscosity) is high. Conversely, dikes form when the source is deep compared to its size, or when magma influx rate (or viscosity) is low. Both dikes and cone sheets may form from the same source, the shift from one regime to the other being then controlled by magma dynamics, i.e., different values of Π2. The extrapolated empirical dike-to-cone sheet transition is in good agreement with the occurrence of dikes and cone sheets in various natural volcanic settings. Galland, O., Burchardt, S., Hallot, E., Mourgues, R., Bulois, C., 2014. Dynamics of dikes versus cone sheets in volcanic systems. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 2014JB011059, 10.1002/2014jb011059.

  2. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 81

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2008-10-15

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to all nuclei with mass number A = 81 (Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb) have been compiled and evaluated and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This publication for A = 81 supersedes the previous publication (Coral M. Baglin, Nuclear Data Sheets79, 447 (1996), literature cutoff 1 November 1996) and the subsequent updates by C. Baglin for {sup 81}Y (literature cutoff 8 October 1998) and {sup 81}Zr (literature cutoff 24 March 2000). All literature available prior to 15 August 2008 has been considered. Subsequent to previous A = 81 evaluations, excited states have been reported for the first time in {sup 81}Ga, and knowledge of excited state properties for {sup 81}Y and {sup 81}Zr has been significantly expanded. However, the expected {epsilon}+{beta}{sup +} decay of {sup 81}Zr has yet to be studied.

  3. N-H∙∙∙O, O-H∙∙∙O hydrogen-bonded supramolecular sheet formation in the bis(2-aminoanilinium) fumarate, 3-methylanilinium hydrogen fumarate and 4-chloroanilinium hydrogen fumarate salts.

    PubMed

    Sathya, D; Jagan, R; Padmavathy, R; Kumar, R Mohan; Sivakumar, K

    2013-08-01

    In bis(2-aminoanilinum) fumarate, 2C₆H₉N₂⁺·C₄H₂O₄²⁻, (I), the asymmetric unit consists of two aminoanilinium cations and one fumarate dianion, whereas in 3-methylanilinium hydrogen fumarate, C₇H₁₀N⁺·C₄H3O₄⁻, (II), and 4-chloroanilinium hydrogen fumarate, C₆H₇ClN⁺·C₄H3O₄⁻, (III), the asymmetric unit contains two symmetry-independent hydrogen fumate anions and anilinium cations with a slight difference in their geometric parameters; the two salts are isostructural. In (II) and (III), the carboxylic acid H atoms of the anions are disordered across both ends of the anion, with equal site occupancies of 0.50. Both the 4-chloroanilinium cations of (III) are disordered over two orientations with major occupancies fixed at 0.60 in each case. The hydrogen fumarate anions of (II) and (III) form one-dimensional anionic chains linked through O-H∙∙∙O hydrogen bonds. Salts (II) and (III) form two-dimensional supramolecular sheets built from R₄⁴16), R₄⁴(18), R₅⁵(25) and C₂²(14) motifs extending parallel to the (010) plane, whereas in (I), an (010) sheet is formed built from two R₄³(13) motifs, two R₂²(9) motifs and an R₄⁴(18) motif. PMID:23907887

  4. Eruptive Current Sheets Trailing SOHO/LASCO CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, David F.

    2015-04-01

    Current sheets are important signatures of magnetic reconnection during the eruption of solar magnetic structures. Many models of eruptive flare/Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) involve formation of a current sheet connecting the ejecting CME flux rope with the post-eruption magnetic loop arcade. Current sheets have been interpreted in white light images as narrow rays trailing the outward-moving CME, in ultraviolet spectra as narrow, bright hot features, and with different manifestations in other wavebands. This study continues that of Webb et al. (2003), who analyzed SMM white light CMEs having candidate magnetic disconnection features at the base of the CME. About half of those were followed by coaxial, bright rays suggestive of newly formed current sheets, and Webb et al. (2003) presented detailed results of analysis of those structures. In this work we extend the study of white light eruptive current sheets to the more sensitive and extensive SOHO/LASCO coronagraph data on CMEs. We comprehensively examined all LASCO CMEs during two periods that we identify with the minimum and maximum activity of solar cycle 23. We identified ~130 ray/current sheets during these periods, nearly all of which trailed CMEs with concave-outward backs. The occurrence rate of the ray/current sheets is 6-7% of all CMEs, irrespective of the solar cycle. We analyze the rays for durations, speeds, alignments, and motions and compare the observational results with some model predictions.

  5. Experimental realization of two-dimensional boron sheets.

    PubMed

    Feng, Baojie; Zhang, Jin; Zhong, Qing; Li, Wenbin; Li, Shuai; Li, Hui; Cheng, Peng; Meng, Sheng; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui

    2016-06-01

    A variety of two-dimensional materials have been reported in recent years, yet single-element systems such as graphene and black phosphorus have remained rare. Boron analogues have been predicted, as boron atoms possess a short covalent radius and the flexibility to adopt sp(2) hybridization, features that favour the formation of two-dimensional allotropes, and one example of such a borophene material has been reported recently. Here, we present a parallel experimental work showing that two-dimensional boron sheets can be grown epitaxially on a Ag(111) substrate. Two types of boron sheet, a β12 sheet and a χ3 sheet, both exhibiting a triangular lattice but with different arrangements of periodic holes, are observed by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Density functional theory simulations agree well with experiments, and indicate that both sheets are planar without obvious vertical undulations. The boron sheets are quite inert to oxidization and interact only weakly with their substrate. We envisage that such boron sheets may find applications in electronic devices in the future. PMID:27219700

  6. Looking for a generic inhibitor of amyloid-like fibril formation among flavone derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Šneideris, Tomas; Baranauskienė, Lina; Cannon, Jonathan G.; Rutkienė, Rasa; Meškys, Rolandas

    2015-01-01

    A range of diseases is associated with amyloid fibril formation. Despite different proteins being responsible for each disease, all of them share similar features including beta-sheet-rich secondary structure and fibril-like protein aggregates. A number of proteins can form amyloid-like fibrils in vitro, resembling structural features of disease-related amyloids. Given these generic structural properties of amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils, generic inhibitors of fibril formation would be of interest for treatment of amyloid diseases. Recently, we identified five outstanding inhibitors of insulin amyloid-like fibril formation among the pool of 265 commercially available flavone derivatives. Here we report testing of these five compounds and of epi-gallocatechine-3-gallate (EGCG) on aggregation of alpha-synuclein and beta-amyloid. We used a Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay, relying on halftimes of aggregation as the measure of inhibition. This method avoids large numbers of false positive results. Our data indicate that four of the five flavones and EGCG inhibit alpha-synuclein aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. However none of these derivatives were able to increase halftimes of aggregation of beta-amyloid. PMID:26421240

  7. ISEE observations of the plasma sheet boundary, plasma sheet, and neutral sheet. I - Electric field, magnetic field, plasma, and ion composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattell, C. A.; Mozer, F. S.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Anderson, R. R.; Sharp, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The first simultaneous study of dc and ac electric and magnetic fields, E x B velocity, plasma flows, ratio of plasma to magnetic field pressure, total energy density, energetic particles, and ion composition from the ISEE satellites and ground and interplanetary magnetic fields has been made to determine (1) the relationship of the previously observed electric fields at the plasma sheet boundary and at the neutral sheet to plasma parameters, and (2) whether the phenomena occurring during quiet and active times were consistent with the formation of a near-earth neutral line during substorms or with the boundary layer model. Five observations made during the study of two substorms were seen to be in agreement with the neutral-line model. The observations are consistent with the satellite being located at varying distances from the neutral line and diffusion region where reconnection and plasma acceleration were occurring. Although the z component (into or out of the ecliptic plane) of E x B convection was generally toward the neutral sheet, there were examples when it was consistent with the inferred motion of the plasma sheet past the satellite. A synthesis of previous reports on large electric fields at the plasma sheet boundary and variable fields at the neutral sheet including the associated plasma flows is also described.

  8. Hypoglycemia Reduces Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Production by Pancreatic Beta Cells as a Regulator of Beta Cell Mass*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiangwei; Guo, Ping; Chen, Zean; El-Gohary, Yousef; Wiersch, John; Gaffar, Iljana; Prasadan, Krishna; Shiota, Chiyo; Gittes, George K.

    2013-01-01

    VEGF-A expression in beta cells is critical for pancreatic development, formation of islet-specific vasculature, and Insulin secretion. However, two key questions remain. First, is VEGF-A release from beta cells coupled to VEGF-A production in beta cells? Second, how is the VEGF-A response by beta cells affected by metabolic signals? Here, we show that VEGF-A secretion, but not gene transcription, in either cultured islets or purified pancreatic beta cells, was significantly reduced early on during low glucose conditions. In vivo, a sustained hypoglycemia in mice was induced with Insulin pellets, resulting in a significant reduction in beta cell mass. This loss of beta cell mass could be significantly rescued with continuous delivery of exogenous VEGF-A, which had no effect on beta cell mass in normoglycemic mice. In addition, an increase in apoptotic endothelial cells during hypoglycemia preceded an increase in apoptotic beta cells. Both endothelial and beta cell apoptosis were prevented by exogenous VEGF-A, suggesting a possible causative relationship between reduced VEGF-A and the loss of islet vasculature and beta cells. Furthermore, in none of these experimental groups did beta cell proliferation and islet vessel density change, suggesting a tightly regulated balance between these two cellular compartments. The average islet size decreased in hypoglycemia, which was also prevented by exogenous VEGF-A. Taken together, our data suggest that VEGF-A release in beta cells is independent of VEGF-A synthesis. Beta cell mass can be regulated through modulated release of VEGF-A from beta cells based on physiological need. PMID:23378532

  9. High Beta Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.

    1998-11-14

    Perhaps the ideal tokamak would have high {beta} ({beta} {approx}> 1) and classical confinement. Such a tokamak has not been found, and we do not know if one does exist. We have searched for such a possibility, so far without success. In 1990, we obtained analytic equilibrium solutions for large aspect ratio tokamaks at {beta} {approx} {Omicron}(1) [1]. These solutions and the extension at high {beta} poloidal to finite aspect ratio [2] provided a basis for the study of high {beta} tokamaks. We have shown that these configurations can be stable to short scale MHD modes [3], and that they have reduced neoclassical transport [4]. Microinstabilities (such as the {del}T{sub i} mode) seem to be stabilized at high {beta} [5] - this is due to the large local shear [3] and the magnetic well. We have some concerns about modes associated with the compressional branch which may appear at high {beta}. Bill Dorland and Mike Kotschenreuther have studied this issue and our concerns may be unfounded. It is certainly tantalizing, especially given the lowered neoclassical transport values, that these configurations could have no microinstabilities and, one could assume, no anomalous transport. Unfortunately, while this work is encouraging, the key question for high {beta} tokamaks is the stability to large scale kink modes. The MHD {beta} limit (Troyon limit) for kink modes at large aspect ratio is problematically low. There is ample evidence from computations that the limit exists. However, it is not known if stable equilibria exist at much higher {beta}--none have been found. We have explored this question in the asymptotic high {beta} poloidal limit. Unfortunately, we are unable to find stable equilibrium and also unable to show that they don't exist. The results of these calculations will be published when a more definitive answer is found.

  10. Synchrotron-based Infrared and X-ray Imaging Shows Focalized Accumulation of Cu and Zn Co-localized With Beta-amyloid Deposits in Alzheimer's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Miller,L.; Wang, Q.; Telivala, T.; Smith, R.; Lanzirotti, A.; Miklossy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the misfolding and plaque-like accumulation of a naturally occurring peptide in the brain called amyloid beta (Abeta). Recently, this process has been associated with the binding of metal ions such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). It is thought that metal dyshomeostasis is involved in protein misfolding and may lead to oxidative stress and neuronal damage. However, the exact role of the misfolded proteins and metal ions in the degenerative process of AD is not yet clear. In this study, we used synchrotron Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (FTIRM) to image the in situ secondary structure of the amyloid plaques in brain tissue of AD patients. These results were spatially correlated with metal ion accumulation in the same tissue sample using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe. For both techniques, a spatial resolution of 5-10 microm was achieved. FTIRM results showed that the amyloid plaques have elevated beta-sheet content, as demonstrated by a strong amide I absorbance at 1625cm(-1). Using SXRF microprobe, we find that AD tissue also contains 'hot spots' of accumulated metal ions, specifically Cu and Zn, with a strong spatial correlation between these two ions. The 'hot spots' of accumulated Zn and Cu were co-localized with beta-amyloid plaques. Thus for the first time, a strong spatial correlation has been observed between elevated beta-sheet content in Abeta plaques and accumulated Cu and Zn ions, emphasizing an association of metal ions with amyloid formation in AD.

  11. A Single Mutation at the Sheet Switch Region Results in Conformational Changes Favoring 6 Light-Chain Fibrillogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández-Santoyo, A.; Del Pozo Yauner, L; Fuentes-Silva, D; Ortiz, E; Rudiño-Piñera, E; Sánchez-López, R; Horjales, E; Becerril, B; Rodríguez-Romero, A

    2010-01-01

    Systemic amyloid light-chain (LC) amyloidosis is a disease process characterized by the pathological deposition of monoclonal LCs in tissue. All LC subtypes are capable of fibril formation although {lambda} chains, particularly those belonging to the {lambda}6 type, are overrepresented. Here, we report the thermodynamic and in vitro fibrillogenic properties of several mutants of the {lambda}6 protein 6aJL2 in which Pro7 and/or His8 was substituted by Ser or Pro. The H8P and H8S mutants were almost as stable as the wild-type protein and were poorly fibrillogenic. In contrast, the P7S mutation decreased the thermodynamic stability of 6aJL2 and greatly enhanced its capacity to form amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. The crystal structure of the P7S mutant showed that the substitution induced both local and long-distance effects, such as the rearrangement of the VL (variable region of the light chain)-VL interface. This mutant crystallized in two orthorhombic polymorphs, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and C222{sub 1}. In the latter, a monomer that was not arranged in the typical Bence-Jones dimer was observed for the first time. Crystal-packing analysis of the C222{sub 1} lattice showed the establishment of intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interactions that involved the N-terminus and {beta}-strand B and that these could be relevant in the mechanism of LC fibril formation. Our results strongly suggest that Pro7 is a key residue in the conformation of the N-terminal sheet switch motif and, through long-distance interactions, is also critically involved in the contacts that stabilized the VL interface in {lambda}6 LCs.

  12. Ice sheets and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Eric W

    2013-07-01

    Snow and ice play their most important role in the nitrogen cycle as a barrier to land-atmosphere and ocean-atmosphere exchanges that would otherwise occur. The inventory of nitrogen compounds in the polar ice sheets is approximately 260 Tg N, dominated by nitrate in the much larger Antarctic ice sheet. Ice cores help to inform us about the natural variability of the nitrogen cycle at global and regional scale, and about the extent of disturbance in recent decades. Nitrous oxide concentrations have risen about 20 per cent in the last 200 years and are now almost certainly higher than at any time in the last 800 000 years. Nitrate concentrations recorded in Greenland ice rose by a factor of 2-3, particularly between the 1950s and 1980s, reflecting a major change in NOx emissions reaching the background atmosphere. Increases in ice cores drilled at lower latitudes can be used to validate or constrain regional emission inventories. Background ammonium concentrations in Greenland ice show no significant recent trend, although the record is very noisy, being dominated by spikes of input from biomass burning events. Neither nitrate nor ammonium shows significant recent trends in Antarctica, although their natural variations are of biogeochemical and atmospheric chemical interest. Finally, it has been found that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack leads to significant re-emissions of NOx that can strongly impact the regional atmosphere in snow-covered areas. PMID:23713125

  13. Ice sheets and nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    Snow and ice play their most important role in the nitrogen cycle as a barrier to land–atmosphere and ocean–atmosphere exchanges that would otherwise occur. The inventory of nitrogen compounds in the polar ice sheets is approximately 260 Tg N, dominated by nitrate in the much larger Antarctic ice sheet. Ice cores help to inform us about the natural variability of the nitrogen cycle at global and regional scale, and about the extent of disturbance in recent decades. Nitrous oxide concentrations have risen about 20 per cent in the last 200 years and are now almost certainly higher than at any time in the last 800 000 years. Nitrate concentrations recorded in Greenland ice rose by a factor of 2–3, particularly between the 1950s and 1980s, reflecting a major change in NOx emissions reaching the background atmosphere. Increases in ice cores drilled at lower latitudes can be used to validate or constrain regional emission inventories. Background ammonium concentrations in Greenland ice show no significant recent trend, although the record is very noisy, being dominated by spikes of input from biomass burning events. Neither nitrate nor ammonium shows significant recent trends in Antarctica, although their natural variations are of biogeochemical and atmospheric chemical interest. Finally, it has been found that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack leads to significant re-emissions of NOx that can strongly impact the regional atmosphere in snow-covered areas. PMID:23713125

  14. MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR WIND AT CURRENT SHEETS ASSOCIATED WITH EXTREMELY SMALL FIELD SHEAR ANGLES

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J. T.; Phan, T. D.

    2013-02-01

    Using Wind 3 s plasma and magnetic field data, we have identified nine reconnection exhausts within a solar wind disturbance on 1998 October 18-20 driven by a moderately fast interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). Three of the exhausts within the ICME were associated with current sheets having local field shear angles, {theta}, ranging from 4 Degree-Sign to 9 Degree-Sign , the smallest reported values of {theta} yet associated with reconnection exhausts in a space plasma. They were observed in plasma characterized by extremely low (0.02-0.04) plasma {beta}, and very high (281-383 km s{sup -1}) Alfven speed, V{sub A}. Low {beta} allows reconnection to occur at small {theta} and high V{sub A} leads to exhaust jets that are fast enough relative to the surrounding solar wind to be readily identified. Very small-{theta} current sheets are common in the solar wind at 1 AU, but typically are not associated with particularly low plasma {beta} or high V{sub A}. On the other hand, small-{theta} current sheets should be common in the lower solar corona, a plasma regime of extremely low {beta} and extremely high V{sub A}. Our observations lend credence to models that predict that reconnection at small-{theta} current sheets is primarily responsible for coronal heating.

  15. Modeling the formation of secondary organic aerosol. 1. Application of theoretical principles to measurements obtained in the alpha-pinene/, beta-pinene/, sabinene/, delta3-carene/, and cyclohexane/ozone systems.

    PubMed

    Pankow, J F; Seinfeld, J H; Asher, W E; Erdakos, G B

    2001-03-15

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) forms in the atmosphere when volatile parent compounds are oxidized to form low-volatility products that condense to yield organic particulate matter (PM). Under conditions of intense photochemical smog, from 40 to 80% of the particulate organic carbon can be secondary in origin. Because describing multicomponent condensation requires a compound-by-compound identification and quantification of the condensable compounds, the complexity of ambient SOA has made it difficult to test the ability of existing gas/particle (G/P) partitioning theory to predict SOA formation in urban air. This paper examines that ability using G/P data from past laboratory chamber experiments carried out with five parent hydrocarbons (HCs) (four monoterpenes at 308 K and cyclohexene at 298 K) in which significant fractions (61-100%) of the total mass of SOA formed from those HCs were identified and quantified by compound. The model calculations were based on a matrix representation of the multicomponent, SOA G/P distribution process. The governing equations were solved by an iterative method. Input data forthe model included (i) deltaHC (microg m(-3)), the amount of reacted parent hydrocarbon; (ii) the alpha values that give the total concentration T (gas + particle phase, ng m(-3)) values for each product i according to Ti = 10(3) alphaideltaHC; (iii) estimates of the pure compound liquid vapor pressure pL(degrees) values (at the reaction temperature) for the products; and (iv) UNIFAC parameters for estimating activity coefficients in the SOA phase for the products as a function of SOA composition. The model predicts the total amount Mo (microg m(-3)) of organic aerosol that will form from the reaction of deltaHC, the total aerosol yield Y(= Mo/deltaHC), and the compound-by-compound yield values Yi. An impediment in applying the model is the lack of literature data on PL(degrees) values for the compounds of interest or even on pL(degrees) values for other, similarly low-volatility compounds. This was overcome in part by using the G/P data from the alpha-pinene and cyclohexene experiments to determine pL(degrees) values for use (along with a set of 14 other independent polar compounds) in calculating UNIFAC vapor pressure parameters that were, in turn, used to estimate all of the needed pL(degrees) values. The significant degree of resultant circularity in the calculations for alpha-pinene and cyclohexene helped lead to the good agreement that was found between the Yi values predicted by the model, and those measured experimentally for those two compounds. However, the model was also able to predict the aerosol yield values from beta-pinene, sabinene, and delta3-carene, for which there was significatly less circularity in the calculations, thereby providing evidence supporting the idea that given the correct input information, SOA formation can in fact be accurately modeled as a multicomponent condensation process. PMID:11347929

  16. 17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  17. Laminated sheet composites reinforced with modular filament sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reece, O. Y.

    1968-01-01

    Aluminum and magnesium composite sheet laminates reinforced with low density, high strength modular filament sheets are produced by diffusion bonding and explosive bonding. Both processes are accomplished in normal atmosphere and require no special tooling or cleaning other than wire brushing the metal surfaces just prior to laminating.

  18. MOON for neutrino-less {beta}{beta} decays and {beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Ejiri, H.

    2009-11-09

    The MOON project aims at spectroscopic 0v{beta}{beta} studies with the v-mass sensitivity of 100-30 meV by measuring two beta rays from {sup 100}Mo and/or {sup 82}Se. The detector is a compact super-module of multi-layer PL scintillator plates. R and D works made by the pro to-type MOON-1 and the small PL plate show the possible energy resolution of around {sigma}{approx}2.2%, as required for the mass sensitivity. Nuclear matrix elements M{sup 2v} for 2v{beta}{beta} are shown to be given by the sum {sigma}{sub L}M{sub k} of the 2v{beta}{beta} matrix elements M{sub k} through intermediate quasi-particle states in the Fermi-surface, where Mi is obtained experimentally by using the GT(J{sup {pi}} = 1{sup +}) matrix elements of M{sub i}(k) and M{sub f}(k) for the successive single-{beta} transitions through the k-th intermediate state.

  19. Beta-Carotene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-carotene is a pigment that occurs naturally in many photosynthetic plants and organisms and one of the most abundant carotenoids found in human blood. The richest dietary sources of beta-carotene are yellow, orange, and leafy green fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes...

  20. BETA GAUGE OPERATION MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual provides description and operating instructions for a redesigned Beta Gauge for measuring particles from vehicle exhaust. The improvements and a new control system including a control unit which is radically different from the prior unit, are described. Complete Beta ...

  1. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed.

  2. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

  3. Investigations of B- and beta-hematin.

    PubMed

    Blauer, G; Akkawi, M

    1997-05-01

    The preparation from ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FP) in aqueous acid medium of the related pigments beta- and B-hematin [see G. Blauer and M. Akkawi, Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 35, 231 (1995)] is presented under different conditions. Both pigments are characterized by infrared spectra which differ in the range of 1600-1700 cm-1 in their strong bands with absorption peaks measured at 1648 +/- 2 cm-1 for B-hematin and at 1663 +/- 1 cm-1 for beta-hematin. The pH dependence of B-hematin formation at 37 degrees C and at different concentrations of acetic acid and FP exhibits a maximum yield near pH 4. The formation of beta-hematin at 70 degrees C shows high yield in 6 M acetic acid or in the presence of 0.028 M trichloroacetate at pH 4.6. The dependence of the yield of the pigments on the time and temperature of incubation, concentration of FP, and the presence of different electrolytes was investigated. Both B- and beta-hematin are either insoluble or very slightly soluble in different solvents at room temperature, and appear to dissociate into regular FP in strongly alkaline aqueous medium. In the presence of different quinoline-based drugs, the formation of both B- and beta-hematin at pH 4-5 is inhibited. Under certain conditions, the effect of added carboxylic acids on pigment formation is suggested to be due, at least in part, to the prevention of initial hydrogen bonding among FP carboxyl groups. For both B- and beta-hematin, branched and cyclic macromolecular structures are proposed involving linkages between an FP iron and a side-chain carboxylate group of another FP, in addition to hydrogen bonds between FP carboxyl groups. B- and beta-hematin are assumed to differ in molecular weight and the extent of bond formation. Possible mechanisms for beta-hematin production from B-hematin and certain relations between the synthetic pigments and the malaria pigment are suggested. PMID:9112763

  4. Dawn-dusk asymmetries in plasma sheet particle distributions and the average behaviour of magnetotail current systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, A. P.; Forsyth, C.; Owen, C. J.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Dandouras, I. S.

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a survey of Cluster PEACE and CIS-CODIF data taken in the 2001-2006 tail seasons, building on the work of Walsh et al. (GRL, 2011). We examine the average pitch angle distributions of protons and electrons in the magnetotail as a function of proton plasma beta, restricted to times when the magnetosphere was exposed to steady (on a 3 hour timescale) IMF conditions and focussing in particular on dawn-dusk asymmetries. We confirm that, on average, the 2 component proton plasma sheet exists duskward of the noon-midnight meridian under steady northward IMF. An associated population of cold electrons is also observed. Dawnward of the noon-midnight meridian there are no significant fluxes of the cold component of protons and much reduced fluxes of the cold electron component, implying transport across the dusk magnetopause is the dominant formation mechanism of the two component plasma sheet for both protons and electrons. Under southward IMF, dawn-dusk asymmetries in the protons are controlled by the Y component of the IMF. For the electrons higher fluxes of high energy, field-aligned, particles are observed at dusk than at dawn. This suggests a link to a duskward offset of the tail neutral line and the preferential observation of substorm-related tail signatures in the premidnight sector. We also consider the relationship between the observed particle populations and the average behaviour of the large-scale magnetotail current systems as revealed by the Curlometer.

  5. Movement of a loop in domain 3 of aerolysin is required for channel formation.

    PubMed

    Rossjohn, J; Raja, S M; Nelson, K L; Feil, S C; van der Goot, F G; Parker, M W; Buckley, J T

    1998-01-13

    Aerolysin is a channel-forming toxin that must oligomerize in order to become insertion-competent. Modeling based on the crystal structure of the proaerolysin dimer and electron microscopic images of the oligomer indicated that a loop in domain 3 must move away from the beta-sheet that forms the main body of the protein before oligomerization can proceed. In order to determine if movement actually occurs, strategically located amino acids in the loop and in the sheet were replaced with cysteines by site-directed mutagenesis. A double mutant was produced in which the new cysteines, at position 253 on the loop and position 300 in the sheet, were close enough together to allow formation of a disulfide bridge. The double mutant was unable to oligomerize, and it was completely inactive, showing not only that the bridge had formed but also that movement of the loop was essential for formation of the oligomer. The existence of the bridge was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The reduced form of the protein and the single mutants T253C and A300C were as active as wild type, indicating that the amino acid replacements themselves had no functional consequences. Labeling studies using an environment-sensitive fluorescent sulfhydryl-reactive probe confirmed that the structure of the protein changes in the loop region as a consequence of proteolytic activation of proaerolysin, a step which also must precede oligomerization. PMID:9425098

  6. Communication Fact Sheets for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stremel, Kathleen; Bixler, Betsy; Morgan, Susanne; Layton, Kristen

    This booklet contains 28 fact sheets on communication written primarily for parents and families with a child who is deaf-blind. They attempt to address fundamental but complex issues related to the communication needs of children with vision and hearing impairments. Each fact sheet targets a specific area, including: (1) communication; (2)…

  7. Silicone Coating on Polyimide Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Silicone coatings applied to polyimide sheeting for variety of space-related applications. Coatings intended to protect flexible substrates of solar-cell blankets from degradation by oxygen atoms, electrons, plasmas, and ultraviolet light in low Earth orbit and outer space. Since coatings are flexible, generally useful in forming flexible laminates or protective layers on polyimide-sheet products.

  8. Cutting Guide for Fibrous Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, A., D.

    1985-01-01

    Tool facilitates repetitive cutting of fibrous sheets. Flexible aluminum tape allows metal strips folded back on themselves, exposing fresh material for cutting. More than one strip folded back, and cutting width therefore increased in multiples of strip width. Developed for cutting strips of alumina-fiber matting, tool also used on such materials as felts, textiles, and sheet metals.

  9. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  10. Active volcanism beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet and implications for ice-sheet stability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenship, D.D.; Bell, R.E.; Hodge, S.M.; Brozena, J.M.; Behrendt, John C.; Finn, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    IT is widely understood that the collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) would cause a global sea level rise of 6 m, yet there continues to be considerable debate about the detailed response of this ice sheet to climate change1-3. Because its bed is grounded well below sea level, the stability of the WAIS may depend on geologically controlled conditions at the base which are independent of climate. In particular, heat supplied to the base of the ice sheet could increase basal melting and thereby trigger ice streaming, by providing the water for a lubricating basal layer of till on which ice streams are thought to slide4,5. Ice streams act to protect the reservoir of slowly moving inland ice from exposure to oceanic degradation, thus enhancing ice-sheet stability. Here we present aerogeophysical evidence for active volcanism and associated elevated heat flow beneath the WAIS near the critical region where ice streaming begins. If this heat flow is indeed controlling ice-stream formation, then penetration of ocean waters inland of the thin hot crust of the active portion of the West Antarctic rift system could lead to the disappearance of ice streams, and possibly trigger a collapse of the inland ice reservoir.

  11. 78 FR 6853 - Agency Information Collection (Agent Orange Registry Code Sheet) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Agent Orange Registry Code Sheet) Activities Under OMB Review....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Agent Orange Registry Code Sheet, VA Form 10-9009. OMB Control Number: 2900... to maintain an Agent Orange Registry (AOR) developed a reporting format to facilitate the...

  12. [Clip Sheets from BOCES. Opportunities. Health. Careers. = Oportunidades. Salud. Una Camera En...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Geneseo. Coll. at Geneseo. Migrant Center.

    This collection of 83 clip sheets, or classroom handouts, was created to help U.S. migrants learn more about health, careers, and general "opportunities" including education programs. They are written in both English and Spanish and are presented in an easily understandable format. Health clip-sheet topics include the following: Abuse; AIDS;…

  13. Plasma Relaxation Dynamics Moderated by Current Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewar, Robert; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Yoshida, Zensho

    2014-10-01

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor-relaxed equilibrium model all these constraints are relaxed save for global magnetic flux and helicity. A Lagrangian is presented that leads to a new variational formulation of magnetized fluid dynamics, relaxed MHD (RxMHD), all static solutions of which are Taylor equilibrium states. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-relaxed MHD (MRxMHD), is developed. These concepts are illustrated using a simple two-region slab model similar to that proposed by Hahm and Kulsrud--the formation of an initial shielding current sheet after perturbation by boundary rippling is calculated using MRxMHD and the final island state, after the current sheet has relaxed through a reconnection sequence, is calculated using RxMHD. Australian Research Council Grant DP110102881.

  14. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  15. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  16. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  17. Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. The quantitative inspection of iron aluminide green sheet using transient thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Michael L.; Hinders, Mark K.; Scorey, Clive; Winfree, William

    1999-12-01

    The recent development of manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of thin iron aluminide, FeAl, sheet requires advanced quantitative methods for on-line inspection. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for flaws and the development of appropriate flaw detection methods are key elements in an effective quality management system. The first step in the fabrication of thin FeAl alloy sheet is the formation of a green sheet, either by cold rolling or tape casting FeAl powder mixed with organic binding agents. The finished sheet is obtained using a series of process steps involving binder elimination, densification, sintering, and annealing. Non-uniformities within the green sheet are the major contributor to material failure in subsequent sheet processing and the production of non-conforming finished sheet. Previous work has demonstrated the advantages of using active thermography to detect the flaws and heterogeneity within green powder composites (1)(2)(3). The production environment and physical characteristics of these composites provide for unique challenges in developing a rapid nondestructive inspection capability. Thermography is non-contact and minimizes the potential damage to the fragile green sheet. Limited access to the material also demands a one-sided inspection technique. In this paper, we will describe the application of thermography for 100% on-line inspection within an industrial process. This approach is cost competitive with alternative technologies, such as x-ray imaging systems, and provides the required sensitivity to the variations in material composition. The formation of green sheet flaws and their transformation into defects within intermediate and finished sheet products will be described. A green sheet conformance criterion will be presented which would significantly reduce the probability of processing poor quality green sheet which contributes to higher waste and inferior bulk alloy sheet.

  19. The quantitative inspection of iron aluminide green sheet using transient thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Michael L.; Hinders, Mark K.; Scorey, Clive; Winfree, William

    1999-12-02

    The recent development of manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of thin iron aluminide, FeAl, sheet requires advanced quantitative methods for on-line inspection. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for flaws and the development of appropriate flaw detection methods are key elements in an effective quality management system. The first step in the fabrication of thin FeAl alloy sheet is the formation of a green sheet, either by cold rolling or tape casting FeAl powder mixed with organic binding agents. The finished sheet is obtained using a series of process steps involving binder elimination, densification, sintering, and annealing. Non-uniformities within the green sheet are the major contributor to material failure in subsequent sheet processing and the production of non-conforming finished sheet. Previous work has demonstrated the advantages of using active thermography to detect the flaws and heterogeneity within green powder composites (1)(2)(3). The production environment and physical characteristics of these composites provide for unique challenges in developing a rapid nondestructive inspection capability. Thermography is non-contact and minimizes the potential damage to the fragile green sheet. Limited access to the material also demands a one-sided inspection technique. In this paper, we will describe the application of thermography for 100% on-line inspection within an industrial process. This approach is cost competitive with alternative technologies, such as x-ray imaging systems, and provides the required sensitivity to the variations in material composition. The formation of green sheet flaws and their transformation into defects within intermediate and finished sheet products will be described. A green sheet conformance criterion will be presented which would significantly reduce the probability of processing poor quality green sheet which contributes to higher waste and inferior bulk alloy sheet.

  20. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePlus

    ... DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | ... Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked ...

  1. Stability of annular liquid sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchagnula, Mahesh Venkata

    1998-12-01

    Linear and nonlinear stability analyses are used to study the growth of disturbances on an annular liquid sheet under various conditions in this thesis. Stability of an inviscid swirling annular liquid sheet, in the presence of gas phases inside and outside the sheet and moving with unequal gas velocities, is investigated using linear stability analysis. It is found that for a given flow situation, not all non-axisymmetric modes are evanescent as previous researchers found. In addition, an increase in axial Weber number causes an increase, both in the number of circumferential modes that are unstable and their corresponding growth rates. Also, an increase in Weber number increases the axial wavenumber at which maximum disturbance growth takes place. However, in the absence of swirl, the circumferential mode with the maximum growth rate, remains at n = 0. Swirl in the liquid phase causes the mode with the maximum growth rate to occur at circumferential mode, n > 0. At low swirl Weber number, it stabilizes the annular sheet by causing the most destructive axial wavenumber and the corresponding growth rate to decrease. At high swirl Weber number, it causes the circumferential instability modes to dominate and under critical conditions where the action of the swirl and axial destabilizing forces are equal, the annular sheet is unstable to three-dimensional waves. The nonlinear behavior of the annular liquid sheet is studied using approximate one-dimensional equations derived by a thin sheet approximation. The model is validated by comparing the predictions against the exact linear analysis. Model predictions demonstrate that the disturbance amplitude is an important factor in the stability behavior. An increase in the sheet thickness causes the growth rate to increase. It is also observed that if the annular liquid sheet is nonstationary, disturbances that are linearly stable could become unstable and cause the sheet break up, if the amplitude of disturbances is not infinitesimal.

  2. Transmembrane pores formed by synthetic p-octiphenyl beta-barrels with internal carboxylate clusters: regulation of ion transport by pH and Mg(2+)- complexed 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonate.

    PubMed

    Das, Gopal; Matile, Stefan

    2002-04-16

    Design, synthesis, and study of a synthetic barrel-stave supramolecule with p-octiphenyl "staves," beta-sheet "hoops," and hydrophobic exterior as well as internal carboxylate clusters are reported. Ion transport experiments indicate the formation of transmembrane pores at 5 < pH < 7 with nanomolar activity. Blockage of dye efflux from spherical bilayers by external Mg(OAc)(2) and internal 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonate is suggestive for weakly cooperative (n = 1.16) formation of aspartate-Mg(2+)-8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonate complexes within the barrel-stave supramolecule (K(D) = 2.9 mM). Corroborative evidence from structural studies by circular dichroism spectroscopy is provided and discussed with emphasis of the importance of internal charge repulsion for pore formation and future applications toward binding and catalysis within supramolecular synthetic pores. PMID:11891277

  3. {beta}{prime} and {beta} precipitation in an Al-Mg alloy studied by DSC and TEM

    SciTech Connect

    Starink; Zahra, A.M.

    1998-06-12

    Precipitation in Al-16 at. % Mg is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The shape of the {beta}{prime} formation DSC effect is interpreted with a novel theory and the curves obtained on the basis of this new theory fit well to the experimental curves. The s parameter derived from these fits, which is akin to the Avrami parameter n appearing in the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov model, is larger than 2.5, indicating that {beta}{prime} precipitation is an autocatalytic process. TEM showed the abundant presence of defects (mostly dislocation loops) but no evidence of nucleation of {beta}{prime} precipitates on these defects. The enthalpies of formation of the {beta} and {beta}{prime} phases are derived as 15.7 and 11.5 kJ per mol Mg, respectively.

  4. Texture Development and Drawability of Frictionally Rolled AA 5052 AL Alloy Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Insoo; Akramov, Saidmurod; Jeong, Hae Bong; No, Tae Kyoung

    The microstructure, pole figure and r-value of the frictionally rolled and subsequently heat treated AA 5052 Al sheets were investigated by optical microscopy, x-ray diffractometer and tensile tester, respectively. Frictionally rolled AA 5052 Al specimens showed a fine grain size. After subsequently heat treated specimens, the ND//<111> texture component was increased. The r-values of the frictionally rolled and subsequently heat treated Al alloy sheets were about two times higher than those of the original Al sheets. These could be related to the formation of ND//<111> texture components through frictional rolling in and subsequent heat treatment of AA 5052 Al sheet.

  5. Penguin Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flotsam and Jetsam: A Newsletter for Massachusetts Marine Educators, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents factual information on penguins using an outline format. Includes descriptions of physical characteristics, behavioral mechanisms, geographical distribution, and physiological processes. Provides separate bibliographies for teachers and students. (ML)

  6. Tyrosine residues 654 and 670 in {beta}-cat enin are crucial in regulation of Met-{beta}-catenin interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Gang; Apte, Udayan; Micsenyi, Amanda; Bell, Aaron; Monga, Satdarshan P.S. . E-mail: smonga@pitt.edu

    2006-11-01

    {beta}-catenin, a key component of the canonical Wnt pathway, is also regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation that regulates its association to E-cadherin. Previously, we reported its association with the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor Met at the membrane. HGF induced Met-{beta}-catenin dissociation and nuclear translocation of {beta}-catenin, which was tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent. Here, we further investigate the Met-{beta}-catenin interaction by selectively mutating several tyrosine residues, alone or in combination, in {beta}-catenin. The mutants were subcloned into FLAG-CMV vector and stably transfected into rat hepatoma cells, which were treated with HGF. All single or double-mutant-transfected cells continued to show HGF-induced nuclear translocation of FLAG-{beta}-catenin except the mutations affecting 654 and 670 simultaneously (Y654/670F), which coincided with the lack of formation of {beta}-catenin-TCF complex and DNA synthesis, in response to the HGF treatment. In addition, the Y654/670F-transfected cells also showed no phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin or dissociation from Met in response to HGF. Thus, intact 654 and 670 tyrosine residues in {beta}-catenin are crucial in HGF-mediated {beta}-catenin translocation, activation and mitogenesis.

  7. {alpha}-Lipoic acid exhibits anti-amyloidogenicity for {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kenjiro; Hirohata, Mie; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2006-03-24

    Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of {alpha}-lipoic acid (LA) and the metabolic product of LA, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 {sup o}C in vitro. LA and DHLA dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-protein, as well as their extension. Moreover, they destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. LA and DHLA could be key molecules for the development of therapeutics for AD.

  8. Current Sheet Properties and Dynamics During Sympathetic Breakout Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, B. J.; Edmondson, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    We present the continued analysis of the high-resolution 2.5D MHD simulations of sympathetic magnetic breakout eruptions from a pseudostreamer source region. We examine the generation of X- and O-type null points during the current sheet tearing and track the magnetic island formation and evolution during periods of reconnection. The magnetic breakout eruption scenario forms an overlying 'breakout' current sheet that evolves slowly and removes restraining flux from above the sheared field core that will eventually become the center of the erupting flux rope-like structure. The runaway expansion from the expansion-breakout reconnection positive feedback enables the formation of the second, vertical/radial current sheet underneath the rising sheared field core as in the standard CHSKP eruptive flare scenario. We will examine the flux transfer rates through the breakout and flare current sheets and compare the properties of the field and plasma inflows into the current sheets and the reconnection jet outflows into the flare loops and flux rope ejecta.

  9. Visco-resistive tearing in thin current sheets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velli, M. M. C.; Tenerani, A.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Pucci, F.

    2014-12-01

    How fast magnetic energy release is triggered and occurs in high Lundquist (S) and high Reynolds number ( R ) plasmas such as that of the solar corona is a fundamental problem for understanding phenomena ranging from coronal heating to flares and CMEs. Diffusion or collisional reconnection driven by macroscopic flows in quasi-steady Sweet-Parker (SP) current sheets are processes far too slow to fit observational data. Spontaneous reconnection, driven by the onset of the tearing instability inside current sheets, provides an alternative paradigm to SP reconnection. Nevertheless, as long as macroscopic current layers are considered, the growth of such an instability is also a slow process. Recently it has been shown that SP current sheets are rapidly unstable in high S plasmas, indeed have a growth rate diverging with increasing S. It has been suggested that such instabilities are triggered during the nonlinear stage of the primary tearing instability of a macroscopic layer. The formation of plasmoids in this presumed SP sheet speeds up the reconnection rate to ideal values. Recently, we have suggested that SP sheets can not be realized in quasi-ideal plasmas, and that the plasmoid instability is triggered on a much larger scale (i.e. with current sheets having a much larger ration of thickness to length than SP). Here we present a linear parametric study of the tearing instability for a Harris current sheet, while taking into account both viscosity and current sheets of variable aspect ratios. The present study shows that an explosive growth of the reconnection rate may be reached during the linear stage, once a critical width of the current layer is reached. In the absence of a strong guide field this depends on viscosity and a range of critical aspect ratios can be found for different values of S, R, or S and Prandtl number.

  10. Hypoxia Created Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet for Prevascularized 3D Tissue Construction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijun; Xing, Qi; Qian, Zichen; Tahtinen, Mitchell; Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Shearier, Emily; Qi, Shaohai; Zhao, Feng

    2016-02-01

    3D tissue based on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) sheets offers many interesting opportunities for regenerating multiple types of connective tissues. Prevascularizing hMSC sheets with endothelial cells (ECs) will improve 3D tissue performance by supporting cell survival and accelerating integration with host tissue. It is hypothesized that hypoxia cultured hMSC sheets can promote microvessel network formation and preserve stemness of hMSCs. This study investigates the vascularization of hMSC sheets under different oxygen tensions. It is found that the HN condition, in which hMSC sheets formed under physiological hypoxia (2% O2 ) and then cocultured with ECs under normoxia (20% O2 ), enables longer and more branched microvessel network formation. The observation is corroborated by higher levels of angiogenic factors in coculture medium. Additionally, the hypoxic hMSC sheet is more uniform and less defective, which facilitates fabrication of 3D prevascularized tissue construct by layering the prevascularized hMSC sheets and maturing in rotating wall vessel bioreactor. The hMSCs in the 3D construct still maintain multilineage differentiation ability, which indicates the possible application of the 3D construct for various connective tissues regeneration. These results demonstrate that hypoxia created hMSC sheets benefit the microvessel growth and it is feasible to construct 3D prevascularized tissue construct using the prevascularized hMSC sheets. PMID:26663707

  11. Cartilage engineering using chondrocyte cell sheets and its application in reconstruction of microtia

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Libin; Ding, Ruiying; Li, Baowei; Han, Haolun; Wang, Hongnan; Wang, Gang; Xu, Bingxin; Zhai, Suoqiang; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The imperfections of scaffold materials have hindered the clinical application of cartilage tissue engineering. The recently developed cell-sheet technique is adopted to engineer tissues without scaffold materials, thus is considered being potentially able to overcome the problems concerning the scaffold imperfections. This study constructed monolayer and bilayer chondrocyte cell sheets and harvested the sheets with cell scraper instead of temperature-responsive culture dishes. The properties of the cultured chondrocyte cell sheets and the feasibility of cartilage engineering using the chondrocyte cell sheets was further investigated via in vitro and in vivo study. Primary extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and type II collagen expression was detected in the cell sheets during in vitro culture. After implanted into nude mice for 8 weeks, mature cartilage discs were harvested. The morphology of newly formed cartilage was similar in the constructs originated from monolayer and bilayer chondrocyte cell sheet. The chondrocytes were located within evenly distributed ovoid lacunae. Robust ECM formation and intense expression of type II collagen was observed surrounding the evenly distributed chondrocytes in the neocartilages. Biochemical analysis showed that the DNA contents of the neocartilages were higher than native human costal cartilage; while the contents of the main component of ECM, glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline, were similar to native human costal cartilage. In conclusion, the chondrocyte cell sheet constructed using the simple and low-cost technique is basically the same with the cell sheet cultured and harvested in temperature-responsive culture dishes, and can be used for cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25755694

  12. Cartilage engineering using chondrocyte cell sheets and its application in reconstruction of microtia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Libin; Ding, Ruiying; Li, Baowei; Han, Haolun; Wang, Hongnan; Wang, Gang; Xu, Bingxin; Zhai, Suoqiang; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The imperfections of scaffold materials have hindered the clinical application of cartilage tissue engineering. The recently developed cell-sheet technique is adopted to engineer tissues without scaffold materials, thus is considered being potentially able to overcome the problems concerning the scaffold imperfections. This study constructed monolayer and bilayer chondrocyte cell sheets and harvested the sheets with cell scraper instead of temperature-responsive culture dishes. The properties of the cultured chondrocyte cell sheets and the feasibility of cartilage engineering using the chondrocyte cell sheets was further investigated via in vitro and in vivo study. Primary extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and type II collagen expression was detected in the cell sheets during in vitro culture. After implanted into nude mice for 8 weeks, mature cartilage discs were harvested. The morphology of newly formed cartilage was similar in the constructs originated from monolayer and bilayer chondrocyte cell sheet. The chondrocytes were located within evenly distributed ovoid lacunae. Robust ECM formation and intense expression of type II collagen was observed surrounding the evenly distributed chondrocytes in the neocartilages. Biochemical analysis showed that the DNA contents of the neocartilages were higher than native human costal cartilage; while the contents of the main component of ECM, glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline, were similar to native human costal cartilage. In conclusion, the chondrocyte cell sheet constructed using the simple and low-cost technique is basically the same with the cell sheet cultured and harvested in temperature-responsive culture dishes, and can be used for cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25755694

  13. Beta-carotene

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain in people who drink alcohol. Preventing abdominal aortic aneurysm, or the enlargement of a large vessel running ... years does not reduce the occurrence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in male smokers. Cancer. Beta-carotene does not ...

  14. Theoretical modeling of the plasma-assisted catalytic growth and field emission properties of graphene sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Suresh C.; Gupta, Neha

    2015-12-01

    A theoretical modeling for the catalyst-assisted growth of graphene sheet in the presence of plasma has been investigated. It is observed that the plasma parameters can strongly affect the growth and field emission properties of graphene sheet. The model developed accounts for the charging rate of the graphene sheet; number density of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms; various elementary processes on the surface of the catalyst nanoparticle; surface diffusion and accretion of ions; and formation of carbon-clusters and large graphene islands. In our investigation, it is found that the thickness of the graphene sheet decreases with the plasma parameters, number density of hydrogen ions and RF power, and consequently, the field emission of electrons from the graphene sheet surface increases. The time evolution of the height of graphene sheet with ion density and sticking coefficient of carbon species has also been examined. Some of our theoretical results are in compliance with the experimental observations.

  15. Atomic structure of Beta-tantalum nanocrystallites.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Karsten; Thust, Andreas; Gerber, Andreas; Weides, Martin P; Urban, Knut

    2005-12-01

    The structural properties of beta-phase tantalum nanocrystallites prepared by room temperature magnetron sputter deposition on amorphous carbon substrates are investigated at atomic resolution. For these purposes spherical aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is applied in tandem with the numerical retrieval of the exit-plane wavefunction as obtained from a through-focus series of experimental micrographs. We demonstrate that recent improvements in the resolving power of electron microscopes enable the imaging of the atomic structure of beta-tantalum with column spacings of solely 0.127 nm with directly interpretable contrast features. For the first time ever, we substantiate the existence of grain boundaries of 30 degrees tilt type in beta-Ta whose formation may be well explained by atomic agglomeration processes taking place during sputter deposition. PMID:17481332

  16. High beta multipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, S C

    1982-05-01

    Multipoles are being employed as devices to study fusion issues and plasma phenomena at high values of beta (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) in a controlled manner. Due to their large volume, low magnetic field (low synchrotron radiation) region, they are also under consideration as potential steady state advanced fuel (low neutron yield) reactors. Present experiments are investigating neoclassical (bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter) currents and plasma stability at extremely high beta.

  17. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

    1998-09-22

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

  18. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; Call, Charles J.; Birmingham, Joseph G.; McDonald, Carolyn Evans; Kurath, Dean E.; Friedrich, Michele

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  19. Characteristics of the aluminum alloy sheets for forming and application examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uema, Naoyuki; Asano, Mineo

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the characteristics and application examples of aluminum alloy sheets developed for automotive parts by Sumitomo Light Metal are described. For the automotive closure panels (ex., hood, back-door), an Al-Mg-Si alloy sheet having an excellent hemming performance was developed. The cause of the occurrence and the propagation of cracks by bending were considered to be the combined effect of the shear bands formed across several crystal grains and the micro-voids formed around the second phase particles. By reducing the shear band formation during bending by controlling the crystallographic texture, the Al-Mg-Si alloy sheets showed an excellent hemming performance. For the automotive outer panels (ex., roof, fender, trunk-lid), an Al-Mg alloy sheet, which has both a good hot blow formability and excellent surface appearance after hot blow forming was developed, and hot blow forming technology was put to practical use using this developed Al-Mg alloy sheet. For automotive heat insulators, a high ductile Al-Fe alloy sheet was developed. The heat insulator, which integrated several panels, was put into practical use using this developed Al-Fe alloy sheet. The textured sheet was often used as a heat insulator in order to reduce the thickness of the aluminum alloy sheet and obtain good press formability. The new textured sheet, which has both high rigidity and good press formability for heat insulators, was developed by FE analysis.

  20. Scrolling of Suspended CVD Graphene Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, Oleg; Yeom, Sinchul; Bockrath, Marc; UC: Riverside Team

    Carbon Nanoscrolls, one dimensional spiral forms of graphitic carbon, have attracted recent interest due to their novel proposed properties. Although various production methods and studies of carbon nanoscrolls have been performed, low yield and poor controllability of their synthesis have slowed progress in this field. Suspended graphene membranes and carbon nanotubes have been predicted as promising systems for the formation of graphene scrolls. We have suspended chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene over large holes in a Si/SiO2 substrate to make suspended membranes upon which nanotubes are placed. Initial experiments have been performed showing that tears or cuts of the suspended sheet can initiate scrolling. Our latest progress towards carbon nanotube initiated formation of graphene scrolls and suspended CVD graphene scrolling, along with measurements of these novel structures will be presented.

  1. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  2. Preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils are destabilized by coenzyme Q{sub 10} in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kenjiro; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Naiki, Hironobu; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2005-04-29

    Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS, would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported previously that nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and wine-related polyphenol, myricetin (Myr), inhibit fA{beta} formation from A{beta} and destabilize preformed fA{beta} in vitro. Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of coenzyme Q{sub 10} (CoQ{sub 10}) on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 deg C in vitro. We next compared the anti-amyloidogenic activities of CoQ{sub 10} with NDGA and Myr. CoQ{sub 10} dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-peptide (A{beta}), as well as their extension. Moreover, it destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. The anti-amyloidogenic effects of CoQ{sub 10} were slightly weaker than those of NDGA and Myr. CoQ{sub 10} could be a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for AD.

  3. Solubility enhancement of celecoxib using beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Swati; Jain, Sanjay K

    2004-03-01

    Celecoxib has very low water solubility. It forms a complex with beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) both in aqueous and in solid state. It was observed that due to formation of the inclusion complex, the solubility and dissolution rate of celecoxib were enhanced. The formation of 1:1 complex with betaCD in solution was confirmed by phase solubility and spectral shift studies. The apparent stability constants calculated by these techniques were 881.5 and 341.5 M(-1), respectively. The solid inclusion complexes of celecoxib and betaCD were prepared by the kneading method using different molar proportions of betaCD, and formation of solid inclusion complexes of celecoxib and betaCD at different molar ratios were confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. Enhancement of dissolution rates with increasing quantity of betaCD in the complex was observed. It was also observed that the complexes exhibit higher dissolution rates than the pure drug and physical mixture. PMID:15018983

  4. Analysis of a Sheet Silicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, J. M.; Evans, S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student project in analytical chemistry using sheet silicates. Provides specific information regarding the use of phlogopite in an experiment to analyze samples for silicon, aluminum, magnesium, iron, potassium, and fluoride. (CS)

  5. Measurements and Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Analytical Microscopy, Electro-Optical Characterization, Surface Analysis, and Cell and Module Performance.

  6. SEER Cancer Stat Fact Sheets

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  7. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing the overall capabilities of the NREL CSP Program: collector/receiver characterization, advanced reflector and absorber materials, thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids, and CSP modeling and analysis.

  8. Deep Space 1 (fact sheet)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    Exerting less force than does a single sheet of paper resting in your hand, Deep Space 1's ion propulsion system will slowly, yet continuously accelerate the spacecraft well beyond speeds attainable by conventional chemical propulsion.

  9. Antiangiogenic effect of dual/selective alpha(5)beta(1)/alpha(v)beta(3) integrin antagonists designed on partially modified retro-inverso cyclotetrapeptide mimetics.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, Luca; Cardillo, Giuliana; Spampinato, Santi; Tolomelli, Alessandra; Squassabia, Federico; De Marco, Rossella; Bedini, Andrea; Baiula, Monica; Belvisi, Laura; Civera, Monica

    2010-01-14

    Recent evidence highlighted the role of alpha(5)beta(1) integrin in angiogenesis and in regulating alpha(v)beta(3) integrin function. As a consequence, selective alpha(5)beta(1) integrin inhibitors or dual alpha(5)beta(1)/alpha(v)beta(3) integrin inhibitors are considered promising candidates for the development of cancer therapeutic agents. In this paper, we describe the synthesis and pharmacological characterization of a minilibrary of cyclotetrapeptide mimetics containing a PMRI Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. In particular, c[(R)-betaPhepsi(NHCO)Asppsi(NHCO)Gly-Arg] (3) displayed a good activity in inhibiting the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-mediated cell adhesion of fibronectin or vitronectin, as well as the adhesion of fibronectin to the alpha(5)beta(1) integrin. Interestingly, the diastereomeric compound c[(S)-betaPhepsi(NHCO)Asppsi(NHCO)Gly-Arg] (2) maintained a good efficacy in inhibiting alpha(5)beta(1) integrin while gaining a certain selectivity over alpha(v)beta(3) integrin. These two integrin antagonists significantly inhibited bFGF-induced human endothelial cell tube formation at submicromolar concentrations. Conformational analysis and Molecular Docking calculations suggest that the different alpha(5)beta(1) versus alpha(v)beta(3) selectivity of 2 and 3 can be rationalized on the basis of the alternative display of the aromatic side chain adjacent to Asp. PMID:20055426

  10. Beta-cardiotoxin: a new three-finger toxin from Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) venom with beta-blocker activity.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Pung, Yuh Fen; Zhu, Yi Zhun; Wong, Peter Tsun Hon; Kumar, Prakash P; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2007-11-01

    Snake venoms have provided a number of novel ligands with therapeutic potential. We have constructed a partial cDNA library from the mRNA of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) venom gland tissue and identified five new genes encoding proteins belonging to the three-finger toxin family of snake venom proteins. We have isolated and characterized one of these beta-sheet containing proteins with a mass of 7012.43 +/- 0.91 Da from the venom. The protein was nonlethal up to a dose of 10 mg/kg when injected intraperitoneally into Swiss albino mice. However, it induces labored breathing and death at a dose of 100 mg/kg. It does not show any hemolytic or anticoagulant activity. It caused a dose-dependent decrease of heart rate in vivo (anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats) and also ex vivo (Langendorff isolated rat heart). This is in contrast to classical cardiotoxins from snake venom that increase the heart rate in animals. Radioligand displacement studies showed that this protein targets beta-adrenergic receptors with a binding affinity (Ki) of 5.3 and 2.3 microM toward beta1 and beta2 subtypes, respectively, to bring about its effect, and hence, it was named as beta-cardiotoxin. This is the first report of a natural exogenous beta-blocker. PMID:17616557

  11. Energy information sheets, September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  12. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  13. Stem cell approaches for diabetes: towards beta cell replacement

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells hold great promise for pancreatic beta cell replacement therapy for diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, beta cells are mostly destroyed, and in type 2 diabetes beta cell numbers are reduced by 40% to 60%. The proof-of-principle that cellular transplants of pancreatic islets, which contain insulin-secreting beta cells, can reverse the hyperglycemia of type 1 diabetes has been established, and there is now a need to find an adequate source of islet cells. Human embryonic stem cells can be directed to become fully developed beta cells and there is expectation that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be similarly directed. iPS cells can also be generated from patients with diabetes to allow studies of the genomics and pathogenesis of the disease. Some alternative approaches for replacing beta cells include finding ways to enhance the replication of existing beta cells, stimulating neogenesis (the formation of new islets in postnatal life), and reprogramming of pancreatic exocrine cells to insulin-producing cells. Stem-cell-based approaches could also be used for modulation of the immune system in type 1 diabetes, or to address the problems of obesity and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Herein, we review recent advances in our understanding of diabetes and beta cell biology at the genomic level, and we discuss how stem-cell-based approaches might be used for replacing beta cells and for treating diabetes. PMID:21951399

  14. A facile liquid phase exfoliation method to prepare graphene sheets with different sizes expandable graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Keqing; Shi, Yongqian; Jiang, Saihua; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan; Gui, Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This study presented a novel method for the production of high-quality graphene sheets through the exfoliation of Li-intercalated EG with sonication. • The quality of the graphene sheets produced from different sizes EG was compared for the first time and the formation mechanism was discussed. • The graphene sheets obtained from the small size EG have less layers than the large size EG. - Abstract: In this work, graphene sheets suspension were synthesized directly from expandable graphite (EG) via an intercalation and exfoliation pathway using n-butyl lithium as the intercalating agent, water and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as the exfoliating agent. The quality of the graphene sheets produced from different sizes EG was compared and the formation mechanism was discussed. The formation of the graphene sheets and its formation mechanism were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Raman spectroscopy measurement, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The graphene sheets obtained from the small size EG have less layers than the large size EG.

  15. Cryosphere: Warming ocean erodes ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusahara, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    Antarctic ice sheets are a key player in sea-level rise in a warming climate. Now an ice-sheet modelling study clearly demonstrates that an Antarctic ice sheet/shelf system in the Atlantic Ocean will be regulated by the warming of the surrounding Southern Ocean, not by marine-ice-sheet instability.

  16. Manufacturing Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Manufacturing Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Manufacturing Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) focuses on developing methods and technologies that will assist manufacturers of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, as well as other renewable energy technologies, to scale up their manufacturing capabilities to volumes that meet DOE and industry targets. Specifically, the manufacturing activity is currently focused on developing and validating quality control techniques to assist manufacturers of low temperature and high temperature fuel cells in the transition from low to high volume production methods for cells and stacks. Capabilities include initial proof-of-concept studies through prototype system development and in-line validation. Existing diagnostic capabilities address a wide range of materials, including polymer films, carbon and catalyst coatings, carbon fiber papers and wovens, and multi-layer assemblies of these materials, as well as ceramic-based materials in pre- or post-fired forms. Work leading to the development of non-contact, non-destructive techniques to measure critical dimensional and functional properties of fuel cell and other materials, and validation of those techniques on the continuous processing line. This work will be supported by materials provided by our partners. Looking forward, the equipment in the laboratory is set up to be modified and extended to provide processing capabilities such as coating, casting, and deposition of functional layers, as well as associated processes such as drying or curing. In addition, continuous processes are used for components of organic and thin film photovoltaics (PV) as well as battery technologies, so synergies with these important areas will be explored.

  17. Chemical chaperones interfere with the formation of scrapie prion protein.

    PubMed

    Tatzelt, J; Prusiner, S B; Welch, W J

    1996-12-01

    The fundamental event in prion diseases involves a conformational change in one or more of the alpha-helices of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) as they are converted into beta-sheets during the formation of the pathogenic isoform (PrP(Sc)). Here, we show that exposure of scrapie-infected mouse neuroblastoma (ScN2a) cells to reagents known to stabilize proteins in their native conformation reduced the rate and extent of PrP(Sc) formation. Such reagents include the cellular osmolytes glycerol and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and the organic solvent dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which we refer to as 'chemical chaperones' because of their influence on protein folding. Although the chemical chaperones did not appear to affect the existing population of PrP(Sc) molecules in ScN2a cells, they did interfere with the formation of PrP(Sc) from newly synthesized PrP(C). We suggest that the chemical chaperones act to stabilize the alpha-helical conformation of PrP(C) and thereby prevent the protein from undergoing a conformational change to produce PrP(Sc). These observations provide further support for the idea that prions arise due to a change in protein conformation and reveal potential strategies for preventing PrP(Sc) formation. PMID:8978663

  18. Amyloid Beta as a Modulator of Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Parihar, Mordhwaj S; Brewer, Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is associated with synapse loss, memory dysfunction and pathological accumulation of amyloid beta in plaques. However, an exclusively pathological role for amyloid beta is being challenged by new evidence for an essential function of amyloid beta at the synapse. Amyloid beta protein exists in different assembly states in the central nervous system and plays distinct roles ranging from synapse and memory formation to memory loss and neuronal cell death. Amyloid beta is present in the brain of symptom-free people where it likely performs important physiological roles. New evidence indicates that synaptic activity directly evokes the release of amyloid beta at the synapse. At physiological levels, amyloid beta is a normal, soluble product of neuronal metabolism that regulates synaptic function beginning early in life. Monomeric amyloid beta 40 and 42 are the predominant forms required for synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival. With age, some assemblies of amyloid beta are associated with synaptic failure and Alzheimer’s disease pathology, possibly targeting the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor through the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), mitochondrial amyloid-β alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD) and cyclophilin D. But emerging data suggests a distinction between age effects on the target response in contrast to the assembly state or the accumulation of the peptide. Both aging and beta amyloid independently decrease neuronal plasticity. Our laboratory has reported that amyloid beta, glutamate and lactic acid are each increasingly toxic with neuron age. The basis of the age-related toxicity partly resides in age-related mitochondrial dysfunction and an oxidative shift in mitochondrial and cytoplasmic redox potential. In turn, signaling through phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (pERK) is affected along with an age-independent increase in phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) This review examines the long-awaited functional impact of amyloid beta on synaptic plasticity. PMID:20847424

  19. Synthesis of akageneite (beta-FeOOH)/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for oxidative decomposition of 2-chlorophenol by Fenton-like reaction.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Li, Wentao; Fang, Liping; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the composite of reduced graphene oxide and akageneite (Ak/rGO) was synthesised by co-precipitating and reduction processes. The morphological and structural features of the synthesized composites (Ak/rGO) were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET, FTIR, Zeta potential and XPS. The results revealed that (1) beta-FeOOH was successfully loaded on the reduced graphene oxide (rGO); (2) the presence of strong interfacial interactions (FeOC bonds) between rGO and beta-FeOOH was observed; (3) the reduction of graphene oxide may be inhabited in the formation process of beta-FeOOH, producing rGO sheets rather than rGO sphere. In the heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction, the degradation rate constants of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) increased 2-5 times after the addition of rGO probably due to the FeOC bond. The increase of the content of rGO could contribute to the removal of 2-CP, due to the synergy of catalysis and 2-CP adsorption towards Ak/rGO. In this study, the Ak/rGO composite has exhibited great potential and significant prospects for environmental application. PMID:26808238

  20. Boosted Beta Regression

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Matthias; Wickler, Florian; Maloney, Kelly O.; Mitchell, Richard; Fenske, Nora; Mayr, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1). Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures. PMID:23626706

  1. Dynamic of Current Sheets and Their Associated Particle Energization

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Guo, Fan; Makwan, Kirit; Li, Xiaocan; Zhandrin, Vladimir; Daughton, William Scott

    2015-08-19

    Magnetic reconnection in current sheets has relevance to Earth's magnetosphere, solar flares, high-energy astrophysics (pulsar wind nebula (e.g. Crab Nebula), gamma-ray bursts, black hole jets), and laboratory plasma/fusion. Data are shown for several cases with varying values of configuration energy Ec and β. Several conclusions were drawn: Depending on the “configuration energy”, the formation, shape, and lifetime of current sheets can vary. Plasma condition (configuration, β, driving, etc.) strongly affect the efficiency of particle acceleration. For low β and general “configuration energy”, particle heating is expected. For low β, large and long-lived current sheets, it is possible to produce highly non-thermal particles via collisionless plasmoid reconnection.

  2. Younger Dryas interval and outflow from the Laurentide ice sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.C., Jr.; Walker, J.C.G.; Rea, David K.; Lewis, C.F.M.; Shane, L.C.K.; Smith, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    A boxmodel of the Great Lakes is used to estimate meltwater flow into the North Atlantic between 8000 and 14,000 calendar years B.P. Controls on the model include the oxygen isotopic composition of meltwaters and lake waters as measured in the shells of ostracodes. Outflow rates are highest when oxygen isotopic values of the lake waters are most negative, denoting a maximum glacial meltwater component. Flow rates reach maximum values before the onset of the Younger Dryas and after it ends. These maxima appear to be correlative with the major meltwater pulses MWP 1A and 1B. Although the resumption of North Atlantic Deep Water formation may be tied to the reduction in ice sheet melting, neither the onset nor the end of the Younger Dryas, as recorded in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP2) records, appear tied to maxima in meltwater outflow from the Laurentide ice sheet. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. The current-voltage relationship in auroral current sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, D. R.; Gurnett, D. A.; Goertz, C. K.; Menietti, J. D.; Burch, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    The current-voltage relation within narrow auroral current sheets is examined through the use of high-resolution data from the high altitude Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite. The north-south perpendicular electric field and the east-west magnetic field are shown for three cases in which there are large amplitude, oppositely directed paired electric fields and narrow current sheets. These data are shown to indicate that there is a linear Ohm's law relationship between the current density and the parallel potential drop within the narrow current sheets. This linear relationship had previously been verified for large-scale auroral formations greater than 20 km wide at the ionosphere. The evidence shown here extends our knowledge down to the scale size of discrete auroral arcs.

  4. Systematic study of plasma flow during plasma sheet thinnings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K. L.; Meng, C.-I.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of a study of Imp 6 measurements of plasma flow, it is concluded that there is no clear indication of a predominance of tailward plasma flow beyond about X = -15 R sub E in the midnight sector of the plasma sheet during the expansive phase of a substorm. In fact, it is shown statistically that sunward plasma flow is more frequently observed in the midnight sector within about 30 R sub E from the earth than in any other direction during plasma sheet thinning at the substorm expansion. This result supports the conclusion that there is no definite evidence for the formation of a reconnection neutral line in the near-earth plasma sheet during most substorms.

  5. Platelet-derived growth factor (BB homodimer), transforming growth factor-beta 1, and basic fibroblast growth factor in dermal wound healing. Neovessel and matrix formation and cessation of repair.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, G. F.; Tarpley, J. E.; Yanagihara, D.; Mustoe, T. A.; Fox, G. M.; Thomason, A.

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (BB homodimer, rPDGF-BB), transforming growth factor beta 1 (rTGF-beta 1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (rbFGF) can accelerate healing of soft tissues. However, little information is available characterizing the components of wound matrix induced by these growth factors and the molecular mechanisms underlying accelerated repair and wound maturation. In this study, the composition, quantity, and rate of extracellular matrix deposition within growth factor-treated lapine ear excisional wounds were analyzed at different stages of healing using specific histochemical and immunohistochemical stains, coupled with image analysis techniques. Single application of optimal concentrations of each growth factor accelerated normal healing by 30% (P less than 0.0003); rPDGF-BB markedly augmented early glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and fibronectin deposition, but induced significantly greater levels of collagen later in the repair process, compared with untreated wounds rTGF-beta 1 treatment led to rapidly enhanced collagen synthesis and maturation, without increased GAG deposition. In contrast, rbFGF treatment induced a predominantly angiogenic response in wounds, with a marked increase in endothelia and neovessels (P less than 0.0001), and increased wound collagenolytic activity (P less than 0.03). rbFGF-treated wounds did not evolve into collagen-containing scars and continued to accumulate only provisional matrix well past wound closure. These results provide new evidence that growth factors influence wound repair via different mechanisms: 1) rPDGF-BB accelerates deposition of provisional wound matrix; 2) rTGF-beta 1 accelerates deposition and maturation of collagen; and 3) rbFGF induces a profound monocellular angiogenic response which may lead to a marked delay in wound maturation, and the possible loss of the normal signal(s) required to stop repair. These results suggest that specific growth factors may selectively regulate components of the repair response by differing mechanisms, offering the potential for targeted therapeutic intervention. Images Figure 4 Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:1376557

  6. Chronology of endocrine differentiation and beta-cell neogenesis [Review].

    PubMed

    Miyatsuka, Takeshi

    2016-03-31

    Diabetes is a chronic and incurable disease, which results from absolute or relative insulin insufficiency. Therefore, pancreatic beta cells, which are the only type of cell that expresses insulin, is considered to be a potential target for the cure of diabetes. Although the findings regarding beta-cell neogenesis during pancreas development have been exploited to induce insulin-producing cells from non-beta cells, there are still many hurdles towards generating fully functional beta cells that can produce high levels of insulin and respond to physiological signals. To overcome these problems, a solid understanding of pancreas development and beta-cell formation is required, and several mouse models have been developed to reveal the unique features of each endocrine cell type at distinct developmental time points. Here I review our understanding of pancreas development and endocrine differentiation focusing on recent progresses in improving temporal cell labeling in vivo. PMID:26615757

  7. Structural requirements and mechanism for heparin-dependent activation and tetramerization of human betaI- and betaII-tryptase.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Jenny; Lindahl, Susanne; Pejler, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Tryptase, a tetrameric serine protease, is a main constituent of the secretory granules in human mast cells, where it is stored in complex with heparin or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Human tryptase has been implicated in a variety of clinical conditions including asthma, but the mechanisms that lead to its tetramerization/activation have not been extensively investigated. Here we addressed the activation mechanisms for human betaI and betaII-tryptase, which differ in that betaI-tryptase is N-glycosylated at Asn102 whereas betaII-tryptase has a Lys residue at position 102, and consequently lacks the corresponding N-glycosylation. We found that both tryptases were dependent on heparin for activation/tetramerization, but whereas betaI-tryptase activation preferentially occurred at acidic pH, betaII-tryptase activation was less pH-dependent. Both betaI and betaII-tryptase bound strongly to heparin-Sepharose at acidic pH but with lower affinity at neutral pH. Further, while addition of heparin to betaI-tryptase predominantly resulted in formation of active tetrameric enzyme, betaII-tryptase showed a tendency to form inactive aggregates. betaI and betaII-tryptase were similar in that the minimal heparin size to induce activation was an octasaccharide and in that the interaction with heparin and structurally related polysaccharides was dependent on high anionic charge density rather than on specific structural motifs. Addition of decasaccharides to both betaI and betaII-tryptase resulted in the formation of active monomeric enzyme, whereas intact heparin promoted assembly of tetrameric enzyme. This, together with a bell-shaped dose response curve for heparin-induced activation, suggests that the mechanism for tetramerization involves bridging of individual tryptase monomers by heparin. Taken together, this study indicates a key role for heparin in the activation of human beta-tryptase. PMID:15567416

  8. Late Weichselian ice sheet of Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosswald, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    A considerable portion of Northern Eurasia, and particularly its continental shelf, was glaciated by inland ice during late Weichsel time. This was first inferred from such evidence as glacial striae, submarine troughs, sea-bed diamictons, boulder trains on adjacent land, and patterns of glacioisostatic crustal movements. Subsequently, the inference was confirmed by data on the occurrence and geographic position of late Weichselian end moraines and proglacial lacustrine deposits. The south-facing outer moraines in the northeastern Russian Plain, northern West Siberia, and on Taimyr Peninsula are underlain by sediments containing wood and peat, the radiocarbon dating of which yielded ages of 22,000 to 45,000 yr B.P. The youngest late-glacial moraines are of Holocene age: the double Markhida moraine in the lower Pechora River basin, presumably associated with "degradational" surges of the Barents Ice Dome, is underlain by sediments with wood and peat dated at 9000 to 9900 yr B.P.: this suggests that deglaciation of the Arctic continental shelf of Eurasia was not completed until after 9000 yr B.P. The reconstructed ice-front lines lead to the conclusion that the late Weichselian ice sheet of Northern Eurasia (proposed name: the Eurasian Ice Sheet) extended without interruptions from southwestern Ireland to the northeastern end of Taimyr Peninsula, a distance of 6000 km: it covered an area of 8,370,000 km 2, half of which lay on the present-day continental shelves and a quarter on lowlands that were depressed isostatically below sea level. Hence, the ice sheet was predominantly marine-based. A contour map of the ice sheet based both on the dependence of the heights of ice domes upon their radii and on factual data concerning the impact of bedrock topography upon ice relief has been constructed. The major features of the ice sheet were the British, Scandinavian, Barents, and Kara Ice Domes that had altitudes of 1.9 to 3.3 km and were separated from one another by ice saddles about 1.5 km high. At the late Weichselian glacial maximum, all the main ice-dispersion centers were on continental shelves and coastal lowlands, whereas mountain centers, such as the Polar Urals and Byrranga Range, played only a local role. The portions of the ice sheet that were grounded on continental shelves some 700 to 900 m below sea level were inherently unstable and could exist only in conjunction with confined and pinned floating ice shelves that covered the Arctic Ocean and the Greenland and Norwegian Seas. The Eurasian Ice Sheet impounded the Severnaya Dvina, Mezen, Pechora, Ob, Irtysh, and Yneisei Rivers, and caused the formation of ice-dammed lakes on the northern Russian Plain and in West Siberia. Until about 13,500 yr B.P. the proglacial system of lakes and spillways had a radial pattern; it included large West Siberian lakes, the Caspian and Black Seas, and ended in the Mediterranian Sea. Later, the system became marginal and discharged proglacial water mainly into the Norwegian Sea.

  9. Global ice-sheet system interlocked by sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, G.H.; Hughes, T.J.; Karlen, W.

    1986-01-01

    Denton and Hughes postulated that sea level linked a global ice-sheet system with both terrestrial and grounded marine components during later Quaternary ice ages. Summer temperature changes near Northern Hemisphere melting margins initiated sea-level fluctuations that controlled marine components in both polar hemispheres. It was further proposed that variations of this ice-sheet system amplified and transmitted Milankovitch summer half-year insolation changes between 45 and 75/sup 0/N into global climatic changes. New tests of this hypothesis implicate sea level as a major control of the areal extent of grounded portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. But factors other than areal changes of the grounded Antarctic Ice Sheet may have strongly influenced Southern Hemisphere climate and terminated the last ice age simultaneously in both polar hemispheres. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked to high-latitude oceans is the most likely candidate, but another potential influence was high-frequency climatic oscillations. It is postulated that variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide acted through an Antarctic ice shelf linked to the grounded ice sheet to produce and terminate Southern Hemisphere ice-age climate. It is further postulated that Milankovitch summer insolation combined with a warm-high frequency oscillation caused marked recession of Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet melting margins and the North Atlantic polar front about 14,000 /sup 14/C yr B.P. This permitted renewed formation of North Atlantic Deep Water, which could well have controlled atmospheric carbon dioxide. Combined melting and consequent sea-level rise from the three warming factors initiated irreversible collapse of the interlocked global ice-sheet system, which was at its largest but most vulnerable configuration.

  10. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1988-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  11. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  12. Structure and Dynamics of Current Sheets in 3D Magnetic Fields with the X-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Anna G.; Bogdanov, S. Yu.; Bugrov, S. G.; Markov, V. S.; Dreiden, G. V.; Ostrovskaya, G. V.

    2004-11-01

    Experimental results are presented on the structure of current sheets formed in 3D magnetic fields with singular lines of the X-type. Two basic diagnostics were used with the device CS - 3D: two-exposure holographic interferometry and magnetic measurements. Formation of extended current sheets and plasma compression were observed in the presence of the longitudinal magnetic field component aligned with the X-line. Plasma density decreased and the sheet thickness increased with an increase of the longitudinal component. We succeeded to reveal formation of the sheets taking unusual shape, namely tilted and asymmetric sheets, in plasmas with the heavy ions. These current sheets were obviously different from the planar sheets formed in 2D magnetic fields, i.e. without longitudinal component. Analysis of typical plasma parameters made it evident that plasma dynamics and current sheet evolution should be treated on the base of the two-fluid approach. Specifically it is necessary to take into account the Hall currents in the plane perpendicular to the X-line, and the dynamic effects resulting from interaction of the Hall currents and the 3D magnetic field. Supported by RFBR, grant 03-02-17282, and ISTC, project 2098.

  13. Immobilization of TiO2 nanofibers on reduced graphene sheets: Novel strategy in electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Pant, Hem Raj; Adhikari, Surya Prasad; Pant, Bishweshwar; Joshi, Mahesh K; Kim, Han Joo; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2015-11-01

    A simple and efficient approach is developed to immobilize TiO2 nanofibers onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. Here, TiO2 nanofiber-intercalated RGO sheets are readily produced by two-step procedure involving the use of electrospinning process to fabricate TiO2 precursor containing polymeric fibers on the surface of GO sheets, followed by simultaneous TiO2 nanofibers formation and GO reduction by calcinations. GO sheets deposited on the collector during electrospinning/electrospray can act as substrate on to which TiO2 precursor containing polymer nanofibers can be deposited which give TiO2 NFs doped RGO sheets on calcinations. Formation of corrugated structure cavities of graphene sheets decorated with TiO2 nanofibers on their surface demonstrates that our method constitutes an alternative top-down strategy toward fabricating verities of nanofiber-decorated graphene sheets. It was found that the synthesized TiO2/RGO composite revealed a remarkable increased in photocatalytic activity compared to pristine TiO2 nanofibers. Therefore, engineering of TiO2 nanofiber-intercalated RGO sheets using proposed facile technique can be considered a promising method for catalytic and other applications. PMID:26164250

  14. The presence of a novel protein in calf serum that recognizes beta amyloid in the formalin-fixed section.

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaru, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Shimada, H.; Ihara, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Here we report on a monoclonal antibody, H6-33, that labels various beta-amyloid plaques, including diffuse plaques in the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded section from the brain affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD), without formic acid pretreatment. H6-33 also labels some neurofibrillary tangles and all kuru plaques in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease. In sharp contrast, H6-33 did not stain beta amyloid in the leptomeningeal vessel. For specific staining, H6-33 required the presence of fetal calf serum and it was necessary for beta amyloid to be formalin fixed. These results suggest that a novel protein in the calf serum, CSX, binds formalin-fixed beta amyloid, followed by H6-33 binding. The detection of beta amyloid by CSX was nullified by formic acid pretreatment of the tissue section. In accordance with this, CSX reacted only with a polymer form of synthetic beta peptide after fixation, but not with native beta-protein or beta-peptide monomer. These observations strongly suggest that 1) meningovascular beta amyloid should have a beta-pleated sheet structure somewhat dissimilar to that of beta-amyloid cores; and 2) most, if not all, of beta-protein immunoreactivities of diffuse plaques in AD sections are presumably derived from small amounts of amyloid fibrils scattered in the normal-looking neurohil. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1698030

  15. Proteopedia: Rossmann fold: A beta-alpha-beta fold at dinucleotide binding sites.

    PubMed

    Hanukoglu, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The Rossmann fold is one of the most common and widely distributed super-secondary structures. It is composed of a series of alternating beta strand (β) and alpha helical (α) segments wherein the β-strands are hydrogen bonded forming a β-sheet. The initial beta-alpha-beta (βαβ) fold is the most conserved segment of Rossmann folds. As this segment is in contact with the ADP portion of dinucleotides such as FAD, NAD, and NADP it is also called as an "ADP-binding βαβ fold". The Proteopedia entry on the Rossmann fold (Available at: http://proteopedia.org/w/Rossmann_fold) was generated to illustrate several structural aspects of super families of FAD and NAD(P) binding proteins: (1) The coenzymes FAD and NAD(P) share the basic adenosine diphosphate (ADP) structure. (2) The βαβ fold motif that is common to both FAD and NAD(P) binding enzymes accommodates the common ADP component of these two coenzymes. (3) In both FAD and NAD(P) binding sites, the tight turn between the first β-strand and the α-helix is in contact with the two phosphate groups of ADP. (4) This hairpin curve includes the first two conserved glycines (Gly-x-Gly) that allow the sharp turn of the polypeptide backbone. (5) The two β-strands of the βαβ fold may constitute the core of a larger β-sheet that may include up to seven β-strands generally in parallel orientation. (6) The structures of segments between additional strands vary greatly and may be composed of a variety of structures such as multiple short helices or coils. PMID:25704928

  16. Relation between the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} and 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Petr; Simkovic, Fedor

    2011-12-16

    A formal relation between the GT part of the nuclear matrix elements M{sub GT}{sup 0{nu}} of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the closure matrix elements M{sub cl}{sup 2{nu}} of 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is established. This relation is based on the integral representation of these quantities in terms of their dependence on the distance r between the two nucleons undergoing transformation. We also discuss the difficulties in determining the correct values of the closure 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay matrix elements.

  17. Polycrystalline Silicon Sheets for Solar Cells by the Improved Spinning Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maeda, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Hide, I.

    1984-01-01

    Cost reduction of silicon materials in the photovoltaic program of materials was examined. The current process of producing silicon sheets is based entirely on the conventional Czochralski ingot growth and wafering used in the semiconductor industry. The current technology cannot meet the cost reduction demands for producing low cost silicon sheets. Alternative sheet production processes such as unconventional crystallization are needed. The production of polycrystalline silicon sheets by unconventional ingot technology is the casting technique. Though large grain sheets were obtained by this technique, silicon ribbon growth overcomes deficiencies of the casting process by obtaining the sheet directly from the melt. The need to solve difficulties of growth stability and impurity effects are examined. The direct formation process of polycrystalline silicon sheets with large grain size, smooth surface, and sharp edges from the melt with a high growth rate which will yield low cost silicon sheets for solar cells and the photovoltaic characteristics associated with this type of sheet to include an EBIC study of the grain boundaries are described.

  18. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 229

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.; Tuli, J.K.

    2008-11-15

    The evaluators present in this publication spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies for all nuclei with mass number A = 229. These nuclei belong to a region of coexisting quadrupole with possible octupole deformations. The latter have been observed in {sup 229}Ra, but in {sup 229}Pa the experimental evidence is inconclusive. The present evaluation of A = 229, which includes all data received by June 2008, supersedes the 1989 evaluation by Y.A. Akovali, published in Nuclear Data Sheets58, 555 (1989). Highlights of this publication are given below: A comprehensive spectroscopic study of {sup 229}Fr(50.2 s) {beta}- decay using mass-separated sources have provided the first evidence of parity doublets in {sup 229}Ra due to nuclear octupole deformation (1999Fr33). In {sup 229}Th a level at 7.6 5 eV - the closest level to the ground state ever known - has been confirmed through extremely precise measurements of {gamma}-ray energies from {sup 233}U {alpha} decay (1994He08, 2007Be16). A nuclear level at such low energy may be used for studying a large variety of atomic properties associated to nuclear decay. The level structure in {sup 229}Pa has been interpreted in terms of the rotational model (1994Le22). Some authors, however, have proposed the existence of parity doublets as evidence of octupole nuclear deformation (1982Ah08). This interpretation has not been confirmed.

  19. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 178

    SciTech Connect

    Achterberg, E.; Capurro, O.A.; Marti, G.V.

    2009-07-15

    The present revision of the nuclear structure properties for the nuclides belonging to the A = 178 mass chain contains many improvements and additions to the material presented in the previous evaluation (1994Br18, Nucl. Data Sheets 72, 221 (1994)). Besides updating many values, and including supplementary data for already known levels, transitions and level schemes, the most noteworthy modifications with respect to the prior evaluation are extensive additions to the level schemes of {sup 178}Yb, {sup 178}Hf, {sup 178}Ta, {sup 178}W. {sup 178}Ir, {sup 178}Pt and {sup 178}Hg, based on HI reaction works performed after the last cutoff date (July 1993), and to {sup 178}Hf due to new data from recent Coulomb excitation experiments. Light ion ({sup 3}He, {alpha}) beam experiments have added many data for {sup 178}Ta. Beta decay studies have also provided significant data for {sup 178}W and {sup 178}Pt. Lastly the first report of the identification of {sup 178}Tl and {sup 178}Pb is included.

  20. Statistics of plasma sheet convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juusola, L.; Østgaard, N.; Tanskanen, E.

    2011-08-01

    Determining the characteristics of plasma sheet convection and their response to changes in various solar wind parameters is important for understanding the energy and mass transport, as well as disturbance propagation, through geospace. We use 15 years of data obtained by Geotail, Cluster, and THEMIS to study statistically the characteristics of plasma sheet flows and the effect of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the convection. We find that plasma sheet convection is dominated by slow speed (<100 km/s) flows that circulate around Earth on both sides toward the dayside. With increasing flow speed the sunward component of the flow velocity becomes more pronounced such that flows with V > 500 km/s are directed almost purely sunward. Both IMF By and IMF Bz are observed to penetrate the plasma sheet. Du