Sample records for beta sheet formation

  1. Hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds in \\beta-sheet formation

    E-print Network

    Narayanan, Chitra

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate interactions of extended conformations of homodimeric peptides made of small (glycine or alanine) and large hydrophobic (valine or leucine) sidechains using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to decipher driving forces for \\beta-sheet formation. We make use of a periodic boundary condition setup in which individual peptides are infinitely long and stretched. Dimers adopt \\beta-sheet conformations at short interpeptide distances (\\xi ~ 0.5 nm) and at intermediate distances (~ 0.8 nm), valine and leucine homodimers assume cross-\\beta-like conformations with side chains interpenetrating each other. These two states are identified as minima in the Potential of Mean Force (PMF). While the number of interpeptide hydrogen bonds increases with decreasing interpeptide distance, the total hydrogen bond number in the system does not change significantly, suggesting that formation of \\beta-sheet structures from extended conformations is not driven by hydrogen bonds. This is supported by...

  2. Conformational diversity in prion protein variants influences intermolecular [beta]-sheet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seungjoo; Antony, Lizamma; Hartmann, Rune; Knaus, Karen J.; Surewicz, Krystyna; Surewicz, Witold K.; Yee, Vivien C. (Case Western); (Cleveland Clinic)

    2010-04-19

    A conformational transition of normal cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) to its pathogenic form (PrP{sup Sc}) is believed to be a central event in the transmission of the devastating neurological diseases known as spongiform encephalopathies. The common methionine/valine polymorphism at residue 129 in the PrP influences disease susceptibility and phenotype. We report here seven crystal structures of human PrP variants: three of wild-type (WT) PrP containing V129, and four of the familial variants D178N and F198S, containing either M129 or V129. Comparison of these structures with each other and with previously published WT PrP structures containing M129 revealed that only WT PrPs were found to crystallize as domain-swapped dimers or closed monomers; the four mutant PrPs crystallized as non-swapped dimers. Three of the four mutant PrPs aligned to form intermolecular {beta}-sheets. Several regions of structural variability were identified, and analysis of their conformations provides an explanation for the structural features, which can influence the formation and conformation of intermolecular {beta}-sheets involving the M/V129 polymorphic residue.

  3. Amyloid-beta-sheet formation at the air-water interface.

    PubMed Central

    Schladitz, C; Vieira, E P; Hermel, H; Möhwald, H

    1999-01-01

    An amyloid(1-40) solution rich in coil, turn, and alpha-helix, but poor in beta-sheet, develops monolayers with a high beta-sheet content when spread at the air-water interface. These monolayers are resistant to repeated compression-dilatation cycles and interaction with trifluoroethanol. The secondary structure motifs were detected by circular dichroism (CD) in solution and with infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) at the interface. Hydrophobic influences are discussed for the structure conversion in an effort to understand the completely unknown reason for the natural change of the normal prion protein cellular (PrP(C)) into the abnormal prion protein scrapie (PrP(Sc)). PMID:10585952

  4. Cyclic modular beta-sheets.

    PubMed

    Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S

    2007-03-01

    The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (beta-sheets 1a, 1b, and 1f each have a phenylalanine directly across from Hao, suggesting that cyclic modular beta-sheets containing aromatic residues across from Hao are better folded. PMID:17295482

  5. Solution conformation and amyloid-like fibril formation of a polar peptide derived from a beta-hairpin in the OspA single-layer beta-sheet.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, S; Koide, A; Koide, S

    2000-08-11

    A 23-residue peptide termed BH(9-10) was designed based on a beta-hairpin segment of the single-layer beta-sheet region of Borrelia OspA protein. The peptide contains a large number of charged amino acid residues, and it does not follow the amphipathic pattern that is commonly found in natural beta-sheets. In aqueous solution, the peptide was highly soluble and flexible, with a propensity to form a non-native beta-turn. Trifluoroethanol (TFE) stabilized a native-like beta-turn in BH(9-10). TFE also decreased the level of solubility of the peptide, resulting in peptide precipitation. The precipitation process accompanied a conformational conversion to a beta-sheet structure, as judged with circular dichroism spectroscopy. The precipitate was found to be fibrils similar to those associated with human amyloid diseases. The fibrillization kinetics depended on peptide and TFE concentrations, and had a nucleation step followed by an assembly step. The fibrillization was reversible, and the dissociation reaction involved two phases. TFE appears to induce the fibrils by stabilizing a beta-sheet conformation of the peptide that optimally satisfies hydrogen bonding and electrostatic complementarity. This TFE-induced fibrillization is quite unusual, because most amyloidogenic peptides form fibrils in aqueous solution and TFE disrupts these fibrils. Nevertheless, the BH(9-10) fibrils have similar structure to other fibrils, supporting the emerging idea that polypeptides possess an intrinsic ability to form amyloid-like fibrils. The high level of solubility of BH(9-10), the ability to precisely control fibril formation and dissociation, and the high-resolution structure of the same sequence in the beta-hairpin conformation in the OspA protein provide a tractable experimental system for studying the fibril formation mechanism. PMID:10926522

  6. Macrocyclic beta-sheet peptides that mimic protein quaternary structure through intermolecular beta-sheet interactions.

    PubMed

    Khakshoor, Omid; Demeler, Borries; Nowick, James S

    2007-05-01

    This paper reports the design, synthesis, and characterization of a family of cyclic peptides that mimic protein quaternary structure through beta-sheet interactions. These peptides are 54-membered-ring macrocycles comprising an extended heptapeptide beta-strand, two Hao beta-strand mimics [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] joined by one additional alpha-amino acid, and two delta-linked ornithine beta-turn mimics [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Peptide 3a, as the representative of these cyclic peptides, contains a heptapeptide sequence (TSFTYTS) adapted from the dimerization interface of protein NuG2 [PDB ID: 1mio]. 1H NMR studies of aqueous solutions of peptide 3a show a partially folded monomer in slow exchange with a strongly folded oligomer. NOE studies clearly show that the peptide self-associates through edge-to-edge beta-sheet dimerization. Pulsed-field gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion coefficient measurements and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) studies establish that the oligomer is a tetramer. Collectively, these experiments suggest a model in which cyclic peptide 3a oligomerizes to form a dimer of beta-sheet dimers. In this tetrameric beta-sheet sandwich, the macrocyclic peptide 3a is folded to form a beta-sheet, the beta-sheet is dimerized through edge-to-edge interactions, and this dimer is further dimerized through hydrophobic face-to-face interactions involving the Phe and Tyr groups. Further studies of peptides 3b-3n, which are homologues of peptide 3a with 1-6 variations in the heptapeptide sequence, elucidate the importance of the heptapeptide sequence in the folding and oligomerization of this family of cyclic peptides. Studies of peptides 3b-3g show that aromatic residues across from Hao improve folding of the peptide, while studies of peptides 3h-3n indicate that hydrophobic residues at positions R3 and R5 of the heptapeptide sequence are important in oligomerization. PMID:17419629

  7. Water-soluble beta-sheet models which self-assemble into fibrillar structures.

    PubMed

    Janek, K; Behlke, J; Zipper, J; Fabian, H; Georgalis, Y; Beyermann, M; Bienert, M; Krause, E

    1999-06-29

    Self-assembly of beta-sheet domains resulting in the formation of pathogenic, fibrillar protein aggregates (amyloids) is a characteristic feature of various medical disorders. These include neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Creutzfeldt-Jacob's. A significant problem in studying such aggregation processes is the poor solubility of these beta-sheet complexes. The present work describes water-soluble de novo beta-sheet peptides which self-assemble into fibrillar structures. The model peptides enable studies of the relationship between beta-sheet stability and association behavior. The peptides [DPKGDPKG-(VT)n-GKGDPKPD-NH2, n = 3-8] are composed of a central beta-sheet-forming domain (VT-sequence), and N- and C-terminal nonstructured octapeptide sequences which promote water solubility. Conformational analyses by circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicate the influence of peptide length, D-amino acid substitution, and concentration on the ability of the peptides to form stable beta-sheet structures. The association behavior investigated by analytical ultracentrifugation and dynamic light scattering was found to correlate strongly with the stability of a beta-sheet conformation. Model peptides with n >/= 6 form stable, water-soluble beta-sheet complexes with molecular masses of more than 2000 kDa, which are organized in fibrillar structures. The fibrils examined by Congo Red staining and electron microscopy show some similarities with naturally occurring amyloid fibrils. PMID:10387070

  8. De novo design of monomeric beta-hairpin and beta-sheet peptides.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Uceda, David; Santiveri, Clara M; Jiménez, M Angeles

    2006-01-01

    Since the first report in 1993 (JACS 115, 5887-5888) of a peptide able to form a monomeric beta-hairpin structure in aqueous solution, the design of peptides forming either beta-hairpins (two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets) or three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets has become a field of intense interest. These studies have yielded great insights into the principles governing the stability and folding of beta-hairpins and antiparallel beta-sheets. This chapter reviews briefly those principles and describes a protocol for the de novo design of beta-sheet-forming peptides based on them. Criteria to select appropriate turn and strand residues and to avoid aggregation are provided. Because nuclear magnetic resonance is the most appropriate technique to check the success of new designs, the nuclear magnetic resonance parameters characteristic of beta-hairpins and three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets are given. PMID:16957331

  9. Hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds in ?-sheet formation

    E-print Network

    Chitra Narayanan; Cristiano L. Dias

    2013-08-22

    In this study, we investigate interactions of extended conformations of homodimeric peptides made of small (glycine or alanine) and large hydrophobic (valine or leucine) sidechains using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to decipher driving forces for \\beta-sheet formation. We make use of a periodic boundary condition setup in which individual peptides are infinitely long and stretched. Dimers adopt \\beta-sheet conformations at short interpeptide distances (\\xi ~ 0.5 nm) and at intermediate distances (~ 0.8 nm), valine and leucine homodimers assume cross-\\beta-like conformations with side chains interpenetrating each other. These two states are identified as minima in the Potential of Mean Force (PMF). While the number of interpeptide hydrogen bonds increases with decreasing interpeptide distance, the total hydrogen bond number in the system does not change significantly, suggesting that formation of \\beta-sheet structures from extended conformations is not driven by hydrogen bonds. This is supported by an increase in electrostatic energy at short interpeptide distances. A remarkable correlation between the volume of the system and the total electrostatic energy is observed, further reinforcing the idea that excluding water in proteins comes with an enthalpic penalty. We also discuss microscopic mechanisms accounting for \\beta-sheet formation based on computed enthalpy and entropy and we show that they are different for peptides with small and large side chains.

  10. De novo design of a monomeric three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet.

    PubMed Central

    de Alba, E.; Santoro, J.; Rico, M.; Jiménez, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    Here we describe the NMR conformational study of a 20-residue linear peptide designed to fold into a monomeric three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet in aqueous solution. Experimental and statistical data on amino acid beta-turn and beta-sheet propensities, cross-strand side-chain interactions, solubility criteria, and our previous experience with beta-hairpins were considered for a rational selection of the peptide sequence. Sedimentation equilibrium measurements and NMR dilution experiments provide evidence that the peptide is monomeric. Analysis of 1H and 13C-NMR parameters of the peptide, in particular NOEs and chemical shifts, and comparison with data obtained for two 12-residue peptides encompassing the N- and C-segments of the designed sequence indicates that the 20-residue peptide folds into the expected conformation. Assuming a two-state model, the exchange kinetics between the beta-sheet and the unfolded peptide molecules is in a suitable range to estimate the folding rate on the basis of the NMR linewidths of several resonances. The time constant for the coil-beta-sheet transition is of the order of several microseconds in the designed peptide. Future designs based on this peptide system are expected to contribute greatly to our knowledge of the many factors involved in beta-sheet formation and stability. PMID:10211831

  11. Bayesian Models and Algorithms for Protein Beta-Sheet Prediction

    E-print Network

    Erdogan, Hakan

    0 Bayesian Models and Algorithms for Protein Beta-Sheet Prediction Zafer Aydin, Student Member-parallel), and -residue interactions (or contact maps). We introduce a Bayesian approach for proteins with six or less effectively. For proteins with more than six -strands, we first compute -strand pairings using the Beta

  12. Beating the Heat: Fast Scanning Melts Beta Sheet Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebe, Peggy; Hu, Xiao; Kaplan, David; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Wurm, Andreas; Arbeiter, Daniella; Schick, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Beta-pleated-sheet crystals are among the most stable of protein secondary structures, and are responsible for the remarkable physical properties of many fibrous proteins, such as silk. Previous thinking was that beta-pleated-sheet crystals in the dry solid state would not melt upon input of heat energy alone. Indeed, at conventional heating rates (~1-50 °C/min), silk exhibits its glass transition (~175 °C), followed by cold crystallization, and then by immediate thermal degradation beginning at about 225 °C. Here we demonstrate that beta-pleated-sheet crystals can melt directly from the solid state to become random coils, helices, and turns. We use fast scanning chip calorimetry at 2,000 K/s to avoid thermal degradation, and report the first reversible thermal melting of protein beta-pleated-sheet crystals, exemplified by silk fibroin. The similarity between thermal melting behavior of lamellar crystals of synthetic polymers and beta-pleated-sheet crystals is confirmed. The authors acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation and German Academic Exchange Service DAAD; EZ acknowledges a European Union funded Marie Curie EST fellowship (ADVATEC); XH and DK acknowledge NIH P41 Tissue Engineering Resource Center.

  13. Cooperative deformation of hydrogen bonds in beta-strands and beta-sheet nanocrystals

    E-print Network

    Qin, Zhao

    Beta-sheet protein domains are stabilized by weak hydrogen bonds, yet materials such as silk—whose ultimate tensile strength is controlled primarily by this secondary structure—can exceed the ultimate tensile strength of ...

  14. Determining Beta Sheet Crystallinity in Fibrous Proteins by Thermal Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Hu; David Kaplan; Peggy Cebe

    2007-01-01

    We report a study of self-assembled beta pleated sheets in Bombyx mori silk fibroin films using thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Crystallization of beta pleated sheets was effected either by heating the films above the glass transition temperature (Tg) and holding isothermally, or by exposure to methanol. The fractions of secondary structural components including random coils, alpha helices, beta pleated

  15. Stability and folding properties of a model beta-sheet protein, Escherichia coli CspA.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, K. L.; Rodriguez, H. M.; Hillier, B. J.; Gregoret, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    Although beta-sheets represent a sizable fraction of the secondary structure found in proteins, the forces guiding the formation of beta-sheets are still not well understood. Here we examine the folding of a small, all beta-sheet protein, the E. coli major cold shock protein CspA, using both equilibrium and kinetic methods. The equilibrium denaturation of CspA is reversible and displays a single transition between folded and unfolded states. The kinetic traces of the unfolding and refolding of CspA studied by stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy are monoexponential and thus also consistent with a two-state model. In the absence of denaturant, CspA refolds very fast with a time constant of 5 ms. The unfolding of CspA is also rapid, and at urea concentrations above the denaturation midpoint, the rate of unfolding is largely independent of urea concentration. This suggests that the transition state ensemble more closely resembles the native state in terms of solvent accessibility than the denatured state. Based on the model of a compact transition state and on an unusual structural feature of CspA, a solvent-exposed cluster of aromatic side chains, we propose a novel folding mechanism for CspA. We have also investigated the possible complications that may arise from attaching polyhistidine affinity tags to the carboxy and amino termini of CspA. PMID:9521124

  16. Poly-(L-alanine) expansions form core beta-sheets that nucleate amyloid assembly.

    PubMed

    Shinchuk, Leonid M; Sharma, Deepak; Blondelle, Sylvie E; Reixach, Natalia; Inouye, Hideyo; Kirschner, Daniel A

    2005-11-15

    Expansion to a total of 11-17 sequential alanine residues from the normal number of 10 in the polyadenine-binding protein nuclear-1 (PABPN1) results in formation of intranuclear, fibrillar inclusions in skeletal muscle and hypothalamic neurons in adult-onset, dominantly inherited oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). To understand the role that homopolymeric length may play in the protein misfolding that leads to the inclusions, we analyzed the self-assembly of synthetic poly-(L-alanine) peptides having 3-20 residues. We found that the conformational transition and structure of polyalanine (polyAla) assemblies in solution are not only length-dependent but also are determined by concentration, temperature, and incubation time. No beta-sheet complex was detected for those peptides characterized by n < 8, where n is number of alanine residues. A second group of peptides with 7 < n < 15 showed varying levels of complex formation, while for those peptides having n > 15, the interconversion process from the monomeric to the beta-sheet complex was complete under any of the tested experimental conditions. Unlike the typical tinctorial properties of amyloid fibrils, polyalanine fibrils did not show fluorescence with thioflavin T or apple-green birefringence with Congo red; however, like amyloid, X-ray diffraction showed that the peptide chains in these fibrils were oriented normal to the fibril axis (i.e., in the cross-beta arrangement). Neighboring beta-sheets are quarter-staggered in the hydrogen-bonding direction such that the alanine side-chains were closely packed in the intersheet space. Strong van der Waals contacts between side-chains in this arrangement likely account for the high stability of the macromolecular fibrillar complex in solution over a wide range of temperature (5-85 degrees C), and pH (2-10.5), and its resistance to denaturant (< 8 M urea) and to proteases (protease K, trypsin). We postulate that a similar stabilization of an expanded polyalanine stretch could form a core beta-sheet structure that mediates the intermolecular association of mutant proteins into fibrillar inclusions in human pathologies. PMID:16114037

  17. New heterocyclic beta-sheet ligands with peptidic recognition elements.

    PubMed

    Rzepecki, P; Gallmeier, H; Geib, N; Cernovska, Katarina; König, B; Schrader, T

    2004-08-01

    A detailed and comprehensive overview is presented about the design, modeling, and synthesis, as well as spectroscopic characterization, of a new class of beta-sheet ligands. The characteristic feature of these compounds is a peptidic chimeric structure formed from a specific combination of aminopyrazolecarboxylic acids with naturally occurring alpha-amino acids. These hybrid peptides are designed with the aid of molecular modeling to exist mainly in an extended conformation. All their hydrogen bond donors and acceptors can be aligned at the bottom face in such a way that a perfect complementarity toward beta-sheets is obtained. Thus the aminopyrazoles impart rigidity and a highly efficient DAD sequence for the recognition of whole dipeptide fragments, whereas the natural alpha-amino acids are designed to mimick recognition sites in proteins, ultimately leading to sequence-selective protein recognition. The synthetic protocols either rely upon solution phase peptide coupling with a PMB protecting group strategy or solid-phase peptide coupling based on the Fmoc strategy, using the same protecting group. In solution, a key building block was prepared by catalytic reduction of a nitropyrazolecarboxylic acid precursor. Subsequently, it was (N-1)-protected with a PMB group, and elongated by HCTU- or T3P-assisted peptide coupling with dipeptide fragments, followed by PyClop-assisted coupling with another nitropyrazolecarboxylic acid building block. Final simultaneous deprotection of all PMB groups with hot TFA completed the high-yield protocol, which works racemization-free. After preparing a similar key building block with an Fmoc protection at N-3, we developed a strategy suitable for automated synthesis of larger hybrid ligands on a peptide synthesizer. Attachment of the first amino acid to a polystyrene resin over the Sieber amide linker is followed by an iterative sequence consisting of Fmoc deprotection with piperidine and subsequent coupling with natural alpha-amino acid via HATU/HOAt. High yields of free hybrid peptides are obtained after mild acidic cleavage from the resin, followed by deprotection of the PMB groups with hot TFA. The new aminopyrazole peptide hybrid compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic measurements including CD spectra, VT, and ROESY NMR experiments. All these accumulated data indicate the absence of any intramolecular hydrogen bonds and strongly support an extended conformation in solution, ideal for docking on to solvent-exposed beta-sheets in proteins. Initial results from aggregation tests of pathological proteins with these and related ligands look extremely promising. PMID:15287758

  18. Formation of ?-sheets in glutamine and alanine tripeptides.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Marianne T; Gilmore, Kelly A; Petty, Sarah A

    2011-03-18

    The misfolding and aggregation of proteins is associated with many different diseases including the trinucleotide repeat disorders and Prion diseases. We have studied three residue peptides comprising alanine and glutamine in order to understand the short range interactions affecting the formation of ?-rich aggregates. Using infrared spectroscopy, we have found that trialanine and triglutamine form significant amounts of ?-sheet, but that tripeptides containing alanine and glutamine are only able to form ?-sheet if the glutamine side-chains extend outward on both faces of the sheet. From our data, we conclude that different stabilizing interactions are responsible for ?-sheet formation in trialanine and triglutamine. PMID:21329666

  19. Stability of the beta-sheet of the WW domain: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed Central

    Ibragimova, G T; Wade, R C

    1999-01-01

    The WW domain consists of approximately 40 residues, has no disulfide bridges, and forms a three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet that is monomeric in solution. It thus provides a model system for studying beta-sheet stability in native proteins. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of two WW domains, YAP65 and FBP28, with very different stability characteristics, in order to explore the initial unfolding of the beta-sheet. The less stable YAP domain is much more sensitive to simulation conditions than the FBP domain. Under standard simulation conditions in water (with or without charge-balancing counterions) at 300 K, the beta-sheet of the YAP WW domain disintegrated at early stages of the simulations. Disintegration commenced with the breakage of a hydrogen bond between the second and third strands of the beta-sheet due to an anticorrelated transition of the Tyr-28 psi and Phe-29 phi angles. Electrostatic interactions play a role in this event, and the YAP WW domain structure is more stable when simulated with a complete explicit model of the surrounding ionic strength. Other factors affecting stability of the beta-sheet are side-chain packing, the conformational entropy of the flexible chain termini, and the binding of cognate peptide. PMID:10512838

  20. Multi-layer Parallel Beta-Sheet Structure of Amyloid Beta peptide (1-40) aggregate observed by discrete molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shouyong; Urbanc, Brigita; Ding, Feng; Cruz, Luis; Buldyrev, Sergey; Dokholyan, Nikolay; Stanley, H. E.

    2003-03-01

    New evidence shows that oligomeric forms of Amyloid-Beta are potent neurotoxins that play a major role in neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease. Detailed knowledge of the structure and assembly dynamics of Amyloid-Beta is important for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here we apply a two-atom model with Go interactions to model aggregation of Amyloid-Beta (1-40) peptides using the discrete molecular dynamics simulation. At temperatures above the transition temperature from an alpha-helical to random coil, we obtain two types of parallel beta-sheet structures, (a) a helical beta-sheet structure at a lower temperature and (b) a parallel beta-sheet structure at a higher temperature, both with inter-sheet distance of 10 A and with free edges which possibly enable further fibrillar elongation.

  1. Is the parallel or antiparallel beta-sheet more stable? A semiempirical study.

    PubMed

    Gailer, C; Feigel, M

    1997-05-01

    The geometry and energy of parallel and antiparallel peptidic beta-sheets have been calculated using AM1. beta-Sheets composed of two peptide chains of up to 11 amino acid residues (Ala and Gly) and the dimers of cyclooctapeptides are used as model systems. The enthalpic difference between the parallel and the antiparallel arrangement is calculated to be very small, as it is found experimentally for the cyclic systems. The coordinates of the calculated structure of the cyclooctapeptide dimer 1 (cyclo-D,L-(Ala)8) have an rms deviation of only 0.223 A to the coordinates of the corresponding cyclopeptide obtained by X-ray analysis. PMID:9263854

  2. Phase Diagram of alpha-Helical and beta-Sheet Forming Peptides

    E-print Network

    Stefan Auer; Dimo Kashchiev

    2010-06-07

    The intrinsic property of proteins to form structural motifs such as alpha-helices and beta-sheets leads to a complex phase behavior in which proteins can assemble into various types of aggregates including crystals, liquidlike phases of unfolded or natively folded proteins, and amyloid fibrils. Here we use a coarse-grained protein model that enables us to perform Monte Carlo simulations for determining the phase diagram of natively folded alpha-helical and unfolded beta-sheet forming peptides. The simulations reveal the existence of various metastable peptide phases. The liquidlike phases are metastable with respect to the fibrillar phases, and there is a hierarchy of metastability.

  3. Flanking Polyproline Sequences Inhibit [beta]-Sheet Structure in Polyglutamine Segments by Inducing PPII-like Helix Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, Gregory; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Pahl, Reinhard; Meredith, Stephen C. (IIT); (UC)

    2008-06-24

    Polyglutamine (poly(Q)) expansion is associated with protein aggregation into {beta}-sheet amyloid fibrils and neuronal cytotoxicity. In the mutant poly(Q) protein huntingtin, associated with Huntington's disease, both aggregation and cytotoxicity may be abrogated by a polyproline (poly(P)) domain flanking the C terminus of the poly(Q) region. To understand structural changes that may occur with the addition of the poly(P) sequence, we synthesized poly(Q) peptides with 3-15 glutamine residues and a corresponding set of poly(Q) peptides flanked on the C terminus by 11 proline residues (poly(Q)-poly(P)), as occurs in the huntingtin sequence. The shorter soluble poly(Q) peptides (three or six glutamine residues) showed polyproline type II-like (PPII)-like helix conformation when examined by circular dichroism spectroscopy and were monomers as judged by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), while the longer poly(Q) peptides (nine or 15 glutamine residues) showed a {beta}-sheet conformation by CD and defined oligomers by SEC. Soluble poly(Q)-poly(P) peptides showed PPII-like content but SEC showed poorly defined, overlapping oligomeric peaks, and as judged by CD these peptides retained significant PPII-like structure with increasing poly(Q) length. More importantly, addition of the poly(P) domain increased the threshold for fibril formation to {approx} 15 glutamine residues. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and film CD showed that, while poly(Q) peptides with {ge} 6 glutamine residues formed {beta}-sheet-rich fibrils, only the longest poly(Q)-poly(P) peptide (15 glutamine residues) did so. From these and other observations, we propose that poly(Q) domains exist in a 'tug-of-war' between two conformations, a PPII-like helix and a {beta}-sheet, while the poly(P) domain is conformationally constrained into a proline type II helix (PPII). Addition of poly(P) to the C terminus of a poly(Q) domain induces a PPII-like structure, which opposes the aggregation-prone {beta}-sheet. These structural observations may shed light on the threshold phenomenon of poly(Q) aggregation, and support the hypothesized evolution of 'protective' poly(P) tracts adjacent to poly(Q) aggregation domains.

  4. Formation of current sheets in magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H., E-mail: ahb17@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    An ideal evolution of magnetic fields in three spatial dimensions tends to cause neighboring field lines to increase their separation exponentially with distance ? along the lines, ?(?)=?(0)e{sup ?(?)}. The non-ideal effects required to break magnetic field line connections scale as e{sup ??}, so the breaking of connections is inevitable for ? sufficiently large—even though the current density need nowhere be large. When the changes in field line connections occur rapidly compared to an Alfvén transit time, the constancy of j{sub ||}/B along the magnetic field required for a force-free equilibrium is broken in the region where the change occurs, and an Alfvénic relaxation of j{sub ||}/B occurs. Independent of the original spatial distribution of j{sub ||}/B, the evolution is into a sheet current, which is stretched by a factor e{sup ?} in width and contracted by a factor e{sup ?} in thickness with the current density j{sub ||} increasing as e{sup ?}. The dissipation of these sheet currents and their associated vorticity sheets appears to be the mechanism for transferring energy from a reconnecting magnetic field to a plasma. Harris sheets, which are used in models of magnetic reconnection, are shown to break up in the direction of current flow when they have a finite width and are in a plasma in force equilibrium. The dependence of the longterm nature of magnetic reconnection in systems driven by footpoint motion can be studied in a model that allows qualitative variation in the nature of that motion: slow or fast motion compared to the Alfvén transit time and the neighboring footpoints either exponentially separating in time or not.

  5. Plasmoid formation in current sheet with finite normal magnetic component.

    PubMed

    Zhu, P; Raeder, J

    2013-06-01

    Current sheet configurations in natural and laboratory plasmas are often accompanied by a finite normal magnetic component that is known to stabilize the two-dimensional resistive tearing instability in the high Lundquist number regime. Recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations indicate that the nonlinear development of ballooning instability is able to induce the formation of X lines and plasmoids in a generalized Harris sheet with a finite normal magnetic component in the high Lundquist number regime where the linear two-dimensional resistive tearing mode is stable. PMID:25167506

  6. Hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds in ?-sheet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Chitra; Dias, Cristiano L.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we investigate interactions of extended conformations of homodimeric peptides made of small (glycine or alanine) and large hydrophobic (valine or leucine) sidechains using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to decipher driving forces for ?-sheet formation. We make use of a periodic boundary condition setup in which individual peptides are infinitely long and stretched. Dimers adopt ?-sheet conformations at short interpeptide distances (? ˜ 0.5 nm) and at intermediate distances (˜0.8 nm), valine and leucine homodimers assume cross-?-like conformations with side chains interpenetrating each other. These two states are identified as minima in the potential of mean force. While the number of interpeptide hydrogen bonds increases with decreasing interpeptide distance, the total hydrogen bond number in the system does not change significantly, suggesting that formation of ?-sheet structures from extended conformations is not driven by hydrogen bonds. This is supported by an increase in electrostatic energy at short interpeptide distances. A remarkable correlation between the volume of the system and the total electrostatic energy is observed, further reinforcing the idea that excluding water in proteins comes with an enthalpic penalty. We also discuss microscopic mechanisms accounting for ?-sheet formation based on computed enthalpy and entropy and we show that they are different for peptides with small and large side chains.

  7. Reduction of burn scar formation by halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets: a controlled study on nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zeplin, Philip H

    2012-03-01

    Burn scar formations can cause disfiguration and loss of dermal function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether application of modified silicone gel sheets with an antifibrotic drug halofuginone-eluting hybrid surface produce an effect on scar development. There were a total of 2 animal groups. The athymic nude mice (nu/nu) of both groups underwent transplantation of full-thickness human skin grafts onto their backs and setting of partial thickness burn injury. The status of local scar development was observed over a period of 3 months after the application of silicone gel sheets and also after application of surface-modified halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets. Subsequently, via real-time polymerase chain reaction, the cDNA levels from key mediators of scar formation (transforming growth factor beta, COL1A1, connective tissue growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 2, matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9) were established and statistically evaluated. In comparison with uncoated silicone gel sheets, the application of halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets lead to a significant difference in gene expression activity in scar tissue. Halofuginone-eluting hybrid surface silicone gel sheets significantly increase the antiscarring effect of adhesive silicone gel sheets by deceleration and downregulation of scar development by normalization of the expression activity. PMID:22356780

  8. An expanded glutamine repeat destabilizes native ataxin-3 structure and mediates formation of parallel beta -fibrils.

    PubMed

    Bevivino, A E; Loll, P J

    2001-10-01

    The protein ataxin-3 contains a polyglutamine region; increasing the number of glutamines beyond 55 in this region gives rise to the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. This disease and other polyglutamine expansion diseases are characterized by large intranuclear protein aggregates (nuclear inclusions). By using full-length human ataxin-3, we have investigated the changes in secondary structure, aggregation behavior, and fibril formation associated with an increase from the normal length of 27 glutamines (Q27 ataxin-3) to a pathogenic length of 78 glutamines (Q78 ataxin-3). Q78 ataxin-3 aggregates strongly and could be purified only when expressed with a solubility-enhancing fusion-protein partner. A marked decrease in alpha-helical secondary structure accompanies expansion of the polyglutamine tract, suggesting destabilization of the native protein. Proteolytic removal of the fusion partner in the Q78 protein, but not in the Q27 protein, leads to the formation of SDS-resistant aggregates and Congo-red reactive fibrils. Infrared spectroscopy of fibrils reveals a high beta-sheet content and suggests a parallel, rather than an antiparallel, sheet conformation. We present a model for a polar zipper composed of parallel polyglutamine beta-sheets. Our data show that intact ataxin-3 is fully competent to form aggregates, and posttranslational cleavage or other processing is not necessary to generate a misfolding event. The data also suggest that the protein aggregation phenotype associated with glutamine expansion may derive from two effects: destabilization of the native protein structure and an inherent propensity for beta-fibril formation on the part of glutamine homopolymers. PMID:11572942

  9. Designed ?-sheet peptides inhibit amyloid formation by targeting toxic oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Hopping, Gene; Kellock, Jackson; Barnwal, Ravi Pratap; Law, Peter; Bryers, James; Varani, Gabriele; Caughey, Byron; Daggett, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the toxic soluble-oligomeric form of different amyloid proteins share a common backbone conformation, but the amorphous nature of this oligomer prevents its structural characterization by experiment. Based on molecular dynamics simulations we proposed that toxic intermediates of different amyloid proteins adopt a common, nonstandard secondary structure, called ?-sheet. Here we report the experimental characterization of peptides designed to be complementary to the ?-sheet conformation observed in the simulations. We demonstrate inhibition of aggregation in two different amyloid systems, ?-amyloid peptide (A?) and transthyretin, by these designed ?-sheet peptides. When immobilized the ?-sheet designs preferentially bind species from solutions enriched in the toxic conformer compared with non-aggregated, nontoxic species or mature fibrils. The designs display characteristic spectroscopic signatures distinguishing them from conventional secondary structures, supporting ?-sheet as a structure involved in the toxic oligomer stage of amyloid formation and paving the way for novel therapeutics and diagnostics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01681.001 PMID:25027691

  10. Thermally Induced Alpha-Helix to Beta-Sheet Transition in Regenerated Silk Fibers and Films

    SciTech Connect

    Drummy,L.; Phillips, D.; Stone, M.; Farmer, B.; Naik, R.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of thin films cast from regenerated solutions of Bombyx mori cocoon silk in hexafluoroisopropyl alcohol (HFIP) was studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction during heating. A solid-state conformational transition from an alpha-helical structure to the well-known beta-sheet silk II structure occurred at a temperature of approximately 140 degrees C. The transition appeared to be homogeneous, as both phases do not coexist within the resolution of the current study. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the films showed an endothermic melting peak followed by an exothermic crystallization peak, both occurring near 140 degrees C. Oriented fibers were also produced that displayed this helical molecular conformation. Subsequent heating above the structural transition temperature produced oriented beta-sheet fibers very similar in structure to B. mori cocoon fibers. Heat treatment of silk films at temperatures well below their degradation temperature offers a controllable route to materials with well-defined structures and mechanical behavior.

  11. Para, ferro- and antiferro-magnetic order in beta-sheet tapes of oligopeptides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Jabbari-Farouji; Paul van der Schoot

    2009-01-01

    Beta-sheet-forming peptides give rise to self-assembled hierarchical structures such as tapes, ribbons and fibrils, which at sufficiently high concentrations form nematic liquid crystalline solutions and gels. Applications of these novel materials are found in nanotechnology, medicine and personal care products. Such aggregates not only appear in the context of desirable biomaterials but also in pathological self-assembly of mis-folded proteins, forming

  12. Controlling the morphology of cross beta-sheet assemblies by rational design.

    PubMed

    Deechongkit, Songpon; Powers, Evan T; You, Shu-Li; Kelly, Jeffery W

    2005-06-15

    Low molecular weight peptidomimetics with simple amphiphilic sequences can help to elucidate the structures of cross beta-sheet assemblies, such as amyloid fibrils. The peptidomimetics described herein comprise a dibenzofuran template, two peptide strands made up of alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues, and carboxyl termini, each of which can be varied to probe the structural requirements for beta-sheet self-assembly processes. The dibenzofuran template positions the strands approximately 10 A apart, allowing corresponding hydrophobic side chains in the strands to pack into a collapsed U-shaped structure. This conformation is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions, not intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Intermolecular stacking of the collapsed peptidomimetics, enabled by intermolecular hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions, affords 25-27 A wide protofilaments having a cross beta-sheet structure. Association of protofilaments, mediated by the dibenzofuran substructures and driven by the hydrophobic effect, affords 50-60 A wide filaments. These widths can be controlled by changing the length of the peptide strands. Further assembly of the filaments into fibrils or ribbons can be controlled by modification of the template, C-terminus, and buffer ion composition. PMID:15941292

  13. Effect of beta-sheet crystals on the thermal and rheological behavior of protein-based hydrogels derived from gelatin and silk fibroin.

    PubMed

    Gil, Eun S; Spontak, Richard J; Hudson, Samuel M

    2005-08-12

    Novel protein-based hydrogels have been prepared by blending gelatin (G) with amorphous Bombyx mori silk fibroin (SF) and subsequently promoting the formation of beta-sheet crystals in SF upon exposure to methanol or methanol/water solutions. Differential scanning calorimetry of the resultant hydrogels confirms the presence and thermoreversibility of the G helix-coil transition between ambient and body temperature at high G concentrations. At low G concentrations, this transition is shifted to higher temperatures and becomes progressively less pronounced. Complementary dynamic rheological measurements reveal solid-liquid cross-over at the G helix-coil transition temperature typically between 30 and 36 degrees C in blends prior to the formation of beta-sheet crystals. Introducing the beta-sheet conformation in SF stabilizes the hydrogel network and extends the solid-like behavior of the hydrogels to elevated temperatures beyond body temperature with as little as 10 wt.-% SF. The temperature-dependent elastic modulus across the G helix-coil transition is reversible, indicating that the conformational change in G can be used in stabilized G/SF hydrogels to induce thermally triggered encapsulant release. PMID:16080165

  14. Pancreatic beta-cell granule peptides form heteromolecular complexes which inhibit islet amyloid polypeptide fibril formation.

    PubMed Central

    Jaikaran, Emma T A S; Nilsson, Melanie R; Clark, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), or 'amylin', is co-stored with insulin in secretory granules of pancreatic islet beta-cells. In Type 2 diabetes, IAPP converts into a beta-sheet conformation and oligomerizes to form amyloid fibrils and islet deposits. Granule components, including insulin, inhibit spontaneous IAPP fibril formation in vitro. To determine the mechanism of this inhibition, molecular interactions of insulin with human IAPP (hIAPP), rat IAPP (rIAPP) and other peptides were examined using surface plasmon resonance (BIAcore), CD and transmission electron microscopy (EM). hIAPP and rIAPP complexed with insulin, and this reaction was concentration-dependent. rIAPP and insulin, but not pro-insulin, bound to hIAPP. Insulin with a truncated B-chain, to prevent dimerization, also bound hIAPP. In the presence of insulin, hIAPP did not spontaneously develop beta-sheet secondary structure or form fibrils. Insulin interacted with pre-formed IAPP fibrils in a regular repeating pattern, as demonstrated by immunoEM, suggesting that the binding sites for insulin remain exposed in hIAPP fibrils. Since rIAPP and hIAPP form complexes with insulin (and each other), this could explain the lack of amyloid fibrils in transgenic mice expressing hIAPP. It is likely that IAPP fibrillogenesis is inhibited in secretory granules (where the hIAPP concentration is in the millimolar range) by heteromolecular complex formation with insulin. Alterations in the proportions of insulin and IAPP in granules could disrupt the stability of the peptide. The increase in the proportion of unprocessed pro-insulin produced in Type 2 diabetes could be a major factor in destabilization of hIAPP and induction of fibril formation. PMID:14565847

  15. The formation of beta-beta structures in lignin biosynthesis--are there two different pathways?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liming; Henriksson, Gunnar; Gellerstedt, Göran

    2003-10-21

    Based on results from 2D NMR studies, both pinoresinol and secoisolariciresinol structures were found to be present in native lignin from spruce wood as well as in spruce kraft lignin and residual kraft pulp lignin. These two structures constitute the major types of beta-beta inter-unit linkages present in spruce lignin, but their formation in the lignin polymer may follow different pathways leading to their different bonding patterns with the rest of the lignin polymer. The mechanisms involved are discussed. PMID:14599028

  16. CURRENT SHEETS FORMATION IN TANGLED CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Rappazzo, A. F. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Parker, E. N., E-mail: franco.rappazzo@gmail.com, E-mail: parker@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of magnetic fields in closed regions of solar and stellar coronae. To understand under which conditions current sheets form, we examine dissipative and ideal reduced magnetohydrodynamic models in Cartesian geometry, where two magnetic field components are present: the strong guide field B{sub 0}, extended along the axial direction, and the dynamical orthogonal field b. Magnetic field lines thread the system along the axial direction that spans the length L and are line-tied at the top and bottom plates. The magnetic field b initially has only large scales, with its gradient (current) length scale of the order of l{sub b}. We identify the magnetic intensity threshold b/B{sub 0} {approx} l{sub b}/L. For values of b below this threshold, field-line tension inhibits the formation of current sheets, while above the threshold they form quickly on fast ideal timescales. In the ideal case, above the magnetic threshold, we show that current sheets thickness decreases in time until it becomes smaller than the grid resolution, with the analyticity strip width {delta} decreasing at least exponentially, after which the simulations become underresolved.

  17. Microphase Separation Controlled beta-Sheet Crystallization Kinetics in Fibrous Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, X.; Lu, Q; Kaplan, D; Cebe, P

    2009-01-01

    Silk is a naturally occurring fibrous protein with a multiblock chain architecture. As such, it has many similarities with synthetic block copolymers, including the possibility for e-sheet crystallization restricted within the crystallizable blocks. The mechanism of isothermal crystallization kinetics of e-sheet crystals in silk multiblock fibrous proteins is reported in this study. Kinetics theories, such as Avrami analysis which was established for studies of synthetic polymer crystal growth, are for the first time extended to investigate protein self-assembly in e-sheet rich Bombyx mori silk fibroin samples, using time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and synchrotron real-time wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The Avrami exponent, n, was close to 2 for all methods and crystallization temperatures, indicating formation of e-sheet crystals in silk proteins is different from the 3-D spherulitic crystal growth found in synthetic polymers. Observations by scanning electron microscopy support the view that the protein structures vary during the different stages of crystal growth, and show a microphase separation pattern after chymotrypsin enzyme biodegradation. We present a model to explain the crystallization of the multiblock silk fibroin protein, by analogy to block copolymers: crystallization of e-sheets occurs under conditions of geometrical restriction caused by phase separation of the crystallizable and uncrystallizable blocks. This crystallization model could be widely applicable in other proteins with multiblock (i.e., crystallizable and noncrystallizable) domains.

  18. Characterization of a partially structured state in an all-beta-sheet protein.

    PubMed Central

    Sivaraman, T; Kumar, T K; Jayaraman, G; Han, C C; Yu, C

    1997-01-01

    Cardiotoxin analogue III (CTX III) is a low-molecular-mass all-beta-sheet protein isolated from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom. A stable partially structured state similar to the "molten globule' state has been identified for CTX III in a 3% (w/v) solution of 2,2,2-trichloroacetic acid at 298 K. This stable state has been structurally characterized using a variety of techniques such as CD, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate fluorescence binding, Fourier transform IR and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy techniques. Direct assignment of the homonuclear two-dimensional NMR spectra of the protein in 3% trichloroacetic acid showed that drastic structural perturbation had not taken place in the protein and that the 'intermediate' state retained a significant portion of the native secondary-structural interactions. It is found that about 65% of the native beta-sheet structural contacts are maintained in the partially structured state of CTX III in 3% trichloroacetic acid. PMID:9020881

  19. Computer-Based Redesign of a Beta Sandwich Protein Suggests That Extensive Negative Design is not Required for de novo beta Sheet Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, X.; Wang, H; Ke, H; Kuhlman, B

    2008-01-01

    The de novo design of globular {Beta} sheet proteins remains largely an unsolved problem. It is unclear whether most designs are failing because the designed sequences do not have favorable energies in the target conformations or whether more emphasis should be placed on negative design, that is, explicitly identifying sequences that have poor energies when adopting undesired conformations. We tested whether we could redesign the sequence of a naturally occurring {Beta} sheet protein, tenascin, with a design algorithm that does not include explicit negative design. Denaturation experiments indicate that the designs are significantly more stable than the wild-type protein and the crystal structure of one design closely matches the design model. These results suggest that extensive negative design is not required to create well-folded {Beta} sandwich proteins. However, it is important to note that negative design elements may be encoded in the conformation of the protein backbone which was preserved from the wild-type protein.

  20. Current Sheet Formation, Equilibria and Heating in the Closed Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappazzo, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Parker model for coronal heating is investigated within theframework of reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) in cartesian geometry. A popular hypothesis is that in response to slow photospheric motionsthe magnetic field evolves quasi-statically through a seriesof unstable equilibria. Instabilities, e.g., kink modes or else,allow the release of energy while the field relaxes to a new equilibrium.On the other hand it has long been suggested that the dynamics relevant to the basic heating of coronal loops may not entaila quasi-static evolution (Parker 1972, 1994), and recently it has beenshown that the relaxation of an initial configuration out of equilibriumdevelops current sheets without accessing intermediate equilibria (Rappazzo & Parker 2013).The properties of the equilibria are therefore key in understanding thedynamics of coronal heating both in the case of low-frequency photospheric motions (DC) and for propagating waves (AC).Equilibria and nonlinear dynamics are studied numerically and theoretically,explaining why dynamics are inhibited below a critical twist, while for highervalues of the fluctuations nonlinear dynamics lead to the formation of current sheets (and magnetic reconnection in the non ideal case), whose thickness istracked with the analiticity strip method and shown to decrease at least exponentiallydown to dissipative lenght-scales on fast ideal Alfvenic timescales. The impact onthe heating of solar and stellar coronae will be discussed.

  1. Importance of secondary structural specificity determinants in protein folding: insertion of a native beta-sheet sequence into an alpha-helical coiled-coil.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Stanley C; Mant, Colin T; Hodges, Robert S

    2002-06-01

    To examine how a short secondary structural element derived from a native protein folds when in a different protein environment, we inserted an 11-residue beta-sheet segment (cassette) from human immunoglobulin fold, Fab new, into an alpha-helical coiled-coil host protein (cassette holder). This de novo design protein model, the structural cassette mutagenesis (SCM) model, allows us to study protein folding principles involving both short- and long-range interactions that affect secondary structure stability and conformation. In this study, we address whether the insertion of this beta-sheet cassette into the alpha-helical coiled-coil protein would result in conformational change nucleated by the long-range tertiary stabilization of the coiled-coil, therefore overriding the local propensity of the cassette to form beta-sheet, observed in its native immunoglobulin fold. The results showed that not only did the nucleating helices of the coiled-coil on either end of the cassette fail to nucleate the beta-sheet cassette to fold with an alpha-helical conformation, but also the entire chimeric protein became a random coil. We identified two determinants in this cassette that prevented coiled-coil formation: (1) a tandem dipeptide NN motif at the N-terminal of the beta-sheet cassette, and (2) the hydrophilic Ser residue, which would be buried in the hydrophobic core if the coiled-coil structure were to fold. By amino acid substitution of these helix disruptive residues, that is, either the replacement of the NN motif with high helical propensity Ala residues or the substitution of Ser with Leu to enhance hydrophobicity, we were able to convert the random coil chimeric protein into a fully folded alpha-helical coiled-coil. We hypothesized that this NN motif is a "secondary structural specificity determinant" which is very selective for one type of secondary structure and may prevent neighboring residues from adopting an alternate protein fold. These sequences with secondary structural specificity determinants have very strong local propensity to fold into a specific secondary structure and may affect overall protein folding by acting as a folding initiation site. PMID:12021450

  2. Marginal formations of the last Kara and Barents ice sheets in northern European Russia

    E-print Network

    Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    Marginal formations of the last Kara and Barents ice sheets in northern European Russia VALERY I): Marginal formations of the last Kara and Barents ice sheets in northern European Russia. Boreas, Vol. 28, pp. 23­45. Oslo. ISSN 0300-9483. Glacial landforms in northern Russia, from the Timan Ridge

  3. Effects of line-tying on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and current sheet formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Min Huang; A. Bhattacharjee; Ellen G. Zweibel

    2010-01-01

    An overview of some recent progress on magnetohydrodynamic stability and current sheet formation in a line-tied system is given. Key results on the linear stability of the ideal internal kink mode and resistive tearing mode are summarized. For nonlinear problems, a counterexample to the recent demonstration of current sheet formation by Low and Janse [Astrophys. J. 696, 821 (2009)] is

  4. I. The design, synthesis, and structure of antiparallel beta-sheet and beta-strand mimics. II. The design of a scripted chemistry outreach program to high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, Amy Sue

    I. Protein structure is not easily predicted from the linear sequence of amino acids. An increased ability to create protein structures would allow researchers to develop new peptide-based therapeutics and materials, and would provide insights into the mechanisms of protein folding. Toward this end, we have designed and synthesized two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet mimics containing conformationally biased scaffolds and semicarbazide, urea, and hydrazide linker groups that attach peptide chains to the scaffold. The mimics exhibited populations of intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded beta-sheet-like conformers as determined by spectroscopic techniques such as FTIR, sp1H NMR, and ROESY studies. During our studies, we determined that a urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimic was able to tightly hydrogen bond to peptides in an antiparallel beta-sheet-like configuration. Several derivatives of the urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimic were synthesized. Preliminary data by electron microscopy indicate that the beta-strand mimics have an effect on the folding of Alzheimer's Abeta peptide. These data suggest that the urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimics and related compounds may be developed into therapeutics which effect the folding of the Abeta peptide into neurotoxic aggregates. II. In recent years, there has been concern about the low level of science literacy and science interest among Americans. A declining interest in science impacts the abilities of people to make informed decisions about technology. To increase the interest in science among secondary students, we have developed the UCI Chemistry Outreach Program to High Schools. The Program features demonstration shows and discussions about chemistry in everyday life. The development and use of show scripts has enabled large numbers of graduate and undergraduate student volunteers to demonstrate chemistry to more than 12,000 local high school students. Teachers, students, and volunteers have expressed their enjoyment of The UCI Chemistry Outreach Program to High Schools.

  5. Network formation through active migration of human vascular endothelial cells in a multilayered skeletal myoblast sheet.

    PubMed

    Nagamori, Eiji; Ngo, Trung Xuan; Takezawa, Yasunori; Saito, Atsuhiro; Sawa, Yoshiki; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo; Taya, Masahito; Kino-oka, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Autologous transplantation of myoblast sheet has attracted attention as a new technique for curing myocardial infarction. Myoblast sheet has the ability to secret cytokines that improve heart function via the facilitation of angiogenesis on affected part. To mimic the in vivo angiogenesis in the myoblast sheet after transplantation, a five-layered cell sheet of human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMMs) was overlaid on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) which enables evaluation of dynamic HUVEC behavior. HUVECs existing initially at the bottom of the sheet changed to be a stretched shape and migrated upward compared with the surrounding HSMMs in the sheet. Prolonged incubation resulted in network formation of HUVECs in the middle of the sheet, although non-networked HUVECs continued to migrate to the top of the sheet, which meant the spatial habitation of HUVECs in the cell sheet. Image processing was performed to determine the variation in the extent of network formation at different HUVEC densities. It was found that the extent of formed network depended on the frequency of encounters among HUVECs in the middle of the sheet. The present system, which can evaluate network formation, is considered to be a promising in vitro angiogenesis model. PMID:23117213

  6. PB1-F2 influenza A virus protein adopts a beta-sheet conformation and forms amyloid fibers in membrane environments.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Christophe; Al Bazzal, Ali; Vidic, Jasmina; Février, Vincent; Bourdieu, Christiane; Bouguyon, Edwige; Le Goffic, Ronan; Vautherot, Jean-François; Bernard, Julie; Moudjou, Mohammed; Noinville, Sylvie; Chich, Jean-François; Da Costa, Bruno; Rezaei, Human; Delmas, Bernard

    2010-04-23

    The influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein, encoded by an alternative reading frame in the PB1 polymerase gene, displays a high sequence polymorphism and is reported to contribute to viral pathogenesis in a sequence-specific manner. To gain insights into the functions of PB1-F2, the molecular structure of several PB1-F2 variants produced in Escherichia coli was investigated in different environments. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that all variants have a random coil secondary structure in aqueous solution. When incubated in trifluoroethanol polar solvent, all PB1-F2 variants adopt an alpha-helix-rich structure, whereas incubated in acetonitrile, a solvent of medium polarity mimicking the membrane environment, they display beta-sheet secondary structures. Incubated with asolectin liposomes and SDS micelles, PB1-F2 variants also acquire a beta-sheet structure. Dynamic light scattering revealed that the presence of beta-sheets is correlated with an oligomerization/aggregation of PB1-F2. Electron microscopy showed that PB1-F2 forms amorphous aggregates in acetonitrile. In contrast, at low concentrations of SDS, PB1-F2 variants exhibited various abilities to form fibers that were evidenced as amyloid fibers in a thioflavin T assay. Using a recombinant virus and its PB1-F2 knock-out mutant, we show that PB1-F2 also forms amyloid structures in infected cells. Functional membrane permeabilization assays revealed that the PB1-F2 variants can perforate membranes at nanomolar concentrations but with activities found to be sequence-dependent and not obviously correlated with their differential ability to form amyloid fibers. All of these observations suggest that PB1-F2 could be involved in physiological processes through different pathways, permeabilization of cellular membranes, and amyloid fiber formation. PMID:20172856

  7. Formation of the Harang reversal and its dependence on plasma sheet conditions: Rice convection model simulations

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Larry

    Formation of the Harang reversal and its dependence on plasma sheet conditions: Rice convection of this paper is to understand the formation of the Harang reversal and its association with the region 2 field for the formation of the Harang reversal. In the overlap region the downward FAC, which is located at lower

  8. [Neutralization of static electricity charged on running vinyl chloride sheet by the use of soft beta-ray sources (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Itakura, K; Wada, N

    1978-04-01

    The feasibility of 147Pm and 3H beta-ray sources as static eliminator was experimentally investigated. A sheet of vinyl chloride of 0.1 mm in thickness was used as an example of electrified materials. Its surface charge densities before and after beta-ray neutralization were measured as the function of electrostatic charge changing the speed of the sheet and the distance between the beta-ray source and the sheet. With a 147Pm beta-ray source of 200mCi in effective activity, almost complete neutralization was found for the sheet with the charge density less than 6 X 10(-6) C/m2 running at the speed of 0.18 m/s. In the case of the running speed of 0.5 m/s frequently used in industry, the electrostatic charge below 3 X 10(6) C/m2, where corona discharger is not so effective, was also perfectly eliminated. It was found that the optimal distance between the beta-ray source and the sheet was 10 cm in the case of 147Pm. The use of 3H beta-ray source of 1 Ci was not satisfactory. These results demonstrate that 147 Pm beta-ray source operates most efficiently as static eliminator when the charge density of material and/or its moving speed is not high. PMID:663315

  9. Current Sheet Formation in a Conical Theta Pinch Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Hallock, Ashley K.; Choueiri, Edgar Y.

    2008-01-01

    Data from an inductive conical theta pinch accelerator are presented to gain insight into the process of inductive current sheet formation in the presence of a preionized background gas produced by a steady-state RF-discharge. The presence of a preionized plasma has been previously shown to allow for current sheet formation at lower discharge voltages and energies than those found in other pulsed inductive accelerator concepts, leading to greater accelerator efficiencies at lower power levels. Time-resolved magnetic probe measurements are obtained for different background pressures and pulse energies to characterize the effects of these parameters on current sheet formation. Indices are defined that describe time-resolved current sheet characteristics, such as the total current owing in the current sheet, the time-integrated total current ('strength'), and current sheet velocity. It is found that for a given electric field strength, maximums in total current, strength, and velocity occur for one particular background pressure. At other pressures, these current sheet indices are considerably smaller. The trends observed in these indices are explained in terms of the principles behind Townsend breakdown that lead to a dependence on the ratio of the electric field to the background pressure. Time-integrated photographic data are also obtained at the same experimental conditions, and qualitatively they compare quite favorably with the time-resolved magnetic field data.

  10. The peculiarities of formation of thin current sheet in the Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropotkin, Alexey; Artemyev, Anton; Malova, Helmi; Domrin, Vladimir

    We investigate the process of self-consistent thinning of magnetotail current sheet in the presence of the evolving magnetic field normal component Bz, which usually decreases during the substorm growth phase. Using PIC codes to describe plasma processes with ions becoming demagnetized and electrons being considered as the cold neutralizing background, we show that the appearance of the self-consistent electric field component inside CS can lead to the current sheet thinning and to the appearance of an extremely thin current sheet with thickness close to the ion gyroradius. Due to particle [ExB] drift during the current sheet evolution, the enhanced trapping of ions near the current sheet central plane takes place. It is shown that the density of quasi-trapped particles around current sheet at the final stage depends on both the value of the initial magnetic field normal component Bz, and the speed of the Bz decrease. If the initial magnetic field normal component is less than about 0.14 of the tangential field at the edges, the trapped plasma density near the current sheet is small. As a result, the above mentioned extremely thin current sheet is formed. In the opposite case, when the initial normal component related to the tangential field is larger than 0.14, the density of trapped particles is much higher, which produces effective thickening of the current sheet. In both cases transient (Speiser) ions are the main current carriers, but in the second case local diamagnetic currents of the trapped plasma perturb the ?urrent sheet profile making it thicker. Also trapped particles can be responsible for intense negative currents at the current sheet edges. During the Bz decrease, an additional effect of ion polarization drifts in the Y direction can compete with these negative diamagnetic fields of quasi-trapped ions. Therefore the ion dynamics is probably the general mechanism which contributes to the formation of thin current sheet and its fine structure.

  11. Measuring the refolding of beta-sheets with different turn sequences on a nanosecond time scale.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rita P-Y; Huang, Joseph J-T; Chen, Hsin-Liang; Jan, Howard; Velusamy, Marappan; Lee, Chung-Tien; Fann, Wunshain; Larsen, Randy W; Chan, Sunney I

    2004-05-11

    Whether turns play an active or passive role in protein folding remains a controversial issue at this juncture. Here we use a photolabile cage strategy in combination with laser-flash photolysis and photoacoustic calorimetry to study the effects of different turns on the kinetics of beta-hairpin refolding on a nanosecond time scale. This strategy opens up a temporal window to allow the observation of early kinetic events in the protein refolding process at ambient temperature and pH without interference from any denaturants. Our results provide direct evidence demonstrating that even a one-residue difference in the turn region can change the refolding kinetics of a peptide. This observation suggests an active role for turn formation in directing protein folding. PMID:15123838

  12. On the formation of current sheets in the solar corona

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith T. Karpen; Spiro K. Antiochos; C. Richard Devore

    1990-01-01

    Several theoretical studies have proposed that, in response to photospheric footpoint motions, current sheets can be generated in the solar corona without the presence of a null point in the initial potential magnetic field. A fundamental assumption in these analyses, commonly referred to as the line-tying assumption, is that all coronal field lines are anchored to a boundary surface representing

  13. Field Theory On The World Sheet: Crystal Formation

    E-print Network

    Korkut Bardakci

    2011-03-24

    In a previous work, a world sheet field theory which sums planar phi^3 graphs was investigated. In particular, a solitonic solution of this model was constructed, and quantum fluctuations around this solution led to a string picture. However, there were two problems which were not treated satisfactorily: An ultraviolet divergence and a spurious infrared divergence. Here we present an improved treatment, which eliminates the ultraviolet divergence in the normal fashion by mass and coupling constant renormalization. The infrared problem is taken care of by choosing a classical background which forms a one dimensional crystal. The resulting picture is a hybrid model with both string and underlying field theory excitations. Only in the dense graph limit on the world sheet a full string picture emerges.

  14. Effects of line-tying on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and current sheet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yimin; Bhattacharjee, A. [Space Science Center, Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, and Center for Integrated Computation and Analysis of Reconnection and Turbulence, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States); Zweibel, Ellen G. [Department of Physics, Department of Astronomy, and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    An overview of some recent progress on magnetohydrodynamic stability and current sheet formation in a line-tied system is given. Key results on the linear stability of the ideal internal kink mode and resistive tearing mode are summarized. For nonlinear problems, a counterexample to the recent demonstration of current sheet formation by Low and Janse [Astrophys. J. 696, 821 (2009)] is presented, and the governing equations for quasistatic evolution of a boundary driven, line-tied magnetic field are derived. Some open questions and possible strategies to resolve them are discussed.

  15. On the formation of current sheets in the solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Karpen, J.T.; Antiochos, S.K.; Devore, C.R. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Several theoretical studies have proposed that, in response to photospheric footpoint motions, current sheets can be generated in the solar corona without the presence of a null point in the initial potential magnetic field. A fundamental assumption in these analyses, commonly referred to as the line-tying assumption, is that all coronal field lines are anchored to a boundary surface representing the top of the dense, gas pressure-dominated photosphere. It is shown here that line-typing cannot be applied indiscriminately to dipped coronal fields, and that the conclusions of the line-tied models are incorrect. To support the theoretical arguments, the response of a dipped potential magnetic field in a hydrostatic-equilibrium atmosphere to shearing motions of the footpoints is studied, using a 2.5-dimensional MHD code. The results show that, in the absence of artificial line-tying conditions, a current sheet indeed does not form at the location of the dip. Rather, the dipped magnetic field rises, causing upflows of photospheric and chromospheric plasma. 20 refs.

  16. Current Sheet Formation and Magnetic Reconnection at 3D Null Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontin, D. I.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Galsgaard, K.

    2006-12-01

    The evolution of the magnetic field in the vicinity of a single isolated three-dimensional magnetic null point is discussed. While magnetic reconnection at separator lines joining two such nulls is thought to occur in many situations in the Earth's magnetosphere and the Solar corona, the importance of the nulls themselves is poorly understood. Reconnection at an isolated 3D null is also thought to be important in some solar flares, and is involved in models of magnetic breakout. We present numerical and analytical results on current sheet formation at such a 3D null. Under steady boundary driving the current sheet which forms at the null grows steadily in both intensity and dimensions, indicating that its nature is that of a Sweet-Parker current sheet. The qualitative and quantitative properties of the current sheet with respect to the driving parameters and plasma parameters are discussed. The nature of current sheet formation turns out to be strongly dependent on the compressibility of the plasma, which is highly relevant for comparing to earlier analytical models. Accompanying the current growth is the development of a component of the electric field parallel to the magnetic field, a signal of the breakdown of ideal MHD and of magnetic reconnection. This work is supported by the NSF and the DOE.

  17. Beta sheets with a twist: the conformation of helical polyisocyanopeptides determined by using vibrational circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Erik; Liégeois, Vincent; Koepf, Matthieu; Bodis, Pavol; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Brocorens, Patrick; Beljonne, David; Nolte, Roeland J M; Rowan, Alan E; Woutersen, Sander; Champagne, Benoît

    2013-09-23

    Detailed information on the architecture of polyisocyanopeptides based on vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy in combination with DFT calculations is presented. It is demonstrated that the screw sense of the helical polyisocyanides can be determined directly from the C=N-stretch vibrational region of the VCD spectrum. Analysis of the VCD signals associated with the amide?I and amide?II modes provides detailed information on the peptide side-chain arrangement in the polymer and indicates the presence of a helical ?-sheet architecture, in which the dihedral angles are slightly different to those of natural ?-sheet helices. PMID:23939984

  18. Magnetosphere preconditioning by the formation of a cold-dense plasma sheet under northward IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavraud, B.; Thomsen, M. F.; Jordanova, V. K.; Borovsky, J. E.; Denton, M. H.; Pulkkinen, T. I.

    2009-04-01

    Motivated by recent observations and simulations of the formation of a cold and dense plasma sheet in the tail of the magnetosphere under northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and of the direct influence of the plasma sheet density on the ring current strength, this study aims at (1) highlighting how the coupling of these effects may lead to a preconditioning of the magnetosphere under northward IMF and (2) performing first tests of the validity of this hypothesis. We performed both parametric kinetic ring current simulation studies to investigate how the density and temperature of the plasma sheet affect the ring current strength during geomagnetic storms, and superposed epoch analysis of various parameters to investigate the response of the magnetosphere (as indicated by the Dst index) to the passage of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs). The results all suggest that solar wind structures may be more geoeffective if preceded by a northward IMF interval, and they are consistent with the hypothesis of a preconditioning by a cold, dense plasma sheet. A colder and denser plasma sheet may lead to a stronger ring current when that plasma is convected inward during the main phase of an ensuing storm.

  19. Formation and Reconnection of Three-Dimensional Current Sheets in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    Current-sheet formation and magnetic reconnection are believed to be the basic physical processes responsible for much of the activity observed in astrophysical plasmas, such as the Sun s corona. We investigate these processes for a magnetic configuration consisting of a uniform background field and an embedded line dipole, a topology that is expected to be ubiquitous in the corona. This magnetic system is driven by a uniform horizontal flow applied at the line-tied photosphere. Although both the initial field and the driver are translationally symmetric, the resulting evolution is calculated using a fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) simulation with adaptive mesh refinement that resolves the current sheet and reconnection dynamics in detail. The advantage of our approach is that it allows us to apply directly the vast body of knowledge gained from the many studies of 2D reconnection to the fully 3D case. We find that a current sheet forms in close analogy to the classic Syrovatskii 2D mechanism, but the resulting evolution is different than expected. The current sheet is globally stable, showing no evidence for a disruption or a secondary instability even for aspect ratios as high as 80:1. The global evolution generally follows the standard Sweet- Parker 2D reconnection model except for an accelerated reconnection rate at a very thin current sheet, due to the tearing instability and the formation of magnetic islands. An interesting conclusion is that despite the formation of fully 3D structures at small scales, the system remains close to 2D at global scales. We discuss the implications of our results for observations of the solar corona. Subject Headings: Sun: corona Sun: magnetic fields Sun: reconnection

  20. Inhibition of fibril formation in beta-amyloid peptide by a novel series of benzofurans.

    PubMed

    Howlett, D R; Perry, A E; Godfrey, F; Swatton, J E; Jennings, K H; Spitzfaden, C; Wadsworth, H; Wood, S J; Markwell, R E

    1999-05-15

    A series of benzofuran derivatives have been identified as inhibitors of fibril formation in the beta-amyloid peptide. The activity of these compounds has been assessed by a novel fibril-formation-specific immunoassay and for their effects on the production of a biologically active fibril product. The inhibition afforded by the compounds seems to be associated with their binding to beta-amyloid, as identified by scintillation proximity binding assay. Binding assays and NMR studies also indicate that the inhibition is associated with self-aggregation of the compounds. There is a close correlation between the activity of the benzofurans as inhibitors of fibril formation and their ability to bind to beta-amyloid. Non-benzofuran inhibitors of the fibril formation process do not seem to bind to the same site on the beta-amyloid molecule as the benzofurans. Thus a specific recognition site might exist for benzofurans on beta-amyloid, binding to which seems to interfere with the ability of the peptide to form fibrils. PMID:10229684

  1. Multinuclear NMR studies of the flavodoxin from Anabaena 7120:. beta. -sheet structure and the flavin mononucleotide binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    A concerted approach to primary {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N nuclear magnetic resonance assignments in proteins was developed. The method requires enrichment of the protein with {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N. The technique relies on the comparison of data sets from NMR experiments that correlate various nuclei: {sup 13}C({sup 13}C) double quantum correlations, {sup 1}H({sup 13}C) and {sup 1}H({sup 15}N) single bond correlations, and {sup 1}H({sup 13}C) and {sup 1}H({sup 15}N) multiple bond correlations. Comparison of data sets increases the number of resonances that can be assigned and improves assignment confidence. By combined use of these and conventional NMR techniques, sequential assignments were made for the {beta}-sheet and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) binding site residues in flavodoxin from Anabaena 7120. The {beta}-sheet structure was found to be similar to that seen in the crystal structure of Anacystis nidulans flavodoxin. In the FMN binding site, a total of 69 NOEs were identified: eight between protons of FMN, 36 between protons of binding site residues, and 25 between protons of FMN and protein. These constraints were used to determine the localized solution structure of the flavin binding site. The electronic environment and conformation of the protein-bound isoalloxazine ring were investigated by determining chemical shifts and coupling constants for the ring atoms. The carbonyl edge of the flavin ring was found to be slightly polarized by hydrogen bonding to the protein. The xylene ring was found to be nonplanar. The C{sup 6}-N{sup 5} region of the flavin appears to be solvent accessible.

  2. Penicillinase (beta-lactamase) formation by blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Kushner, D J; Breuil, C

    1977-03-01

    Beta-Lactamase (penicillinase) activity was found in a number of strains of blue-green algea. In some cases, this enzyme permitted algae to overcome the inhibitory effects of penicillin. Production and localization of beta-lactamase were studied in a unicellular species, Coccochloris elabens (strain 7003), and in a filamentous, nitrogen-fixing Anabaena species (strain 7120). When cells were grown in a neutral medium with NaNO3 as N source, the pH rose during growth; at a pH of about 10, most of the enzyme was expressed equally well in intact or disrupted cells. If the pH was kept near neutrality during growth by gassing with CO2 in N2 or by growth under conditions of N2 fixation, the enzyme remained cell-bound and cryptic for most of the growth phase, being measurable only after cells were disrupted. The enzymes from strains 7003 and 7120 had greater activity on benzyl penicillin and other penicillins than on cephalosporins. Some differences were observed in the "substrate proliles" of penicillinases from the two strains against different penicillins. PMID:15530

  3. Formation and Degradation of Beta-casomorphins in Dairy Processing.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc Doan; Johnson, Stuart Keith; Busetti, Francesco; Solah, Vicky Ann

    2015-12-01

    Milk proteins including casein are sources of peptides with bioactivity. One of these peptides is beta-casomorphin (BCM) which belongs to a group of opioid peptides formed from ?-casein variants. Beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) has been demonstrated to be enzymatically released from the A1 or B ?-casein variant. Epidemiological evidence suggests the peptide BCM 7 is a risk factor for development of human diseases, including increased risk of type 1 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases but this has not been thoroughly substantiated by research studies. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV-Vis and mass spectrometry detection as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used to analyze BCMs in dairy products. BCMs have been detected in raw cow's milk and human milk and a variety of commercial cheeses, but their presence has yet to be confirmed in commercial yoghurts. The finding that BCMs are present in cheese suggests they could also form in yoghurt, but be degraded during yoghurt processing. Whether BCMs do form in yoghurt and the amount of BCM forming or degrading at different processing steps needs further investigation and possibly will depend on the heat treatment and fermentation process used, but it remains an intriguing unknown. PMID:25077377

  4. Live spheroid formation recorded with light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pampaloni, Francesco; Richa, Roli; Ansari, Nariman; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2015-01-01

    We provide a detailed protocol for a three-dimensional long-term live imaging of cellular spheroids with light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy. The protocol allows the recording of all phases of spheroid formation in three dimensions, including cell proliferation, aggregation, and compaction. We employ the human hepatic cell line HepaRG transfected with the fusion protein H2B-GFP, i.e., a fluorescing histone. The protocol allows monitoring the effect of drugs or toxicants. PMID:25391793

  5. Mechanism of IAPP amyloid fibril formation involves an intermediate with a transient ?-sheet

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Lauren E.; Dunkelberger, Emily B.; Tran, Huong Q.; Cheng, Pin-Nan; Chiu, Chi-Cheng; Cao, Ping; Raleigh, Daniel P.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Nowick, James S.; Zanni, Martin T.

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid formation is implicated in more than 20 human diseases, yet the mechanism by which fibrils form is not well understood. We use 2D infrared spectroscopy and isotope labeling to monitor the kinetics of fibril formation by human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP or amylin) that is associated with type 2 diabetes. We find that an oligomeric intermediate forms during the lag phase with parallel ?-sheet structure in a region that is ultimately a partially disordered loop in the fibril. We confirm the presence of this intermediate, using a set of homologous macrocyclic peptides designed to recognize ?-sheets. Mutations and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the intermediate is on pathway. Disrupting the oligomeric ?-sheet to form the partially disordered loop of the fibrils creates a free energy barrier that is the origin of the lag phase during aggregation. These results help rationalize a wide range of previous fragment and mutation studies including mutations in other species that prevent the formation of amyloid plaques. PMID:24218609

  6. Racemic beta-sheets as templates of relevance to the origin of homochirality of peptides: lessons from crystal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Weissbuch, Isabelle; Illos, Roni A; Bolbach, Gérard; Lahav, M

    2009-08-18

    The origin of life is a historical event that has left no relevant fossils; therefore, it is unrealistic to reconstruct the chronology of its occurrence. Instead, by performing laboratory experiments under conditions that resemble the prebiotic world, one might validate feasible reaction pathways and reconstruct model systems of artificial life. Creating such life in a test tube should go a long way toward removing the shroud of mystery over how it began naturally. The riddle of the appearance of natural proteins and nucleic acids--that is, biopolymers wholly consisting of homochiral subunits (L-amino acids and D-sugars, respectively)--from the unanimated racemic prebiotic world is still unsolved. There are two hypotheses concerning the sequence of their emergence: one maintains that long homochiral (isotactic) peptides must have been formed after the appearance of the first living systems, whereas the other presumes that such biopolymers preceded the primeval enzymes. The latter scenario necessitates, however, the operation of nonlinear synthetic routes, because the polymerization of racemates in ideal solutions yields chains composed of residues of either handedness. In this Account, we suggest applying lessons learned from crystal chemistry, in which molecules from isotropic media are converted into crystals with three-dimensional (3D) periodic order, to understand how the generation of homochiral peptides from racemic alpha-amino acids might be achieved, despite its seemingly overwhelming complexity. We describe systems that include the self-assembly of activated alpha-amino acids either in two-dimensional (2D) or in 3D crystals, followed by a partial lattice-controlled polymerization at the crystal-aqueous solution interface. We also discuss the polymerization of mixtures of activated hydrophobic racemic alpha-amino acids in aqueous solutions, as initiated by primary amines or thiols. The distribution of the diastereomeric oligopeptides was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and MS/MS with monomers enantioselectively tagged with deuterium. The reaction performed in aqueous solutions encompasses the following sequential steps: (i) formation of a library of short racemic peptides enriched with isotactic diastereoisomers during the early stages of the polymerization, and (ii) self-assembly of oligopeptides into racemic beta-sheet colloidal-like aggregates that are delineated by enantiotopic sites or rims; these operate as templates (nuclei) for regio-enantioselective growth in the ensuing steps of chain elongation. Desymmetrization of the racemic mixtures of peptides was achieved with enantiopure alpha-amino acid esters as initiators. The enantiomeric excess of the isotactic peptides, not including the initiator, varies with chain length, the result of a cross-enantiomeric impeding mechanism. Our results suggest a feasible scenario in which primitive homochiral peptides might have emerged early in the prebiotic world. PMID:19480407

  7. On the cause of X-line formation in the near-Earth plasma sheet: Results of adiabatic convection of plasma-sheet plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, G. M.

    Self-consistent, static-equilibrium solutions are presented for two-dimensional magnetospheric-magnetic-field configurations with isotropic thermal pressure. These solutions include a dipole field and are not restricted to the asymptotic theory. Adiabatic convection of plasma sheet flux tubes is modeled as a series of static-equilibrium solutions in which flux tubes conserve their PV? as they convect, which resulted in time dependent magnetospheric configurations. Specifically it is found that a deep minimum in the equatorial Bz develops in the inner plasma sheet, thereby causing the magneticfield configuration to become more stretched and tail-like in time. These results suggest X-line formation in the inner plasma sheet as a consequence of lossless, adiabatic convection of plasma sheet flux tubes.

  8. World Sheet Commuting beta-gamma CFT and Non-Relativistic StringTheories

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bom Soo

    2007-08-30

    We construct a sigma model in two dimensions with Galilean symmetry in flat target space similar to the sigma model of the critical string theory with Lorentz symmetry in 10 flat spacetime dimensions. This is motivated by the works of Gomis and Ooguri[1] and Danielsson et. al.[2, 3]. Our theory is much simpler than their theory and does not assume a compact coordinate. This non-relativistic string theory has a bosonic matter {beta}{gamma} CFT with the conformal weight of {beta} as 1. It is natural to identify time as a linear combination of {gamma} and {bar {gamma}} through an explicit realization of the Galilean boost symmetry. The angle between {gamma} and {bar {gamma}} parametrizes one parameter family of selection sectors. These selection sectors are responsible for having a non-relativistic dispersion relation without a nontrivial topology in the non-relativistic setup, which is one of the major differences from the previous works[1, 2, 3]. This simple theory is the non-relativistic analogue of the critical string theory, and there are many different avenues ahead to be investigated. We mention a possible consistent generalization of this theory with different conformal weights for the {beta}{gamma} CFT. We also mention supersymmetric generalizations of these theories.

  9. Calcofluor fluorescence assay for wort beta-glucan in a microplate format

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widely-used fluorescent (Calcofluor) flow injection analysis method for determining the concentrations of beta-glucans in Congress worts from barley malts is adapted to microplate format. Adaptation of the Calcofluor assay to use widely available fluorescent microplate readers makes the assay m...

  10. Reduction of postoperative scar formation with silicone sheeting: 2 case studies.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kirsten A; Silbernagel, Bonijo

    2010-09-01

    Elective surgeries account for millions of acquired scars annually. Many of these scars can be problematic, being aesthetically unpleasant and causing discomfort. Silicone gel sheeting has been shown to be efficacious for the prevention and treatment of problematic scars. By wound hydration, along with other factors, silicone dressings are thought to decrease scarring. However, we found the usual treatment was commonly started after epithelialization of the incision site. The current standard of care in wound healing is to promote a moist wound environment to ensure quick epithelialization and decrease excessive scar formation. With that standard in mind, after foot surgery was performed on 2 patients, silicone sheeting was applied immediately in order to compare its effects with those of standard moist wound healing (XEROFORM Petrolatum Gauze). PMID:24527150

  11. Reduction of Postoperative Scar Formation With Silicone Sheeting: 2 Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kirsten A.; Silbernagel, BoniJo

    2011-01-01

    Elective surgeries account for millions of acquired scars annually. Many of these scars can be problematic, being aesthetically unpleasant and causing discomfort. Silicone gel sheeting has been shown to be efficacious for the prevention and treatment of problematic scars. By wound hydration, along with other factors, silicone dressings are thought to decrease scarring. However, we found the usual treatment was commonly started after epithelialization of the incision site. The current standard of care in wound healing is to promote a moist wound environment to ensure quick epithelialization and decrease excessive scar formation. With that standard in mind, after foot surgery was performed on 2 patients, silicone sheeting was applied immediately in order to compare its effects with those of standard moist wound healing (XEROFORM Petrolatum Gauze). PMID:24527150

  12. Formation of the Harang reversal and its dependence on plasma sheet conditions: Rice convection model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkioulidou, Matina; Wang, Chih-Ping; Lyons, Larry R.; Wolf, Richard A.

    2009-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand the formation of the Harang reversal and its association with the region 2 field-aligned current (FAC) system, which couples the plasma sheet transport to the ionosphere. We have run simulations with the Rice convection model (RCM) using the Tsyganenko 96 magnetic field model and realistic plasma sheet particle boundary conditions on the basis of Geotail observations. Our results show that the existence of an overlap in magnetic local time (MLT) of the region 2 upward and downward FAC is necessary for the formation of the Harang reversal. In the overlap region the downward FAC, which is located at lower latitudes, is associated with low-energy ions that penetrate closer to Earth toward the dawn side, while the upward FAC, which is located at higher latitudes, is associated with high-energy ions. Under the same enhanced convection we compare the Harang reversal resulting from a hotter and more tenuous plasma sheet with the one resulting from a colder and denser plasma sheet. For the former case the shielding of the convection electric field is less efficient than for the latter case, allowing low-energy protons to penetrate further earthward, resulting in a Harang reversal that extends to lower latitudes, expands wider in MLT, and is located further equatorward than the upward FAC peak and the conductivity peak. The return flows of the Harang reversal in the hot and tenuous case are located in a low conductivity region. This leads to an enhancement of these westward flows, resulting in subauroral polarization streams (SAPS).

  13. Heliospheric plasma sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. U. Crooker; C.-L. Huang; S. M. Lamassa; D. E. Larson; S. W. Kahler; H. E. Spence

    2004-01-01

    As a high-beta feature on scales of hours or less, the heliospheric plasma sheet (HPS) encasing the heliospheric current sheet shows a high degree of variability. A study of 52 sector boundaries identified in electron pitch angle spectrograms in Wind data from 1995 reveals that only half concur with both high-beta plasma and current sheets, as required for an HPS.

  14. Interepithelial signaling with nephric duct is required for the formation of overlying coelomic epithelial cell sheet.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Takashi; Saito, Daisuke; Atsuta, Yuji; Uchiyama, Chihiro; Ueda, Shinya; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2014-05-01

    In most organs of the body, epithelial tissues are supported by their own basement membrane and underlying stroma, the latter being regarded as a complex of amorphous cells, extracellular matrices, and soluble factors. We demonstrate here that an epithelial tube can serve as a component of stroma that supports the formation of epithelial cell sheet derived from a different origin. During development of the mesonephros in chicken embryos, the intermediate mesoderm (IMM), which contains the Wolffian duct (WD) and its associated tubules, is overlain by a sheet of epithelial cells derived from lateral plate (coelomic) mesoderm. We describe that in normal embryos, epitheliogenesis of IMM tubes and the adjacent coelomic cell sheet proceed in a coordinated manner. When the WD was surgically ablated, the overlying coelomic epithelium exhibited aberrant morphology accompanied by a punctated basement membrane. Furthermore, the WD-ablated coelomic epithelium became susceptible to latent external stress; electroporation of Rac1 resulted in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) within the coelomic epithelium. The distorted coelomic epithelium was rescued by implanting fibronectin-producing cells in place of the WD, suggesting that fibronectin provided by WD has an important role acting interepithelially. This notion was corroborated further by directly visualizing a translocation of EGFP-tagged fibronectin from fibronectin-producing to -receiving epithelia in vivo. Our findings provide a novel insight into interepithelial signaling that also might occur in adult tissues to protect against EMT and suggest a possible new target for anticancer therapeutic strategy. PMID:24753584

  15. Caldera faults capture and deflect inclined sheets: an alternative mechanism of ring dike formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, John; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-01-01

    The subsurface structures of caldera ring faults are often inferred from numerical and analog models as well as from geophysical studies. All of these inferred structures need to be compared with actual ring faults so as to test the model implications. Here, we present field evidence of magma channeling into a caldera ring fault as exhibited at Hafnarfjall, a deeply eroded and well-exposed 5-Ma extinct volcano in western Iceland. At the time of collapse caldera formation, over 200 m of vertical displacement was accommodated along a ring fault, which is exceptionally well exposed at a depth of approximately 1.2 km below the original surface of the volcano. There are abrupt changes in the ring fault attitude with depth, but its overall dip is steeply inward. Several inclined sheets within the caldera became arrested at the ring fault; other sheets became deflected up along the fault to form a multiple ring dike. We present numerical models showing stress fields that encourage sheet deflection into the subvertical ring fault. Our findings provide an alternative mechanical explanation for magma channeling along caldera ring faults, which is a process likely to be fundamental in controlling the location of post-caldera volcanism.

  16. A common structural motif incorporating a cystine knot and a triple-stranded beta-sheet in toxic and inhibitory polypeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Pallaghy, P. K.; Nielsen, K. J.; Craik, D. J.; Norton, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    A common structural motif consisting of a cystine knot and a small triple-stranded beta-sheet has been defined from comparison of the 3-dimensional structures of the polypeptides omega-conotoxin GVIA (Conus geographus), kalata BI (Oldenlandia affinis DC), and CMTI-I (Curcurbita maxima). These 3 polypeptides have diverse biological activities and negligible amino acid sequence identity, but each contains 3 disulfide bonds that give rise to a cystine knot. This knot consists of a ring formed by the first 2 bonds (1-4 and 2-5) and the intervening polypeptide backbone, through which the third disulfide (3-6) passes. The other component of this motif is a triple-stranded, anti-parallel beta-sheet containing a minimum of 10 residues, XXC2, XC5X, XXC6X (where the numbers on the half-cysteine residues refer to their positions in the disulfide pattern). The presence in these polypeptides of both the cysteine knot and antiparallel beta-sheet suggests that both structural features are required for the stability of the motif. This structural motif is also present in other protease inhibitors and a spider toxin. It appears to be one of the smallest stable globular domains found in proteins and is commonly used in toxins and inhibitors that act by blocking the function of larger protein receptors such as ion channels or proteases. PMID:7849598

  17. A common structural motif incorporating a cystine knot and a triple-stranded beta-sheet in toxic and inhibitory polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Pallaghy, P K; Nielsen, K J; Craik, D J; Norton, R S

    1994-10-01

    A common structural motif consisting of a cystine knot and a small triple-stranded beta-sheet has been defined from comparison of the 3-dimensional structures of the polypeptides omega-conotoxin GVIA (Conus geographus), kalata BI (Oldenlandia affinis DC), and CMTI-I (Curcurbita maxima). These 3 polypeptides have diverse biological activities and negligible amino acid sequence identity, but each contains 3 disulfide bonds that give rise to a cystine knot. This knot consists of a ring formed by the first 2 bonds (1-4 and 2-5) and the intervening polypeptide backbone, through which the third disulfide (3-6) passes. The other component of this motif is a triple-stranded, anti-parallel beta-sheet containing a minimum of 10 residues, XXC2, XC5X, XXC6X (where the numbers on the half-cysteine residues refer to their positions in the disulfide pattern). The presence in these polypeptides of both the cysteine knot and antiparallel beta-sheet suggests that both structural features are required for the stability of the motif. This structural motif is also present in other protease inhibitors and a spider toxin. It appears to be one of the smallest stable globular domains found in proteins and is commonly used in toxins and inhibitors that act by blocking the function of larger protein receptors such as ion channels or proteases. PMID:7849598

  18. Role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta as a negative regulator of dorsoventral axis formation in Xenopus embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, I; Itoh, K; Sokol, S Y

    1995-01-01

    The dorsoventral axis is established early in Xenopus development and may involve signaling by Wnts, a family of Wnt1-protooncogene-related proteins. The protein kinase shaggy functions in the wingless/Wnt signaling pathway, which operates during Drosophila development. To assess the role of a closely related kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3 beta), in vertebrate embryogenesis, we cloned a cDNA encoding a Xenopus homolog of GSK-3 beta (XGSK-3 beta). XGSK-3 beta-specific transcripts were detected by Northern analysis in Xenopus eggs and early embryos. Microinjection of the mRNA encoding a catalytically inactive form of rat GSK-3 beta into a ventrovegetal blastomere of eight-cell embryos caused ectopic formation of a secondary body axis containing a complete set of dorsal and anterior structures. Furthermore, in isolated ectodermal explants, the mutant GSK-3 beta mRNA activated the expression of neural tissue markers. Wild-type XGSK-3 beta mRNA suppressed the dorsalizing effects of both the mutated GSK-3 beta and Xenopus dishevelled, a proposed upstream signaling component of the same pathway. These results strongly suggest that XGSK-3 beta functions to inhibit dorsoventral axis formation in the embryo and provide evidence for conservation of the Wnt signaling pathway in Drosophila and vertebrates. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7667318

  19. Maternally controlled (beta)-catenin-mediated signaling is required for organizer formation in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kelly, C; Chin, A J; Leatherman, J L; Kozlowski, D J; Weinberg, E S

    2000-09-01

    We have identified and characterized a zebrafish recessive maternal effect mutant, ichabod, that results in severe anterior and dorsal defects during early development. The ichabod mutation is almost completely penetrant, but exhibits variable expressivity. All mutant embryos fail to form a normal embryonic shield; most fail to form a head and notochord and have excessive development of ventral tail fin tissue and blood. Abnormal dorsal patterning can first be observed at 3.5 hpf by the lack of nuclear accumulation of (beta)-catenin in the dorsal yolk syncytial layer, which also fails to express bozozok/dharma/nieuwkoid and znr2/ndr1/squint. At the onset of gastrulation, deficiencies in expression of dorsal markers and expansion of expression of markers of ventral tissues indicate a dramatic alteration of dorsoventral identity. Injection of (beta)-catenin RNA markedly dorsalized ichabod embryos and often completely rescued the phenotype, but no measurable dorsalization was obtained with RNAs encoding upstream Wnt pathway components. In contrast, dorsalization was obtained when RNAs encoding either Bozozok/Dharma/Nieuwkoid or Znr2/Ndr1/Squint were injected. Moreover, injection of (beta)-catenin RNA into ichabod embryos resulted in activation of expression of these two genes, which could also activate each other. RNA injection experiments strongly suggest that the component affected by the ichabod mutation acts on a step affecting (beta)-catenin nuclear localization that is independent of regulation of (beta)-catenin stability. This work demonstrates that a maternal gene controlling localization of (beta)-catenin in dorsal nuclei is necessary for dorsal yolk syncytial layer gene activity and formation of the organizer in the zebrafish. PMID:10952888

  20. Understanding beta-hairpin formation by molecular dynamics simulations of unfolding.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J; Shin, S

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the mechanism of formation of a 16-residue beta-hairpin from the protein GB1 using molecular dynamics simulations in an aqueous environment. The analysis of unfolding trajectories at high temperatures suggests a refolding pathway consisting of several transient intermediates. The changes in the interaction energies of residues are related with the structural changes during the unfolding of the hairpin. The electrostatic energies of the residues in the turn region are found to be responsible for the transition between the folded state and the hydrophobic core state. The van der Waals interaction energies of the residues in the hydrophobic core reflect the behavior of the radius of gyration of the core region. We have examined the opposing influences of the protein-protein (PP) energy, which favors the native state, and the protein-solvent (PS) energy, which favors unfolding, in the formation of the beta-hairpin structure. It is found that the behavior of the electrostatic components of PP and PS energies reflects the structural changes associated with the loss of backbone hydrogen bonding. Relative changes in the PP and PS van der Waals interactions are related with the disruption of the hydrophobic core of a protein. The results of the simulations support the hydrophobic collapse mechanism of beta-hairpin folding. PMID:11606266

  1. Molecular cloud evolution. I. Molecular cloud and thin CNM sheet formation

    E-print Network

    Enrique Vazquez-Semadeni; Dongsu Ryu; Thierry Passot; Ricardo F. Gonzalez; Adriana Gazol

    2006-02-06

    We discuss molecular cloud formation by large-scale supersonic compressions in the diffuse warm neutral medium (WNM). Initially, a shocked layer forms, and within it, a thin cold layer. An analytical model and high-resolution 1D simulations predict the thermodynamic conditions in the cold layer. After $\\sim 1$ Myr of evolution, the layer has column density $\\sim 2.5 \\times 10^{19} \\psc$, thickness $\\sim 0.03$ pc, temperature $\\sim 25$ K and pressure $\\sim 6650$ K $\\pcc$. These conditions are strongly reminiscent of those recently reported by Heiles and coworkers for cold neutral medium sheets. In the 1D simulations, the inflows into the sheets produce line profiles with a central line of width $\\sim 0.5 \\kms$ and broad wings of width $\\sim 1 \\kms$. 3D numerical simulations show that the cold layer develops turbulent motions and increases its thickness, until it becomes a fully three-dimensional turbulent cloud. Fully developed turbulence arises on times ranging from $\\sim 7.5$ Myr for inflow Mach number $\\Mr = 2.4$ to $> 80$ Myr for $\\Mr = 1.03$. These numbers should be considered upper limits. The highest-density turbulent gas (HDG, $n > 100 \\pcc$) is always overpressured with respect to the mean WNM pressure by factors 1.5--4, even though we do not include self-gravity. The intermediate-density gas (IDG, $10 forms the clouds themselves, and that thin CNM sheets may be formed transiently by this mechanism, when the compressions are only weakly supersonic.

  2. Thermodynamic description of Beta amyloid formation using physicochemical scales and fractal bioinformatic scales.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J C

    2015-05-20

    Protein function depends on both protein structure and amino acid (aa) sequence. Here we show that modular features of both structure and function can be quantified economically from the aa sequences alone for the small (40,42 aa) plaque-forming (aggregative) amyloid beta fragments. Some edge and center features of the fragments are predicted. Bioinformatic scales based on ? strand formation propensities and the thermodynamically second order fractal hydropathicity scale based on evolutionary optimization (self-organized criticality) are contrasted with the standard first order physicochemical scale based on complete protein (water-air) unfolding. The results are consistent with previous studies of these physicochemical factors that show that aggregative properties, even of beta fragments, are driven primarily by near-equilibrium hydropathic forces. PMID:25702750

  3. Formation and characterization of emulsions using beta-cyclodextrin as an emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Motoki; Hashizaki, Kaname; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2008-05-01

    The preparation and characterization of n-alkane/water emulsions using beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) were studied. The prepared n-alkane/water emulsions were of the oil-in-water (O/W) type, and the stability of emulsions was in the order of n-hexadecane > n-dodecane > n-octane. From observations using polarized light microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction measurement, it was suggested that the formation of a dense film at the oil-water interface and the three-dimensional structural network created by precipitated complexes in the continuous phase are associated with the stability of emulsion. Furthermore, it was clarified that O/W-type emulsions were formed because the contact angle (theta ow) which the precipitate makes with the interface was theta ow < 90 degrees in all compounds (oils) used in this study. PMID:18451555

  4. beta-Amyloid Neurotoxicity Requires Fibril Formation and is Inhibited by Congo Red

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo Lorenzo; Bruce A. Yankner

    1994-01-01

    beta-Amyloid (betaA) is normally produced as a nontoxic soluble peptide. In Alzheimer disease, betaA aggregates and accumulates in the brain as inert diffuse plaques or compact plaques associated with neurodegenerative changes. To determine the relationship of neurotoxicity to the physical state of betaA, we created (i) nonamyloidogenic amorphous aggregates of betaA [amorphous betaA (Am-betaA)] analogous to diffuse plaques and (ii)

  5. Nonlinear evolution of three-dimensional instabilities of thin and thick electron scale current sheets: Plasmoid formation and current filamentation

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg [Max Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, Göttingen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-Von-Liebig-Weg-3, Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Nonlinear evolution of three dimensional electron shear flow instabilities of an electron current sheet (ECS) is studied using electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The dependence of the evolution on current sheet thickness is examined. For thin current sheets (half thickness =d{sub e}=c/?{sub pe}), tearing mode instability dominates. In its nonlinear evolution, it leads to the formation of oblique current channels. Magnetic field lines form 3-D magnetic spirals. Even in the absence of initial guide field, the out-of-reconnection-plane magnetic field generated by the tearing instability itself may play the role of guide field in the growth of secondary finite-guide-field instabilities. For thicker current sheets (half thickness ?5?d{sub e}), both tearing and non-tearing modes grow. Due to the non-tearing mode, current sheet becomes corrugated in the beginning of the evolution. In this case, tearing mode lets the magnetic field reconnect in the corrugated ECS. Later thick ECS develops filamentary structures and turbulence in which reconnection occurs. This evolution of thick ECS provides an example of reconnection in self-generated turbulence. The power spectra for both the thin and thick current sheets are anisotropic with respect to the electron flow direction. The cascade towards shorter scales occurs preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the electron flow.

  6. Safety against formation of through cracks of profiled fibre-reinforced cement sheets for roofing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klavs Feilberg Hansen; Birgitte Dela Stang

    2009-01-01

    Loads due to wind, snow or traffic on a roof determine the requirements to the strength and stiffness properties of profiled sheets for roofing. Apart from these loads, locked-in stresses can occur due to differences in temperature and moisture strains in the profiled sheets and the wooden laths supporting the sheets. These tensile and compressive stresses are induced in the

  7. Ballooning instability at the plasma sheet–lobe interface and its implications for polar arc formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. V. Golovchanskaya; A. Kullen; Y. P. Maltsev; H. Biernat

    2006-01-01

    Huang et al. (1987, 1989) reported hot filaments of plasma sheet origin filling the magnetospheric lobes during northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). On the other hand, cold plasma transients of presumably lobe origin are often observed in the plasma sheet. These features can be interpreted in terms of plasma exchange at the plasma sheet–lobe interface (PSLI) proceeding in a filamentary

  8. Ballooning instability at the plasma sheet-lobe interface and its implications for polar arc formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. V. Golovchanskaya; A. Kullen; Y. P. Maltsev; H. Biernat

    2006-01-01

    Huang et al. (1987, 1989) reported hot filaments of plasma sheet origin filling the magnetospheric lobes during northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). On the other hand, cold plasma transients of presumably lobe origin are often observed in the plasma sheet. These features can be interpreted in terms of plasma exchange at the plasma sheet-lobe interface (PSLI) proceeding in a filamentary

  9. Curcumin inhibits formation of amyloid beta oligomers and fibrils, binds plaques, and reduces amyloid in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fusheng; Lim, Giselle P; Begum, Aynun N; Ubeda, Oliver J; Simmons, Mychica R; Ambegaokar, Surendra S; Chen, Pingping P; Kayed, Rakez; Glabe, Charles G; Frautschy, Sally A; Cole, Gregory M

    2005-02-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves amyloid beta (Abeta) accumulation, oxidative damage, and inflammation, and risk is reduced with increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory consumption. The phenolic yellow curry pigment curcumin has potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and can suppress oxidative damage, inflammation, cognitive deficits, and amyloid accumulation. Since the molecular structure of curcumin suggested potential Abeta binding, we investigated whether its efficacy in AD models could be explained by effects on Abeta aggregation. Under aggregating conditions in vitro, curcumin inhibited aggregation (IC(50) = 0.8 microM) as well as disaggregated fibrillar Abeta40 (IC(50) = 1 microM), indicating favorable stoichiometry for inhibition. Curcumin was a better Abeta40 aggregation inhibitor than ibuprofen and naproxen, and prevented Abeta42 oligomer formation and toxicity between 0.1 and 1.0 microM. Under EM, curcumin decreased dose dependently Abeta fibril formation beginning with 0.125 microM. The effects of curcumin did not depend on Abeta sequence but on fibril-related conformation. AD and Tg2576 mice brain sections incubated with curcumin revealed preferential labeling of amyloid plaques. In vivo studies showed that curcumin injected peripherally into aged Tg mice crossed the blood-brain barrier and bound plaques. When fed to aged Tg2576 mice with advanced amyloid accumulation, curcumin labeled plaques and reduced amyloid levels and plaque burden. Hence, curcumin directly binds small beta-amyloid species to block aggregation and fibril formation in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that low dose curcumin effectively disaggregates Abeta as well as prevents fibril and oligomer formation, supporting the rationale for curcumin use in clinical trials preventing or treating AD. PMID:15590663

  10. Formation of a very thin current sheet in the near-earth magnetotail and the explosive growth phase of substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.; Zhang, L.; Choe, G. S.; Cai, H. J.

    1995-01-01

    A magnetofricional method is used to construct two-dimensional MHD equilibria of the Earth's magnetosphere for a given distribution of entropy functions(S = pV(exp gamma), where p is the plasma pressure and V is the tube volume per unit magnetic flux. It is found that a very thin current sheet with B (sub zeta) is less than 0.5 nu T and thickness less than 1000 km can be formed in the near-earth magnetotail (x is approximately -8 to -20R(sub e) during the growth phase of substorm. The tail current sheets are found to become thinner as the entropy or the entropy gradient increases. It is suggested that the new entropy anti-diffusion instability associated with plasma transport across field lines leads to magnetic field dipolarization and accelerates the formation of thin current sheet, which may explain the observed explosive growth phase of substorms.

  11. Sequence-specific sup 1 H-NMR assignments and identification of two small antiparallel. beta. -sheets in the solution structure of recombinant human transforming growth factor. alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Montelione, G.T.; Wagner, G. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA)); Winkler, M.E.; Burton, L.E.; Rinderknecht, E. (Genetech, Inc., San Francisco (CA)); Sporn, M.B. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Transforming growth factor {alpha} (TGF{alpha}) is a small mitogenic protein with about 35% sequence identity with epidermal growth factor (EGF). TGF{alpha}-like proteins have been proposed to play a role in oncogenesis and wound healing. This report describes sequence-specific {sup 1}H-NMR resonance assignments for recombinant human TGF{alpha} (hTGF{alpha}). These assignments provide the basis for interpreting NMR data which demonstrate that the solution structure of hTGF{alpha} includes an antiparallel {beta}-sheet involving residues Gly-19 to Leu-24 and Lys-29 to Cys-34 and a second, smaller, antiparallel {beta}-sheet involving residues Tyr-38 and Val-39 and His-45 and Ala-46. These data, together with constraints imposed by the disulfide bonds, are combined to construct a molecular model of the polypeptide chain fold for residues Cys-8 to Ala-46. The resulting structure is similar to that of mouse and human EGF. Human TGF{alpha} and mouse EGF, however, differ with respect to their structural dynamics, since amide proton/deuteron exchange is much faster for hTGF{alpha} than for mouse EGF at pH 3.5.

  12. Inducing ?-sheets formation in synthetic spider silk fibers by aqueous post-spin stretching.

    PubMed

    An, Bo; Hinman, Michael B; Holland, Gregory P; Yarger, Jeffery L; Lewis, Randolph V

    2011-06-13

    As a promising biomaterial with numerous potential applications, various types of synthetic spider silk fibers have been produced and studied in an effort to produce man-made fibers with mechanical and physical properties comparable to those of native spider silk. In this study, two recombinant proteins based on Nephila clavipes Major ampullate Spidroin 1 (MaSp1) consensus repeat sequence were expressed and spun into fibers. Mechanical test results showed that fiber spun from the higher molecular weight protein had better overall mechanical properties (70 KD versus 46 KD), whereas postspin stretch treatment in water helped increase fiber tensile strength significantly. Carbon-13 solid-state NMR studies of those fibers further revealed that the postspin stretch in water promoted protein molecule rearrangement and the formation of ?-sheets in the polyalanine region of the silk. The rearrangement correlated with improved fiber mechanical properties and indicated that postspin stretch is key to helping the spider silk proteins in the fiber form correct secondary structures, leading to better quality fibers. PMID:21574576

  13. Inducing ?-Sheets Formation in Synthetic Spider Silk Fibers by Aqueous Post-Spin Stretching

    PubMed Central

    Hinman, Michael B.; Holland, Gregory P.; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Lewis, Randolph V.

    2012-01-01

    As a promising biomaterial with numerous potential applications, various types of synthetic spider silk fibers have been produced and studied in an effort to produce manmade fibers with mechanical and physical properties comparable to those of native spider silk. In this study, two recombinant proteins based on Nephila clavipes Major ampullate Spidroin 1 (MaSp1) consensus repeat sequence were expressed and spun into fibers. Mechanical test results showed that fiber spun from the higher molecular weight protein had better overall mechanical properties (70 KD versus 46 KD), whereas postspin stretch treatment in water helped increase fiber tensile strength significantly. Carbon-13 solid-state NMR studies of those fibers further revealed that the postspin stretch in water promoted protein molecule rearrangement and the formation of ?-sheets in the polyalanine region of the silk. The rearrangement correlated with improved fiber mechanical properties and indicated that postspin stretch is key to helping the spider silk proteins in the fiber form correct secondary structures, leading to better quality fibers. PMID:21574576

  14. A study of multi-ligand beta-lactoglobulin complex formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Xiaoming; Subirade, Muriel; Zhou, Peng; Liang, Li

    2014-12-15

    Beta-lactoglobulin (?-LG), the principal whey protein, possesses multiple sites for binding ligands. Most studies of ?-LG-ligand interactions have focused on the formation and dissociation of protein complexes with single ligands, such as ?-tocopherol, resveratrol or folic acid. In this study, the possibility of a plurality of bioactive compounds binding simultaneously to ?-LG was analysed using protein intrinsic fluorescence quenching. It was found that ?-LG could bind two or three ligands simultaneously, although the sequence in which the ligands were added affected binding affinity. The impact of binding to ?-LG on physicochemical properties of these three ligands is discussed in view of fluorescence spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography results. The data obtained in this study suggest the feasibility of developing ?-LG-based carriers of a plurality of active compounds. PMID:25038674

  15. Formation kinetics and structural features of Beta-amyloid aggregates by sedimented solute NMR.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Ivano; Gallo, Gianluca; Korsak, Magdalena; Luchinat, Claudio; Mao, Jiafei; Ravera, Enrico

    2013-09-23

    The accumulation of soluble toxic beta-amyloid (A?) aggregates is an attractive hypothesis for the role of this peptide in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. We have introduced sedimentation through ultracentrifugation, either by magic angle spinning (in situ) or preparative ultracentrifuge (ex situ), to immobilize biomolecules and make them amenable for solid-state NMR studies (SedNMR). In situ SedNMR is used here to address the kinetics of formation of soluble A? assemblies by monitoring the disappearance of the monomer and the appearance of the oligomers simultaneously. Ex situ SedNMR allows us to select different oligomeric species and to reveal atomic-level structural features of soluble A? assemblies. PMID:23821412

  16. Dynamical Structures from Planet Formation in the Beta Pictoris Debris Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): The star beta Pictoris hosts one of the brightest debris disks. Images of this disk showed a warp and brightness asymmetries that have been interpreted as evidence for perturbations from a recently formed planet on an inclined orbit (Augereau et al. 2001), and from collisions of a growing planetary embryo (Telesco et al. 2005). Since that time a planet has been imaged in the disk (Lagrange et al. 2010), and new high resolution imaging of the disk structure has been obtained at multiple wavelengths. This talk will describe a new model for the dynamical interaction of planets with the disk to determine if the multiple and diverse structures seen in the images can be explained in a single model that clarifies the status of planet formation throughout the disk.

  17. Value Clarification in the Social Studies: Six Formats of the Values Sheet. Research Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteel, J. Doyle; And Others

    One of the major goals of the social studies is to help students gain and refine skills in the area of value clarification. Value sheets, carefully planned activities designed to elicit value clarifying patterns of language from students, are one way of securing value clarification. Sheets, planned in conjunction with ongoing units of instruction,…

  18. Formation of intermetallic compound layer in multi-laminated Ni-(TiB2/Al) composite sheets during annealing treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q W; Fan, G H; Geng, L; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y Z; Cui, X P

    2013-02-01

    Solid-state reactive diffusion between Ni and Al was investigated during annealing at 650°C by employing multi-laminated Ni-(TiB(2)/Al) composite sheets. In multi-laminated Ni-(TiB(2)/Al) composite sheets annealed up to 5min NiAl(3) was the only phase observed in the diffusion zone, and Ni(2)Al(3) appeared after longer annealing time. Most grains of Ni(2)Al(3) showed equiaxed morphology rather than columnar microstructures like NiAl(3), due to the low concentration gradients of Al and Ni at the Ni/NiAl(3) interface. The preferential formation of this intermetallic compound NiAl(3) in multi-laminated Ni-(TiB(2)/Al) composite sheets was predicted using an effective heat of formation model. The present work indicated that both Ni and Al interdiffused, and the formation of NiAl(3) was a reaction-diffusion process. PMID:23266224

  19. Application of a robust [beta]-pdf treatment to analysis of thermal NO formation in nonpremixed hydrogen-air flame

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.S.; Chang, K.C. (National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Aeronautics and Astronautics); Chen, J.Y. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-09-01

    The assumed [beta]-pdf is widely used in turbulent flame simulation with the moment closure method. However, implementation of the [beta]-pdf in turbulent flame simulation may sometimes encounter singularity difficulties in numerical calculation. The study proposes a robust [beta]-pdf treatment to overcome these numerical difficulties. The proposed [beta]-pdf treatment associated with the partial equilibrium chemistry model and the k-[epsilon] turbulence model is firstly applied to the case of H[sub 2]/N[sub 2]-air nonpremixed flame to demonstrate its robustness. Then, the present method is applied to the study of thermal NO formation in H[sub 2]-air nonpremixed flames. Comparison of results shows the present model to be capable of yielding fair agreement with the measurements. It is competitive with other more sophisticated methods, such as the pdf evolution method and the conditional moment closure method.

  20. Diagnostics of basal conditions - the formation of extensive zones of surface ribs in ice-sheets and streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Sergienko, Olga V.; Creyts, Timothy T.

    2015-04-01

    Most if not all current predictions of the evolution of ice-streams to changes induced by global change assume static basal conditions. This is a result of current restrictions in the remote sensing of the ice-sheet basal physical environment, which cannot resolve the small-scale phenomena believed to control the basal traction. The search therefore is on for observable structures or features that are the result of the operation of basal processes. Any successful theory of ice-sheet basal processes would need to be able to explain such phenomena associated with or caused by special properties of the basal environment. We present one class of these phenomena, and also present tentative hypotheses as to their formation. Using recent high-resolution observations of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets topography, the computed driving stress and the inferred basal traction reveal broad-scale organization in 5-20 km band-like patterns in both quantities. The similarity of patterns on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets suggests that the flow of ice sheets is controlled by the same fundamental processes operating at their base, which control ice sheet sliding and are highly variable on relatively short spatial and temporal scales. The formation mechanism for these bands contains information about the operation of the sub-glacial system. There are three possible, non-exclusive causes of these ribs which we examine from a theoretical and evidential point-of-view (i) They are the surface response to similar bands in the basal topography, whose regularity would equally require an explanation in terms of basal processes. (ii) They are translating surface waves in the ice, supported by membrane stress gradients rather than by gradients in the basal resistance. (iii) The ribs are due to the development of a band-like structure in the basal shear stress distribution that is the result of a pattern-forming instability in sub-glacial till and water flow, perhaps related to the formation of sub-glacial landforms.

  1. Cone sheet formation and intrusive growth of an oceanic island—The Miocene Tejeda complex on Gran Canaria (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirnick, Carsten; van den Bogaard, Paul; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

    1999-03-01

    More than 500 trachytic to phonolitic cone sheet dikes, hypabyssal syenite stocks, and subordinate radial dikes form a 20-km-diameter intrusive complex in the volcaniclastic fill of the Miocene Tejeda caldera (20 × 35 km) on Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). The dikes intruded concentrically around a central axis of radial symmetry and dip uniformly an average of ˜41° toward the center. Single-crystal 40Ar/39Ar ages of dikes and syenite stocks ranging from 12.3 ± 0.1 to 7.32 ± 0.05 Ma suggest more or less continuous intrusive activity during both volcanically active and inactive phases. Intrusions were emplaced at average intervals of ˜5 10 k.y., while explosive eruptions took place at >50 k.y. intervals. The estimated aggregate volume of evolved cone sheet magma added at shallow level (<2000 m below sea level) amounts to ˜250 km3 compared to ?500 km3 of evolved extrusive volcanics erupted during the same period. Formation of the Tejeda cone sheets most likely resulted from deformation processes due to resurgent doming, initiated by the recurrent replenishment of a flat, laccolith-like shallow magma chamber. Magma supply exceeding the volume that could be compensated for by updoming of the overlying caldera fill resulted in the formation of cone-shaped fractures.

  2. Age-associated changes in the stimulatory effect of transforming growth factor beta on human osteogenic colony formation.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, J; Kögler, C; Diel, I; Ziegler, R; Pfeilschifter, J

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the mitogenic responsiveness of human bone cells may change with age. In the present study, we examined whether aging affects the capacity of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) to stimulate the colony formation of human osteoprogenitor cells. Outgrowths of bone cells from 98 iliac crest biopsies were plated at a density of 25 cells/cm2 and cultured for 3 weeks in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum. Approximately 5% of the plated cells gave rise to clonal colonies. TGF-beta (10(-11) M) significantly increased the estimated number of cells per colony. However, the stimulatory effect of TGF-beta significantly declined with donor age (r = -0.26, P = 0.01). Whereas TGF-beta raised the average number of cells per colony in cultures from donors below the age of 50 years by 136+/-50%, the average increase was only 43+/-16% in donors older than 60 years. These data raise the possibility that aging may be associated with a declining capacity of TGF-beta to enlarge the pool of bone cells that can be generated from a single human osteoblast progenitor cell. PMID:10580693

  3. The formation of ice rises, their dynamics and role in the deglaciation of the Antarctic ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, Lionel; Pattyn, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Numerous underwater mountains emerge from the edge of the continental shelf around the Antarctic ice sheet. During the last deglaciation, those features gave birth to ice rises, each being small scale copies of a continental ice sheet characterised by an ice divide and a local flow going outwards embedded within the fringing ice shelves. The well-known millenium-scale stability of ice rises can be strong indicators for the past deglaciation termination. However, the interpretation of physical measurements of an ice rise is not straightforward due to unknown past ice dynamics. Here, using the Bisicles ice-sheet model, we investigate for the first time the formation of an ice rise on top of an underwater mountain during the retreat of an ideal Antarctic-like ice sheet (i.e., including both grounded and floating ice flow). Prior to the retreat, the underwater mountain is barely detectable from the ice surface geometry and velocity. During the ice sheet retreat, induced by an increase of the sea level, an ice divide develops quickly above the underwater mountain. Within a short period of hundreds of years, the ice rise adopts a thousand years stability along with two main features: (i) a shifted upstream position of the ice rise compared to the mountain underneath and (ii) a geometrical asymmetry of the ice rise showing a gentle slope upstream and a steep slope downstream. We also investigate the influence of a non uniform surface mass balance on the migration of the ice divide. Our results provide additional ice dynamical constraints to facilitate numerical reconstructions of the last deglacial history in Antarctica as we demonstrate that ice rises are stable, but transient features of the ice shelf, stabilizing fast outlet flow. The timing of pinning and unpinning therefore becomes crucial in simulating the episodes of slow and fast grounding line retreat, respectively.

  4. Semaphorin 3A blocks the formation of pathologic choroidal neovascularization induced by transforming growth factor beta

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yujing; Liang, Shuting; Zhao, Min; Huang, Lvzhen; Zhao, Mingwei; Li, Xiaoxin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a major cause of vision loss in retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previously, we demonstrated that semaphorin3A (Sema3A), which is a chemorepellent guidance molecule, inhibited the formation of retina neovascularization. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic effects of Sema3A on transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) in vitro and in vivo. Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to measure the TGF-? levels in the vitreous humor of patients with AMD and controls. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used for the in vitro study, and a laser-induced CNV mouse model was prepared for the in vivo study. The HUVECs were incubated with TGF-? and Sema3A. The proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and tube formation of the cells were then measured using BrdU, Transwell, flow cytometry, and Matrigel assays, respectively, and the SMAD2/3 signaling pathways were analyzed using western blot analysis. The C57BL/6J mouse retina was exposed to a laser to induce choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and Sema3A was injected intravitreously. After 14 days, fundus fluorescein angiography was performed to evaluate the leakage area of the CNV. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and TGF-? concentrations in the retina-choroid complex were measured with ELISA. Components of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and SMAD2/3 signaling pathways in the Sema3A-treated groups were analyzed using western blotting. Results In this study, we first verified that the vitreous TGF-? level was higher in patients with neovascular AMD than in the controls. We also showed that Sema3A inhibited TGF-?-induced HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation and inhibited the downstream SMAD2/3 signaling pathway. Sema3A also induced TGF-?-stimulated HUVEC apoptosis and inhibited the response of TGF-? in vitro. In vivo, the TGF-? level was increased in the CNV mouse model. Sema3A not only inhibited laser-induced CNV formation but also inhibited the uptake of VEGF and TGF-?. In the western blot analysis, Sema3A was shown to inhibit the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, and JNK and to inhibit the SMAD2/3 signaling pathway after Sema3A treatment in CNV mice. Conclusions Sema3A can be applied as a useful, adjunctive therapeutic strategy for preventing CNV formation. PMID:25352735

  5. Flanking Polyproline Sequences Inhibit [beta]Sheet Structure in Polyglutamine Segments by Inducing PPII-like Helix Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Darnell; Joseph P. R. O. Orgel; Reinhard Pahl; Stephen C. Meredith

    2008-01-01

    Polyglutamine (poly(Q)) expansion is associated with protein aggregation into β-sheet amyloid fibrils and neuronal cytotoxicity. In the mutant poly(Q) protein huntingtin, associated with Huntington's disease, both aggregation and cytotoxicity may be abrogated by a polyproline (poly(P)) domain flanking the C terminus of the poly(Q) region. To understand structural changes that may occur with the addition of the poly(P) sequence, we

  6. Current sheet formation in a sheared force-free-magnetic field. [in sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, Richard

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study showing how continuous shearing motion of magnetic footpoints in a tenuous, infinitely conducting plasma can lead to the development of current sheets, despite the absence of such sheets or even of neutral points in the initial state. The calculations discussed here verify the earlier suggestion by Low and Wolfson (1988) that extended current sheets should form due to the shearing of a force-free quadrupolar magnetic field. More generally, this work augments earlier studies suggesting that the appearance of discontinuities - current sheets - may be a necessary consequence of the topological invariance imposed on the magnetic field geometry of an ideal MHD system by virtue of its infinite conductivity. In the context of solar physics, the work shows how the gradual and continuous motion of magnetic footpoints at the solar photosphere may lead to the buildup of magnetic energy that can then be released explosively when finite conductivity effects become important and lead to the rapid dissipation of current sheets. Such energy release may be important in solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and other eruptive events.

  7. Coronal current-sheet formation - The effect of asymmetric and symmetric shears

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith T. Karpen; Spiro K. Antiochos; C. R. Devore

    1991-01-01

    A 2.5D numerical code is used to investigate the results of an asymmetric shear imposed on a potential quadrupolar magnetic field under two sets of atmospheric boundary conditions - a low-beta plasma with line tying at the base, similar to the line-tied analytic model, and a hydrostatic-equilibrium atmosphere with solar gravity, typical of the observed photosphere-chromosphere interface. The low-beta simulation

  8. Chondrule Formation and Protoplanetary Disk Heating by Current Sheets in Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    E-print Network

    M. K. Ryan Joung; Mordecai-Mark Mac Low; Denton S. Ebel

    2003-09-05

    We study magnetic field steepening due to ambipolar diffusion (Brandenburg & Zweibel 1994) in protoplanetary disk environments and draw the following conclusions. Current sheets are generated in magnetically active regions of the disk where the ionization fraction is high enough for the magnetorotational instability to operate. In late stages of solar nebula evolution, the surface density is expected to have lowered and dust grains to have gravitationally settled to the midplane. If the local dust-to-gas mass ratio near the midplane is increased above cosmic abundances by factors > 10^3, current sheets reach high enough temperatures to melt millimeter-sized dust grains, and hence may provide the mechanism to form meteoritic chondrules. In addition, these current sheets possibly explain the near-infrared excesses observed in spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of young stellar objects. Direct imaging of protoplanetary disks via a nulling interferometer or, in the future, a multi-band, adaptive optics coronagraph can test this hypothesis.

  9. Estradiol acts via estrogen receptors alpha and beta on pathways important for synaptic plasticity in the mouse hippocampal formation

    PubMed Central

    Spencer-Segal, Joanna L.; Tsuda, Mumeko C.; Mattei, Larissa; Waters, Elizabeth M.; Romeo, Russell D.; Milner, Teresa A.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2012-01-01

    Estradiol affects hippocampal-dependent spatial memory and underlying structural and electrical synaptic plasticity in female mice and rats. Using estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta knockout mice and wild-type littermates, we investigated the role of ERs in estradiol effects on multiple pathways important for hippocampal plasticity and learning. Six hours of estradiol administration increased immunoreactivity for phosphorylated Akt throughout the hippocampal formation, while 48 hours of estradiol increased immunoreactivity for phosphorylated TrkB receptor. Estradiol effects on phosphorylated Akt and TrkB immunoreactivities were abolished in ER alpha and ER beta knockout mice. Estradiol also had distinct effects on immunoreactivity for PSD-95 and BDNF mRNA in ER alpha and beta knockout mice. Thus, estradiol acts through both ERs alpha and beta in several subregions of the hippocampal formation. The different effects of estradiol at 6 and 48 hours indicate that several mechanisms of estrogen receptor signaling contribute to this female hormone’s influence on hippocampal synaptic plasticity. By further delineating these mechanisms, we will better understand and predict the effects of endogenous and exogenous ovarian steroids on mood, cognition, and other hippocampal-dependent behaviors. PMID:22133892

  10. Beta4 integrin-dependent formation of polarized three-dimensionalarchitecture confers resistance to apoptosis in normal and malignantmammary epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Valerie M.; Lelievre, Sophie; Lakins, Johnathon N.; Chrenek, Micah A.; Jones, Jonathan C.R.; Giancotti, Filippo; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-08-27

    Tumor cells can evade chemotherapy by acquiring resistanceto apoptosis. We investigated the molecular mechanism whereby malignantand nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells become insensitive toapoptosis. We show that regardless of growth status formation ofpolarized, three-dimensional structures driven by basement membraneconfers protection to apoptosis in both nonmalignant and malignantmammary epithelial cells. By contrast, irrespective of their malignantstatus, nonpolarized structures are sensitive to induction of apoptosis.Resistance to apoptosis requires ligation of beta4 integrins, whichregulates tissue polarity, hemidesmosome formation and NFkB activation.Expression of beta4 integrin that lacks the hemidesmosome targetingdomain interferes with tissue polarity and NFkB activation and permitsapoptosis. These results indicate that integrin-induced polarity maydrive tumor cell resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents via effects onNFkB.

  11. Reduction of Postoperative Scar Formation With Silicone Sheeting: 2 Case Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsten A. Moore; BoniJo Silbernagel

    2010-01-01

    Elective surgeries account for millions of acquired scars annually. Many of these scars can be problematic, being aesthetically unpleasant and causing discomfort. Silicone gel sheeting has been shown to be efficacious for the prevention and treatment of problematic scars. By wound hydration, along with other factors, silicone dressings are thought to decrease scarring. However, we found the usual treatment was

  12. Formation of electron clouds during particle acceleration in a 3D current sheet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentina V. Zharkova; Taras Siversky

    2011-01-01

    Acceleration of protons and electrons in a reconnecting current sheet (RCS) is investigated with the test particle and particle-in-cell (PIC) approaches in the 3D magnetic configuration including the guiding field. PIC simulations confirm a spatial separation of electrons and protons towards the midplane and reveal that this separation occur as long as protons are getting accelerated. During this time electrons

  13. Expansion of solar corona in the Sun's gravitational field and formation of the heliospheric current sheet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Podgorny; A. I. Podgorny

    2005-01-01

    [1] Taking into account gravitation and the temperature gradient, three-dimensional MHD simulation of solar corona expansion in a dipole magnetic field was performed. Dissipation, compressibility, and anisotropy of thermal conductivity were taken into consideration. For calculations, the PERESVET code was used. It was been shown that a heliospheric current sheet having a normal component of magnetic field is formed. An

  14. Lactate adversely affects the in vitro formation of endothelial cell tubular structures through the action of TGF-{beta}1

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Stephan A. [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg, 93042 Regensburg (Germany)]. E-mail: leoni.kunz-schughart@oncoray.de; Gaumann, Andreas [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Wondrak, Marit [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); OncoRay-Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Eckermann, Christoph [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schulte, Stephanie [Institute of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang [Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Wheatley, Denys N. [BioMedES, Leggat House, Keithhall, Inverrurie, Aberdeen, AB51 0LX (United Kingdom); Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A. [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); OncoRay-Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    When lactate accumulation in a tumor microenvironment reaches an average concentration of 10-20 mM, it tends to reflect a high degree of malignancy. However, the hypothesis that tumor-derived lactate has a number of partially adverse biological effects on malignant and tumor-associated host cells requires further evidence. The present study attempted to evaluate the impact of lactate on the process of angiogenesis, in particular on the formation of tubular structures. The endothelial cell (EC) network in desmoplastic breast tumors is primarily located in areas of reactive fibroblastic stroma. We employed a fibroblast-endothelial cell co-culture model as in vitro angiogenesis system normally producing florid in vitro tubule formation to analyze this situation. In contrast to previous studies, we found that lactate significantly reduces EC network formation in a dose-dependent manner as quantified by semi-automated morphometric analyses following immunohistochemical staining. The decrease in CD31-positive tubular structures and the number of intersections was independent of VEGF supplementation and became more pronounced in the presence of protons. The number of cells, primarily of the fibroblast population, was reduced but cell loss could not be attributed to a decrease in proliferative activity or pronounced apoptotic cell death. Treatment with 10 mM lactate was accompanied by enhanced mRNA expression and release of TGF-{beta}1, which also shows anti-angiogenic activity in the model. Both TGF-{beta}1 and lactate induced myofibroblastic differentiation adjacent to the EC tubular structures. The lactate response on the EC network was diminished by TGF-{beta}1 neutralization, indicating a causal relationship between lactate and TGF-{beta}1 in the finely tuned processes of vessel formation and maturation which may also occur in vivo within tumor tissue.

  15. Structural Transitions and Oligomerization along Polyalanine Fibril Formation Pathways from Computer Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Erin M.; Hall, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    The results of a computer simulation study of the aggregation kinetics of a large system of model peptides with particular focus on the formation of intermediates are presented. Discontinuous molecular dynamic simulations were used in combination with our intermediate-resolution protein model, PRIME, to simulate the aggregation of a system of 192 polyalanine (KA14K) peptides at a concentration of 5mM and reduced temperature of T* = 0.13 starting from a random configuration and ending in the assembly of a fibrillar structure. The population of various structures, including free monomers, beta sheets, amorphous aggregates, hybrid aggregates, and fibrils, and the transitions between the structures were tracked over the course of thirty independent simulations and averaged together. The aggregation pathway for this system starts with the association of free monomers into small amorphous aggregates that then grow to moderate size by incorporating other free monomers or merging with other small amorphous aggregates. These then rearrange into either small beta sheets or hybrid aggregates formed by association between unstructured chains and beta sheets, both of which grow in size by adding free monomer chains or other small aggregates, one at a time. Fibrillar structures are formed initially either by the stacking of beta sheets, rearrangement of hybrid aggregates or association between beta sheets and hybrid aggregates. They grow by the addition of beta sheets, hybrid aggregates and other small fibrillar structures. The rearrangement of amorphous aggregates into beta sheets is a critical and necessary step in the fibril formation pathway. PMID:22411226

  16. Thymosin Beta4 Regulates Cardiac Valve Formation Via Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transformation in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sun-Hye; Lee, Sangkyu; Bae, Jong-Sup; Jee, Jun-Goo; Cha, Hee-Jae; Lee, You Mie

    2014-01-01

    Thymosin beta4 (TB4) has multiple functions in cellular response in processes as diverse as embryonic organ development and the pathogeneses of disease, especially those associated with cardiac coronary vessels. However, the specific roles played by TB4 during heart valve development in vertebrates are largely unknown. Here, we identified a novel function of TB4 in endothelialmesenchymal transformation (EMT) in cardiac valve endocardial cushions in zebrafish. The expressions of thymosin family members in developing zebrafish embryos were determined by whole mount in situ hybridization. Of the thymosin family members only zTB4 was expressed in the developing heart region. Cardiac valve development at 48 h post fertilization was defected in zebrafish TB4 (zTB4) morpholino-injected embryos (morphants). In zTB4 morphants, abnormal linear heart tube development was observed. The expressions of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4, notch1b, and hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS) 2 genes were also markedly reduced in atrio-ventricular canal (AVC). Endocardial cells in the AVC region were stained with anti-Zn5 antibody reactive against Dm-grasp (an EMT marker) to observe EMT in developing cardiac valves in zTB4 morphants. EMT marker expression in valve endothelial cells was confirmed after transfection with TB4 siRNA in the presence of transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) by RT-PCR and immunofluorescent assay. Zn5-positive endocardial AVC cells were not observed in zTB4 morphants, and knockdown of TB4 suppressed TGF-?-induced EMT in ovine valve endothelial cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TB4 plays a pivotal role in cardiac valve formation by increasing EMT. PMID:24732964

  17. Proton-conducting beta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brent William Kirby

    2008-01-01

    Proton Conducting beta-alumina via Microwave Assisted Synthesis. The microwave assisted synthesis of proton conducting Mg- and Li-stabilized NH4+\\/H3O+ beta-alumina from a solution based gel precursor is reported. beta-alumina is a ceramic fast ion conductor containing two-dimensional sheets of mobile cations. Na +-beta-alumina is the most stable at the sintering temperatures (1740°C) reached in a modified microwave oven, and can be

  18. Formation and self-healing' of magnetic islands in finite-[beta] Helias equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Sato, T. (National Institute for Fusion Science, Furocho, Nagoya 464-01 (Japan)); Merkel, P.; Nuehrenberg, J.; Schwenn, U. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-EURATOM Association, D-8046 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany))

    1994-10-01

    The behavior of finite-pressure-induced magnetic islands is numerically analyzed for three-dimensional magnetohydrostatic equilibria of the Helias configuration by using a three- dimensional equilibrium code. It is found that an island chain is generated on the 5/6 rational surface, when such a surface appears in the plasma region of the finite-[beta] equilibrium. The island chain, however, is not so dangerous as to destroy the plasma confinement even if it appears in a vanishingly small shear region. Thus, a high [beta] equilibrium with clear magnetic surfaces can be realized. Moreover, it is definitely confirmed that the finite pressure effect sometimes exhibits an unexpectedly good aspect, namely, that the vacuum islands are removed as [beta] increases, which can be called self-healing' of islands. This property can be explained by the numerically discovered fact that the phases of islands induced by the finite-pressure effect are always locked in the same phase regardless of [beta].

  19. Formation of ferromagnetic interface between {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} and Si(111) substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Azusa N.; Hattori, Ken; Kodama, Kenji; Hosoito, Nobuyoshi; Daimon, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama 8916-5, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama 8916-5, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan) and CREST-JST, Honcho 4-1-8, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama 8916-5, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama 8916-5, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan) and CREST-JST, Honcho 4-1-8, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2007-11-12

    Epitaxial {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} thin films were grown on Si(111)7x7 clean surfaces by solid phase epitaxy in ultrahigh vacuum: iron deposition at low temperature and subsequent annealing. We found that a ferromagnetic interface layer of iron-rich silicides forms between a {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} surface layer and a Si(111) substrate spontaneously from transmission electron microscopy observations and magnetization measurements.

  20. Driving cartilage formation in high-density human adipose-derived stem cell aggregate and sheet constructs without exogenous growth factor delivery.

    PubMed

    Dang, Phuong N; Solorio, Loran D; Alsberg, Eben

    2014-12-01

    An attractive cell source for cartilage tissue engineering, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) can be easily expanded and signaled to differentiate into chondrocytes. This study explores the influence of growth factor distribution and release kinetics on cartilage formation within 3D hASC constructs incorporated with transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)-loaded gelatin microspheres. The amounts of microspheres, TGF-?1 concentration, and polymer degradation rate were varied within hASC aggregates. Microsphere and TGF-?1 loading concentrations were identified that resulted in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production comparable to those of control aggregates cultured in TGF-?1-containing medium. Self-assembling hASC sheets were then engineered for the production of larger, more clinically relevant constructs. Chondrogenesis was observed in hASC-only sheets cultured with exogenous TGF-?1 at 3 weeks. Importantly, sheets with incorporated TGF-?1-loaded microspheres achieved GAG production similar to sheets treated with exogenous TGF-?1. Cartilage formation was confirmed histologically via observation of cartilage-like morphology and GAG staining. This is the first demonstration of the self-assembly of hASCs into high-density cell sheets capable of forming cartilage in the presence of exogenous TGF-?1 or with TGF-?1-releasing microspheres. Microsphere incorporation may bypass the need for extended in vitro culture, potentially enabling hASC sheets to be implanted more rapidly into defects to regenerate cartilage in vivo. PMID:24873753

  1. Does Long-Term Administration of a Beta-Blocker (Timolol) Induce Fibril-Based Cataract Formation In-vivo?

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakht, Mohammad Reza; Ashrafi-Kooshk, Mohammad Reza; Jaafari, Morteza; Ghasemi, Moosa; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Timolol is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist administered for treating glaucoma, heart attacks and hypertension. In the present study, we set out to determine whether or not timolol can provoke cataract formation, thus the influence of timolol on the amyloid-type aggregation of crystallin was investigated. We then provided experimental evidence of crystallin aggregation and its induction by timolol using different spectroscopic measurements. Turbidimetric measurements as well as ThT fluorescence data indicated that timolol induce extent of crystallin amyloid formation. The kinetic of protein aggregation was also changed in presence of increasing concentrations of the drug suggesting that long-term drug administration may contribute to the development of cataract. Since the consequence of timolol-crystallin interaction has yet to be identified, additional data on it may help us to postpone amyloid cataract formation. PMID:25237356

  2. Graphene Carrier Control and Band Gap Formation through Stacked Graphene Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernigan, Glenn

    2012-02-01

    Graphene's use in RF transistors and frequency doublers is attractive since its high mobility and high saturation velocity translate into operation at high frequencies while utilizing little power. However, further graphene development for device applications is hindered by high metal contact resistance, poor control of channel conductivity, and the absence of a band gap. In this talk, I will present our efforts at NRL to address these challenges using two strategies: 1) substitutional insertion of group III-V atoms into graphene's lattice to control the carriers and 2) through a synthetic means to create bilayer graphene with a band gap. Substitutional incorporation of atoms into graphene can result in doping, if their concentration does not drastically affect the ?-network. Using selective oxidation to remove C atoms from the graphene lattice, we are able to backfill the C vacancies using molecular beam deposition of dopants with controllable ultra-low fluxes. We will show that boron and phosphorus dopants can provide extra holes and electrons to the graphene ?-network, respectively, modifying the carrier concentration in transport measurements. Bernal-stacked graphene bilayers have a relatively small band gap (˜few meV). However, if the symmetry of the system is broken by the application of a large applied electric field, the band gap can be increased (˜250 meV). Alternatively, we find it is possible to obtain such large built-in electric fields when graphene sheets of opposite doping are stacked. By bonding a p-type, CVD-grown graphene monolayer transferred from Cu to an n-type, epitaxially grown graphene monolayer on SiC, we formed a p-n graphene bilayer. Transport measurements and modeling of the resulting electric field generated by opposite doping of the graphene sheets indicate the creation of a 100-300 meV band gap in the synthetic bilayer.

  3. Separation of drug stereoisomers by the formation of. beta. -cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Armstrong; T. J. Ward; R. D. Armstrong; T. E. Beesley

    1986-01-01

    For many drugs, only racemic mixtures are available for clinical use. Because different stereoisomers of drugs often cause different physiological responses, the use of pure isomers could elicit more exact therapeutic effects. Differential complexation of a variety of drug stereoisomers by immobilized ..beta..-cyclodextrin was investigated. Chiral recognition and racemic resolution were observed with a number of compounds from such clinically

  4. Inhibition of beta-amyloid aggregation by fluorescent dye labels

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro, Mariana; Wellbrock, Thorben; Birch, David J. S.; Rolinski, Olaf J., E-mail: o.j.rolinski@strath.ac.uk [Photophysics group, Centre for Molecular Nanometrology, Department of Physics, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-10

    The fluorescence decay of beta-amyloid's (A?) intrinsic fluorophore tyrosine has been used for sensing the oligomer formation of dye-labelled A? monomers and the results compared with previously studied oligomerization of the non-labelled A? peptides. It has been demonstrated that two different sized, covalently bound probes 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carbonyl and Hilyte Fluor 488 (HLF), alter the rate and character of oligomerization to different extents. The ability of HLF to inhibit formation of highly ordered structures containing beta-sheets was also shown. The implications of our findings for using fluorescence methods in amyloidosis research are discussed and the advantages of this auto-fluorescence approach highlighted.

  5. Synthetic peptides corresponding to human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH)-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induce uptake of 45Ca++ by liposomes: evidence for calcium-conducting transmembrane channel formation

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, P.; Santa-Coloma, T.A.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. (Department of Biochemistry, Albany Medical College, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-06-01

    We have previously described FSH receptor-mediated influx of 45Ca++ in cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats and receptor-enriched proteoliposomes via activation of voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. We have further shown that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein or activation of adenylate cyclase. In the present study, we have identified regions of human FSH-beta-subunit which appear to be involved in mediating calcium influx. We screened 11 overlapping peptide amides representing the entire primary structure of hFSH-beta-subunit for their effects on 45Ca++ flux in FSH receptor-enriched proteoliposomes. hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induced uptake of 45Ca++ in a concentration-related manner. This effect of hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) was also observed in liposomes lacking incorporated FSH receptor. Reducing membrane fluidity by incubating liposomes (containing no receptor) with hFSH-beta-(1-15) or hFSH-beta-(51-65) at temperatures lower than the transition temperatures of their constituent phospholipids resulted in no significant (P greater than 0.05) difference in 45Ca++ uptake. The effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187, however, was abolished. Ruthenium red, a voltage-independent calcium channel antagonist, was able to completely block uptake of 45Ca++ induced by hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) whereas nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker specific for L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, was without effect. These results suggest that in addition to its effect on voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity, interaction of FSH with its receptor may induce formation of transmembrane aqueous channels which also facilitate influx of extracellular calcium.

  6. Formation of nanopore in a suspended graphene sheet with argon cluster bombardment: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabihi, Zabiholah; Araghi, Houshang

    2015-01-01

    Formation of a nanopore in a suspended graphene sheet using an argon gas beam was simulated using molecular dynamics (MD) method. The Lennard-Jones (LJ) two-body potential and Tersoff-Brenner empirical potential energy function are applied in the MD simulations for different interactions between particles. The simulation results demonstrated that the incident energy and cluster size played a crucial role in the collisions. Simulation results for the Ar55-graphene collisions show that the Ar55 cluster bounces back when the incident energy is less than 11 eV/atom, the argon cluster penetrates when the incident energy is greater than 14 eV/atom. The two threshold incident energies, i.e., threshold incident energy of defect formation in graphene and threshold energy of penetration argon cluster were observed in the simulation. The threshold energies were found to have relatively weak negative power law dependence on the cluster size. The number of sputtered carbon atoms is obtained as a function of the kinetic energy of the cluster.

  7. Film formation and paper coating with poly ([beta]-hydroxyalkanoate), a biodegradable latex

    SciTech Connect

    Lauzier, C.A.; Monasterios, C.J.; Saracovan, I.; Marchessault, R.H. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Ramsay, B.A. (Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1993-05-01

    An aqueous latex of a poly ([beta]-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) coated on paper imparted water imperviousness without changing mechanical properties. Hot-pressed films biodegraded faster than solvent cast films. The PHA coating on paper degraded totally in activated sludge within 12 days, leaving the cellulose matrix relatively untouched. Blends of PHA latexes with sodium carboxymethl cellulose, polystyrene latex, carboxylated styrenel butadiene latex, natural rubber latex, carboxylated styrenel butadiene latex; natural rubber latex, and starch powders form satisfactory films at room temperature.

  8. Unfolding Simulations of Holomyoglobin from Four Mammals: Identification of Intermediates and ?-Sheet Formation from Partially Unfolded States

    PubMed Central

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Kepp, Kasper P.

    2013-01-01

    Myoglobin (Mb) is a centrally important, widely studied mammalian protein. While much work has investigated multi-step unfolding of apoMb using acid or denaturant, holomyoglobin unfolding is poorly understood despite its biological relevance. We present here the first systematic unfolding simulations of holoMb and the first comparative study of unfolding of protein orthologs from different species (sperm whale, pig, horse, and harbor seal). We also provide new interpretations of experimental mean molecular ellipticities of myoglobin intermediates, notably correcting for random coil and number of helices in intermediates. The simulated holoproteins at 310 K displayed structures and dynamics in agreement with crystal structures (Rg ?1.48–1.51 nm, helicity ?75%). At 400 K, heme was not lost, but some helix loss was observed in pig and horse, suggesting that these helices are less stable in terrestrial species. At 500 K, heme was lost within 1.0–3.7 ns. All four proteins displayed exponentially decaying helix structure within 20 ns. The C- and F-helices were lost quickly in all cases. Heme delayed helix loss, and sperm whale myoglobin exhibited highest retention of heme and D/E helices. Persistence of conformation (RMSD), secondary structure, and ellipticity between 2–11 ns was interpreted as intermediates of holoMb unfolding in all four species. The intermediates resemble those of apoMb notably in A and H helices, but differ substantially in the D-, E- and F-helices, which interact with heme. The identified mechanisms cast light on the role of metal/cofactor in poorly understood holoMb unfolding. We also observed ?-sheet formation of several myoglobins at 500 K as seen experimentally, occurring after disruption of helices to a partially unfolded, globally disordered state; heme reduced this tendency and sperm-whale did not display any sheet propensity during the simulations. PMID:24386077

  9. Predicted alpha-helix/beta-sheet secondary structures for the zinc-binding motifs of human papillomavirus E7 and E6 proteins by consensus prediction averaging and spectroscopic studies of E7.

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, C G; Haris, P I; Galloway, D A; Emery, V C; Perkins, S J

    1996-01-01

    The E7 and E6 proteins are the main oncoproteins of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 (HPV-16 and HPV-18), and possess unknown protein structures. E7 interacts with the cellular tumour-suppressor protein pRB and contains a zinc-binding site with two Cys-Xaa2-Cys motifs spaced 29 or 30 residues apart. E6 interacts with another cellular tumour-suppressor protein p53 and contains two zinc-binding sites, each with two Cys-Xaa2-Cys motifs at a similar spacing of 29 or 30 residues. By using the GOR I/III, Chou-Fasman, SAPIENS and PHD methods, the effectiveness of consensus secondary structure predictions on zinc-finger proteins was first tested with sequences for 160 transcription factors and 72 nuclear hormone receptors. These contain Cys2His2 and Cys2Cys2 zinc-binding regions respectively, and possess known atomic structures. Despite the zinc- and DNA-binding properties of these protein folds, the major alpha-helix structures in both zinc-binding regions were correctly identified. Thus validated, the use of these prediction methods with 47 E7 sequences indicated four well-defined alpha-helix (alpha) and beta-sheet (beta) secondary structure elements in the order beta beta alpha beta in the zinc-binding region of E7 at its C-terminus. The prediction was tested by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of recombinant HPV-16 E7 in H2O and 2H2O buffers. Quantitative integration showed that E7 contained similar amounts of alpha-helix and beta-sheet structures, in good agreement with the averaged prediction of alpha-helix and beta-sheet structures in E7 and also with previous circular dichroism studies. Protein fold recognition analyses predicted that the structure of the zinc-binding region in E7 was similar to a beta beta alpha beta motif found in the structure of Protein G. This is consistent with the E7 structure predictions, despite the low sequence similarities with E7. This predicted motif is able to position four Cys residues in proximity to a zinc atom. A model for the zinc-binding motif of E7 was constructed by combining the Protein G coordinates with those for the zinc-binding site in transcription factor TFIIS. Similar analyses for the two zinc-binding motifs in E6 showed that they have different alpha/beta secondary structures from that in E7. When compared with 12 other zinc-binding proteins, these results show that E7 and E6 are predicted to possess novel types of zinc-binding structure. PMID:8870673

  10. The geologic mapping of Venus using C-1 format: Sheets 75N254, 60N263

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalimov, I. V.

    1992-01-01

    The results of geologic mapping of Venus, produced on the base of Magellan images, are presented. We submit two C-1 format geologic maps with the appropriate legend. The mapping territory was taken from Venera 15 and 16 missions and geologic maps were composed. Magellan images allow us to divide some types of the plains units to determine the lava flow direction and to map with better accuracy.

  11. Calcium-independent phospholipase A2beta-Akt signaling is involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced NADPH oxidase 1 expression and foam cell formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Hye; Park, Dae-Weon; Park, Sung Chul; Park, Yun-Ki; Hong, Seong Yeon; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Lee, Chu-Hee; Baek, Suk-Hwan

    2009-12-01

    Foam cell formation is the most important process in atherosclerosis, and low density lipoprotein oxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the key step in the conversion of macrophages to foam cells. This study reveals the control mechanism of the gene for NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1), which produces ROS in the formation of foam cells by stimulating TLR4. Treatment of macrophages by the TLR4 agonist LPS stimulated ROS production and ROS-mediated macrophage to foam cell conversion. This LPS-induced ROS production and foam cell formation could be abrogated by pretreatment of macrophages with N-acetyl cysteine or apocynin. LPS increased Nox1 promoter activity, and resultant expression of mRNA and protein. Small interfering RNA mediated inhibition of Nox1 expression decreased LPS-induced ROS production and foam cell formation. LPS-mediated Nox1 expression and the responses occurred in a calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2))-dependent manner. The iPLA(2)beta-specific inhibitor S-BEL or iPLA(2)beta small interfering RNA attenuated LPS-induced Nox1 expression, ROS production, and foam cell formation. In addition, activation of iPLA(2)beta by LPS caused Akt phosphorylation and was followed by increased Nox1 expression. These results suggest that the binding of LPS and TLR4 increases Nox1 expression through the iPLA(2)beta-Akt signaling pathway, and control ROS production and foam cell formation. PMID:19917703

  12. The role of proline-containing peptide triads in ?-sheet formation: A kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Takor, Gaius A; Higashiya, Seiichiro; Sikirzhytski, Vitali K; Seeley, Jason P; Lednev, Igor K; Welch, John T

    2015-06-01

    The design of biomimetic materials through molecular self-assembly is a growing area of modern nanotechnology. With problems of protein folding, self-assembly, and sequence-structure relationships as essential in nanotechnology as in biology, the effect of the nucleation of ?-hairpin formation by proline on the folding process has been investigated in model studies. Previously such studies were limited to investigations of the influence of proline on the formation of turns in short peptide sequences. The effect of proline-based triads on the folding of an 11-kDa amyloidogenic peptide GH6 [(GA)3 GY(GA)3 GE]8 GAH6 (YE8) was investigated by selective substitution of the proline-substituted triads at the ?-turn sites. The folding and fibrillation of the singly proline-substituted polypeptides, e.g., GH6?[(GA)3GY(GA)3GE]7(GA)3GY(GA)3PD?GAH6 (8PD), and doubly proline-substituted polypeptides, e.g., GH6?[(GA)3GY(GA)3GE]3(GA)3GY(GA)3PD[(GA)3GY(GA)3GE]3(GA)3GY(GA)3PD?GAH6 (4,8PD), were directly monitored by circular dichroism and deep UV resonance Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies. These findings were used to identify the essential folding domains, i.e., the minimum number of ?-strands necessary for stable folding. These experimental findings may be especially useful in the design and construction of peptidic materials for a wide range of applications as well as in understanding the mechanisms of folding critical to fibril formation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 103: 339-350, 2015. PMID:25656820

  13. Beta- lactam antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in non-typeable haemophilus influenzae by up-regulating carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Siva; Li, Xiaojin; Gunawardana, Manjula; Maguire, Kathleen; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Schaudinn, Christoph; Wang, Charles; Baum, Marc M; Webster, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common acute otitis media pathogen, with an incidence that is increased by previous antibiotic treatment. NTHi is also an emerging causative agent of other chronic infections in humans, some linked to morbidity, and all of which impose substantial treatment costs. In this study we explore the possibility that antibiotic exposure may stimulate biofilm formation by NTHi bacteria. We discovered that sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotic (i.e., amounts that partially inhibit bacterial growth) stimulated the biofilm-forming ability of NTHi strains, an effect that was strain and antibiotic dependent. When exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics NTHi strains produced tightly packed biofilms with decreased numbers of culturable bacteria but increased biomass. The ratio of protein per unit weight of biofilm decreased as a result of antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilms had altered ultrastructure, and genes involved in glycogen production and transporter function were up regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Down-regulated genes were linked to multiple metabolic processes but not those involved in stress response. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilm bacteria were more resistant to a lethal dose (10 µg/mL) of cefuroxime. Our results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotic exposure may act as a signaling molecule that promotes transformation into the biofilm phenotype. Loss of viable bacteria, increase in biofilm biomass and decreased protein production coupled with a concomitant up-regulation of genes involved with glycogen production might result in a biofilm of sessile, metabolically inactive bacteria sustained by stored glycogen. These biofilms may protect surviving bacteria from subsequent antibiotic challenges, and act as a reservoir of viable bacteria once antibiotic exposure has ended. PMID:25007395

  14. Characterization of Sheet Fracture Patterns in Polygonal-Jointed Lavas at Kokostick Butte, OR, and Mazama Ridge, WA: Investigation and Interpretation of Their Formation and Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, R. W.; Lescinsky, D. T.

    2006-12-01

    Polygonal joints in lava flows ("columns") are commonly equant leading to a model of formation associated with cooling in an isotropic stress field. This model, however, does not explain rectangular columns, sheet-like fractures, fractures with crosscutting relationships, and fractures with orientations other than perpendicular to the cooling surface. These fracture patterns are often observed at glaciated volcanoes. The presence of preferential fracture orientations suggests an applied stress component likely due to environmental conditions such as the presence of glaciers or flow dynamics such as down-slope settling or flow margin inflation. During this study we investigated the formation and significance of these non-equant fracture patterns to propose a model for their formation. These `abnormal' fracture patterns have not been discussed in the literature and may be important to better understanding the cooling conditions of such lava flows. To test these possibilities we studied Kokostick Butte dacite flow, OR (near South Sister), and Mazama Ridge andesite flow at Mount Rainier, WA. Both of these flows have well developed sheet-like fractures and display evidence of ice-contact during eruption and emplacement. Sheet fractures are long and continuous fractures that have perpendicular connecting fractures forming rectangular columns. The sheet-like fractures are largely parallel to each other on the exposure surface and the connecting fractures vary locally from primary fractures (associated with cooling toward flow interior) to secondary fractures (associated with cooling by water infiltration). Detailed measurements of fracture orientations and spacing were collected at Kokostick Butte and Mazama Ridge to examine the relationship between the sheet fractures and flow geometry. Preliminary results support this relationship and suggest these patterns likely form due to shear associated with small amounts of flow advance by the rapidly cooling lava. Laboratory studies have been undertaken to complement the field observations and measurements. Starch- water experiments have been proven a useful analogue for lava column formation. Various experimental setups involving different mixture thicknesses and compression of the mixture were utilized to simulate the stresses acting during ponding of lava against glacial ice and to produce different fracture morphologies and patterns. Initial results show that compression of the starch slurry results in non-equant fracture patterns with some sheet-like fracturing present.

  15. Hydrogen-1, carbon-13, and nitrogen-15 NMR spectroscopy of Anabaena 7120 flavodoxin: Assignment of. beta. -sheet and flavin binding site resonances and analysis of protein-flavin interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, B.J.; Krezel, A.M.; Markley, J.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Leonhardt, K.G.; Straus, N.A. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-10-01

    Sequence-specific {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR assignments have been made for residues that form the five-stranded parallel {beta}-sheet and the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) binding site of oxidized Anabaena 7120 flavodoxin. Interstrand nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOEs) indicate that the {beta}-sheet arrangement is similar to that observed in the crystal structure of the 70% homologous long-chain flavodoxin from Anacystis nidulans. A total of 62 NOEs were identified: 8 between protons of bound FMN, 29 between protons of the protein in the flavin binding site, and 25 between protons of bound FMN and protons of the protein. These constraints were used to determine the localized solution structure of the FMN binding site. The electronic environment and conformation of the protein-bound flavin isoalloxazine ring were investigated by determining {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H coupling constants. The carbonyl edge of the flavin ring was found to be slightly polarized. The xylene ring was found to be nonplanar. Tyrosine 94, located adjacent to the flavin isoalloxazine ring, was shown to have a hindered aromatic ring flip rate.

  16. Pattern formation in icosahedral virus capsids: the papova viruses and Nudaurelia capensis beta virus.

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, C J; Day, L A

    1993-01-01

    The capsids of the spherical viruses all show underlying icosahedral symmetry, yet they differ markedly in capsomere shape and in capsomere position and orientation. The capsid patterns presented by the capsomere shapes, positions, and orientations of three viruses (papilloma, SV40, and N beta V) have been generated dynamically through a bottom-up procedure which provides a basis for understanding the patterns. A capsomere shape is represented in two-dimensional cross-section by a mass or charge density on the surface of a sphere, given by an expansion in spherical harmonics, and referred to herein as a morphological unit (MU). A capsid pattern is represented by an icosahedrally symmetrical superposition of such densities, determined by the positions and orientations of its MUs on the spherical surface. The fitness of an arrangement of MUs is measured by an interaction integral through which all capsid elements interact with each other via an arbitrary function of distance. A capsid pattern is generated by allowing the correct number of approximately shaped MUs to move dynamically on the sphere, positioning themselves until an extremum of the fitness function is attained. The resulting patterns are largely independent of the details of both the capsomere representation and the interaction function; thus the patterns produced are generic. The simplest useful fitness function is sigma 2, the average square of the mass (or charge) density, a minimum of which corresponds to a "uniformly spaced" MU distribution; to good approximation, the electrostatic free energy of charged capsomeres, calculated from the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation, is proportional to sigma 2. With disks as MUs, the model generates the coordinated lattices familiar from the quasi-equivalence theory, indexed by triangulation numbers. Using fivefold MUs, the model generates the patterns observed at different radii within the T = 7 capsid of papilloma and at the surface of SV40; threefold MUs give the T = 4 pattern of Nudaurelia capensis beta virus. In all cases examined so far, the MU orientations are correctly found. Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:8312492

  17. TGF-{beta} signals the formation of a unique NF1/Smad4-dependent transcription repressor-complex in human diploid fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Luciakova, Katarina, E-mail: katarina.luciakova@savba.sk [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Vlarska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia)] [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Vlarska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kollarovic, Gabriel; Kretova, Miroslava; Sabova, Ludmila [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Vlarska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia)] [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Vlarska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Nelson, B. Dean [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratories, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratories, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} TGF-{beta} induces the formation of unique nuclear NF1/Smad4 complexes that repress expression of the ANT-2 gene. {yields} Repression is mediated through an NF1-dependent repressor element in the promoter. {yields} The formation of NF1/Smad4 complexes and the repression of ANT2 are prevented by inhibitors of p38 kinase and TGF-{beta} RI. {yields} NF1/Smad complexes implicate novel role for NF1 and Smad proteins in the regulation of growth. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the formation of a unique nuclear NF1/Smad complex in serum-restricted fibroblasts that acts as an NF1-dependent repressor of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene (ANT2) [K. Luciakova, G. Kollarovic, P. Barath, B.D. Nelson, Growth-dependent repression of human adenine nucleotide translocator-2 (ANT2) transcription: evidence for the participation of Smad and Sp family proteins in the NF1-dependent repressor complex, Biochem. J. 412 (2008) 123-130]. In the present study, we show that TGF-{beta}, like serum-restriction: (a) induces the formation of NF1/Smad repressor complexes, (b) increases binding of the complexes to the repressor elements (Go elements) in the ANT2 promoter, and (c) inhibits ANT2 expression. Repression of ANT2 by TGF-{beta} is eliminated by mutating the NF1 binding sites in the Go repressor elements. All of the above responses to TGF-{beta} are prevented by inhibitors of TGF-{beta} RI and MAPK p38. These inhibitors also prevent NF1/Smad4 repressor complex formation and repression of ANT2 expression in serum-restricted cells, suggesting that similar signaling pathways are initiated by TGF-{beta} and serum-restriction. The present finding that NF1/Smad4 repressor complexes are formed through TGF-{beta} signaling pathways suggests a new, but much broader, role for these complexes in the initiation or maintenance of the growth-inhibited state.

  18. Maitake beta-glucan MD-fraction enhances bone marrow colony formation and reduces doxorubicin toxicity in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Lin; Yu-Hong She; Barrie R Cassileth; Frank Sirotnak; Susanna Cunningham Rundles

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that MD-fraction (MDF), in which the active component is beta 1,6-glucan with beta 1,3-branches, has anti-tumor activity as an oral agent and acts as an immune adjuvant. Since some other beta glucans appear to promote mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells, the effects of a beta glucan extract from the Maitake mushroom “MD-fraction” on hematopoietic stem cells

  19. Utility of tricalcium phosphate and osteogenic matrix cell sheet constructs for bone defect reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ueha, Tomoyuki; Akahane, Manabu; Shimizu, Takamasa; Uchihara, Yoshinobu; Morita, Yusuke; Nitta, Naoya; Kido, Akira; Inagaki, Yusuke; Kawate, Kenji; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of transplanting osteogenic matrix cell sheets and beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) constructs on bone formation in bone defects. METHODS: Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were prepared from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), and a porous TCP ceramic was used as a scaffold. Three experimental groups were prepared, comprised of TCP scaffolds (1) seeded with BMSCs; (2) wrapped with osteogenic matrix cell sheets; or (3) both. Constructs were implanted into a femoral defect model in rats and bone growth was evaluated by radiography, histology, biochemistry, and mechanical testing after 8 wk. RESULTS: In bone defects, constructs implanted with cell sheets showed callus formation with segmental or continuous bone formation at 8 wk, in contrast to TCP seeded with BMSCs, which resulted in bone non-union. Wrapping TCP constructs with osteogenic matrix cell sheets increased their osteogenic potential and resulting bone formation, compared with conventional bone tissue engineering TCP scaffolds seeded with BMSCs. The compressive stiffness (mean ± SD) values were 225.0 ± 95.7, 30.0 ± 11.5, and 26.3 ± 10.6 MPa for BMSC/TCP/Sheet constructs with continuous bone formation, BMSC/TCP/Sheet constructs with segmental bone formation, and BMSC/TCP constructs, respectively. The compressive stiffness of BMSC/TCP/Sheet constructs with continuous bone formation was significantly higher than those with segmental bone formation and BMSC/TCP constructs. CONCLUSION: This technique is an improvement over current methods, such as TCP substitution, and is useful for hard tissue reconstruction and inducing earlier bone union in defects. PMID:26131318

  20. Deriving star-formation and extinction in normal galaxies from H(alpha) and Paschen(beta) imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Sangeeta; Dale, Daniel; Rhoads, James; Helou, George; Kennicutt, Robert; Hunter, Deidre

    1999-08-01

    We propose to derive spatial maps of extinction corrected ionizing radiation and dust columns using narrow-band imaging in H(alpha) and Paschen(beta) of normal, nearby galaxies. This is possible because the intrinsic line ratios are insensitive to temperature and densities in HII regions. Comparison of observed line ratios to the intrinsic ones, using the extinction law, will yield column densities of dust near the HII regions. Using extinction corrected ionizing radiation and dust column maps we will derive the expected dust emission maps and compare them to the observed mid-infrared dust emission maps to determine how much heating of the dust is due to ionizing radiation. We will compare the extinction-corrected H(alpha) emission with other tracers of star- formation, far-infrared continuum and the main cooling lines of the interstellar gas [CII] (158 (mu)m) and [OI] (63 (mu)m). Corrected H(alpha) will also be used to estimate fraction of the [CII] (158 (mu)m) from ionized gas. This is necessary so we can compare the [CII] line fluxes to models of neutral photodissociation regions (PDRs) to derive mass, density, and pressure of the gas. The radiation densities derived for PDRs can also be compared the radiation column densities derived from corrected H(alpha) maps. All the data from ISO has been reduced and calibrated. We request time to do H(alpha) imaging of southern 1/4 of our sample and Pa(beta) imaging of a subset of galaxies.

  1. FORMATION OF FLUORESCENT PROTEINS BY THE ATTACHMENT OF PHYCOERYTHROBILIN TO R-PHYCOERYTHRIN ALPHA AND BETA APO-SUBUNITS

    PubMed Central

    Isailovic, Dragan; Sultana, Ishrat; Phillips, Gregory J.; Yeung, Edward S.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of fluorescent proteins was explored after incubation of recombinant apo-subunits of phycobiliprotein R-phycoerythrin with phycoerythrobilin chromophore. Alpha and beta apo-subunit genes of R-phycoerythrin from red algae Polisiphonia boldii were cloned in plasmids pET-21d (+). Hexa-histidine tagged apo-alpha and apo-beta subunits were expressed in Escherichia coli. Although expressed apo-subunits formed inclusion bodies, fluorescent holo-subunits were constituted after incubation of Escherichia coli cells with phycoerythrobilin. Subunits contained both phycoerythrobilin and urobilin chromophores. Fluorescence and differential interference contrast microscopy showed polar location of holo-subunit inclusion bodies in bacterial cells. Cells containing fluorescent holo-subunits were several times brighter than control cells as found by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Addition of phycoerythrobilin to cells did not show cytotoxic effects in contrast to expression of proteins in inclusion bodies. In an attempt to improve solubility, R-phycoerythrin apo-subunits were fused to maltose binding protein and incubated with phycoerythrobilin both in vitro and in vivo. Highly-fluorescent soluble fusion proteins were formed containing phycoerythrobilin as the sole chromophore. Fusion proteins were localized by fluorescence microscopy either throughout Escherichia coli cells or at cell poles. Flow cytometry showed that cells containing fluorescent fusion proteins were up to ten times brighter than control cells. Results indicate that fluorescent proteins formed by attachment of phycoerythrobilin to expressed apo-subunits of phycobiliproteins can be used as fluorescent probes for analysis of cells by microscopy and flow cytometry. A unique property of these fluorescent reporters is their utility in both properly folded (soluble) subunits and subunits aggregated in inclusion bodies. PMID:16979575

  2. Development of an ultra-high-temperature process for the enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose: II. Oligosaccharide formation by two thermostable beta-glycosidases.

    PubMed

    Petzelbauer, I; Zeleny, R; Reiter, A; Kulbe, K D; Nidetzky, B

    2000-07-20

    During lactose conversion at 70 degrees C, when catalyzed by beta-glycosidases from the archea Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsbetaGly) and Pyrococcus furiosus (CelB), galactosyl transfer to acceptors other than water competes efficiently with complete hydrolysis of substrate. This process leads to transient formation of a range of new products, mainly disaccharides and trisaccharides, and shows a marked dependence on initial substrate concentration and lactose conversion. Oligosaccharides have been analyzed quantitatively by using capillary electrophoresis and high performance anion-exchange chromatography. At 270 g/L initial lactose, they accumulate at a maximum concentration of 86 g/L at 80% lactose conversion. With both enzymes, the molar ratio of trisaccharides to disaccharides is maximal at an early stage of reaction and decreases directly proportional to increasing substrate conversion. Overall, CelB produces about 6% more hydrolysis byproducts than SsbetaGly. However, the product spectrum of SsbetaGly is richer in trisaccharides, and this agrees with results obtained from the steady-state kinetics analyses of galactosyl transfer catalyzed by SsbetaGly and CelB. The major transgalactosylation products of SsbetaGly and CelB have been identified. They are beta-D-Galp-(1-->3)-Glc and beta-D-Galp-(1-->6)-Glc, and beta-D-Galp-(1-->3)-lactose and beta-D-Galp-(1-->6)-lactose, and their formation and degradation have been shown to be dependent upon lactose conversion. Both enzymes accumulate beta(1-->6)-linked glycosides, particularly allolactose, at a late stage of reaction. Because a high oligosaccharide concentration prevails until about 80% lactose conversion, thermostable beta-glycosidases are efficient for oligosaccharide production from lactose. Therefore, they prove to be stable and versatile catalysts for lactose utilization. PMID:10861393

  3. Roles of magnetic reconnection and buoyancy in the formation of dipolarization fronts: three-dimensional particle simulations of two-dimensional current sheet equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knizhnik, K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Swisdak, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Unsteady magnetic reconnection in the magnetosphere and in the solar corona involves the formation of localized ejecta, such as the magnetotail dipolarization fronts (DFs) and coronal supra-arcade downflowing loops (SADLs). Both DFs and SADLs move in the direction opposite to the initial magnetic field stretching with a speed comparable to the Alfven speed. However, the DF scales are comparable to the ion gyro radius and therefore their analysis requires kinetic theory and simulations. Recent kinetic theory and PIC simulations of 2D magnetotail equilibria revealed two possible mechanisms of the DF formation, namely mutual attraction of parallel current filaments in thin current sheets causing magnetic reconnection via the tearing instability and magnetic buoyancy resulting in the ballooning-interchange instability. Both mechanisms are most efficient in the geometries with accumulation of magnetic flux at the tailward end of a thin current sheet. To understand the roles of magnetic reconnection and buoyancy in the formation and evolution of DFs we perform 3D PIC simulations of 2D current sheets, where two magnetotails are separated by an equilibrium X-line. To justify modeling the long terrestrial magnetotail in a relatively small simulation box: Lx x Ly x Lz= 40d x 20d x 5d (d is the ion inertial length; GSM coordinate system is used) open boundary conditions are employed in the x-direction. The magnetotail parts of the 2D equilibrium include regions of accumulated magnetic flux, consistent with the Geotail observations of similar signatures prior to substorm onset. We investigate which of the mechanisms is responsible for the formation of DF-like structures in 3D configurations and discuss their subsequent motion and structure. Simulations are compared with recent THEMIS observations of DFs and ballooning-interchange oscillations in the magnetotail, as well as SDO observations of solar flares.

  4. Dynamic Current Sheet Formation and Evolution with Application to Inter-(Super)granular Flow Lanes and Quasi-Homologous Jet Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Justin K.; Velli, M.

    2011-05-01

    The coronal magnetic field structure is an immensely complex system constantly driven away from equilibrium by global drivers such as photospheric flow, flux emergence/cancellation at the lower boundary, helicity injection and transport, etc. In low-beta plasma systems, such as solar corona, the Maxwell stresses dominate forces and therefore the system dynamics. General Poynting stress injection (i.e., flux injection, helicity injection, translational motions, or any combination thereof) results in (possibly large) geometric deformations of the magnetic field, such that the Maxwell stresses distribute as uniformly as possible, constrained by the distorted geometry and topology of the bounding separatricies. Since the topological connectivity is discontinuous across these separatrix surfaces, the magnetic stresses will be discontinuous there as well, manifesting as current sheets within the field. The solar magnetic field undergoes major geometric expansion passing from the photosphere, through the chromosphere, into the corona. No matter the specific details, a mixed polarity distribution at the lower boundary and the divergence-free condition require invariant topological features such as an X-line and separatricies to exist between fields emanating from separate regions of the photosphere. We present the results of fully-3D numerical simulations of a simplified low-beta model of this field expansion. A symmetric injection of Maxwell stresses into this geometry inflates strongly line-tied fields, generating a region of large current densities and magnetic energy dissipation. Elsewhere the injected stresses accumulate along the existing separatricies. There is no evidence of reconnection dynamics until after the initial left-right parity is broken. Once the symmetry breaks, the X-line deforms explosively into a Syrovatskii-type current sheet, leading to a succession of quasi-homologous jet dynamics. The bursty-oscillations of these jets occur as the stresses within the low-lying arcades are alternately relived by reconnection. These results have applications to jet activity in the low-corona, and general lower-coronal boundary dynamics.

  5. An RGD spacing of 440 nm is sufficient for integrin alpha V beta 3- mediated fibroblast spreading and 140 nm for focal contact and stress fiber formation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The synthetic peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Tyr (GRGDY), which contains the RGD sequence of several adhesion molecules, was covalently grafted to the surface of otherwise poorly adhesive glass substrates and was used to determine the minimal number of ligand-receptor interactions required for complete spreading of human foreskin fibroblasts. Well- defined adhesion substrates were prepared with GRGDY between 10(-3) fmol/cm2 and 10(4) fmol/cm2. As the adhesion ligand surface concentration was varied, several distinct morphologies of adherent cells were observed and categorized. The population of fully spread cells at 4 h reached a maximum at 1 fmol/cm2, with no further increases up to 10(4) fmol/cm2. Although maximal cell spreading was obtained at 1 fmol/cm2, focal contacts and stress fibers failed to form at RGD surface concentrations below 10 fmol/cm2. The minimal peptide spacings obtained in this work correspond to 440 nm for spreading and 140 nm for focal contact formation, and are much larger than those reported in previous studies with adsorbed adhesion proteins, adsorbed RGD-albumin conjugates, or peptide-grafted polyacrylamide gels. Vitronectin receptor antiserum specific for integrin alpha V beta 3 blocked cell adhesion and spreading on substrates containing 100 fmol/cm2 of surface- bound GRGDY, while fibronectin receptor antiserum specific for alpha 5 beta 1 did not. Furthermore, alpha V beta 3 was observed to cluster into focal contacts in spread cells, but alpha 5 beta 1 did not. It was thus concluded that a peptide-to-peptide spacing of 440 nm was required for alpha V beta 3-mediated cellular spreading, while 140 nm was required for alpha V beta 3-mediated focal contact formation and normal stress fiber organization in human foreskin fibroblasts; these spacings represent much fewer ligands than were previously thought to be required. PMID:1714913

  6. Removal of the N-terminal hexapeptide from human beta2-microglobulin facilitates protein aggregation and fibril formation.

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, G.; Michelutti, R.; Verdone, G.; Viglino, P.; Hernández, H.; Robinson, C. V.; Amoresano, A.; Dal Piaz, F.; Monti, M.; Pucci, P.; Mangione, P.; Stoppini, M.; Merlini, G.; Ferri, G.; Bellotti, V.

    2000-01-01

    The solution structure and stability of N-terminally truncated beta2-microglobulin (deltaN6beta2-m), the major modification in ex vivo fibrils, have been investigated by a variety of biophysical techniques. The results show that deltaN6beta2-m has a free energy of stabilization that is reduced by 2.5 kcal/mol compared to the intact protein. Hydrogen exchange of a mixture of the truncated and full-length proteins at microM concentrations at pH 6.5 monitored by electrospray mass spectrometry reveals that deltaN6beta2-m is significantly less protected than its wild-type counterpart. Analysis of deltaN6beta2-m by NMR shows that this loss of protection occurs in beta strands I, III, and part of II. At mM concentration gel filtration analysis shows that deltaN6beta2-m forms a series of oligomers, including trimers and tetramers, and NMR analysis indicates that strand V is involved in intermolecular interactions that stabilize this association. The truncated species of beta2-microglobulin was found to have a higher tendency to self-associate than the intact molecule, and unlike wild-type protein, is able to form amyloid fibrils at physiological pH. Limited proteolysis experiments and analysis by mass spectrometry support the conformational modifications identified by NMR and suggest that deltaN6beta2-m could be a key intermediate of a proteolytic pathway of beta2-microglobulin. Overall, the data suggest that removal of the six residues from the N-terminus of beta2-microglobulin has a major effect on the stability of the overall fold. Part of the tertiary structure is preserved substantially by the disulfide bridge between Cys25 and Cys80, but the pairing between beta-strands far removed from this constrain is greatly perturbed. PMID:10850793

  7. Double Mantle Plume Upwelling—A Possible Formation Mechanism of Beta Plateau and Devana Chasma,Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, N.

    2009-12-01

    Ning Ding,Zuoxun Zeng,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan,430074,China NingDing.eagle@gmail.com Introduction:Venus represents a‘one plate planet’[1],and the uplift,fractures and volcanism in Beta Regio on Venus are considered to be formed by lithosphere uplift driven by a hot plume[2]. Based on the double peaking saddle landform,we suggest the tectonic pattern of double mantle plume upwelling to interpret the formation mechanism of Beta Plateau and Devana Chasma.We take a physical modeling to validate this possibility. Model:There is no ductile shear in Venus[3],so we use quartz sands to simulate the crust of Venus.We use two wood stickes 1.5cm in diameter rising from the rubber canvas slowly and straight till about half of the model,then falling down slowly and straight.The base is a hard rubber plate,in the center of which,there are two holes 3cm in diameter,and the distance between them is 5cm.The holes are covered by rubber canvas.We use the quartz sands in colours of white, red and black with particle size of 70 mess as the model materials. Result:Fig.1:At the beginning of the wood stickes upwelling,only fine radial cracks are formed above the upwelling from central to outside.With the upwelling continue,surface energy of the fine radial cracks increase and make the cracks unstable,finally,the fine radial cracks connect each other and form a fracture zone.And then the two mantle plume downwelling,the fracture zone is developed to form a chasma at the end. Fig.2:The four profiles all form reverse faults outside and normal faults inside.But the difference is the faults in the middle of the chasma goes deeper than others.It is the pattern of Beta Plateau where the tectonic rising is cut by Devana Chasma zone in the topographic features. Fig.3:From the tow fig., we can see two points similar:a.the elevation is high and distribution area is large around the area of two upwelling and it is high around the area of chasma,but the distribution area is small;b.both of them shows saddle shape and two highland connectting bya chasma. Discussion:Based on the‘Geology Map of V-17’,two highlands of Northern part of Devana Chasma,but the material Unit of North and South highland are different.The material Units of North highland are the oldest unit tt and t,the material Unit of South highland is pl and the material Unit of rift is r are both the youngest unit.From the Magellan SAR mosaic[5],we can clearly see Devana Chasma cut the material Unit of tt and pl.So the two highlands of Northern part of Devana Chasma are simultaneous formed.The younger material Unit of South highland of Northern part of Devana Chasma is because of the volcanic eruption of Theia Mons. Conclusion:The physical modeling validates the model of the double plume upwelling is a possible explanation. Acknowledgements:This research was supported by the National Teaching Bases For Geology(CUG)foundation funded. References:[1]I.López,Icarus2008[2]A.T.Basilevsky,Icarus2007[3]J.C.Aubele,2009,LPSC[4]A.V.Vezolainen,2003,Journalofgeophysicalres5earch[5]http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/images/v17_comp&v29_comp.pdf Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3a,3b

  8. [Beta]-Adrenergic Receptors in the Insular Cortex are Differentially Involved in Aversive vs. Incidental Context Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Isabel; Sabath, Elizabeth; Nunez-Jaramillo, Luis; Puron-Sierra, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine the effects of [beta]-adrenergic antagonism in the IC before or after inhibitory avoidance (IA) training or context pre-exposure in a latent inhibition protocol. Pretraining intra-IC infusion of the [beta]-adrenergic antagonist propranolol disrupted subsequent IA retention and impaired latent inhibition…

  9. A hydrocarbon exploration model for the Beta Member of the Permian Kaibab Formation, with emphasis on the potential for hydrodynamically displaced oil, in east-central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, C.N.

    1993-08-01

    In Utah, the Beta Member of the Permian Kaibab Formation produces oil at the Ferron field in the western part of the study area, and the Upper Valley field, 30 mi southwest of the study area. Production at Upper Valley is hydrodynamically controlled; it is unknown if production at Ferron field is hydrodynamically controlled due to the lack of well control. With the exception of the Ferron and Upper Valley fields, Kaibab oil production has remained an elusive goal. Numerous oil shows have been encountered in dozens of tests of the Beta Member of the Permian Kaibab Formation within the study area. Many of these wells have targeted the crests of small anticlinal structures associated with the San Rafael swell. The history of Upper Valley field, and the lack of Kaibab oil production on the crests of anticlinal structures within the region, creates the potential for hydrodynamically displaced oil to be present within this area. Results from stratigraphic cross sections and subsurface structural, isopach, and porosity mapping were combined with hydrodynamic mapping methods to define four areas with oil entrapment potential in the Beta Member of the Permian Kaibab Formation.

  10. Beta 2 integrin engagement triggers actin polymerization and phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate formation in non-adherent human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Beta 2 integrins are involved in the adhesion of leukocytes to other cells and surfaces. Although adhesion is required for cell locomotion, little is known regarding the way beta 2 integrin-receptors affect the actin network in leukocytes. In the present study filamentous actin (F- actin) levels in non-adherent human neutrophils have been measured by phalloidin staining after antibody cross-linking of beta 2 integrins. Antibody engagement of beta 2 integrins resulted in a rapid and sustained (146 and 131% after 30 and 300 s, respectively) increase in the neutrophil F-actin content. This is in contrast to stimulation with N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine (fMLP), which causes a prompt and pronounced but rapidly declining rise in F-actin (214 and 127% after 15 and 300 s, respectively). Priming neutrophils with 1 nM PMA, a low concentration that did not influence the F-actin content per se, increased the magnitude of the beta 2 integrin-induced response but had no effect on the kinetics (199% after 30 s and 169% after 300 s). Removal of extracellular Ca2+ only marginally affected the beta 2 integrin-induced F-actin response for cells that were pretreated with PMA whereas the response for nonprimed cells was reduced by half. This suggests that even though extracellular Ca2+ has a modulatory effect it is not an absolute requirement for beta 2 integrin-induced actin polymerization. beta 2 integrin engagement did not affect the resting cellular level of cAMP arguing against a role of cAMP in beta 2 integrin-induced actin assembly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7504676

  11. Stability of single sheet GNNQQNY aggregates analyzed by replica exchange molecular dynamics: Antiparallel versus parallel association

    SciTech Connect

    Vitagliano, Luigi; Esposito, Luciana; Pedone, Carlo [Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, CNR via Mezzocannone 16, I-80134 Napoli (Italy); De Simone, Alfonso [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road CB2 1EW, Cambridge (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ad491@cam.ac.uk

    2008-12-26

    Protein and peptide aggregation into amyloid plaques is associated with a large variety of neurodegenerative diseases. The definition of the molecular bases of these pathologies is hampered by the transient nature of pre-fibrillar small-oligomers that are considered the toxic species. The ability of the peptide GNNQQNY to form amyloid-like structures makes it a good model to investigate the complex processes involved into amyloid fiber formation. By employing full atomistic replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations, we constructed the free energy surface of small assemblies of GNNQQNY to gain novel insights into the fiber formation process. The calculations suggest that the peptide exhibits a remarkable tendency to form both parallel and antiparallel {beta}-sheets. The data show that GNNQQNY preference for parallel or antiparallel {beta}-sheets is governed by a subtle balance of factors including assemblies' size, sidechain-sidechain interactions and pH. The samplings analysis provides a rationale to the observed trends.

  12. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry reveals a conformational conversion from random assembly to ?-sheet in amyloid fibril formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiholder, Christian; Dupuis, Nicholas F.; Wyttenbach, Thomas; Bowers, Michael T.

    2011-02-01

    Amyloid cascades that lead to peptide ?-sheet fibrils and plaques are central to many important diseases. Recently, intermediate assemblies of these cascades were identified as the toxic agents that interact with cellular machinery. The location and cause of the transformation from a natively unstructured assembly to the ?-sheet oligomers found in all fibrils is important in understanding disease onset and the development of therapeutic agents. Largely, research on this early oligomeric region was unsuccessful because all the traditional techniques measure only the average oligomer properties of the ensemble. We utilized ion-mobility methods to deduce the peptide self-assembly mechanism and examined a series of amyloid-forming peptides clipped from larger peptides or proteins associated with disease. We provide unambiguous evidence for structural transitions in each of these fibril-forming peptide systems and establish the potential of this method for the development of therapeutic agents and drug evaluation.

  13. Polymer bilayer formation due to specific interactions between beta-cyclodextrin and adamantane: a surface force study.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Eva; Kumpulainen, Atte; David, Christelle; Amiel, Catherine

    2004-11-23

    The purposes of this study are to utilize the interactions between an adamantane end-capped poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and a cationic polymer of beta-cyclodextrin to build polymer bilayers on negatively charged surfaces, and to investigate the interactions between such layers. The association of this system in solution has been studied by rheology, light scattering, and fluorescence measurements. It was found that the adamantane-terminated PEO (PEO-Ad) mixed with the beta-cyclodextrin polymer gives complexes where the interpolymer links are formed by specific inclusion of the adamantane groups in the beta-cyclodextrin cavities. This results in a higher viscosity of the solution and growth of intermolecular clusters. The interactions between surfaces coated with a cationized beta-cyclodextrin polymer across a water solution containing PEO-Ad polymers were studied by employing the interferometric surface force apparatus (SFA). In the first step, the interaction between mica surfaces coated with the cationized beta-cyclodextrin polymer in pure water was investigated. It was found that the beta-cyclodextrin polymer adsorbs onto mica and almost neutralizes the surface charge. The adsorbed layers of the beta-cyclodextrin polymer are rather compact, with a layer thickness of about 60 A (30 A per surface). Upon separation, a very weak attractive force is observed. The beta-cyclodextrin solution was then diluted by pure water by a factor of 3000 and a PEO-Ad polymer was introduced into the solution. Two different architectures of the PEO-Ad polymer were investigated: a four-arm structure and a linear structure. After the adsorption of the PEO polymer onto the beta-cyclodextrin layer reached equilibrium, the forces were measured again. It was found that the weak repulsive long-range force had disappeared and an attractive force caused the surfaces to jump into contact, and that the compressed layer thickness had increased. The attractive force is interpreted as being due to a specific recognition between the hydrophobic adamantane groups on the PEO-Ad polymer and the hydrophobic cavity in the beta-cyclodextrin molecules. Furthermore, the attractive force observed on separation has increased significantly, which is a further indication of a specific interaction between the beta-cyclodextrin polymer and the adamantane groups. PMID:15544372

  14. Wetlands Fact Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has provided an extensive list of over 40 fact sheets relating to various aspects of wetlands. Most are provided in a low resoluion format for viewing or a high resolution format for printing. A great deal of basic information regarding the definition, values, and functions of wetlands is provided.

  15. Formation of {beta}-nickel hydroxide plate-like structures under mild conditions and their optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, A.P. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Quimica, CEP 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Lima, R.C., E-mail: rclima@iqufu.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Instituto de Quimica, CEP 38400-902 Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Paris, E.C. [Embrapa, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisas Agropecuarias, CEP 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Li, M.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, CEP 13566590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Varela, J.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Quimica, CEP 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Longo, E., E-mail: elson@iq.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Quimica, CEP 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Nanostructural {beta}-nickel hydroxide ({beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2}) plates were prepared using the microwave-hydrothermal (MH) method at a low temperature and short reaction times. An ammonia solution was employed as the coordinating agent, which reacts with [Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} to control the growth of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nuclei. A trigonal {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} single phase was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and the crystal cell was constructed with structural parameters and atomic coordinates obtained from Rietveld refinement. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images revealed that the samples consisted of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates with a different particle size distribution. Broad absorption bands assigned as transitions of Ni{sup 2+} in oxygen octahedral sites were revealed by UV-vis spectra. Photoluminescence (PL) properties observed with a maximum peak centered in the blue-green region were attributed to different defects, which were produced during the nucleation process. We present a growth process scheme of the {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoplates. - Graphical abstract: Nanostructural {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} crystalline powders were prepared by rapid microwave-hydrothermal method for 1, 8 and 32 min. The hexagonal-shaped nanoplates obtained presented PL emission in the blue-green region and each decomposed component represents a different type of electronic transition, which can be linked to the structural arrangement or surface defects. Highlights: > Ammonia solution to control the growth of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nuclei. > Regular plates-shape related to crystallization-dissolution-recrystallization. > The surface states and lattice defects generated in growth mechanism of crystals. > Different defects produced in the growth process responsible by photoluminescence. > Each component of photoluminescence curve linked to structural arrangement or surface defects.

  16. Fibril stability in solutions of twisted Format="TEX"/>-sheet peptides: a new kind of micellization in chiral systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyrkova, I. A.; Semenov, A. N.; Aggeli, A.; Boden, N.

    2000-10-01

    The problem of fibril (fibre) formation in chiral systems is explored theoretically being supported by experiments on synthetic de novo 11-mer peptide forming self-assembled -sheet tapes. Experimental data unambiguously indicate that the tapes form fibrils of nearly monodisperse thickness ca. 8-10 nm. Fibril formation and stabilisation are attributed to inter-tape face-to-face attraction and their intrinsic twist, correspondingly. The proposed theory is capable of predicting the fibril aggregation number and its equilibrium twist in terms of molecular parameters of the primary tapes. The suggested novel mechanism of twist stabilisation of finite aggregates (fibrils) is different to the well-known stabilisation of micelles in amphiphilic systems, and it is likely to explain the formation and stability of fibrils in a wide variety of systems including proteinaceous amyloid fibres, sickle-cell hemoglobin fibres responsible for HbS anemia, corkscrew threads found in chromonics in the presence of chiral additives and native cellulose microfibrillar crystallites. The theory also makes it possible to extract the basic molecular parameters of primary tapes (inter-tape attraction energy, helical twist step, elastic moduli) from the experimental data.

  17. Visualization of beta-sheets and side-chain clusters in two-dimensional periodic arrays of streptavidin on phospholipid monolayers by electron crystallography.

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Sakar, A J; Chiu, W

    1996-01-01

    The biotin-binding protein streptavidin was crystallized as two-dimensional periodic arrays on biotinylated phospholipid monolayers. Electron diffraction patterns and images of the arrays embedded in vitreous ice were recorded to near-atomic resolution. Amplitudes and phases of structure factors were computed and combined to produce a 3 A projection density map. The reliability of the map was verified by comparing it to the available x-ray atomic model of the molecule. Projection densities from beta-strands and some amino acid side chains were identified from the electron cryomicroscopy map. These results demonstrate the first near-atomic image of this type of protein periodic array by electron crystallography, which has a great potential to aid in the structural characterization of molecular arrays engineered on a monolayer for various basic or biotechnological applications. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:8770187

  18. Proteopedia: Rossmann Fold: A Beta-Alpha-Beta Fold at Dinucleotide Binding Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanukoglu, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The Rossmann fold is one of the most common and widely distributed super-secondary structures. It is composed of a series of alternating beta strand (ß) and alpha helical (a) segments wherein the ß-strands are hydrogen bonded forming a ß-sheet. The initial beta-alpha-beta (ßaß) fold is the most conserved segment of Rossmann folds. As this segment…

  19. Induction of multinucleation by beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent in regenerated cells from Marchantia polymorpha protoplasts and involvement of arabinogalactan proteins in cell plate formation.

    PubMed

    Shibaya, Taeko; Sugawara, Yasutake

    2009-08-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are abundant plant cell surface proteoglycans widely distributed in plant species. Since high concentrations of beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent (betaglcY), which binds selectively to AGPs, inhibited cell division of protoplast-regenerated cells of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. (Shibaya and Sugawara in Physiol Plant 130:271-279, 2007), we investigated the mechanism underlying the inability of the cells to divide normally by staining nuclei, cell walls and beta-1,3-glucan. Microscopic observation showed that the diameter of regenerated cells cultured with betaglcY was about 2.8-fold larger than that of cells cultured without betaglcY. The cells cultured with betaglcY were remarkably multinucleated. These results indicated that betaglcY did not inhibit mitosis but induced multinucleation. In the regenerated cells cultured with low concentrations of betaglcY (5 and 1 microg ml(-1)), the cell plate was stained strongly by betaglcY, suggesting abundant AGPs in the forming cell plate. In these cell plates, beta-1,3-glucan was barely detectable or not detected. In multinucleated cells, cell plate-like fragments, which could not reach the cell wall, were frequently observed and they were also stained strongly by betaglcY. Our results indicated that AGPs might have an important role in cell plate formation, and perturbation of AGPs with betaglcY might result in remarkable multinucleation in protoplast-regenerated cells of M. polymorpha. PMID:19475420

  20. Structural plasticity associated with the beta-propeller architecture.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, Kunchur; Dhamayanthi, Pugazhendhi

    2004-04-01

    The beta-propeller architecture observed in protein tertiary structure and classified into the five different types according to number of 'blades' (or beta-sheets) and a sixth type classified according to the secondary structure composition of the blades (the beta beta alpha beta-molecular unit) is characterized by variations (or plasticity) in the structure. These correspond to the number of beta-strands associated with the blade, the number of amino acid residues associated with equivalent beta-strands in the different blades and the presence of alpha-helices and twisted beta-strands. We have generated a beta-sheet associated beta-strand pattern that may be important for protein structure prediction and modeling. Analysis of the beta-propellers extracted primarily from the SCOP database revealed there are 179 beta-propellers. The examination of the secondary structure corresponding to the beta-propeller using PDBsum that was useful to define the beta-sheet associated beta-strand pattern, combined with visualization on graphics display revealed structural plasticity associated with the beta-propeller architecture. Particularly, the type 6- and 7-bladed beta-propellers known to be associated with sequence and functional diversity are more common and associated with relatively more structural variations compared to the other beta-propeller types. PMID:15178010

  1. On the formation of current sheets in response to the compression or expansion of a potential magnetic field

    E-print Network

    Pontin, D I

    2012-01-01

    The compression or expansion of a magnetic field that is initially potential is considered. It was recently suggested by Janse & Low [2009, ApJ, 690, 1089] that, following the volumetric deformation, the relevant lowest energy state for the magnetic field is another potential magnetic field that in general contains tangential discontinuities (current sheets). Here we examine this scenario directly using a numerical relaxation method that exactly preserves the topology of the magnetic field. It is found that of the magnetic fields discussed by Janse & Low, only those containing magnetic null points develop current singularities during an ideal relaxation, while the magnetic fields without null points relax toward smooth force-free equilibria with finite non-zero current.

  2. Ice Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This educational brief describes the nature and properties of the Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets. Topics include the thickness and aereal extent of the ice sheets, volume of water contained in them, mass balance, and the mechanisms by which ice is lost from or accumulated by the ice sheets.

  3. A calorimetric determination of the enthalpy of formation and a description of the defect structure of the ordered beta-phase /Ni, Cu/ /1-x/ Al/x/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henig, E. T.; Lukas, H. L.

    1988-01-01

    In order to describe thermodynamically the defect structure of an ordered B-Hume-Rothery phase, the heat of formation of (Ni,Cu)(1-x)Al(x) was measured at 1100 K as a function of concentration in the range x (sub Al) = 0.4 and 0.55 for three substitution rations x (sub Ni)/x (sub Cu) = infinity; 11; 5. The heat of formation of the NiAl beta-phase is strongly negative. For the stoichiometric composition it is -72.2 kJ/g-atom. On both the nickel-rich side and the aluminum-rich side the magnitude of the enthalpy of formation decreases linearly with concentration. Substitution of nickel for copper decreases the magnitude of the enthalpy of formation over the entire homogeneity range for the phase (Ni,Cu)(1-x)Al(x). The curve for the enthalpy of formation as well as the literature values for the chemical potential of aluminum are described with great accuracy by the disorder model of Wagner-Schottky.

  4. Late Noachian and early Hesperian ridge systems in the south circumpolar Dorsa Argentea Formation, Mars: Evidence for two stages of melting of an extensive late Noachian ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Ailish M.; Head, James W.

    2015-05-01

    The Dorsa Argentea Formation (DAF), extending from 270°-100° E and 70°-90° S, is a huge circumpolar deposit surrounding and underlying the Late Amazonian South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLD) of Mars. Currently mapped as Early-Late Hesperian in age, the Dorsa Argentea Formation has been interpreted as volatile-rich, possibly representing the remnants of an ancient polar ice cap. Uncertain are its age (due to the possibility of poor crater retention in ice-related deposits), its mode of origin, the origin of the distinctive sinuous ridges and cavi that characterize the unit, and its significance in the climate history of Mars. In order to assess the age of activity associated with the DAF, we examined the ridge populations within the Dorsa Argentea Formation, mapping and characterizing seven different ridge systems (composed of nearly 4,000 ridges covering a total area of ~300,000 km2, with a cumulative length of ridges of ~51,000 km) and performing crater counts on them using the method of buffered crater counting to determine crater retention ages of the ridge populations. We examined the major characteristics of the ridge systems and found that the majority of them were consistent with an origin as eskers, sediment-filled subglacial drainage channels. Ridge morphologies reflect both distributed and channelized esker systems, and evidence is also seen that some ridges form looping moraine-like termini distal to some distributed systems. The ridge populations fall into two age groups: ridge systems between 270° and 0° E date to the Early Hesperian, but to the east, the Promethei Planum and the Chasmata ridge systems date to the Late Noachian. Thus, these ages, and esker and moraine-like morphologies, support the interpretation that the DAF is a remnant ice sheet deposit, and that the esker systems represent evidence of significant melting and drainage of meltwater from portions of this ice sheet, thus indicating at least some regions and/or periods of wet-based glaciation. The Late Noachian and Early Hesperian ages of the ridge systems closely correspond to the ages of valley network/open basin lake systems, representing runoff, drainage and storage of liquid water in non-polar regions of the surface of Mars. Potential causes of such wet-based conditions in the DAF include: 1) top-down melting due to atmospheric warming, 2) enhanced snow and ice accumulation and raising of the melting isotherm to the base of the ice sheet, or 3) basal melting associated with intrusive volcanism (volcano-ice interactions). The early phase of melting is closely correlated in time with valley network formation and thus may be due to global atmospheric warming, while the later phase of melting may be linked to Early Hesperian global volcanism and specific volcano-ice interactions (table mountains) in the DAF. Crater ages indicate that these wet-based conditions ceased by the Late Hesperian, and that further retreat of the DAF to its present configuration occurred largely through sublimation, not melting, thus preserving the extensive ridge systems. MARSIS radar data suggest that significant areas of layered, potentially ice-rich parts of the Dorsa Argentea Formation remain today.

  5. TGF{beta}-mediated formation of pRb-E2F complexes in human myeloid leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Xiaotang [School of Natural and Health Science, Barry University, 11300 Northeast Second Avenue, Miami Shores, FL 33161 (United States)], E-mail: xthu@mail.barry.edu

    2008-05-02

    TGF{beta} is well known for its inhibitory effect on cell cycle G1 checkpoint kinases. However, its role in the control of pRb-E2F complexes is not well established. TGF{beta} inhibits phosphorylation of pRb at several serine and threonine residues and regulates the association of E2F transcription factors with pRb family proteins. Recent studies found that predominantly E2F-4, p130, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) are found to bind to corresponding E2F-responsive promoters in G0/G1 phase. As cells progress through mid-G1, p130-E2F4 complex are replaced by p107-E2F4 followed by activators E2F1, 2, and 3. pRb was not detectable in the promoters containing the E2F-responsive site in cycling cells but was associated with E2F4-p130 complexes or E2F4-p107 complexes during G0/G1 phase. In human myeloid leukemia cell line, MV4-11, TGF{beta} upregulated pRb-E2F-4 and p130-E2F-4, and downregulated p107-E2F-4 complexes. However, pRB-E2F1 and pRb-E2F3 complexes were found in proliferating cells but not in TGF{beta} arrested G1 cells. In addition, electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay (EMSA) could not detect pRb-E2F DNA-binding activities either in S or G1 phase but exhibited the existence of p107-E2F4 in proliferating cells and p130-E2F4 complexes in TGF{beta}-arrested G1 cells, respectively. Our data suggest that p107 and p130, but not pRb, and the repressor E2F, but not activator E2Fs, play a critical role in regulating E2F-responsive gene expression in TGF{beta}-mediated cell cycle control in human myeloid leukemia cells.

  6. Enhanced aggregation and beta structure of amyloid beta peptide after coincubation with C1q.

    PubMed

    Webster, S; O'Barr, S; Rogers, J

    1994-11-01

    Several lines of evidence now suggest that aggregation of soluble amyloid beta peptide (A beta) into a cross beta sheet configuration may be an important factor in mediating potential neurotoxicity of A beta. Synthetic A beta has been shown to self aggregate in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that coincubation of freshly solubilized A beta with C1q, a complement component known to bind A beta in vitro and to colocalize with A beta in vivo, results in as much as a 7-fold enhancement of A beta aggregation, as well as a 2-4-fold enhancement of beta structure within aggregates. The addition of C1q to preformed A beta aggregates also results in significantly increased resistance to aggregate resolubilization. PMID:7884823

  7. Disintegration of liquid sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

  8. Beta amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau deposits in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Miklossy, J.; Miller, L.; Qing, H.; Radenovic, A.; Kis, A.; Vileno, B.; Laszlo, F.; Martins, R.N.; Waeber, G.; Mooser, V.; Bosman, F.; Khalili, K.; Darbinian, N.; McGeer, P.L.

    2008-08-25

    Strong epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes. To determine if amyloid beta (A{beta}) and hyperphosphorylated tau occurs in type 2 diabetes, pancreas tissues from 21 autopsy cases (10 type 2 diabetes and 11 controls) were analyzed. APP and tau mRNAs were identified in human pancreas and in cultured insulinoma beta cells (INS-1) by RT-PCR. Prominent APP and tau bands were detected by Western blotting in pancreatic extracts. Aggregated A{beta}, hyperphosphorylated tau, ubiquitin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein(a), IB1/JIP-1 and JNK1 were detected in Langerhans islets in type 2 diabetic patients. A{beta} was co-localized with amylin in islet amyloid deposits. In situ beta sheet formation of islet amyloid deposits was shown by infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS). LPS increased APP in non-neuronal cells as well. We conclude that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau are also associated with type 2 diabetes, highlighting common pathogenetic features in neurodegenerative disorders, including AD and type 2 diabetes and suggesting that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau may also occur in other organs than the brain.

  9. Hydrogen- Facts Sheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fact sheet provides some basic information about hydrogen. Hydrogen's history, physical and chemical properties, the production of hydrogen, details on how it is stored, safety tips for working with hydrogen and reasons for using hydrogen are outlined. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  10. Visions of ice sheets in the early Ordovician greenhouse world: Evidence from the Peninsula Formation, Cape Peninsula, South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian R. Turner; Howard A. Armstrong; Peter Holt

    2011-01-01

    The depositional architecture within the Early Ordovician, Peninsula Formation, South Africa, indicates a three-tier stratal sequence hierarchy comprising likely 4th order autogenic, 3rd order allogenic and 2nd order regressive–transgressive sequence stacking pattern. Based on correlation with the global eustatic sea level curve, we interpret the 3rd order sequences, comprising predominantly lowstand braided fluvial deposits with thin early transgressive system tract

  11. The effect of glutamic acid side chain on acidity constant of lysine in beta-sheet: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargolzaei, M.; Afshar, M.; Sadeghi, M. S.; Kavee, M.

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the possibility of proton transfer between side chain of lysine and glutamic acid in peptide of Glu--Ala-Lys+ was demonstrated using density functional theory (DFT). We have shown that the proton transfer takes place between side chain of glutamic and lysine residues through the hydrogen bond formation. The structures of transition state for proton transfer reaction were detected in gas and solution phases. Our kinetic studies show that the proton transfer reaction rate in gas phase is higher than solution phase. The ionization constant (p K a) value of lysine residue in peptide was estimated 1.039 which is lower than intrinsic p K a of lysine amino acid.

  12. Fibers of tau fragments, but not full length tau, exhibit a cross beta-structure: implications for the formation of paired helical filaments.

    PubMed Central

    Giannetti, A. M.; Lindwall, G.; Chau, M. F.; Radeke, M. J.; Feinstein, S. C.; Kohlstaedt, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    We have used X-ray fiber diffraction to probe the structure of fibers of tau and tau fragments. Fibers of fragments from the microtubule binding domain had a cross beta-structure that closely resembles that reported both for neurofibrillary tangles found in Alzheimer's disease brain and for fibrous lesions from other protein folding diseases. In contrast, fibers of full-length tau had a different, more complex structure. Despite major differences at the molecular level, all fiber types exhibited very similar morphology by electron microscopy. These results have a number of implications for understanding the etiology of Alzheimer's and other tauopathic diseases. The morphology of the peptide fibers suggests that the region in tau corresponding to the peptides plays a critical role in the nucleation of fiber assembly. The dramatically different structure of the full length tau fibers suggests that some region in tau has enough inherent structure to interfere with the formation of cross beta-fibers. Additionally, the similar appearance by electron microscopy of fibrils with varying molecular structure suggests that different molecular arrangements may exist in other samples of fibers formed from tau. PMID:11206064

  13. A Theoretical Model of a Thinning Current Sheet in the Low-? Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshige, Satoshi; Takasao, Shinsuke; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important physical process in various explosive phenomena in the universe. In previous studies, it was found that fast reconnection takes place when the thickness of a current sheet becomes on the order of a microscopic length such as the ion Larmor radius or the ion inertial length. In this study, we investigated the pinching process of a current sheet by the Lorentz force in a low-? plasma using one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. It is known that there is an exact self-similar solution for this problem that neglects gas pressure. We compared the non-linear MHD dynamics with the analytic self-similar solution. From the MHD simulations, we found that with the gas pressure included the implosion process deviates from the analytic self-similar solution as t\\to {t}0, where t0 is the explosion time when the thickness of a current sheet of the analytic solution becomes 0. We also found that a pair of MHD fast-mode shocks is generated and propagates after the formation of the pinched current sheet as t\\to {t}0. On the basis of the Rankine–Hugoniot relations, we derived the scaling law of the physical quantities with respect to the initial plasma beta in the pinched current sheet. Our study could help us estimate the physical quantities in the pinched current sheet formed in a low-? plasma.

  14. Structural modifications of human beta 2 microglobulin treated with oxygen-derived radicals.

    PubMed Central

    Capeillere-Blandin, C; Delaveau, T; Descamps-Latscha, B

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of human beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2m) with defined oxygen-derived species generated by treatment with gamma-radiation was studied. As assessed by SDS/PAGE, the hydroxyl radicals (.OH) caused the disappearance of the protein band at 12 kDa that represents beta 2m, and cross-linked the protein into protein bands stable to both SDS and reducing conditions. However, when .OH was generated under oxygen in equimolar combination with the superoxide anion radical (O2.-), the high-molecular-mass protein products were less represented, and fragmented derivatives were not obviously detectable. Exposure to .OH alone, or to .OH + O2.- in the presence of O2, induced the formation of beta 2m protein derivatives with a more acidic net electrical charge than the parent molecule. In contrast, O2.- alone had virtually no effect on molecular mass or pI. Changes in u.v. fluorescence during .OH attack indicated changes in conformation, as confirmed by c.d. spectrometry. A high concentration of radicals caused the disappearance of the beta-pleated sheet structure and the formation of a random coil structure. Loss of tryptophan and significant production of dityrosine (2,2'-biphenol type) were noted, exhibiting a clear dose-dependence with .OH alone or with .OH + O2.-. The combination of .OH + O2.- induced a pattern of changes similar to that with .OH alone, but more extensive for c.d. and tryptophan oxidation (2 Trp/beta 2m molecule), and more limited for dityrosine formation. Lower levels of these oxidative agents caused the reproducible formation of species at 18 and 25 kDa which were recognized by antibodies against native beta 2m. These findings provide a model for the protein pattern observed in beta 2m amyloidosis described in the literature. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1649598

  15. Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling Is Essential for the Autonomous Formation of Cartilage-Like Tissue by Expanded Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tekari, Adel; Luginbuehl, Reto; Hofstetter, Willy; Egli, Rainer J.

    2015-01-01

    Cartilage is a tissue with limited self-healing potential. Hence, cartilage defects require surgical attention to prevent or postpone the development of osteoarthritis. For cell-based cartilage repair strategies, in particular autologous chondrocyte implantation, articular chondrocytes are isolated from cartilage and expanded in vitro to increase the number of cells required for therapy. During expansion, the cells lose the competence to autonomously form a cartilage-like tissue, that is in the absence of exogenously added chondrogenic growth factors, such as TGF-?s. We hypothesized that signaling elicited by autocrine and/or paracrine TGF-? is essential for the formation of cartilage-like tissue and that alterations within the TGF-? signaling pathway during expansion interfere with this process. Primary bovine articular chondrocytes were harvested and expanded in monolayer culture up to passage six and the formation of cartilage tissue was investigated in high density pellet cultures grown for three weeks. Chondrocytes expanded for up to three passages maintained the potential for autonomous cartilage-like tissue formation. After three passages, however, exogenous TGF-?1 was required to induce the formation of cartilage-like tissue. When TGF-? signaling was blocked by inhibiting the TGF-? receptor 1 kinase, the autonomous formation of cartilage-like tissue was abrogated. At the initiation of pellet culture, chondrocytes from passage three and later showed levels of transcripts coding for TGF-? receptors 1 and 2 and TGF-?2 to be three-, five- and five-fold decreased, respectively, as compared to primary chondrocytes. In conclusion, the autonomous formation of cartilage-like tissue by expanded chondrocytes is dependent on signaling induced by autocrine and/or paracrine TGF-?. We propose that a decrease in the expression of the chondrogenic growth factor TGF-?2 and of the TGF-? receptors in expanded chondrocytes accounts for a decrease in the activity of the TGF-? signaling pathway and hence for the loss of the potential for autonomous cartilage-like tissue formation. PMID:25775021

  16. -Sheet Pore-Forming Peptides Selected from a Rational Combinatorial Library: Mechanism of Pore Formation in Lipid Vesicles and Activity in Biological

    E-print Network

    Wimley, William C.

    -Sheet Pore-Forming Peptides Selected from a Rational Combinatorial Library: Mechanism of Pore the selection of potent, -sheet pore-forming peptides from a combinatorial library designed to mimic membrane in lipid vesicles to their activity in biological membranes. The pore-forming peptides bind to membrane

  17. A biased probe analysis of potential well formation in an electron only, low beta Polywell magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Matthew; Khachan, Joe

    2013-05-01

    Orbital limited motion theory has been applied to two biased probes in a low beta Polywell. The cases studied include electron injection, magnetic field scaling, Polywell bias scaling, and radial position profiles. Langmuir's original orbital limited motion results for a monoenergetic electron beam are shown to be in excellent agreement for electron injection into the Polywell. A distribution function is proposed for the electron plasma characteristics in the centre of the magnetic null and confirmed with experimental results. A translational stage was used to measure the radial plasma potential profile. In other experiments, two probes were used to simultaneously measure the profiles in both the null and a position halfway along a corner cusp. The results confirm a radial potential well created by electron trapping in the device. In addition, we present preliminary results of the potential well scaling with the magnetic field, Polywell bias voltage, and the injected beam current. The electron population was found to maintain non-equilibrium in all cases studied.

  18. Streaming sausage, kink and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with applications to the Earth's magnetotail

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.C.; Wang, S.; Wei, C.Q.; Tsurutani, B.T.

    1988-07-01

    In this paper, the growth rate and eigenmode structures of the streaming sausage and kink instabilities in a current sheet with a super-Alvenic flow are studied. Based on the linearized compressible profiles of the fastest growing mode which is either the streaming sausage mode or kink mode. The streaming sausage and kink instabilities, similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, are caused by the sheared plasma flow. The results show that for V/sub 0//sub m/ = 2 V/sub A//sub infinity/ the sausage mode grows faster than the kink mode when ..beta../sub infinity/<1.5. When ..beta../sub infinity/>1.5, the streaming kink instability has a higher growth rate. Here V/sub A//sub infinity/ is the Alfven velocity and ..beta../sub infinity/ is the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressures far away from the current layer, and V/sub 0//sub m/ is the maximum velocity of plasma flow at the current sheet. In addition, an analytical dispersion equation is obtained for an ideal four-layer model of the current sheet in the incompressible limit. In the presence of a finite resistivity, the mixed sausage-tearing mode or the streaming tearing mode may be excited, which leads to the formation of plasmoids in the magnetotail. As an application to the Earth's magnetotail, where super-Alfvenic plasma flows are observed in the plasma sheet and ..beta../sub infinity/approx. =0.1--0.3 in the lobes, it is suggested that the streaming sausage and streaming tearing instabilities may occur in the magnetotail.

  19. [Effect of amino acid sequence and time on nanofiber formation of self-assembly peptides].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijuan; Zhao, Xiaojun

    2009-12-01

    Different spider fibroin non crystalline motifs GGAS and GPGGY were inserted into the middle of RADA16-I . The resulting peptides were R1 (n-RADARADAGGASRADARADA-c) and R2 (n-RADARADAGPGGYRADARADA-c). Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) was used to identify the secondary structure, while atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmitting electron microscope (TEM) were used to investigate nanofiber formation of the peptides. These results illustrate that R1 and R2 form random coils and self-assemble into short fibrillar nanostructures. R1 and R2 display a noticeable change in the formation of nanofibers with time. They become longer and wider with the increase of beta-sheet content. R1 forms less and longer fibers than R2; the nanofibers formed by R2 have bend. These characteristics provide a close correlation for the roles of amino acid sequence and beta-sheet structure in nanofiber formation. PMID:20095486

  20. Free Cholesterol Induces Higher ?-Sheet Content in A? Peptide Oligomers by Aromatic Interaction with Phe19

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating experimental evidence support an enhancing effect of free cholesterol on amyloid-beta (A?) aggregation. To probe the mechanisms of cholesterol-mediated A? aggregation, we applied all-atom molecular dynamic simulations on A?42 peptides in presence of free cholesterol. Several control systems were also designed to examine the specificity of cholesterol-residue interactions, including mutation on aromatic residue, substitution of cholesterol with sphingomyelin (SM) and DPPC bilayer, and a mixing SM and cholesterol. Each system was performed 4 independent simulations, with a total time of 560 ns. It was found that cholesterol increased ?-sheet formation by 4 folds, but the Phe19?Ser mutation on A?42 peptide totally eliminated cholesterol’s effect. A stable contact was recognized between the steroid group of cholesterol and the Benzyl group of Phe19. Interestingly, our simulation revealed a regular 1 ns time interval between the establishment of cholesterol-phenylalanine contact and consequent ?-sheet formation, suggesting an important role of steroid-benzyl interaction in cholesterol-mediated aggregation. The presence of SM slightly increased ?-sheet formation, but the mixture of cholesterol and SM had a strong induction effect. Also, the measurement of Phe19-lipid distance indicates that aromatic side chains of peptides prone to bind to cholesterol on the surface of the mixed micelle. In the DPPC system, polar chains were attracted to the surface of membrane, yielding moderate increase of ?-sheet formation. These results shed light on the mechanism of cholesterol-mediated fibrillogenesis, and help to differentiate the effects of cholesterol and other lipids on ?-sheet formation process. PMID:23049991

  1. Oncoprotein E7 from Beta Human Papillomavirus 38 Induces Formation of an Inhibitory Complex for a Subset of p53-Regulated Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Saidj, Djamel; Cros, Marie-Pierre; Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Guarino, Francesca; Sylla, Bakary S.; Tommasino, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies on cutaneous beta human papillomavirus 38 (HPV38) E6 and E7 oncoproteins highlighted a novel activity of I?B kinase beta (IKK?) in the nucleus of human keratinocytes, where it phosphorylates and stabilizes ?Np73?, an antagonist of p53/p73 functions. Here, we further characterize the role of the IKK? nuclear form. We show that IKK? nuclear translocation and ?Np73? accumulation are mediated mainly by HPV38 E7 oncoprotein. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)/Re-ChIP experiments showed that ?Np73? and IKK? are part, together with two epigenetic enzymes DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), of a transcriptional regulatory complex that inhibits the expression of some p53-regulated genes, such as PIG3. Recruitment to the PIG3 promoter of EZH2 and DNMT1 resulted in trimethylation of histone 3 on lysine 27 and in DNA methylation, respectively, both events associated with gene expression silencing. Decreases in the intracellular levels of HPV38 E7 or ?Np73? strongly affected the recruitment of the inhibitory transcriptional complex to the PIG3 promoter, with consequent restoration of p53-regulated gene expression. Finally, the ?Np73?/IKK?/DNMT1/EZH2 complex appears to bind a subset of p53-regulated promoters. In fact, the complex is efficiently recruited to several promoters of genes encoding proteins involved in DNA repair and apoptosis, whereas it does not influence the expression of the prosurvival factor Survivin. In summary, our data show that HPV38 via E7 protein promotes the formation of a multiprotein complex that negatively regulates the expression of several p53-regulated genes. PMID:24006445

  2. Study on the Formation and Characterization of the Intermetallics in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy to Coated Steel Sheet Lap Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, H.; Ghosh, R. N.; Pal, T. K.

    2014-10-01

    Multimaterial fabrication such as joining of steel and aluminum is currently prominent in a variety of industries. Friction stir welding is a novel solid-state welding process that causes good joint strength between steel and aluminum. However, the phenomenon contributing significant strength at the interface is not yet clear. In the present study, the interface of the friction stir lap-welded aluminum and coated steel sheet having joint strength maximum (71.4 pct of steel base metal) and minimum, respectively, under two parameter combinations, i.e., 1000 rpm 50 mm min-1 and 500 rpm 100 mm min-1, was exclusively characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), concentration profile, and elemental mapping by electron-probe microanalysis. A TEM-assisted EDS study identifies the morphologies of large size Al13Fe4 and small size Fe3Al-type intermetallic compounds at the interface. The diffusion-induced intermetallic growth (thickness) measured from a backscattered image and concentration profile agreed well with the numerically calculated one. The growth of these two phases at 1000 rpm 50 mm min-1 is attributed to the slower cooling rate (~3.5 K/s) with higher diffusion time (44 seconds) along the interface in comparison to the same for 500 rpm 100 mm min-1 with faster cooling rate (~10 K/s) and less diffusion time (13.6 seconds). The formation of thermodynamically stable and hard intermetallic phase Al13Fe4 at 1000 rpm and travel speed 50 mm min-1 in amounts higher than 500 rpm and a travel speed of 100 mm min-1 results in better joint strength, i.e., 71.4 pct, of the steel base metal.

  3. Ensemble modeling of [beta]-sheet proteins

    E-print Network

    O'Donnell, Charles William

    2011-01-01

    Our ability to characterize protein structure and dynamics is vastly outpaced by the speed of modern genetic sequencing, creating a growing divide between our knowledge of biological sequence and structure. Structural ...

  4. Beta Thalassemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... iron overload which must be treated with chelation therapy to prevent early death from organ failure. In a somewhat milder form, the inheritance of two abnormal beta globin genes may cause beta thalassemia intermedia, in which the lack of beta globin ...

  5. Synergistic Action of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 Enhances Bioprinted Human Neocartilage Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaofeng; Breitenkamp, Kurt; Lotz, Martin; D’Lima, Darryl

    2012-01-01

    Bioprinting as a promising but unexplored approach for cartilage tissue engineering has the advantages of high throughput, digital control, and highly accurate placement of cells and biomaterial scaffold to the targeted 3D locations with simultaneous polymerization. This study tested feasibility of using bioprinting for cartilage engineering and examined the influence of cell density, growth and differentiation factors. Human articular chondrocytes were printed at various densities, stimulated transiently with growth factors and subsequently with chondrogenic factors. Samples were cultured for up to 4 weeks to evaluate cell proliferation and viability, mechanical properties, mass swelling ratio, water content, gene expression, ECM production, DNA content, and histology. Bioprinted samples treated with FGF-2/TGF-?1 had the best chondrogenic properties among all groups apparently due to synergistic stimulation of cell proliferation and chondrogenic phenotype. ECM production per chondrocyte in low cell density was much higher than that in high cell seeding density. This finding was also verified by mechanical testing and histology. In conclusion, cell seeding density that is feasible for bioprinting also appears optimal for human neocartilage formation when combined with appropriate growth and differentiation factors. PMID:22508498

  6. Salvianolic acid B inhibits the amyloid formation of human islet amyloid polypeptide and protects pancreatic beta-cells against cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Biao; Gong, Hao; Li, Xiaochao; Sun, Yue; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Qian; Zheng, Ling; Huang, Kun

    2013-04-01

    The misfolding of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is regarded as one of the causative factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), one of the most commonly used of traditional Chinese medicines, is often used in Compound Recipes for treating diabetes, however with unclear mechanisms. Since salvianolic acid B (SalB) is the most abundant bioactive ingredient of salvia miltiorrhiza water-extract. In this study, we tested whether SalB has any effect on the amyloidogenicity of hIAPP. Our results clearly suggest that SalB can significantly inhibit the formation of hIAPP amyloid and disaggregate hIAPP fibrils. Furthermore, photo-crosslinking based oligomerization studies suggest SalB significantly suppresses the toxic oligomerization of hIAPP monomers. Cytotoxicity protection effects on pancreatic INS-1 cells by SalB were also observed using MTT-based assays, potentially due to the inhibition on the membrane disruption effects and attenuated mitochondria impairment induced by hIAPP. These results provide evidence that SalB may further be studied on the possible pharmacological treatment for T2DM. PMID:23180621

  7. The MOSDEF Survey: Dissecting the star-formation rate vs. stellar mass relation using H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ emission lines at z ~ 2

    E-print Network

    Shivaei, Irene; Shapley, Alice E; Kriek, Mariska; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Coil, Alison L; Freeman, William R; Sanders, Ryan; Price, Sedona H; de Groot, Laura; Azadi, Mojegan

    2015-01-01

    We present results on the SFR-$M_*$ relation (i.e., the "main sequence") among star-forming galaxies at $1.37\\leq z \\leq2.61$ using the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey. Based on a sample of 261 star-forming galaxies with observations of H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ emission lines, we have estimated robust dust-corrected instantaneous star-formation rates (SFRs) over a large dynamic range in stellar mass ($\\sim 10^{9.0}-10^{11.5}M_\\odot$). We find a tight correlation between SFR(H$\\alpha$) and $M_*$ with an intrinsic scatter of 0.36 dex, 0.05 dex larger than that of UV-based SFRs. This increased scatter is consistent with predictions from numerical simulations of 0.03 - 0.1 dex, and is attributed to H$\\alpha$ more accurately tracing SFR variations. The slope of the $\\log(\\text{SFR})-\\log(M_*)$ relation, using SFR(H$\\alpha$), at $1.4< z<2.6$ and over the stellar mass range of $10^{9.5}$ to $10^{11.5}M_\\odot$ is $0.65\\pm 0.09$. We find that different assumptions for the dust correction, such as usin...

  8. Beta-H transfer from the metallacyclobutane: a key step in the deactivation and byproduct formation for the well-defined silica-supported rhenium alkylidene alkene metathesis catalyst.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Anne-Marie; Salameh, Alain; Soulivong, Daravong; Chabanas, Mathieu; Basset, Jean-Marie; Copéret, Christophe; Solans-Monfort, Xavier; Clot, Eric; Eisenstein, Odile; Böhm, Volker P W; Röper, Michael

    2008-05-14

    The surface complex [([triple bond]SiO)Re([triple bond]CtBu)(=CHtBu)(CH2tBu)] (1) is a highly efficient propene metathesis catalyst with high initial activities and a good productivity. However, it undergoes a fast deactivation process with time on stream, which is first order in active sites and ethene. Noteworthy, 1-butene and pentenes, unexpected products in the metathesis of propene, are formed as primary products, in large amount relative to Re (>1 equiv/Re), showing that their formation is not associated with the formation of inactive species. DFT calculations on molecular model systems show that byproduct formation and deactivation start by a beta-H transfer trans to the weak sigma-donor ligand (siloxy) at the metallacyclobutane intermediate having a square-based pyramid geometry. This key step has an energy barrier slightly higher than that calculated for olefin metathesis. After beta-H transfer, the most accessible pathway is the insertion of ethene in the Re-H bond. The resulting pentacoordinated trisperhydrocarbyl complex rearranges via either (1) alpha-H abstraction yielding the unexpected 1-butene byproduct and the regeneration of the catalyst or (2) beta-H abstraction leading to degrafting. These deactivation and byproduct formation pathways are in full agreement with the experimental data. PMID:18402448

  9. Effect of ?-sheet propensity on peptide aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellesia, Giovanni; Shea, Joan-Emma

    2009-04-01

    The effect of ?-sheet propensity on the structural features of peptide aggregates was investigated using an off-lattice coarse-grained peptide model. A phase diagram as a function of temperature and ?-sheet propensity reveals a diverse family of supramolecular assemblies. Highly rigid peptides (peptides with high ?-sheet propensity) are seen to assemble predominantly into fibrillar structures. Increasing the flexibility of the peptide (reducing ?-sheet propensity) leads to a variety of structures, including fibrils, ?-barrel structures, and amorphous aggregates. Nonfibrillar entities have been suggested as primary causative agents in amyloid diseases and our simulations indicate that mutations that decrease ?-sheet propensity will decrease fibril formation and favor the formation of such toxic oligomers. Parallels between ?-sheet aggregates and nematic liquid crystals are discussed.

  10. Beta experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

  11. The cytological changes of tobacco zygote and proembryo cells induced by beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent suggest the involvement of arabinogalactan proteins in cell division and cell plate formation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In dicotyledonous plant, the first asymmetric zygotic division and subsequent several cell divisions are crucial for proembryo pattern formation and later embryo development. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a family of extensively glycosylated cell surface proteins that are thought to have important roles in various aspects of plant growth and development, including embryogenesis. Previous results from our laboratory show that AGPs are concerned with tobacco egg cell fertilization and zygotic division. However, how AGPs interact with other factors involved in zygotic division and proembryo development remains unknown. Results In this study, we used the tobacco in vitro zygote culture system and series of meticulous cell biology techniques to investigate the roles of AGPs in zygote and proembryo cell division. For the first time, we examined tobacco proembryo division patterns detailed to every cell division. The bright-field images and statistical results both revealed that with the addition of an exogenous AGPs inhibitor, beta-glucosyl Yariv (beta-GlcY) reagent, the frequency of aberrant division increased remarkably in cultured tobacco zygotes and proembryos, and the cell plate specific locations of AGPs were greatly reduced after beta-GlcY treatment. In addition, the accumulations of new cell wall materials were also significantly affected by treating with beta-GlcY. Detection of cellulose components by Calcofluor white stain showed that strong fluorescence was located in the newly formed wall of daughter cells after the zygotic division of in vivo samples and the control samples from in vitro culture without beta-GlcY treatment; while there was only weak fluorescence in the newly formed cell walls with beta-GlcY treatment. Immunocytochemistry examination with JIM5 and JIM7 respectively against the low- and high-esterified pectins displayed that these two pectins located in opposite positions of zygotes and proembryos in vivo and the polarity was not affected by beta-GlcY. Furthermore, FM4-64 staining revealed that endosomes were distributed in the cell plates of proembryos, and the localization pattern was also affected by beta-GlcY treatment. These results were further confirmed by subsequent observation with transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the changes to proembryo cell-organelles induced by beta-GlcY reagent were also observed using fluorescent dye staining technique. Conclusions These results imply that AGPs may not only relate to cell plate position decision, but also to the location of new cell wall components. Correlated with other factors, AGPs further influence the zygotic division and proembryo pattern establishment in tobacco. PMID:22853005

  12. Secondary structure formation in peptide amphiphile micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirrell, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are capable of self-assembly into micelles for use in the targeted delivery of peptide therapeutics and diagnostics. PA micelles exhibit a structural resemblance to proteins by having folded bioactive peptides displayed on the exterior of a hydrophobic core. We have studied two factors that influence PA secondary structure in micellar assemblies: the length of the peptide headgroup and amino acids closest to the micelle core. Peptide length was systematically varied using a heptad repeat PA. For all PAs the addition of a C12 tail induced micellization and secondary structure. PAs with 9 amino acids formed beta-sheet interactions upon aggregation, whereas the 23 and 30 residue peptides were displayed in an apha-helical conformation. The 16 amino acid PA experienced a structural transition from helix to sheet, indicating that kinetics play a role in secondary structure formation. A p53 peptide was conjugated to a C16 tail via various linkers to study the effect of linker chemistry on PA headgroup conformation. With no linker the p53 headgroup was predominantly alpha helix and a four alanine linker drastically changed the structure of the peptide headgroup to beta-sheet, highlighting the importance of hydrogen boding potential near the micelle core.

  13. Effect of formation and state of interface on joint strength in friction stir spot welding for advanced high strength steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Koichi; Matsushita, Muneo; Ikeda, Rinsei; Oi, Kenji

    2014-08-01

    The tensile shear strength and cross tension strength of friction stir spot welded joints were evaluated in the cases of lap joints of 270 N/mm2 grade and 980 N/mm2 grade cold rolled steel sheets with respect to the stir zone area, hardness distribution, and interface condition between the sheets. The results suggested that both the tensile shear strength and cross tension strength were based on the stir zone area and its hardness in both grades of steel. The "hook" shape of the interface also affected the joint strength. However, the joining that occurred across the interfaces had a significant influence on the value of the joint strength in the case of the 270 N/mm2 grade steel.

  14. Hydrogen bond network structures based on sulfonated phosphine ligands: The effects of complex geometry, cation substituents and phosphine oxidation on guanidinium sulfonate sheet formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nichola J. Burke; Andrew D. Burrows; Mary F. Mahon; John E. Warren

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between guanidinium cations and the sulfonate groups on the phosphine [PPh2C6H4-m-SO3]? have been exploited to incorporate iridium(I) centres into hydrogen-bonded networks. The crystal structure of [C(NH2)3]2{trans-[IrCl(CO)(PPh2C6H4-m-SO3)2]} (4) contains hexagonal guanidinium sulfonate (GS) sheets in which both of the sulfonate groups from each complex anion form hydrogen bonds within the same sheet. The crystal structures of [C(NH2)2(NHMe)][PPh2C6H4-m-SO3] (5) and [C(NH2)2(NHEt)][PPh2C6H4-m-SO3

  15. Identification, classification, and analysis of beta-bulges in proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, A. W.; Hutchinson, E. G.; Harris, D.; Thornton, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    A beta-bulge is a region of irregularity in a beta-sheet involving two beta-strands. It usually involves two or more residues in the bulged strand opposite to a single residue on the adjacent strand. These irregularities in beta-sheets were identified and classified automatically, extending the definition of beta-bulges given by Richardson et al. (Richardson, J.S., Getzoff, E.D., & Richardson, D.C., 1978, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 2574-2578). A set of 182 protein chains (170 proteins) was used, and a total of 362 bulges were extracted. Five types of beta-bulges were found: classic, G1, wide, bent, and special. Their characteristic amino acid preferences were found for most classes of bulges. Basically, bulges occur frequently in proteins; on average there are more than two bulges per protein. In general, beta-bulges produce two main changes in the structure of a beta-sheet: (1) disrupt the normal alternation of side-chain direction; (2) accentuate the twist of the sheet, altering the direction of the surrounding strands. PMID:8251933

  16. Experimental Study of Lower-hybrid Drift Turbulence in a Reconnecting Current Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, T. A.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R. M.; Trintchouck, F.

    2002-06-18

    The role of turbulence in the process of magnetic reconnection has been the subject of a great deal of study and debate in the theoretical literature. At issue in this debate is whether turbulence is essential for fast magnetic reconnection to occur in collisionless current sheets. Some theories claim it is necessary in order to provide anomalous resistivity, while others present a laminar fast reconnection mechanism based on the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law. In this work, a thorough study of electrostatic potential fluctuations in the current sheet of the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) [M. Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)] was performed in order to ascertain the importance of turbulence in a laboratory reconnection experiment. Using amplified floating Langmuir probes, broadband fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range (fLH approximately 5-15 MHz) were measured which arise with the formation of the current sheet in MRX. The frequency spectrum, spatial amplitude profile, and spatial correlation characteristics of the measured turbulence were examined carefully, finding consistency with theories of the lower-hybrid drift instability (LHDI). The LHDI and its role in magnetic reconnection has been studied theoretically for decades, but this work represents the first detection and detailed study of the LHDI in a laboratory current sheet. The observation of the LHDI in MRX has provided the unique opportunity to uncover the role of this instability in collisionless reconnection. It was found that: (1) the LHDI fluctuations are confined to the low-beta edge of current sheets in MRX; (2) the LHDI amplitude does not correlate well in time or space with the reconnection electric field, which is directly related to the rate of reconnection; and (3) significant LHDI amplitude persists in high collisionality current sheets where the reconnection rate is classical. These findings suggest that the measured LHDI fluctuations do not play an essential role in determining the reconnection rate in MRX.

  17. Differences between the pressure- and temperature-induced denaturation and aggregation of beta-lactoglobulin A, B, and AB monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Panick, G; Malessa, R; Winter, R

    1999-05-18

    We examined the temperature- and pressure-induced unfolding and aggregation of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) and its genetic variants A and B up to temperatures of 90 degrees C in the pressure range from 1 bar to 10 kbar. To achieve information simultaneously on the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures, we have applied Synchrotron small-angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Upon heating a beta-Lg solution at pH 7.0, the radius of gyration Rg first decreases, indicating a partial dissociation of the dimer into the monomers, the secondary structures remaining essentially unchanged. Above 50 degrees C, the infrared spectroscopy data reveal a decrease in intramolecular beta-sheet and alpha-helical structures, whereas the contribution of disordered structures increases. Within the temperature range from 50 to 60 degrees C, the appearance of the pair distance distribution function is not altered significantly, whereas the amount of defined secondary structures declines approximately by 10%. Above 60 degrees C the aggregation process of 1% beta-Lg solutions is clearly detectable by the increase in Rg and intermolecular beta-sheet content. The irreversible aggregation is due to intermolecular S-H/S-S interchange reactions and hydrophobic interactions. Upon pressurization at room temperature, the equilibrium between monomers and dimers is also shifted and dissociation of dimers is induced. At pressures of approximately 1300 bar, the amount of beta-sheet and alpha-helical structures decreases and the content of disordered structures increases, indicating the beginning unfolding of the protein which enables aggregation. Contrary to the thermal denaturation process, intermolecular beta-sheet formation is of less importance in pressure-induced protein aggregation and gelation. The spatial extent of the resulting protein clusters is time- and concentration-dependent. The aggregation of a 1% (w/w) solution of A, B, and the mixture AB results in the formation of at least octameric units as can be deduced from the radius of gyration of about 36 A. No differences in the pressure stability of the different genetic variants of beta-Lg are detectable in our FT-IR and SAXS experiments. Even application of higher pressures (up to 10 kbar) does not result in complete unfolding of all beta-Lg variants. PMID:10350469

  18. Active volcanism beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet and implications for ice-sheet stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald D. Blankenship; Robin E. Bell; Steven M. Hodge; John M. Brozena; John C. Behrendt; Carol A. Finn

    1993-01-01

    Ice streams act to protect reservoirs of slowly moving inland ice from exposure to oceanic degradation, thus enhancing ice sheet stability. Aerogeophysical evidence is presented here for active volcanism and associated elevated heat flow beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet near the critical region where ice streaming begins. If this heat flow is controlling ice stream formation, then penetration of

  19. MESSENGER and Venus Express Observations of the Near-tail of Venus: Magnetic Flux Transport, Current Sheet Structure, and Flux Rope Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Sarantos, M.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Barabash, S.; Benna, M.; Fraenz, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Gold, R. E.; Ho, G. C.; Korth, H.; Krimigis, S. M.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Raines, J. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Zhang, T.-L.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    At 23:08 UT on 5 June 2007 the MESSENGER spacecraft reached its closest approach altitude (338 km) during its second flyby of Venus en route to its 2011 orbit insertion at Mercury. Whereas no measurements were collected during MESSENGER'S first Venus flyby in October 2006, the Magnetometer (MAG) and the Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) operated successfully throughout this second encounter. Venus provides the solar system's best example to date of a solar wind - ionosphere planetary interaction. We present MESSENGER observations of the near-tail of Venus with emphasis on determining the time scales for magnetic flux transport, the structure of the cross-tail current sheet at very low altitudes (approx. 300 to 1000 km), and the nature and origin of a magnetic flux rope observed in the current sheet. The availability of the simultaneous Venus Express upstream measurements provides a unique opportunity to examine the influence of solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field conditions on this planet's solar wind interaction at solar minimum.

  20. In-situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction of ErD2 (beta phase) formation during D2 loading.

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, James Frederick (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Llobet, Anna (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Clark Sheldon; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Wixom, Ryan R.

    2008-06-01

    In an effort to better understand the structural changes occurring during hydrogen loading of erbium target materials, we have performed D{sub 2} loading of erbium metal (powder) with simultaneous neutron diffraction analysis. This experiment tracked the conversion of Er metal to the {alpha} erbium deuteride (solid-solution) phase and then on to the {beta} (fluorite) phase. Complete conversion to ErD{sub 2.0} was accomplished at 10 Torr D{sub 2} pressure with deuterium fully occupying the tetrahedral sites in the fluorite lattice. Increased D{sub 2} pressure (up to 500 Torr at 450 C) revealed {approx}10 % deuterium occupation of the octahedral sites. Subsequent vacuum pumping of the sample at 450 C removed octahedral site occupancy while maintaining tetrahedral deuterium occupancy, thereby yielding stoichiometric ErD{sub 2.0} {beta} phase.

  1. Sequence-Specific Binding and Photocrosslinking of alpha and beta Oligodeoxynucleotides to the Major Groove of DNA Via TripleHelix Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Praseuth; Loic Perrouault; Trung Le Doan; Marcel Chassignol; Nguyen Thuong; Claude Helene

    1988-01-01

    A photocrosslinking reagent (p-azidophenacyl) was covalently linked to an octathymidylate synthesized with either the natural (beta ) anomer of thymidine or the synthetic (alpha ) anomer. The oligothymidylate was further substituted by an acridine derivative to stabilize the hybrid formed with a complementary octadeoxyadenylate sequence via intercalation. A single-stranded 27-mer containing a (dA)8 sequence and a 27-mer duplex containing a

  2. Topological catastrophe in massive current sheets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterle, P.; Heyvaerts, J.

    A two-dimensional sheet model for solar filaments (Kippenhahn and Schlüter configuration) is considered. The authors investigate the quasi-static evolution of gravito-magnetohydrostatic equilibria in exploring the response of massive current sheets to a slow continuous variation of the mass/flux ratio with fixed boundary conditions. A catastrophic behavior of the field topology is found to occur in the sequence following the formation of a cusp point (bifurcation).

  3. Pathophysiology of beta thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Origa, Raffaella; Galanello, Renzo

    2011-03-01

    In beta thalassemia, unbalanced alpha globin chain synthesis results in severely rheologically compromised erythrocytes with premature destruction in the peripheral circulation and ineffective erythropoiesis within the bone marrow and in extramedullary sites. In nontransfused beta thalassemia patients, erythropoiesis,anemia and hypoxia down-regulate hepcidin, the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Hepcidin deficiency in turn allows excessive duodenal iron absorption and development of systemic iron overload. In regularly transfused patients iron overload is mostly due to red cell breakdown. When the iron binding capacity of transferrin is saturated, iron can appear in the serum in a free form, called Non-Transferrin-Bound Iron, a powerful catalyst for the formation of free radicals, capable of causing oxidative stress and damage to mitochondria, lysosomes, lipid membranes, proteins, and DNA. Apart from the iron overload-related complications, other pathological conditions such as bone disease, gallstones and thromboembolic events occur in a relevant proportion of subjects with thalassemia. PMID:21705976

  4. Formation of fast shocks by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, M. H. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Tsai, C. L. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Earth Dynamic System Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Ma, Z. W. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lee, L. C. [Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2009-09-15

    Reconnections of magnetic fields over the solar surface are expected to generate abundant magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) discontinuities and shocks, including slow shocks and rotational discontinuities. However, the generation of fast shocks by magnetic reconnection process is relatively not well studied. In this paper, magnetic reconnection in a current sheet is studied based on two-dimensional resistive MHD numerical simulations. Magnetic reconnections in the current sheet lead to the formation of plasma jets and plasma bulges. It is further found that the plasma bulges, the leading part of plasma jets, in turn lead to the generation of fast shocks on flanks of the bulges. The simulation results show that during the magnetic reconnection process, the plasma forms a series of structures: plasma jets, plasma bulges, and fast shocks. As time increases, the bulges spread out along the current sheet ({+-}z direction) and the fast shocks move just ahead of the bulges. The effects of initial parameters {rho}{sub s}/{rho}{sub m}, {beta}{sub {infinity}}, and t{sub rec} on the fast shock generation are also examined, where {rho}{sub s}/{rho}{sub m} is the ratio of plasma densities on two sides of the initial current sheet, {beta}{sub {infinity}}=P{sub {infinity}}/(B{sub {infinity}}{sup 2}/2{mu}{sub 0}), P{sub {infinity}} is the plasma pressure and B{sub {infinity}} is the magnetic field magnitude far from the current sheet, and t{sub rec} is the reconnection duration. In the asymmetric case with {rho}{sub s}/{rho}{sub m}=2, {beta}{sub {infinity}}=0.01 and t{sub rec}=1000, the maximum Alfven Mach number of fast shocks (M{sub A1max}) is M{sub A1max} congruent with 1.1, where M{sub A1}=V{sub n1}/V{sub A1}, and V{sub n1} and V{sub A1} are, respectively, the normal upstream fluid velocity and the upstream Alfven speed in the fast shocks frame. As the density ratio {rho}{sub s}/{rho}{sub m} (=1-8) and plasma beta {beta}{sub {infinity}} (=0.0001-1) increase, M{sub A1max} varies slightly. For the case with a large plasma beta {beta}{sub {infinity}} (=5), the fast shock is very weak. As the reconnection duration t{sub rec} increases, the bulges lead to generation of fast shocks with a higher M{sub A1max}. The present results can be applied to the mechanism of coronal heating by fast shocks.

  5. MHD Ballooning Instability in the Plasma Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    C.Z. Cheng; S. Zaharia

    2003-10-20

    Based on the ideal-MHD model the stability of ballooning modes is investigated by employing realistic 3D magnetospheric equilibria, in particular for the substorm growth phase. Previous MHD ballooning stability calculations making use of approximations on the plasma compressibility can give rise to erroneous conclusions. Our results show that without making approximations on the plasma compressibility the MHD ballooning modes are unstable for the entire plasma sheet where beta (sub)eq is greater than or equal to 1, and the most unstable modes are located in the strong cross-tail current sheet region in the near-Earth plasma sheet, which maps to the initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the ionosphere. However, the MHD beq threshold is too low in comparison with observations by AMPTE/CCE at X = -(8 - 9)R(sub)E, which show that a low-frequency instability is excited only when beq increases over 50. The difficulty is mitigated by considering the kinetic effects of ion gyrorad ii and trapped electron dynamics, which can greatly increase the stabilizing effects of field line tension and thus enhance the beta(sub)eq threshold [Cheng and Lui, 1998]. The consequence is to reduce the equatorial region of the unstable ballooning modes to the strong cross-tail current sheet region where the free energy associated with the plasma pressure gradient and magnetic field curvature is maximum.

  6. pH-dependent amyloid and protofibril formation by the ABri peptide of familial British dementia.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Rekha; Jones, Eric M; Liu, Keqian; Ghiso, Jorge; Marchant, Roger E; Zagorski, Michael G

    2003-11-01

    The ABri is a 34 residue peptide that is the major component of amyloid deposits in familial British dementia. In the amyloid deposits, the ABri peptide adopts aggregated beta-pleated sheet structures, similar to those formed by the Abeta peptide of Alzheimer's disease and other amyloid forming proteins. As a first step toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms of the beta-amyloidosis, we explored the ability of the environmental variables (pH and peptide concentration) to promote beta-sheet fibril structures for synthetic ABri peptides. The secondary structures and fibril morphology were characterized in parallel using circular dichroism, atomic force microscopy, negative stain electron microscopy, Congo red, and thioflavin-T fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. As seen with other amyloid proteins, the ABri fibrils had characteristic binding with Congo red and thioflavin-T, and the relative amounts of beta-sheet and amyloid fibril-like structures are influenced strongly by pH. In the acidic pH range 3.1-4.3, the ABri peptide adopts almost exclusively random structure and a predominantly monomeric aggregation state, on the basis of analytical ultracentrifugation measurements. At neutral pH, 7.1-7.3, the ABri peptide had limited solubility and produced spherical and amorphous aggregates with predominantly beta-sheet secondary structure, whereas at slightly acidic pH, 4.9, spherical aggregates, intermediate-sized protofibrils, and larger-sized mature amyloid fibrils were detected by atomic force microscopy. With aging at pH 4.9, the protofibrils underwent further association and eventually formed mature fibrils. The presence of small amounts of aggregated peptide material or seeds encourage fibril formation at neutral pH, suggesting that generation of such seeds in vivo could promote amyloid formation. At slightly basic pH, 9.0, scrambling of the Cys5-Cys22 disulfide bond occurred, which could lead to the formation of covalently linked aggregates. The presence of the protofibrils and the enhanced aggregation at slightly acidic pH is consistent with the behavior of other amyloid-forming proteins, which supports the premise that a common mechanism may be involved in protein misfolding and beta-amyloidosis. PMID:14583196

  7. L6E9 myoblasts are deficient of myostatin and additional TGF-beta members are candidates to developmentally control their fiber formation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Stefania; Stoppani, Elena; Gobbo, Massimiliano; Caroli, Anna; Fanzani, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    This work provides evidence that the robust myoblast differentiation observed in L6E9 cells is causally linked to deficiency of myostatin, which, conversely, has been found to be expressed in C2C12 cells. However, despite the absence of endogenous myostatin, L6E9 myoblasts expressed functional Activin receptors type II (ActRIIs) and follistatin as well as the highly related TGF-beta members Activins and GDF11, suggesting that in this cell line the regulation of fiber size might be under the control of multiple regulators regardless of myostatin. In line with this hypothesis, delivery of a dominant-negative ActRIIb form or the increase of follistatin, as obtained via Trichostatin treatment or stable transfection of a short human follistatin form, enhanced the L6E9 cell differentiation and further increased the size of myotubes, suggesting that L6E9 myoblasts provide a spontaneous myostatin knock-out in vitro model to study TGF-beta ligands involved in developmental regulation of fiber size. PMID:20396675

  8. An alternative pathway to ?-carotene formation in plant chromoplasts discovered by map-based cloning of Beta and old-gold color mutations in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Ronen, Gil; Carmel-Goren, Lea; Zamir, Dani; Hirschberg, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments in plants fulfill indispensable functions in photosynthesis. Carotenoids that accumulate as secondary metabolites in chromoplasts provide distinct coloration to flowers and fruits. In this work we investigated the genetic mechanisms that regulate accumulation of carotenoids as secondary metabolites during ripening of tomato fruits. We analyzed two mutations that affect fruit pigmentation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum): Beta (B), a single dominant gene that increases ?-carotene in the fruit, and old-gold (og), a recessive mutation that abolishes ?-carotene and increases lycopene. Using a map-based cloning approach we cloned the genes B and og. Molecular analysis revealed that B encodes a novel type of lycopene ?-cyclase, an enzyme that converts lycopene to ?-carotene. The amino acid sequence of B is similar to capsanthin-capsorubin synthase, an enzyme that produces red xanthophylls in fruits of pepper (Capsicum annum). Our results prove that ?-carotene is synthesized de novo during tomato fruit development by the B lycopene cyclase. In wild-type tomatoes B is expressed at low levels during the breaker stage of ripening, whereas in the Beta mutant its transcription is dramatically increased. Null mutations in the gene B are responsible for the phenotype in og, indicating that og is an allele of B. These results confirm that developmentally regulated transcription is the major mechanism that governs lycopene accumulation in ripening fruits. The cloned B genes can be used in various genetic manipulations toward altering pigmentation and enhancing nutritional value of plant foods. PMID:10995464

  9. Interpeting Data Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nolan, Stephen M.

    This resource helps to teach students how to interpret TI or other component manufacturer's data sheets. It is quite extensive, mainly covering the TI Logic Data Sheet. Illustrative material is also included. The document may be downloaded as a PDF.

  10. Superfund fact sheet: Exposure pathways. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes exposure pathways, the different manners in which people can be exposed to hazardous materials. Explanations of several pathways involving surface waters, ground water, air, soil, and the food chain are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no formal scientific training.

  11. Amyloid fibril formation of hen lysozyme depends on the instability of the C-helix (88-99).

    PubMed

    Harada, Akihito; Azakami, Hiroyuki; Kato, Akio

    2008-06-01

    Stable and unstable mutant lysozymes in long helices B and C were constructed to evaluate the effect of the helices on amyloid fibril formation at pH 2. Stable mutant N27D and unstable mutant K33D in the B-helix did not change in amyloid fibril formation. In contrast, stable mutant N93D and unstable mutant K97D in the C-helix showed big differences in behavior as to amyloid fibril formation. Stable mutant N93D showed a longer lag phase of aggregation and suppressed the amyloid fibril formation, whereas unstable mutant K97D showed a shorter lag phase of aggregation and accelerated amyloid fibril formation. These results suggest that the long C-helix is involved mainly in the alpha-helix to beta-sheet transition during amyloid formation of lysozyme. PMID:18540107

  12. In silico and in vitro studies to elucidate the role of Cu2+ and galanthamine as the limiting step in the amyloid beta (1–42) fibrillation process

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Rodríguez, Maricarmen; Correa-Basurto, José; Benitez-Cardoza, Claudia G; Resendiz-Albor, Aldo Arturo; Rosales-Hernández, Martha C

    2013-01-01

    The formation of fibrils and oligomers of amyloid beta (A?) with 42 amino acid residues (A?1–42) is the most important pathophysiological event associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The formation of A? fibrils and oligomers requires a conformational change from an ?-helix to a ?-sheet conformation, which is encouraged by the formation of a salt bridge between Asp 23 or Glu 22 and Lys 28. Recently, Cu2+ and various drugs used for AD treatment, such as galanthamine (Reminyl®), have been reported to inhibit the formation of A? fibrils. However, the mechanism of this inhibition remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this work was to explore how Cu2+ and galanthamine prevent the formation of A?1–42 fibrils using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (20 ns) and in vitro studies using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. The MD simulations revealed that A?1–42 acquires a characteristic U-shape before the ?-helix to ?-sheet conformational change. The formation of a salt bridge between Asp 23 and Lys 28 was also observed beginning at 5 ns. However, the MD simulations of A?1?42 in the presence of Cu2+ or galanthamine demonstrated that both ligands prevent the formation of the salt bridge by either binding to Glu 22 and Asp 23 (Cu2+) or to Lys 28 (galanthamine), which prevents A?1?42 from adopting the U-characteristic conformation that allows the amino acids to transition to a ?-sheet conformation. The docking results revealed that the conformation obtained by the MD simulation of a monomer from the 1Z0Q structure can form similar interactions to those obtained from the 2BGE structure in the oligomers. The in vitro studies demonstrated that A? remains in an unfolded conformation when Cu2+ and galanthamine are used. Then, ligands that bind Asp 23 or Glu 22 and Lys 28 could therefore be used to prevent ? turn formation and, consequently, the formation of A? fibrils. PMID:23904252

  13. Balance-sheet trends 

    E-print Network

    Cox, Gilford W

    1949-01-01

    ?sheets to stocdcholders revealed that the nasa of the ~ was given in 96 per ?ent of the balan?a ~t headings. The tabulation cf ths various titles found in the 1948 published bslanse sheets is as follower L5 a~ Sheet"~ "ConsolMated Salanse Sheet", ~ paretic? Balance... Sons shown R Xn the past a great variety of expressions have been used for the title of the statement (balance sheet. or altcrnatice title), Although this situation has lean remedied to a great extent?aereral different titles still exist+ A...

  14. An electron-microscope study of beta-glucuronidase crystals.

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, M R; Stewart, M; Hawley, D E; Marsh, C A

    1979-01-01

    beta-Glucuronidase from rat preputial glands was crystallized as thin sheets having p6 symmetry in projection with a equal 20.2nm. A filtered image was produced by Fourier methods to a resolution of 2.2 nm by averaging information from six areas. This suggests an approximately triangular molecular outline in projection, and this is taken to indicate a probable tetrahedral arrangement of the four subunits of the beta-glucuronidase molecule. Images PLATE 1 PMID:486146

  15. Beta structures of alternating polypeptides and their possible prebiotic significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brack, A.; Orgel, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of the commonest amino acids formed in prebiotic conditions suggests that the earliest form of genetic coding may have specified polypeptides with a strong tendency to form stable beta-sheet structures. Poly(Val-Lys), like other polypeptides in which hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues alternate, tends to form beta structures. It is shown that bilayers with a hydrophobic interior and a hydrophilic exterior may be present in aqueous solution.

  16. Oligomerization of beta-amyloid of the Alzheimer's and the Dutch-cerebral-haemorrhage types.

    PubMed Central

    Sian, A K; Frears, E R; El-Agnaf, O M; Patel, B P; Manca, M F; Siligardi, G; Hussain, R; Austen, B M

    2000-01-01

    A novel ELISA has been developed which detects oligomerization of beta-amyloid (A beta). Oligomerization, fibrillization and neurotoxicity of native A beta associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) type has been compared with E22Q A beta (amyloid beta-protein containing residues 1--40 with the native Glu at residue 22 changed to Gln) implicated in Dutch cerebral haemorrhage disease. Solutions of A beta rapidly yield soluble oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner, which are detected by the ELISA, and by size-exclusion gel chromatography. Conformational changes from disordered to beta-sheet occur more slowly than oligomerization, and fibrils are produced after prolonged incubation. The E22Q A beta oligomerizes, changes conformation and fibrillizes more rapidly than the native form and produces shorter stubbier fibrils. Aged fibrillar preparations of E22Q A beta are more potent than aged fibrils of native A beta in inducing apoptotic changes and toxic responses in human neuroblastoma cell lines, whereas low-molecular-mass oligomers in briefly incubated solutions are much less potent. The differences in the rates of oligomerization of the two A beta forms, their conformational behaviour over a range of pH values, and NMR data reported elsewhere, are consistent with a molecular model of oligomerization in which strands of A beta monomers initially overcome charge repulsion to form dimers in parallel beta-sheet arrangement, stabilized by intramolecular hydrophobic interactions, with amino acids of adjacent chains in register. PMID:10861242

  17. Formability of type 304 stainless steel sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Coubrough, G.J. (EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant); Matlock, D.K.; VanTyne, C.J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Punch-stretch tests to determine formability of type 304 stainless steel sheet were conducted using a hemispherical dome test. Sheets of 19.1 mm width and 177.8 mm width were stretched on a 101.6 mm diameter punch at punch rates between 0.042 to 2.12 mm/s with three lubricant systems: a mineral seal oil, thin polytetrafluoroethelyne sheet with mineral seal oil, and silicone rubber with mineral seal oil. The resulting strain distributions were measured and the amount of martensite was determined by magnetic means. Increasing lubricity resulted in more uniform strain distributions while increased punch rates tended to decrease both strain and transformation distributions. High forming limit values were related to the formation of high and uniformly distributed martensite volume fractions during deformation. The results of this study are interpreted with an analysis of the effects of strain and temperature on strain induced martensite formation in metastable austenitic stainless steels.

  18. Formability of type 304 stainless steel sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Coubrough, G.J. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant; Matlock, D.K.; VanTyne, C.J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Punch-stretch tests to determine formability of type 304 stainless steel sheet were conducted using a hemispherical dome test. Sheets of 19.1 mm width and 177.8 mm width were stretched on a 101.6 mm diameter punch at punch rates between 0.042 to 2.12 mm/s with three lubricant systems: a mineral seal oil, thin polytetrafluoroethelyne sheet with mineral seal oil, and silicone rubber with mineral seal oil. The resulting strain distributions were measured and the amount of martensite was determined by magnetic means. Increasing lubricity resulted in more uniform strain distributions while increased punch rates tended to decrease both strain and transformation distributions. High forming limit values were related to the formation of high and uniformly distributed martensite volume fractions during deformation. The results of this study are interpreted with an analysis of the effects of strain and temperature on strain induced martensite formation in metastable austenitic stainless steels.

  19. Laboratory Investigations of Current Sheets at the Electron Skin Depth Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Vincena; W. Gekelman

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory Investigations of Current Sheets at the Electron Skin Depth Scale. Theoretical investigations, in situ spacecraft and rocket missions, and laboratory studies form an essential triad for understanding the variety of current sheet phenomena found in space plasmas. In the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA, the formation dynamics, equilibrium state, and wave-mediated disruptions of current sheets can be studied

  20. Complex formation of beta-cyclodextrin in aqueous media with poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)containing pendent perfluorooctanesulfonamido groups. Final Report, September 15, 1998 - September 14, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Thieo Hogen-Esch

    1999-11-01

    The effect of time on the viscosity of solutions of 0.50--1.0 weight % polyacrylamide copolymers containing 2-(N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamido)ethyl acrylate (FOSA) comonomer units was monitored at constant shear rates varying from 0.60 to 3.0 sec{sup {minus}1}. The viscosities decreased to a plateau over a period of about thirty minutes. The copolymer solutions sheared at much higher shear rates of 24 sec{sup {minus}1} showed pronounced shear thinning but regained most of their original viscosities after standing for 20 minutes. Heating the solutions less than one hour caused an increase in the low shear viscosity whereas longer heating times decreased solution viscosities presumably due to hydrolysis of the acrylate groups. Addition of beta-cyclodextrin to solutions of the hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide resulted in sharply decreased copolymer viscosities at cyclodextrin concentrations on the order of about 10{sup {minus}3} M. The above is consistent with competitive hydrophobic association of the perfluorocarbon groups of the copolymer with the cyclodextrin disrupting the mutual association of the perfluorocarbon groups.

  1. Emittance Measurements for a Thin Liquid Sheet Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englehart, Amy N.; McConley, Marc W.; Chubb, Donald L.

    1996-01-01

    The Liquid Sheet Radiator (LSR) is an external flow radiator that uses a triangular-shaped flowing liquid sheet as the radiating surface. It has potentially much lower mass than solid wall radiators such as pumped loop and heat pipe radiators, along with being nearly immune to micrometeoroid penetration. The LSR has an added advantage of simplicity. Surface tension causes a thin (100-300 microns) liquid sheet to coalesce to a point, causing the sheet flow to have a triangular shape. Such a triangular sheet is desirable since it allows for simple collection of the flow at a single point. A major problem for all external flow radiators is the requirement that the working fluid be of very low (approx. 10(sup -8) torr) vapor pressure to keep evaporative losses low. As a result, working fluids are limited to certain oils (such as used in diffusion pumps) for low temperatures (300-400 K) and liquid metals for higher temperatures. Previous research on the LSR has been directed at understanding the fluid mechanics of thin sheet flows and assessing the stability of such flows, especially with regard to the formation of holes in the sheet. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. The latest research has been directed at determining the emittance of thin sheet flows. The emittance was calculated from spectral transmittance data for the Dow Corning 705 silicone oil. By experimentally setting up a sheet flow, the emittance was also determined as a function of measurable quantities, most importantly, the temperature drop between the top of the sheet and the temperature at the coalescence point of the sheet. Temperature fluctuations upstream of the liquid sheet were a potential problem in the analysis and were investigated.

  2. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael E; Clark, Peter U; Ricken, Werner; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hostetler, Steven W; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood. We develop a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates that the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was within dating uncertainties synchronous with most sectors of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. Surface climate forcing of Antarctic mass balance would probably cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Our new data support teleconnections involving sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deep-water formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets. PMID:22144623

  3. Beta amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau deposits in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Miklossy, Judith; Qing, Hong; Radenovic, Aleksandra; Kis, Andras; Vileno, Bertrand; Làszló, Forró; Miller, Lisa; Martins, Ralph N.; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Bosman, Fred; Khalili, Kamel; Darbinian, Nune; McGeer, Patrick L.

    2014-01-01

    Strong epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes. To determine if amyloid beta (A?) and hyperphosphorylated tau occurs in type 2 diabetes, pancreas tissues from 21 autopsy cases (10 type 2 diabetes and 11 controls) were analyzed. APP and tau mRNAs were identified in human pancreas and in cultured insulinoma beta cells (INS-1) by RT-PCR. Prominent APP and tau bands were detected by Western blotting in pancreatic extracts. Aggregated A?, hyperphosphorylated tau, ubiquitin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein(a), IB1/JIP-1 and JNK1 were detected in Langerhans islets in type 2 diabetic patients. A? was co-localized with amylin in islet amyloid deposits. In situ beta sheet formation of islet amyloid deposits was shown by infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS). LPS increased APP in non-neuronal cells as well. We conclude that A? deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau are also associated with type 2 diabetes, highlighting common pathogenetic features in neurodegenerative disorders, including AD and type 2 diabetes and suggesting that A? deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau may also occur in other organs than the brain. PMID:18950899

  4. Current status of liquid sheet radiator research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.

    1993-01-01

    Initial research on the external flow, low mass liquid sheet radiator (LSR), has been concentrated on understanding its fluid mechanics. The surface tension forces acting at the edges of the sheet produce a triangular planform for the radiating surface of width, W, and length, L. It has been experimentally verified that (exp L)/W agrees with the theoretical result, L/W = (We/8)exp 1/2, where We is the Weber number. Instability can cause holes to form in regions of large curvature such as where the edge cylinders join the sheet of thickness, tau. The W/tau limit that will cause hole formation with subsequent destruction of the sheet has yet to be reached experimentally. Although experimental measurements of sheet emissivity have not yet been performed because of limited program scope, calculations of the emissivity and sheet lifetime is determined by evaporation losses were made for two silicon based oils; Dow Corning 705 and Me(sub 2). Emissivities greater than 0.75 are calculated for tau greater than or equal to 200 microns for both oils. Lifetimes for Me(sub 2) are much longer than lifetimes for 705. Therefore, Me(sub 2) is the more attractive working fluid for higher temperatures (T greater than or equal to 400 K).

  5. Effect of temperature on the secondary structure of beta-lactoglobulin at pH 6.7, as determined by CD and IR spectroscopy: a test of the molten globule hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Qi, X L; Holt, C; McNulty, D; Clarke, D T; Brownlow, S; Jones, G R

    1997-01-01

    Previous CD measurements of changes in the conformation of beta-lactoglobulin at neutral pH as a function of temperature indicated the formation of a molten globule state above approx. 70 degrees C. New CD measurements are reported at temperatures up to 80 degrees C with an instrument on the Daresbury synchrotron radiation source which gives spectra of good signal-to-noise ratio down to 170 nm. IR spectra were recorded up to 94.8 degrees C with a ZnSe circle cell and a single simplified model of the substructure of the amide I' band was used to give the fractional contents of beta-sheet structure unambiguously and independently of the CD spectroscopy. The results of both techniques, however, were in agreement in showing a progressive loss of beta-sheet structure with increasing temperature, beginning below the denaturation temperature. Nevertheless, the CD spectroscopy showed a fairly abrupt loss of virtually all the helical conformation at approx. 65 degrees C. Comparison of the present results with other studies on the molten globule formed at acid pH in the lipocalin family suggests that above 65 degrees C a partly unfolded state is formed, possibly by destabilization of the intermolecular beta-strand I and the loss of the main helix, but it is not a classical molten globule transition. PMID:9164875

  6. Displacement currents associated with the insertion of Alzheimer disease amyloid beta-peptide into planar bilayer membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, J; Alarcón, J M; Rojas, E

    2000-01-01

    The role of endogenous amyloid beta-peptides as causal factors of neurodegenerative diseases is largely unknown. We have previously reported that interactions between Alzheimer's disease A beta P[1-40] peptide in solution and planar bilayer membranes made from anionic phospholipids lead to the formation of cation-selective channels. We now find and report here that the spontaneous insertion of free A beta P[1-40] across the bilayer can be detected as an increase in bilayer capacity. To this end we recorded the displacement currents across planar bilayers (50 mM KCl on both sides) in response to sudden displacements of the membrane potential, from -300 to 300 mV in 20-mV increments. To monitor the A beta P[1-40]-specific displacement currents, we added A beta P[1-40] (1-5 microM) to the solution on either side of the membrane and noted that the direction of the displacement current depended on the side with A beta P[1-40]. The size of the A beta P[1-40]-specific charge displaced during a pulse was always equal to the charge returning to the original configuration after the pulse, suggesting that the dipole molecules are confined to the membrane. As a rule, the steady-state distribution of the A beta P[1-40]-specific charges within the bilayer could be fit by a Boltzmann distribution. The potential at which the charges were found to be equally distributed (V(o)) were approximately -135 mV (peptide added to the solution in the compartment electrically connected to earth) and 135 mV (peptide added to the solution connected to the input of the amplifier). The A beta P[1-40]-specific transfer of charge reached a maximum value (Q(max)) when the electrical potential of the side containing the amyloid beta-protein was taken to either -300 or 300 mV. For a circular membrane of 25-microm radius ( approximately 2000 microm(2)), the total A beta P[1-40]-specific charge Q(max) was estimated as 55 fC, corresponding to some 170 e.c./microm(2). Regardless of the side selected for the addition of A beta P[1-40], at V(o) the charge displaced underwent an e-fold change for a approximately 27-mV change in potential. The effective valence (a) of the A beta P[1-40] dipole (i.e., the actual valence Z multiplied by the fraction of the electric field chi acting on the dipole) varied from 1 to 2 electronic charges. We also tested, with negative results, the amyloid peptide with the reverse sequence (A beta P[40-1]). These data demonstrate that A beta P[1-40] molecules can span the low dielectric domain of the bilayer, exposing charged residues (D(1), E(3), R(5), H(6), D(7), E(11), H(13), and H(14)) to the electric field. Thus the A beta P[1-40] molecules in solution must spontaneously acquire suitable conformations (beta-pleated sheet) allowing specific interactions with charged phospholipids. Interestingly, the domain from residues 676 to 704 in the APP(751) is homologous with the consensus sequence for lipid binding found in other membrane proteins regulated by anionic phospholipids. PMID:10920024

  7. Kinetic analysis of beta-amyloid fibril elongation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle J Cannon; Angela D Williams; Ronald Wetzel; David G Myszka

    2004-01-01

    We used surface plasmon resonance biosensors to evaluate the kinetics associated with the initial events of beta-amyloid (A?) fibril elongation. Fibrils were immobilized on the sensor chip surface and extended by exposure to soluble A?(1–40) peptide. The fibril surfaces bound Congo red, a marker for ? sheet structures, and exhibited a slow linear background decay that is consistent with fibril

  8. Temperature Dependence of Positron Annihilation in beta-Cyclodextrin and beta-Cyclodextrin Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Hsu Hadley, F. H., Jr.; Trinh, T.

    1996-11-01

    The effects of temperature on positron annihilation in beta-cyclodextrin and beta-cyclodextrin complexed with benzyl salicylate, benzyl acetate, ethyl salicylate, geraniol, linalool and nerol were studied. Samples were prepared by slurry, air-dried and freeze-dried methods. Lifetime spectra were measured as a function of temperature for each sample. Comparison of the annihilation rate and intensity of the longer-lived component showed that positronium formation was affected by guest molecules, preparation methods and temperature variations. Results can be used to explain beta-cyclodextrin complex formation with different guest molecules.

  9. Oxidative modification of glutamine synthetase by amyloid beta peptide.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, M Y; Aksenova, M V; Carney, J M; Butterfield, D A

    1997-09-01

    beta-Amyloid peptide (A beta), the main constituent of senile plaques and diffuse amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's diseased brain, was shown to initiate the development of oxidative stress in neuronal cell cultures. Toxic lots of A beta form free radical species in aqueous solution. It was proposed that A beta-derived free radicals can directly damage cell proteins via oxidative modification. Recently we reported that synthetic A beta can interact with glutamine synthetase (GS) and induce inactivation of this enzyme. In the present study we present the evidence that toxic A beta(25-35) induces the oxidation of pure GS in vitro. It was found that inactivation of GS by A beta, as well as the oxidation of GS by metal-catalyzed oxidation system, is accompanied by an increase of protein carbonyl content. As it was reported previously by our laboratory, radicalization of A beta is not iron or peroxide-dependent. Our present observations consistently show that toxic A beta does not need iron or peroxide to oxidize GS. However, treatment of GS with the peptide, iron and peroxide together significantly stimulates the protein carbonyl formation. Here we report also that A beta(25-35) induces carbonyl formation in BSA. Our results demonstrate that beta-peptide, as well as other free radical generators, induces carbonyl formation when brought into contact with different proteins. PMID:9350431

  10. Use of beta-strand Interaction Pseudo-Potentials in Protein Structure Prediction and Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim J. P. Hubbard

    1994-01-01

    A residue-residue interaction pseudo-potential has been developed specific for protein \\/spl beta\\/-sheets. The potential is derived by scoring the occurrence of all i-(j-2...J+2) residue-residue pairs between any two interacting \\/spl beta\\/-strands, subdividing according to 4 classes of hydrogen bond pattern. The potential can be useful in distinguishing between correct and incorrect alignments between \\/spl beta\\/-strands in a predicted protein structure.

  11. State Climate Change Impacts Information Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Global Warming site (discussed in the February 21, 1997 Scout Report) has placed all 50 state-specific global warming sheets online in HTML and .pdf format. Browseable via a clickable map or alphabetically, the sheets summarize expected climate change in each state and explain the projected consequences on factors such as health, agriculture, water resources, ecosystems, forests, and coastal areas. Brief countrywide overviews of these factors are also available, as well as short discussions of climate change and fisheries, birds, and national parks. Additional resources include a bibliography, glossary, and internal search engine.

  12. Civil Works Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    #12;Civil Works FY 2010 Enacted Fact Sheets #12;GREAT LAKES AND OHIO RIVER DIVISION 1 February 2010 LRD - 1 #12;GREAT LAKES AND OHIO RIVER DIVISION ENACTED FACT SHEETS TABLE OF CONTENTS ENACTED PROJECTS.........................................................................................LRD-6 FLOOD AND COASTAL STORM DAMAGE REDUCTION .....................................LRD-7 INVESTIGATIONS

  13. Hypertrophic scar model in the rabbit ear: a reproducible model for studying scar tissue behavior with new observations on silicone gel sheeting for scar reduction.

    PubMed

    Kloeters, Oliver; Tandara, Andrea; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring poses a clinically relevant problem as it can be cosmetically disfiguring and functionally debilitating. A lack of animal models has hindered an understanding of the pathogenesis and development of new treatment strategies therefore has largely been empiric. Our group has developed a unique hypertrophic scar (HS) model in the rabbit ear. The model has been reproducible, quantifiable, and measurable over a time period of 1 month. We describe the development as well as the reliability and responsiveness of this model to different therapeutic agents, such as TGF-beta blockade, silicone occlusion, and application of collagen-synthesis inhibitors. Moreover, it has given insights into the mechanism of action of silicone sheeting occlusive treatment and ultimately suggests that the epidermis plays a critical role in the development of HS. Additionally, we will present new data supporting the importance of the epidermis and further clarify the mechanism of action of silicone sheeting. When a semi-occlusive polyurethane film was left in place for an additional time period, scar formation was reduced. HSs of this model covered with silicone sheets and five layers of Tegaderm showed a significant scar reduction by 80% compared with wounds with only one layer of Tegaderm. The HS model in the rabbit ear is a highly reliable, responsive, and practical model for studying scar tissue behavior. Furthermore, our data suggest that the degree and the duration of occlusion are most important for reducing scar tissue formation. PMID:17727466

  14. Low-Temperature Forming of Beta Titanium Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, R. S.; Woods, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Low cost methods for titanium structural fabrication using advanced cold-formable beta alloys were investigated for application in a Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicle. This work focuses on improving processing and structural efficiencies as compared with standard hot formed and riveted construction of alpha-beta alloy sheet structure. Mechanical property data and manufacturing parameters were developed for cold forming, brazing, welding, and processing Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al sheet, and Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr on a more limited basis. Cost and structural benefits were assessed through the fabrication and evaluation of large structural panels. The feasibility of increasing structural efficiency of beta titanium structure by selective reinforcement with metal matrix composite was also explored.

  15. Analysis of Residual Stresses in High-Pressure Sheet Metal Forming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kleiner; R. Krux; W. Homberg

    2004-01-01

    The further development of innovative forming processes like sheet metal hydroforming is only possible with the help of detailed knowledge about the workpiece properties and their formation depending on the particular process strategy. Up to now, the detailed understanding regarding the formation of residual stresses in hydroforming processes like the high-pressure sheet metal forming (HBU) is insufficient. Therefore, numerical (FEM)

  16. Sheet metal fatigue near nuts welded to thin sheet structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas W. Ringsberg; Pierre Orvegren; Hans-Fredrik Henrysson; Gunnar Åkerström

    2008-01-01

    One of the fatigue design processes of a car body is stress-based sheet metal fatigue near nuts welded to thin sheets (weld nuts). In this investigation, the influence from nut geometry and dimension, as well as sheet material and thickness on sheet metal fatigue life was studied by fatigue experiments and numerical analyses. The fatigue experiments were force-controlled and carried

  17. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

    1997-03-18

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

  18. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); McDonald, Carolyn E. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  19. Pre-beta-very low density lipoproteins as precursors of beta-very low density lipoproteins. A model for the pathogenesis of familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (type III hyperlipoproteinemia).

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, D A

    1988-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and receptor binding properties of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) fractions from familial dysbetalipoproteinemic (dys-beta) subjects, homozygous for apolipoprotein (apo-) E2 (E2/2 phenotype), and subjects with the E3/3 phenotype were studied to gain insights into the pathogenesis of dysbetalipoproteinemia, a disorder characterized by the presence of beta-VLDL in the plasma. Pre-beta-VLDL from dys-beta subjects were larger (27 vs. 17 x 10(6) D) and more triglyceride rich (68 vs. 43% dry weight) than beta-VLDL. Pre-beta-VLDL predominated in the Sf greater than 100 flotation fraction, whereas beta-VLDL predominated in the Sf 20-60 fraction. Because lipolysis converts large VLDL (Sf greater than 100) in vivo to smaller, more cholesteryl ester-rich VLDL (Sf 20-60), it is likely that pre-beta-VLDL are precursors of beta-VLDL. Although beta-VLDL were not found in type V hyperlipidemic E3/3 subjects, they were induced by intravenous heparinization, suggesting that lipolysis of pre-beta-VLDL in vivo can result in beta-VLDL formation. Similarly, heparinization of a dys-beta subject produced more beta-VLDL, at the expense of pre-beta-VLDL. The pre-beta-VLDL from normolipidemic and type V hyperlipidemic E3/3 subjects, respectively, had 90 and 280 times the affinity for the apo-B,E(LDL) receptor than did the pre-beta-VLDL from dys-beta subjects. Heparin-induced beta-VLDL from type V hyperlipidemic subjects had a sixfold higher binding affinity than did heparin-induced beta-VLDL from dys-beta subjects. These data suggest that pre-beta-VLDL from E2/2 subjects interact poorly with lipoprotein receptors in vivo, decreasing their receptor-mediated clearance and increasing their conversion to beta-VLDL during lipolytic processing. Images PMID:2841358

  20. Gamma, Beta, Erf

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page includes the encyclopedia entries for gamma, beta and erf functions including factorials, binomials, gamma functions and inverses, differentiated gamma functions, beta functions and inverses, probability integrals and inverses, Frensnel integrals and exponential integrals.

  1. Cross-talk between integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1 in renal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abair, Tristin D. [Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Sundaramoorthy, Munirathinam; Chen, Dong [Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Heino, Jyrki [Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Ivaska, Johanna [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Medical Biotechnology, Turku (Finland); Hudson, Billy G. [Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Sanders, Charles R. [Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Pozzi, Ambra [Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Zent, Roy [Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)], E-mail: roy.zent@vanderbilt.edu

    2008-11-15

    The collagen-binding integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1 have profoundly different functions, yet they are often co-expressed in epithelial cells. When both integrins are expressed in the same cell, it has been suggested that {alpha}1{beta}1 negatively regulates integrin {alpha}2{beta}1-dependent functions. In this study we utilized murine ureteric bud (UB) epithelial cells, which express no functionally detectable levels of endogenous integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1, to determine the mechanism whereby this regulation occurs. We demonstrate that UB cells expressing integrin {alpha}2{beta}1, but not {alpha}1{beta}1 adhere, migrate and proliferate on collagen I as well as form cellular cords in 3D collagen I gels. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of the integrin {alpha}2 subunit with that of {alpha}1 results in decreased cell adhesion, migration and cord formation. In contrast, substitution of the integrin {alpha}2 cytoplasmic tail with that of {alpha}1, decreases cell migration and cord formation, but increases proliferation. When integrin {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 subunits are co-expressed in UB cells, the {alpha}1 subunit negatively regulates integrin {alpha}2{beta}1-dependent cord formation, adhesion and migration and this inhibition requires expression of both {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 tails. Thus, we provide evidence that the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the {alpha}2 integrin subunit, as well as the {alpha}1 integrin subunit, regulate integrin {alpha}2{beta}1 cell function.

  2. Simulating Thin Sheets: Buckling, Wrinkling, Folding and Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Roman; Stoop, Norbert; Wittel, Falk K.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2014-03-01

    Numerical simulations of thin sheets undergoing large deformations are computationally challenging. Depending on the scenario, they may spontaneously buckle, wrinkle, fold, or crumple. Nature's thin tissues often experience significant anisotropic growth, which can act as the driving force for such instabilities. We use a recently developed finite element model to simulate the rich variety of nonlinear responses of Kirchhoff-Love sheets. The model uses subdivision surface shape functions in order to guarantee convergence of the method, and to allow a finite element description of anisotropically growing sheets in the classical Rayleigh-Ritz formalism. We illustrate the great potential in this approach by simulating the inflation of airbags, the buckling of a stretched cylinder, as well as the formation and scaling of wrinkles at free boundaries of growing sheets. Finally, we compare the folding of spatially confined sheets subject to growth and shrinking confinement to find that the two processes are equivalent.

  3. Substorm Onset by Plasma Sheet Divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Wang, C.; Nagai, T.

    2003-12-01

    It is necessary to understand current wedge formation in order to understand the cause of the substorm expansion phase. Geotail spacecraft observations have shown that the inner-plasma-sheet cross-tail current reduction within the current wedge results from a process that leads to a reduction in equatorial plasma pressure and a substantial reduction in flux tube ion content. We use the single-species continuity equation for plasma sheet particles to identify a plausible cause of these plasma reductions. We find that a convection reduction, which follows a growth phase period of enhanced convection, should cause a divergence of plasma sheet particles driven by diamagnetic drift that leads to flux tube content reduction. Such reduction in flux tube content is longitudinally localized to the pre-midnight to midnight region where the current wedge has been observed to initially form and must initiate within the region of the equatorial mapping of the Harang discontinuity, consistent with ionospheric observations of substorm onset. We also find that the reduction in flux tube content should initially develop slowly, and then develop more rapidly as the current wedge forms. This is consistent with observations which show that expansion phase aurora, and thus also the current wedge, develops slowly for a few minutes before brightening rapidly, and it is as required if plasma sheet divergence driven by diamagnetic drift leads to current wedge formation and initiation of the substorm expansion phase.

  4. Viscous fluid sheets

    E-print Network

    Savva, Nikos

    2007-01-01

    We present a general theory for the dynamics of thin viscous sheets. Employing concepts from differential geometry and tensor calculus we derive the governing equations in terms of a coordinate system that moves with the ...

  5. Planning Sheet NAME ____________________________ _______________________ ___________________

    E-print Network

    Tong, Liang

    Planning Sheet NAME ____________________________ _______________________ ___________________ Last Major Fall Spring Dept. Course (Name or #) Pts./ Grade Dept. Course (Name or #) Pts./ Grade _____ ____________________ ______ _____ ____________________ ______ _____ ____________________ ______ _____ ____________________ ______ _____ ____________________ ______ _____ ____________________ ______ _____ ____________________ ______ _____ ____________________ ______ Courses Completed in Sophomore Year Towards Major Fall Spring Dept. Course (Name or #) Pts./ Grade Dept

  6. State Fact Sheets (Women)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of each area's fact sheet are presented below. Region I ( CT , ME , MA , NH , RI , VT) Region II ( NY , NJ ) Region III ( DC , DE , MD , PA , VA , WV ) Region IV ( AL , FL , GA , KY , MS , NC , SC , ...

  7. Avian Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Wildlife Work Group

    2004-12-01

    OAK-B135 After conducting four national research meetings, producing a document guiding research: Metrics and Methods for Determining or Monitoring Potential Impacts on Birds at Existing and Proposed Wind Energy Sites, 1999, and another paper, Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States, 2001, the subcommittee recognized a need to summarize in a short fact sheet what is known about avian-wind interaction and what questions remain. This fact sheet attempts to summarize in lay terms the result of extensive discussion about avian-wind interaction on land. This fact sheet does not address research conducted on offshore development. This fact sheet is not intended as a conclusion on the subject; rather, it is a summary as of Fall/Winter 2002.

  8. ERRATA SHEET ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT,

    E-print Network

    alternatives for the Environmental Impact Statement for Essential Fish Habitat Identification and ConservationERRATA SHEET ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT, REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW, AND REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY of Particular Concern April 2006 Note to Reviewers: The Environmental Assessment / Regulatory Impact Review

  9. Global ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Institute for Quaternary Studies

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  10. Multiscale characterization of individualized beta-lactoglobulin microgels formed upon heat treatment under narrow pH range conditions.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christophe; Bovay, Claudine; Vuilliomenet, Anne-Marie; Rouvet, Martine; Bovetto, Lionel; Barbar, Reine; Sanchez, Christian

    2009-07-21

    Aqueous dispersions of demineralized beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg) were held at 85 degrees C for 15 min at a constant protein concentration of 1 wt % in the pH range of 3.0-7.0. This led to denatured protein content ranging from 20% (pH 3.0) to 90% (pH 5.0). The protein aggregates formed were characterized as to their stability to sedimentation (turbidity), morphology, size, surface charge, ANS surface hydrophobicity, and content in accessible thiol groups. Additionally, the changes in secondary structures of the protein upon heating were followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Stable dispersions (no sedimentation for 10 min) of individualized beta-lg microgels were obtained at specific pH 4.6 and 5.8, corresponding to an aggregation yield of about 80%. The width of the pH region leading to these microgels was 0.3 pH unit below or above the two specific pH values. Microgels were characterized by a spherical shape and remarkably low polydispersity in size (<0.2). Their z-average hydrodynamic diameter determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) was between 160 and 220 nm, and their zeta-potential was +30 or -40 mV, depending on the initial pH before heating. Microgels obtained at pH 4.6 displayed a lower binding capacity for ANS and a lower content of accessible thiol groups as compared to those obtained at pH 5.8. Both types of microgels might therefore differ in their internal and interfacial structures. Between pH 4.6 and 5.8, large sedimenting protein particulates were obtained, whereas soluble aggregates were formed at pH <4.6 or >5.8. Interestingly, DLS experiments showed that before heating, beta-lg was mainly present in an oligomeric state at pH 4.6 and 5.8. This result was confirmed by FTIR measurements indicating the stronger contribution of the 1616-1624 cm(-1) spectral band corresponding to intermolecular beta-sheets in the pH range of 4.0-6.0. Upon heating, FTIR spectroscopy revealed that individualized microgels were obtained under pH conditions where a balance between attractive forces arising from protein unfolding leading to the formation of intermolecular beta-sheets (1616-1624 cm(-1 )band) and the repulsive electrostatic forces due to the initial protein net charge was achieved. PMID:19594178

  11. FE Exam State Application Screening Questions Supporting Documentation Tip Sheet

    E-print Network

    FE Exam ­ State Application Screening Questions Supporting Documentation Tip Sheet State of guidance for supporting documentation, as shown below: If your answer is YES to any of the following details about this incident. " Please format your supporting documentation in the format of a business

  12. Effect of asymmetric rolling on the texture and mechanical properties of AA6111-aluminum sheet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suk-Bong Kang; Bok-Ki Min; Hyoung-Wook Kim; David S. Wilkinson; Jidong Kang

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum-alloy sheets are considered to be one of the high-potential substitutes for steel sheets, when considering the weight\\u000a reduction of automobiles. However, aluminum-alloy sheets have inferior formability, mainly due to their lower plastic-strain\\u000a ratios. The plastic-strain ratios of aluminum-alloy sheets can be increased with the formation of shear-deformation texture\\u000a through the sheet thickness. Asymmetric rolling, in which the circumferential velocities

  13. Sheet Metal Forming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torgeir Welo

    Sheet metal forming represents an extensive research area involving numerous topics such as finite element techniques and\\u000a modeling, material models, material characterization, formability, component and full-scale test methods as well as a variety\\u000a of industrial processes and technologies. In the present overview, however, attempts have been made to mainly concentrate\\u000a on recent technology development and innovative sheet metal forming methods,

  14. Solar wind double ions beams and the heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, C. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Phillips, J. L.; Goldstein, B. E.; Balogh, A.

    1995-01-01

    Double ion beams are often observed in the solar wind, but little work has been done in relating these beams to structures within the solar wind. Double ion beams are observed as beams of a given ion species and charge state occurring at two different energies. We use the three-dimensional ion plasma instrument on board the Ulysses spacecraft to look for evidence of such beams associated with the heliospheric current sheet. In a subset chosen independently of plasma parameters consisting of 8 of cover 47 crossings of the current sheet made during the inecliptic phase of the Ulysses mission we find that these double ion beams are always present on either side of the current sheet. The double beams are present in both the proton and helium species. The secondary beam typically has a higher helium abundance, which suggests that these beams are formed in the helium-rich corona rather than in interplanetary space. The double beams are not present in the interior of the current sheet. Neither collisions nor effects of plasma beta can account for the disappearance of the double beams inside the current sheet in all eight cases. We postulate that these beams are formed by reconnection occurring near the Sun in the boundary region between the open field lines of the coronal holes and the closed field line region of the heliospheric current sheet. Such a scenario would be consistent with previous X ray measurements which suggect that reconnection is occurring in this region.

  15. Latent TGF-[beta] structure and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Minlong; Zhu, Jianghai; Wang, Rui; Chen, Xing; Mi, Lizhi; Walz, Thomas; Springer, Timothy A. (Harvard-Med)

    2011-09-16

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} is stored in the extracellular matrix as a latent complex with its prodomain. Activation of TGF-{beta}1 requires the binding of {alpha}v integrin to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-{beta} binding proteins. Crystals of dimeric porcine proTGF-{beta}1 reveal a ring-shaped complex, a novel fold for the prodomain, and show how the prodomain shields the growth factor from recognition by receptors and alters its conformation. Complex formation between {alpha}v{beta}6 integrin and the prodomain is insufficient for TGF-{beta}1 release. Force-dependent activation requires unfastening of a 'straitjacket' that encircles each growth-factor monomer at a position that can be locked by a disulphide bond. Sequences of all 33 TGF-{beta} family members indicate a similar prodomain fold. The structure provides insights into the regulation of a family of growth and differentiation factors of fundamental importance in morphogenesis and homeostasis.

  16. Numerical simulation and fabrication of silicon sheet via spin casting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Hyunhui; Lee, Changbum; Kim, Joonsoo; Jang, Bo-Yun; Lee, Jinseok; Ahn, Youngsoo; Yoon, Wooyoung

    2013-05-01

    A spin-casting process for fabricating polycrystalline silicon sheets for use as solar cell wafers is proposed, and the parameters that control the sheet thickness are investigated. A numerical study of the fluidity of molten silicon indicates that the formation of thin silicon sheets without a mold and via spin casting is feasible. The faster the rotation speed of graphite mold, the thinner the thickness of sheet. After the spread of the molten silicon to cover the graphite mold with rotation speed of above 500 rpm, the solidification has to start. Silicon sheets can be produced by using the centrifugal force under appropriate experimental conditions. The spin-cast sheet had a vertical columnar microstructure due to the normal heat extraction to the substrate, and the sheet lifetime varied from 0.1 microS to 0.3 microS measured by using the microwave photoconductance decay (MW-PCD) to confirm that the spin-cast silicon sheet is applicable to photovoltaics. PMID:23858887

  17. How metal ions affect amyloid formation: Cu2+- and Zn2+-sensitive peptides.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Kevin; Seri, Tomomi; von Berlepsch, Hans; Griebel, Jan; Kirmse, Reinhard; Böttcher, Christoph; Koksch, Beate

    2008-03-01

    The common feature of proteins involved in many neurodegenerative diseases is their ability to adopt at least two different stable conformations. The conformational transition that shifts the equilibrium from the functional, mostly partially alpha-helical structure, to the beta-sheet rich amyloid can be triggered by numerous factors, such as mutations in the primary structure or changes in the environment. We present a set of model peptides that, without changes in their primary structure, react in a predictable fashion in the presence of transition metal ions by adopting different conformations and aggregate morphologies. These de novo designed peptides strictly follow the characteristic heptad repeat of the alpha-helical coiled-coil structural motif. Furthermore, domains that favor beta-sheet formation have been incorporated to make the system prone to amyloid formation. As a third feature, histidine residues create sensitivity towards the presence of transition metal ions. CD spectroscopy, ThT fluorescence experiments, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize peptide conformation and aggregate morphology in the presence of Cu2+ and Zn2+. Furthermore, the binding geometry within peptide-Cu2+ complexes was characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:18232039

  18. Wrinkling of a Stretched Thin Sheet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Puntel; Luca Deseri; Eliot Fried

    2011-01-01

    When a thin rectangular sheet is clamped along two opposing edges and stretched, its inability to accommodate the Poisson\\u000a contraction near the clamps may lead to the formation of wrinkles with crests and troughs parallel to the axis of stretch.\\u000a A variational model for this phenomenon is proposed. The relevant energy functional includes bending and membranal contributions,\\u000a the latter depending

  19. The turn sequence directs beta-strand alignment in designed beta-hairpins.

    PubMed Central

    de Alba, E.; Rico, M.; Jiménez, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    A previous NMR investigation of model decapeptides with identical beta-strand sequences and different turn sequences demonstrated that, in these peptide systems, the turn residues played a more predominant role in defining the type of beta-hairpin adopted than cross-strand side-chain interactions. This result needed to be tested in longer beta-hairpin forming peptides, containing more potentially stabilizing cross-strand hydrogen bonds and side-chain interactions that might counterbalance the influence of the turn sequence. In that direction, we report here on the design and 1H NMR conformational study of three beta-hairpin forming pentadecapeptides. The design consists of adding two and three residues at the N- and C-termini, respectively, of the previously studied decapeptides. One of the designed pentadecapeptides includes a potentially stabilizing R-E salt bridge to investigate the influence of this interaction on beta-hairpin stability. We suggest that this peptide self-associates by forming intermolecular salt bridges. The other two pentadecapeptides behave as monomers. A conformational analysis of their 1H NMR spectra reveals that they adopt different types of beta-hairpin structure despite having identical strand sequences. Hence, the beta-turn sequence drives beta-hairpin formation in the investigated pentadecapeptides that adopt beta-hairpins that are longer than the average protein beta-hairpins. These results reinforce our previous suggestion concerning the key role played by the turn sequence in directing the kind of beta-hairpin formed by designed peptides. PMID:10595526

  20. 71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 3; DECEMBER 20, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET #21, Showing the house as restored since Survey. (Dormer windows omitted as not authentic) - Samuel des Marest House, River Road, New Milford, Bergen County, NJ

  2. Diversity of kinetic pathways in amyloid fibril formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellesia, Giovanni; Shea, Joan-Emma

    2009-09-01

    The kinetics of peptide oligomerization was investigated using Langevin Dynamics simulations and a coarse-grained peptide model. The simulations show a rich diversity of aggregation pathways, modulated by the ?-sheet propensity (flexibility) of the peptide. Aggregation into amyloidlike fibrils occurs via three main mechanisms: (i) formation of fibrils directly from the assembly of early ordered oligomers, (ii) fibril formation via the formation of on-pathway, nonfibrillar aggregates high in ?-sheet content, and (iii) formation of amorphous aggregates followed by reorganization to ?-sheet aggregates and to fibrils. ?-sheet, nonfibrillar aggregates also appeared as long-lived, "off-pathway" end-product species.

  3. Historic Sheet Music

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If you're looking for compelling sheet music from decades gone by, this website from the University of Oregon Libraries is just the ticket. Initially created to showcase sheet music from the Oregon Music Collection, their digitization work continues apace, and there are already over 650 pieces of sheet music available here. Visitors to the site can browse the collection by title, composer, or topic. Perhaps the most unique items here are those pieces composed by Oregonian women, such as Amy Beach, Marion Bauer, and Liza Lehmann. Not surprisingly, the collection is also strong in the area of Western Americana, as attested to by songs like "Broncho Buster", "Oh you round up, let 'er buck", and "The Gray Haired Pioneer".

  4. California Sheet Music Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duggan, Mary Kay

    With oversight provided by Professor Mary Kay Duggan of the University of California at Berkeley, the California Sheet Music Project provides online access to some 2000 pieces of sheet music published in California between 1852 and 1900. The project was funded by the U.S. Institute of Museum and Library Services, and also contains interesting ephemera ranging from a music publisher's catalog from 1872, advertisements, and photographs. The entire database may be searched or browsed by image subject (from the frontispiece of each composition) or by the subject addressed by each piece of music. Some of the songs included in the archive deal with beggars ("Just One Penny to Buy Bread," babies ("Baby's Asleep"), and politicians ("Horace Greeley's Grand March"). Finally the site also has several musical performances of pieces from the collection for the listening pleasure of those compelled to visit this interesting tribute to the sheet music of the Golden State.

  5. The Optimal Swimming Sheet

    E-print Network

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Propulsion at microscopic scales is often achieved through propagating traveling waves along hair-like organelles called flagella. Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model is frequently used to provide insight into problems of flagellar propulsion. We derive numerically the large-amplitude waveform of the two-dimensional swimming sheet that yields optimum hydrodynamic efficiency; the ratio of the squared swimming speed to the rate-of-working of the sheet against the fluid. Using the boundary element method, we show the optimal waveform is a front-back symmetric regularized cusp that is 25% more efficient than the optimal sine-wave. This optimal two-dimensional shape is smooth, qualitatively different from the kinked form of Lighthill's optimal three-dimensional flagellum, not predicted by small-amplitude theory, and different from the smooth circular-arc-like shape of active elastic filaments.

  6. Imperfect World of $\\beta\\beta$-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    E-print Network

    Pritychenko, B

    2015-01-01

    The precision of double-beta ($\\beta\\beta$) decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for $\\beta\\beta$-decay T$_{1/2}^{2\

  7. Substorm onset by plasma sheet divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Wang, C.-P.; Nagai, T.

    2003-12-01

    It is necessary to understand current wedge formation in order to understand the cause of the substorm expansion phase. In the companion paper we used Geotail spacecraft observations to show that the cross-tail current reduction within the inner-plasma-sheet current wedge results from a process that leads to a reduction in equatorial plasma pressure and a substantial reduction in flux tube ion content. Here we use the single-species continuity equation for plasma sheet particles to identify a plausible cause of these plasma reductions and thus for current wedge formation and the initiation of the substorm expansion phase. Specifically, we find that a convection reduction, which follows a growth phase period of enhanced convection, should cause a divergence of plasma sheet particles driven by diamagnetic drift that leads to flux tube content reduction. We find that the reduction in flux tube content should be longitudinally localized to the premidnight to midnight region where the current wedge has been observed to initially form and that the reduction must initiate within the region of the equatorial mapping of the Harang discontinuity, consistent with ionospheric observations of substorm onset. We also find that the reduction in flux tube content should initially develop slowly and then develop more rapidly as the current wedge forms. This is consistent with observations which show that expansion phase aurora, and thus also the current wedge, develops slowly for a few minutes before brightening rapidly, and it is as required if plasma sheet divergence driven by diamagnetic drift leads to current wedge formation and initiation of the substorm expansion phase.

  8. Double Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nanal, Vandana [Dept. of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2011-11-23

    At present, neutrinoless double beta decay is perhaps the only experiment that can tell us whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. Given the significance of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta}, there is a widespread interest for these rare event studies employing a variety of novel techniques. This paper describes the current status of DBD experiments. The Indian effort for an underground NDBD experiment at the upcoming INO laboratory is also presented.

  9. Dynamics of dikes versus cone sheets in volcanic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Olivier; Burchardt, Steffi; Hallot, Erwan; Mourgues, Régis; Bulois, Cédric

    2015-04-01

    Igneous sheet intrusions of various shapes, such as dikes and cone sheets, coexist as parts of complex volcanic plumbing systems likely fed by common sources. How they form is fundamental regarding volcanic hazards, but yet no dynamic model simulates and predicts satisfactorily their diversity. Here we present scaled laboratory experiments that reproduced dikes and cone sheets under controlled conditions (Galland et al., 2014). Our models show that their formation is governed by a dimensionless ratio (?1), which describes the shape of the magma source, and a dynamic dimensionless ratio (?2), which compares the viscous stresses in the flowing magma to the host-rock strength. Plotting our experiments against these two numbers results in a phase diagram evidencing a dike and a cone-sheet field, separated by a sharp transition that fits a power law. This result shows that dikes and cone sheets correspond to distinct physical regimes of magma emplacement in the crust. For a given host-rock strength, cone sheets preferentially form when the source is shallow, relative to its lateral extent, or when the magma influx velocity (or viscosity) is high. Conversely, dikes form when the source is deep compared to its size, or when magma influx rate (or viscosity) is low. Both dikes and cone sheets may form from the same source, the shift from one regime to the other being then controlled by magma dynamics, i.e., different values of ?2. The extrapolated empirical dike-to-cone sheet transition is in good agreement with the occurrence of dikes and cone sheets in various natural volcanic settings. Galland, O., Burchardt, S., Hallot, E., Mourgues, R., Bulois, C., 2014. Dynamics of dikes versus cone sheets in volcanic systems. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 2014JB011059, 10.1002/2014jb011059.

  10. Kepler Mission Fact Sheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 2-page color fact sheet briefly describes NASA's Kepler mission, its instruments, and ground system. Also included are tables listing the instrument parameters and the major institutions involved. Kepler is a spaceborne telescope specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to detect and characterize hundreds of Earth-size and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone. The habitable zone encompasses the distances from a star where liquid water can exist on a planet's surface. Note: The fact sheets states that the Kepler Telescope was launched in 2007 but did not launch until 2009.

  11. Differences in cytotoxicity of ?-sheet peptides originated from silk and amyloid ?.

    PubMed

    Numata, Keiji; Kaplan, David L

    2011-01-10

    The relationships between amino acid sequence, nano-assemblies, and cytotoxicity to neuron cytotoxicity were investigated using ?-sheet-forming peptides from Araneus ventricosus spider silk, and amyloid forming peptides A?(12-28) (?1), A?(28-42) (?2), and full-length A?(1-42). Although silk derived peptides formed nano-assemblies, nanofilaments, and nanofibrils with ?-sheet contents raging from 24 to 40%, they showed no significant cytotoxicity to neurons. In contrast, nano-assemblies and nanofibrils formed from A? peptides with high ?-sheet content demonstrated cytotoxicity to the neurons. These differences in cell response between the silk ?-sheets and A? peptides indicate that the general propensity to form beta sheets and form nanostructures is not sufficient to predict cytotoxicity, while surface charges of the assemblies are significant factors that impact cytotoxicity. PMID:20954203

  12. Role of acidity in hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde on platinum beta zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Lashdaf; Ville-Veikko Nieminen; Marja Tiitta; Tapani Venäläinen; Heidi Österholm; Outi Krause

    2004-01-01

    A series of platinum beta zeolites with different well-defined acid properties were tested in cinnamaldehyde hydrogenation. The acetal formation was found to be related to the amount of acid sites on the external surface of the zeolite. The acidity of the beta zeolite influenced the platinum dispersion, and the activity of the catalysts increased with total acidity of the beta

  13. US Geological Survey Fact Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheets Web site summarizes research and investigations done by the agency and provides details about particular activities. The sheets are organized by theme, including resources, hazards, environment, information management, by individual state, and by scientific discipline. The fact sheets give basic summations of the research and provide links to more detailed pages for those seeking further information.

  14. Cascading Style Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cascading style sheets allow for greater control over how a web document is presented, and this site can help interested users learn about them. W3C's CSS page offers even more information regarding CSS, it's history, and what's new. It also provides a listing of other related guides and tools.

  15. Insulation Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Heating and cooling account for 50-70% of the energy consumed in the average American home. Heating water accounts for another 20%. A poorly insulated home loses much of this energy, causing drafty rooms and high energy bills. This fact sheet discusses how to determine if your home needs more insulation, the additional thermal resistance (called…

  16. Materials Safety Data Sheets

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Materials Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) MSDS contain chemical hazard information about substances compounds and solvents. MSDS data can be accessed from the following URLs http://www.ehs.umass.edu/ http://www.chem.umass.edu/Safety the "Important Safety Sites for the University" link to reach a variety of safety related information, including

  17. Software Fact Sheet Description

    E-print Network

    Software Fact Sheet Description Display & Analysis Software Data Access Software www.unidata.ucar.edu/software data: McIDAS, GEMPAK, and the IDV. In an era of increasing data complexity, accessibility, and multidisciplinary integration, Unidata provides a rich set of software tools to access and visualize Earth

  18. Youth Demographics. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mark Hugo; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet compares the numbers of 18-25 year-old residents and citizens by gender, race, ethnicity, geographic distribution, marital status, military status, unemployment, educational attainment, and assesses population trends from 1968-2006. It explores such demographic characteristics of young people using data from the March Annual…

  19. Mineral Properties Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Hirsch

    These sheets are designed to give students a framework for making observations of minerals in hand specimen and (for selected minerals) in thin section. I place most of the emphasis on the distinguishing properties, rather than requiring an exhaustive list. Students use hand specimen observation, thin section observation (for selected minerals) and references to complete the forms.

  20. Relationship between beta-AP peptide aggregation and microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Casal, Carme; Serratosa, Joan; Tusell, Josep M

    2002-02-22

    We compared the relationship between the state of aggregation of two peptides (beta-AP 25-35 and beta-AP 1-42) and microglial activation. After 7 days at 37 degrees C beta-AP 25-35 was in an amorphous state and did not activate microglial cells. In the same conditions, aggregated beta-AP 1-42 activated these cells and caused changes in microglial ramification, increasing the proliferation index and inducing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) release. Neither peptide induced a release of nitric oxide (NO). As the toxicity of beta-AP peptides in cell culture is associated with the formation of amyloid fibrils, we also examined the toxicity of both peptides in microglial cell cultures and in PC 12 cell cultures. The results suggest that the two beta-AP fragments studied have similar neurotoxic effects but different pro-inflammatory activities. PMID:11844474

  1. Modeling the formation of secondary organic aerosol. 1. Application of theoretical principles to measurements obtained in the alpha-pinene/, beta-pinene/, sabinene/, delta3-carene/, and cyclohexane/ozone systems.

    PubMed

    Pankow, J F; Seinfeld, J H; Asher, W E; Erdakos, G B

    2001-03-15

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) forms in the atmosphere when volatile parent compounds are oxidized to form low-volatility products that condense to yield organic particulate matter (PM). Under conditions of intense photochemical smog, from 40 to 80% of the particulate organic carbon can be secondary in origin. Because describing multicomponent condensation requires a compound-by-compound identification and quantification of the condensable compounds, the complexity of ambient SOA has made it difficult to test the ability of existing gas/particle (G/P) partitioning theory to predict SOA formation in urban air. This paper examines that ability using G/P data from past laboratory chamber experiments carried out with five parent hydrocarbons (HCs) (four monoterpenes at 308 K and cyclohexene at 298 K) in which significant fractions (61-100%) of the total mass of SOA formed from those HCs were identified and quantified by compound. The model calculations were based on a matrix representation of the multicomponent, SOA G/P distribution process. The governing equations were solved by an iterative method. Input data forthe model included (i) deltaHC (microg m(-3)), the amount of reacted parent hydrocarbon; (ii) the alpha values that give the total concentration T (gas + particle phase, ng m(-3)) values for each product i according to Ti = 10(3) alphaideltaHC; (iii) estimates of the pure compound liquid vapor pressure pL(degrees) values (at the reaction temperature) for the products; and (iv) UNIFAC parameters for estimating activity coefficients in the SOA phase for the products as a function of SOA composition. The model predicts the total amount Mo (microg m(-3)) of organic aerosol that will form from the reaction of deltaHC, the total aerosol yield Y(= Mo/deltaHC), and the compound-by-compound yield values Yi. An impediment in applying the model is the lack of literature data on PL(degrees) values for the compounds of interest or even on pL(degrees) values for other, similarly low-volatility compounds. This was overcome in part by using the G/P data from the alpha-pinene and cyclohexene experiments to determine pL(degrees) values for use (along with a set of 14 other independent polar compounds) in calculating UNIFAC vapor pressure parameters that were, in turn, used to estimate all of the needed pL(degrees) values. The significant degree of resultant circularity in the calculations for alpha-pinene and cyclohexene helped lead to the good agreement that was found between the Yi values predicted by the model, and those measured experimentally for those two compounds. However, the model was also able to predict the aerosol yield values from beta-pinene, sabinene, and delta3-carene, for which there was significatly less circularity in the calculations, thereby providing evidence supporting the idea that given the correct input information, SOA formation can in fact be accurately modeled as a multicomponent condensation process. PMID:11347929

  2. Double beta decay experiments

    E-print Network

    A. S. Barabash

    2006-02-22

    The present status of double beta decay experiments are reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments, NEMO-3 and CUORICINO, are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments are considered. In these experiments sensitivity for the effective neutrino mass will be on the level of (0.1-0.01) eV.

  3. Beta Decay of Hyperons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Oehme; Roland Winston; Augusto Garcia

    1971-01-01

    The formulas for spin and angular correlations in hyperon beta decay are brought into forms which can give specific information about the character of possible deviations from the universal SU(3) scheme. The recent experimental results for Lambda-particle beta decay are discussed qualitatively in terms of the proposed combinations of integrated correlation coefficients.

  4. Double beta decay experiments

    E-print Network

    A. S. Barabash

    2011-07-28

    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  5. BETA GAUGE OPERATION MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual provides description and operating instructions for a redesigned Beta Gauge for measuring particles from vehicle exhaust. The improvements and a new control system including a control unit which is radically different from the prior unit, are described. Complete Beta ...

  6. Beta Coin Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Siegrist

    This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet illustrates Bayesian estimation of the probability of heads for a coin. The prior beta distribution, true probability of heads, and the sample size can be specified. The applet shows the posterior beta distribution.

  7. Zeolite Beta nanosized assemblies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Majano; S. Mintova; O. Ovsitser; B. Mihailova; T. Bein

    2005-01-01

    Nanosized zeolite Beta assemblies are prepared by a steam assisted conversion (SAC) method from micron-sized porous amorphous silica grains soaked in clear solutions containing the alumina source and organic template. The zeolite Beta assemblies are built of closely packed uniform nanocrystals (100nm) and retain the size and morphological features of the primary silica grains. The crystallinity and the phase purity

  8. Beta-Carotene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-carotene is a pigment that occurs naturally in many photosynthetic plants and organisms and one of the most abundant carotenoids found in human blood. The richest dietary sources of beta-carotene are yellow, orange, and leafy green fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes...

  9. Prediction of the final part properties in sheet metal forming by CNC-controlled stretch forming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Siegert; A. Rennet; K.-J. Fann

    1997-01-01

    By means of the finite element method (FEM) stimulation it was possible to predetermine the final properties of sheet metal parts which were formed with a CNC-controlled stretch forming machine. The CNC-controlled stretch forming machine allows the formation of convex shaped sheet metal parts with the help of six independent two axes grippers. In the sense of a real process

  10. Cleavage of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) precursor to produce active IL-1 beta by a conserved extracellular cysteine protease from Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, V; Majesky, M W; Li, L L; Black, R A; Musser, J M

    1993-01-01

    Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B), a conserved extracellular cysteine protease expressed by the human pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, was purified and shown to cleave inactive human interleukin 1 beta precursor (pIL-1 beta) to produce biologically active IL-1 beta. SPE B cleaves pIL-1 beta one residue amino-terminal to the site where a recently characterized endogenous human cysteine protease acts. IL-1 beta resulting from cleavage of pIL-1 beta by SPE B induced nitric oxide synthase activity in vascular smooth muscle cells and killed of the human melanoma A375 line. Two additional naturally occurring SPE B variants cleaved pIL-1 beta in a similar fashion. By demonstrating that SPE B catalyzes the formation of biologically active IL-1 beta from inactive pIL-1 beta, our data add a further dimension to an emerging theme in microbial pathogenesis that bacterial and viral virulence factors act directly on host cytokine pathways. The data also contribute to an enlarging literature demonstrating that microbial extracellular cysteine proteases are important in host-parasite interactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7689226

  11. Mammalian ciliary-body epithelial cells in culture produce transforming growth factor-beta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horst Helbig; Karen L. Kittredge; Miguel Coca-Prados; Janet Davis; Alan G. Palestine; Robert B. Nussenblatt

    1991-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has recently been found in the aqueous humor. The present study was initiated to test whether the ciliary-body epithelium, the site of aqueous humor formation, is capable of producing TGF-beta. Human, rat and bovine ciliary epithelial cells were grown in tissue culture and their supernatants were tested for TGF-beta using a bioassay. After acid activation of

  12. ISEE observations of the plasma sheet boundary, plasma sheet, and neutral sheet. I - Electric field, magnetic field, plasma, and ion composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattell, C. A.; Mozer, F. S.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Anderson, R. R.; Sharp, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The first simultaneous study of dc and ac electric and magnetic fields, E x B velocity, plasma flows, ratio of plasma to magnetic field pressure, total energy density, energetic particles, and ion composition from the ISEE satellites and ground and interplanetary magnetic fields has been made to determine (1) the relationship of the previously observed electric fields at the plasma sheet boundary and at the neutral sheet to plasma parameters, and (2) whether the phenomena occurring during quiet and active times were consistent with the formation of a near-earth neutral line during substorms or with the boundary layer model. Five observations made during the study of two substorms were seen to be in agreement with the neutral-line model. The observations are consistent with the satellite being located at varying distances from the neutral line and diffusion region where reconnection and plasma acceleration were occurring. Although the z component (into or out of the ecliptic plane) of E x B convection was generally toward the neutral sheet, there were examples when it was consistent with the inferred motion of the plasma sheet past the satellite. A synthesis of previous reports on large electric fields at the plasma sheet boundary and variable fields at the neutral sheet including the associated plasma flows is also described.

  13. One-way transparent sheets

    E-print Network

    Ra'di, Younes; Tretyakov, Sergei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of metasurfaces which are fully transparent when looking from one of the two sides of the sheet and have controllable functionalities for waves hitting the opposite side (one-way transparent sheets). We address the question on what functionalities are allowed, considering limitations due to reciprocity and passivity. In particular, we have found that it is possible to realize one-way transparent sheets which have the properties of a twist-polarizer in reflection or transmission when illuminated from the other side. Also one-way transparent sheets with controllable co-polarized reflection and transmission from the opposite side are feasible. We show that particular non-reciprocal magneto-electric coupling inside the sheet is necessary to realize lossless non-active transparent sheets. Furthermore, we derive the required polarizabilities of constituent dipole particles such that the layers composed of them form one-way transparent sheets. We conclude with design and simula...

  14. Amyloid beta binding proteins in vitro and in normal human cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Golabek, A; Marques, M A; Lalowski, M; Wisniewski, T

    1995-05-19

    A major neuropathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the deposition of amyloid beta (A beta) in the form of senile plaques. The A beta peptide exists both in a beta-pleated sheet fibrillar form in amyloid deposits and as a normal soluble protein in biological fluids. Numerous proteins have been identified immunohistochemically to be associated with senile plaques, where A beta is the major constituent. Some of the latter have also been suggested to be carriers of the normal soluble A beta (sA beta) including apolipoprotein J (apoJ), apolipoprotein E (apoE) and transthyretin (TTR). We have found, using several different methods, that numerous proteins can bind synthetic A beta peptides when high concentrations are used; however, using an affinity anti-sA beta column we confirm that apoJ is the major binding protein in pooled human cerebrospinal fluid. On the other hand it is known that apoE co-purifies with A beta biochemically extracted from senile plaques. In AD tissue there may be a change in the major apolipoprotein binding A beta from apoJ to apoE. PMID:7659297

  15. Hemoglobin-silver interaction and bioconjugate formation: a spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Mahato, Mrityunjoy; Pal, Prabir; Kamilya, Tapanendu; Sarkar, Ratan; Chaudhuri, Avinanda; Talapatra, G B

    2010-05-27

    In this article, we report the results of the extent of interaction as well as the formation of a bioconjugate of human hemoglobin (Hb) with silver (Ag). The complexation process and conformational changes are characterized using different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The UV-vis study demonstrates the perturbation of the soret/heme band and generates conformational heterogeneity within the heme group in the presence of silver. A fluorescence study suggests that the Tryptophan (Trp) residues of Hb are in a more polar environment after conjugation. Initial fluorescence enhancement with addition of silver is due to metal-enhanced fluorescence. Moreover, the fluorescence quenching after the formation of the Hb-Ag bioconjugate follows the modified Stern-Volmer (S-V) plot. The S-V plot along with the time-resolved fluorescence study indicates the presence of both static and dynamic types of quenching. In addition, the reduction potential values of the entities (Hb-heme, Ag(+), and Trp) indicate the possible electron transfer. The secondary structure calculation from CD and FTIR spectra indicate alpha-helix to beta-sheet conversion, and unfolding of Hb is also responsible for the bioconjugate formation. In addition, FE-SEM, phase contrast inverted microscopy (PCIM) images demonstrate the formation of the silver-protein bioconjugate. The overall data show that there is a change in the secondary as well as the tertiary structure of Hb after conjugation with silver. PMID:20433184

  16. Iron(II) binding by cereal beta-glucan.

    PubMed

    Faure, Audrey M; Koppenol, Willem H; Nyström, Laura

    2015-01-22

    Beta-glucan is a dietary fiber, which possesses several health benefits, such as cholesterol lowering, however this fiber is easily degraded in the presence of Fenton reagents. In the present study, the iron binding capacity of oat beta-glucan and barley beta-glucan was evaluated by investigating the kinetics of the Fenton reaction at pH 2.7 and 4.7 using stopped flow spectroscopy. The rate constant of the Fenton reaction is not affected by the presence of the beta-glucans in a solution pH 2.7, hence none of the beta-glucans bind iron(II) at this pH. However, at pH 4.7, the kinetics of the Fenton reaction vary between acetate buffer (k=2.8×10(2)M(-1)s(-1)), barley beta-glucan (k=2.2×10(2)M(-1)s(-1)) and oat beta-glucan (k=1.2×10(2)M(-1)s(-1)), which demonstrates that barley beta-glucan and oat beta-glucan form complexes with iron(II). Moreover, oat beta-glucan shows a stronger affinity for iron(II) than barley beta-glucan, and may thereby reduce the formation of hydroxyl radicals and diminish the rate of viscosity loss of the oat beta-glucan solution, as shown by the ESR and rheological data. The results presented in this study suggest that cereal beta-glucans can potentially reduce the bioavailability of iron. PMID:25439956

  17. Synchronization of flexible sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfring, Gwynn J.; Lauga, Eric

    2011-05-01

    When swimming in close proximity, some microorganisms such as spermatozoa synchronize their flagella. Previous work on swimming sheets showed that such synchronization requires a geometrical asymmetry in the flagellar waveforms. Here we inquire about a physical mechanism responsible for such symmetry-breaking in nature. Using a two-dimensional model, we demonstrate that flexible sheets with symmetric internal forcing, deform when interacting with each other via a thin fluid layer in such a way as to systematically break the overall waveform symmetry, thereby always evolving to an in-phase conformation where energy dissipation is minimized. This dynamics is shown to be mathematically equivalent to that obtained for prescribed waveforms in viscoelastic fluids, emphasizing the crucial role of elasticity in symmetry-breaking and synchronization.

  18. Temple Sheet Music Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-24

    Over the past few years, more and more university libraries have worked diligently to digitize some of their vast sheet music holdings. Old chestnuts are being revived by vocal groups on campus and farther afield, which is certainly a good thing. This sheet music collection from the Temple University Libraries brings together 850 pieces of music for consideration by the general public. Visitors can search the collection as they see fit. They will find that most of the music here is from the Gilded Age and earlier. There are a number of melodic tunes in here; visitors might do well to consider "Drifting Leaves" from 1905 or 1852's "Dreams of Home" as a way to get started on their journey. The site will be of great interest to musicologists and to anyone with an interest in the history of American popular song and musical heritage.

  19. Reduced immunogenicity of beta-lactoglobulin by conjugation with acidic oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Makoto; Miyakawa, Shunpei; Ohama, Yukie; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Tadashi; To-o, Kenji; Kuriki, Takashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2004-07-14

    Bovine beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) was conjugated with the acidic oligosaccharides, alginic acid oligosaccharide (ALGO) and phosphoryl oligosaccharides (POs) by the Maillard reaction to reduce the immunogenicity of beta-LG. The molar ratios of beta-LG to ALGO and POs in the conjugates were 1:6 and 1:8. The carbohydrate-binding sites in the beta-LG-ALGO conjugate were partially identified to be (60)Lys, (77)Lys, (100)Lys, (138)Lys, and (141)Lys. The isoelectric point of each conjugate was lower than that of beta-LG. CD spectra indicated that the secondary structure of beta-LG was almost maintained after conjugation. The results of fluorescence studies indicated that the conformation around Trp had not changed in each conjugate and that the surface of each conjugate was covered with a saccharide chain. Structural analyses with monoclonal antibodies indicated that the conformation around (8)Lys-(19)Trp (beta-sheet, random coil, short helix) in the conjugates had changed, whereas the native structure was maintained around (15)Val-(29)Ile (beta-sheet) and (125)Thr-(135)Lys (alpha-helix). The beta-LG-ALGO and beta-LG-POs conjugates maintained 77 and 70% of the retinol binding activity of beta-LG. Conjugation with ALGO and POs substantially enhanced the thermal stability of beta-LG. The anti-beta-LG antibody response was markedly reduced after immunization with both conjugates in BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H/He mice. B cell epitopes of beta-LG and the conjugate recognized in these mice were determined with 15-mer multipin peptides, and the linear epitope profiles of the conjugates were found to be similar to those of beta-LG, whereas the antibody response to each epitope was dramatically reduced. In particular, effective reduction of the antibody response was observed in the vicinity of the carbohydrate-binding sites. Conjugation of beta-LG with these acidic oligosaccharides was effective in reducing the immunogenicity of beta-LG. The conjugates obtained in this study are edible, so they would be very useful for food application. PMID:15237965

  20. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  1. Sheets by Patchy Particles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Zhang, Zhenli

    2005-01-31

    Simulation Software: Glotzer Group Code Simulation Method: Brownian Dynamics A system of 80 spherical particles with four patches in the equator of the sphere at a concentration of 0.20, was run starting at an effectively infinite temperature then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of 1.0. The final equillibrium structure is sheets with spheres packing in square lattices. Simulation Model: United Atom Rigid Body with Lennard-Jones

  2. Dodge Caravan fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NREL

    1999-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been directed to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. This fact sheet describes the test results on a pair of 1998 Dodge Grand Caravans: a flexible-fuel vehicle (FFVs) operating on E85 (85{percent} ethanol and 15{percent} gasoline) and the other on gasoline only.

  3. GMC Sierra fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NREL

    1999-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been directed to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. This fact sheet gives the results of tests performed on 1998 GM pickups (GMC Sierra): one bi-fuel CNG and a gasoline model as closely matched as possible.

  4. Silicon sheet surface studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danyluk, S.

    1985-06-01

    Results of the program are presented on developing an understanding of the basic mechanisms of abrasion and wear of silicon and on the nondestructive measurement of residual stresses in sheet silicon. Experiments were conducted at various temperatures and in the presence of various fluids. In abrasive wear, it was shown that dislocations, microtwins, and cracks are generated beneath the contact surface. Residual stresses in ribbon by the edge defined film growth process were measured by use of a shadow moire interferometry technique.

  5. Between the Sheets: Accounting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This guide from the British Website BizEd helps users understand the ways to use spreadsheets in accounting. The tutorial starts with general information: introductions for both students and teachers, a guide to downloadable spreadsheets, a guide to using spreadsheets, and a glossary of important terms. The guide offers a collection of spreadsheets that require Microsoft Excel 97. Also featured is an introduction to balance sheets and income statements, budgeting, and cost volume profit analysis.

  6. Kepler Mission Fact Sheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    This 2-page color fact sheet briefly describes NASA’s Kepler mission, its instruments, and ground system. Also included are tables listing the instrument parameters and the major institutions involved. Kepler is a spaceborne telescope specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to detect and characterize hundreds of Earth-size and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone. The habitable zone encompasses the distances from a star where liquid water can exist on a planet's surface.

  7. Newborn screening fact sheets.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Celia I; Accurso, Frank; La Franchi, Stephen; Lane, Peter A; Hope, Northrup; Sonya, Pang; G Bradley, Schaefer; Michele A, Lloyd-Puryear

    2006-09-01

    Newborn screening fact sheets were last revised in 1996 by the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Genetics. This revision was prompted by advances in the field since 1996, including technologic innovations, as well as greater appreciation of ethical issues such as those surrounding informed consent. The following disorders are discussed in this revision of the newborn screening fact sheets: biotinidase deficiency, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, congenital hearing loss, congenital hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis, galactosemia, homocystinuria, maple syrup urine disease, medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, phenylketonuria, sickle cell disease and other hemoglobinopathies, and tyrosinemia. A series of topics related to newborn screening is discussed in a companion publication to this electronic publication of the fact sheets (available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1304). These topics are newborn screening as a public health system; factors contributing to the need for review of the newborn screening system; informed consent; tandem mass spectrometry; DNA analysis in newborn screening; status of newborn screening in the United States; and the effect of sample timing, preterm birth, diet, transfusion, and total parenteral nutrition on newborn screening results. PMID:16950973

  8. Visualization of current sheet evolution in a pulsed plasma accelerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. Markusic; John W. Berkery; Edgar Y. Choueiri

    2005-01-01

    High-speed photography and magnetic field probes were used to visualize and study the formation and propagation of current sheets in a pulsed plasma accelerator. Magnetic field measurements complement photographic records, as the latter indicate the location of the plasma but not necessarily current, whereas magnetic field data provide an unambiguous picture of the current location, but do not directly yield

  9. Beta-carotene

    MedlinePLUS

    ... antioxidants such as vitamin A or vitamin E plus vitamin C doesn’t seem to reduce the ... concern that taking large amounts of a multivitamin plus a separate beta-carotene supplement increases the chance ...

  10. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    E-print Network

    K. Zuber

    2012-01-23

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations are presented as well as the current status of experiments. Finally an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  11. Beta vulgaris (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    Beta-carotene presence or absence in muskmelon is controlled by two genes, green flesh gf and white flesh wf. In its dominant form the wf gene is responsible for orange flesh color; however, the epistatic interactions of ...

  12. Beta Estimate Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Siegrist

    This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates a random sample from a beta distribution, and computes standard point estimates of the left and right parameters. The bias and mean square error are also computed.

  13. Wavefront shaping of a Bessel light field enhances light sheet microscopy with scattered light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nylk, J.; Mitchell, C.; Vettenburg, T.; Gunn-Moore, F. J.; Dholakia, K.

    2014-03-01

    Light sheet microscopy has seen a resurgence as it facilitates rapid, high contrast, volumetric imaging with minimal sample exposure. Initially developed for imaging scattered light, this application of light sheet microscopy has largely been overlooked but provides an endogenous contrast mechanism which can complement fluorescence imaging and requires very little or no modification to an existing light sheet fluorescence microscope. Fluorescence imaging and scattered light imaging differ in terms of image formation. In the former the detected light is incoherent and weak whereas in the latter the coherence properties of the illumination source, typically a laser, dictate the coherence of detected light, but both are dependent on the quality of the illuminating light sheet. Image formation in both schemes can be understood as the convolution of the light sheet with the specimen distribution. In this paper we explore wavefront shaping for the enhancement of light sheet microscopy with scattered light. We show experimental verification of this result, demonstrating the use of the propagation invariant Bessel beam to extend the field of view of a high resolution scattered light, light sheet microscope and its application to imaging of biological super-cellular structures with sub-cellular resolution. Additionally, complementary scattering and fluorescence imaging is used to characterize the enhancement, and to develop a deeper understanding of the differences of image formation between contrast mechanisms in light sheet microscopy.

  14. Asymmetric configurations of a thin current sheet with a constant normal magnetic field component

    SciTech Connect

    Mingalev, O. V.; Mingalev, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Polar Geophysics Institute, Kola Scientific Center (Russian Federation); Malova, Kh. V. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Zelenyi, L. M.; Artem'ev, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2009-01-15

    A possible mechanism for the formation of a quasi-equilibrium asymmetric current sheet in the magnetospheric tail due to the asymmetry of peripheral plasma sources is analyzed using a self-consistent particle- in-cell model of a thin collisionless current sheet with a constant normal magnetic field component. For the case in which the current sheet is produced by only one source, quasi-equilibrium sheet configurations with maximum possible asymmetry are obtained for different input parameters of the model. In such configurations, the equilibrium force balance is satisfied with high accuracy and the shape of the current density profile remains nearly symmetric, but the current sheet itself is slightly shifted from the source as compared to the symmetric case. The configurations obtained using numerical simulations are compared with those calculated using the previous analytical model of a thin current sheet. It is found that the results provided by these models agree well both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  15. The plasma sheet boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.; Peterson, W. K.; Lennartsson, W.

    1984-01-01

    A spatially distinct, temporally variable, transition region between the magnetotail lobes and the central plasma sheet designated the plasma sheet boundary layer has been identified from a survey of particle spectra and three-dimensional distributions as sampled by the ISEE 1 LEPEDEA. The instrumentation and data presentation are described, and the signatures of the magnetotail plasma regimes are presented and discussed for the central plasma sheet and lobe and the plasma sheet boundary layer. Comparisons of plasma parameters and distribution fucntions are made and the evolution of ion velocity distributions within the plasma sheet boundary layer is discussed. The spatial distribution of the plasma sheet boundary layer is considered and ion composition measurements are presented.

  16. High beta multipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, S C

    1982-05-01

    Multipoles are being employed as devices to study fusion issues and plasma phenomena at high values of beta (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) in a controlled manner. Due to their large volume, low magnetic field (low synchrotron radiation) region, they are also under consideration as potential steady state advanced fuel (low neutron yield) reactors. Present experiments are investigating neoclassical (bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter) currents and plasma stability at extremely high beta.

  17. Beta-thalassemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renzo Galanello; Raffaella Origa

    2010-01-01

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms

  18. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

  19. The beta cell immunopeptidome.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Nadine L; Purcell, Anthony W

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin-secreting beta cells, leading to beta cell loss and insulin deficiency. Presentation of peptides derived from beta cell proteins to autoreactive lymphocytes is critical for the development of disease, and the list of antigens recognized is increasing. A number of these proteins are found within the beta cell secretory granules, which are transiently exposed to the immune system during normal cellular function. How the interplay of environmental and genetic determinants culminates in destructive autoimmunity remains to be clearly defined. Nonconventional presentation of peptide ligands, posttranslational modification of peptides, and the role of the gut microbiome in the development of the immune system are all considered central topics in disease pathogenesis. Each of these may provide a mechanism by which presentation of antigenic peptides in the target tissue differs from presentation in the thymus, allowing autoreactive cells to escape tolerance induction. The high metabolic demand on pancreatic islets, the high concentration of granule proteins, and the susceptibility of islets to cellular stress may all contribute to the presentation of abnormal ligands in the pancreas. Moreover, the finding that small molecules can alter the repertoire of peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex molecules provides a tantalizing hypothesis for the presentation of autoantigenic peptides in the presence of microbial or endogenous metabolites. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the immunopeptidome of beta cells and the key factors that may influence presentation of beta cell antigens to the immune system. PMID:24559916

  20. Formation of current coils in geodynamo simulations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Akira Kageyama1

    This Nature article describes experiments used to simulate the formation of a geodynamo. Included figures show convection vorticity, simulated sheet plumes, magnetic field structure near the inner core, and modeled current coils with magnetic field lines.

  1. Characteristics of the aluminum alloy sheets for forming and application examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uema, Naoyuki; Asano, Mineo

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the characteristics and application examples of aluminum alloy sheets developed for automotive parts by Sumitomo Light Metal are described. For the automotive closure panels (ex., hood, back-door), an Al-Mg-Si alloy sheet having an excellent hemming performance was developed. The cause of the occurrence and the propagation of cracks by bending were considered to be the combined effect of the shear bands formed across several crystal grains and the micro-voids formed around the second phase particles. By reducing the shear band formation during bending by controlling the crystallographic texture, the Al-Mg-Si alloy sheets showed an excellent hemming performance. For the automotive outer panels (ex., roof, fender, trunk-lid), an Al-Mg alloy sheet, which has both a good hot blow formability and excellent surface appearance after hot blow forming was developed, and hot blow forming technology was put to practical use using this developed Al-Mg alloy sheet. For automotive heat insulators, a high ductile Al-Fe alloy sheet was developed. The heat insulator, which integrated several panels, was put into practical use using this developed Al-Fe alloy sheet. The textured sheet was often used as a heat insulator in order to reduce the thickness of the aluminum alloy sheet and obtain good press formability. The new textured sheet, which has both high rigidity and good press formability for heat insulators, was developed by FE analysis.

  2. Small-scale auroral current sheet structuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaston, C. C.; Seki, K.

    2010-11-01

    We simulate the 3-D evolution of a thin current sheet as it impinges on the ionosphere from a magnetospheric source in a manner analogous to that which may occur during the onset of an auroral substorm. We consider two scenarios: one in which electron inertia alone acts to allow motion between the plasma and the geomagnetic field, and a second where a resistive layer at the interface between the ionosphere and magnetosphere is included. These two scenarios in our fluid model are intended to represent what have become known as "Alfvénic" and "Quasi-static" or "Inverted-V" aurora, respectively. In the absence of resistivity the evolution is shown to be driven by a combination of Kelvin-Helmholtz and tearing instabilities leading to vortices similar to folds and the eventual break-up of the planar arc into distorted fine-scale sheets and filamentary currents. The later stage of this evolution is driven by an instability on the steep transverse current gradients created by the former instabilities. With a resistive layer present the K-H instability dominates leading to the formation of auroral curls. We show how these evolutionary processes can be ordered based on the ratio of the transverse electric and magnetic fields (?EX/?BY) across the current sheet relative to the Alfvén speed, and demonstrate how the evolution is dependent on wave reflection from the topside ionosphere.

  3. An improved method of preparing the amyloid beta-protein for fibrillogenesis and neurotoxicity experiments.

    PubMed

    Fezoui, Y; Hartley, D M; Harper, J D; Khurana, R; Walsh, D M; Condron, M M; Selkoe, D J; Lansbury, P T; Fink, A L; Teplow, D B

    2000-09-01

    Synthetic amyloid beta-protein (A beta) is used widely to study fibril formation and the physiologic effects of low molecular weight and fibrillar forms of the peptide on cells in culture or in experimental animals. Not infrequently, conflicting results have arisen in these studies, in part due to variation in the starting conformation and assembly state of A beta. To avoid these problems, we sought a simple, reliable means of preparing A beta for experimental use. We found that solvation of synthetic peptide with sodium hydroxide (A beta x NaOH), followed by lyophilization, produced stocks with superior solubility and fibrillogenesis characteristics. Solubilization of the pretreated material with neutral buffers resulted in a pH transition from approximately 10.5 to neutral, avoiding the isoelectric point of A beta (pI approximately 5.5), at which A beta precipitation and aggregation propensity are maximal. Relative to trifluoroacetate (A beta x TFA) or hydrochloric acid (A beta x HCl) salts of A beta, yields of "low molecular weight A beta" (monomers and/or dimers) were improved significantly by NaOH pretreatment. Time-dependent changes in circular dichroism spectra and Congo red dye-binding showed that A beta x NaOH formed fibrils more readily than did the other A beta preparations and that these fibrils were equally neurotoxic. NaOH pretreatment thus offers advantages for the preparation of A beta for biophysical and physiologic studies. PMID:11019857

  4. Windows Media Player 6.2 Beta

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With the Windows Media Player 6.2 Beta, Microsoft enters the high quality, compressed digital music fray. Not only does Microsoft's new media player support numerous media formats, but it also has several novel features. It supports the new MS Audio 4.0 format, which claims to provide MP3-quality sound at half the size of MP3 files, and it offers "intelligent streaming," which increases the probability of a smooth streamed media experience. Somewhat less wonderful for the end-user may be its support for the Windows Media Rights Manager, which provides piracy protection and license control. Though similar to RealPlayer, the Windows Media Player 6.2 Beta's interesting and unique features make it worth checking out. The player runs on Win95/98/NT and is free to download and use.

  5. A multiwire proportional chamber for precision studies of neutron beta decay angular correlations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Ito; R. Carr; B. W. Filippone; J. W. Martin; B. Plaster; G. Rybka; J. Yuan

    2007-01-01

    A new multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) was designed and constructed for precision studies of neutron beta decay angular correlations. Its design has several novel features, including the use of low pressure neopentane as the MWPC gas and an entrance window made of thin Mylar sheet reinforced with Kevlar fibers. In the initial off-line performance tests, the gas gain of neopentane

  6. The Greenland ice sheet and greenhouse warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huybrechts, Philippe; Letreguilly, Anne; Reeh, Niels

    1991-03-01

    Increased melting on glaciers and ice sheets and rising sea level are often mentioned as important aspects of the anticipated greenhouse warming of the earth's atmosphere. This paper deals with the sensitivity of Greenland's ice mass budget and presents a tentative projection of the Greenland component of future sea level rise for the next few hundred years. To do this, the 'Villach II temperature scenario' is prescribed,output from a comprehensive mass balance model is used to drive a high-resolution 3-D thermomechanic model of the ice sheet. The mass balance model consists of two parts: the accumulation part is based on presently observed values and is forced by changes in mean anr tempeerature. The ablation model is based on the degree-day method and accounts for daily and annual temperature cycle, a different degree-day factor for ice and snow melting and superimposed ice formation. Under present-day climatic conditions, the following total mass balance results (in ice equivalent per years): 599.3 × 10 9 m 3 of accumulation, 281.7 × 10 9m3 of runoff assuming a balanced budget, 317.6 × 10 9m 3 of iceberg calving. A 1K uniform warming is then calculated to increase the runoff by 119.5 × 10 9 m 3. Since accumulation also increases by 32 × 10 9 m 3, this leads to reduction of the total mass balance by 887.5 × 10 9 m 3 of ice, corresponding to a sea level rise of 0.22 mm/yr. For temperature increase larger than 2.7 K, runoff, exceeds accumulation, and if ice sheet dynamics were to remain unchanged, this would add an extra amount of 0.8 mmyr to the worl's oceans. Imposing the Villach II scenario (warming up to 4.23 K) and accumulating mass balance changes forward in time (static response) would then result in a global sea level rise of 7.1 cm by 2100 AD, but this figure may go up to as much as 40 cm per century in case the warming is doubled. In a subsequent dynamic model involving the ice flow, the ice sheet is found to produce a counteracting effect by dynamically producing steeper slopes at the margin, thereby reducing the area over which runoff can take place. This effect is particularly apparent in the northeastern part of the ice sheet, and is also more pronounced for the smaller temperature perturbations. Nevertheless, all these experiments certainly highlight the vulnerability of the Greenland ice sheet with respect to a climatic warming.

  7. A facile liquid phase exfoliation method to prepare graphene sheets with different sizes expandable graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Keqing; Shi, Yongqian [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Jiang, Saihua [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute of University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Song, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute of University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Gui, Zhou, E-mail: zgui@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This study presented a novel method for the production of high-quality graphene sheets through the exfoliation of Li-intercalated EG with sonication. • The quality of the graphene sheets produced from different sizes EG was compared for the first time and the formation mechanism was discussed. • The graphene sheets obtained from the small size EG have less layers than the large size EG. - Abstract: In this work, graphene sheets suspension were synthesized directly from expandable graphite (EG) via an intercalation and exfoliation pathway using n-butyl lithium as the intercalating agent, water and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as the exfoliating agent. The quality of the graphene sheets produced from different sizes EG was compared and the formation mechanism was discussed. The formation of the graphene sheets and its formation mechanism were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Raman spectroscopy measurement, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The graphene sheets obtained from the small size EG have less layers than the large size EG.

  8. Visco-resistive tearing in thin current sheets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velli, M. M. C.; Tenerani, A.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Pucci, F.

    2014-12-01

    How fast magnetic energy release is triggered and occurs in high Lundquist (S) and high Reynolds number ( R ) plasmas such as that of the solar corona is a fundamental problem for understanding phenomena ranging from coronal heating to flares and CMEs. Diffusion or collisional reconnection driven by macroscopic flows in quasi-steady Sweet-Parker (SP) current sheets are processes far too slow to fit observational data. Spontaneous reconnection, driven by the onset of the tearing instability inside current sheets, provides an alternative paradigm to SP reconnection. Nevertheless, as long as macroscopic current layers are considered, the growth of such an instability is also a slow process. Recently it has been shown that SP current sheets are rapidly unstable in high S plasmas, indeed have a growth rate diverging with increasing S. It has been suggested that such instabilities are triggered during the nonlinear stage of the primary tearing instability of a macroscopic layer. The formation of plasmoids in this presumed SP sheet speeds up the reconnection rate to ideal values. Recently, we have suggested that SP sheets can not be realized in quasi-ideal plasmas, and that the plasmoid instability is triggered on a much larger scale (i.e. with current sheets having a much larger ration of thickness to length than SP). Here we present a linear parametric study of the tearing instability for a Harris current sheet, while taking into account both viscosity and current sheets of variable aspect ratios. The present study shows that an explosive growth of the reconnection rate may be reached during the linear stage, once a critical width of the current layer is reached. In the absence of a strong guide field this depends on viscosity and a range of critical aspect ratios can be found for different values of S, R, or S and Prandtl number.

  9. 17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. 13. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of the Indiana State Highway Commission repair plans of 1969 for the Cicott Street Bridge. Photograph of a 24' by 36' print made from microfilm in the archives of the Indiana Department of Transportation in Indianapolis. - Cicott Street Bridge, Spanning Wabash River at State Road 25, Logansport, Cass County, IN

  11. 9. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of the State Highway Department of Indiana repair plans of 1957 for the Cicott Street Bridge. Photograph of a 24' by 36' print made from microfilm in the archives of the Indiana Department of Transportation in Indianapolis. - Cicott Street Bridge, Spanning Wabash River at State Road 25, Logansport, Cass County, IN

  12. 10. KIDNER BRIDGE STRUCTURAL STEEL DETAIL SHEET (original plan sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. KIDNER BRIDGE STRUCTURAL STEEL DETAIL SHEET (original plan sheet is in possession of Ball State University, Drawings and Documents Archive, COllege of Architecture and Planing, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, 47306 - Kidner Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River at County Road 700 South, Upland, Grant County, IN

  13. Synthesis and thermal stability of polycrystalline new divalent [beta][double prime]- and [beta]-ferrites prepared by ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Kalogirou, O. (Univ. of Hamburg (Germany) Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece))

    1993-02-01

    Using ion-exchange chemistry the divalent cations Ba[sup 2+], Sr[sup 2+], Ca[sup 2+], Mg[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+], Pb[sup 2+], Co[sup 2+], Zn[sup 2+], Mn[sup 2+], Fe[sup 2+], and Sn[sup 2+] have been substituted for K[sup +] in polycrystalline CdO-stabilized K-[beta][double prime]-ferrite samples. Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg, Pb, and Cd ion exchange led to the synthesis of new materials, the divalent M[sup 2+]-[beta][double prime]-ferrites (M = Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg) and M[sup 2+]-[beta]-ferrites (M = Cd, Pb), respectively. Co[sup 2+]-diffusion resulted in the formation of a spinel-type Co-ferrite. In the case of Zn, Mn, Fe, and Sn the samples decomposed to [alpha]-Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]. The thermal stability of the new divalent [beta][double prime]- and [beta]-ferrites was studied either by high-temperature exchange reactions or by air annealing of the exchanged products. Ba- and Sr-[beta][double prime]-ferrites and Pb-[beta]-ferrite converted to M-type hexagonal ferrites with the magnetoplumbite structure, Mg-[beta][double prime]-ferrite decomposed to a spinel-type Mg-ferrite, and Ca-[beta][double prime]-ferrite and Cd-[beta]-ferrite decomposed to [alpha]-Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]. Composition, lattice parameters, SEM photographs, and magnetic properties of the ferrites formed are given. The magnetic susceptibilities of the divalent [beta][double prime]- or [beta]-ferrites have values between 0.63 and 1.14 [times] 10[sup [minus]4] emu/g[center dot]Oe at room temperature. 41 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Prediction and Fourier-transform infrared-spectroscopy estimation of the secondary structure of a recombinant beta-glucosidase from Streptomyces sp. (ATCC 11238).

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Pons, J A; Padros, E; Querol, E

    1995-01-01

    The secondary structure of a recombinant beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) from Streptomyces sp. (ATCC 11238) has been predicted by computer algorithms and also estimated by Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy. From curve fitting of the deconvoluted IR spectra, the most probable distribution of the secondary-structural classes appears to be about 34% alpha-helix, 30% beta-sheet, 25% reverse turns and 11% non-ordered structures. These data showed a good agreement with data from computer prediction (35% alpha-helix, 23% beta-sheet, 31% reverse turns and 11% non-ordered structures). PMID:8948434

  15. Europa Fact Sheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Galileo spacecraft provided images of Europa, one of Jupiter's moons. The images showed signs of a possible ocean on the surface of the moon. NASA's Europa Fact Sheet provides information and images on this Jovian moon. This site covers one of the top ten scientific breakthroughs of 1997, compiled in the December 19, 1997 issue of Science. The top scientific breakthrough of 1997 was the cloning of a sheep, resulting in a lamb named Dolly. The nine runners up were: the Pathfinder mission to Mars, synchrotrons, biological clock genes, gamma ray bursts, Neandertal DNA, nanotubes, Europa's ocean, whole genome sequencing, and neurons.

  16. Balance-sheet trends

    E-print Network

    Cox, Gilford W

    1949-01-01

    operationss the legal capital at the end of the accasnt ing period~ followed by a subdivision of legal capital into the amount that is working capital and deferred cost to future operati"ns+ paten makes the following coueent concerning the above statements... compared to studies made try others a i'ew years ssrli. er, clearly india~tee the increasing use of ths eeaparative st~teaent? Cnly when uniform statements for a period of years are coogw'red can any paten, "Balance Sheet", Conte ors Account , Chapter 0...

  17. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePLUS

    ... DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | ... Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked ...

  18. Boosted Beta Regression

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Matthias; Wickler, Florian; Maloney, Kelly O.; Mitchell, Richard; Fenske, Nora; Mayr, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1). Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures. PMID:23626706

  19. Tracking debris disks within the Beta Pictoris Moving Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debes, J.

    2014-09-01

    Beta Pictoris represents a stunning example of a young planetary system with a debris disk, moving through local space with a host of other co-eval companion stars. These fellow travelers provide additional understanding for placing the Beta Pictoris disk into a proper context with regards to planet formation throughout the galaxy and our own Solar System. I will review the members of the Beta Pictoris moving group and catalog the latest results regarding the presence and understanding of debris disks around these other systems. Since these stars are close and very young, they represent an excellent opportunity for understanding the structure, composition, and grain properties of debris disks.

  20. Hierarchical structure formation of cylindrical brush polymer-surfactant complexes.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yang; Gunari, Nikhil; Zhang, Bin; Janshoff, Andreas; Schmidt, Manfred

    2009-06-01

    The complex formation of cylindrical brush polymers with poly(l-lysine) side chains (PLL) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) can induce a helical conformation of the cylindrical brush polymer in aqueous solution (Gunari, N.; Cong, Y.; Zhang, B.; Fischer, K.; Janshoff, A.; Schmidt, M. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2008, 29, 821-825). Herein, we have systematically investigated the influence of surfactant, salt, and pH on the supramolecular structure formation. The cylindrical brush polymers and their complexes with surfactants were directly visualized by atomic force microscopy in air and in aqueous solution. The alkyl chain length (measured by the carbon number, n) of the surfactant plays a key role. While helical structures were formed with n=10, 11, and 12, no helices were observed with n<10 and n>13. Addition of salt destroys the helical structures as do pH conditions below 4 and above 6, most probably because the polymer-surfactant complexes start to disintegrate. Circular dichroism was utilized to monitor the PLL side chain conformation and clearly revealed that beta-sheet formation of the side chains induces the helical conformation of the atactic main chain. PMID:19326944

  1. Electromechanical Resonators from Graphene Sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Scott Bunch; Arend M. Van der Zande; Scott S. Verbridge; Ian W. Frank; David M. Tanenbaum; Jeevak M. Parpia; Harold G. Craighead; Paul L. McEuen

    2007-01-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems were fabricated from single- and multilayer graphene sheets by mechanically exfoliating thin sheets from graphite over trenches in silicon oxide. Vibrations with fundamental resonant frequencies in the megahertz range are actuated either optically or electrically and detected optically by interferometry. We demonstrate room-temperature charge sensitivities down to 8 × 10–4 electrons per root hertz. The thinnest resonator consists

  2. Silicone Coating on Polyimide Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Silicone coatings applied to polyimide sheeting for variety of space-related applications. Coatings intended to protect flexible substrates of solar-cell blankets from degradation by oxygen atoms, electrons, plasmas, and ultraviolet light in low Earth orbit and outer space. Since coatings are flexible, generally useful in forming flexible laminates or protective layers on polyimide-sheet products.

  3. FACT SHEETS HIV and Pregnancy

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    FACT SHEETS HIV and Pregnancy HIV Testing and Pregnancy Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Anti-HIV Medications for Use in Pregnancy Safety of Anti-HIV Medications During Pregnancy Preventing Transmission and Pregnancy These fact sheets on HIV and pregnancy are intended for women infected with HIV who are pregnant

  4. Electromagnetically assisted sheet metal stamping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhui Shang; Glenn Daehn

    2011-01-01

    A new approach, electromagnetically assisted sheet metal stamping, has been developed to alter strain distribution and improve formability in sheet metal stamping. In this study, this new approach was applied to form a non-symmetric panel from Al 6111-T4. The results show that this new approach greatly increased the draw depth of the formed panel, compared with conventional stamping. A detailed

  5. Vertically scanned laser sheet microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Di; Arranz, Alicia; Zhu, Shouping; Yang, Yujie; Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Jun; Shen, Chen; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Laser sheet microscopy is a widely used imaging technique for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescence signal in fixed tissue or small organisms. In laser sheet microscopy, the stripe artifacts caused by high absorption or high scattering structures are very common, greatly affecting image quality. To solve this problem, we report here a two-step procedure which consists of continuously acquiring laser sheet images while vertically displacing the sample, and then using the variational stationary noise remover (VSNR) method to further reduce the remaining stripes. Images from a cleared murine colon acquired with a vertical scan are compared with common stitching procedures demonstrating that vertically scanned light sheet microscopy greatly improves the performance of current light sheet microscopy approaches without the need for complex changes to the imaging setup and allows imaging of elongated samples, extending the field of view in the vertical direction.

  6. Selective synthesis of SnO 2 hollow microspheres and nano-sheets via a hydrothermal route

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Li; YanQun Guo; RuiQin Tan; Ping Cui; Yong Li; WeiJie Song

    2010-01-01

    We report a mild template-free hydrothermal route for selective synthesis of SnO2 hollow microspheres and nano-sheets using SnCl2 and NaOH as initial materials. By switching the solvent from water to ethanol, the formed SnO2 nanostructures changed from nano-sheets to hollow microspheres. The obtained nano-sheets were single crystalline in structure.\\u000a On the basis of the characterization of intermediate products, the formation

  7. Relation between the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} and 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simkovic, Fedor [Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-12-16

    A formal relation between the GT part of the nuclear matrix elements M{sub GT}{sup 0{nu}} of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the closure matrix elements M{sub cl}{sup 2{nu}} of 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is established. This relation is based on the integral representation of these quantities in terms of their dependence on the distance r between the two nucleons undergoing transformation. We also discuss the difficulties in determining the correct values of the closure 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay matrix elements.

  8. Baculovirus-transduced, VEGF-expressing adipose-derived stem cell sheet for the treatment of myocardium infarction.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tsung-Szu; Fang, Yu-Hua Dean; Lu, Chia-Hsin; Chiu, Shao-Chieh; Yeh, Chia-Lin; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Parfyonova, Yelena; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Cell sheet technology has been widely employed for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), but cell sheet fabrication generally requires the use of thermo-responsive dishes. Here we developed a method for the preparation of adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) sheet that obviated the need of thermo-responsive dishes. This method only required the seeding of rabbit ASC onto 6-well plates at an appropriate cell density and culture in appropriate medium, and the cells were able to develop into ASC sheet in 2 days. The ASC sheet allowed for transduction with the hybrid baculovirus at efficiencies >97%, conferring robust and prolonged (>35 days) overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The ASC sheet was easily detached by brief (10 s) trypsinization and saline wash, while retaining the extracellular matrix and desired physical properties. The ASC sheet formation and VEGF expression promoted cell survival under hypoxia in vitro. Epicardial implantation of the VEGF-expressing ASC sheet to rabbit MI models reduced the infarct size and improved cardiac functions to non-diseased levels, as judged from the left ventrical ejection fraction/myocardial perfusion. The VEGF-expressing ASC sheet also effectively prevented myocardial wall thinning, suppressed myocardium fibrosis and enhanced blood vessel formation. These data implicated the potential of this method for the preparation of genetically engineered ASC sheet and future MI treatment. PMID:24120047

  9. Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Wind at Current Sheets Associated with Extremely Small Field Shear Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Phan, T. D.

    2012-12-01

    Using Wind 3-s plasma and magnetic field data, we have identified three reconnection exhausts within a large magnetic flux rope embedded within an interplanetary coronal mass ejection in the solar wind on 19 October 1998. These exhausts were associated with current sheets having local field shear angles ranging from 4.1 to 9.3 degrees, the smallest field shear angles (strongest guide fields) yet associated with identified reconnection exhausts in a space plasma. They were observed in plasma characterized by extremely low (<0.01) proton beta and very high (281 - 383 km/s) Alfvén speed. The very low external plasma beta in these events minimized the effect of diamagnetic drift of the X-line and thus allowed reconnection to occur in a sustained fashion. And, the very high external Alfvén speed translated into sufficiently fast (> 10 km/s) exhaust jets that could be adequately resolved by the Wind 3DP plasma experiment. Thin, very small field shear-angle current sheets are common in the solar wind, but typically are not associated with particularly low plasma beta or particularly high Alfvén speeds. On the other hand, small field shear angle current sheets must also be dominant in topologically complex environments such as the solar corona where the plasma beta is often less than 0.01 and the Alfvén speed is high. Our observations thus suggest that reconnection at thin, low field shear angle current sheets should commonly occur in the corona, and lend some credence to models that suggest that reconnection at low field shear angle current sheets contributes substantially to coronal heating.

  10. Polycrystalline Silicon Sheets for Solar Cells by the Improved Spinning Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maeda, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Hide, I.

    1984-01-01

    Cost reduction of silicon materials in the photovoltaic program of materials was examined. The current process of producing silicon sheets is based entirely on the conventional Czochralski ingot growth and wafering used in the semiconductor industry. The current technology cannot meet the cost reduction demands for producing low cost silicon sheets. Alternative sheet production processes such as unconventional crystallization are needed. The production of polycrystalline silicon sheets by unconventional ingot technology is the casting technique. Though large grain sheets were obtained by this technique, silicon ribbon growth overcomes deficiencies of the casting process by obtaining the sheet directly from the melt. The need to solve difficulties of growth stability and impurity effects are examined. The direct formation process of polycrystalline silicon sheets with large grain size, smooth surface, and sharp edges from the melt with a high growth rate which will yield low cost silicon sheets for solar cells and the photovoltaic characteristics associated with this type of sheet to include an EBIC study of the grain boundaries are described.

  11. Beta-Cryptoxanthin- and alpha-carotene-rich foods have greater apparent bioavailability than beta-carotene-rich foods in Western diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Beta-carotene (BC), beta-cryptoxanthin (CX) and alpha-carotene (AC) are common carotenoids that form vitamin A (VA). Conversion ratios for VA formation have been set at 12:1 for BC- and 24:1 for CX- and AC-rich foods, respectively. These conversion ratios are based on chemical structure...

  12. The current-voltage relationship in auroral current sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, D. R.; Gurnett, D. A.; Goertz, C. K.; Menietti, J. D.; Burch, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    The current-voltage relation within narrow auroral current sheets is examined through the use of high-resolution data from the high altitude Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite. The north-south perpendicular electric field and the east-west magnetic field are shown for three cases in which there are large amplitude, oppositely directed paired electric fields and narrow current sheets. These data are shown to indicate that there is a linear Ohm's law relationship between the current density and the parallel potential drop within the narrow current sheets. This linear relationship had previously been verified for large-scale auroral formations greater than 20 km wide at the ionosphere. The evidence shown here extends our knowledge down to the scale size of discrete auroral arcs.

  13. Beta particle spectrometer for measuring aggregate beta spectra following fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schier, W. A.; Campbell, J. M.; Couchell, G. P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H. V.; Pullen, D. J.; Seabury, E. H.; Tipnis, S. V.

    1998-02-01

    The beta spectrometer consists of a gated plastic scintillator suitable for measuring aggregate beta energy spectra following fission. This general utility spectrometer is very insensitive to the gamma rays accompanying the fission products, has good linearity, and adequate energy resolution for these continuous beta energy distributions. Response functions are measured below 1 MeV and trial sets of response functions are tested with known beta spectra extending to 5 MeV.

  14. Texture and sheet forming

    SciTech Connect

    Canova, G.R.; Kocks, U.F.; Fressengeas, C.; Dudzinski, D.; Lequeu, Ph.; Sornberger, G.

    1987-01-01

    The classical Marciniak-Kuczynski (Defect) theory, which consists in calculating the behavior of an initial defect in the sheet, in the form of a thin groove, is applied together with a full-constraints or relaxed-constraints theory of polycrystal viscoplasticity. Purpose of this is to investigate the effect of the induced texture on the Forming Limit Diagram (FLD), and the effect of grain shape as well. An alternative fast way of deriving FLD's is also proposed using a perturbation method. Comparisons are made between the results obtained by both Defect and Perturbation theories, in the case of ideal fcc rolling texture components, and in the case of polycrystals. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    E-print Network

    Petr Vogel

    2006-11-17

    The status of the search for neutrinoless double beta decay is reviewed. The effort to reach the sensitivity needed to cover the effective Majorana neutrino mass corresponding to the degenerate and inverted mass hierarchy is described. Various issues concerning the theory (and phenomenology) of the relation between the $0\

  17. Double Beta-Disintegration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Goeppert-Mayer

    1935-01-01

    From the Fermi theory of beta-disintegration the probability of simultaneous emission of two electrons (and two neutrinos) has been calculated. The result is that this process occurs sufficiently rarely to allow a half-life of over 1017 years for a nucleus, even if its isobar of atomic number different by 2 were more stable by 20 times the electron mass.

  18. GROSS BETA PHOTON CALCULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The program facilitates fast & easy calculation of total annual dose from beta and photon emitters in water from pCi/l or Bq/cubic meter measurements. GBPcalc compares the total dose per year to the 4 mrem established as an MCL in the Radionuclides section of the Safe Drinking W...

  19. ChemTeacher: Beta Decay

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Beta Decay page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery and applications of beta decay.

  20. Penguin Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flotsam and Jetsam: A Newsletter for Massachusetts Marine Educators, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents factual information on penguins using an outline format. Includes descriptions of physical characteristics, behavioral mechanisms, geographical distribution, and physiological processes. Provides separate bibliographies for teachers and students. (ML)

  1. Structural consequences of chromophore formation and exploration of conserved lid residues amongst naturally occurring fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Matthew H.; Li, Binsen; Shahid, Ramza; Peshkepija, Paola; Zimmer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Computational methods were used to generate the lowest energy conformations of the immature precyclized forms of the 28 naturally occurring GFP-like proteins deposited in the pdb. In all 28 GFP-like proteins, the beta-barrel contracts upon chromophore formation and becomes more rigid. Our prior analysis of over 260 distinct naturally occurring GFP-like proteins revealed that most of the conserved residues are located in the top and bottom of the barrel in the turns between the ?-sheets (Ong et al. 2011) [1]. Structural analyses, molecular dynamics simulations and the Anisotropic Network Model were used to explore the role of these conserved lid residues as possible folding nuclei. Our results are internally consistent and show that the conserved residues in the top and bottom lids undergo relatively less translational movement than other lid residues, and a number of these residues may play an important role as hinges or folding nuclei in the fluorescent proteins.

  2. Properties of the resistive instability in double current sheet systems with strong shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C.; Liu, Z. X.; Zhang, H.

    1998-11-01

    The resistive instability in double current sheet (DCS) systems with shear flows are explored by using a magnetohydrodynamic simulation method. The results showed that the linear growth rate of the antisymmetric and symmetric magnetic reconnection modes depend on the relative vicinity of the two current sheets. When the shear flows are strong and have velocities near or larger than the local Alfvén speed, the growth of the antisymmetric mode resistive instability in DCS systems is further increased. It is also found that the growth rate of the resistive instability decreases as the plasma beta increases.

  3. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA); Birmingham, Joseph G. (Richland, WA); McDonald, Carolyn Evans (Richland, WA); Kurath, Dean E. (Benton County, WA); Friedrich, Michele (Prosser, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  4. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

    1998-09-22

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

  5. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  6. Superfund fact sheet: The removal program. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes the Superfund Emergency Response Program, a program specifically designed to respond to multi-media hazardous materials accidents (e.g. illegal disposal or improper handling of materials, transportation accidents, chemical fires) that endanger people and/or the environment. Explanations of how the removal program works and how the affected communities are involved are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no scientific training.

  7. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  8. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond; Kunz, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. It is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods. These sheets are characterized by a discontinuity in the tangential magnetic field on either side of the sheet but no discontinuity in tangential electric field. This continuity, or single valued behavior of the electric field, allows the sheet current to be expressed in terms of an impedance multiplying this electric field.

  9. Current sheets at three-dimensional magnetic nulls: Effect of compressibility

    SciTech Connect

    Pontin, D. I.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Galsgaard, K. [Space Science Center and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The nature of current sheet formation in the vicinity of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic null points is investigated. The particular focus is upon the effect of the compressibility of the plasma on the qualitative and quantitative properties of the current sheet. An initially potential 3D null is subjected to shearing perturbations, as in a previous paper [Pontin et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 052106 (2007)]. It is found that as the incompressible limit is approached, the collapse of the null point is suppressed and an approximately planar current sheet aligned to the fan plane is present instead. This is the case regardless of whether the spine or fan of the null is sheared. Both the peak current and peak reconnection rate are reduced. The results have a bearing on previous analytical solutions for steady-state reconnection in incompressible plasmas, implying that fan current sheet solutions are dynamically accessible, while spine current sheet solutions are not.

  10. Engineering a beta-helical D,L-peptide for folding in polar media.

    PubMed

    Kulp, John L; Clark, Thomas D

    2009-11-01

    Beta helices--helices formed by alternating D,L-peptides and stabilized by beta-sheet hydrogen bonding--are found naturally in only a handful of highly hydrophobic peptides. This paper explores the scope of beta-helical structure by presenting the first design and biophysical characterization of a hydrophilic D,L-peptide, 1, that forms a beta helix in methanol. The design of 1 is based on the beta-hairpin/beta helix--a new supersecondary that had been characterized previously only for hydrophobic peptides in nonpolar solvents. Incorporating polar residues in 1 provided solubility in methanol, in which the peptide adopts the expected beta-hairpin/beta-helical structure, as evidenced by CD, analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC), NMR spectroscopy, and NMR-based structure calculations. Upon titration with water (at constant peptide concentration), the structure in methanol (1 m) transitions cooperatively to an extended conformation (1 w) resembling a cyclic beta-hairpin; observation of an isodichroic point in the solvent-dependent CD spectra indicates that this transition is a two-state process. In contrast, neither 1 m nor 1 w show cooperative thermal melting; instead, their structures appear intact at temperatures as high as 65 degrees C; this observation suggests that steric constraint is dominant in stabilizing these structures. Finally, the (1)H NMR C alphaH spectroscopic resonances of 1 m are downfield-shifted with respect to random-coil values, a hitherto unreported property for beta helices that appears to be a general feature of these structures. These results show for the first time that an appropriately designed beta-helical peptide can fold stably in a polar solvent; furthermore, the structural and spectroscopic data reported should prove useful in the future design and characterization of water-soluble beta helices. PMID:19784965

  11. Thymosin {beta}4 promotes the migration of endothelial cells without intracellular Ca{sup 2+} elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Selmi, Anna [Department of Molecular and Medical Biophysics, Medical University of Lodz, 92-215 Lodz (Poland)] [Department of Molecular and Medical Biophysics, Medical University of Lodz, 92-215 Lodz (Poland); Malinowski, Mariusz [Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lodz (Poland)] [Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lodz (Poland); Brutkowski, Wojciech [Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)] [Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Bednarek, Radoslaw [Department of Molecular and Medical Biophysics, Medical University of Lodz, 92-215 Lodz (Poland)] [Department of Molecular and Medical Biophysics, Medical University of Lodz, 92-215 Lodz (Poland); Cierniewski, Czeslaw S., E-mail: czeslaw.cierniewski@umed.lodz.pl [Department of Molecular and Medical Biophysics, Medical University of Lodz, 92-215 Lodz (Poland); Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lodz (Poland)

    2012-08-15

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the effects of T{beta}4 on cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation after exogenous treatment, but the mechanism by which T{beta}4 functions is still unclear. Previously, we demonstrated that incubation of endothelial cells with T{beta}4 induced synthesis and secretion of various proteins, including plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and matrix metaloproteinases. We also showed that T{beta}4 interacts with Ku80, which may operate as a novel receptor for T{beta}4 and mediates its intracellular activity. In this paper, we provide evidence that T{beta}4 induces cellular processes without changes in the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration. External treatment of HUVECs with T{beta}4 and its mutants deprived of the N-terminal tetrapeptide AcSDKP (T{beta}4{sub AcSDKPT/4A}) or the actin-binding sequence KLKKTET (T{beta}4{sub KLKKTET/7A}) resulted in enhanced cell migration and formation of tubular structures in Matrigel. Surprisingly, the increased cell motility caused by T{beta}4 was not associated with the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} elevation monitored with Fluo-4 NW or Fura-2 AM. Therefore, it is unlikely that externally added T{beta}4 induces HUVEC migration via the surface membrane receptors known to generate Ca{sup 2+} influx. Our data confirm the concept that externally added T{beta}4 must be internalized to induce intracellular mechanisms supporting endothelial cell migration.

  12. Measurements and Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Analytical Microscopy, Electro-Optical Characterization, Surface Analysis, and Cell and Module Performance.

  13. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing the overall capabilities of the NREL CSP Program: collector/receiver characterization, advanced reflector and absorber materials, thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids, and CSP modeling and analysis.

  14. Analysis of a Sheet Silicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, J. M.; Evans, S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student project in analytical chemistry using sheet silicates. Provides specific information regarding the use of phlogopite in an experiment to analyze samples for silicon, aluminum, magnesium, iron, potassium, and fluoride. (CS)

  15. A study on the computer-aided measuring integration system for the sheet metal stamping die

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen-Hua She; Chun-Cheng Chang; Yung-Chou Kao; Hsin-Yu Cheng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, based on the requirements of the design and manufacturing characteristics, a CAD-based CMM (coordinate measuring machine) software and analysis system for the sheet metal stamping die is developed. The system can analyze the NURBS die surface model in IGES format and generate the measuring program in DMIS format as well as the probe path simulation. Moreover, the

  16. Double beta decay: present status

    E-print Network

    A. S. Barabash

    2008-07-18

    The present status of double beta decay experiments (including the search for $2\\beta^{+}$, EC$\\beta^{+}$ and ECEC processes) are reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Average and recommended half-life values for two-neutrino double beta decay are presented. Conservative upper limits on effective Majorana neutrino mass and the coupling constant of the Majoron to the neutrino are established as $ beta decay experiments with a sensitivity for the $$ at the level of (0.01-0.1) eV are considered.

  17. Dynamic behavior of liquid sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the aerodynamic instability of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle. Detailed measurements of the frequency of oscillation of the liquid sheet have been made. The measured vibrational frequencies were then correlated with the resulting spray angle. It was shown that the liquid sheet oscillations are dynamically similar to that of hard spring systems. For each air pressure, three distinct modes of breakup are distinguished. At low liquid flow rates, both the sinusoidal and the dilational modes are superimposed on the liquid sheet. With a further increase in liquid flow rate, the liquid sheet oscillations mainly become of the dilational type. It was also shown that the effect of introducing air in the nozzle is similar to the effect of inducing forced vibrations on the nozzle jaws. Thus, for each air flow rate, there is a specific vibration frequency for the nozzle. The frequency of these vibrations is proportional to the air velocity. As the liquid sheet natural frequency approaches that of the nozzle, resonance is established. At resonance, the maximum spray angle is achieved.

  18. Polymeric Beta-Hydroxyalkanoates from Environmental Samples and Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Robert H.; White, David C.

    1983-01-01

    The procaryotic endogenous storage polymer known as poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate is actually a mixed polymer of short-chain beta-hydroxy fatty acids. A method for the quantitative recovery of this mixed polymer, called poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA), with analysis by capillary gas-liquid chromatography, showed the presence of at least 11 short-chain beta-hydroxy acids in polymers extracted from marine sediments. Polymers extracted from Bacillus megaterium monocultures were also a complex mixture of beta-hydroxy acids with chain lengths between four and eight carbons. Lyophilized sediments were extracted in a modified Soxhlet extractor, and the polymer was purified with ethanol and diethyl ether washes. The purified polymer was treated with ethanol-chloroform-hydrochloric acid (8.5:2.5:1) for 4 h at 100°C, a treatment which resulted in the formation of the ethyl esters of the constituent beta-hydroxy acids. Subsequent assay of the products by gas-liquid chromatography indicated excellent reproducibility and sensitivity (detection limit, 100 fmol). Disturbing sediments mechanically or adding natural chelators increased all major PHA components relative to the bacterial biomass. Gardening of sedimentary microbes by Clymenella sp., an annelid worm, induced decreases in PHA, with changes in the relative proportion of component beta-hydroxy acids. The concentration of PHA relative to the bacterial biomass can reflect the recent metabolic status of the microbiota. PMID:16346184

  19. Osteotropic beta-cyclodextrin for local bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Ming; Wiswall, Andrew T; Rutledge, John E; Akhter, Mohammed P; Cullen, Diane M; Reinhardt, Richard A; Wang, Dong

    2008-04-01

    An osteotropic alendronate-beta-cyclodextrin conjugate (ALN-beta-CD) was developed as a bone-targeting delivery system for improved treatment of skeletal diseases. The conjugate shows very strong binding to hydroxyapatite (HA, main component of the skeleton). Its ability in forming molecular inclusion complex with prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1), a potent bone anabolic agent) was confirmed by phase solubility experiments and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In a bilateral rat mandible model, ALN-beta-CD/PGE(1) molecular complex was shown to stimulate strong local bone anabolic reaction. In the control study, ALN-beta-CD itself was also found to be bone anabolic. To investigate this finding, other control groups were studied. The histomorphometry data suggest that ALN-beta-CD itself could generate more new bone at the injection site than its complex with PGE(1). Alendronate (ALN) injection could also cause new bone formation, which locates peripheral to the site of injection. PGE(1), saline or ethanol injections do not have anabolic effect. These findings were also confirmed by micro-CT evaluation of mandibular bones. It is clear that the bone anabolic effect of ALN-beta-CD is independent of mechanical stimuli of the periosteum or ALN injection alone. Further studies are warranted to understand the working mechanism of ALN-beta-CD as a bone anabolic agent. PMID:18199479

  20. Neutron beta decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Nico

    2009-01-01

    Studies of low-energy processes, such as neutron beta-decay, contribute important information regarding different aspects of physics including nuclear and particle physics and cosmology. The information from these systems is often complementary to that obtained from high-energy sources. Neutron decay is the most basic charged-current weak interaction in baryons. Precise measurement of the parameters characterizing it can be used to study

  1. Fuel Cells Fact Sheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This document provides a basic introduction to fuel cells: how they work, the different types of fuel cells (PEM, AFC, PAFC, DMFC, MCFC and SOFC) and the advantages and disadvantages of using fuel cells. Two useful graphic representations of fuel cells are also included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  2. On Coating Durability of Polymer Coated Sheet Metal under Plastic Deformation 

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan

    2011-08-08

    Page Table 1 Two types of Coated sheets ..................................................................... 34 Table 2 Initial Pull-off stress of coated-sheets ..................................................... 35 Table 3 Young?s modulus... the Venetian blinds manufacturers in the 1940s. Now, the coil coating process could reduce VOCs emissions and prevent the formation of hazardous wastes with its highly automated and continuous process [2, 3]. As shown in Figure 1, a typical coil coating line...

  3. A gridded electron gun for a sheet beam klystron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Read; G. Miram; R. L. Ives; V. Ivanov; A. Krasnykh

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we propose a gridded electron gun(dispenser-cathode gun) for sheet beam devices. The current generation of accelerators typically use klystrons with a cylindrical beam generated by a pierce-type electron gun. The gun design were used to determine the starting point for the electrodes to produce the compression. The use of grid was chosen for short pulse formation. The

  4. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 178

    SciTech Connect

    Achterberg, E.; Capurro, O.A.; Marti, G.V. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    The present revision of the nuclear structure properties for the nuclides belonging to the A = 178 mass chain contains many improvements and additions to the material presented in the previous evaluation (1994Br18, Nucl. Data Sheets 72, 221 (1994)). Besides updating many values, and including supplementary data for already known levels, transitions and level schemes, the most noteworthy modifications with respect to the prior evaluation are extensive additions to the level schemes of {sup 178}Yb, {sup 178}Hf, {sup 178}Ta, {sup 178}W. {sup 178}Ir, {sup 178}Pt and {sup 178}Hg, based on HI reaction works performed after the last cutoff date (July 1993), and to {sup 178}Hf due to new data from recent Coulomb excitation experiments. Light ion ({sup 3}He, {alpha}) beam experiments have added many data for {sup 178}Ta. Beta decay studies have also provided significant data for {sup 178}W and {sup 178}Pt. Lastly the first report of the identification of {sup 178}Tl and {sup 178}Pb is included.

  5. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-05-04

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points ({beta}*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of {beta}* value and {beta}-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for {beta}-waist location control.

  6. Assembly and aggregation properties of synthetic Alzheimer's A4/beta amyloid peptide analogs.

    PubMed

    Burdick, D; Soreghan, B; Kwon, M; Kosmoski, J; Knauer, M; Henschen, A; Yates, J; Cotman, C; Glabe, C

    1992-01-01

    The amyloid A4 or beta peptide is a major component of extracellular amyloid deposits that are a characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease. We synthesized a series of peptide analogs of the A4/beta peptide which are progressively longer at their carboxyl termini, including 42- and 39-residue peptides which represent the major forms of the A4/beta peptide in senile plaque and the hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis form, respectively. All peptides tested, beta 1-28 through beta 1-42, formed amyloid-like fibrils and previously unreported thin sheet-like structures which stained with thioflavin T and Congo Red. The solubility of beta 1-42 and shorter peptides was pH and concentration dependent, with a broad insolubility profile in the pH range of 3.5-6.5 and at concentrations above 0.75 mg/ml. Only peptides of 42 residues or longer were significantly insoluble at pH 7.4. beta 1-47 and beta 1-52 peptides are highly insoluble in aqueous media but are soluble at 40 mg/ml in the alpha helix-promoting solvent, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the beta 1-42 peptide migrates as a series of higher molecular mass aggregates whereas shorter peptides migrate as monomers. Aggregation is also dependent on pH, peptide concentration, and time of incubation in aqueous medium. These results indicate that the length of the hydrophobic carboxyl terminus of the A4/beta peptide is important in determining the solubility and aggregation properties of the A4/beta peptide and that acid pH environment, high peptide concentration, and long incubation time would be predicted to be important factors in promoting amyloid deposition. PMID:1730616

  7. The relationship between microstructure and fracture of titanium-aluminum-tin-zirconium-molybdenum-chromium-silicon sheet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terryl Anne Wallace

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the relationship between microstructure and fracture resistance of alpha\\/beta processed Ti-6-2222-0.15Si sheet over the projected use temperature range of -54°C to +175°C, focusing on the role of alpha2 precipitates in the fracture mechanisms. The work consisted of three parts; examining the relationship between heat treatment parameters and mechanical properties, determining the operative

  8. Refined crystal structure of human transforming growth factor beta 2 at 1.95 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Schlunegger, M P; Grütter, M G

    1993-05-20

    Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-beta 2), a homodimeric protein, is a member of a family of structurally related polypeptides that regulate various growth and differentiation processes in many cell types. The crystal structure of recombinant human TGF-beta 2 has been determined using a single heavy-atom derivative, anomalous scattering and by applying solvent flattening. The molecular model has been refined by a combination of simulated annealing and restrained least-squares refinement to a crystallographic R-factor of 0.194 including all data from 1.95 A to 8.0 A resolution. In the final structure, the root-mean-square deviation for bond lengths is 0.007 A and for bond angles 1.97 degrees. The final model includes 890 protein atoms (all 112 amino acid residues) as well as 84 water molecules. The new monomer fold consists of a separate alpha-helix and two pairs of antiparallel beta-sheet segments, which can be subdivided into nine individual beta-strands. The extended monomer lacks the typical hydrophobic core. A cluster of disulfide bridges, including the TGF-beta knot, connects the beta-strands with each other as well as the alpha-helix. Two monomers are covalently linked by a single disulfide bridge. In the dimer the alpha-helix of one subunit interacts with the beta-sheet of the other subunit forming two symmetrically related hydrophobic cores. The center of the dimer interaction is stabilized by a network of hydrogen bonds including several well-defined water molecules, which surround the central intersubunit disulfide bridge. The refined structure reveals the details of hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between intra- and intersubunit residues and allows the identification of possible receptor binding segments. PMID:8510156

  9. Altered metabolic and adhesive properties and increased tumorigenesis associated with increased expression of transforming growth factor beta 1

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a potent mediator of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix formation, depending on the cell type and the physiological conditions. TGF-beta is usually secreted in a "latent" complex that needs activation before it can exert its effects. Several observations correlate increased expression of TGF- beta 1 with tumorigenesis. To evaluate the physiological relevance of increased TGF-beta 1 synthesis in tumor cells we established cell clones overexpressing TGF-beta 1 and observed the resulting physiological changes in TGF-beta overproducing cells in vitro and in vivo. As a model system we used the human E1A-transformed 293 tumor cells, which are insensitive to the direct growth modulatory effects of TGF-beta. The selection of this cell line allows an assessment of physiological alterations independent of TGF-beta induced proliferative changes. The use of two TGF-beta 1 expression vectors containing either the natural or a modified TGF-beta 1 precursor cDNA permitted the establishment of separate 293 cell lines overexpressing latent or active TGF-beta. Comparison of the resulting changes in glycolytic rate, adhesiveness and integrin and plasminogen activator expression established that, in vitro, both types of clones behaved similarly, indicating that expression of latent TGF-beta induces autocrine changes in the tumor cells and thus suggesting that some level of cell- associated activation occurs. TGF-beta overexpression resulted in an increased metabolic rate due to enhanced glycolysis, a property long associated with tumor cells. This increased glycolysis was not associated with altered proliferation. Cells overexpressing TGF-beta also displayed enhanced fibronectin mRNA and plasminogen activator synthesis and increased adhesiveness in vitro. They showed enhanced survival when plated sparsely on plastic in the absence of serum, and attached more readily to laminin. In addition, synthesis of several beta 1 integrins, in particular the alpha 1/beta 1, alpha 2/beta 1, and alpha 3/beta 1, all of which recognize laminin, were enhanced. Finally, cells overexpressing active TGF-beta, but not latent TGF-beta, also showed increased tumorigenicity in nude mice. Thus, an increase in endogenous TGF-beta synthesis confers several proliferation-independent phenotypic changes which may be of significance for the survival of the tumor cell inoculum or its subsequent growth, and for tumor formation and development. In the case of cells expressing active TGF-beta, the release of active TGF-beta into the vicinity of the tumor cells may also result in a more hospitable environment for tumor growth. PMID:1639853

  10. Toxicological Profile Information Sheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is continually assembling toxicological profiles for hazardous substances. This site contains 256 online profiles listed alphabetically by chemical name. Each profile begins with a non-technical public health statement discussing the chemical, its environmental and health effects, and risk of human exposure. A more technical version of this information can also be downloaded in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format.

  11. Inhibition of {beta}-catenin-mediated transactivation by flavanone in AGS gastric cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Chi Hoon [Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hahm, Eun Ryeong [Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Hyung [Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung Chae [Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Chul Hak [Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: chulyang@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2005-06-17

    Recently, data which prove that Wnt pathway activation may be an early event in multistep carcinogenesis in the stomach have been accumulating. We examined the effect of flavanone against {beta}-catenin/Tcf signaling in AGS gastric cancer cells. Reporter gene assay showed that flavanone inhibited {beta}-catenin/Tcf signaling efficiently. In addition, the inhibition of {beta}-catenin/Tcf signaling by flavanone in HEK293 cells transiently transfected with constitutively mutant {beta}-catenin gene, whose product is not phosphorylated by GSK3{beta}, indicates that its inhibitory mechanism was related to {beta}-catenin itself or downstream components. To investigate the precise inhibitory mechanism, we performed immunofluorescence, Western blot, and EMSA. As a result, our data revealed that there is no change of {beta}-catenin distribution and of nuclear {beta}-catenin levels through flavanone. In addition, the binding of Tcf complexes to DNA is not influenced by flavanone. The {beta}-catenin/Tcf transcriptional target gene cyclinD1 was downregulated by flavanone. These data suggest that flavanone inhibits the transcription of {beta}-catenin/Tcf responsive genes, by modulating Tcf activity without disrupting {beta}-catenin/Tcf complex formation.

  12. Solubility of Mg-containing beta-tricalcium phosphate at 25 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu; Wang, Xiupeng; LeGeros, R Z

    2009-01-01

    The equilibrium solubility of Mg-containing beta-tricalcium phosphate (betaMgTCP) with various magnesium contents was determined by immersing betaMgTCP powder for 27 months in a CH(3)COOH-CH(3)COONa buffer solution at 25 degrees C under a nitrogen gas atmosphere. The negative logarithm of the solubility product (pK(sp)) of betaMgTCP was expressed as pK(sp)=28.87432+1.40348C-0.3163C(2)+0.04218C(3)-0.00275C(4)+0.0000681659C(5), where C is the magnesium content in betaMgTCP (mol.%). The solubility of betaMgTCP decreased with increasing magnesium content owing to the increased structural stability and possible formation of a whitlockite-type phase on the surface. As a result, betaMgTCP with 10.1 mol.% magnesium had a lower solubility than that of hydroxyapatite below pH 6.0. betaMgTCP was found to be more soluble than zinc-containing beta-tricalcium phosphate given the same molar content of zinc or magnesium. The solubility of betaMgTCP and release rate of magnesium from betaMgTCP can be controlled by adjusting the Mg content by selecting the appropriate pK(sp). PMID:18644755

  13. Fabrication of a Large Hydroxyapatite Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusunoki, Masanobu; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Taiyo; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Hayami, Takashi; Hontsu, Shigeki

    2010-10-01

    A large hydroxyapatite (HA) sheet of 50 mm diameter was constructed using a new fabrication process. The HA sheet was prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and then separated from the substrate. An intermediate layer of spin-coated photoresist between the PLD film and the substrate was dissolved in acetone to enable the separation. Sufficient crystallinity was obtained after postannealing. The area of the HA sheet prepared by the proposed process was approximately 20 times larger than that of the HA sheet prepared by the previous process. The proposed process can also be used for larger sheets. The HA sheet has promise in medical and dental applications.

  14. TGF-{beta} receptors, in a Smad-independent manner, are required for terminal skeletal muscle differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Droguett, Rebeca; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Santander, Cristian [Centro de Regulacion Celular y Patologia, Centro de Regeneracion y Envejecimiento (CARE), Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, MIFAB, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)] [Centro de Regulacion Celular y Patologia, Centro de Regeneracion y Envejecimiento (CARE), Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, MIFAB, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Brandan, Enrique, E-mail: ebrandan@bio.puc.cl [Centro de Regulacion Celular y Patologia, Centro de Regeneracion y Envejecimiento (CARE), Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, MIFAB, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)] [Centro de Regulacion Celular y Patologia, Centro de Regeneracion y Envejecimiento (CARE), Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, MIFAB, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-09-10

    Skeletal muscle differentiation is strongly inhibited by transforming growth factor type {beta} (TGF-{beta}), although muscle formation as well as regeneration normally occurs in an environment rich in this growth factor. In this study, we evaluated the role of intracellular regulatory Smads proteins as well as TGF-{beta}-receptors (TGF-{beta}-Rs) during skeletal muscle differentiation. We found a decrease of TGF-{beta} signaling during differentiation. This phenomenon is explained by a decline in the levels of the regulatory proteins Smad-2, -3, and -4, a decrease in the phosphorylation of Smad-2 and lost of nuclear translocation of Smad-3 and -4 in response to TGF-{beta}. No change in the levels and inhibitory function of Smad-7 was observed. In contrast, we found that TGF-{beta}-R type I (TGF-{beta}-RI) and type II (TGF-{beta}-RII) increased on the cell surface during skeletal muscle differentiation. To analyze the direct role of the serine/threonine kinase activities of TGF-{beta}-Rs, we used the specific inhibitor SB 431542 and the dominant-negative form of TGF-{beta}-RII lacking the cytoplasmic domain. The TGF-{beta}-Rs were important for successful muscle formation, determined by the induction of myogenin, creatine kinase activity, and myosin. Silencing of Smad-2/3 expression by specific siRNA treatments accelerated myogenin, myosin expression, and myotube formation; although when SB 431542 was present inhibition in myosin induction and myotube formation was observed, suggesting that these last steps of skeletal muscle differentiation require active TGF-{beta}-Rs. These results suggest that both down-regulation of Smad regulatory proteins and cell signaling through the TGF-{beta} receptors independent of Smad proteins are essential for skeletal muscle differentiation.

  15. Is the beta phase maximal?

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrandis, Javier; Ferrandis, Javier

    2005-04-20

    indicates that 2|Vub / Vcb/ Vus| = (1-z) with z given by z = 0.19 +(-) 0.14. This fact implies that irrespective of the form of the quark Yukawa matrices, the measured value of the SM CP phase beta is approximately the maximum allowed by the measured absolute values of the CKM elements. This is beta = pi/6 - z/sqrt{3} for gamma = pi/3 + z/sqrt{3}, which implies alpha = pi/2. Alternatively, assuming that beta is exactly maximal and using the experimental measurement, sin(2beta) = 0.726+(-) 0.037, the phase gamma is predicted to be gamma = pi/2 - beta = 66.3 +(-) 1.7. The maximality of beta, if confirmed by the near-future experiments, may give us some clues as to the origin of CP violation.

  16. Preparation and spectral investigation on inclusion complex of beta-cyclodextrin with rutin.

    PubMed

    Haiyun, Ding; Jianbin, Chao; Guomei, Zhang; Shaomin, Shuang; Jinhao, Pan

    2003-12-01

    Solid inclusion complex of rutin with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) was prepared by coprecipitate method. The formation of inclusion complex was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction. The formation constant was obtained by steady-state fluorescence measurements and the result suggested the complex preferred 1:1 (rutin:CD) stoichiometry. Furthermore, the spatial configuration of the complex has been proposed based on NMR and molecular modeling. PMID:14607238

  17. IGF-1-dependent subunit communication of the IGF-1 holoreceptor: Interactions between. alpha. beta. heterodimeric receptor halves

    SciTech Connect

    Wilden, P.A.; Treadway, J.L.; Morrison, B.D.; Pessin, J.E. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

    1989-12-12

    Examination of {sup 125}I-IGF-1 affinity cross-linking and {beta}-subunit autophosphorylation has indicated that IGF-1 induces a covalent association of isolated {alpha}{beta} heterodimeric IGF-1 receptors into an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetrameric state, in a similar manner to that observed for the insulin receptor. The formation of the {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetrameric IGF-1 receptor complex from the partially purified {alpha}{beta} heterodimers was time dependent with half-maximal formation in approximately 30 min at saturating IGF-1 concentrations. The IGF-1-dependent association of the partially purified {alpha}{beta} heterodimers into an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetrameric state was specific for the IGF-1 receptors since IGF-1 was unable to stimulate the protein kinase activity of the purified {alpha}{beta} heterodimeric insulin receptor complex. Incubation of the {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetrameric IGF-1 holoreceptor with the specific sulfhydryl agent iodoacetamide (IAN) did not alter {sup 125}I-IGF-1 binding or IGF-1 stimulation of protein kinase activity. However, IAN treatment of the {alpha}{beta} heterodimeric IGF-1 receptors inhibited the IGF-1 dependent covalent formation of the disulfide-linked {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetrameric complex. These data indicate that IGF-1 induces the covalent association of isolated {alpha}{beta} heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complexes into a disulfide-linked {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetrameric state whereas Mn/MgATP induces a noncovalent association. Therefore, unlike the insulin receptor in which noncovalent association is sufficient for kinase activation, only the covalent assembly of the IGF-1 receptor {alpha}{beta} heterodimers into the {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetrameric holoreceptor complex is associated with ligand-stimulated protein kinase activation.

  18. Neutron Induced Beta Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, A. M.; Shylaja, D. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-07-15

    In the present paper we give a new methodology named, 'neutron induced beta radiography-NIBR' which makes use of neutron activated Dy or In foils as source of (3-radiation. Radiographs are obtained with an aluminium cassette containing image plate, a sample under inspection and the activated Dy or In foil kept in tight contact. The sensitivity of the technique to thickness was evaluated for different materials in the form of step wedges. Some radiographs are presented to demonstrate potential of method to inspect thin samples.

  19. Inflated Beta Distributions

    E-print Network

    Ospina, Raydonal

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the issue of modeling fractional data observed in the interval [0,1), (0,1] or [0,1]. Mixed continuous-discrete distributions are proposed. The beta distribution is used to describe the continuous component of the model since its density can have quite diferent shapes depending on the values of the two parameters that index the distribution. Properties of the proposed distributions are examined. Also, maximum likelihood and method of moments estimation is discussed. Finally, practical applications that employ real data are presented.

  20. Dependence of reconnection rate on plasma beta for magnetopause reconnection events observed by the Polar satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, D.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Mozer, F.; Ribeiro, B. A.; Cardoso, F. R.; Silveira, M. V.

    2012-12-01

    We present a study of reconnection rate dependence on plasma beta values evaluated at the earth's magnetopause using data observed by the Polar satellite during some magnetopause crossings. These events have large plasma outflow velocity values (> 300 km/s) among those reported by Mozer and Hull (2010). Here, the reconnection rate is calculated as the ratio between the normal component of the magnetic field (BN) in the current sheet and the north-south component (BL) of the magnetosheath magnetic field. A discussion about the variability of this reconnection rate/plasma beta dependence will be given in association with slow and fast reconnection models.

  1. Diffuse Ionized Gas Toward Beta Canis Majoris

    E-print Network

    O. Dupin; C. Gry

    1998-06-12

    This paper presents the study of the interstellar medium toward beta CMa, a disk sight-line known for its low neutral gas density. This study uses high and medium resolution HST-GHRS spectra including lines from many species. The line of sight to beta CMa (153 pc) is dominated by two ionized regions with a velocity difference of 10 km/s. Their gas-phase abundances indicate that their depletion is low, especially for the more ionized of the two clouds. Special models of photoionization by the two EUV-excess stars beta CMa and epsilon CMa would be needed for a detailed discussion of the ionizing mechanisms of the clouds ; their ionization ratios are nevertheless roughly compatible with collisional ionization at temperatures around 20 000 K, substantially higher than the kinetic temperatures derived from the line widths. Their characteristics suggest that the clouds may be in the process of cooling down and recombining after having been shocked and ionized by some violent events, possibly related to the Local Bubble formation.

  2. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. C.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the charge conjugation nature and the absolute mass scale of neutrinos will lead to valuable insights into physics beyond the Standard Model. Both of these aspects can be probed by the observation of neutrinoless double beta decay. The experimental search for neutrinoless double beta decay is thus an important, next step in neutrino physics. Several experiments have recently started taking data and several more are under construction. The sensitivity of upcoming double beta decay experiments will begin to probe neutrino masses as would be suggested by the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. A summary of the capabilities and status of several double beta decay experiments was presented at NuPhys 2013.

  3. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G. (Stansbury Park, UT); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Wilsonville, OR); Van Voris, Peter (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  4. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    DOEpatents

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1993-01-26

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  5. Urban Institute:Fact Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Urban Institute produces dozens of timely policy papers and fact sheets that are read widely by policy folks, journalists, and those with a passion for major metropolitan areas. This nice nook of their site provides access to well over 100 of their fact sheets. The topics covered here include housing finance, economic insecurity, Social Security, and the labor force. Visitors can browse through a complete list of all the topics on the left-hand side of the page. The site also contains links to relevant full-length policy reports and a mix of other related links from various policy centers within the Institute. Additionally, users can take advantage of the "Press Room" area which contains additional information on each fact sheet and topical area.

  6. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of a dry to wet eolian depositional system, Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Grotzinger; R. E. Arvidson; J. F. Bell III; W. Calvin; B. C. Clark; D. A. Fike; M. Golombek; R. Greeley; A. Haldemann; K. E. Herkenhoff; B. L. Jolliff; A. H. Knoll; M. Malin; S. M. McLennan; T. Parker; L. Soderblom; J. N. Sohl-Dickstein; S. W. Squyres; N. J. Tosca; W. A. Watters

    2005-01-01

    Outcrop exposures of sedimentary rocks at the Opportunity landing site (Meridiani Planum) form a set of genetically related strata defined here informally as the Burns formation. This formation can be subdivided into lower, middle, and upper units which, respectively, represent eolian dune, eolian sand sheet, and mixed eolian sand sheet and interdune facies associations. Collectively, these three units are at

  7. Sheet Bending using Soft Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinke, J.

    2011-05-01

    Sheet bending is usually performed by air bending and V-die bending processes. Both processes apply rigid tools. These solid tools facilitate the generation of software for the numerical control of those processes. When the lower rigid die is replaced with a soft or rubber tool, the numerical control becomes much more difficult, since the soft tool deforms too. Compared to other bending processes the rubber backed bending process has some distinct advantages, like large radius-to-thickness ratios, applicability to materials with topcoats, well defined radii, and the feasibility of forming details (ridges, beads). These advantages may give the process exclusive benefits over conventional bending processes, not only for industries related to mechanical engineering and sheet metal forming, but also for other disciplines like Architecture and Industrial Design The largest disadvantage is that also the soft (rubber) tool deforms. Although the tool deformation is elastic and recovers after each process cycle, the applied force during bending is related to the deformation of the metal sheet and the deformation of the rubber. The deformation of the rubber interacts with the process but also with sheet parameters. This makes the numerical control of the process much more complicated. This paper presents a model for the bending of sheet materials using a rubber lower die. This model can be implemented in software in order to control the bending process numerically. The model itself is based on numerical and experimental research. In this research a number of variables related to the tooling and the material have been evaluated. The numerical part of the research was used to investigate the influence of the features of the soft lower tool, like the hardness and dimensions, and the influence of the sheet thickness, which also interacts with the soft tool deformation. The experimental research was focused on the relation between the machine control parameters and the most dominant output parameter, the product angle. The numerical analyses are used for the support of the experimental results.

  8. Formation of an adduct by clenbuterol, a beta-adrenoceptor agonist drug, and serum albumin in human saliva at the acidic pH of the stomach: evidence for an aryl radical-based process.

    PubMed

    Pietraforte, D; Brambilla, G; Camerini, S; Scorza, G; Peri, L; Loizzo, A; Crescenzi, M; Minetti, M

    2008-07-15

    Clenbuterol (CLB) is an antiasthmatic drug used also illegally as a lean muscle mass enhancer in both humans and animals. CLB and amine-related drugs in general are nitrosatable, thus raising concerns regarding possible genotoxic/carcinogenic activity. Oral administration of CLB raises the issue of its possible transformation by salivary nitrite at the acidic pH of gastric juice. In acidic human saliva CLB was rapidly transformed to the CLB arenediazonium ion. This suggests a reaction of CLB with salivary nitrite, as confirmed in aerobic HNO(2) solution by a drastic decrease in nitric oxide, nitrite, and nitrate. In human saliva, both glutathione and ascorbic acid were able to inhibit CLB arenediazonium formation and to react with preformed CLB arenediazonium. The effect of ascorbic acid is particularly pertinent because this vitamin is actively concentrated within the gastric juice. EPR spin trapping experiments showed that preformed CLB arenediazonium ion was reduced to the aryl radical by ascorbic acid, glutathione, and serum albumin, the major protein of saliva. As demonstrated by anti-CLB antibodies and MS, the CLB-albumin interaction leads to the formation of a covalent drug-protein adduct, with a preference for Tyr-rich regions. This study highlights the possible hazards associated with the use/abuse of this drug. PMID:18440320

  9. Simulation of Au particle interaction on graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcleod, A.; Vernon, K. C.; Rider, A. E.; Ostrikov, K.

    2013-09-01

    The interaction of Au particles with few layer graphene is of interest for the formation of the next generation of sensing devices 1. In this paper we investigate the coupling of single gold nanoparticles to a graphene sheet, and multiple gold nanoparticles with a graphene sheet using COMSOL Multiphysics. By using these simulations we are able to determine the electric field strength and associated hot-spots for various gold nanoparticle-graphene systems. The Au nanoparticles were modelled as 8 nm diameter spheres on 1.5 nm thick (5 layers) graphene, with properties of graphene obtained from the refractive index data of Weber 2 and the Au refractive index data from Palik 3. The field was incident along the plane of the sheet with polarisation tested for both s and p. The study showed strong localised interaction between the Au and graphene with limited spread; however the double particle case where the graphene sheet separated two Au nanoparticles showed distinct interaction between the particles and graphene. An offset was introduced (up to 4 nm) resulting in much reduced coupling between the opposed particles as the distance apart increased. Findings currently suggest that the graphene layer has limited interaction with incident fields with a single particle present whilst reducing the coupling region to a very fine area when opposing particles are involved. It is hoped that the results of this research will provide insight into graphene-plasmon interactions and spur the development of the next generation of sensing devices.

  10. Geology and composition of the Orientale Basin impact melt sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Martin, Dayl J. P.; Kramer, Georgiana

    2014-01-01

    Orientale Basin is one of the largest (930 km diameter) and youngest (~3.8 Ga) impact craters on the Moon. As the basin is only partly flooded by mare lava, its floor materials expose a major portion of the basin impact melt sheet, which some previous work has suggested might have undergone igneous differentiation. To test this idea, we remapped the geology of the Orientale Basin using images and topography from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, mineralogical information from the Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper, and elemental concentration maps from Clementine multispectral imaging and Lunar Prospector gamma ray data. The Maunder Formation (impact melt sheet of the basin) is uniform in chemical composition (equivalent to "anorthositic norite") in at least the upper 2 km of the deposit. The deepest sampling of the basin melt sheet (maximum depths of ~3-5 km by the crater Maunder, 55 km in diameter) shows a variety of lithologies, but these rock types (anorthosite, anorthositic norite melt rocks, mare basalt, and gabbro) are not those predicted by the differentiation model. We conclude that no differentiation of the Orientale Basin melt sheet has occurred and that such a process is not evident from new remote sensing data for the Moon or in the Apollo lunar samples.

  11. Potential subglacial lake locations and meltwater drainage pathways beneath the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, S. J.; Clark, C. D.; Woodward, J.; Kingslake, J.

    2013-11-01

    We use the Shreve hydraulic potential equation as a simplified approach to investigate potential subglacial lake locations and meltwater drainage pathways beneath the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. We validate the method by demonstrating its ability to recall the locations of >60% of the known subglacial lakes beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. This is despite uncertainty in the ice-sheet bed elevation and our simplified modelling approach. However, we predict many more lakes than are observed. Hence we suggest that thousands of subglacial lakes remain to be found. Applying our technique to the Greenland Ice Sheet, where very few subglacial lakes have so far been observed, recalls 1607 potential lake locations, covering 1.2% of the bed. Our results will therefore provide suitable targets for geophysical surveys aimed at identifying lakes beneath Greenland. We also apply the technique to modelled past ice-sheet configurations and find that during deglaciation both ice sheets likely had more subglacial lakes at their beds. These lakes, inherited from past ice-sheet configurations, would not form under current surface conditions, but are able to persist, suggesting a retreating ice-sheet will have many more subglacial lakes than advancing ones. We also investigate subglacial drainage pathways of the present-day and former Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Key sectors of the ice sheets, such as the Siple Coast (Antarctica) and NE Greenland Ice Stream system, are suggested to have been susceptible to subglacial drainage switching. We discuss how our results impact our understanding of meltwater drainage, basal lubrication and ice-stream formation.

  12. Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Jensen, A.; Li, Z.; Stupakov, G.; Adolphsen, C.; /SLAC

    2009-05-08

    Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly.

  13. Controlled release of TGF-beta1 impedes rat colon carcinogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mikhailowski, R; Shpitz, B; Polak-Charcon, S; Kost, Y; Segal, Y; Segal, C; Fich, A; Lamprecht, S A

    1998-11-23

    Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a cytokine known to play a key role in the control of cell growth. TGF-beta1 potently inhibits the proliferation of human and rodent-derived epithelial cells. Colonic precancerous and moderately differentiated cancer cells are responsive to TGF-beta1, whereas malignant colon cancer cells are resistant to the inhibitory action of the cytokine. These observations have been derived exclusively from in vitro studies. Therefore, the main aim of our study was to determine whether TGF-beta1 exerts a growth-restraining action on colon carcinogenesis in vivo. TGF-beta1 was sequestered into ethylene acetate copolymer matrices and "loaded" preparations were implanted intraperitoneally (i.p.) in rats. One week later, the animals were treated with dimethylhydrazine (DMH), a colon procarcinogen. Empty matrices devoid of TGF-beta1 but containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) carrier served as the appropriate control preparations. The number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), considered to be preneoplastic lesions of the colon, was scored. Tumor formation and size were assessed at the appropriate times. TGF-beta1 released in a sustained manner from copolymer matrices: (i) markedly inhibited colonic ACF formation and the number of aberrant crypts and (ii) significantly reduced colonic tumor formation and size. PMID:9808532

  14. Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering. One-sided sheet that includes Scope, Core Competencies and Capabilities, and Contact/Web information.

  15. Clinical role of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nelson; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Kumana, Cyrus R

    2003-01-01

    The use of beta-lactamase inhibitors in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics is currently the most successful strategy to combat a specific resistance mechanism. Their broad spectrum of activity originates from the ability of respective inhibitors to inactivate a wide range of beta-lactamases produced by Gram-positive, Gram-negative, anaerobic and even acid-fast pathogens. Clinical experience confirms their effectiveness in the empirical treatment of respiratory, intra-abdominal, and skin and soft tissue infections. There is evidence to suggest that they are efficacious in treating patients with neutropenic fever and nosocomial infections, especially in combination with other agents. beta-Lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations are particularly useful against mixed infections. Their role in treating various multi-resistant pathogens such as Acinetobacter species and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are gaining importance. Although, generally, they do not constitute reliable therapy against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers, their substitution in place of cephalosporins appears to reduce emergence of the latter pathogens. Similarly, their use may also curtail the emergence of other resistant pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. beta-Lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations are generally well tolerated and their oral forms provide effective outpatient therapy against many commonly encountered infections. In certain scenarios, they could even be more cost-effective than conventional combination therapies. With the accumulation of so much clinical experience, their role in the management of infections is now becoming more clearly defined. PMID:12834367

  16. High beta and confinement studies on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, G.A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Iacono, R.; Mauel, M.E.; Sabbagh, S.A. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Kesner, J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A new regime of high poloidal beta operation in TFTR was developed in the course of the first two years of this project (9/25/89 to 9/24/91). Our proposal to continue this successful collaboration between Columbia University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for a three year period (9/25/91 to 9/24/94) to continue to investigate improved confinement and tokamak performance in high poloidal beta plasmas in TFTR through the DT phase of operation was approved by the DOE and this is a report of our progress during the first 9 month budget period of the three year grant (9/25/91 to 6/24/92). During the approved three year project period we plan to (1) extend and apply the low current, high QDD discharges to the operation of TFTR using Deuterium and Tritium plasma; (2) continue the analysis and plan experiments on high poloidal beta phenomena in TFTR including: stability properties, enhanced global confinement, local transport, bootstrap current, and divertor formation; (3) plan and carry out experiments on TFTR which attempt to elevate the central q to values > 2 where entry to the second stability regime is predicted to occur; and (4) collaborate on high beta experiments using bean-shaped plasmas with a stabilizing conducting shell in PBX-M. In the seven month period covered by this report we have made progress in each of these four areas through the submission of 4 TFTR Experimental Proposals and the partial execution of 3 of these using a total of 4.5 run days during the August 1991 to February 1992 run.

  17. Cyclic beta-helical/beta-hairpin D,L-alpha-peptide: study of its folding properties and structure refinement using molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Meier, Katharina; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2010-02-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of a cyclic 22 residue D,L-alpha-peptide is reported. The 154 experimental ROE distance bounds that determine a beta-helical fold in chloroform are all satisfied in MD simulations starting from the folded and from a refolded structure. Interestingly, the latter simulations generated structures of lower energy than the NMR model structures, thereby yielding a better conformational representation of the measured experimental data. The stability of the beta-helical fold, characterized by 16 beta-sheet hydrogen bonds, was investigated by varying the temperature and the solvent composition. Different metastable states were found and examined. Various strategies to fold the cyclic, highly hydrogen bonded peptide, starting from different nonfolded conformations of the peptide, were investigated. Due to the high barriers to (un)folding, a folding/unfolding equilibrium could not be established. PMID:20055405

  18. Fact Sheet: Summary of Self-Determination. NRC Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael; Lewin, Lori

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides an explanation of what self determination is, provides the four principles of self determination, describes the values supported by self determination. The authors contend that if self-determination is going to be successful, it requires that those who supply services and fund them make certain changes in both the way they…

  19. Mitochondrial toxicity of depleted uranium: protection by Beta-glucan.

    PubMed

    Shaki, Fatemeh; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the toxicity of uranyl acetate (UA), a soluble salt of depleted uranium (DU). We examined the ability of the two antioxidants, beta-glucan and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), to prevent UA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction using rat-isolated kidney mitochondria. Beta-glucan (150 nM) and BHT (20 nM) attenuated UA-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. Beta-glucan and BHT also prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial swelling following the UA treatment in isolated mitochondria. Our results show that beta-glucan and BHT prevented UA-induced mitochondrial outer membrane damage as well as release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. UA also decreased the ATP production in isolated mitochondria significantly inhibited with beta-glucan and BHT pre-treatment. Our results showed that beta-glucan may be mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and suggested this compound as a possible drug candidate for prophylaxis and treatment against DU-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24250581

  20. Mitochondrial Toxicity of Depleted Uranium: Protection by Beta-Glucan

    PubMed Central

    Shaki, Fatemeh; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the toxicity of uranyl acetate (UA), a soluble salt of depleted uranium (DU). We examined the ability of the two antioxidants, beta-glucan and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), to prevent UA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction using rat-isolated kidney mitochondria. Beta-glucan (150 nM) and BHT (20 nM) attenuated UA-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. Beta-glucan and BHT also prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial swelling following the UA treatment in isolated mitochondria. Our results show that beta-glucan and BHT prevented UA-induced mitochondrial outer membrane damage as well as release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. UA also decreased the ATP production in isolated mitochondria significantly inhibited with beta-glucan and BHT pre-treatment. Our results showed that beta-glucan may be mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and suggested this compound as a possible drug candidate for prophylaxis and treatment against DU-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24250581

  1. Endopeptidase-Mediated Beta Lactam Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Dörr, Tobias; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    In many bacteria, inhibition of cell wall synthesis leads to cell death and lysis. The pathways and enzymes that mediate cell lysis after exposure to cell wall-acting antibiotics (e.g. beta lactams) are incompletely understood, but the activities of enzymes that degrade the cell wall (‘autolysins’) are thought to be critical. Here, we report that Vibrio cholerae, the cholera pathogen, is tolerant to antibiotics targeting cell wall synthesis. In response to a wide variety of cell wall- acting antibiotics, this pathogen loses its rod shape, indicative of cell wall degradation, and becomes spherical. Genetic analyses revealed that paradoxically, V. cholerae survival via sphere formation required the activity of D,D endopeptidases, enzymes that cleave the cell wall. Other autolysins proved dispensable for this process. Our findings suggest the enzymes that mediate cell wall degradation are critical for determining bacterial cell fate - sphere formation vs. lysis – after treatment with antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis. PMID:25884840

  2. Changes in the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-05-31

    The Antarctic ice sheet changes in size over the course of a year. When it is summer in the southern hemisphere, the ice sheet decreases in size. As the ice sheet melts, it releases fresh water into the ocean. In the southern winter (our summer), the ice refreezes, drawing fresh water out of the surrounding ocean, leaving the salt behind. These seasonal changes in the ice sheet are examined in this activity, utilizing satellite imagery.

  3. A role for maternal beta-catenin in early mesoderm induction in Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Schohl, Anne; Fagotto, François

    2003-07-01

    Mesoderm formation results from an inducing process that requires maternal and zygotic FGF/MAPK and TGFbeta activities, while maternal activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway determines the anterior-dorsal axis. Here, we show a new role of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in mesoderm induction. We find that maternal beta-catenin signaling is not only active dorsally but also all around the equatorial region, coinciding with the prospective mesoderm. Maternal beta-catenin function is required both for expression of dorsal genes and for activation of MAPK and the mesodermal markers Xbra and eomesodermin. beta-catenin acts in a non- cell-autonomous manner upstream of zygotic FGF and nodal signals. The Wnt/beta-catenin activity in the equatorial region of the early embryo is the first example of a maternally provided mesoderm inducer restricted to the prospective mesoderm. PMID:12839992

  4. 3D modelling of the Tejeda Caldera cone-sheet swarm, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samrock, Lisa K.; Jensen, Max J.; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Mattsson, Tobias; Geiger, Harri

    2015-04-01

    Cone-sheet swarms provide vital information on the interior of volcanic systems and their plumbing systems (e.g. Burchardt et al. 2013). This information is important for the interpretation of processes and dynamics of modern and ancient volcanic systems, and is therefore vital for assessing volcanic hazards and to reduce risks to modern society. To more realistically model cone-sheet emplacement an approximation of their 3D shape needs to be known. Most cone-sheet swarms are not sufficiently exposed laterally and/or vertically, however, which makes it difficult to determine the geometry of a cone-sheet swarm at depth, especially since different shapes (e.g. convex, straight or concave continuations) would produce a similar trace at the surface (cf. Burchardt et al. 2011, and references therein). The Miocene Tejeda Caldera on Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain, hosts a cone-sheet swarm that was emplaced into volcaniclastic caldera infill at about 12.3-7.3 Ma (Schirnick et al. 1999). The dyke swarm displays over 1000 m of vertical exposure and more than 15 km of horizontal exposure, making it a superb locality to study the evolution of cone-sheet swarms in detail and to determine its actual geometry in 3D space. We have used structural data of Schirnick (1996) to model the geometry of the Tejeda cone-sheet in 3D, using the software Move® by Midland Valley Ltd. Based on previous 2D projections, Schirnick et al. (1999) suggested that the cone-sheet swarm is formed by a stack of parallel intrusive sheets which have a truncated dome geometry and form a concentric structure around a central axis, assuming straight sheet-intrusions. Our 3D model gives insight into the symmetries of the sheets and the overall geometry of the cone-sheet swarm below the surface. This visualization now allows to grasp the complexity of the Tejeda cone-sheet swarm at depth, particularly in relation to different possible cone-sheet geometries suggested in the literature (cf. Burchardt et al. 2011, and references therein), and we discuss the implications of this architecture for the feeding system of the Tejeda volcano and the associated temporal variations of cone-sheet emplacement. References: Burchardt, S., Tanner, D.C., Troll, V.R., Krumbholz, M., Gustafsson, L.E. (2011) Three-dimensional geometry of concentric intrusive sheet swarms in the Geitafell and the Dyrfjöll volcanoes, eastern Iceland. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 12(7): Q0AB09. Burchardt, S., Troll, V.R., Mathieu, L., Emeleus, H.C., Donaldson, C.H. (2013) Ardnamruchan 3D cone-sheet architecture explained by a single elongate magma chamber. Scientific Reports 3:2891. Schirnick, C. (1996) Formation of an intracaldera cone sheet dike swarm (Tejeda Caldera, Gran Canaria) (Dissertation). Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel, Germany. Schirnick, C., van den Bogaard, P., Schmincke, H.-U. (1999) Cone-sheet formation and intrusive growth of an oceanic island - The Miocene Tejeda complex on Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Geology, 27: 207-210.

  5. Manifold free multiple sheet superplastic forming

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Bridges, Robert L.

    2004-01-13

    Fluid-forming compositions in a container attached to enclosed adjacent sheets are heated to relatively high temperatures to generate fluids (gases) that effect inflation of the sheets. Fluid rates to the enclosed space between the sheets can be regulated by the canal from the container. Inflated articles can be produced by a continuous, rather than batch-type, process.

  6. Manifold free multiple sheet superplastic forming

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W. (Danville, CA); Bridges, Robert L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    Fluid-forming compositions in a container attached to enclosed adjacent sheets are heated to relatively high temperatures to generate fluids (gases) that effect inflation of the sheets. Fluid rates to the enclosed space between the sheets can be regulated by the canal from the container. Inflated articles can be produced by a continuous, rather than batch-type, process.

  7. Nature Collections Light-sheet microscopy

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Nature Collections Light-sheet microscopy chief editor, Nature Methods: Daniel Evanko production of this progress in microscopy is a technique (first described in 1903) that uses a sheet of light to illuminate the expanding capabilities and applications of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM). In a Perspective (p

  8. Particle acceleration in reconnecting current sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. E. Litvinenko; B. V. Somov

    1993-01-01

    We study motions of charged particles in reconnecting current sheets (CS) which have both transverse (perpendicular to the current sheet plane) and longitudinal (parallel to the electric current inside the sheet) components of the magnetic field. Such CS, called non-neutral, are formed in regions of magnetic field line reconnection in the solar atmosphere. We develop an analytical technique which allows

  9. Flattening of sheet metal by laser forming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Ueda; Eisuke Sentoku; Yoshihiro Wakimura; Akira Hosokawa

    2009-01-01

    Laser forming is a thermal process for deformation of sheet metal by thermal stress. In this paper, the technique of laser forming is applied to flatten a protruded distortion on the sheet metal, and the mechanism of flattening is investigated experimentally. The protrusion of some height is intentionally produced by pressing a steel ball on a flat sheet metal. The

  10. Sheet Metal Worker: A Training Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    This training profile is intended for use by program developers and trainers in the development of training courses and programs for sheet metal workers. It contains 17 modules: safety for sheet metal worker; tools and machinery; materials and gauges; drafting and shop drawing; pattern development; methods of joining sheet metal; shearing and…

  11. Edge Universality of Beta Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgade, Paul; Erdös, László; Yau, Horng-Tzer

    2014-11-01

    We prove the edge universality of the beta ensembles for any , provided that the limiting spectrum is supported on a single interval, and the external potential is and regular. We also prove that the edge universality holds for generalized Wigner matrices for all symmetry classes. Moreover, our results allow us to extend bulk universality for beta ensembles from analytic potentials to potentials in class.

  12. DEPLOYMENT OF BETA GENETIC RESOURCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm resources for the improvement of sugar beet and other Beta spp. cultivated crops are held in germplasm collections and gene banks worldwide. Characterization and deployment of these resources into crop types is an enormous task considering the thousands of Beta accessions available. Mole...

  13. The Age of Beta Pic

    E-print Network

    D. Barrado y Navascues; J. R. Stauffer; I. Song; J-P. Caillault

    1999-05-19

    We have reanalyzed data for the proposed moving group associated with beta Pic in order to determine if the group (or part of it) is real, and, if so, to derive an improved age estimate for beta Pic. By using new, more accurate proper motions from PPM and Hipparcos and a few new radial velocities, we conclude that on kinematic grounds, two M dwarfs have space motions that coincide with that of beta Pic to within 1 km/s with small error bars. Based on a CM diagram derived from accurate photometry and Hipparcos parallaxes, these two possible proper-motion companions to beta Pic are very young; we derive an age of $\\sim$20 Myr by comparison to theoretical tracks from D'Antona & Mazzitelli. In fact, the proposed beta Pic companions comprise two of the three youngest M dwarfs in the sample of 160 dM stars for which we have data. The chromospheric and coronal activity of these two stars also confirm that they are quite young. We argue that the probability that two of the three youngest nearby M dwarfs would accurately share the space motion of beta Pic by chance is quite small, and therefore we believe that beta Pic and the two M dwarfs (GL 799 and GL 803) were formed together. The estimated age for beta Pic is then 20$\\pm$10 Myr.

  14. Beta doses to spherical grains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Brennan

    2003-01-01

    The classic paper of Mejdahl (1979) on beta doses to quartz grains has been a standard reference for many years. In this paper we present an update of the data for beta doses to spherical quartz grains from internal and external natural sources, using dose point kernels based on modern spectra and Monte Carlo calculations. The differences from the Mejdahl

  15. Vus and neutron beta decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. García; G. Sánchez-Colón

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the effect of the recent change of Vus by 3 standard deviations on the standard model predictions for neutron beta decay observables. We also discuss the effect the experimental error bars of Vus have on such predictions. Refined precision tests of the standard model will be made by a combined effort to improve measurements in neutron beta decay

  16. Aluminizing a Ni sheet through severe plastic deformation induced by ball collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romankov, S.; Shchetinin, I. V.; Park, Y. C.

    2015-07-01

    Aluminizing a Ni sheet was performed through severe plastic deformation induced by ball collisions. The Ni sheet was fixed in the center of a mechanically vibrated vial between two connected parts. The balls were loaded into the vial on both sides of the Ni disk. Al disks, which were fixed on the top and the bottom of the vial, served as the sources of Al contamination. During processing, the Ni sheet was subject to intense ball collisions. The Al fragments were transferred and alloyed to the surface of the Ni sheet by these collisions. The combined effects of deformation-induced plastic flow, mechanical intermixing, and grain refinement resulted in the formation of a dense, continuous nanostructured Al layer on the Ni surface on both sides of the sheet. The Al layer consisted of Al grains with an average size of about 40 nm. The Al layer was reinforced with nano-sized Ni flakes that were introduced from the Ni surface during processing. The local amorphization at the Ni/Al interface revealed that the bonding between Ni and Al was formed by mechanical intermixing of atomic layers at the interface. The hardness of the fabricated Al layer was 10 times that of the initial Al plate. The ball collisions destroyed the initial rolling texture of the Ni sheet and induced the formation of the mixed [1 0 0] + [1 1 1] fiber texture. The laminar rolling structure of the Ni was transformed into an ultrafine grain structure.

  17. The interstitial crystal-nucleating sheet in molluscan Haliotis rufescens shell: a bio-polymeric composite.

    PubMed

    Falini, Giuseppe; Sartor, Giorgio; Fabbri, Daniele; Vergni, Patrizia; Fermani, Simona; Belcher, Angela M; Stucky, Galen D; Morse, Daniel E

    2011-01-01

    The interstitial green sheets in abalone shell nacre are shown to be bifacially differentiated trilaminate polymeric complexes, with glycoprotein layers sandwiching a central core containing chitin. They share some common feature with the organic matrix layers between the aragonite tablets in the nacre and the periostracum, and show similarities to the myostracum. Thus, although the green sheet is reported to be unique to the abalone shell, it represents an interesting model for the study of molluscan shell biomineralization processes. Indeed, during shell formation, prismatic and spherulitic aragonite precedes and follows the deposition of the interstitial green polymeric composite sheets, and there is evidence to suggest that these sheets demark the interruption of nacre synthesis and serve to nucleate the resumption of calcium carbonate crystal growth. The green polymeric interstitial sheet purified from the abalone shell was investigated by spectroscopic and imaging techniques: FTIR, confocal microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and by pyrolysis combined with GC-MS. Structural and compositional differences are observed between the surfaces of the two sides of the interstitial polymeric composite sheets. Moreover, comparative crystallization experiments on the green sheet sides also reveal asymmetry with respect to the nucleation of calcium carbonate. These findings suggest that these bifacially differentiated interstitial composites may play an active role in the mineral assembly processes, with one of the surfaces acting as a crystal nucleator. PMID:20705141

  18. Multiparameter Display and Data Sheet

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists used this multiparameter display system attached to a water-quality sonde and the accompanying data sheet as they collected water-quality data from the lower Boise River near Veterans Memorial Parkway in Boise, ID. The data collected are being used to develop models of total pho...

  19. Teleconferencing. CET Information Sheet 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Jane; Morris, Judith

    This information sheet defines teleconferencing as a meeting of three or more people at different locations by telephone and communicating via audioconferencing, audio plus graphics, slow scan television, or full motion video conferencing, and discusses some of the advantages and various applications of this technology. Three major projects that…

  20. Finance Degree Curriculum Information Sheet

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Finance Degree Curriculum Information Sheet 33:010:275-Intro. to Managerial Accounting (3) (pre-req: 33:010:272) 33:011:300-Business Forum (2) 33:390:310-Financial Management for Finance Majors (3)* 33:390:400-Corporate Finance (3) (pre-req: 33:390:310) 4 Finance electives (12) * Beginning Fall 2013

  1. Finance Degree Curriculum Information Sheet

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Finance Degree Curriculum Information Sheet Business Core 33:010:275-Intro. to Managerial:390:310-Financial Management for Finance Majors (3)* 33:620:301-Intro to Management (3)** 33:620:302-Management Management (3) Required Finance Courses 33:390:380-Investment Analysis (3) (pre-req: 33:390:310) 33

  2. IMMUNIZATION COVER SHEET HEALTH SERVICES

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    Please keep a copy of all documents submitted for your personal records For more information, pleaseIMMUNIZATION COVER SHEET HEALTH SERVICES 327 HIGH STREET MIDDLETOWN, CT 06459 University Health Services Use GLSP Office Use Student meets all requirements ­ initials and date: Student record updated

  3. JOB EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE ANSWER SHEET

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    JOB EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE ANSWER SHEET DO NOT WRITE IN THIS SPACE N.C. Date Received Reclass New Starting Date in Class Yes No NA (NA if Temporary Job) Notice # Effective Date If Reclassified IS TO BE USED WITH THE JOB EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE (BA 802) ONLY FOR POSITIONS COVERED BY CIVIL SERVICE

  4. EXPENSE BREAKDOWN SHEET BUSINESS MEALS

    E-print Network

    Mohri, Mehryar

    . Meal expenses incurred by an individual during business travel should be reported on Form EXP2000TEXPENSE BREAKDOWN SHEET BUSINESS MEALS (WHEN NEEDED PLEASE ATTACH TO FORM EXP2000) Form EXP2000M) when requesting reimbursement for expenses related to meals taken during business meetings or events

  5. Stress localisation in annular sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Gert; Starostin, Eugene

    2015-03-01

    For very thin sheets stretching is much more costly in terms of energy than bending. The limiting behaviour of thin sheets is therefore governed by geometry only and thus applies to a wide range of materials at vastly different scales: it is equally valid for a microscopic graphene sheet and a macroscopic solar sail. We derive new geometrically-exact equations for the deformation of annular strips. We use a formulation in which the inextensibility constraint is used to reduce the problem to a suitably-chosen reference curve (here the circular centreline). The equations are therefore ODEs, which allow for a detailed bifurcation analysis. Closed conical solutions are found for centreline lengths L less than Lc = 2 ??g , where ?g is the geodesic curvature of the strip. For such `short' strips we find in addition a second branch of stable solutions easily reproduced in a paper strip. For `long' strips (L >Lc) we find modes of undulating solutions. All non-conical solutions turn out to feature points of stress localisation on the edge of the annulus, the outer edge for short solutions and the inner edge of long solutions. Our theory may be used to investigate singularities of constrained or loaded sheets more general than conical ones.

  6. Reflectivity Cheat Sheet Defining Reflection...

    E-print Network

    Nierstrasz, Oscar

    Reflectivity Cheat Sheet Defining Reflection... · Casually connected. If the internal structures. A reflective system is then a system which incorporates causally con- nected structures representing itself-representation of a system can be modified. · Reflection = Introspection + Intercession · Meta-objects describe behavior

  7. Fact Sheet: Vulnerable Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…

  8. Account Information Sheet December 2010

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    User Guide to the Account Information Sheet (AIS) December 2010 #12;Proposal Tracking AIS ­ User Guide University of Pennsylvania Page 2 of 14 Contents Page Section 1 ­ Standard Project AIS 3 Section 2 ­ Cost Share AIS 9 Section 3 ­ Cost Share No Fund AIS 13 For any questions concerning this user guide

  9. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  10. Osteogenic Matrix Cell Sheets Facilitate Osteogenesis in Irradiated Rat Bone

    PubMed Central

    Akahane, Manabu; Shimizu, Takamasa; Ueha, Tomoyuki; Morita, Yusuke; Nakasaki, Shintaro; Kura, Tomohiko; Tohma, Yasuaki; Kido, Akira; Kawate, Kenji; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2015-01-01

    Reconstruction of large bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors is a significant challenge in orthopedic surgery. Extracorporeal autogenous irradiated bone grafting is a treatment option for bone reconstruction. However, nonunion often occurs because the osteogenic capacity is lost by irradiation. In the present study, we established an autogenous irradiated bone graft model in the rat femur to assess whether osteogenic matrix cell sheets improve osteogenesis of the irradiated bone. Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were prepared from bone marrow-derived stromal cells and co-transplanted with irradiated bone. X-ray images at 4 weeks after transplantation showed bridging callus formation around the irradiated bone. Micro-computed tomography images at 12 weeks postoperatively showed abundant callus formation in the whole circumference of the irradiated bone. Histology showed bone union between the irradiated bone and host femur. Mechanical testing showed that the failure force at the irradiated bone site was significantly higher than in the control group. Our study indicates that osteogenic matrix cell sheet transplantation might be a powerful method to facilitate osteogenesis in irradiated bones, which may become a treatment option for reconstruction of bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors.

  11. Gene selection, alternative splicing, and post-translational processing regulate neuroligin selectivity for beta-neurexins.

    PubMed

    Comoletti, Davide; Flynn, Robyn E; Boucard, Antony A; Demeler, Borries; Schirf, Virgil; Shi, Jianxin; Jennings, Lori L; Newlin, Helen R; Südhof, Thomas C; Taylor, Palmer

    2006-10-24

    Neuroligins 1-4 are postsynaptic transmembrane proteins capable of initiating presynaptic maturation via interactions with beta-neurexin. Both neuroligins and beta-neurexins have alternatively spliced inserts in their extracellular domains. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, we determined that the extracellular domains of the neuroligins sediment as dimers, whereas the extracellular domains of the beta-neurexins appear monomeric. Sedimentation velocity experiments of titrated stoichiometry ratios of beta-neurexin and neuroligin suggested a 2:2 complex formation. The recognition properties of individual neuroligins toward beta-neurexin-1 (NX1beta), along with the influence of their splice inserts, were explored by surface plasmon resonance and affinity chromatography. Different neuroligins display a range of NX1beta affinities spanning more than 2 orders of magnitude. Whereas splice insert 4 in beta-neurexin appears to act only as a modulator of the neuroligin/beta-neurexin association, splice insert B in neuroligin-1 (NL1) is the key element regulating the NL1/NX1beta binding. Our data indicate that gene selection, mRNA splicing, and post-translational modifications combine to give rise to a controlled neuroligin recognition code with a rank ordering of affinities for particular neurexins that is conserved for the neuroligins across mammalian species. PMID:17042500

  12. Beta systems error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric backscatter coefficient, beta, measured with an airborne CO Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system operating in a continuous wave, focussed model is discussed. The Single Particle Mode (SPM) algorithm, was developed from concept through analysis of an extensive amount of data obtained with the system on board a NASA aircraft. The SPM algorithm is intended to be employed in situations where one particle at a time appears in the sensitive volume of the LDV. In addition to giving the backscatter coefficient, the SPM algorithm also produces as intermediate results the aerosol density and the aerosol backscatter cross section distribution. A second method, which measures only the atmospheric backscatter coefficient, is called the Volume Mode (VM) and was simultaneously employed. The results of these two methods differed by slightly less than an order of magnitude. The measurement uncertainties or other errors in the results of the two methods are examined.

  13. Geometry of thin liquid sheet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1994-01-01

    Incompresible, thin sheet flows have been of research interest for many years. Those studies were mainly concerned with the stability of the flow in a surrounding gas. Squire was the first to carry out a linear, invicid stability analysis of sheet flow in air and compare the results with experiment. Dombrowski and Fraser did an experimental study of the disintegration of sheet flows using several viscous liquids. They also detected the formulation of holes in their sheet flows. Hagerty and Shea carried out an inviscid stability analysis and calculated growth rates with experimental values. They compared their calculated growth rates with experimental values. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. Brown experimentally investigated thin liquid sheet flows as a method of application of thin films. Clark and Dumbrowski carried out second-order stability analysis for invicid sheet flows. Lin introduced viscosity into the linear stability analysis of thin sheet flows in a vacuum. Mansour and Chigier conducted an experimental study of the breakup of a sheet flow surrounded by high-speed air. Lin et al. did a linear stability analysis that included viscosity and a surrounding gas. Rangel and Sirignano carried out both a linear and nonlinear invisid stability analysis that applies for any density ratio between the sheet liquid and the surrounding gas. Now there is renewed interest in sheet flows because of their possible application as low mass radiating surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of sheet flows that are of interest for a space radiator system. Analytical expressions that govern the sheet geometry are compared with experimental results. Since a space radiator will operate in a vacuum, the analysis does not include any drag force on the sheet flow.

  14. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  15. Mechanical loading prevents the stimulating effect of IL-1{beta} on osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N.; Bakker, Astrid D.; Everts, Vincent [Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, Research Institute MOVE, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, Research Institute MOVE, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Klein-Nulend, Jenneke, E-mail: j.kleinnulend@acta.nl [Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, Research Institute MOVE, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, Research Institute MOVE, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteocyte incubation with IL-1{beta} stimulated osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditioned medium from IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes increased osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-1{beta} upregulated RANKL and downregulated OPG gene expression by osteocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYR61 is upregulated in mechanically stimulated osteocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical loading of osteocytes may abolish IL-1{beta}-induced osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are often accompanied by higher plasma and synovial fluid levels of interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), and by increased bone resorption. Since osteocytes are known to regulate bone resorption in response to changes in mechanical stimuli, we investigated whether IL-1{beta} affects osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis in the presence or absence of mechanical loading of osteocytes. MLO-Y4 osteocytes were pre-incubated with IL-1{beta} (0.1-1 ng/ml) for 24 h. Cells were either or not subjected to mechanical loading by 1 h pulsating fluid flow (PFF; 0.7 {+-} 0.3 Pa, 5 Hz) in the presence of IL-1{beta} (0.1-1 ng/ml). Conditioned medium was collected after 1 h PFF or static cultures. Subsequently mouse bone marrow cells were seeded on top of the IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes to determine osteoclastogenesis. Conditioned medium from mechanically loaded or static IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes was added to co-cultures of untreated osteocytes and mouse bone marrow cells. Gene expression of cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61/CCN1), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) by osteocytes was determined immediately after PFF. Incubation of osteocytes with IL-1{beta}, as well as conditioned medium from static IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes increased the formation of osteoclasts. However, conditioned medium from mechanically loaded IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes prevented osteoclast formation. Incubation with IL-1{beta} upregulated RANKL and downregulated OPG gene expression by static osteocytes. PFF upregulated CYR61, RANKL, and OPG gene expression by osteocytes. Our results suggest that IL-1{beta} increases osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis, and that mechanical loading of osteocytes may abolish IL-1{beta}-induced osteoclastogenesis.

  16. Salmon, Mississippi Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-01-04

    The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site overlies a salt formation called the Tatum Salt Dome. Land around the Salmon site has residential, industrial, and commercial use, although no one lives within the boundary of the site itself. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense conducted two underground nuclear tests at the site under the designation of Project Dribble, part of a larger program known as the Vela Uniform program. Two gas explosive tests, designated Project Miracle Play, were also conducted at the site.

  17. Overexpression of beta-arrestin and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase augment desensitization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Pippig, S; Andexinger, S; Daniel, K; Puzicha, M; Caron, M G; Lefkowitz, R J; Lohse, M J

    1993-02-15

    Receptor-specific or homologous desensitization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors is thought to be effected via phosphorylation of the receptor by the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK), followed by binding of beta-arrestin. We have generated stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cell lines overexpressing either of the two regulatory proteins and also expressing low or high levels of beta 2-adrenergic receptors (approximately 80 and approximately 600 fmol/mg of membrane protein). In these cells, we studied the process of desensitization induced by the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol. In cells expressing high levels of beta 2-adrenergic receptors, desensitization to high concentrations of isoproterenol (previously shown to be mediated by both beta ARK and protein kinase A) amounted to approximately 50% in control cells, approximately 80% in beta ARK-overexpressing cells, and approximately 90% in beta-arrestin-overexpressing cells. In cells expressing low levels of beta 2-adrenergic receptors, these values were approximately 50, approximately 60, and approximately 60%, respectively. Desensitization to low concentrations of isoproterenol (previously shown to be essentially protein kinase A-mediated and not receptor-specific, i.e. heterologous) was not affected by overexpression of either beta ARK or beta-arrestin. These data suggest that in cells expressing high levels of beta 2-adrenergic receptors, beta-arrestin and beta ARK become limiting for homologous receptor desensitization. They provide further support for the involvement of these two proteins in the regulation of beta 2-adrenergic receptor function. PMID:8381421

  18. Designing recombinant spider silk proteins to control assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Winkler; Sandra Szela; Peter Avtges; Regina Valluzzi; Daniel A. Kirschner; David Kaplan

    1999-01-01

    The consensus repeat sequence found in the dragline silk from the spider, Nephila clavipes, was redesigned to incorporate a redox trigger flanking the beta-sheet forming polyalanine sequences. The methionine redox trigger, in the oxidized state, was incorporated to prevent the formation of the beta sheets, while in the reduced state would not result in sterical limitations to beta sheet formation.

  19. The relationship between microstructure and fracture of titanium-aluminum-tin-zirconium-molybdenum-chromium-silicon sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Terryl Anne

    The objective of this research was to examine the relationship between microstructure and fracture resistance of alpha/beta processed Ti-6-2222-0.15Si sheet over the projected use temperature range of -54°C to +175°C, focusing on the role of alpha2 precipitates in the fracture mechanisms. The work consisted of three parts; examining the relationship between heat treatment parameters and mechanical properties, determining the operative fracture mechanisms and how they are affected by alpha2 precipitate size, and evaluating the effect of simulated service conditions on the microstructure and tensile properties. Varying the solution treatment temperature between 885°C and 927°C produced little change in tensile properties; but for a fixed solution treatment temperature, the strength decreased with increasing age temperature between 482°C and 649°C. However, aging at 538°C produced higher toughness and fatigue crack growth rate resistance than aging at 649°C. Samples were then aged from 0 to 1000 hours at 649°C to produce various sizes of alpha2 precipitates. The size and volume fraction increased with aging time, changing from spherical to elliptical. The transformed-beta also coarsened with aging time, and additional silicides were precipitated after 1000 hours. The increased size of alpha2 would be expected to increase tensile strengths, instead they decreased with aging time. The toughness increased for aging times up to 250 hours and then decreased after 1000 hours. The fatigue crack growth rates were unaffected. The strength decrease was successfully modeled using the Hall-Petch relationship using the increasing distance between the secondary-alpha with aging time. Prismatic planar slip arrays were identified in the primary-alpha for all aging condition, indicating shearing of the alpha2. Analysis confirmed that the alpha 2 precipitates were not large enough, even after 1000 hours, to allow dislocation looping. Samples were also exposed to simulated service conditions by loading to 80% of the yield strength at 177°C for 100 hours. This produced a small increase in tensile strength. Microstructural analysis showed no measurable change in the microstructure with exposure, except for the formation of dislocations within the primary-alpha. A theoretical calculation of the expected strength increase using dislocation densities showed good agreement with experimental data.

  20. Shell Formation and Bone Strength Laying Hens

    E-print Network

    , Daidzein and Exogenous Estrogen Abstract In Sweden almost 3.8% of all eggs are ruined due to cracked was detected. An imbalance between estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and estrogen receptor beta (ER) in the shell and overview of egg formation 10 1.2.2 Calcium sources for shell formation 13 1.2.3 Shell gland and the process

  1. Relation between the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} and 2{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Simkovic, Fedor; Hodak, Rastislav; Faessler, Amand; Vogel, Petr [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region, Russia and Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Institute fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Kellogg Radiation Laboratory and Physics Department, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    We show that the dominant Gamow-Teller part, M{sub GT}{sup 0}{nu} of the nuclear matrix element governing the neutrinoless {beta}{beta} decay is related to the matrix element M{sub cl}{sup 2}{nu} governing the allowed two-neutrino {beta}{beta} decay. That relation is revealed when these matrix elements are expressed as functions of the relative distance r between the pair of neutrons that are transformed into a pair of protons in the {beta}{beta} decay. Analyzing this relation allows us to understand the contrasting behavior of these matrix elements when A and Z is changed; while M{sub GT}{sup 0}{nu} changes slowly and smoothly, M{sup 2}{nu} has pronounced shell effects. We also discuss the possibility of phenomenological determination of the M{sub cl}{sup 2}{nu} and from them of the M{sub GT}{sup 0}{nu}values from the experimental study of the {beta}{sup {+-}} strength functions.

  2. Mammalian mitochondrial beta-oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, S; Bartlett, K; Pourfarzam, M

    1996-01-01

    The enzymic stages of mammalian mitochondrial beta-oxidation were elucidated some 30-40 years ago. However, the discovery of a membrane-associated multifunctional enzyme of beta-oxidation, a membrane-associated acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and characterization of the carnitine palmitoyl transferase system at the protein and at the genetic level has demonstrated that the enzymes of the system itself are incompletely understood. Deficiencies of many of the enzymes have been recognized as important causes of disease. In addition, the study of these disorders has led to a greater understanding of the molecular mechanism of beta-oxidation and the import, processing and assembly of the beta-oxidation enzymes within the mitochondrion. The tissue-specific regulation, intramitochondrial control and supramolecular organization of the pathway is becoming better understood as sensitive analytical and molecular techniques are applied. This review aims to cover enzymological and organizational aspects of mitochondrial beta-oxidation together with the biochemical aspects of inherited disorders of beta-oxidation and the intrinsic control of beta-oxidation. PMID:8973539

  3. Enabling shear textures and fine-grained structures in Magnesium sheet by machining-based deformation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagapuram, D.; Efe, M.; Trumble, K. P.; Chandrasekar, S.

    2014-08-01

    The production of Mg alloy AZ31B sheet in a single deformation step by large- strain extrusion machining (LSEM) is detailed. LSEM imposes intense simple shear in a narrow zone by constrained chip formation. The confined deformation and the associated in situ adiabatic heating are found to be the key factors in production of the Mg sheet without need for external (pre-) heating. A range of shear textures with basal planes inclined to the sheet surface are achieved by this processing. The basal plane inclination could be varied by controlling the strain path. Microstructures, both ultrafine-grained (100-500 nm) and conventional fine-grained (2-5 ?m), have been obtained by controlling the adiabatic heating and the extent of dynamic recrystallization. The LSEM sheet with shear texture and fine grain size shows superior combinations of formability and strength compared to rolled sheet.

  4. 0{nu}{beta}{beta}: The experimental challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Ferroni, Fernando [Sapienza Universita' and INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma I-00185 (Italy)

    2010-11-24

    This paper describes the main experimental issues related to neutrinoless double beta decay searches. It discusses, although briefly, the past, present and future of this exciting, fundamental but extremely complex field of research.

  5. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Constraints

    E-print Network

    Hiroaki Sugiyama

    2003-07-25

    A brief overview is given of theoretical analyses with neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. Theoretical bounds on the ``observable'', _betabeta, are presented. By using experimental bounds on _betabeta, allowed regions are obtained on the m_l-cos{2theta_12} plane, where m_l stands for the lightest neutrino mass. It is shown that Majorana neutrinos can be excluded by combining possible results of future neutrinoless double beta decay and {}^3H beta decay experiments. A possibility to constrain one of two Majorana phases is discussed also.

  6. Ion beta dependence on the development of Alfvénic fluctuations in reconnection jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashimori, Katsuaki; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    The generation of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) to ion-scale fluctuations in collisionless magnetic reconnection is discussed using a two-dimensional electromagnetic hybrid code. It is shown that reconnection jets become turbulent specifically in low beta conditions, ?i0<0.1-0.2 (where ?i0 is the ion plasma beta in initial inflow regions). The fluctuations observed in reconnection jets consist of outgoing Alfvénic fluctuations. As probable candidates for the origin of Alfvénic fluctuations, this study focused on the dynamics in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) and a current sheet. We suggest that PSBL ion dynamics play an important part in excitation and suppression of waves. PSBL beam ions drive Alfvén waves in MHD to ion scale, k?i<0.5 (?i is ion inertial length), independent of ?i0. On the other hand, because the beam temperature is highly correlated with that of inflowing ions, the waves decay by cyclotron damping as the value of the inflow ion beta increases. Local linear analysis suggests that this damping signature changes in ?i0˜0.1-0.2 and suppresses the wave activity of Alfvén modes in high beta reconnection jets.

  7. All eight possible mono-beta-D-glucosides of validoxylamine A. I. Preparation and structure determination.

    PubMed

    Asano, N; Kameda, Y; Matsui, K

    1991-12-01

    Validamycin A is the major and most active compound among the validamycin complex. Since the site of beta-glucosidic attachment to validoxylamine A (1) was expected to affect the activity against the pathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, all eight possible mono-beta-D-glucosides of 1 were prepared. 2-O-, 4-O-, 4'-O-, and 7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylvalidoxylamine A (2, 4, 6 and 9, respectively) were prepared by microbial beta-glycosylation of 1 with strains of Rhodotorula sp. 7-O- and 6'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylvalidoxylamine A (5a and 8a, respectively) were prepared semisynthetically through microbial formation of 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylvalidamine (10), oxidation of the primary amine of 10 to a ketone, and coupling of the ketone derivative with valienamine, and through microbial formation of 6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylvalienamine (11), and coupling of 11 with (2R)-(2,4/3,5)-2,3,4-trihydroxy-5-hydroxymethylcyclohexanone (12), respectively. 3-O- and 5'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylvalidoxylamine A (3a and 7a, respectively) were chemically synthesized. PMID:1778791

  8. Light meromyosin paracrystal formation

    PubMed Central

    Chowrashi, PK; Pepe, FA

    1977-01-01

    Studies of paracrystal formation by column purified light meromyosin (LMM) prepared in a variety of ways led to the following conclusions: (a) different portions of the myosin rod may be coded for different stagger relationships. This was concluded from observations that paracrystals with different axial repeat periodicities could be obtained either with LMM framents of different lengths prepared with the same enzyme, or with LMM fragments of identical lengths but prepared with different enzymes. (b) Paracrystals with a 14-nm axial repeat periodicity are most likely formed by the aggregation of sheets with a 44-nm axial repeat within the sheets which are staggered by 14 nm. All of the axial repeat patterns expected from one sheet or aggregates of more than one sheet, on this basis, were observed in the same electron micrograph. (c) C-protein binding probably occurs preferentially to LMM molecules related in some specific way. This was concluded from the observation that the same axial repeat pattern was obtained in paracrystals formed from different LMM preparations in the presence of C-protein, regardless of differences in the axial repeat obtained in the absence of C-protein. (d) Nucleic acid is responsible for the 43-nm axial repeat patterns observed in paracrystals formed by the ethanol-resistant fraction of LMM. In the absence of nuclei acid, paracrystals with a 14nm axial repeat are obtained. (e) The 43-nm axial repeat pattern observed with the ethanol-resistant fraction of LMM is different for LMM preparations obtained by trypsin and papain digestions. PMID:326798

  9. (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Dharmaratne, H Ranjith; Nanayakkara, N P; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2002-07-01

    Chemical investigation of the root extract of Valeriana officinalis afforded a new bicyclic sesquiterpene acid, (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid together with valerenic acid and hexadecanoic acid. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic data and confirmed by partial synthesis of its methyl ester from valerenic acid. Methyl (-)-3 alpha,4 alpha-epoxyvalerenate was obtained as a minor product from the above reaction. PMID:12143008

  10. Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Buechele, A.C.

    1982-05-01

    Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

  11. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.; Sitzman, G.W.

    1998-10-27

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet is disclosed including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet. 2 figs.

  12. Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of alcohols and their beta-D-glucopyranosides.

    PubMed

    Skouroumounis, G K; Sefton, M A

    2000-06-01

    The hydrolysis, in model wine at pH 3, of the allylic, homoallylic, and propargylic glycosides, geranyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, [3'-(1' '-cyclohexenyl)-1'-methyl-2'-propynyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (3'RS, 9'SR)-(3'-hydroxy-5'-megastigmen-7-yn-9-yl)-beta-D-glucopyra noside, (3',5',5'-trimethyl-3'-cyclohexenyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, E-(7'-oxo-5',8'-megastigmadien-3'-yl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3-hydroxy-beta-damascone-beta-D-glucopyranoside), and their corresponding aglycons has been studied. In general, aglycons were more rapidly converted to transformation products than were the corresponding glucosides. Glycoconjugation of geraniol in grapes is a process that reduces the flavor impact of this compound in wine, not only because geraniol is an important flavor component of some wines but also because the rate of formation of other flavor compounds from geraniol during bottle-aging is reduced. However, when flavor compounds such as beta-damascenone are formed in competition with flavorless byproducts, such as 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone, by acid-catalyzed hydrolytic reactions of polyols, then glycoconjugation is a process that could enhance as well as suppress the formation of flavor, depending on the position of glycosylation. (3'RS, 9'SR)-(3'-Hydroxy-5'-megastigmen-7'-yn-9'-yl)-beta-D-glucopy ranoside hydrolyzed more slowly but gave a higher proportion of beta-damascenone in the products than did the aglycon at 50 degrees C. Reaction temperature also effected the relative proportion of the hydrolysis products. Accelerated studies do not parallel natural processes precisely but only approximate them. PMID:10888494

  13. The Americana Sheet Music Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based at the Mills Music Library at the University of Wisconsin, the American Sheet Music Collection contains thousands of pieces of sheet music published in the United States before 1900. Many of these items came to the library as gifts, including a significant group of publications that once belonged to composer/publisher Joseph P. Webster. The musical genres included here are impressive, and include airs, folk songs, gallops, hymns, marches, and nocturnes. Visitors can perform a guided search across all of the items, or just search for specific items of note. It's quite interesting to type city names into the search engine as the results may indicate where songs, both well-known and unknown, were published originally. This is an impressive collection and musicologists and others will find much to enjoy here.

  14. World War I Sheet Music

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for Digital Initiatives at Brown University has created a number of fine collections since its inception in 2001, and this latest offering is no exception to that trend. The site is focused on providing access to hundreds of instances of sheet music that addresses various aspects of World War I. In this area, it is a definite success as the material is perfect for historians, musicians, or others who may be studying material and visual culture in the early 20th century. Users may browse through the sheet music by title, publisher, subject, and creator. Additionally, a historical essay and general introduction should be forthcoming on the site in the near future. Visitors would do well to check out such fine titles as "America He's for You", "Salvation Sal", and of course, "The Girl Behind the Man Behind the Gun," with lyrics by P.G. Wodehouse.

  15. Magnetization of the plasma sheet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Kaufmann; W. R. Paterson; L. A. Frank

    2004-01-01

    Long-term-averaged three-dimensional data-based models were made of the ?30 < x < ?10, ?y? < 15, ?z? < 5 RE plasma sheet region. The average magnetic moments $\\\\langle$?$\\\\rangle$ and Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) double adiabatic parameters ?$\\\\perp$ and ?$\\\\parallel$ were evaluated for ions and electrons. It was shown that restricting the observations to those taken within 0.2 RE of the Bx =

  16. ESCAP Population Data Sheet, 1999

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The United Nation's Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) (see the April 22, 1999 Scout Report for Business & Economics) has recently released its annual compendium of population and development indicators. The ESCAP Population Data Sheet for 1999 includes HTML tables presenting data on population, growth rate, birth rate, death rate, fertility rate, contraceptive usage, life expectancy, sex ratio, age breakdowns, and much more. Data are grouped by region and subdivided by country. All data sources are clearly cited. [AO

  17. Ice Sheets and Sea Level

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this exercise, learners use basic arithmetic to determine the amount that sea level would rise around the globe with the melting of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Basic data for this calculation is provided. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications.

  18. Drilling holes in tube sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Elizarov

    1982-01-01

    Drilling holes in the tube sheets of shell-and-tube heat exhangers, condensers, and evaporators is one of the most laborious and low-production operations. This is primarily the result of the low life of drills. Experimental work and the experience of various plants has shown that to increase the life of standard high-speed steel spiral drills in drilling holes in stainless steels

  19. The Folding of Acetyl(Ala)28NH2 and Acetyl(Ala)40NH2 Extended Strand Peptides into Antiparallel ?-Sheets. A Density Functional Theory Study of ?-Sheets with ?-Turns

    PubMed Central

    Ali-Torres, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    We report ONIOM calculations using B3LYP/D95** and AM1 on ?-sheet formation from acetyl(Ala)NNH2 (N=28 or 40). The sheets contain from one to four ?-turns for N=28 and up to six for N=40. We have obtained four types of geometrically optimized structures. All contain only ?-turns. They differ from each other in the types of ?-turns formed. The unsolvated sheets containing two turns are most stable. Aqueous solvation (using the SM5.2 and CPCM methods) reduces the stabilities of the folded structures compared to the extended strands. PMID:23157432

  20. The folding of acetyl(Ala)28NH2 and acetyl(Ala)40NH2 extended strand peptides into antiparallel ?-sheets. A density functional theory study of ?-sheets with ?-turns.

    PubMed

    Ali-Torres, Jorge; Dannenberg, J J

    2012-12-01

    We report ONIOM calculations using B3LYP/D95** and AM1 on ?-sheet formation from acetyl(Ala)(N)NH(2) (N = 28 or 40). The sheets contain from one to four ?-turns for N = 28 and up to six for N = 40. We have obtained four types of geometrically optimized structures. All contain only ?-turns. They differ from each other in the types of ?-turns formed. The unsolvated sheets containing two turns are most stable. Aqueous solvation (using the SM5.2 and CPCM methods) reduces the stabilities of the folded structures compared to the extended strands. PMID:23157432

  1. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  2. Beta vulgaris var. cicla (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    Monique D. Reed

    2011-08-10

    The deterministic design of the alpha-beta filter and the stochastic design of its Kalman counterpart are placed on a common basis. The first step is to find the continuous-time filter architecture which transforms into ...

  3. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means.

  4. Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker

    MedlinePLUS

    ... urine increase (see the Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease test article ). Drugs such as lithium, cyclosporine, cisplatin, ... the News Article Index About This Site Send Us Your Comments For ...

  5. Physico-chemical characterization of benzocaine-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Luciana M A; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Santana, Maria Helena A; Pertinhez, Thelma A; Junior, Sérgio Oyama; de Paula, Eneida

    2005-10-01

    Local anesthetics are able to induce pain relief by binding to the sodium channel of excitable membranes, blocking the influx of sodium ions and the propagation of the nervous impulse. Benzocaine (BZC) is a local anesthetic whose low water-solubility limits its application to topical formulations. The present work focuses on the characterization of inclusion complexes of BZC in beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD). Differential scanning calorimetry and electron microscopy gave evidences of the formation and the morphology of the complex. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed a BZC/beta-CD 1:1 stoichiometry. Phase-solubility diagrams allowed the determination of the association constants between BZC and beta-CD (549 M(-1)) and revealed that a three-fold increase in BZC solubility can be reached upon complexation with beta-CD. The details of BZC/beta-CD molecular interaction were analyzed by 1H 2D NMR allowing the proposition of an inclusion model for BZC into beta-CD where the aromatic ring of the anesthetic is located near the head of the beta-CD cavity. Moreover, in preliminary toxicity studies, the complex seems to be less toxic than BZC alone, since it induced a decrease in the in vitro oxidation of human hemoglobin. These results suggest that the BZC/beta-CD complex represents an effective novel formulation to enhance BZC solubility in water, turning it promising for use outside its traditional application, i.e., in infiltrative anesthesia. PMID:16040222

  6. Maturation of Stem Cell-Derived Beta-cells Guided by the Expression of Urocortin 3

    PubMed Central

    van der Meulen, Talitha; Huising, Mark O.

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a devastating disease precipitated by an autoimmune response directed at the insulin-producing beta-cells of the pancreas for which no cure exists. Stem cell-derived beta-cells show great promise for a cure as they have the potential to supply unlimited numbers of cells that could be derived from a patient's own cells, thus eliminating the need for immunosuppression. Current in vitro protocols for the differentiation of stem cell-derived beta-cells can successfully generate pancreatic endoderm cells. In diabetic rodents, such cells can differentiate further along the beta-cell lineage until they are eventually capable of restoring normoglycemia. While these observations demonstrate that stem cell-derived pancreatic endoderm has the potential to differentiate into mature, glucose-responsive beta-cells, the signals that direct differentiation and maturation from pancreatic endoderm onwards remain poorly understood. In this review, we analyze the sequence of events that culminates in the formation of beta-cells during embryonic development. and summarize how current protocols to generate beta-cells have sought to capitalize on this ontogenic template. We place particular emphasis on the current challenges and opportunities which occur in the later stages of beta-cell differentiation and maturation of transplantable stem cell-derived beta-cells. Another focus is on the question how the use of recently identified maturation markers such as urocortin 3 can be instrumental in guiding these efforts. PMID:25148370

  7. Beta function and anomalous dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco [CP3-Origins, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-orders beta-function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the 2-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows us to determine the anomalous dimension of the fermion masses at the infrared fixed point, and the resulting values compare well with the lattice determinations.

  8. Predicting Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hirsch; Ernest Ma; J. W. F. Valle; A. Villanova del Moral

    2005-01-01

    We give predictions for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in a simple\\u000avariant of the A_4 family symmetry model. We show that there is a lower bound\\u000afor the neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude even in the case of normal\\u000ahierarchical neutrino masses, corresponding to an effective mass parameter\\u000a|m_{ee}| >= 0.17 \\\\sqrt{\\\\Delta m^2_{ATM}}. This result holds both for

  9. NSAC Subcommittee Double Beta Decay

    E-print Network

    NSAC Subcommittee Double Beta Decay Overview Stuart Freedman University of California, Berkeley;Experimental Signal of Double Beta Decay 0 = G0(Q,Z) |Mnucl|2 2 dN dE E(Q - E)5 (1+ 2E + 4E2 3 + E3 3 + E4 and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory #12;2 Decay #12;2 0 0 Decay If 0 occurs then the neutrino

  10. Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay

    E-print Network

    S. M. Bilenky

    2010-01-12

    The neutrinoless double $\\beta$-decay of nuclei is reviewed. We discuss neutrino mixing and 3x3 PMNS neutrino mixing matrix. Basic theory of neutrinoless double $\\beta$-decay is presented in some details. Results of different calculations of nuclear matrix element are discussed. Experimental situation is considered. The Appendix is dedicated to E. Majorana (brief biography and his paper in which the theory of Majorana particles is given)

  11. Bed Ribbing Instability Explanation: Testing a numerical model of ribbed moraine formation arising from coupled flow of ice and subglacial sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Dunlop; Chris D. Clark; Richard C. A. Hindmarsh

    2008-01-01

    Ribbed moraines are large (up to 16 km long) ridges of sediment produced transverse to ice flow direction that formed widely beneath palaeo-ice sheets. Since ice sheet stability is sensitive to conditions operating at the bed, an understanding of ribbed moraine genesis will provide critical information on ice sheet dynamics. Currently, there is no consensus on ribbed moraine formation and

  12. Experiments on linear high beta helical axis stellarators to study simulated toroidal effects and Alfven-wave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Ribe, F.L.; Nelson, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses induced axial current studies in a hardcore Theta-Pinch; nonaxisymmetric RF heating of a high-Beta plasma column; formation of Axisymmetric hardcore theta pinches with notched hardcore current; and externally driven till made experiments on the high-beta Q machine field reversed configuration. (LSP)

  13. An ancient role for nuclear beta-catenin in the evolution of axial polarity and germ layer segregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wikramanayake, Athula H.; Hong, Melanie; Lee, Patricia N.; Pang, Kevin; Byrum, Christine A.; Bince, Joanna M.; Xu, Ronghui; Martindale, Mark Q.

    2003-01-01

    The human oncogene beta-catenin is a bifunctional protein with critical roles in both cell adhesion and transcriptional regulation in the Wnt pathway. Wnt/beta-catenin signalling has been implicated in developmental processes as diverse as elaboration of embryonic polarity, formation of germ layers, neural patterning, spindle orientation and gap junction communication, but the ancestral function of beta-catenin remains unclear. In many animal embryos, activation of beta-catenin signalling occurs in blastomeres that mark the site of gastrulation and endomesoderm formation, raising the possibility that asymmetric activation of beta-catenin signalling specified embryonic polarity and segregated germ layers in the common ancestor of bilaterally symmetrical animals. To test whether nuclear translocation of beta-catenin is involved in axial identity and/or germ layer formation in 'pre-bilaterians', we examined the in vivo distribution, stability and function of beta-catenin protein in embryos of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Here we show that N. vectensis beta-catenin is differentially stabilized along the oral-aboral axis, translocated into nuclei in cells at the site of gastrulation and used to specify entoderm, indicating an evolutionarily ancient role for this protein in early pattern formation.

  14. Ruthenium on Beta Zeolite in Cinnamaldehyde Hydrogenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lashdaf; M. Tiitta; T. Venäläinen; H. Österholm; A. O. I. Krause

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of ruthenium was studied in relation to the acidity of beta zeolite. The impregnation of beta zeolite with ruthenium chloride decreased the crystallite size of beta zeolite. The acidity of the beta zeolite influenced the particle size of ruthenium. The particle size of ruthenium increased with decreasing acidity. Even catalysts with large particle size of ruthenium were selective

  15. Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Singular Current Sheets in Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamic Flows

    E-print Network

    Holger Friedel; Rainer Grauer; Christiane Marliani

    1996-08-12

    The formation of current sheets in ideal incompressible magnetohydrodynamic flows in two dimensions is studied numerically using the technique of adaptive mesh refinement. The growth of current density is in agreement with simple scaling assumptions. As expected, adaptive mesh refinement shows to be very efficient for studying singular structures compared to non-adaptive treatments.

  16. Nanosecond pulsed DPSS Nd:YAG laser striation-free cutting of alumina sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinzhou Yan; Lin Li; Kursad Sezer; David Whitehead; Lingfei Ji; Yong Bao; Yijian Jiang

    Lasers are extensively employed in cutting alumina sheets in the electronic industries. An important quality factor of laser cutting is striation (periodical lines) formation on the cut surfaces, which affects the surface roughness and geometry precision of laser cut products. The elimination of striation is important for laser cutting of alumina since it is necessary for denser circuit patterns and

  17. Simulation of Vortex Sheet Roll-Up in 3-D Flow and Application to Vortex Ring Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Krasny; Keith Lindsay

    2002-01-01

    A Lagrangian particle method is presented for computing vortex sheet roll-up in 3-D flow. The Biot-Savart integral defining the self-induced sheet velocity is regularized in order to prevent the growth of spurious roundoff error perturbations and the formation of a Moore curvature singularity, due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Computing the particle velocities is an example of an N-body problem, where N

  18. Neutrinoless double beta decay and neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Duerr, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-27

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) is a promising test for lepton number violating physics beyond the standard model (SM) of particle physics. There is a deep connection between this decay and the phenomenon of neutrino masses. In particular, we will discuss the relation between 0{nu}{beta}{beta} and Majorana neutrino masses provided by the so-called Schechter-Valle theorem in a quantitative way. Furthermore, we will present an experimental cross check to discriminate 0{nu}{beta}{beta} from unknown nuclear background using only one isotope, i.e., within one experiment.

  19. Asymptotic behavior of beta-integers

    E-print Network

    L. Balková; J. P. Gazeau; E. Pelantová

    2008-02-21

    Beta-integers (``$\\beta$-integers'') are those numbers which are the counterparts of integers when real numbers are expressed in irrational basis $\\beta > 1$. In quasicrystalline studies $\\beta$-integers supersede the ``crystallographic'' ordinary integers. When the number $\\beta$ is a Parry number, the corresponding $\\beta$-integers realize only a finite number of distances between consecutive elements and somewhat appear like ordinary integers, mainly in an asymptotic sense. In this letter we make precise this asymptotic behavior by proving four theorems concerning Parry $\\beta$-integers.

  20. Adsorption and recovery of nonylphenol ethoxylate on a crosslinked beta-cyclodextrin-carboxymethylcellulose polymer.

    PubMed

    Bonenfant, Danielle; Niquette, Patrick; Mimeault, Murielle; Hausler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A study of adsorption/recovery of nonylphenol 9 mole ethoxylate (NP9EO) on a crosslinked beta-cyclodextrin-carboxymethylcellulose (beta-CD-CMC) polymer was carried out by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The adsorption was performed in mixtures containing 500 mg of the beta-CD-CMC polymer and aqueous NP9EO solutions at concentrations 12-82 mg/L, whereas the recovery of NP9EO was effectuated by shaking the beta-CD-CMC polymer loaded with methanol. The assays were made at 25 degrees C and atmospheric pressure under agitation. The results have shown that the adsorption is a rapid process and the beta-CD-CMC polymer exhibits a high NP9EO adsorption capacity of 83-92 w% (1.1-6.8 mg NP9EO/g beta-CD-CMC polymer) dependent of the initial NP9EO concentration in liquid phase. This adsorption may involve the formation of an inclusion complex beta-CD-NP9EO and a physical adsorption in the polymer network. The adsorption equilibrium measurements, which were analyzed using the Langmuir isotherm, have indicated a monolayer coverage and the homogeneous distribution of active sites at the surface of the beta-CD-CMC polymer. Moreover, the negative value obtained for the free energy change (-13.2 kJ/mol) has indicated that the adsorption process is spontaneous. In parallel, the beta-CD-CMC polymer exhibited a high NP9EO recovery efficiency of 97 w% that may occur through a decrease of binding strength between beta-CD-CMC polymer and NP9EO. Together, these results suggest that the beta-CD-CMC polymer could constitute a good adsorbent for removing nonylphenol ethoxylates from wastewater due to its high adsorption capacity and non-toxic character of beta-CD and CMC to environment. PMID:20418626