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Sample records for beta sheet formation

  1. Amyloid-beta-sheet formation at the air-water interface.

    PubMed Central

    Schladitz, C; Vieira, E P; Hermel, H; Möhwald, H

    1999-01-01

    An amyloid(1-40) solution rich in coil, turn, and alpha-helix, but poor in beta-sheet, develops monolayers with a high beta-sheet content when spread at the air-water interface. These monolayers are resistant to repeated compression-dilatation cycles and interaction with trifluoroethanol. The secondary structure motifs were detected by circular dichroism (CD) in solution and with infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) at the interface. Hydrophobic influences are discussed for the structure conversion in an effort to understand the completely unknown reason for the natural change of the normal prion protein cellular (PrP(C)) into the abnormal prion protein scrapie (PrP(Sc)). PMID:10585952

  2. Liquid Crystal Based Sensor to Detect Beta-Sheet Formation of Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadati, Monirosadat; Izmitli Apik, Aslin; Abbott, Nicholas L.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-03-01

    Protein aggregation into amyloid fibrils is involved in the progression of Alzheimer's, typeII diabetes and Huntington's diseases. Although larger aggregates remain important for clinical determination, small oligomers are of great interest due to their potentially toxic nature. It is therefore crucial to develop methods that probe the aggregation process at early stages and in the vicinity of biological membranes. Here, we present a simple method that relies on liquid crystalline materials and a Langmuir monolayer at the aqueous-liquid crystal (LC) interface. The approach is based on the LC's specific response to ?-sheet structures, which abound in amyloid fibrils. When the system is observed under polarized light, the fibrils formed by amyloidogenic peptides give rise to the formation of elongated and branched structures in the LCs. Moreover, the PolScope measurements prove that the LCs are predominantly aligned along the fibrils when exposed to a ?-sheet forming peptide. In contrast, non-amyloidogenic peptides form ellipsoidal domains of irregularly tilted LCs. This method is capable of reporting aggregation at lipid-aqueous interfaces at nanomolar concentrations of the peptide, and much earlier than commonly used fluorescence-based techniques. We thank Prof. Oleg D. Levrentovich and Young-Ki Kim from the Liquid Crystal Institute of Kent State University for the use of their PolScope instrument. This work was partially supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (P300P2_151342).

  3. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry reveals a conformational conversion from random assembly to beta-sheet in amyloid fibril formation

    PubMed Central

    Bleiholder, Christian; Dupuis, Nicholas F.; Wyttenbach, Thomas; Bowers, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid cascades leading to peptide ?-sheet fibrils and plaques are central to many important diseases. Recently, intermediate assemblies of these cascades were identified as the toxic agents that interact with the cellular machinery. The location and cause of the transformation from natively unstructured assembly to the beta-sheet oligomers found in all fibrils is important in understanding disease onset and the development of therapeutic agents. Research on this early oligomeric region has largely been unsuccessful since all traditional techniques measure only ensemble average oligomer properties. Here, ion mobility methods are utilized to deduce the peptide self-assembly mechanism. We look at a series of amyloid forming peptides clipped from larger peptides or proteins associated with disease. We provide unambiguous evidence for structural transitions in each of these fibril forming peptide systems establishing the potential of this method for the development of therapeutic agents and drug evaluation. PMID:21258392

  4. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  5. Protein Beta-Sheets Predicted in 1951 by Pauling et Al. using standard bond length and

    E-print Network

    Guermeur, Yann

    -Sheets #12;Beta-Bulge #12;Beta-Helix PDB code 1QCX #12;Beta-Propeller PDB code 1HXN #12;Beta-Sandwich PDB to avoid aggregation: BetaBarrels: no edge strand! Parallel BetaHelix: ends are protected by loops. BetaPropellers Protein function #12;Beta-Sheet Annotation Some algorithms: DSSP (Kabsch, W. & Sander, C. (1983

  6. Beating the Heat - Fast Scanning Melts Silk Beta Sheet Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Cebe, Peggy; Hu, Xiao; Kaplan, David L.; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Wurm, Andreas; Arbeiter, Daniela; Schick, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Beta-pleated-sheet crystals are among the most stable of protein secondary structures, and are responsible for the remarkable physical properties of many fibrous proteins, such as silk, or proteins forming plaques as in Alzheimer's disease. Previous thinking, and the accepted paradigm, was that beta-pleated-sheet crystals in the dry solid state were so stable they would not melt upon input of heat energy alone. Here we overturn that assumption and demonstrate that beta-pleated-sheet crystals melt directly from the solid state to become random coils, helices, and turns. We use fast scanning chip calorimetry at 2,000?K/s and report the first reversible thermal melting of protein beta-pleated-sheet crystals, exemplified by silk fibroin. The similarity between thermal melting behavior of lamellar crystals of synthetic polymers and beta-pleated-sheet crystals is confirmed. Significance for controlling beta-pleated-sheet content during thermal processing of biomaterials, as well as towards disease therapies, is envisioned based on these new findings. PMID:23350037

  7. Beating the Heat: Fast Scanning Melts Beta Sheet Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebe, Peggy; Hu, Xiao; Kaplan, David; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Wurm, Andreas; Arbeiter, Daniella; Schick, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Beta-pleated-sheet crystals are among the most stable of protein secondary structures, and are responsible for the remarkable physical properties of many fibrous proteins, such as silk. Previous thinking was that beta-pleated-sheet crystals in the dry solid state would not melt upon input of heat energy alone. Indeed, at conventional heating rates (~1-50 °C/min), silk exhibits its glass transition (~175 °C), followed by cold crystallization, and then by immediate thermal degradation beginning at about 225 °C. Here we demonstrate that beta-pleated-sheet crystals can melt directly from the solid state to become random coils, helices, and turns. We use fast scanning chip calorimetry at 2,000 K/s to avoid thermal degradation, and report the first reversible thermal melting of protein beta-pleated-sheet crystals, exemplified by silk fibroin. The similarity between thermal melting behavior of lamellar crystals of synthetic polymers and beta-pleated-sheet crystals is confirmed. The authors acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation and German Academic Exchange Service DAAD; EZ acknowledges a European Union funded Marie Curie EST fellowship (ADVATEC); XH and DK acknowledge NIH P41 Tissue Engineering Resource Center.

  8. A new catalog of protein beta-sheets.

    PubMed

    Parisien, Marc; Major, François

    2005-11-15

    Systematic protein folding studies depend on protein three-dimensional structure annotation, the assignment of amino acid structural types from atomic coordinates. Significant stabilizing factors between adjacent beta-sheet peptide chains have recently been characterized and were not considered during the development of previously published annotation methods. To produce an accurate beta-sheet domain catalog and to encompass the full beta-sheet spectacle, we developed a method, beta-Spider, which evaluates a packing energy between adjacent peptide chains in accordance with the newly discovered stabilizing factors. While considering important energetic factors, our approach also minimizes the use of subjective criteria, such as (phi,psi) boundaries and sets of H-bonding motifs that are used in other existing methods. As a result of the application of beta-Spider to a set of available high-resolution X-ray crystal structures, we present here a new beta-sheet catalog that differs considerably from the one produced by the most acclaimed DSSP method. The catalog includes new H-bonding motifs that were never reported. PMID:16184601

  9. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.

    2009-07-24

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  10. Role of Polyalanine Domains in -Sheet Formation in Spider Silk Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Rabotyagova, O.; Cebe, P; Kaplan, D

    2010-01-01

    Genetically engineered spider silk-like block copolymers were studied to determine the influence of polyalanine domain size on secondary structure. The role of polyalanine block distribution on {beta}-sheet formation was explored using FT-IR and WAXS. The number of polyalanine blocks had a direct effect on the formation of crystalline {beta}-sheets, reflected in the change in crystallinity index as the blocks of polyalanines increased. WAXS analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of the sample with the largest number of polyalanine blocks. This approach provides a platform for further exploration of the role of specific amino acid chemistries in regulating the assembly of {beta}-sheet secondary structures, leading to options to regulate material properties through manipulation of this key component in spider silks.

  11. Folding dynamics of a family of beta-sheet proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Denis

    2008-03-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) consist of ten anti-parallel beta strands and two small alpha helices. The beta strands are arranged into two nearly orthogonal five-strand beta sheets that surround the interior cavity, which binds unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. In the brain isoform (BFABP), these are very important for the development of the central nervous system and neuron differentiation. Furthermore, BFABP is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases including cancer and neuronal degenerative disorders. In this work, site-directed spin labeling combined with EPR techniques have been used to study the folding mechanism of BFABP. In the first series of studies, we labeled the two Cys residues at position 5 and 80 in the wild type protein with an EPR spin marker; in addition, two singly labeled mutants at positions 5 and 80 in the C80A and C5A mutants, respectively, were also produced and used as controls. The changes in the distances between the two residues were examined by a pulsed EPR method, DEER (Double Electron Electron Resonance), as a function of guanidinium hydrochloride concentration. The results were compared with those from CW EPR, circular dichroism and fluorescence measurements, which provide the information regarding sidechain mobility, secondary structure and tertiary structure, respectively. The results will be discussed in the context of the folding mechanism of the family of fatty acid binding proteins.

  12. Formation of Sprays From Conical Liquid Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Bill; Mansour, N. N.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Our objective is to predict droplet size distributions created by fuel injector nozzles in Jet turbines. These results will be used to determine the initial conditions for numerical simulations of the combustion process in gas turbine combustors. To predict the droplet size distribution, we are currently constructing a numerical model to understand the instability and breakup of thin conical liquid sheets. This geometry serves as a simplified model of the liquid jet emerging from a real nozzle. The physics of this process is difficult to study experimentally as the time and length scales are very short. From existing photographic data, it does seem clear that three-dimensional effects such as the formation of streamwise ligaments and the pulling back of the sheet at its edges under the action of surface tension are important.

  13. Diffraction from the beta-sheet crystallites in spider silk

    E-print Network

    Stephan Ulrich; Anja Glišovi?; Tim Salditt; Annette Zippelius

    2008-11-25

    We analyze the wide angle x-ray scattering from oriented spider silk fibers in terms of a quantitative scattering model, including both structural and statistical parameters of the $\\beta$-sheet crystallites of spider silk in the amorphous matrix. The model is based on kinematic scattering theory and allows for rather general correlations of the positional and orientational degrees of freedom, including the crystallite's size, composition and dimension of the unit cell. The model is evaluated numerically and compared to experimental scattering intensities allowing us to extract the geometric and statistical parameters. We show explicitly that for the experimentally found mosaicity (width of the orientational distribution) inter-crystallite effects are negligible and the data can be analyzed in terms of single crystallite scattering, as is usually assumed in the literature.

  14. Formation and separation of merged liquid sheets developed from the mixing of coaxial swirling liquid sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, D.; Raghunandan, B. N.

    2003-11-01

    Liquid-liquid coaxial swirl atomizers are used in liquid rocket engines to achieve an efficient mixing between the fuel and oxidizer sprays. The characteristics of the mixed spray are mainly controlled by the flow behavior of merged liquid sheet originating at the contact point of inner and outer swirling liquid sheets. With an intention of identifying various flow regimes of merged liquid sheet at different conditions of inner and outer liquid sheets, we report here a fundamental experimental investigation on the characteristics of merged liquid sheets using water as the experimental liquid. The physical processes involved in the formation and separation of a merged liquid sheet are described from the experimental measurements. For a given outer liquid sheet condition, the merged liquid sheet forms and separates at specific inner liquid sheet flow conditions. At low outer liquid sheet flow conditions with Weber number less than 50, the merged liquid sheet exhibits a self-sustaining periodic separation process, whose frequency increases with increasing inner liquid sheet Weber number for a given outer liquid sheet Weber number. Experimental measurements are presented to show that the dynamics of the contact point plays a major role in governing the characteristics of merged liquid sheets.

  15. Conversion of non-fibrillar {beta}-sheet oligomers into amyloid fibrils in Alzheimer's disease amyloid peptide aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Benseny-Cases, Nuria; Cocera, Mercedes; Cladera, Josep

    2007-10-05

    A{beta}(1-40) is one of the main components of the fibrils found in amyloid plaques, a hallmark of brains affected by Alzheimer's disease. It is known that prior to the formation of amyloid fibrils in which the peptide adopts a well-ordered intermolecular {beta}-sheet structure, peptide monomers associate forming low and high molecular weight oligomers. These oligomers have been previously described in electron microscopy, AFM, and exclusion chromatography studies. Their specific secondary structures however, have not yet been well established. A major problem when comparing aggregation and secondary structure determinations in concentration-dependent processes such as amyloid aggregation is the different concentration range required in each type of experiment. In the present study we used the dye Thioflavin T (ThT), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and electron microscopy in order to structurally characterize the different aggregated species which form during the A{beta}(1-40) fibril formation process. A unique sample containing 90 {mu}M peptide was used. The results show that oligomeric species which form during the lag phase of the aggregation kinetics are a mixture of unordered, helical, and intermolecular non-fibrillar {beta}-structures. The number of oligomers and the amount of non-fibrillar {beta}-structures grows throughout the lag phase and during the elongation phase these non-fibrillar {beta}-structures are transformed into fibrillar (amyloid) {beta}-structures, formed by association of high molecular weight intermediates.

  16. Average electric wave spectra in the plasma sheet: Dependence on ion density and ion beta

    SciTech Connect

    Baumjohann, W.; Treumann, R.A. ); LaBelle, J. )

    1990-04-01

    Using 4 months of tail data obtained by the ELF/MF spectrum analyzer and the plasma instrument on board the AMPTE/IRM satellite, more than 50,000 ten-second-averaged electric wave spectra were analyzed in order to establish typical spectra for periods of high and low ion density and high and low ion {beta}. The general spectral slope of the spectra in the plasma sheet follows an f{sup {minus}2} law. Ion {beta} has a stronger influence on the spectral form than the ion density. Highest average spectral densities are obtained in the low-{beta} plasma sheet boundary layer, where the spectrum is that of broadband electrostatic noise extending to frequencies near and above the upper hybrid frequency. Lowest wave intensities are encountered in the high-{beta} inner central plasma sheet. The outer central plasma sheet has generally low wave intensities and is dominated by electron cyclotron odd half-harmonics and electron regions of the plasma sheet while higher odd half-harmonics dominate the low-{beta} and low-density inner central plasma sheet.

  17. Pore formation by beta-2-microglobulin: a mechanism for the pathogenesis of dialysis associated amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Hirakura, Y; Kagan, B L

    2001-06-01

    Beta-2 microglobulin (beta 2M, molecular weight 10,000) is a 99 residue immune system protein which is part of the MHC Class I complex whose role is to present antigens to T cells. beta 2M serum levels rise dramatically in renal failure, and a syndrome called "dialysis associated amyloidosis" occurs with time in a majority of hemodialysis patients who exhibit beta 2M amyloid deposits in joints, bone and other organs. beta 2M can also induce Ca++ efflux from calvariae, collagenase production, and bone resorption. We report here that beta 2M formed relatively nonselective, long-lived, voltage independent ion channels in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes at physiologically relevant concentrations. The channels were inhibited by Congo red and blocked by zinc suggesting that they exist in an aggregated beta sheet state as is common with other amyloid fibril forming peptides. Multiple single channel conductances were seen suggesting that various oligomers of beta 2M may be capable of forming channel structures. We suggest that beta 2M channel formation may account for some of the pathophysiologic effects seen in dialysis associated amyloidosis. These findings lend further weight to the "channel hypothesis" of amyloid pathogenesis. PMID:11409039

  18. Bayesian Models and Algorithms for Protein Beta-Sheet Prediction

    E-print Network

    Erdogan, Hakan

    architecture, we significantly reduce the search space by heuristics that enforce the amino acid pairs (such as the TIM barrel). Open -sheets are the most common sheet types observed in cellular proteins, the interaction types of -strand segment pairs, and amino acid residue interactions also known as contact maps

  19. An atomic model for the pleated beta-sheet structure of Abeta amyloid protofilaments.

    PubMed Central

    Li, L; Darden, T A; Bartolotti, L; Kominos, D; Pedersen, L G

    1999-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray studies on amyloid fibrils have suggested that the stacked pleated beta-sheets are twisted so that a repeating unit of 24 beta-strands forms a helical turn around the fibril axis (. J. Mol. Biol. 273:729-739). Based on this morphological study, we have constructed an atomic model for the twisted pleated beta-sheet of human Abeta amyloid protofilament. In the model, 48 monomers of Abeta 12-42 stack (four per layer) to form a helical turn of beta-sheet. Each monomer is in an antiparallel beta-sheet conformation with a turn located at residues 25-28. Residues 17-21 and 31-36 form a hydrophobic core along the fibril axis. The hydrophobic core should play a critical role in initializing Abeta aggregation and in stabilizing the aggregates. The model was tested using molecular dynamics simulations in explicit aqueous solution, with the particle mesh Ewald (PME) method employed to accommodate long-range electrostatic forces. Based on the molecular dynamics simulations, we hypothesize that an isolated protofilament, if it exists, may not be twisted, as it appears to be when in the fibril environment. The twisted nature of the protofilaments in amyloid fibrils is likely the result of stabilizing packing interactions of the protofilaments. The model also provides a binding mode for Congo red on Abeta amyloid fibrils. The model may be useful for the design of Abeta aggregation inhibitors. PMID:10354415

  20. Flanking Polyproline Sequences Inhibit [beta]-Sheet Structure in Polyglutamine Segments by Inducing PPII-like Helix Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, Gregory; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Pahl, Reinhard; Meredith, Stephen C.

    2008-06-24

    Polyglutamine (poly(Q)) expansion is associated with protein aggregation into {beta}-sheet amyloid fibrils and neuronal cytotoxicity. In the mutant poly(Q) protein huntingtin, associated with Huntington's disease, both aggregation and cytotoxicity may be abrogated by a polyproline (poly(P)) domain flanking the C terminus of the poly(Q) region. To understand structural changes that may occur with the addition of the poly(P) sequence, we synthesized poly(Q) peptides with 3-15 glutamine residues and a corresponding set of poly(Q) peptides flanked on the C terminus by 11 proline residues (poly(Q)-poly(P)), as occurs in the huntingtin sequence. The shorter soluble poly(Q) peptides (three or six glutamine residues) showed polyproline type II-like (PPII)-like helix conformation when examined by circular dichroism spectroscopy and were monomers as judged by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), while the longer poly(Q) peptides (nine or 15 glutamine residues) showed a {beta}-sheet conformation by CD and defined oligomers by SEC. Soluble poly(Q)-poly(P) peptides showed PPII-like content but SEC showed poorly defined, overlapping oligomeric peaks, and as judged by CD these peptides retained significant PPII-like structure with increasing poly(Q) length. More importantly, addition of the poly(P) domain increased the threshold for fibril formation to {approx} 15 glutamine residues. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and film CD showed that, while poly(Q) peptides with {ge} 6 glutamine residues formed {beta}-sheet-rich fibrils, only the longest poly(Q)-poly(P) peptide (15 glutamine residues) did so. From these and other observations, we propose that poly(Q) domains exist in a 'tug-of-war' between two conformations, a PPII-like helix and a {beta}-sheet, while the poly(P) domain is conformationally constrained into a proline type II helix (PPII). Addition of poly(P) to the C terminus of a poly(Q) domain induces a PPII-like structure, which opposes the aggregation-prone {beta}-sheet. These structural observations may shed light on the threshold phenomenon of poly(Q) aggregation, and support the hypothesized evolution of 'protective' poly(P) tracts adjacent to poly(Q) aggregation domains.

  1. Probing the nanosecond dynamics of a designed three-stranded beta-sheet with a massively parallel molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Voelz, Vincent A; Luttmann, Edgar; Bowman, Gregory R; Pande, Vijay S

    2009-03-01

    Recently a temperature-jump FTIR study of a designed three-stranded sheet showing a fast relaxation time of approximately 140 +/- 20 ns was published. We performed massively parallel molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent to probe the structural events involved in this relaxation. While our simulations produce similar relaxation rates, the structural ensemble is broad. We observe the formation of turn structure, but only very weak interaction in the strand regions, which is consistent with the lack of strong backbone-backbone NOEs in previous structural NMR studies. These results suggest that either (D)P(D)P-II folds at time scales longer than 240 ns, or that (D)P(D)P-II is not a well-defined three-stranded beta-sheet. This work also provides an opportunity to compare the performance of several popular forcefield models against one another. PMID:19399235

  2. Formation of current sheets in magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2014-07-15

    An ideal evolution of magnetic fields in three spatial dimensions tends to cause neighboring field lines to increase their separation exponentially with distance ? along the lines, ?(?)=?(0)e{sup ?(?)}. The non-ideal effects required to break magnetic field line connections scale as e{sup ??}, so the breaking of connections is inevitable for ? sufficiently large—even though the current density need nowhere be large. When the changes in field line connections occur rapidly compared to an Alfvén transit time, the constancy of j{sub ||}/B along the magnetic field required for a force-free equilibrium is broken in the region where the change occurs, and an Alfvénic relaxation of j{sub ||}/B occurs. Independent of the original spatial distribution of j{sub ||}/B, the evolution is into a sheet current, which is stretched by a factor e{sup ?} in width and contracted by a factor e{sup ?} in thickness with the current density j{sub ||} increasing as e{sup ?}. The dissipation of these sheet currents and their associated vorticity sheets appears to be the mechanism for transferring energy from a reconnecting magnetic field to a plasma. Harris sheets, which are used in models of magnetic reconnection, are shown to break up in the direction of current flow when they have a finite width and are in a plasma in force equilibrium. The dependence of the longterm nature of magnetic reconnection in systems driven by footpoint motion can be studied in a model that allows qualitative variation in the nature of that motion: slow or fast motion compared to the Alfvén transit time and the neighboring footpoints either exponentially separating in time or not.

  3. Formation and dynamical history of the beta Pictoris system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, M.

    2014-09-01

    The structure of the beta Pic disk holds many clues to its formation and dynamical history. In particular there is strong evidence for sculpting by the beta Pic-b planet. For example, a warp in the disk at 80au is thought to be driven by the secular perturbations of that planet, and scattering of comets by beta Pic-b is thought to be the origin of the Falling Evaporating Bodies. A clump in the disk coincident with the warp, also at ~80au, provides clues to the outer planetary system which for now is poorly constrained. One possible origin for the clump is in trapping of comets into resonance with an outer planet currently at ~60au, with an alternative scenario being a giant impact between planetary embryos. This talk will consider the various disk structures and what they tell us about the formation and dynamical history of the beta Pictoris system.

  4. Captides: Rigid Junctions between Beta Sheets and Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kier, Brandon L.; Andersen, Niels H.

    2014-01-01

    An extensive series of covalently linked small molecule-peptide adducts based on a terminally capped beta hairpin motif is reported. The constructs can be prepared by standard solid-phase fmoc chemistry with 1 to 4 peptide chains linked to small molecule hubs bearing carboxylic acid moieties. The key feature of interest is the precise, buried environment of the small molecule, and its rigid orientation relative to one or more short, but fully structured peptide chain(s). Most of this study employs a minimalist 9 residue “captide”, a capped ?-turn, but we illustrate general applicability to peptides which can terminate in a beta strand. The non-peptide portion of these adducts can include nearly any molecule bearing one or more carboxylic acid groups. Fold-dependent rigidity sets this strategy apart from currently available bioconjugation methods, which typically engender significant flexibility between peptide and tag. Applications to catalyst enhancement, drug design, higher-order assembly, and FRET calibration rulers are discussed. PMID:24909552

  5. Methylated mono- and di(ethylene glycol)-functionalized beta-sheet forming polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J; Deming, T J

    2001-01-01

    We have synthesized methylated mono- and di(ethylene glycol)-functionalized polymers of L-serine and L-cysteine that adopt beta-sheet conformations in the solid state: poly(O-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-L-serine), poly(1); poly(O-(2-(methoxy)ethyl)-L-serine), poly(2); and poly(S-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)carbonyl-L-cysteine), poly(3). Of these three polymers, only poly(1) was found to be highly soluble in water independent of pH. Circular dichroism analysis of poly(1) in water or trifluoroethanol at 25 degrees C revealed that it is in a random conformation, which was unperturbed by changes in pH, buffer, or temperature. However, addition of methanol or acetonitrile to aqueous solutions of poly(1) resulted in a transition to the beta-sheet conformation, as found in the solid state. The polymers were synthesized by transition metal catalyzed polymerization of amino acid-N-carboxyanhydrides, prepared from the functionalized amino acids and represent a new class of readily processable beta-sheet forming polypeptides. PMID:11749148

  6. Designed ?-sheet peptides inhibit amyloid formation by targeting toxic oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Hopping, Gene; Kellock, Jackson; Barnwal, Ravi Pratap; Law, Peter; Bryers, James; Varani, Gabriele; Caughey, Byron; Daggett, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the toxic soluble-oligomeric form of different amyloid proteins share a common backbone conformation, but the amorphous nature of this oligomer prevents its structural characterization by experiment. Based on molecular dynamics simulations we proposed that toxic intermediates of different amyloid proteins adopt a common, nonstandard secondary structure, called ?-sheet. Here we report the experimental characterization of peptides designed to be complementary to the ?-sheet conformation observed in the simulations. We demonstrate inhibition of aggregation in two different amyloid systems, ?-amyloid peptide (A?) and transthyretin, by these designed ?-sheet peptides. When immobilized the ?-sheet designs preferentially bind species from solutions enriched in the toxic conformer compared with non-aggregated, nontoxic species or mature fibrils. The designs display characteristic spectroscopic signatures distinguishing them from conventional secondary structures, supporting ?-sheet as a structure involved in the toxic oligomer stage of amyloid formation and paving the way for novel therapeutics and diagnostics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01681.001 PMID:25027691

  7. Investigation of genetically-engineered beta-sheet polypeptides for nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Narender

    2007-12-01

    Ongoing miniaturization in integrated circuit (IC) device fabrication via conventional lithography faces increasing technical challenges and imposes significant performance limitations on devices and interconnects stemming from the fundamental physics of electron transport. This drives the need to explore other nanofabrication approaches, such as self-assembly, and alternate device or interconnect structures with novel electron transport mechanisms, such as ballistic electron transport. Molecular self-assembly, ubiquitous in biology and bio-inspired materials, might have tremendous potential for nanoelectronic applications. Specifically, genetically-engineered beta-sheet polypeptides offer certain key attributes for nanoelectronic applications. These attributes include: controllable self-assembly, potential to form one dimensional quantum channels for ballistic electron transport, and substrate-specific interactions for interfacial engineering. This dissertation explores and evaluates the nanowire self-assembly characteristics of several de novo genetically-engineered beta-sheet polypeptides (synthesized by our group) on various substrates for applications in nanoelectronic interconnect schemes. In addition, substrate-attachment of the beta-sheet polypeptide nanowire structures is investigated and preliminary electrical testing of a polypeptide nanowire fibril is presented. Chapters 1 and 2 provide an overall introduction and discuss the characterization techniques utilized in the experimental work. Chapter 3 describes a detailed self-assembly study of various polypeptides and documents the formulation and deposition of controlled, linear self-assemblies of polypeptides. It was determined that control of the concentration and deposition-time enables the deposition of linear ordered polypeptide assemblies on substrates. A predominance of bilayer stacking of polypeptide sheets in the solution-formed linear assemblies has been observed. Template-directed self-assembly of linear polypeptide assemblies has also been documented on graphite surfaces. This has demonstrated the potential for epitaxial or template-directed ordering of polypeptides on substrates for potential nanoelectronic applications. Chapter 4 describes an adhesion study of polypeptide nanostructures on various substrates. A forced-scanning methodology based on atomic force microscopy was employed and used to identify specific (covalent) and non-specific (physisorbed) interactions of the polypeptide to a variety of substrates. This information is important for substrate and electrode attachment of polypeptides for nanoelectronic applications. Chapter 5 presents the results of scanning tunneling microscopy of polypeptide monolayers on graphite and theoretical charge density calculations. These results confirm that this polypeptide exhibits a beta-sheet conformation on the graphite substrate.

  8. Amphiphilic beta-sheet cobra cardiotoxin targets mitochondria and disrupts its network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Hui; Wu, Wen-guey

    2005-06-01

    Recent advance in understanding the role of toxin proteins in controlling cell death has revealed that pro-apoptotic viral proteins targeting mitochondria contain amphiphilic alpha-helices with pore-forming properties. Herein, we describe that the pore-forming amphiphilic beta-sheet cardiotoxins (or cytotoxins, CTXs) from Taiwan cobra (Naja atra) also target mitochondrial membrane after internalization and act synergistically with CTX-induced cytosolic calcium increase to disrupt mitochondria network. It is suggested that CTX-induced fragmentation of mitochondria play a role in controlling CTX-induced necrosis of myocytes and cause severe tissue necrosis in the victims. PMID:15922335

  9. An exact collisionless equilibrium for the Force-Free Harris Sheet with low plasma beta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanson, O.; Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Troscheit, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present a first discussion and analysis of the physical properties of a new exact collisionless equilibrium for a one-dimensional nonlinear force-free magnetic field, namely, the force-free Harris sheet. The solution allows any value of the plasma beta, and crucially below unity, which previous nonlinear force-free collisionless equilibria could not. The distribution function involves infinite series of Hermite polynomials in the canonical momenta, of which the important mathematical properties of convergence and non-negativity have recently been proven. Plots of the distribution function are presented for the plasma beta modestly below unity, and we compare the shape of the distribution function in two of the velocity directions to a Maxwellian distribution.

  10. An exact collisionless equilibrium for the Force-Free Harris Sheet with low plasma beta

    E-print Network

    O. Allanson; T. Neukirch; F. Wilson; S. Troscheit

    2015-10-26

    We present a first discussion and analysis of the physical properties of a new exact collisionless equilibrium for a one-dimensional nonlinear force-free magnetic field, namely the Force-Free Harris Sheet. The solution allows any value of the plasma beta, and crucially below unity, which previous nonlinear force-free collisionless equilibria could not. The distribution function involves infinite series of Hermite Polynomials in the canonical momenta, of which the important mathematical properties of convergence and non-negativity have recently been proven. Plots of the distribution function are presented for the plasma beta modestly below unity, and we compare the shape of the distribution function in two of the velocity directions to a Maxwellian distribution.

  11. Reversible Hydrogel–Solution System of Silk with High Beta-Sheet Content

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Silkworm silk has been widely used as a textile fiber, as biomaterials and in optically functional materials due to its extraordinary properties. The ?-sheet-rich natural nanofiber units of about 10–50 nm in diameter are often considered the origin of these properties, yet it remains unclear how silk self-assembles into these hierarchical structures. A new system composed of ?-sheet-rich silk nanofibers about 10–20 nm in diameter is reported here, where these nanofibers formed into “flowing hydrogels” at 0.5–2% solutions and could be transformed back into the solution state at lower concentrations, even with a high ?-sheet content. This is in contrast with other silk processed materials, where significant ?-sheet content negates reversibility between solution and solid states. These fibers are formed by regulating the self-assembly process of silk in aqueous solution, which changes the distribution of negative charges while still supporting ?-sheet formation in the structures. Mechanistically, there appears to be a shift toward negative charges along the outside of the silk nanofibers in our present study, resulting in a higher zeta potential (above ?50 mV) than previous silk materials which tend to be below ?30 mV. The higher negative charge on silk nanofibers resulted in electrostatic repulsion strong enough to negate further assembly of the nanofibers. Changing silk concentration changed the balance between hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic repulsion of ?-sheet-rich silk nanofibers, resulting in reversible hydrogel–solution transitions. Furthermore, the silk nanofibers could be disassembled into shorter fibers and even nanoparticles upon ultrasonic treatment following the transition from hydrogel to solution due to the increased dispersion of hydrophobic smaller particles, without the loss of ?-sheet content, and with retention of the ability to transition between hydrogel and solution states through reversion to longer nanofibers during self-assembly. These reversible solution-hydrogel transitions were tunable with ultrasonic intensity, time, or temperature. PMID:25056606

  12. Microphase Separation Controlled beta-Sheet Crystallization Kinetics in Fibrous Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, X.; Lu, Q; Kaplan, D; Cebe, P

    2009-01-01

    Silk is a naturally occurring fibrous protein with a multiblock chain architecture. As such, it has many similarities with synthetic block copolymers, including the possibility for e-sheet crystallization restricted within the crystallizable blocks. The mechanism of isothermal crystallization kinetics of e-sheet crystals in silk multiblock fibrous proteins is reported in this study. Kinetics theories, such as Avrami analysis which was established for studies of synthetic polymer crystal growth, are for the first time extended to investigate protein self-assembly in e-sheet rich Bombyx mori silk fibroin samples, using time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and synchrotron real-time wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The Avrami exponent, n, was close to 2 for all methods and crystallization temperatures, indicating formation of e-sheet crystals in silk proteins is different from the 3-D spherulitic crystal growth found in synthetic polymers. Observations by scanning electron microscopy support the view that the protein structures vary during the different stages of crystal growth, and show a microphase separation pattern after chymotrypsin enzyme biodegradation. We present a model to explain the crystallization of the multiblock silk fibroin protein, by analogy to block copolymers: crystallization of e-sheets occurs under conditions of geometrical restriction caused by phase separation of the crystallizable and uncrystallizable blocks. This crystallization model could be widely applicable in other proteins with multiblock (i.e., crystallizable and noncrystallizable) domains.

  13. CURRENT SHEETS FORMATION IN TANGLED CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Parker, E. N. E-mail: parker@oddjob.uchicago.edu

    2013-08-10

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of magnetic fields in closed regions of solar and stellar coronae. To understand under which conditions current sheets form, we examine dissipative and ideal reduced magnetohydrodynamic models in Cartesian geometry, where two magnetic field components are present: the strong guide field B{sub 0}, extended along the axial direction, and the dynamical orthogonal field b. Magnetic field lines thread the system along the axial direction that spans the length L and are line-tied at the top and bottom plates. The magnetic field b initially has only large scales, with its gradient (current) length scale of the order of l{sub b}. We identify the magnetic intensity threshold b/B{sub 0} {approx} l{sub b}/L. For values of b below this threshold, field-line tension inhibits the formation of current sheets, while above the threshold they form quickly on fast ideal timescales. In the ideal case, above the magnetic threshold, we show that current sheets thickness decreases in time until it becomes smaller than the grid resolution, with the analyticity strip width {delta} decreasing at least exponentially, after which the simulations become underresolved.

  14. Designing biomaterials exploiting beta-sheet forming peptides self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiani, Alberto

    2013-03-01

    The use of non-covalent self-assembly to construct materials has become a prominent strategy in material science offering practical routes for the construction of increasingly functional materials for a variety of applications ranging from electronic to biotechnology. A variety of molecular building blocks can be used for this purpose, one such block that has attracted considerable attention are de-novo designed peptides. The library of 20 natural amino acids offers the ability to play with the intrinsic properties of the peptide such as structure, hydrophobicity, charge and functionality allowing the design of materials with a wide range of properties. The beta-sheet motif is of particular interest as short peptides can be designed to form beta-sheet rich fibres that entangle and consequently form hydrogels. These hydrogels can be further functionalised using specific biological signals or drugs by synthesising functionalised peptides that are incorporated into the hydrogel network during the self-assembling process. This functionalisation approach is very attractive has it does not require any chemistry avoiding therefore the use of additional potentially toxic chemicals. It also offers the possibility to introduce multiple functionalities in a straightforward fashion. The hydrogels can also be made responsive through the use of enzymatic catalysis and/or conjugation with responsive polymers. In this presentation we will discuss the design opportunities offered by these peptides to create new functional biomaterials.

  15. A Theoretical Model of Pinching Current Sheet in Low-beta Plasmas

    E-print Network

    Takeshige, Satoshi; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important physical process in various explosive phenomena in the universe. In the previous studies, it was found that fast re- connection takes place when the thickness of a current sheet becomes on the order of a microscopic length such as the ion larmor radius or the ion inertial length. In this study, we investigated the pinching process of a current sheet by the Lorentz force in a low-{\\beta} plasma using one-dimensional magnetohydrodynam- ics (MHD) simulations. It is known that there is an exact self-similar solution for this problem that neglects gas pressure. We compared the non-linear MHD dynamics with the analytic self-similar solution. From the MHD simulations, we found that with the gas pressure included the implosion process deviates from the analytic self-similar solution as t {\\rightarrow} t 0, where t 0 is the explosion time when the thickness of a current sheet of the analytic solution becomes 0. We also found a pair of MHD fast-mode shocks are generated and propaga...

  16. A method to predict edge strands in beta-sheets from protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Guilloux, Antonin; Caudron, Bernard; Jestin, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for rules allowing three-dimensional structure information to be derived from protein sequences. In this work, consideration of an elementary protein folding step allows protein sub-sequences which optimize folding to be derived for any given protein sequence. Classical mechanics applied to this system and the energy conservation law during the elementary folding step yields an equation whose solutions are taken over the field of rational numbers. This formalism is applied to beta-sheets containing two edge strands and at least two central strands. The number of protein sub-sequences optimized for folding per amino acid in beta-strands is shown in particular to predict edge strands from protein sequences. Topological information on beta-strands and loops connecting them is derived for protein sequences with a prediction accuracy of 75%. The statistical significance of the finding is given. Applications in protein structure prediction are envisioned such as for the quality assessment of protein structure models. PMID:24688737

  17. Collective behavior in two-dimensional biological systems: Receptor clustering and beta-sheet aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chinlin

    We studied two particular biomedical systems which exhibit collective molecular behavior. One is clustering of tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNFR1), and another is ?-sheet folding and aggregation. Receptor clustering has been shown to be a crucial step in many signaling events but its biological meaning has not been adequately addressed. Here, via a simple lattice model, we show how cells use this clustering machinery to enhance sensitivity as well as robustness. On the other hand, intracellular deposition of aggregated protein rich in ?-sheet is a prominent cytopathological feature of most neurodegenerative diseases. How this aggregation occurs and how it responds to therapy is not completely understood. Here, we started from a reconstruction of the H-bond potential and carry out a full investigation of ?-sheet thermodynamics as well as kinetics. We show that ?-sheet aggregation is most likely due to molecular stacking and found that the minimal length of an aggregate mutant polymer corresponds well with the number observed in adult Huntington's disease. We have also shown that molecular agents such as dendrimers might fail at high-dose therapy; instead, a potential therapy strategy is to block ?-turn formation. Our predictions can be used for future experimental tests and clinical trials.

  18. Structural basis of ARNT PAS-B dimerization: use of a common beta-sheet interface for hetero- and homodimerization.

    PubMed

    Card, Paul B; Erbel, Paul J A; Gardner, Kevin H

    2005-10-28

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is a promiscuous bHLH-PAS (Per-ARNT-Sim) protein that forms heterodimeric transcriptional regulator complexes with several other bHLH-PAS subunits to control a variety of biological pathways, some of which are centrally involved in disease initiation and/or progression. One of these is the hypoxia response pathway, which allows eukaryotic cells to respond to low oxygen tension via the formation of a heterodimeric complex between ARNT and another bHLH-PAS protein, the hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-alpha). We have previously shown that the C-terminal PAS domains of an HIF-alpha isoform (HIF-2alpha) and ARNT interact in vitro, and that mutations in the solvent-exposed beta-sheet surface of the HIF-2alpha domain not only disrupt this interaction, but also greatly attenuate the hypoxia response in living cells. Here, we have solved the solution structure of the corresponding PAS domain of ARNT and show that it utilizes a very similar interface for the interaction with the HIF-2alpha PAS domain. We also show that this domain self-associates in a concentration-dependent manner, and that the interface used in this homodimeric complex is very similar to that used in the formation of heterodimer. In addition, using experimentally derived NMR restraints, we used the program HADDOCK to calculate a low-resolution model of the complex formed in solution by these two PAS domains, and confirm the validity of this model using site-directed spin labeling to obtain long-range distance information in solution. With this information, we propose a model for the mode of multi-PAS domain interaction in bHLH-PAS transcriptional activation complexes. PMID:16181639

  19. Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied

    E-print Network

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magnetic Fields C. S. Ng and A years Require sharp gradient (current sheets) Line-tying in photosphere Quasi-equilibrium --- most equations #12;Magnetostatic equilibrium J z +[A, J] = 0 ,or B J = 0 with = = 0. c.f. 2D Euler equation

  20. Estradiol improves cerebellar memory formation by activating estrogen receptor beta.

    PubMed

    Andreescu, Corina E; Milojkovic, Bogdan A; Haasdijk, Elize D; Kramer, Piet; De Jong, Frank H; Krust, Andrée; De Zeeuw, Chris I; De Jeu, Marcel T G

    2007-10-01

    Learning motor skills is critical for motor abilities such as driving a car or playing piano. The speed at which we learn those skills is subject to many factors. Yet, it is not known to what extent gonadal hormones can affect the achievement of accurate movements in time and space. Here we demonstrate via different lines of evidence that estradiol promotes plasticity in the cerebellar cortex underlying motor learning. First, we show that estradiol enhances induction of long-term potentiation at the parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapse, whereas it does not affect long-term depression; second, we show that estradiol activation of estrogen receptor beta receptors in Purkinje cells significantly improves gain-decrease adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, whereas it does not affect general eye movement performance; and third, we show that estradiol increases the density of parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses, whereas it does not affect the density of climbing fiber synapses. We conclude that estradiol can improve motor skills by potentiating cerebellar plasticity and synapse formation. These processes may be advantageous during periods of high estradiol levels of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. PMID:17913916

  1. [Neutralization of static electricity charged on running vinyl chloride sheet by the use of soft beta-ray sources (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Itakura, K; Wada, N

    1978-04-01

    The feasibility of 147Pm and 3H beta-ray sources as static eliminator was experimentally investigated. A sheet of vinyl chloride of 0.1 mm in thickness was used as an example of electrified materials. Its surface charge densities before and after beta-ray neutralization were measured as the function of electrostatic charge changing the speed of the sheet and the distance between the beta-ray source and the sheet. With a 147Pm beta-ray source of 200mCi in effective activity, almost complete neutralization was found for the sheet with the charge density less than 6 X 10(-6) C/m2 running at the speed of 0.18 m/s. In the case of the running speed of 0.5 m/s frequently used in industry, the electrostatic charge below 3 X 10(6) C/m2, where corona discharger is not so effective, was also perfectly eliminated. It was found that the optimal distance between the beta-ray source and the sheet was 10 cm in the case of 147Pm. The use of 3H beta-ray source of 1 Ci was not satisfactory. These results demonstrate that 147 Pm beta-ray source operates most efficiently as static eliminator when the charge density of material and/or its moving speed is not high. PMID:663315

  2. Effect of adduct formation on the valence state of cerium in its. beta. -diketonates

    SciTech Connect

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Pechurova, N.I.; Snezhko, N.I.; Murav'eva, I.A.; Anufrieva, S.I.

    1982-04-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method for synthesis and to determine the conditions for isolation of the adducts of cerium(III) and cerium(IV) ..beta..-diketonates in the solid form, and to establish their composition and characteristics. Physicochemical investigation of the cerium(III, IV)-..beta..-diketone-additional ligand system showed that the capacity of ..beta..-diketonates for adduct formation decreases in the order thenoyltrifluoroacetonate > acetylacetonate > dibenzoylmethanide > benzoylacetonate. Adduct formation in the cerium(III, IV) ..beta..-diketonates stabilizes the cerium in the trivalent state, whereas the degree of oxidation of 4+ is stable in the tetrakis-..beta..-diketonates. According to the effect on the stabilization of cerium(III) in its ..beta..-diketonates the additional ligands can be arranged in the following order: tributyl phosphate < trioctylphosphine oxide < triphenylphosphine oxide < ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-dipyridyl < o-phenanthroline.

  3. Backbone and side-chain dynamics of residues in a partially folded beta-sheet peptide from platelet factor-4.

    PubMed Central

    Daragan, V. A.; Ilyina, E. E.; Fields, C. G.; Fields, G. B.; Mayo, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    Structurally characterizing partially folded states is problematic given the nature of these transient species. A peptide 20mer, T38AQLIATLKNGRKISLDLQA57 (P20), which has been shown to partially fold in a relatively stable turn/loop conformation (LKNGR) and transient beta-sheet structure, is a good model for studying backbone and side-chain mobilities in a transiently folded peptide by using 13C-NMR relaxation. Here, four residues in P20, A43, T44, G48, and 151, chosen for their positions in or near the loop conformation and for compositional variety, have been selectively 13C-enriched. Proton-coupled and decoupled 13C-NMR relaxation experiments have been performed to obtain the temperature dependencies (278 K to 343 K) of auto- and cross-correlation motional order parameters and correlation times. In order to differentiate sequence-neighbor effects from folding effects, two shorter peptides derived from P20, IATLK (P5) and NGRKIS (P6), were similarly 13C-enriched and investigated. For A43, T44, G48, and 151 residues in P20 relative to those in P5/P6, several observations are consistent with partial folding in P20: (1) C alpha H motional tendencies are all about the same, vary less with temperature, and are relatively more restricted, (2) G48 C alpha H2 phi (t) psi (t) rotations are more correlated, and (3) methyl group rotations are slower and yield lower activation energies consistent with formation of hydrophobic "pockets." In addition, T44 and 151 C beta H mobilities in P20 are more restricted at lower temperature than those of their C alpha H and display significantly greater sensitivity to temperature suggesting a larger enthalpic contribution to side-chain mobility. Moreover, at higher temperatures, side-chain methyls and methylenes in P20 are more motionally restricted than those in P5/P6, suggesting that some type of "folded" or "collapsed" structure remains in P20 for what normally would be considered an "unfolded" state. PMID:9041637

  4. Current Sheet Formation in a Conical Theta Pinch Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Hallock, Ashley K.; Choueiri, Edgar Y.

    2008-01-01

    Data from an inductive conical theta pinch accelerator are presented to gain insight into the process of inductive current sheet formation in the presence of a preionized background gas produced by a steady-state RF-discharge. The presence of a preionized plasma has been previously shown to allow for current sheet formation at lower discharge voltages and energies than those found in other pulsed inductive accelerator concepts, leading to greater accelerator efficiencies at lower power levels. Time-resolved magnetic probe measurements are obtained for different background pressures and pulse energies to characterize the effects of these parameters on current sheet formation. Indices are defined that describe time-resolved current sheet characteristics, such as the total current owing in the current sheet, the time-integrated total current ('strength'), and current sheet velocity. It is found that for a given electric field strength, maximums in total current, strength, and velocity occur for one particular background pressure. At other pressures, these current sheet indices are considerably smaller. The trends observed in these indices are explained in terms of the principles behind Townsend breakdown that lead to a dependence on the ratio of the electric field to the background pressure. Time-integrated photographic data are also obtained at the same experimental conditions, and qualitatively they compare quite favorably with the time-resolved magnetic field data.

  5. The peculiarities of formation of thin current sheet in the Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropotkin, Alexey; Artemyev, Anton; Malova, Helmi; Domrin, Vladimir

    We investigate the process of self-consistent thinning of magnetotail current sheet in the presence of the evolving magnetic field normal component Bz, which usually decreases during the substorm growth phase. Using PIC codes to describe plasma processes with ions becoming demagnetized and electrons being considered as the cold neutralizing background, we show that the appearance of the self-consistent electric field component inside CS can lead to the current sheet thinning and to the appearance of an extremely thin current sheet with thickness close to the ion gyroradius. Due to particle [ExB] drift during the current sheet evolution, the enhanced trapping of ions near the current sheet central plane takes place. It is shown that the density of quasi-trapped particles around current sheet at the final stage depends on both the value of the initial magnetic field normal component Bz, and the speed of the Bz decrease. If the initial magnetic field normal component is less than about 0.14 of the tangential field at the edges, the trapped plasma density near the current sheet is small. As a result, the above mentioned extremely thin current sheet is formed. In the opposite case, when the initial normal component related to the tangential field is larger than 0.14, the density of trapped particles is much higher, which produces effective thickening of the current sheet. In both cases transient (Speiser) ions are the main current carriers, but in the second case local diamagnetic currents of the trapped plasma perturb the ?urrent sheet profile making it thicker. Also trapped particles can be responsible for intense negative currents at the current sheet edges. During the Bz decrease, an additional effect of ion polarization drifts in the Y direction can compete with these negative diamagnetic fields of quasi-trapped ions. Therefore the ion dynamics is probably the general mechanism which contributes to the formation of thin current sheet and its fine structure.

  6. Entrainment of prefrontal beta oscillations induces an endogenous echo and impairs memory formation.

    PubMed

    Hanslmayr, Simon; Matuschek, Jonas; Fellner, Marie-Christin

    2014-04-14

    Brain oscillations across all frequency bands play a key role for memory formation. Specifically, desynchronization of local neuronal assemblies in the left inferior prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the beta frequency (?18 Hz) has been shown to be central for encoding of verbal memories. However, it remains elusive whether prefrontal beta desynchronization is causally relevant for memory formation and whether these endogenous beta oscillations can be entrained by external stimulation. By using combined EEG-TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation), we here address these fundamental questions in human participants performing a word-list learning task. Confirming our predictions, memory encoding was selectively impaired when the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was driven at beta (18.7 Hz) compared to stimulation at other frequencies (6.8 Hz and 10.7 Hz) and to ineffective sham stimulation (18.7 Hz). Furthermore, a sustained oscillatory "echo" in the left IFG, which outlasted the stimulation period by approximately 1.5 s, was observed solely after beta stimulation. The strength of this beta echo was related to memory impairment on a between-subjects level. These results show endogenous oscillatory entrainment effects and behavioral impairment selectively in beta frequency for stimulation of the left IFG, demonstrating an intimate causal relationship between prefrontal beta desynchronization and memory formation. PMID:24684933

  7. Spontaneous formation of electric current sheets and the origin of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, B. C.; Wolfson, R.

    1988-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the continuous boundary motion of a sheared magnetic field in a tenuous plasma with an infinite electrical conductivity can induce the formation of multiple electric current sheets in the interior plasma. In response to specific footpoint displacements, the quadrupolar magnetic field considered is shown to require the formation of multiple electric current sheets as it achieves a force-free state. Some of the current sheets are found to be of finite length, running along separatrix lines of force which separate lobes of magnetic flux. It is suggested that current sheets in the form of infinitely thin magnetic shear layers may be unstable to resistive tearing, a process which may have application to solar flares.

  8. The Formation of Pyrolytic Carbon on a Nickel Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tomonari; Yoshimoto, Yoshikazu; Yoshida, Masaru; Nakajima, Shigeo

    1989-02-01

    Pyrolytic carbon films were deposited on nickel sheets by pyrolysis of benzene at 1000°C. The surface morphology and the degree of graphitization of the deposited carbon films depended on the benzen concentration of the supplied gas. A large amount of nickel was extruded from the nickel substrate to the surface of the carbon film at a certain concentration of benzene.

  9. Engineering of betabellin-15D: a 64 residue beta sheet protein that forms long narrow multimeric fibrils.

    PubMed

    Lim, A; Saderholm, M J; Makhov, A M; Kroll, M; Yan, Y; Perera, L; Griffith, J D; Erickson, B W

    1998-07-01

    The betabellin target structure is a beta-sandwich protein consisting of two 32 residue beta-sheets packed against one another by interaction of their hydrophobic faces. The 32 residue chain of betabellin-15S (HSLTAKIpkLTFSIAphTYTCAV pkYTAKVSH, where p=DPro, k=DLys, and h=DHis) did not fold in water at pH 6.5. Air oxidation of betabellin-15S provided betabellin-15D, the 64 residue disulfide bridged two-chain molecule, which also remained unfolded in water at pH 6.5. By circular dichroic spectropolarimetry, the extent of beta structure observed for betabellin-15D increased with the pH and ionic strength of the solution and the betabellin-15D concentration. By electron microscopy, in 5.0 mM MOPS and 0.25 M NaCl at pH 6.9, betabellin-15D formed long narrow multimeric fibrils. A molecular model was constructed to show that the dimensions of these betabellin-15D fibrils are consistent with a single row of beta-sandwich molecules joined by multiple intersheet H-bonds. PMID:9684887

  10. Two distinct ?-sheet structures in Italian-mutant amyloid-beta fibrils: a potential link to different clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Hubin, Ellen; Deroo, Stéphanie; Schierle, Gabriele Kaminksi; Kaminski, Clemens; Serpell, Louise; Subramaniam, Vinod; van Nuland, Nico; Broersen, Kerensa; Raussens, Vincent; Sarroukh, Rabia

    2015-12-01

    Most Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are late-onset and characterized by the aggregation and deposition of the amyloid-beta (A?) peptide in extracellular plaques in the brain. However, a few rare and hereditary A? mutations, such as the Italian Glu22-to-Lys (E22K) mutation, guarantee the development of early-onset familial AD. This type of AD is associated with a younger age at disease onset, increased ?-amyloid accumulation, and A? deposition in cerebral blood vessel walls, giving rise to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). It remains largely unknown how the Italian mutation results in the clinical phenotype that is characteristic of CAA. We therefore investigated how this single point mutation may affect the aggregation of A?1-42 in vitro and structurally characterized the resulting fibrils using a biophysical approach. This paper reports that wild-type and Italian-mutant A? both form fibrils characterized by the cross-? architecture, but with distinct ?-sheet organizations, resulting in differences in thioflavin T fluorescence and solvent accessibility. E22K A?1-42 oligomers and fibrils both display an antiparallel ?-sheet structure, in comparison with the parallel ?-sheet structure of wild-type fibrils, characteristic of most amyloid fibrils described in the literature. Moreover, we demonstrate structural plasticity for Italian-mutant A? fibrils in a pH-dependent manner, in terms of their underlying ?-sheet arrangement. These findings are of interest in the ongoing debate that (1) antiparallel ?-sheet structure might represent a signature for toxicity, which could explain the higher toxicity reported for the Italian mutant, and that (2) fibril polymorphism might underlie differences in disease pathology and clinical manifestation. PMID:26190022

  11. The formation of wrinkles in single-layer graphene sheets under nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, A. J.; Adhikari, S.; Scarpa, F.; Bonet, J.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the formation of wrinkles and bulging in single-layer graphene sheets using an equivalent atomistic continuum nonlinear hyperelastic theory for nanoindentation and nanopressurization. We show that nonlinear geometrical effects play a key role in the development of wrinkles. Without abandoning the classical tension field membrane theory, we develop an enhanced model based upon the minimization of a relaxed energy functional in conjunction with nonlinear finite hyperelasticity. Formation of wrinkles are observed in rectangular graphene sheets due to the combination of induced membrane tension and edge effects under external pressure.

  12. Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied

    E-print Network

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magnetic Fields: Heating of the Solar in a magnetic non-equilibrium Parker's model (1972): Non-equilibrium driven by complex photospheric motions. i.e. surfaces of tangential discontinuities separating regions of quasi-equilibrium · Photospheric motion has

  13. Formation and Degradation of Beta-casomorphins in Dairy Processing

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duc Doan; Johnson, Stuart Keith; Busetti, Francesco; Solah, Vicky Ann

    2015-01-01

    Milk proteins including casein are sources of peptides with bioactivity. One of these peptides is beta-casomorphin (BCM) which belongs to a group of opioid peptides formed from ?-casein variants. Beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) has been demonstrated to be enzymatically released from the A1 or B ?-casein variant. Epidemiological evidence suggests the peptide BCM 7 is a risk factor for development of human diseases, including increased risk of type 1 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases but this has not been thoroughly substantiated by research studies. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV-Vis and mass spectrometry detection as well as enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used to analyze BCMs in dairy products. BCMs have been detected in raw cow's milk and human milk and a variety of commercial cheeses, but their presence has yet to be confirmed in commercial yoghurts. The finding that BCMs are present in cheese suggests they could also form in yoghurt, but be degraded during yoghurt processing. Whether BCMs do form in yoghurt and the amount of BCM forming or degrading at different processing steps needs further investigation and possibly will depend on the heat treatment and fermentation process used, but it remains an intriguing unknown. PMID:25077377

  14. Formation and Degradation of Beta-casomorphins in Dairy Processing.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc Doan; Johnson, Stuart Keith; Busetti, Francesco; Solah, Vicky Ann

    2015-01-01

    Milk proteins including casein are sources of peptides with bioactivity. One of these peptides is beta-casomorphin (BCM) which belongs to a group of opioid peptides formed from ?-casein variants. Beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) has been demonstrated to be enzymatically released from the A1 or B ?-casein variant. Epidemiological evidence suggests the peptide BCM 7 is a risk factor for development of human diseases, including increased risk of type 1 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases but this has not been thoroughly substantiated by research studies. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV-Vis and mass spectrometry detection as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used to analyze BCMs in dairy products. BCMs have been detected in raw cow's milk and human milk and a variety of commercial cheeses, but their presence has yet to be confirmed in commercial yoghurts. The finding that BCMs are present in cheese suggests they could also form in yoghurt, but be degraded during yoghurt processing. Whether BCMs do form in yoghurt and the amount of BCM forming or degrading at different processing steps needs further investigation and possibly will depend on the heat treatment and fermentation process used, but it remains an intriguing unknown. PMID:25077377

  15. Dynamically stable beta-sheets in Cu-initiated misfolding of ?-synuclein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Francis; Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2008-03-01

    The human protein ?-synuclein has been implicated as a central constituent in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson disease it is even thought to be the causative link. ?-synuclein can be stimulated to aggregate into deleterious fibrillar structures by mutation, metal binding, and agitation. In particular, Cu^2+ has been found in high concentrations in neural tissues of Parkinson sufferers. We propose a scenario involving the metal ion Cu^2+ as the misfolding ?-sheet initiator of fibrillogenesis. A model fragment of the metal-bound protein was investigated using DFT to obtain conformational details of the energetically favorable geometries. Feasible ?-sheet structures incorporating the DFT geometries were explored using heuristic ?-sheet guidelines and inverse kinematics. The resulting structures were tested for dynamic stability by simulating the fully solvated protein by classical MD constrained by the DFT geometries. Our results indicate that dynamically stable structures exist and that the metal binding is directly responsible for initiating misfolding.

  16. Calcofluor fluorescence assay for wort beta-glucan in a microplate format

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widely-used fluorescent (Calcofluor) flow injection analysis method for determining the concentrations of beta-glucans in Congress worts from barley malts is adapted to microplate format. Adaptation of the Calcofluor assay to use widely available fluorescent microplate readers makes the assay m...

  17. Formation and Reconnection of Three-Dimensional Current Sheets in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    Current-sheet formation and magnetic reconnection are believed to be the basic physical processes responsible for much of the activity observed in astrophysical plasmas, such as the Sun s corona. We investigate these processes for a magnetic configuration consisting of a uniform background field and an embedded line dipole, a topology that is expected to be ubiquitous in the corona. This magnetic system is driven by a uniform horizontal flow applied at the line-tied photosphere. Although both the initial field and the driver are translationally symmetric, the resulting evolution is calculated using a fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) simulation with adaptive mesh refinement that resolves the current sheet and reconnection dynamics in detail. The advantage of our approach is that it allows us to apply directly the vast body of knowledge gained from the many studies of 2D reconnection to the fully 3D case. We find that a current sheet forms in close analogy to the classic Syrovatskii 2D mechanism, but the resulting evolution is different than expected. The current sheet is globally stable, showing no evidence for a disruption or a secondary instability even for aspect ratios as high as 80:1. The global evolution generally follows the standard Sweet- Parker 2D reconnection model except for an accelerated reconnection rate at a very thin current sheet, due to the tearing instability and the formation of magnetic islands. An interesting conclusion is that despite the formation of fully 3D structures at small scales, the system remains close to 2D at global scales. We discuss the implications of our results for observations of the solar corona. Subject Headings: Sun: corona Sun: magnetic fields Sun: reconnection

  18. Bond formation in ultrasonically welded aluminum sheet metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkosz, Daniel Edward

    Ultrasonic welding (USW), a solid state joining technology, has been used to bond aluminum alloys commonly used in the automotive industry. Bonding occurs due to USW's high frequency (˜20 kHz) in-plane vibration of sample interfaces while being held under moderate clamp pressure normal to the plane of vibration. Vibration and clamp pressure are transmitted into bond formation via contact with a weld-tip. To better understand how weld-tip geometry affected bond formation, experiments were conducted to quantify how tip geometry influenced plastic deformation characteristics between fully welded coupons of 0.9mm thick AA6111-T4 aluminum alloy. Weld-interface microstructure features were documented by optical microscopy and features quantified in a 19 point matrix. Correlation between microstructure features, such as rolling-wakes, and resulting weld bond strengths of more than 3.0kN is made. Weld zone microstructure features appear to result from deformation at and severe migration of the original weld interface during USW. To confirm this hypothesis, intrinsic and extrinsic markers were employed to monitor weld interface deformation characteristics. Various physical and analytical techniques were used in conjunction with these markers to show that joining of "like" and "dislike" aluminum samples is achieved through mechanical mixing of mating interfaces and not by elemental diffusion. It is also hypothesized that severe deformation of the original interface would result in areas of high residual strain within a formed weld zone. To investigate this and the influence that tip geometry may have on residual strain, fully welded samples were annealed at 500°C for a controlled period of time and recovery, recrystallization and grain growth characteristics were monitored. In all welds, initial recrystallization and grain growth occurred at the outer ends of weld zones and along weld interfaces where the most turbulent mixing and grain size reduction was observed. Similarity in how all welds responded to annealing indicates that the tip geometries investigated had little influence on resulting weld formation. This claim is further supported by lap-shear failure load data for welds made with these tips being within statistical error of each other.

  19. World Sheet Commuting beta-gamma CFT and Non-Relativistic StringTheories

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bom Soo

    2007-08-30

    We construct a sigma model in two dimensions with Galilean symmetry in flat target space similar to the sigma model of the critical string theory with Lorentz symmetry in 10 flat spacetime dimensions. This is motivated by the works of Gomis and Ooguri[1] and Danielsson et. al.[2, 3]. Our theory is much simpler than their theory and does not assume a compact coordinate. This non-relativistic string theory has a bosonic matter {beta}{gamma} CFT with the conformal weight of {beta} as 1. It is natural to identify time as a linear combination of {gamma} and {bar {gamma}} through an explicit realization of the Galilean boost symmetry. The angle between {gamma} and {bar {gamma}} parametrizes one parameter family of selection sectors. These selection sectors are responsible for having a non-relativistic dispersion relation without a nontrivial topology in the non-relativistic setup, which is one of the major differences from the previous works[1, 2, 3]. This simple theory is the non-relativistic analogue of the critical string theory, and there are many different avenues ahead to be investigated. We mention a possible consistent generalization of this theory with different conformal weights for the {beta}{gamma} CFT. We also mention supersymmetric generalizations of these theories.

  20. Nonequilibrium and current sheet formation in line-tied magnetic fields C. S. Ng and A. Bhattacharjee

    E-print Network

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Nonequilibrium and current sheet formation in line-tied magnetic fields C. S. Ng and A to, and the system tends to a nonequilibrium state containing singular currents ``current sheets possibly in infinite time . Numerical simulations that begin from smooth initial conditions containing

  1. Molecular assembly formation of cyclic hexa-beta-peptide composed of acetylated glycosamino acids.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Tatsuya; Fujimura, Futoshi; Horikawa, Yoshiki; Sugiyama, Junji; Morita, Tomoyuki; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2007-01-01

    A novel cyclic hexamer of acetylated beta-glycosamino acid was synthesized and its conformation and molecular assembly formation was investigated. Variable temperature NMR study indicated that the cyclic hexapeptide took a C(3) symmetric conformation at room temperature, but at elevated temperatures a C(6) symmetric one, which was not due to averaging of the C(3) symmetric conformation, appeared. Computational geometry optimization showed that the C(6) symmetric conformation was a highly planar structure with amide groups orienting perpendicular to the ring plane. The cyclic hexa-beta-peptide formed rod-shaped crystals from an N,N-dimethyl formamide solution at elevated temperature. The optical microscopy observation with a sensitive tint plate under cross-nicol configuration and electron diffraction analysis of the crystals revealed that the cyclic hexa-beta-peptides were stacked one after the other to form a regular nanotube structure. PMID:17260351

  2. Landscape formation by past continental ice sheets: insights into the subglacial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Jan A.

    2014-05-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets are known as most powerful, climatically driven agents of large-scale sediment redistribution and landscape formation in the Earth system. During the Quaternary, repeated waxing and waning of continental ice sheets contributed to profound reshaping of the Earth surface and set the scene for the development of ecosystems in the post-glacial time. Despite the well-established impact of glaciers on the upper lithosphere the specific processes of glacial erosion, transport and deposition and the formation landforms at the ice-bed interface are contentious. In particular, the relative importance of direct ice impact versus the impact of glacial meltwater is highly controversial. Here, we focus on the southern peripheral area of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet hosting thick successions of soft, deformable sediments and examine some spectacular sediment/landform assemblages found nowadays in both terrestrial and marine settings to illustrate the nature of the subglacial processes. In order to decipher the past ice sheet behavior field, experimental and numerical approaches are combined. It is shown that the strength of the coupling between the ice and the bed that controls the response of the substratum to ice overriding and stress propagation depends primarily on the ability of the glacial system to evacuate meltwater from ice-bed interface. Strong coupling, locally enhanced by subglacial permafrost resulted in deeply rooted (100's of meters) glaciotectonic deformation reflected on the surface as ice-shoved hills whereas weak coupling promoted by water accumulating under the ice triggered the formation of deep (100's of meters) tunnel valley networks. Under the arteries of fast-flowing ice known as palaeo-ice streams, remoulding of soft sediments generated mega-scale glacial lineations and drumlins that hold the key to understanding glacier dynamics. The subglacial environment is envisaged as a four-dimensional mosaic of stable and deforming spots transient in time and space whose impact is embedded in the properties of sediment/landform systems.

  3. Current sheet Formation in a Conical Theta Pinch Faraday Accelerator with Radio-Frequency Assisted Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Choueiri, Edgar Y.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    The inductive formation of current sheets in a conical theta pinch FARAD (Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge) thruster is investigated experimentally with time-integrated photography. The goal is to help in understanding the mechanisms and conditions controlling the strength and extent of the current sheet, which are two indices important for FARAD as a propulsion concept. The profiles of these two indices along the inside walls of the conical acceleration coil are assumed to be related to the profiles of the strength and extent of the luminosity pattern derived from photographs of the discharge. The variations of these profiles as a function of uniform back-fill neutral pressure (with no background magnetic field and all parameters held constant) provided the first clues on the nature and qualitative dependencies of current sheet formation. It was found that there is an optimal pressure for which both indices reach a maximum and that the rate of change in these indices with pressure differs on either side of this optimal pressure. This allowed the inference that current sheet formation follows a Townsend-like breakdown mechanism modified by the existence of a finite pressure-dependent radio-frequency-generated electron density background. The observation that the effective location of the luminosity pattern favors the exit-half of the conical coil is explained as the result of the tendency of the inductive discharge circuit to operate near its minimal self-inductance. Movement of the peak in the luminosity pattern towards the upstream side of the cone with increasing pressure is believed to result from the need of the circuit to compensate for the increase in background plasma resistivity due to increasing pressure.

  4. Expression of antisense to integrin subunit beta 3 inhibits microvascular endothelial cell capillary tube formation in fibrin.

    PubMed

    Dallabrida, S M; De Sousa, M A; Farrell, D H

    2000-10-13

    alpha(v)beta(3) antagonists are potent angiogenesis inhibitors, and several different classes of inhibitors have been developed, including monoclonal antibodies, synthetic peptides, and small organic molecules. However, each class of inhibitor works by the same principal, by blocking the binding of ligands to alpha(v)beta(3). In an effort to develop an alpha(v)beta(3) inhibitor that down-regulates the actual level of alpha(v)beta(3), we developed an antisense strategy to inhibit alpha(v)beta(3) expression in vitro. beta(3) antisense expressed in endothelial cells specifically down-regulated alpha(v)beta(3) and inhibited capillary tube formation, with the extent of down-regulation correlating with the extent of tube formation inhibition. This inhibition was matrix-specific, since tube formation was not inhibited in Matrigel. These findings support the notion that alpha(v)beta(3) is required for an essential step of angiogenesis in fibrin, namely capillary tube formation. These results suggest that pseudogenetic inhibition of beta(3) integrins using antisense techniques may ultimately provide a therapeutic means to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:10922359

  5. Groundwater flow beneath ice sheets: Part II — Its impact on glacier tectonic structures and moraine formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulton, G. S.; Caban, P.

    Meltwater flowing as groundwater from beneath the margin of an ice sheet determines the distribution of sub-surface heads and effective pressures. A subglacial groundwater flow model is used, together with an ice sheet loading model, to compute the magnitudes and directions of the principal effective stresses in the subsurface, from which the distribution of different types of sub-surface failure in the subglacial and proglacial zones are deduced. Zones of hydrofracturing, shear fracture and pervasive shear failure are distinguished. Beneath the ice sheet divide area, intact rocks of high tensile strength may fail. Hydrofracturing and liquefaction are two coupled processes which lead to the formation of upward-filled and downward-filled sediment dykes and till wedges. Quicksand conditions are developed where strong vertical seepage pressures occur, producing sediment diapirism. It is suggested that subglacial permeability magnitude may be the product of a self organising process. Certain types of moraine (extrusion moraines) are suggested to be a consequence of upward movement and surface extrusion of sediment driven by rising groundwater. It is suggested that groundwater over pressure associated with narrow proglacial permafrost plates are conductive to the formation of large push moraines, and that many large ancient and modern examples are produced in this setting.

  6. Beta-Sheet-Forming, Self-Assembled Peptide Nanomaterials towards Optical, Energy, and Healthcare Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungjin; Kim, Jae Hong; Lee, Joon Seok; Park, Chan Beum

    2015-08-12

    Peptide self-assembly is an attractive route for the synthesis of intricate organic nanostructures that possess remarkable structural variety and biocompatibility. Recent studies on peptide-based, self-assembled materials have expanded beyond the construction of high-order architectures; they are now reporting new functional materials that have application in the emerging fields such as artificial photosynthesis and rechargeable batteries. Nevertheless, there have been few reviews particularly concentrating on such versatile, emerging applications. Herein, recent advances in the synthesis of self-assembled peptide nanomaterials (e.g., cross ?-sheet-based amyloid nanostructures, peptide amphiphiles) are selectively reviewed and their new applications in diverse, interdisciplinary fields are described, ranging from optics and energy storage/conversion to healthcare. The applications of peptide-based self-assembled materials in unconventional fields are also highlighted, such as photoluminescent peptide nanostructures, artificial photosynthetic peptide nanomaterials, and lithium-ion battery components. The relation of such functional materials to the rapidly progressing biomedical applications of peptide self-assembly, which include biosensors/chips and regenerative medicine, are discussed. The combination of strategies shown in these applications would further promote the discovery of novel, functional, small materials. PMID:25929870

  7. Effect of secondary structure on the potential of mean force for poly-L-lysine in the alpha-Helix and beta-sheet conformations

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, J.J.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    2001-10-30

    Because poly-L-lysine (PLL) can exist in the {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet conformation depending on solution preparation and solution conditions, PLL is a suitable candidate to probe the dependence of protein interactions on secondary structure. The osmotic second virial coefficient and weight-average molecular weight are reported from low-angle laser-light scattering measurements for PLL as a function of NaCl concentration, pH, and {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet content. Interactions between PLL molecules become more attractive as salt concentration increases due to screening of PLL charge by salt ions and at low salt concentration become more attractive as pH increases due to decreased net charge on PLL. The experimental results show that interactions are stronger for the {beta}-sheet conformation than for the {alpha}-helix conformation. A spherically-symmetric model for the potential of mean force is used to account for specific interactions not described by DLVO theory and to show how differences in secondary structure affect PLL interactions.

  8. Involvement of acid beta-glucosidase 1 in the salvage pathway of ceramide formation.

    PubMed

    Kitatani, Kazuyuki; Sheldon, Kely; Rajagopalan, Vinodh; Anelli, Viviana; Jenkins, Russell W; Sun, Ying; Grabowski, Gregory A; Obeid, Lina M; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2009-05-01

    Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) promotes the salvage pathway of ceramide formation, and acid sphingomyelinase has been implicated, in part, in providing substrate for this pathway (Zeidan, Y. H., and Hannun, Y. A. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 11549-11561). In the present study, we examined whether acid beta-glucosidase 1 (GBA1), which hydrolyzes glucosylceramide to form lysosomal ceramide, was involved in PKC-regulated formation of ceramide from recycled sphingosine. Glucosylceramide levels declined after treatment of MCF-7 cells with a potent PKC activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Silencing GBA1 by small interfering RNAs significantly attenuated acid glucocerebrosidase activity and decreased PMA-induced formation of ceramide by 50%. Silencing GBA1 blocked PMA-induced degradation of glucosylceramide and generation of sphingosine, the source for ceramide biosynthesis. Reciprocally, forced expression of GBA1 increased ceramide levels. These observations indicate that GBA1 activation can generate the source (sphingosine) for PMA-induced formation of ceramide through the salvage pathway. Next, the role of PKCdelta, a direct effector of PMA, in the formation of ceramide was determined. By attenuating expression of PKCdelta, cells failed to trigger PMA-induced alterations in levels of ceramide, sphingomyelin, and glucosylceramide. Thus, PKCdelta activation is suggested to stimulate the degradation of both sphingomyelin and glucosylceramide leading to the salvage pathway of ceramide formation. Collectively, GBA1 is identified as a novel source of regulated formation of ceramide, and PKCdelta is an upstream regulator of this pathway. PMID:19279011

  9. The effect of low levels of dopants upon the formation and properties of beta-phase molybdenum nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, A.G.; Gallagher, J.G.; Hargreaves, J.S.J.; Mckay, D.; Rico, J.L.; Wilson, K.

    2010-03-15

    The addition of 1 wt% Pd, Au, Ni and Cu dopants has been demonstrated to strongly alter the morphology of beta-phase molybdenum nitride prepared by treatment of MoO{sub 3} with a 3/1 H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture at 750 deg. C. Furthermore, the addition of Pd significantly enhances the surface area and the formation of the nitride phase. It is proposed that the facile formation of molybdenum bronzes in this system is important in this respect. The dopants have also been observed to modify the denitridation characteristics of the beta-phase, with an overall reduction of the proportion of NH{sub 3} formed upon using a 3/1 H{sub 2}/Ar mixture with respect to the undoped sample. - Graphical abstract: Low levels of Pd, Au, Ni and Cu dopant have significant effects upon the morphology, formation and dentitridation characteristics of beta-phase molybdenum nitride.

  10. Formation of lobate debris aprons on Mars: Assessment of regional ice sheet collapse and debris-cover armoring

    E-print Network

    Marchant, David R.

    not have attained temperatures near or above the ice melting point and retained their current shape, a findFormation of lobate debris aprons on Mars: Assessment of regional ice sheet collapse and debris Keywords: Mars, climate Mars, surface Mars, polar geology Mars, polar caps a b s t r a c t Lobate debris

  11. Formation of High-Beta Plasma and Stable Confinement of Toroidal Electron Plasma in RT-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Haruhiko

    2010-11-01

    The Ring Trap 1 (RT-1) device is a laboratory magnetosphere generated by a levitated superconducting magnet. The goals of RT-1 are to realize stable formation of ultra high-beta plasma suitable for burning advanced fusion fuels, and confinement of toroidal non-neutral plasmas including antimatter particles. RT- 1 has produced high-beta plasma in the magnetospheric configuration. The effects of coil levitation and geomagnetic field compensation [Y. Yano et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 4, 039] resulted drastic improvements of the plasma properties, and a maximum local beta value exceeded 70%. Because plasma is generated by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) in the present experiment, the plasma pressure is mainly due to hot electrons, whose bremsstrahlung was observed with an x-ray CCD camera. The pressure profiles have rather steep gradient near the superconducting coil in the strong field region. The decay rates of magnetic probe and interferometer signals have different time constants, suggesting multiple temperature components. The energy confinement time estimated from the input RF power and stored magnetic energy is on the order of 1s, which is comparable to the decay time constant of the density of hot electron component. Pure electron plasma experiments are also conducted in RT-1. Radial profiles of electrostatic potential and electron density showed that the plasma rigidly rotates in the toroidal direction in the stable confinement phase. Long time confinement of toroidal non- neutral plasma for more than 300s and inward particle diffusion to strong field regions, caused by the activation of the diocotron (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instability, have been realized [Z. Yoshida et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 235004].

  12. Nonlinear evolution of three-dimensional instabilities of thin and thick electron scale current sheets: Plasmoid formation and current filamentation

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg

    2014-07-15

    Nonlinear evolution of three dimensional electron shear flow instabilities of an electron current sheet (ECS) is studied using electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The dependence of the evolution on current sheet thickness is examined. For thin current sheets (half thickness =d{sub e}=c/?{sub pe}), tearing mode instability dominates. In its nonlinear evolution, it leads to the formation of oblique current channels. Magnetic field lines form 3-D magnetic spirals. Even in the absence of initial guide field, the out-of-reconnection-plane magnetic field generated by the tearing instability itself may play the role of guide field in the growth of secondary finite-guide-field instabilities. For thicker current sheets (half thickness ?5?d{sub e}), both tearing and non-tearing modes grow. Due to the non-tearing mode, current sheet becomes corrugated in the beginning of the evolution. In this case, tearing mode lets the magnetic field reconnect in the corrugated ECS. Later thick ECS develops filamentary structures and turbulence in which reconnection occurs. This evolution of thick ECS provides an example of reconnection in self-generated turbulence. The power spectra for both the thin and thick current sheets are anisotropic with respect to the electron flow direction. The cascade towards shorter scales occurs preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the electron flow.

  13. Sequence-specific sup 1 H-NMR assignments and identification of two small antiparallel. beta. -sheets in the solution structure of recombinant human transforming growth factor. alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Montelione, G.T.; Wagner, G. ); Winkler, M.E.; Burton, L.E.; Rinderknecht, E. ); Sporn, M.B. )

    1989-03-01

    Transforming growth factor {alpha} (TGF{alpha}) is a small mitogenic protein with about 35% sequence identity with epidermal growth factor (EGF). TGF{alpha}-like proteins have been proposed to play a role in oncogenesis and wound healing. This report describes sequence-specific {sup 1}H-NMR resonance assignments for recombinant human TGF{alpha} (hTGF{alpha}). These assignments provide the basis for interpreting NMR data which demonstrate that the solution structure of hTGF{alpha} includes an antiparallel {beta}-sheet involving residues Gly-19 to Leu-24 and Lys-29 to Cys-34 and a second, smaller, antiparallel {beta}-sheet involving residues Tyr-38 and Val-39 and His-45 and Ala-46. These data, together with constraints imposed by the disulfide bonds, are combined to construct a molecular model of the polypeptide chain fold for residues Cys-8 to Ala-46. The resulting structure is similar to that of mouse and human EGF. Human TGF{alpha} and mouse EGF, however, differ with respect to their structural dynamics, since amide proton/deuteron exchange is much faster for hTGF{alpha} than for mouse EGF at pH 3.5.

  14. Doubling the cross-linking interface of a rationally designed beta roll peptide for calcium-dependent proteinaceous hydrogel formation.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kevin; Bulutoglu, Beyza; Banta, Scott

    2014-10-13

    We have rationally engineered a stimulus-responsive cross-linking domain based on a repeats-in-toxin (RTX) peptide to enable calcium-dependent formation of supramolecular hydrogel networks. The peptide isolated from the RTX domain is intrinsically disordered in the absence of calcium. In calcium rich environments, the peptide binds Ca(2+) ions and folds into a beta roll (?-roll) secondary structure composed to two parallel ?-sheet faces. Previously, we mutated one of the faces to contain solvent exposed leucine side chains which are localized only in the calcium-bound ?-roll conformation. We demonstrated the ability of this mutant peptide to self-assemble into hydrogels in the presence of calcium with the aid of additional peptide-based cross-linking moieties. Here, we have expanded this approach by engineering both ?-roll faces to contain leucine residues, thereby doubling the cross-linking interface for each monomeric building block. These leucine rich surfaces impart a hydrophobic driving force for self-assembly. Extensive characterization was performed on this double-faced mutant to ensure the retention of calcium affinity and subsequent structural rearrangement similar to that of the wild type domain. We genetically fused an ?-helical leucine zipper capable of forming tetrameric coiled-coil bundles to the peptide and the resulting chimeric protein self-assembles into a hydrogel only in calcium rich environments. Since this new mutant peptide enables cross-linking on both surfaces simultaneously, a higher oligomerization state was achieved. To further investigate the cross-linking capability, we constructed concatemers of the ?-roll with maltose binding protein (MBP), a monomeric globular protein, without the leucine zipper domains. These concatemers show a similar sol-gel transition in response to calcium. Several biophysical techniques were used to probe the structural and mechanical properties of the mutant ?-roll domain and the resulting supramolecular networks including circular dichroism, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, bis-ANS binding, and microrheology. These results demonstrate that the engineered ?-roll peptides can mediate calcium-dependent cross-linking for protein hydrogel formation without the need for any other cross-linking moieties. PMID:25226243

  15. Protein Secondary Structures (alpha-helix and beta-sheet) at a Cellular Levle and Protein Fractions in Relation to Rumen Degradation Behaviours of Protein: A New Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,P.

    2007-01-01

    Studying the secondary structure of proteins leads to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein, and such an understanding of the structure of the whole protein is often vital to understanding its digestive behaviour and nutritive value in animals. The main protein secondary structures are the {alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheet. The percentage of these two structures in protein secondary structures influences protein nutritive value, quality and digestive behaviour. A high percentage of {beta}-sheet structure may partly cause a low access to gastrointestinal digestive enzymes, which results in a low protein value. The objectives of the present study were to use advanced synchrotron-based Fourier transform IR (S-FTIR) microspectroscopy as a new approach to reveal the molecular chemistry of the protein secondary structures of feed tissues affected by heat-processing within intact tissue at a cellular level, and to quantify protein secondary structures using multicomponent peak modelling Gaussian and Lorentzian methods, in relation to protein digestive behaviours and nutritive value in the rumen, which was determined using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System. The synchrotron-based molecular chemistry research experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, US Department of Energy. The results showed that, with S-FTIR microspectroscopy, the molecular chemistry, ultrastructural chemical make-up and nutritive characteristics could be revealed at a high ultraspatial resolution ({approx}10 {mu}m). S-FTIR microspectroscopy revealed that the secondary structure of protein differed between raw and roasted golden flaxseeds in terms of the percentages and ratio of {alpha}-helixes and {beta}-sheets in the mid-IR range at the cellular level. By using multicomponent peak modelling, the results show that the roasting reduced (P <0.05) the percentage of {alpha}-helixes (from 47.1% to 36.1%: S-FTIR absorption intensity), increased the percentage of {beta}-sheets (from 37.2% to 49.8%: S-FTIR absorption intensity) and reduced the {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio (from 0.3 to 0.7) in the golden flaxseeds, which indicated a negative effect of the roasting on protein values, utilisation and bioavailability. These results were proved by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System in situ animal trial, which also revealed that roasting increased the amount of protein bound to lignin, and well as of the Maillard reaction protein (both of which are poorly used by ruminants), and increased the level of indigestible and undegradable protein in ruminants. The present results demonstrate the potential of highly spatially resolved synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy to locate 'pure' protein in feed tissues, and reveal protein secondary structures and digestive behaviour, making a significant step forward in and an important contribution to protein nutritional research. Further study is needed to determine the sensitivities of protein secondary structures to various heat-processing conditions, and to quantify the relationship between protein secondary structures and the nutrient availability and digestive behaviour of various protein sources. Information from the present study arising from the synchrotron-based IR probing of the protein secondary structures of protein sources at the cellular level will be valuable as a guide to maintaining protein quality and predicting digestive behaviours.

  16. Mechanistic studies on the stereoselective formation of beta-mannosides from mannosyl iodides using alpha-deuterium kinetic isotope effects.

    PubMed

    El-Badri, Mohamed H; Willenbring, Dan; Tantillo, Dean J; Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2007-06-22

    Stereoselective synthesis of beta-mannosides is one of the most challenging linkages to achieve in carbohydrate chemistry. Both the anomeric effect and the C2 axial substituent favor the formation of the axial glycoside (alpha-product). Herein, we describe mechanistic studies on the beta-selective glycosidation of trimethylene oxide (TMO) using mannosyl iodides. Density functional calculations (at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p):LANL2DZ level) suggest that formation of both alpha- and beta-mannosides involve loose S(N)2-like transition-state structures with significant oxacarbenium character, although the transition structure for formation of the alpha-mannoside is significantly looser. alpha-Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (alpha-DKIEs) based upon these computed transition state geometries match reasonably well with the experimentally measured values: 1.16 +/- 0.02 for the beta-linkage (computed to be 1.15) and 1.19 +/- 0.05, see table 2 for the alpha-analogue (computed to be 1.26). Since it was unclear if beta-selectivity resulted from a conformational constraint induced by the anomeric iodide, a 4,6-O-benzylidine acetal was used to lock the iodide into a chairlike conformation. Both experiments and calculations on this analogue suggest that it does not mirror the behavior of mannosyl iodides lacking bridging acetal protecting groups. PMID:17539683

  17. Formation of a very thin current sheet in the near-earth magnetotail and the explosive growth phase of substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.; Zhang, L.; Choe, G. S.; Cai, H. J.

    1995-01-01

    A magnetofricional method is used to construct two-dimensional MHD equilibria of the Earth's magnetosphere for a given distribution of entropy functions(S = pV(exp gamma), where p is the plasma pressure and V is the tube volume per unit magnetic flux. It is found that a very thin current sheet with B (sub zeta) is less than 0.5 nu T and thickness less than 1000 km can be formed in the near-earth magnetotail (x is approximately -8 to -20R(sub e) during the growth phase of substorm. The tail current sheets are found to become thinner as the entropy or the entropy gradient increases. It is suggested that the new entropy anti-diffusion instability associated with plasma transport across field lines leads to magnetic field dipolarization and accelerates the formation of thin current sheet, which may explain the observed explosive growth phase of substorms.

  18. Analysis of Nugget Formation During Resistance Spot Welding on Dissimilar Metal Sheets of Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yi; Li, Jinglong

    2014-10-01

    The nugget formation of resistance spot welding (RSW) on dissimilar material sheets of aluminum and magnesium alloys was studied, and the element distribution, microstructure, and microhardness distribution near the joint interface were analyzed. It was found that the staggered high regions at the contact interface of aluminum and magnesium alloy sheets, where the dissimilar metal melted together, tended to be the preferred nucleation regions of nugget. The main technical problem of RSW on dissimilar metal sheets of aluminum and magnesium alloys was the brittle-hard Al12Mg17 intermetallic compounds distributed in the nugget, with hardness much higher than either side of the base materials. Microcracks tended to generate at the interface of the nugget and base materials, which affected weld quality and strength.

  19. Submarine push moraine formation during the early Fennoscandian Ice Sheet deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laberg, J. S.; Eilertsen, R. S.; Salomonsen, G. R.; Vorren, T. O.

    2009-04-01

    The glacial history in the topographically confined paleo-ice stream drainage route of Vestfjorden, North Norway, was analysed based on multi-beam bathymetric data, high-resolution seismic records and 14C AMS-dated gravity cores. The inner part of the fjord is characterised by axial-parallel megascale lineations. In the central part of the fjord, a succession of transverse ridges form a zigzag like morphology. The ridges become wider and more prominent down-fjord and the largest, up to 40 m high forms the distal part of the Værøy morainal bank system. A second series of similar transverse, zigzag ridges occur in the Røst morainal bank system. They also increase in size down-fjord to terminate by a ~100 m high ridge. A mound, interpreted as a raft of sediment displaced from a similar-sized depression in the Røst morainal bank system, is located ca 8 km beyond the bank, indicating sediment drag and deformation. Seismic records show thrusted and folded sediment blocks within the ridges. The inner ridges of the Røst system terminate at the Værøy system, indicating that the latter is younger than the Røst system. The landforms are inferred to reflect basal processes and the transition from warm-based (inner fjord) to cold-based (outer fjord) conditions, i.e. fast flow followed by basal freeze-on, sediment deformation and morainal bank formation. The moraines formed during the final part of two paleo-ice sheet re-advances. 14C AMS dating indicates a maximum age of 13.7 14C ka BP (16.2 cal ka BP) for the Røst system whereas the Værøy system is inferred to be slightly older than 12.5 14C ka BP (14.5 cal ka BP). This demonstrates that the northern part of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet behaved in a much more dynamic way during the early deglaciation than previously assumed. Acknowledgement This work is a contribution to the SPONCOM and GlaciPet (http://www.ngu.no/glacipet/) projects. Financial support from the Research Council of Norway and StatoilHydro is gratefully acknowledged. Further reading Laberg, J.S., Eilertsen, R.S., Salomonsen, G.R., Vorren, T.O. 2007. Submarine push moraine formation during the early Fennoscandian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Quaternary Research 67, 453-462. Laberg, J.S., Eilertsen, R.S., Vorren, T.O. in press. The paleo-ice stream in Vestfjorden, North Norway over the last 35ka: glacial erosion and sediment yield. Geological Society of America Bulletin. Fløistad, K.R., Laberg, J.S., Vorren, T.O. in press. Morphology of Younger Dryas ice-proximal submarine landforms, inner Vestfjorden, northern Norway. Boreas.

  20. Inducing ?-Sheets Formation in Synthetic Spider Silk Fibers by Aqueous Post-Spin Stretching

    PubMed Central

    Hinman, Michael B.; Holland, Gregory P.; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Lewis, Randolph V.

    2012-01-01

    As a promising biomaterial with numerous potential applications, various types of synthetic spider silk fibers have been produced and studied in an effort to produce manmade fibers with mechanical and physical properties comparable to those of native spider silk. In this study, two recombinant proteins based on Nephila clavipes Major ampullate Spidroin 1 (MaSp1) consensus repeat sequence were expressed and spun into fibers. Mechanical test results showed that fiber spun from the higher molecular weight protein had better overall mechanical properties (70 KD versus 46 KD), whereas postspin stretch treatment in water helped increase fiber tensile strength significantly. Carbon-13 solid-state NMR studies of those fibers further revealed that the postspin stretch in water promoted protein molecule rearrangement and the formation of ?-sheets in the polyalanine region of the silk. The rearrangement correlated with improved fiber mechanical properties and indicated that postspin stretch is key to helping the spider silk proteins in the fiber form correct secondary structures, leading to better quality fibers. PMID:21574576

  1. Equilibria, Dynamics, and Current Sheet Formation in Magnetically Confined Coronae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappazzo, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of magnetic fields in closed regions of solar and stellar coronae are investigated with a reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model in the framework of the Parker scenario for coronal heating. A novel analysis of reduced MHD equilibria shows that their magnetic fields have an asymmetric structure in the axial direction with variation length scale z? ? ?B0/b, where B0 is the intensity of the strong axial guide field, b that of the orthogonal magnetic field component, and ? the scale of {\\boldsymbol{b}}. Equilibria are then quasi-invariant along the axial direction for variation scales larger than approximatively the loop length z? ? Lz, and increasingly more asymmetric for smaller variation scales z? ? Lz. The critical length z? ? Lz corresponds to the magnetic field intensity threshold b ? ?B0/Lz. Magnetic fields stressed by photospheric motions cannot develop strong axial asymmetries. Therefore, fields with intensities below such a threshold evolve quasi-statically, readjusting to a nearby equilibrium, without developing nonlinear dynamics or dissipating energy. But stronger fields cannot access their corresponding asymmetric equilibria hence, they are out of equilibrium and develop nonlinear dynamics. The subsequent formation of current sheets and energy dissipation is necessary for the magnetic field to relax to equilibrium, since dynamically accessible equilibria have variation scales larger than the loop length z? ? Lz, with intensities smaller than the threshold b ? ?B0/Lz. The dynamical implications for magnetic fields of interest to solar and stellar coronae are investigated numerically and the impact on coronal physics discussed.

  2. Repetitive formation and decay of current sheets in magnetic loops: An origin of diverse magnetic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhattacharyya, R.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2015-01-15

    In this work, evolution of an incompressible, thermally homogeneous, infinitely conducting, viscous magnetofluid is numerically explored as the fluid undergoes repeated events of magnetic reconnection. The initial magnetic field is constructed by a superposition of two linear force-free fields and has similar morphology as the magnetic loops observed in the solar corona. The results are presented for computations with three distinct sets of footpoint geometries. To onset reconnection, we rely on numerical model magnetic diffusivity, in the spirit of implicit large eddy simulation. It is generally expected that in a high Lundquist number fluid, repeated magnetic reconnections are ubiquitous and hence can lead to a host of magnetic structures with considerable observational importance. In particular, the simulations presented here illustrate formations of magnetic islands, rotating magnetic helices and rising flux ropes—depending on the initial footpoint geometry but through the common process of repeated magnetic reconnections. Further, we observe the development of extended current sheets in two case studies, where the footpoint reconnections generate favorable dynamics.

  3. Decreased formation of inositol trisphosphate in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells under conditions of beta-glucosidase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mahdiyoun, S; Deshmukh, G D; Abe, A; Radin, N S; Shayman, J A

    1992-02-01

    Recent work has demonstrated the enhancement of hormone-stimulated inositol trisphosphate formation in renal epithelial cells under conditions of glucosylceramide depletion. The role of glucosylceramide metabolism was explored further by exposing Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to the beta-glucosidase inhibitor conduritol B epoxide, which produced time-dependent and concentration-dependent increases in glucosylceramide levels and decreased bradykinin-stimulated inositol trisphosphate formation from isolated MDCK cell membranes. These data provide further support for an association between glucosylceramide levels and hormone-stimulated inositol trisphosphate formation. PMID:1731615

  4. Value Clarification in the Social Studies: Six Formats of the Values Sheet. Research Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteel, J. Doyle; And Others

    One of the major goals of the social studies is to help students gain and refine skills in the area of value clarification. Value sheets, carefully planned activities designed to elicit value clarifying patterns of language from students, are one way of securing value clarification. Sheets, planned in conjunction with ongoing units of instruction,…

  5. Independent formation of DnaseI hypersensitive sites in the murine beta-globin locus control region.

    PubMed

    Bender, M A; Mehaffey, M G; Telling, A; Hug, B; Ley, T J; Groudine, M; Fiering, S

    2000-06-01

    Mammalian beta-globin loci are composed of multiple orthologous genes whose expression is erythroid specific and developmentally regulated. The expression of these genes both from the endogenous locus and from transgenes is strongly influenced by a linked 15-kilobase region of clustered DNaseI hypersensitive sites (HSs) known as the locus control region (LCR). The LCR encompasses 5 major HSs, each of which is highly homologous among humans, mice, and other mammals. To analyze the function of individual HSs in the endogenous murine beta-globin LCR, we have used homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells to produce 5 mouse lines, each of which is deficient for 1 of these major HSs. In this report, we demonstrate that deletion of the conserved region of 5'HS 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5/6 abolishes HS formation at the deletion site but has no influence on the formation of the remaining HSs in the LCR. Therefore, in the endogenous murine locus, there is no dominant or initiating site whose formation must precede the formation of the other HSs. This is consistent with the idea that HSs form autonomously. We discuss the implications of these findings for current models of beta-globin regulation. PMID:10828050

  6. Diagnostics of basal conditions - the formation of extensive zones of surface ribs in ice-sheets and streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Sergienko, Olga V.; Creyts, Timothy T.

    2015-04-01

    Most if not all current predictions of the evolution of ice-streams to changes induced by global change assume static basal conditions. This is a result of current restrictions in the remote sensing of the ice-sheet basal physical environment, which cannot resolve the small-scale phenomena believed to control the basal traction. The search therefore is on for observable structures or features that are the result of the operation of basal processes. Any successful theory of ice-sheet basal processes would need to be able to explain such phenomena associated with or caused by special properties of the basal environment. We present one class of these phenomena, and also present tentative hypotheses as to their formation. Using recent high-resolution observations of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets topography, the computed driving stress and the inferred basal traction reveal broad-scale organization in 5-20 km band-like patterns in both quantities. The similarity of patterns on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets suggests that the flow of ice sheets is controlled by the same fundamental processes operating at their base, which control ice sheet sliding and are highly variable on relatively short spatial and temporal scales. The formation mechanism for these bands contains information about the operation of the sub-glacial system. There are three possible, non-exclusive causes of these ribs which we examine from a theoretical and evidential point-of-view (i) They are the surface response to similar bands in the basal topography, whose regularity would equally require an explanation in terms of basal processes. (ii) They are translating surface waves in the ice, supported by membrane stress gradients rather than by gradients in the basal resistance. (iii) The ribs are due to the development of a band-like structure in the basal shear stress distribution that is the result of a pattern-forming instability in sub-glacial till and water flow, perhaps related to the formation of sub-glacial landforms.

  7. Beta4 integrin-dependent formation of polarized three-dimensionalarchitecture confers resistance to apoptosis in normal and malignantmammary epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Valerie M.; Lelievre, Sophie; Lakins, Johnathon N.; Chrenek, Micah A.; Jones, Jonathan C.R.; Giancotti, Filippo; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-08-27

    Tumor cells can evade chemotherapy by acquiring resistanceto apoptosis. We investigated the molecular mechanism whereby malignantand nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells become insensitive toapoptosis. We show that regardless of growth status formation ofpolarized, three-dimensional structures driven by basement membraneconfers protection to apoptosis in both nonmalignant and malignantmammary epithelial cells. By contrast, irrespective of their malignantstatus, nonpolarized structures are sensitive to induction of apoptosis.Resistance to apoptosis requires ligation of beta4 integrins, whichregulates tissue polarity, hemidesmosome formation and NFkB activation.Expression of beta4 integrin that lacks the hemidesmosome targetingdomain interferes with tissue polarity and NFkB activation and permitsapoptosis. These results indicate that integrin-induced polarity maydrive tumor cell resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents via effects onNFkB.

  8. The effect of low levels of dopants upon the formation and properties of beta-phase molybdenum nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, A. G.; Gallagher, J. G.; Hargreaves, J. S. J.; Mckay, D.; Rico, J. L.; Wilson, K.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of 1 wt% Pd, Au, Ni and Cu dopants has been demonstrated to strongly alter the morphology of beta-phase molybdenum nitride prepared by treatment of MoO 3 with a 3/1 H 2/N 2 mixture at 750 °C. Furthermore, the addition of Pd significantly enhances the surface area and the formation of the nitride phase. It is proposed that the facile formation of molybdenum bronzes in this system is important in this respect. The dopants have also been observed to modify the denitridation characteristics of the beta-phase, with an overall reduction of the proportion of NH 3 formed upon using a 3/1 H 2/Ar mixture with respect to the undoped sample.

  9. A study of the formation and dynamics of the Earth's plasma sheet using ion composition data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, O. W.

    1994-01-01

    Over two years of data from the Lockheed Plasma Composition Experiment on the ISEE 1 spacecraft, covering ion energies between 100 eV/e and about 16 keV/e, have been analyzed in an attempt to extract new information about three geophysical issues: (1) solar wind penetration of the Earth's magnetic tail; (2) relationship between plasma sheet and tail lobe ion composition; and (3) possible effects of heavy terrestrial ions on plasma sheet stability.

  10. Current sheet formation in a sheared force-free-magnetic field. [in sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, Richard

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study showing how continuous shearing motion of magnetic footpoints in a tenuous, infinitely conducting plasma can lead to the development of current sheets, despite the absence of such sheets or even of neutral points in the initial state. The calculations discussed here verify the earlier suggestion by Low and Wolfson (1988) that extended current sheets should form due to the shearing of a force-free quadrupolar magnetic field. More generally, this work augments earlier studies suggesting that the appearance of discontinuities - current sheets - may be a necessary consequence of the topological invariance imposed on the magnetic field geometry of an ideal MHD system by virtue of its infinite conductivity. In the context of solar physics, the work shows how the gradual and continuous motion of magnetic footpoints at the solar photosphere may lead to the buildup of magnetic energy that can then be released explosively when finite conductivity effects become important and lead to the rapid dissipation of current sheets. Such energy release may be important in solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and other eruptive events.

  11. Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation of human amylin by N-alkylated amino acid and alpha-hydroxy acid residue containing peptides.

    PubMed

    Rijkers, Dirk T S; Höppener, Jo W M; Posthuma, George; Lips, Cornelis J M; Liskamp, Rob M J

    2002-09-16

    Amyloid deposits are formed as a result of uncontrolled aggregation of (poly)peptides or proteins. Today several diseases are known, for example Alzheimer's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mad cow disease, in which amyloid formation is involved. Amyloid fibrils are large aggregates of beta-pleated sheets and here a general method is described to introduce molecular mutations in order to achieve disruption of beta-sheet formation. Eight backbone-modified amylin derivatives, an amyloidogenic peptide involved in maturity onset diabetes, were synthesized. Their beta-sheet forming properties were studied by IR spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Modification of a crucial amide NH by an alkyl chain led to a complete loss of the beta-sheet forming capacity of amylin. The resulting molecular mutated amylin derivative could be used to break the beta-sheet thus retarding beta-sheet formation of unmodified amylin. Moreover, it was found that the replacement of this amide bond by an ester moiety suppressed fibrillogenesis significantly. Introduction of N-alkylated amino acids and/or ester functionalities-leading to depsipeptides-into amyloidogenic peptides opens new avenues towards novel peptidic beta-sheet breakers for inhibition of beta-amyloid aggregation. PMID:12298020

  12. Current-Sheet Formation and Reconnection at a Magnetic X Line in Particle-in-Cell Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Hesse, M.; Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Zenitani, S.; Kuznetsova, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    The integration of kinetic effects into macroscopic numerical models is currently of great interest to the heliophysics community, particularly in the context of magnetic reconnection. Reconnection governs the large-scale energy release and topological rearrangement of magnetic fields in a wide variety of laboratory, heliophysical, and astrophysical systems. We are examining the formation and reconnection of current sheets in a simple, two-dimensional X-line configuration using high-resolution particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The initial minimum-energy, potential magnetic field is perturbed by excess thermal pressure introduced into the particle distribution function far from the X line. Subsequently, the relaxation of this added stress leads self-consistently to the development of a current sheet that reconnects for imposed stress of sufficient strength. We compare the time-dependent evolution and final state of our PIC simulations with macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic simulations assuming both uniform and localized electrical resistivities (C. R. DeVore et al., this meeting), as well as with force-free magnetic-field equilibria in which the amount of reconnection across the X line can be constrained to be zero (ideal evolution) or optimal (minimum final magnetic energy). We will discuss implications of our results for understanding magnetic-reconnection onset and cessation at kinetic scales in dynamically formed current sheets, such as those occurring in the solar corona and terrestrial magnetotail. This research was supported by NASA.

  13. Origin of life. Primordial genetics: Information transfer in a pre-RNA world based on self-replicating beta-sheet amyloid conformers.

    PubMed

    Maury, Carl Peter J

    2015-10-01

    The question of the origin of life on Earth can largely be reduced to the question of what was the first molecular replicator system that was able to replicate and evolve under the presumably very harsh conditions on the early Earth. It is unlikely that a functional RNA could have existed under such conditions and it is generally assumed that some other kind of information system preceded the RNA world. Here, I present an informational molecular system that is stable, self-replicative, environmentally responsive, and evolvable under conditions characterized by high temperatures, ultraviolet and cosmic radiation. This postulated pregenetic system is based on the amyloid fold, a functionally unique polypeptide fold characterized by a cross beta-sheet structure in which the beta strands are arranged perpendicular to the fiber axis. Beside an extraordinary structural robustness, the amyloid fold possesses a unique ability to transmit information by a three-dimensional templating mechanism. In amyloidogenesis short peptide monomers are added one by one to the growing end of the fiber. From the same monomeric subunits several structural variants of amyloid may be formed. Then, in a self-replicative mode, a specific amyloid conformer can act as a template and confer its spatially encoded information to daughter molecular entities in a repetitive way. In this process, the specific conformational information, the spatially changed organization, is transmitted; the coding element is the steric zipper structure, and recognition occurs by amino acid side chain complementarity. The amyloid information system fulfills several basic requirements of a primordial evolvable replicator system: (i) it is stable under the presumed primitive Earth conditions, (ii) the monomeric building blocks of the informational polymer can be formed from available prebiotic compounds, (iii) the system is self-assembling and self-replicative and (iv) it is adaptive to changes in the environment and evolvable. PMID:26196585

  14. Bubble formation in planar co-flowing air-water sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Montes, C.; Bolaños-Jiménez, R.; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E.; Martínez-Bazán, C.; Sevilla, A.

    2010-11-01

    The dynamics of a plane air sheet surrounded by a co-flowing water sheet, discharging into stagnant air, has been investigated by means of experiments and numerical simulations with the aim at proposing new geometrical configurations for air bubble generation. In this case, the problem is governed by the Weber number, We = ?w,w^2,a/?, and the water-to-air velocity ratio, ?= uw/ua, being uw and ua the mean velocities of the water and air sheets respectively, ?w the water density and ha the half-thickness of the air sheet at the exit. For a fixed liquid-to-gas thickness ratio, a = hw/ha= 5.52, and a constant Weber number, two different flow regimes have been observed, i.e. a jetting and a bubbling regime. High-speed video images have been used to determine experimentally the transition curve from a jetting regime to a bubbling regime in the We - ? parameter space, as well as to measure several relevant parameters in the bubbling regime, such as the bubbling frequency and the size of the bubbles formed. In addition, direct numerical simulations have been performed by means of the Volume of Fluid technique (VoF), and the results compared with the experimental measurements.

  15. Enantiospecific (S)-(+)-linalool formation from beta-myrcene by linalool dehydratase-isomerase.

    PubMed

    Lüddeke, Frauke; Harder, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The linalool dehydratase-isomerase from Castellaniella defragrans strain 65Phen catalyzes in the thermodynamically unfavourable direction the hydration of betamyrcene to linalool and further the isomerization to geraniol, the initial steps in anaerobic beta-myrcene biodegradation. We have now investigated the stereochemistry of this reaction. (S)-(+)-Linalool is formed with an enantiomeric excess of at least 95.4%. (R)-(-)-Linalool was not detected. This indicates an introduction of the hydroxy group on the si-face of beta-myrcene. PMID:21950166

  16. Formation of Crystalline delta-Endotoxin or Poly-beta-Hydroxybutyric Acid Granules by Asporogenous Mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, Y; Masaki, E; Nishimoto, Y

    1982-06-01

    Parental strains and asporogenous mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis subspp. kurstaki and aizawai produced high yields of delta-endotoxin on M medium, which contained 330 mug of potassium per ml, but not on ST and ST-a media, each of which contained only 11 mug of potassium per ml. On ST and ST-a media, refractile granules were formed instead. These granules had no insecticidal activity against silkworms and were isolated and identified as poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid. Supplementation of the potassium-deficient ST-a medium with 0.1% KH(2)PO(4) (3.7 mM) led to the formation of crystalline delta-endotoxin. The replacement of KH(2)PO(4) with equimolar amounts of KCl, KNO(3), and potassium acetate or an equivalent amount of K(2)SO(4) had a similar effect, whereas the addition of an equimolar amount of NaH(2)PO(4) or NH(4)H(2)PO(4) did not cause the endotoxin to form. An asporogenous mutant, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain 290-1, produced delta-endotoxin on ST-a medium supplemented with 3 mM or more potassium but formed only poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid granules on the media containing beta-hydroxybutyric acid formation by strain 290-1. The sporulation of B. thuringiensis and several other Bacillus strains was suppressed on the potassium-deficient ST medium. This suggests that potassium plays an essential role not only in Bacillus cell growth and delta-endotoxin formation but also in sporulation. PMID:16346040

  17. Observation of Depolarized ZnO(0001) Monolayers: Formation of Unreconstructed Planar Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Tusche, C.; Meyerheim, H. L.; Kirschner, J.

    2007-07-13

    A novel nonpolar structure of 2 monolayer (ML) thick ZnO(0001) films grown on Ag(111) has been revealed, using surface x-ray diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. Zn and O atoms are arranged in planar sheets like in the hexagonal boron-nitride prototype structure. The observed depolarization is accompanied by a significant lateral 1.6% expansion of the lattice parameter and a 3% reduced Zn-O bond length within the sheets. The nonpolar structure stabilizes an atomically flat surface morphology unseen for ZnO surfaces thus far. The transition to the bulk wurtzite structure occurs in the 3-4 ML coverage range, connected to considerable roughening.

  18. beta-Amyloid peptide induces formation of actin stress fibers through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Song, Cheng; Perides, George; Wang, Dechun; Liu, Ya Fang

    2002-11-01

    Based on the critical role of actin in the maintenance of synaptic function, we examined whether expression of familial beta-amyloid precursor protein APP-V642I (IAPP) or mutant presenilin-1 L286V (mPS1) affects actin polymerization in rat septal neuronal cells. Expression of either IAPP or mPS1 but not wild-type amyloid precursor protein or presenilin-1induced formation of actin stress fibers in SN1 cells, a septal neuronal cell line. Treatment with beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide also caused formation of actin stress fibers in SN1 cells and primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Treatment with a gamma-secretase inhibitor completely blocked formation of actin stress fibers, indicating that overproduction of Abeta peptide induces actin stress fibers. Because activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)-mitogen-associated protein kinase-associated protein kinase (MAPKAPK)-2-heat-shock protein 27 signaling pathway mediates actin polymerization, we explored whether Abeta peptide activates p38MAPK and MAPKAPK-2. Expression of IAPP or mPS1 induced activation of p38MAPK and MAPKAPK-2. Treatment with a p38MAPK inhibitor completely inhibited formation of actin stress fibers mediated by Abeta peptide, IAPP or mPS1. Moreover, treatment with a gamma-secretase inhibitor completely blocked activation of p38MAPK and MAPKAPK-2. In summary, our data suggest that overproduction of Abeta peptide induces formation of actin stress fibers through activation of the p38MAPK signaling pathway in septal neuronal cells. PMID:12421354

  19. Characterization and bioactivity of tape-cast and sintered TCP sheets.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Tohru; Sakae, Toshiro; Nemoto, Kimiya

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sintering temperature on in vivo and in vitro bioactivities of sintered tricalcium phosphate (TCP) sheets prepared by the tape casting technique. Green sheets of beta-TCP prepared by tape casting were sintered for 2 h in a furnace at atmospheric pressure, at five different sintering temperatures: 900, 1000, 1100, 1150, and 1200 degrees C. Measurement of X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed the presence of alpha-tricalcium phosphate phase in the TCP sheet sintered at 1200 degrees C, in addition to beta-TCP phase. As compared with the other sintered TCP sheet, the TCP sheet sintered at 1200 degrees C demonstrated a lower dissolution rate in phosphate buffered saline solution at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4 over 24 weeks, and more amount of apatite formation in Hanks' balanced salt solution with pH 7.4 was observed. After 4 weeks' implantation of sintered TCP sheets into tibial diaphyses of rabbits, the bone-sheet contact of the TCP sheet sintered at 1200 degrees C was significantly higher than that of the TCP sheet sintered at 900 degrees C. These results indicate that a flat sintered TCP sheet prepared by tape casting is a promising material for a bone substitute. PMID:16278874

  20. {beta}-Ti(M) solid solution formation and its thermal stability in a NiAl-Cr(Mo)-(Hf,Ti) near eutectic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hutian Wang Qiang; He Jicheng; Guo Jianting; Ye Hengqiang

    2008-10-15

    The effects of combined additions of Ti and Hf to NiAl-Cr(Mo) eutectics on the as-cast microstructure and its thermal stability are investigated through SEM, EDS and TEM, with focus on the formation mechanism of {beta}-Ti(M, M = Hf,Cr,Ni) solid solution phase and its thermal stability after short-term heat treatment. The results show that, due to the presence of large concentrations of {beta}-phase forming and stabilizing elements dissolved into the Ti solid solution phase during solidification, the thermodynamically metastable {beta}-phase was preserved at room temperature. With respect to its thermal stability, within the experimental range examined, the {beta}-Ti(M) solid solution phase, is not influenced. From the practical application point of view, this {beta}-Ti(M) solid solution phase may offer application as a strengthening phase for the design of NiAl-Cr(Mo)-Hf based alloys.

  1. Probing the Edge of the Solar System: Formation of an Unstable Jet-Sheet

    E-print Network

    M. Opher; P. C. Liewer; T. I. Gombosi; W. Manchester; D. L. DeZeeuw; I. Sokolov; G. Toth

    2003-05-22

    The Voyager spacecraft is now approaching the edge of the solar system. Near the boundary between the solar system and the interstellar medium we find that an unstable ``jet-sheet'' forms. The jet-sheet oscillates up and down due to a velocity shear instability. This result is due to a novel application of a state-of-art 3D Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code with a highly refined grid. We assume as a first approximation that the solar magnetic and rotation axes are aligned. The effect of a tilt of the magnetic axis with respect to the rotation axis remains to be seen. We include in the model self-consistently magnetic field effects in the interaction between the solar and interstellar winds. Previous studies of this interaction had poorer spatial resolution and did not include the solar magnetic field. This instability can affect the entry of energetic particles into the solar system and the intermixing of solar and interstellar material. The same effect found here is predicted for the interaction of rotating magnetized stars possessing supersonic winds and moving with respect to the interstellar medium, such as O stars.

  2. Magnetic relaxation, current sheets, and structure formation in an extremely Tenuous fluid medium

    SciTech Connect

    Bajer, K.; Moffatt, H. K.

    2013-12-20

    The process of relaxation of a unidirectional magnetic field in a highly conducting tenuous fluid medium is considered. Null points of the field play a critical role in this process. During an initial stage of relaxation, variations in magnetic pressure are eliminated, and current sheets build up in the immediate neighborhood of null points. This initial phase is followed by a long diffusive phase of slow algebraic decay of the field, during which fluid is continuously sucked into the current sheets, leading to exponential growth of fluid density and concentration of mass around the null points, which show a tendency to cluster. Ultimately, this second phase of algebraic decay gives way to a final period of exponential decay of the field. The peaks of density at the null points survive as a fossil relic of the decay process. Numerical solution of the governing equations provides convincing confirmation of this three-stage scenario. Generalizations to two- and three-dimensional fields are briefly considered.

  3. Increased aerobic glycolysis through beta2 stimulation is a common mechanism involved in lactate formation during shock states.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruno; Desebbe, Olivier; Montemont, Chantal; Gibot, Sebastien

    2008-10-01

    During septic shock, muscle produces lactate by way of an exaggerated NaK-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)-stimulated aerobic glycolysis associated with epinephrine stimulation possibly through beta2 adrenoreceptor involvement. It therefore seems logical that a proportion of hyperlactatemia in low cardiac output states would be also related to this mechanism. Thus, in low-flow and normal-to-high-flow models of shock, we investigate (1) whether muscle produces lactate and (2) whether muscle lactate production is linked to beta2 adrenergic stimulation and Na+K+-ATPase. We locally modulated the adrenergic pathway and Na+K+-ATPase activity in male Wistar rats' skeletal muscle using microdialysis with nonselective and selective beta blockers and ouabain in different models of rodent shock (endotoxin, peritonitis, and hemorrhage). Blood flow at the probe site was evaluated by ethanol clearance. We measured the difference between muscle lactate and blood lactate concentration, with a positive gradient indicating muscle lactate or pyruvate production. Epinephrine levels were elevated in all shock groups. All models were associated with hypotension and marked hyperlactatemia. Muscle lactate concentrations were consistently higher than arterial levels, with a mean gradient of 2.5+/-0.3 in endotoxic shock, 2.1+/-0.2 mM in peritonitis group, and 0.9+/-0.2 mM in hemorrhagic shock (P<0.05 for all groups). Muscle pyruvate concentrations were also always higher than arterial levels, with a mean gradient of 260+/-40 microM in endotoxic shock, 210+/-30 microM in peritonitis group, and 90+/-10 microM in hemorrhagic shock (P<0.05 for all groups). Despite a decrease in blood flow, lactate formation was decreased by all the pharmacological agents studied irrespective of shock mechanism. This demonstrates that lactate production during shock states is related, at least in part, to increased NaK-ATPase activity under beta2 stimulation. In shock state associated with a reduced or maintained blood flow, an important proportion of muscle lactate release is regulated by a beta2 receptor stimulation and not secondary to a reduced oxygen availability. PMID:18323749

  4. The cognitive effects of trauma: reversal of alpha function and the formation of a beta screen.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence J

    2005-04-01

    Following a brief review of Freud's writings on trauma, the author discusses relevant theories of Bion, and in particular the concepts of the alpha function and the beta screen. A clinical example is presented in which the patient's relatively recent trauma in adulthood had become fused with prior related experiences, leading to a propensity for repeated enactments in analysis and a failure to learn from experience. Drawing on the analyst's alpha function, the patient was gradually able to use mentalization to transform her rigidly structured traumatic organization. The author highlights the roles of dreams/dream associations and of screen memories in the patient's analysis. PMID:15889686

  5. Chimeric DNA-RNA hammerhead ribozyme targeting transforming growth factor-beta 1 mRNA inhibits neointima formation in rat carotid artery after balloon injury.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hideyuki; Fukuda, Noboru; Kotani, Motoko; Yokoyama, Shin ichiro; Kunimoto, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Koichi; Saito, Satoshi; Kanmatsuse, Katsuo; Mugishima, Hideo

    2004-01-12

    We designed and synthesized a chimeric DNA-RNA hammerhead ribozyme targeting transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 mRNA and found that this ribozyme effectively and specifically inhibited growth of vascular smooth muscle cells. We examined the effects of the chimeric DNA-RNA hammerhead ribozyme targeting TGF-beta 1 mRNA on neointima formation and investigated the underlying mechanism to develop a possible gene therapy for coronary artery restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Expression of mRNAs encoding TGF-beta 1, p27kip1, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in carotid artery increased after balloon injury. Fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled ribozyme was taken up into the midlayer smooth muscle of the injured carotid artery. Both 2 and 5 mg of ribozyme reduced neointima formation by 65% compared to that of controls. Ribozyme markedly decreased expression of TGF-beta 1 mRNA and protein in injured vessel. Mismatch ribozyme had no effect on expression of TGF-beta 1 mRNA protein in injured vessel. Ribozyme markedly decreased expression of fibronectin, p27kip1, and CTGF mRNAs in injured vessel, whereas a mismatch ribozyme had no effect on these mRNAs. These findings indicate that the chimeric DNA-RNA hammerhead ribozyme targeting TGF-beta 1 mRNA inhibits neointima formation in rat carotid artery after balloon injury with suppression of TGF-beta 1 and inhibition of extracellular matrix and CTGF. In conclusion, the hammerhead ribozyme against TGF-beta 1 may have promise as a therapy for coronary artery restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. PMID:14729108

  6. Beta- Lactam Antibiotics Stimulate Biofilm Formation in Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae by Up-Regulating Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Siva; Li, Xiaojin; Gunawardana, Manjula; Maguire, Kathleen; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Schaudinn, Christoph; Wang, Charles; Baum, Marc M.; Webster, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common acute otitis media pathogen, with an incidence that is increased by previous antibiotic treatment. NTHi is also an emerging causative agent of other chronic infections in humans, some linked to morbidity, and all of which impose substantial treatment costs. In this study we explore the possibility that antibiotic exposure may stimulate biofilm formation by NTHi bacteria. We discovered that sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotic (i.e., amounts that partially inhibit bacterial growth) stimulated the biofilm-forming ability of NTHi strains, an effect that was strain and antibiotic dependent. When exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics NTHi strains produced tightly packed biofilms with decreased numbers of culturable bacteria but increased biomass. The ratio of protein per unit weight of biofilm decreased as a result of antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilms had altered ultrastructure, and genes involved in glycogen production and transporter function were up regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Down-regulated genes were linked to multiple metabolic processes but not those involved in stress response. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilm bacteria were more resistant to a lethal dose (10 µg/mL) of cefuroxime. Our results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotic exposure may act as a signaling molecule that promotes transformation into the biofilm phenotype. Loss of viable bacteria, increase in biofilm biomass and decreased protein production coupled with a concomitant up-regulation of genes involved with glycogen production might result in a biofilm of sessile, metabolically inactive bacteria sustained by stored glycogen. These biofilms may protect surviving bacteria from subsequent antibiotic challenges, and act as a reservoir of viable bacteria once antibiotic exposure has ended. PMID:25007395

  7. Formation of high-{beta} plasma and stable confinement of toroidal electron plasma in Ring Trap 1

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, H.; Yoshida, Z.; Morikawa, J.; Furukawa, M.; Yano, Y.; Kawai, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Vogel, G.; Mikami, H.

    2011-05-15

    Formation of high-{beta} electron cyclotron resonance heating plasma and stable confinement of pure electron plasma have been realized in the Ring Trap 1 device, a magnetospheric configuration generated by a levitated dipole field magnet. The effects of coil levitation resulted in drastic improvements of the confinement properties, and the maximum local {beta} value has exceeded 70%. Hot electrons are major component of electron populations, and its particle confinement time is 0.5 s. Plasma has a peaked density profile in strong field region [H. Saitoh et al., 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference EXC/9-4Rb (2010)]. In pure electron plasma experiment, inward particle diffusion is realized, and electrons are stably trapped for more than 300 s. When the plasma is in turbulent state during beam injection, plasma flow has a shear, which activates the diocotron (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instability. The canonical angular momentum of the particle is not conserved in this phase, realizing the radial diffusion of charged particles across closed magnetic surfaces. [Z. Yoshida et al., Phys Rev. Lett. 104, 235004 (2010); H. Saitoh et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 112111 (2010).].

  8. ?-sheet-like formation during the mechanical unfolding of prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Weiwei; Yoon, Gwonchan; Cao, Penghui; Eom, Kilho; Park, Harold S.

    2015-09-01

    Single molecule experiments and simulations have been widely used to characterize the unfolding and folding pathways of different proteins. However, with few exceptions, these tools have not been applied to study prion protein, PrPC, whose misfolded form PrPSc can induce a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we apply novel atomistic modeling based on potential energy surface exploration to study the constant force unfolding of human PrP at time scales inaccessible with standard molecular dynamics. We demonstrate for forces around 100 pN, prion forms a stable, three-stranded ?-sheet-like intermediate configuration containing residues 155-214 with a lifetime exceeding hundreds of nanoseconds. A mutant without the disulfide bridge shows lower stability during the unfolding process but still forms the three-stranded structure. The simulations thus not only show the atomistic details of the mechanically induced structural conversion from the native ?-helical structure to the ?-rich-like form but also lend support to the structural theory that there is a core of the recombinant PrP amyloid, a misfolded form reported to induce transmissible disease, mapping to C-terminal residues ?160-220.

  9. Pattern formation in icosahedral virus capsids: the papova viruses and Nudaurelia capensis beta virus.

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, C J; Day, L A

    1993-01-01

    The capsids of the spherical viruses all show underlying icosahedral symmetry, yet they differ markedly in capsomere shape and in capsomere position and orientation. The capsid patterns presented by the capsomere shapes, positions, and orientations of three viruses (papilloma, SV40, and N beta V) have been generated dynamically through a bottom-up procedure which provides a basis for understanding the patterns. A capsomere shape is represented in two-dimensional cross-section by a mass or charge density on the surface of a sphere, given by an expansion in spherical harmonics, and referred to herein as a morphological unit (MU). A capsid pattern is represented by an icosahedrally symmetrical superposition of such densities, determined by the positions and orientations of its MUs on the spherical surface. The fitness of an arrangement of MUs is measured by an interaction integral through which all capsid elements interact with each other via an arbitrary function of distance. A capsid pattern is generated by allowing the correct number of approximately shaped MUs to move dynamically on the sphere, positioning themselves until an extremum of the fitness function is attained. The resulting patterns are largely independent of the details of both the capsomere representation and the interaction function; thus the patterns produced are generic. The simplest useful fitness function is sigma 2, the average square of the mass (or charge) density, a minimum of which corresponds to a "uniformly spaced" MU distribution; to good approximation, the electrostatic free energy of charged capsomeres, calculated from the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation, is proportional to sigma 2. With disks as MUs, the model generates the coordinated lattices familiar from the quasi-equivalence theory, indexed by triangulation numbers. Using fivefold MUs, the model generates the patterns observed at different radii within the T = 7 capsid of papilloma and at the surface of SV40; threefold MUs give the T = 4 pattern of Nudaurelia capensis beta virus. In all cases examined so far, the MU orientations are correctly found. Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:8312492

  10. Optimal Scaling in Solids Undergoing Ductile Fracture by Void Sheet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokoua, Landry; Conti, Sergio; Ortiz, Michael

    2014-04-01

    This work is concerned with the derivation of optimal scaling laws, in the sense of matching lower and upper bounds on the energy, for a solid undergoing ductile fracture. The specific problem considered concerns a material sample in the form of an infinite slab of finite thickness subjected to prescribed opening displacements on its two surfaces. The solid is assumed to obey deformation-theory of plasticity and, in order to further simplify the analysis, we assume isotropic rigid-plastic deformations with zero plastic spin. When hardening exponents are given values consistent with observation, the energy is found to exhibit sublinear growth. We regularize the energy through the addition of nonlocal energy terms of the strain-gradient plasticity type. This nonlocal regularization has the effect of introducing an intrinsic length scale into the energy. Under these assumptions, ductile fracture emerges as the net result of two competing effects: whereas the sublinear growth of the local energy promotes localization of deformation to failure planes, the nonlocal regularization stabilizes this process, thus resulting in an orderly progression towards failure and a well-defined specific fracture energy. The optimal scaling laws derived here show that ductile fracture results from localization of deformations to void sheets, and that it requires a well-defined energy per unit fracture area. In particular, fractal modes of fracture are ruled out under the assumptions of the analysis. The optimal scaling laws additionally show that ductile fracture is cohesive in nature, that is, it obeys a well-defined relation between tractions and opening displacements. Finally, the scaling laws supply a link between micromechanical properties and macroscopic fracture properties. In particular, they reveal the relative roles that surface energy and microplasticity play as contributors to the specific fracture energy of the material.

  11. The geologic mapping of Venus using C-1 format: Sheets 75N254, 60N263

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalimov, I. V.

    1992-01-01

    The results of geologic mapping of Venus, produced on the base of Magellan images, are presented. We submit two C-1 format geologic maps with the appropriate legend. The mapping territory was taken from Venera 15 and 16 missions and geologic maps were composed. Magellan images allow us to divide some types of the plains units to determine the lava flow direction and to map with better accuracy.

  12. Natalizumab plus interferon beta-1a reduces lesion formation in relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Stuart, William H; Calabresi, Peter A; Confavreux, Christian; Galetta, Steven L; Rudick, Richard A; Lublin, Fred D; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Wynn, Daniel R; Fisher, Elizabeth; Papadopoulou, Athina; Lynn, Frances; Panzara, Michael A; Sandrock, Alfred W

    2010-05-15

    The SENTINEL study showed that the addition of natalizumab improved outcomes for patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) who had experienced disease activity while receiving interferon beta-1a (IFNbeta-1a) alone. Previously unreported secondary and tertiary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures are presented here. Patients received natalizumab 300 mg (n=589) or placebo (n=582) intravenously every 4 weeks plus IFNbeta-1a 30 microg intramuscularly once weekly. Annual MRI scans allowed comparison of a range of MRI end points versus baseline. Over 2 years, 67% of patients receiving natalizumab plus IFNbeta-1a remained free of new or enlarging T2-lesions compared with 30% of patients receiving IFNbeta-1a alone. The mean change from baseline in T2 lesion volume over 2 years decreased in patients receiving natalizumab plus IFNbeta-1a and increased in those receiving IFNbeta-1a alone (-277.5mm(3) versus 525.6mm(3); p<0.001). Compared with IFNbeta-1a alone, add-on natalizumab therapy resulted in a smaller increase in mean T1-hypointense lesion volume after 2 years (1821.3mm(3) versus 2210.5mm(3); p<0.001), a smaller mean number of new T1-hypointense lesions over 2 years (2.3 versus 4.1; p<0.001), and a slower rate of brain atrophy during the second year of therapy (-0.31% versus -0.40%; p=0.020). Natalizumab add-on therapy reduced gadolinium-enhancing, T1-hypointense, and T2 MRI lesion activity and slowed brain atrophy progression in patients with relapsing MS who experienced disease activity despite treatment with IFNbeta-1a alone. PMID:20236661

  13. FORMATION OF FLUORESCENT PROTEINS BY THE ATTACHMENT OF PHYCOERYTHROBILIN TO R-PHYCOERYTHRIN ALPHA AND BETA APO-SUBUNITS

    PubMed Central

    Isailovic, Dragan; Sultana, Ishrat; Phillips, Gregory J.; Yeung, Edward S.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of fluorescent proteins was explored after incubation of recombinant apo-subunits of phycobiliprotein R-phycoerythrin with phycoerythrobilin chromophore. Alpha and beta apo-subunit genes of R-phycoerythrin from red algae Polisiphonia boldii were cloned in plasmids pET-21d (+). Hexa-histidine tagged apo-alpha and apo-beta subunits were expressed in Escherichia coli. Although expressed apo-subunits formed inclusion bodies, fluorescent holo-subunits were constituted after incubation of Escherichia coli cells with phycoerythrobilin. Subunits contained both phycoerythrobilin and urobilin chromophores. Fluorescence and differential interference contrast microscopy showed polar location of holo-subunit inclusion bodies in bacterial cells. Cells containing fluorescent holo-subunits were several times brighter than control cells as found by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Addition of phycoerythrobilin to cells did not show cytotoxic effects in contrast to expression of proteins in inclusion bodies. In an attempt to improve solubility, R-phycoerythrin apo-subunits were fused to maltose binding protein and incubated with phycoerythrobilin both in vitro and in vivo. Highly-fluorescent soluble fusion proteins were formed containing phycoerythrobilin as the sole chromophore. Fusion proteins were localized by fluorescence microscopy either throughout Escherichia coli cells or at cell poles. Flow cytometry showed that cells containing fluorescent fusion proteins were up to ten times brighter than control cells. Results indicate that fluorescent proteins formed by attachment of phycoerythrobilin to expressed apo-subunits of phycobiliproteins can be used as fluorescent probes for analysis of cells by microscopy and flow cytometry. A unique property of these fluorescent reporters is their utility in both properly folded (soluble) subunits and subunits aggregated in inclusion bodies. PMID:16979575

  14. Deletion of beta catenin in hypertrophic growth plate chondrocytes impairs trabecular bone formation.

    PubMed

    Golovchenko, Svitlana; Hattori, Takako; Hartmann, Christine; Gebhardt, Matthias; Gebhard, Sonja; Hess, Andreas; Pausch, Friederike; Schlund, Britta; von der Mark, Klaus

    2013-07-01

    In order to elucidate the role of ?-catenin in hypertrophic cartilage zone of the growth plate, we deleted the ?-catenin gene ctnnb1?specifically from hypertrophic chondrocytes by mating ctnnb1(fl/fl) mice with BAC-Col10a1-Cre-deleter mice. Surprisingly, this resulted in a significant reduction of subchondral trabecular bone formation in BACCol10Cre; ctnnb1(?/?) (referred to as Cat-ko) mice, although Cre expression was restricted to hypertrophic chondrocytes. The size of the Col10a1 positive hypertrophic zone was normal, but qRT-PCR revealed reduced expression of Mmp13, and Vegfa in Cat-ko hypertrophic chondrocytes, indicating impaired terminal differentiation. Immunohistological and in situ hybridization analysis revealed the substantial deficiency of collagen I positive mature osteoblasts, but equal levels of osterix-positive cells in the subchondral bone marrow space of Cat-ko mice, indicating that the supply of osteoblast precursor cells was not reduced. The fact that in Cat-ko mice subchondral trabeculae were lacking including their calcified cartilage core indicated a strongly enhanced osteoclast activity. In fact, TRAP staining as well as in situ hybridization analysis of Mmp9 expression revealed denser occupation of the cartilage erosion zone with enlarged osteoclasts as compared to the control growth plate, suggesting increased RANKL or reduced osteoprotegerin (Opg) activity in this zone. This notion was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis of mRNA extracted from cultured hypertrophic chondrocytes or from whole epiphyses, showing increased Rankl mRNA levels in Cat-ko as compared to control chondrocytes, whereas changes in OPG levels were not significant. These results indicate that ?-catenin levels in hypertrophic chondrocytes play a key role in regulating osteoclast activity and trabecular bone formation at the cartilage-bone interface by controlling RANKL expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes. PMID:23567158

  15. Effects of the Formation of Al x Cu y Gradient Interfaces on Mechanical Property of Steel/Al Laminated Sheets by Introducing Cu Binding-Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Aili; Liu, Xinghai; Shi, Quanxin; Liang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Steel/Cu/Al laminated sheets were fabricated by two-pass hot rolling to improve the mechanical properties of steel/Al sheets. The bonding properties and deformability of the steel/Cu/Al sheets were studied. Steel/Al and steel/Cu/Al samples were rolled at 350°C for 15 min with the first-pass reduction of 40%, and then heated at 600°C for 5 min with different reductions. It was found that the steel/Cu/Al samples rolled by the second-pass reduction of 85% could endure the maximum 90° bend cycle times of 45, exhibiting excellent fatigue resistance as well as deformability. The steel/Al samples could only reach the maximum 90° bend cycle times of 20. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectrometer, and electron backscattered diffraction results showed that the preferred growth orientations of Cu, Al4Cu9, and Al2Cu on the steel/Cu/Al laminated sheets are {-1, 1, 2} <1, -1, 1>, {1, 0, 0} <0, 1, 0> and {-1, 1, 2} <1, -1, 1> {1, 1, 0} <0, 0, 1>. The orientation relationships between Cu and Al2Cu are {1, 1, 0}(fcc)//{1, 1, 0}(bct) and {1, 1, 1}(fcc)//{1, 1, 1}(bct). The improved bonding property and excellent fatigue resistance as well as deformability were mainly ascribed to the tight combination and consistent deformability across steel, Al, and the transition layers (Cu, Al4Cu9, and Al2Cu).

  16. Lipid-specific ?-sheet formation in a mussel byssus protein domain.

    PubMed

    Heim, Markus; Elsner, Martina B; Scheibel, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) or regions (IDR) can adopt multiple conformational states, depending on the interaction partners they encounter. This enables proteins or individual domains to fulfill multiple functions. Here, we analyzed the flank sequences of preCol-NG, one of three collagenous proteins of a mussel byssus thread governing its mechanical performance. preCol-NG comprises a collagen domain and nonrepetitive termini enclosing specific flank regions characterized by tandem repeats known from silk proteins, protein elastomers, and plant cell wall-associated proteins. We recombinantly produced a protein mimicking the M. galloprovincialis preCol-NG C-terminal flank region. The protein was intrinsically unfolded in solution, even at elevated temperatures. However, upon contact with small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) reversible ?-structure formation occurred, reminiscent of partitioning-folding coupling. This behavior of preCol-NG flank domains likely impacts byssogenesis and sheds new light on a distinct mechanism of how fibrous protein materials might be achieved by lipid-induced self-assembly in nature. PMID:23947342

  17. Self-assembly and mineralization of genetically modifiable biological nanofibers driven by beta-structure formation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Cao, Binrui; George, Anne; Mao, Chuanbin

    2011-01-01

    Bio-inspired mineralization is an innovative approach to the fabrication of bone biomaterials mimicking the natural bone. Bone mineral hydroxylapatite (HAP) is preferentially oriented with c-axis parallel to collagen fibers in natural bone. However, such orientation control is not easy to achieve in artificial bone biomaterials. To overcome the lack of such orientation control, we fabricated a phage-HAP composite by genetically engineering M13 phage, a non-toxic bio-nanofiber, with two HAP-nucleating peptides derived from one of the non-collagenous proteins, Dentin Matrix Protein-1 (DMP1). The phage is a biological nanofiber that can be mass produced by infecting bacteria and is non-toxic to human beings. The resultant HAP-nucleating phages are able to self-assemble into bundles by forming ?-structure between the peptides displayed on their side walls. The ?-structure further promotes the oriented nucleation and growth of HAP crystals within the nanofibrous phage bundles with their c-axis preferentially parallel to the bundles. We proposed that the preferred orientation resulted from the stereochemical matching between the negatively charged amino acid residues within the ?-structure and the positively charged calcium ions on the (001) plane of HAP crystals. The self-assembly and mineralization driven by the ?-structure formation represent a new route for fabricating mineralized fibers that can serve as building blocks in forming bone repair biomaterials and mimic the basic structure of natural bones. PMID:21520924

  18. Beta-hexosaminidase activity of the oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia influences biofilm formation on glycoprotein substrates.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sumita; Phansopa, Chatchawal; Stafford, Prachi; Honma, Kiyonobu; Douglas, C W Ian; Sharma, Ashu; Stafford, Graham P

    2012-06-01

    Tannerella forsythia is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. Previously, we showed that its sialidase activity is key to utilization of sialic acid from a range of human glycoproteins for biofilm growth and initial adhesion. Removal of terminal sialic acid residues often exposes ?-linked glucosamine or galactosamine, which may also be important adhesive molecules. In turn, these residues are often removed by a group of enzymes known as ?-hexosaminidases. We show here that T. forsythia has the ability to cleave glucosamine and galactosamine from model substrates and that this activity can be inhibited by the hexosaminidase inhibitor PugNAc (O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosylidene)amino N-phenyl carbamate). We now demonstrate for the first time that ?-hexosaminidase activity plays a role in biofilm growth on glycoprotein-coated surfaces because biofilm growth and initial cell adhesion are inhibited by PugNAc. In contrast, adhesion to siallo-glycoprotein-coated surfaces is unaltered by PugNAc in the absence of sialidase activity (using a sialidase-deficient mutant) or surprisingly on the clinically relevant substrates saliva or serum. These data indicate that ?-hexosaminidase activity has a significant role in biofilm formation in combination with sialidase activity in the biofilm lifestyle of T. forsythia. PMID:22276920

  19. An RGD spacing of 440 nm is sufficient for integrin alpha V beta 3- mediated fibroblast spreading and 140 nm for focal contact and stress fiber formation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The synthetic peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Tyr (GRGDY), which contains the RGD sequence of several adhesion molecules, was covalently grafted to the surface of otherwise poorly adhesive glass substrates and was used to determine the minimal number of ligand-receptor interactions required for complete spreading of human foreskin fibroblasts. Well- defined adhesion substrates were prepared with GRGDY between 10(-3) fmol/cm2 and 10(4) fmol/cm2. As the adhesion ligand surface concentration was varied, several distinct morphologies of adherent cells were observed and categorized. The population of fully spread cells at 4 h reached a maximum at 1 fmol/cm2, with no further increases up to 10(4) fmol/cm2. Although maximal cell spreading was obtained at 1 fmol/cm2, focal contacts and stress fibers failed to form at RGD surface concentrations below 10 fmol/cm2. The minimal peptide spacings obtained in this work correspond to 440 nm for spreading and 140 nm for focal contact formation, and are much larger than those reported in previous studies with adsorbed adhesion proteins, adsorbed RGD-albumin conjugates, or peptide-grafted polyacrylamide gels. Vitronectin receptor antiserum specific for integrin alpha V beta 3 blocked cell adhesion and spreading on substrates containing 100 fmol/cm2 of surface- bound GRGDY, while fibronectin receptor antiserum specific for alpha 5 beta 1 did not. Furthermore, alpha V beta 3 was observed to cluster into focal contacts in spread cells, but alpha 5 beta 1 did not. It was thus concluded that a peptide-to-peptide spacing of 440 nm was required for alpha V beta 3-mediated cellular spreading, while 140 nm was required for alpha V beta 3-mediated focal contact formation and normal stress fiber organization in human foreskin fibroblasts; these spacings represent much fewer ligands than were previously thought to be required. PMID:1714913

  20. The 17alpha and 17beta isomers of estradiol both induce rapid spine synapse formation in the CA1 hippocampal subfield of ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    MacLusky, Neil J; Luine, Victoria N; Hajszan, Tibor; Leranth, Csaba

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that estradiol-17beta and estradiol-17alpha both induce short-latency effects on spatial memory in rats, estradiol-17alpha being at least as potent as its 17beta isomer. To determine whether the mechanisms underlying these behavioral responses might include effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity, CA1 pyramidal spine synapse density (PSSD) was measured in ovariectomized rats within the first few hours after s.c. estrogen injection. PSSD increased markedly (by 24%) 4.5 h after the administration of 45 microg/kg estradiol-17beta. The PSSD response was significantly greater (44% above control) 30 min after estradiol-17beta injection and was markedly dose dependent; a 3-fold lower estradiol-17beta dose (15 microg/kg) did not significantly affect CA1 PSSD at either 30 min or 4.5 h. Estradiol-17alpha was a more potent inducer of PSSD than estradiol-17beta. Dose-response analysis determined an ED50 for the effect of estradiol-17alpha on PSSD of 8.92 +/- 1.99 microg/kg, with a maximal response at 15 microg/kg. These results demonstrate that high doses of estradiol induce rapid changes in CA1 PSSD. CA1 spine synapse formation appears to be more sensitive to estradiol-17alpha than to estradiol-17beta, paralleling previous data on the effects of these two steroids on spatial memory. Rapid remodeling of hippocampal synaptic connections may thus contribute to the enhancement of spatial mnemonic processing observed within the first few hours after estrogen treatment. The potency of estradiol-17alpha suggests that hormone replacement therapy using this steroid might be useful clinically in ameliorating the impact of low endogenous estrogen production on the development and progression of neurodegenerative disorders involving the hippocampus. PMID:15486220

  1. Double Mantle Plume Upwelling—A Possible Formation Mechanism of Beta Plateau and Devana Chasma,Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, N.

    2009-12-01

    Ning Ding,Zuoxun Zeng,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan,430074,China NingDing.eagle@gmail.com Introduction:Venus represents a‘one plate planet’[1],and the uplift,fractures and volcanism in Beta Regio on Venus are considered to be formed by lithosphere uplift driven by a hot plume[2]. Based on the double peaking saddle landform,we suggest the tectonic pattern of double mantle plume upwelling to interpret the formation mechanism of Beta Plateau and Devana Chasma.We take a physical modeling to validate this possibility. Model:There is no ductile shear in Venus[3],so we use quartz sands to simulate the crust of Venus.We use two wood stickes 1.5cm in diameter rising from the rubber canvas slowly and straight till about half of the model,then falling down slowly and straight.The base is a hard rubber plate,in the center of which,there are two holes 3cm in diameter,and the distance between them is 5cm.The holes are covered by rubber canvas.We use the quartz sands in colours of white, red and black with particle size of 70 mess as the model materials. Result:Fig.1:At the beginning of the wood stickes upwelling,only fine radial cracks are formed above the upwelling from central to outside.With the upwelling continue,surface energy of the fine radial cracks increase and make the cracks unstable,finally,the fine radial cracks connect each other and form a fracture zone.And then the two mantle plume downwelling,the fracture zone is developed to form a chasma at the end. Fig.2:The four profiles all form reverse faults outside and normal faults inside.But the difference is the faults in the middle of the chasma goes deeper than others.It is the pattern of Beta Plateau where the tectonic rising is cut by Devana Chasma zone in the topographic features. Fig.3:From the tow fig., we can see two points similar:a.the elevation is high and distribution area is large around the area of two upwelling and it is high around the area of chasma,but the distribution area is small;b.both of them shows saddle shape and two highland connectting bya chasma. Discussion:Based on the‘Geology Map of V-17’,two highlands of Northern part of Devana Chasma,but the material Unit of North and South highland are different.The material Units of North highland are the oldest unit tt and t,the material Unit of South highland is pl and the material Unit of rift is r are both the youngest unit.From the Magellan SAR mosaic[5],we can clearly see Devana Chasma cut the material Unit of tt and pl.So the two highlands of Northern part of Devana Chasma are simultaneous formed.The younger material Unit of South highland of Northern part of Devana Chasma is because of the volcanic eruption of Theia Mons. Conclusion:The physical modeling validates the model of the double plume upwelling is a possible explanation. Acknowledgements:This research was supported by the National Teaching Bases For Geology(CUG)foundation funded. References:[1]I.López,Icarus2008[2]A.T.Basilevsky,Icarus2007[3]J.C.Aubele,2009,LPSC[4]A.V.Vezolainen,2003,Journalofgeophysicalres5earch[5]http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/images/v17_comp&v29_comp.pdf Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3a,3b

  2. [Beta]-Adrenergic Receptors in the Insular Cortex are Differentially Involved in Aversive vs. Incidental Context Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Isabel; Sabath, Elizabeth; Nunez-Jaramillo, Luis; Puron-Sierra, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine the effects of [beta]-adrenergic antagonism in the IC before or after inhibitory avoidance (IA) training or context pre-exposure in a latent inhibition protocol. Pretraining intra-IC infusion of the [beta]-adrenergic antagonist propranolol disrupted subsequent IA retention and impaired latent inhibition…

  3. Esker formation and meltwater routing on and beneath the margins of the last Cordilleran Ice Sheet: implications for modelling ice sheet hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, A. J.; Brennand, T.; Burke, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    It has been suggested that ice sheet drainage system organization (i.e. channelized or distributed) may be predicted from variables such as substrate character (rigidity, permeability) and ice surface slope. Analysis of esker systems from paleoglacial environments is instructive in testing the validity of such model predictions. We combine data from grids of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity (ER) with sedimentological observations, water well data and detailed geomorphic investigation to infer esker genesis and describe the character and context of three eskers at the margins of the last Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) on British Columbia's (BC's) southern Fraser Plateau. This region is characterized by soft (deformation and deformed lodgement tills), low permeability diamictons (~50% clay and silt content) overlying basalt. Esker systems on the plateau include: 1) a 12 km long, relatively straight (sinuosity ratio, Sr, 1.061), single thread esker (Green Lake esker), with both undulatory and flat-topped sections, deposited in a 38 km long subglacial erosional corridor; 2) a 4.5 km long single thread, undulating, and moderately sinuous esker (Hooke Road esker, Sr 1.36) in the vicinity of ice marginal channels (useful in determining ice surface slope); and 3) a 6 km long esker-like ridge (Young Lake esker), that transitions from flat-topped upflow to undulating downflow and is bordered by closed depressions on the floor of a glacially-modified gorge. The individual eskers are respectively interpreted as: 1) a subglacial esker formed during supraglacial lake drainage, under low ice surface slopes; 2) a supraglacial esker formed by drainage across the ice marginal zone; and 3) an esker-like ridge formed in an ice-walled, unroofed channel within disintegrating ice blocks at a point beyond the intact ice margin. Together these landforms suggest that: 1) supraglacial water was a significant component of water flow at the base of the CIS; 2) CIS decay was, at times, facilitated by high magnitude water flows; and 3) organization of channelized drainage systems was probably not limited to rigid, impermeable beds or to locations of high ice surface slopes. Our data indicate that emerging models of ice sheet hydrology should incorporate sources of unsteady supraglacial drainage.

  4. Formation and evolution of high-plasma-pressure region in the near-Earth plasma sheet: Precursor and postcursor of substorm expansion onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Tanaka, T.

    2015-08-01

    Cause of substorm expansion onset is one of the major problems in the magnetospheric study. On the basis of a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, Tanaka et al. (2010) suggested that formation and evolution of a high-pressure region (HPR) in the near-Earth plasma sheet could result in sudden intensification of the Region 1 field-aligned current and the westward auroral electrojet. In this sense, the formation and evolution of the HPR are a key in understanding the cause of the onset. On 5 April 2009, three probes of the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) were located at XGSM~-11 Re around the equator, which provide unique opportunity to investigate the spatial-temporal evolution of the HPR near the substorm expansion onset. Just before the onset, a positive excursion of the plasma pressure appeared at the outermost probe first, followed by the inner ones. Just after the onset, the opposite sequence took place. A positive excursion of the Y component of the current density was observed near the onset by the THEMIS probes and followed by a decrease trend. A similar variation was also found in the MHD simulation. All these features are consistent with the simulation result that a squeeze of the plasma from the plasma sheet results in the formation of the HPR before the onset and that the accumulated plasma spreads outward after the onset. The HPR is shown to be important for the dynamics of the magnetosphere during a substorm.

  5. Copper induces increased beta-sheet content in the scrapie-susceptible ovine prion protein PrPVRQ compared with the resistant allelic variant PrPARR.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Edmond; Thackray, Alana M; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by conformational change in the copper-binding protein PrP (prion protein). Polymorphisms in ovine PrP at amino acid residues 136, 154 and 171 are associated with variation in susceptibility to scrapie. PrPVRQ [PrP(Val136/Arg154/Gln171)] or PrPARQ [PrP(Ala136/Arg154/Gln171)] animals show susceptibility to scrapie, whereas those that express Ala136/Arg154/Arg171 (PrPARR) show resistance. Results are presented here that show PrPVRQ and PrPARR display different conformational responses to metal-ion interaction. At 37 degrees C copper induced different levels of b-sheet content in the allelic variants of ovine full-length prion protein (amino acid 25-232). PrPVRQ showed a significant increase in b-sheet content when exposed to copper at 37 degrees C, whereas PrPARR remained relatively unchanged. The conversion of a-helical PrPVRQ to b-sheet form was shown by CD spectroscopy and the decreased binding of C-terminal specific monoclonal anti-PrP antibodies. This conversion to an increased b-sheet form did not occur with truncated PrPVRQ (amino acids 89-233), which demonstrates that additional metal-binding sites outside of the N-terminus may not overtly influence the overall structure of ovine PrP. Despite the difference in b-sheet content, both the scrapie-susceptible and -resistant allelic forms of ovine PrP acquired resistance to proteinase K digestion following exposure to copper at 37 degrees C, suggesting the potential for disease-associated PrPARR to accumulate in vivo. Our present study demonstrates that allelic variants of ovine PrP differ in their structure and response to the interaction with copper. These observations will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of susceptibility and resistance to prion disease. PMID:14969585

  6. A Deep-water Amalgamated Sheet System, Punta Barrosa Formation, Marina's Cliff, Chile Copyright 2007 by The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. DOI: 10.1306/1240920St563291

    E-print Network

    A Deep-water Amalgamated Sheet System, Punta Barrosa Formation, Marina's Cliff, Chile Copyright of the Andean fold-thrust belt in southernmost Chile (Figure 1). This formation was deposited during the first deep-water, coarse-grained clastic depositional stage that characterized the Late Cretaceous

  7. Formation of {beta}-nickel hydroxide plate-like structures under mild conditions and their optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, A.P. de; Lima, R.C.; Paris, E.C.; Li, M.S.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2011-10-15

    Nanostructural {beta}-nickel hydroxide ({beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2}) plates were prepared using the microwave-hydrothermal (MH) method at a low temperature and short reaction times. An ammonia solution was employed as the coordinating agent, which reacts with [Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} to control the growth of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nuclei. A trigonal {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} single phase was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and the crystal cell was constructed with structural parameters and atomic coordinates obtained from Rietveld refinement. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images revealed that the samples consisted of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates with a different particle size distribution. Broad absorption bands assigned as transitions of Ni{sup 2+} in oxygen octahedral sites were revealed by UV-vis spectra. Photoluminescence (PL) properties observed with a maximum peak centered in the blue-green region were attributed to different defects, which were produced during the nucleation process. We present a growth process scheme of the {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoplates. - Graphical abstract: Nanostructural {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} crystalline powders were prepared by rapid microwave-hydrothermal method for 1, 8 and 32 min. The hexagonal-shaped nanoplates obtained presented PL emission in the blue-green region and each decomposed component represents a different type of electronic transition, which can be linked to the structural arrangement or surface defects. Highlights: > Ammonia solution to control the growth of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nuclei. > Regular plates-shape related to crystallization-dissolution-recrystallization. > The surface states and lattice defects generated in growth mechanism of crystals. > Different defects produced in the growth process responsible by photoluminescence. > Each component of photoluminescence curve linked to structural arrangement or surface defects.

  8. Rationally Designed Peptoids Modulate Aggregation of Amyloid-Beta 40

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Plaques composed of aggregated amyloid-beta protein (A?) accumulate between the neural cells in the brain and are associated with dementia and cellular death. Many strategies have been investigated to prevent A? self-assembly into disease-associated ?-sheet amyloid aggregates; however, a promising therapeutic has not yet been identified. In this study, a peptoid-based mimic of the peptide KLVFF (residues 16–20 of A?) was tested for its ability to modulate A? aggregation. Peptoid JPT1 includes chiral, aromatic side chains to induce formation of a stable helical secondary structure that allows for greater interaction between the aromatic side chains and the cross ?-sheet of A?. JPT1 was found to modulate A?40 aggregation, specifically decreasing lag time to ?-sheet aggregate formation as well as the total number of fibrillar, ?-sheet structured aggregates formed. These results suggest that peptoids may be able to limit the formation of A? aggregates that are associated with AD. PMID:24689364

  9. FORMATION OF BETA-HYDROXYCARBONYLS FROM THE OH RADICAL-INITIATED REACTIONS OF SELECTED ALKENES (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    beta2.gif" BORDER=0 ALIGN="middle">-Hydroxycarbonyls can be formed from the gas-phase
    reactions of alkenes with the OH radical, both in the presence
    and in the absence of NO. To date, because of analytical
    difficulties, few data have been r...

  10. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry reveals a conformational conversion from random assembly to ?-sheet in amyloid fibril formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiholder, Christian; Dupuis, Nicholas F.; Wyttenbach, Thomas; Bowers, Michael T.

    2011-02-01

    Amyloid cascades that lead to peptide ?-sheet fibrils and plaques are central to many important diseases. Recently, intermediate assemblies of these cascades were identified as the toxic agents that interact with cellular machinery. The location and cause of the transformation from a natively unstructured assembly to the ?-sheet oligomers found in all fibrils is important in understanding disease onset and the development of therapeutic agents. Largely, research on this early oligomeric region was unsuccessful because all the traditional techniques measure only the average oligomer properties of the ensemble. We utilized ion-mobility methods to deduce the peptide self-assembly mechanism and examined a series of amyloid-forming peptides clipped from larger peptides or proteins associated with disease. We provide unambiguous evidence for structural transitions in each of these fibril-forming peptide systems and establish the potential of this method for the development of therapeutic agents and drug evaluation.

  11. Proteopedia: Rossmann Fold: A Beta-Alpha-Beta Fold at Dinucleotide Binding Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanukoglu, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The Rossmann fold is one of the most common and widely distributed super-secondary structures. It is composed of a series of alternating beta strand (ß) and alpha helical (a) segments wherein the ß-strands are hydrogen bonded forming a ß-sheet. The initial beta-alpha-beta (ßaß) fold is the most conserved segment of Rossmann folds. As this segment…

  12. Image formation by linear and nonlinear digital scanned light-sheet fluorescence microscopy with Gaussian and Bessel beam profiles.

    PubMed

    Olarte, Omar E; Licea-Rodriguez, Jacob; Palero, Jonathan A; Gualda, Emilio J; Artigas, David; Mayer, Jürgen; Swoger, Jim; Sharpe, James; Rocha-Mendoza, Israel; Rangel-Rojo, Raul; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    We present the implementation of a combined digital scanned light-sheet microscope (DSLM) able to work in the linear and nonlinear regimes under either Gaussian or Bessel beam excitation schemes. A complete characterization of the setup is performed and a comparison of the performance of each DSLM imaging modality is presented using in vivoCaenorhabditis elegans samples. We found that the use of Bessel beam nonlinear excitation results in better image contrast over a wider field of view. PMID:22808423

  13. Disease-associated casein kinase I delta mutation may promote adenomatous polyps formation via a Wnt/beta-catenin independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tsai, I-Chun; Woolf, Margaret; Neklason, Deborah W; Branford, William W; Yost, H Joseph; Burt, Randall W; Virshup, David M

    2007-03-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is critical for embryonic development and is dysregulated in multiple cancers. Two closely related isoforms of casein kinase I (CKIdelta and epsilon) are positive regulators of this pathway. We speculated that mutations in the autoinhibitory domain of CKIdelta/epsilon might upregulate CKIdelta/epsilon activity and hence Wnt signaling and increase the risk of adenomatous polyps and colon cancer. Exons encoding the CKIepsilon and CKIdelta regulatory domains were sequenced from DNA obtained from individuals with adenomatous polyps and a family history of colon cancer unaffected by familial adenomatous polyposis or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). A CKIdelta missense mutation, changing a highly conserved residue, Arg324, to His (R324H), was found in an individual with large and multiple polyps diagnosed at a relatively young age. Two findings indicate that this mutation is biologically active. First, ectopic ventral expression of CKIdelta(R324H) in Xenopus embryos results in secondary axis formation with an additional distinctive phenotype (altered morphological movements) similar to that seen with unregulated CKIepsilon. Second, CKIdelta(R324H) is more potent than wildtype CKIdelta in transformation of RKO colon cancer cells. Although the R324H mutation does not significantly change CKIdelta kinase activity in an in vitro kinase assay or Wnt/beta-catenin signal transduction as assessed by a beta-catenin reporter assay, it alters morphogenetic movements via a beta-catenin-independent mechanism in early Xenopus development. This novel human CKIdelta mutation may alter the physiological role and enhance the transforming ability of CKIdelta through a Wnt/beta-catenin independent mechanism and thereby influence colonic adenoma development. PMID:17131344

  14. Overexpression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces pulmonary granulation tissue formation and fibrosis by induction of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and myofibroblast accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Z.; Tremblay, G. M.; Sime, P. J.; Gauldie, J.

    1997-01-01

    We have previously reported that transfer to rat lung of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene leads to high expression of GM-CSF between days 1 and 4 and granulation tissue formation followed by an irreversible fibrotic response starting from day 12 onward. In the current study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms. We found that GM-CSF overexpression did not enhance production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in a significant manner at any time after GM-CSF gene transfer. However, the content of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was markedly induced at day 4 and appeared to be maximal around day 7 and remained high at day 12. Macrophages purified from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 7 days after GM-CSF gene transfer spontaneously released significant quantities of transforming growth factor-beta 1 protein in vitro. After peak transforming growth factor-beta 1 production was the emergence of alpha-smooth muscle actin-rich myofibroblasts. Accumulation of these cells was most prominent at day 12 within the granulation tissues and they were still present in fibrotic areas between days 12 and 24 and diminished markedly afterward. Thus, we provide the first in vivo evidence that tumor necrosis factor-alpha may be dissociated from participation in a fibrotic process in the lung and GM-CSF may play a more direct role in pulmonary fibrogenesis at least in part through its capability to induce transforming growth factor-beta 1 in macrophages and the subsequent emergence of myofibroblast phenotypes. This GM-CSF transgene lung model is useful for a stepwise dissection of both cellular and molecular events involved in pulmonary fibrosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9006322

  15. TGF{beta}-mediated formation of pRb-E2F complexes in human myeloid leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Xiaotang

    2008-05-02

    TGF{beta} is well known for its inhibitory effect on cell cycle G1 checkpoint kinases. However, its role in the control of pRb-E2F complexes is not well established. TGF{beta} inhibits phosphorylation of pRb at several serine and threonine residues and regulates the association of E2F transcription factors with pRb family proteins. Recent studies found that predominantly E2F-4, p130, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) are found to bind to corresponding E2F-responsive promoters in G0/G1 phase. As cells progress through mid-G1, p130-E2F4 complex are replaced by p107-E2F4 followed by activators E2F1, 2, and 3. pRb was not detectable in the promoters containing the E2F-responsive site in cycling cells but was associated with E2F4-p130 complexes or E2F4-p107 complexes during G0/G1 phase. In human myeloid leukemia cell line, MV4-11, TGF{beta} upregulated pRb-E2F-4 and p130-E2F-4, and downregulated p107-E2F-4 complexes. However, pRB-E2F1 and pRb-E2F3 complexes were found in proliferating cells but not in TGF{beta} arrested G1 cells. In addition, electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay (EMSA) could not detect pRb-E2F DNA-binding activities either in S or G1 phase but exhibited the existence of p107-E2F4 in proliferating cells and p130-E2F4 complexes in TGF{beta}-arrested G1 cells, respectively. Our data suggest that p107 and p130, but not pRb, and the repressor E2F, but not activator E2Fs, play a critical role in regulating E2F-responsive gene expression in TGF{beta}-mediated cell cycle control in human myeloid leukemia cells.

  16. A synthetic peptide blocking the apolipoprotein E/beta-amyloid binding mitigates beta-amyloid toxicity and fibril formation in vitro and reduces beta-amyloid plaques in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Marcin; Pankiewicz, Joanna; Scholtzova, Henrieta; Ripellino, James A; Li, Yongsheng; Schmidt, Stephen D; Mathews, Paul M; Fryer, John D; Holtzman, David M; Sigurdsson, Einar M; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta). A major genetic risk factor for sporadic AD is inheritance of the apolipoprotein (apo) E4 allele. ApoE can act as a pathological chaperone of Abeta, promoting its conformational transformation from soluble Abeta into toxic aggregates. We determined if blocking the apoE/Abeta interaction reduces Abeta load in transgenic (Tg) AD mice. The binding site of apoE on Abeta corresponds to residues 12 to 28. To block binding, we synthesized a peptide containing these residues, but substituted valine at position 18 to proline (Abeta12-28P). This changed the peptide's properties, making it non-fibrillogenic and non-toxic. Abeta12-28P competitively blocks binding of full-length Abeta to apoE (IC50 = 36.7 nmol). Furthermore, Abeta12-28P reduces Abeta fibrillogenesis in the presence of apoE, and Abeta/apoE toxicity in cell culture. Abeta12-28P is blood-brain barrier-permeable and in AD Tg mice inhibits Abeta deposition. Tg mice treated with Abeta12-28P for 1 month had a 63.3% reduction in Abeta load in the cortex (P = 0.0043) and a 59.5% (P = 0.0087) reduction in the hippocampus comparing to age-matched control Tg mice. Antibodies against Abeta were not detected in sera of treated mice; therefore the observed therapeutic effect of Abeta12-28P cannot be attributed to an antibody clearance response. Our experiments demonstrate that compounds blocking the interaction between Abeta and its pathological chaperones may be beneficial for treatment of beta-amyloid deposition in AD. PMID:15331417

  17. Beta Thalassemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Beta thalassemia is found in people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, African, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin genes found on chromosomes ...

  18. Fibril stability in solutions of twisted Format="TEX"/>-sheet peptides: a new kind of micellization in chiral systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyrkova, I. A.; Semenov, A. N.; Aggeli, A.; Boden, N.

    2000-10-01

    The problem of fibril (fibre) formation in chiral systems is explored theoretically being supported by experiments on synthetic de novo 11-mer peptide forming self-assembled -sheet tapes. Experimental data unambiguously indicate that the tapes form fibrils of nearly monodisperse thickness ca. 8-10 nm. Fibril formation and stabilisation are attributed to inter-tape face-to-face attraction and their intrinsic twist, correspondingly. The proposed theory is capable of predicting the fibril aggregation number and its equilibrium twist in terms of molecular parameters of the primary tapes. The suggested novel mechanism of twist stabilisation of finite aggregates (fibrils) is different to the well-known stabilisation of micelles in amphiphilic systems, and it is likely to explain the formation and stability of fibrils in a wide variety of systems including proteinaceous amyloid fibres, sickle-cell hemoglobin fibres responsible for HbS anemia, corkscrew threads found in chromonics in the presence of chiral additives and native cellulose microfibrillar crystallites. The theory also makes it possible to extract the basic molecular parameters of primary tapes (inter-tape attraction energy, helical twist step, elastic moduli) from the experimental data.

  19. Till formation under a soft-bedded palaeo-ice stream of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet, constrained using qualitative and quantitative microstructural analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narloch, W?odzimierz; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Wysota, Wojciech; Tylmann, Karol

    2015-08-01

    This study combines micro- and macroscale studies, laboratory experiments and quantitative analyses to decipher processes of till formation under a palaeo-ice stream and the nature of subglacial sediment deformation. Till micromorphology (grain lineations, grain stacks, turbate structures, crushed grains, intraclasts and domains), grain-size and till fabric data are used to investigate a basal till generated by the Vistula Ice Stream of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the last glaciation in north-central Poland. A comparison of microstructures from the in situ basal till and laboratory-sheared till experiments show statistical relationships between the number of grain lineations and grain stacks; and between the number of grain lineations and turbate structures. Microstructures in the in situ till document both brittle and ductile styles of deformation, possibly due to fluctuating basal water pressures beneath the ice stream. No systematic vertical and lateral trends are detected in the parameters investigated in the in situ till, which suggests a subglacial mosaic of relatively stable and unstable areas. This situation can be explained by an unscaled space-transgressive model of subglacial till formation whereby at any given point in time different processes operated in different places under the ice sheet, possibly related to the distance from the ice margin and water pressure at the ice-bed interface. A new quantitative measure reflecting the relationship between the number of grain lineations and grain stacks may be helpful in discriminating between pervasive and non-pervasive deformation and constraining the degree of stress heterogeneity within a deformed bed. Independent strain magnitude estimations revealed by a quantitative analysis of micro- and macro-particle data show low cumulative strain in the ice-stream till in the order of 10-102.

  20. Beta amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau deposits in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Miklossy, J.; Miller, L.; Qing, H.; Radenovic, A.; Kis, A.; Vileno, B.; Laszlo, F.; Martins, R.N.; Waeber, G.; Mooser, V.; Bosman, F.; Khalili, K.; Darbinian, N.; McGeer, P.L.

    2008-08-25

    Strong epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes. To determine if amyloid beta (A{beta}) and hyperphosphorylated tau occurs in type 2 diabetes, pancreas tissues from 21 autopsy cases (10 type 2 diabetes and 11 controls) were analyzed. APP and tau mRNAs were identified in human pancreas and in cultured insulinoma beta cells (INS-1) by RT-PCR. Prominent APP and tau bands were detected by Western blotting in pancreatic extracts. Aggregated A{beta}, hyperphosphorylated tau, ubiquitin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein(a), IB1/JIP-1 and JNK1 were detected in Langerhans islets in type 2 diabetic patients. A{beta} was co-localized with amylin in islet amyloid deposits. In situ beta sheet formation of islet amyloid deposits was shown by infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS). LPS increased APP in non-neuronal cells as well. We conclude that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau are also associated with type 2 diabetes, highlighting common pathogenetic features in neurodegenerative disorders, including AD and type 2 diabetes and suggesting that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau may also occur in other organs than the brain.

  1. Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magneti... http://www.aps.org/meet/DPP02/baps/abs/S670004.html 1 of 1 3/10/05 10:26 AM

    E-print Network

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magneti... http://www.aps.org/meet/DPP02 and Dynamics III. ORAL session, Tuesday morning, November 12 Salon 5-6, Rosen Centre Hotel [FM1.004] Non-Equilibrium equilibrium for each smooth footpoint mapping between two plates with line-tied boundary conditions

  2. On the formation of current sheets in response to the compression or expansion of a potential magnetic field

    E-print Network

    Pontin, D I

    2012-01-01

    The compression or expansion of a magnetic field that is initially potential is considered. It was recently suggested by Janse & Low [2009, ApJ, 690, 1089] that, following the volumetric deformation, the relevant lowest energy state for the magnetic field is another potential magnetic field that in general contains tangential discontinuities (current sheets). Here we examine this scenario directly using a numerical relaxation method that exactly preserves the topology of the magnetic field. It is found that of the magnetic fields discussed by Janse & Low, only those containing magnetic null points develop current singularities during an ideal relaxation, while the magnetic fields without null points relax toward smooth force-free equilibria with finite non-zero current.

  3. Formation of oedema and accumulation of eosinophils in the guinea pig lung. Inhibition by inhaled beta-stimulants.

    PubMed

    Fügner, A

    1989-01-01

    The action of the two beta-stimulants fenoterol and SOM 1122 (alpha-[[[3-(1-benzimidazolyl)-1, 1-dimethylpropyl]amino]methyl]-2-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol methane sulfonate) against inflammatory correlates of bronchial asthma was investigated by performing the following experiments: Passively sensitized guinea pigs were challenged by antigen aerosol under protection of mepyramine. The animal response was a 5- to 6-fold increase in the number of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after 1 or 2 days. In addition, increased microvascular permeability was elicited in guinea pig lungs after inhalation of a low concentration of histamine for 60 min. Both inflammatory reactions were inhibited by inhalation of remarkably low concentrations (0.004-0.04%) of the two beta-stimulants. These concentrations were 5 to 75 times lower than the EC50 values required for inhibition of acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction in the same species. The lung eosinophilia was not modified by inhibitors of lipoxygenase or cyclo-oxygenase. PMID:2707884

  4. Late Noachian and early Hesperian ridge systems in the south circumpolar Dorsa Argentea Formation, Mars: Evidence for two stages of melting of an extensive late Noachian ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Ailish M.; Head, James W.

    2015-05-01

    The Dorsa Argentea Formation (DAF), extending from 270°-100° E and 70°-90° S, is a huge circumpolar deposit surrounding and underlying the Late Amazonian South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLD) of Mars. Currently mapped as Early-Late Hesperian in age, the Dorsa Argentea Formation has been interpreted as volatile-rich, possibly representing the remnants of an ancient polar ice cap. Uncertain are its age (due to the possibility of poor crater retention in ice-related deposits), its mode of origin, the origin of the distinctive sinuous ridges and cavi that characterize the unit, and its significance in the climate history of Mars. In order to assess the age of activity associated with the DAF, we examined the ridge populations within the Dorsa Argentea Formation, mapping and characterizing seven different ridge systems (composed of nearly 4,000 ridges covering a total area of ~300,000 km2, with a cumulative length of ridges of ~51,000 km) and performing crater counts on them using the method of buffered crater counting to determine crater retention ages of the ridge populations. We examined the major characteristics of the ridge systems and found that the majority of them were consistent with an origin as eskers, sediment-filled subglacial drainage channels. Ridge morphologies reflect both distributed and channelized esker systems, and evidence is also seen that some ridges form looping moraine-like termini distal to some distributed systems. The ridge populations fall into two age groups: ridge systems between 270° and 0° E date to the Early Hesperian, but to the east, the Promethei Planum and the Chasmata ridge systems date to the Late Noachian. Thus, these ages, and esker and moraine-like morphologies, support the interpretation that the DAF is a remnant ice sheet deposit, and that the esker systems represent evidence of significant melting and drainage of meltwater from portions of this ice sheet, thus indicating at least some regions and/or periods of wet-based glaciation. The Late Noachian and Early Hesperian ages of the ridge systems closely correspond to the ages of valley network/open basin lake systems, representing runoff, drainage and storage of liquid water in non-polar regions of the surface of Mars. Potential causes of such wet-based conditions in the DAF include: 1) top-down melting due to atmospheric warming, 2) enhanced snow and ice accumulation and raising of the melting isotherm to the base of the ice sheet, or 3) basal melting associated with intrusive volcanism (volcano-ice interactions). The early phase of melting is closely correlated in time with valley network formation and thus may be due to global atmospheric warming, while the later phase of melting may be linked to Early Hesperian global volcanism and specific volcano-ice interactions (table mountains) in the DAF. Crater ages indicate that these wet-based conditions ceased by the Late Hesperian, and that further retreat of the DAF to its present configuration occurred largely through sublimation, not melting, thus preserving the extensive ridge systems. MARSIS radar data suggest that significant areas of layered, potentially ice-rich parts of the Dorsa Argentea Formation remain today.

  5. Penicillin acylase from the hybrid strains Escherichia coli 5K(pHM12): enzyme formation and hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics with whole cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schömer, U; Segner, A; Wagner, F

    1984-01-01

    Penicillin acylase formation by the hybrid strain Escherichia coli 5K(pHM12) was studied under different culture conditions and reached 200 to 250 mumol of 6-aminopenicillanic acid per min per g of bacteria (wet weight) for penicillin G. The Km of whole-cell acylase was determined with 9 to 11 mM for penicillin G at a pH optimum of 7.8 at 45 degrees C. A competitive product inhibition for phenylacetic acid of Ki = 130 mM was found. 6-Aminopenicillanic acid acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor, with a Ki of 131. The temperature optimum of the reaction lies at 54 degrees C. Penicillin G inhibits the reaction at Ki(S) = 1,565 to 1,570 mM. Whole-cell acylase reacts on a wide spectrum of penicillins and cephalosporins, but those substrates with a delta-aminoadipyl rest are not hydrolized. beta-Lactamase activity of less than 1% relative to the acylase activity was found at reaction temperatures between 28 and 45 degrees C. After a comparison of different methods for the estimation of beta-lactamase activity, we found that high-pressure liquid chromatography is to be preferred. During batch fermentation of E. coli 5K(pHM12), problems of plasmid stability in the host strain arose which were overcome by the addition of 4 mg of tetracycline per liter to the medium as a selective marker. PMID:6370134

  6. Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling Is Essential for the Autonomous Formation of Cartilage-Like Tissue by Expanded Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tekari, Adel; Luginbuehl, Reto; Hofstetter, Willy; Egli, Rainer J.

    2015-01-01

    Cartilage is a tissue with limited self-healing potential. Hence, cartilage defects require surgical attention to prevent or postpone the development of osteoarthritis. For cell-based cartilage repair strategies, in particular autologous chondrocyte implantation, articular chondrocytes are isolated from cartilage and expanded in vitro to increase the number of cells required for therapy. During expansion, the cells lose the competence to autonomously form a cartilage-like tissue, that is in the absence of exogenously added chondrogenic growth factors, such as TGF-?s. We hypothesized that signaling elicited by autocrine and/or paracrine TGF-? is essential for the formation of cartilage-like tissue and that alterations within the TGF-? signaling pathway during expansion interfere with this process. Primary bovine articular chondrocytes were harvested and expanded in monolayer culture up to passage six and the formation of cartilage tissue was investigated in high density pellet cultures grown for three weeks. Chondrocytes expanded for up to three passages maintained the potential for autonomous cartilage-like tissue formation. After three passages, however, exogenous TGF-?1 was required to induce the formation of cartilage-like tissue. When TGF-? signaling was blocked by inhibiting the TGF-? receptor 1 kinase, the autonomous formation of cartilage-like tissue was abrogated. At the initiation of pellet culture, chondrocytes from passage three and later showed levels of transcripts coding for TGF-? receptors 1 and 2 and TGF-?2 to be three-, five- and five-fold decreased, respectively, as compared to primary chondrocytes. In conclusion, the autonomous formation of cartilage-like tissue by expanded chondrocytes is dependent on signaling induced by autocrine and/or paracrine TGF-?. We propose that a decrease in the expression of the chondrogenic growth factor TGF-?2 and of the TGF-? receptors in expanded chondrocytes accounts for a decrease in the activity of the TGF-? signaling pathway and hence for the loss of the potential for autonomous cartilage-like tissue formation. PMID:25775021

  7. The effect of glutamic acid side chain on acidity constant of lysine in beta-sheet: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargolzaei, M.; Afshar, M.; Sadeghi, M. S.; Kavee, M.

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the possibility of proton transfer between side chain of lysine and glutamic acid in peptide of Glu--Ala-Lys+ was demonstrated using density functional theory (DFT). We have shown that the proton transfer takes place between side chain of glutamic and lysine residues through the hydrogen bond formation. The structures of transition state for proton transfer reaction were detected in gas and solution phases. Our kinetic studies show that the proton transfer reaction rate in gas phase is higher than solution phase. The ionization constant (p K a) value of lysine residue in peptide was estimated 1.039 which is lower than intrinsic p K a of lysine amino acid.

  8. The Influence of Welding Parameters on the Nugget Formation of Resistance Spot Welding of Inconel 625 Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei Ashtiani, Hamid Reza; Zarandooz, Roozbeh

    2015-09-01

    A 2D axisymmetric electro-thermo-mechanical finite element (FE) model is developed to investigate the effect of current intensity, welding time, and electrode tip diameter on temperature distributions and nugget size in resistance spot welding (RSW) process of Inconel 625 superalloy sheets using ABAQUS commercial software package. The coupled electro-thermal analysis and uncoupled thermal-mechanical analysis are used for modeling process. In order to improve accuracy of simulation, material properties including physical, thermal, and mechanical properties have been considered to be temperature dependent. The thickness and diameter of computed weld nuggets are compared with experimental results and good agreement is observed. So, FE model developed in this paper provides prediction of quality and shape of the weld nuggets and temperature distributions with variation of each process parameter, suitably. Utilizing this FE model assists in adjusting RSW parameters, so that expensive experimental process can be avoided. The results show that increasing welding time and current intensity lead to an increase in the nugget size and electrode indentation, whereas increasing electrode tip diameter decreases nugget size and electrode indentation.

  9. Suppression of autophagy and activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta facilitate the aggregate formation of tau.

    PubMed

    Kim, Song-In; Lee, Won-Ki; Kang, Sang-Soo; Lee, Sue-Young; Jeong, Myeong-Ja; Lee, Hee Jae; Kim, Sung-Soo; Johnson, Gall V W; Chun, Wanjoo

    2011-04-01

    Neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) is a characteristic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. GSK3? has been reported to play a major role in the NFT formation of tau. Dysfunction of autophagy might facilitate the aggregate formation of tau. The present study examined the role of GSK3?-mediated phosphorylation of tau species on their autophagic degradation. We transfected wild type tau (T4), caspase-3-cleaved tau at Asp421 (T4C3), or pseudophosphorylated tau at Ser396/Ser404 (T4-2EC) in the presence of active or enzyme-inactive GSK3?. Trehalose and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were used to enhance or inhibit autophagic activity, respectively. All tau species showed increased accumulation with 3-MA treatment whereas reduced with trehalose, indicating that tau undergoes autophagic degradation. However, T4C3 and T4-2EC showed abundant formation of oligomers than T4. Active GSK3? in the presence of 3-MA resulted in significantly increased formation of insoluble tau aggregates. These results indicate that GSK3?-mediated phosphorylation and compromised autophagic activity significantly contribute to tau aggregation. PMID:21660151

  10. A biased probe analysis of potential well formation in an electron only, low beta Polywell magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Matthew; Khachan, Joe

    2013-05-15

    Orbital limited motion theory has been applied to two biased probes in a low beta Polywell. The cases studied include electron injection, magnetic field scaling, Polywell bias scaling, and radial position profiles. Langmuir's original orbital limited motion results for a monoenergetic electron beam are shown to be in excellent agreement for electron injection into the Polywell. A distribution function is proposed for the electron plasma characteristics in the centre of the magnetic null and confirmed with experimental results. A translational stage was used to measure the radial plasma potential profile. In other experiments, two probes were used to simultaneously measure the profiles in both the null and a position halfway along a corner cusp. The results confirm a radial potential well created by electron trapping in the device. In addition, we present preliminary results of the potential well scaling with the magnetic field, Polywell bias voltage, and the injected beam current. The electron population was found to maintain non-equilibrium in all cases studied.

  11. Formation of Raman Scattering Wings around H alpha, H beta and Pa alpha in Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-print Network

    Chang, Seok-Jun; Di Mille, Francesco; Angeloni, Rodolfo; Palma, Tali; Lee, Hee-Won

    2015-01-01

    Powered by a supermassive black hole with an accretion disk, the spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are characterized by prominent emission lines including Balmer lines. The unification schemes of AGNs require the existence of a thick molecular torus that may hide the broad emission line region from the view of observers near the equatorial direction. In this configuration, one may expect that the far UV radiation from the central engine can be Raman scattered by neutral hydrogen to reappear around Balmer and Paschen emission lines which can be identified with broad wings. We produce H$\\alpha$, H$\\beta$ and Pa$\\alpha$ wings using a Monte Carlo technique to investigate their properties. The neutral scattering region is assumed to be a cylindrical torus specified by the inner and outer radii and the height. While the covering factor of the scattering region affects the overall strengths of the wings, the wing widths are primarily dependent on the neutral hydrogen column density $N_{\\rm HI}$ being roughly ...

  12. Influence of Nanoparticle Size and Shape on Oligomer Formation of an Amyloidogenic Peptide

    E-print Network

    Edward P. O'Brien; John E. Straub; Bernard R. Brooks; D. Thirumalai

    2011-05-05

    Understanding the influence of macromolecular crowding and nanoparticles on the formation of in-register $\\beta$-sheets, the primary structural component of amyloid fibrils, is a first step towards describing \\emph{in vivo} protein aggregation and interactions between synthetic materials and proteins. Using all atom molecular simulations in implicit solvent we illustrate the effects of nanoparticle size, shape, and volume fraction on oligomer formation of an amyloidogenic peptide from the transthyretin protein. Surprisingly, we find that inert spherical crowding particles destabilize in-register $\\beta$-sheets formed by dimers while stabilizing $\\beta$-sheets comprised of trimers and tetramers. As the radius of the nanoparticle increases crowding effects decrease, implying smaller crowding particles have the largest influence on the earliest amyloid species. We explain these results using a theory based on the depletion effect. Finally, we show that spherocylindrical crowders destabilize the ordered $\\beta$-sheet dimer to a greater extent than spherical crowders, which underscores the influence of nanoparticle shape on protein aggregation.

  13. Tissue-type plasminogen activator is a multiligand cross-beta structure receptor.

    PubMed

    Kranenburg, Onno; Bouma, Barend; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M J; Reijerkerk, Arie; Wu, Ya-Ping; Voest, Emile E; Gebbink, Martijn F B G

    2002-10-29

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) regulates fibrin clot lysis by stimulating the conversion of plasminogen into the active protease plasmin. Fibrin is required for efficient tPA-mediated plasmin generation and thereby stimulates its own proteolysis. Several fibrin regions can bind to tPA, but the structural basis for this interaction is unknown. Amyloid beta (Abeta) is a peptide aggregate that is associated with neurotoxicity in brains afflicted with Alzheimer's disease. Like fibrin, it stimulates tPA-mediated plasmin formation. Intermolecular stacking of peptide backbones in beta sheet conformation underlies cross-beta structure in amyloid peptides. We show here that fibrin-derived peptides adopt cross-beta structure and form amyloid fibers. This correlates with tPA binding and stimulation of tPA-mediated plasminogen activation. Prototype amyloid peptides, including Abeta and islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) (associated with pancreatic beta cell toxicity in type II diabetes), have no sequence similarity to the fibrin peptides but also bind to tPA and can substitute for fibrin in plasminogen activation by tPA. Moreover, the induction of cross-beta structure in an otherwise globular protein (endostatin) endows it with tPA-activating potential. Our results classify tPA as a multiligand receptor and show that cross-beta structure is the common denominator in tPA binding ligands. PMID:12419183

  14. A Theoretical Model of a Thinning Current Sheet in the Low-? Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshige, Satoshi; Takasao, Shinsuke; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important physical process in various explosive phenomena in the universe. In previous studies, it was found that fast reconnection takes place when the thickness of a current sheet becomes on the order of a microscopic length such as the ion Larmor radius or the ion inertial length. In this study, we investigated the pinching process of a current sheet by the Lorentz force in a low-? plasma using one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. It is known that there is an exact self-similar solution for this problem that neglects gas pressure. We compared the non-linear MHD dynamics with the analytic self-similar solution. From the MHD simulations, we found that with the gas pressure included the implosion process deviates from the analytic self-similar solution as t\\to {t}0, where t0 is the explosion time when the thickness of a current sheet of the analytic solution becomes 0. We also found that a pair of MHD fast-mode shocks is generated and propagates after the formation of the pinched current sheet as t\\to {t}0. On the basis of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations, we derived the scaling law of the physical quantities with respect to the initial plasma beta in the pinched current sheet. Our study could help us estimate the physical quantities in the pinched current sheet formed in a low-? plasma.

  15. Oncoprotein E7 from Beta Human Papillomavirus 38 Induces Formation of an Inhibitory Complex for a Subset of p53-Regulated Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Saidj, Djamel; Cros, Marie-Pierre; Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Guarino, Francesca; Sylla, Bakary S.; Tommasino, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies on cutaneous beta human papillomavirus 38 (HPV38) E6 and E7 oncoproteins highlighted a novel activity of I?B kinase beta (IKK?) in the nucleus of human keratinocytes, where it phosphorylates and stabilizes ?Np73?, an antagonist of p53/p73 functions. Here, we further characterize the role of the IKK? nuclear form. We show that IKK? nuclear translocation and ?Np73? accumulation are mediated mainly by HPV38 E7 oncoprotein. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)/Re-ChIP experiments showed that ?Np73? and IKK? are part, together with two epigenetic enzymes DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), of a transcriptional regulatory complex that inhibits the expression of some p53-regulated genes, such as PIG3. Recruitment to the PIG3 promoter of EZH2 and DNMT1 resulted in trimethylation of histone 3 on lysine 27 and in DNA methylation, respectively, both events associated with gene expression silencing. Decreases in the intracellular levels of HPV38 E7 or ?Np73? strongly affected the recruitment of the inhibitory transcriptional complex to the PIG3 promoter, with consequent restoration of p53-regulated gene expression. Finally, the ?Np73?/IKK?/DNMT1/EZH2 complex appears to bind a subset of p53-regulated promoters. In fact, the complex is efficiently recruited to several promoters of genes encoding proteins involved in DNA repair and apoptosis, whereas it does not influence the expression of the prosurvival factor Survivin. In summary, our data show that HPV38 via E7 protein promotes the formation of a multiprotein complex that negatively regulates the expression of several p53-regulated genes. PMID:24006445

  16. Oncoprotein E7 from beta human papillomavirus 38 induces formation of an inhibitory complex for a subset of p53-regulated promoters.

    PubMed

    Saidj, Djamel; Cros, Marie-Pierre; Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Guarino, Francesca; Sylla, Bakary S; Tommasino, Massimo; Accardi, Rosita

    2013-11-01

    Our previous studies on cutaneous beta human papillomavirus 38 (HPV38) E6 and E7 oncoproteins highlighted a novel activity of I?B kinase beta (IKK?) in the nucleus of human keratinocytes, where it phosphorylates and stabilizes ?Np73?, an antagonist of p53/p73 functions. Here, we further characterize the role of the IKK? nuclear form. We show that IKK? nuclear translocation and ?Np73? accumulation are mediated mainly by HPV38 E7 oncoprotein. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)/Re-ChIP experiments showed that ?Np73? and IKK? are part, together with two epigenetic enzymes DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), of a transcriptional regulatory complex that inhibits the expression of some p53-regulated genes, such as PIG3. Recruitment to the PIG3 promoter of EZH2 and DNMT1 resulted in trimethylation of histone 3 on lysine 27 and in DNA methylation, respectively, both events associated with gene expression silencing. Decreases in the intracellular levels of HPV38 E7 or ?Np73? strongly affected the recruitment of the inhibitory transcriptional complex to the PIG3 promoter, with consequent restoration of p53-regulated gene expression. Finally, the ?Np73?/IKK?/DNMT1/EZH2 complex appears to bind a subset of p53-regulated promoters. In fact, the complex is efficiently recruited to several promoters of genes encoding proteins involved in DNA repair and apoptosis, whereas it does not influence the expression of the prosurvival factor Survivin. In summary, our data show that HPV38 via E7 protein promotes the formation of a multiprotein complex that negatively regulates the expression of several p53-regulated genes. PMID:24006445

  17. Interaction between beta-Purothionin and dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol: a (31)P-NMR and infrared spectroscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Julie-Andrée; Kelly, Isabelle; Marion, Didier; Pézolet, Michel; Auger, Michèle

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of beta-purothionin, a small basic and antimicrobial protein from the endosperm of wheat seeds, with multilamellar vesicles of dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) was investigated by (31)P solid-state NMR and infrared spectroscopy. NMR was used to study the organization and dynamics of DMPG in the absence and presence of beta-purothionin. The results indicate that beta-purothionin does not induce the formation of nonlamellar phases in DMPG. Two-dimensional exchange spectroscopy shows that beta-purothionin decreases the lateral diffusion of DMPG in the fluid phase. Infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the perturbations, induced by beta-purothionin, of the polar and nonpolar regions of the phospholipid bilayers. At low concentration of beta-purothionin, the temperature of the gel-to-fluid phase transition of DMPG increases from 24 degrees C to ~33 degrees C, in agreement with the formation of electrostatic interactions between the cationic protein and the anionic phospholipid. At higher protein concentration, the lipid transition is slightly shifted toward lower temperature and a second transition is observed below 20 degrees C, suggesting an insertion of the protein in the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer. The results also suggest that the presence of beta-purothionin significantly modifies the lipid packing at the surface of the bilayer to increase the accessibility of water molecules in the interfacial region. Finally, orientation measurements indicate that the alpha-helices and the beta-sheet of beta-purothionin have tilt angles of ~60 degrees and 30 degrees, respectively, relative to the normal of the ATR crystal. PMID:12324425

  18. Apolipoprotein E structural requirements for the formation of SDS-stable complexes with beta-amyloid-(1-40): the role of salt bridges.

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Nicholas M; Ladu, Mary Jo; Rajan, Chandrika; Getz, Godfrey S; Reardon, Catherine A

    2002-01-01

    Of the three major isoforms of human apolipoprotein E (apoE), apoE4 is a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease. Among possible neurologically relevant differences in the properties of apoE3 and apoE4 is the fact that apoE3 forms an SDS-stable complex with beta-amyloid-(1-40) (Abeta40) with greater avidity than does apoE4. This interaction may sequester potentially toxic species of Abeta or facilitate clearance. To understand more about this difference, we examined whether differences in salt bridges between apoE domains influence the capacity of apoE isoforms to form complexes with Abeta. In apoE3 there is a salt bridge between Arg-61 and Asp-65, while in apoE4 there are salt bridges between Arg-61 and Glu-255, and Arg-112 and Glu-109. Mutation of position 112, which is Cys in apoE3 and Arg in apoE4, to Ala or Lys abolished complex formation, while mutant apoE with Ser at this position retained the capacity to form complex. Substituting Ala for Glu-109 had no effect on the ability of either apoE4 or apoE3 to form complexes. On the other hand, substitution of Thr for Arg-61 in apoE3 abolished, and truncation of apoE3 at position 201 substantially lowered, but did not abolish, complex formation. Neither of these mutations within apoE4 had any affect on its complex formation with Abeta. These results suggest that the nature of the cysteine residue in apoE3 and interactions between the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of human apoE are important for the ability of apoE3 to form an SDS-stable complex with Abeta40. PMID:12015813

  19. Circular dichroism of the parallel beta helical proteins pectate lyase C and E.

    PubMed

    Sieber, V; Jurnak, F; Moe, G R

    1995-09-01

    The pectate lyases, PelC and PelE, have an unusual folding motif, known as a parallel beta-helix, in which the polypeptide chain is coiled into a larger helix composed of three parallel beta-sheets connected by loops having variable lengths and conformations. Since the regular secondary structure consists almost entirely of parallel beta-sheets these proteins provide a unique opportunity to study the effect of parallel beta-helical structure on circular dichroism (CD). We report here the CD spectra of PelC and PelE in the presence and absence of Ca2+, derive the parallel beta-helical components of the spectra, and compare these results with previous CD studies of parallel beta-sheet structure. The shape and intensity of the parallel beta-sheet spectrum is distinctive and may be useful in identifying other proteins that contain the parallel beta-helical folding motif. PMID:8539248

  20. Ensemble modeling of [beta]-sheet proteins

    E-print Network

    O'Donnell, Charles William

    2011-01-01

    Our ability to characterize protein structure and dynamics is vastly outpaced by the speed of modern genetic sequencing, creating a growing divide between our knowledge of biological sequence and structure. Structural ...

  1. Sequence-specific binding and photocrosslinking of. cap alpha. and. beta. oligodeoxynucleotides to the major groove of DNA via triple-helix formation

    SciTech Connect

    Praseuth, D.; Perrouault, L.; Le Doan, T.; Chassignol, M.; Thuong, N.; Helene, C.

    1988-03-01

    A photocrosslinking reagent (p-azidophenacyl) was covalently linked to an octothymidylate synthesized with either the natural (..beta..) anomer of thymidine or the synthetic (..cap alpha..) anomer. The oligothymidylate was further substituted by an acridine derivative to stabilize the hybrid formed with a complementary octadeoxyadenylate sequence via intercalation. A single-stranded 27-mer containing a (dA)/sub 8/ sequence and a 27-mer duplex containing a (dA x dT)/sub 8/ sequence were used as targets. Upon UV irradiation, photocrosslinking of the octathymidylate to its target sequence was observed, generating bands that migrated more slowly in denaturing gels. In the 27-mer duplex, both strands were photocrosslinked to the octathymidylate. Upon alkaline treatment of the irradiated samples, cleavage of the 27-mers was observed at specific sites. These reactions were analyzed at different salt concentrations. These results show that it is possible to recognize an oligopurine-oligopyrimidine sequence in a DNA double helix via local triple-helix formation and to target photochemical reactions to specific sequences in both double-stranded and single-stranded nuclei acids.

  2. Beta experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

  3. Study on the Formation and Characterization of the Intermetallics in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy to Coated Steel Sheet Lap Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, H.; Ghosh, R. N.; Pal, T. K.

    2014-10-01

    Multimaterial fabrication such as joining of steel and aluminum is currently prominent in a variety of industries. Friction stir welding is a novel solid-state welding process that causes good joint strength between steel and aluminum. However, the phenomenon contributing significant strength at the interface is not yet clear. In the present study, the interface of the friction stir lap-welded aluminum and coated steel sheet having joint strength maximum (71.4 pct of steel base metal) and minimum, respectively, under two parameter combinations, i.e., 1000 rpm 50 mm min-1 and 500 rpm 100 mm min-1, was exclusively characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), concentration profile, and elemental mapping by electron-probe microanalysis. A TEM-assisted EDS study identifies the morphologies of large size Al13Fe4 and small size Fe3Al-type intermetallic compounds at the interface. The diffusion-induced intermetallic growth (thickness) measured from a backscattered image and concentration profile agreed well with the numerically calculated one. The growth of these two phases at 1000 rpm 50 mm min-1 is attributed to the slower cooling rate (~3.5 K/s) with higher diffusion time (44 seconds) along the interface in comparison to the same for 500 rpm 100 mm min-1 with faster cooling rate (~10 K/s) and less diffusion time (13.6 seconds). The formation of thermodynamically stable and hard intermetallic phase Al13Fe4 at 1000 rpm and travel speed 50 mm min-1 in amounts higher than 500 rpm and a travel speed of 100 mm min-1 results in better joint strength, i.e., 71.4 pct, of the steel base metal.

  4. The cytological changes of tobacco zygote and proembryo cells induced by beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent suggest the involvement of arabinogalactan proteins in cell division and cell plate formation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In dicotyledonous plant, the first asymmetric zygotic division and subsequent several cell divisions are crucial for proembryo pattern formation and later embryo development. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a family of extensively glycosylated cell surface proteins that are thought to have important roles in various aspects of plant growth and development, including embryogenesis. Previous results from our laboratory show that AGPs are concerned with tobacco egg cell fertilization and zygotic division. However, how AGPs interact with other factors involved in zygotic division and proembryo development remains unknown. Results In this study, we used the tobacco in vitro zygote culture system and series of meticulous cell biology techniques to investigate the roles of AGPs in zygote and proembryo cell division. For the first time, we examined tobacco proembryo division patterns detailed to every cell division. The bright-field images and statistical results both revealed that with the addition of an exogenous AGPs inhibitor, beta-glucosyl Yariv (beta-GlcY) reagent, the frequency of aberrant division increased remarkably in cultured tobacco zygotes and proembryos, and the cell plate specific locations of AGPs were greatly reduced after beta-GlcY treatment. In addition, the accumulations of new cell wall materials were also significantly affected by treating with beta-GlcY. Detection of cellulose components by Calcofluor white stain showed that strong fluorescence was located in the newly formed wall of daughter cells after the zygotic division of in vivo samples and the control samples from in vitro culture without beta-GlcY treatment; while there was only weak fluorescence in the newly formed cell walls with beta-GlcY treatment. Immunocytochemistry examination with JIM5 and JIM7 respectively against the low- and high-esterified pectins displayed that these two pectins located in opposite positions of zygotes and proembryos in vivo and the polarity was not affected by beta-GlcY. Furthermore, FM4-64 staining revealed that endosomes were distributed in the cell plates of proembryos, and the localization pattern was also affected by beta-GlcY treatment. These results were further confirmed by subsequent observation with transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the changes to proembryo cell-organelles induced by beta-GlcY reagent were also observed using fluorescent dye staining technique. Conclusions These results imply that AGPs may not only relate to cell plate position decision, but also to the location of new cell wall components. Correlated with other factors, AGPs further influence the zygotic division and proembryo pattern establishment in tobacco. PMID:22853005

  5. Implantation of silicon dioxide-based nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and pure phase beta-tricalciumphosphate bone substitute granules in caprine muscle tissue does not induce new bone formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoinductive bone substitutes are defined by their ability to induce new bone formation even at heterotopic implantation sites. The present study was designed to analyze the potential osteoinductivity of two different bone substitute materials in caprine muscle tissue. Materials and methods One gram each of either a porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) or an hydroxyapatite/silicon dioxide (HA/SiO2)-based nanocrystalline bone substitute material was implanted in several muscle pouches of goats. The biomaterials were explanted at 29, 91 and 181 days after implantation. Conventional histology and special histochemical stains were performed to detect osteoblast precursor cells as well as mineralized and unmineralized bone matrix. Results Both materials underwent cellular degradation in which tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast-like cells and TRAP-negative multinucleated giant cells were involved. The ß-TCP was completely resorbed within the observation period, whereas some granules of the HA-groups were still detectable after 180 days. Neither osteoblasts, osteoblast precursor cells nor extracellular bone matrix were found within the implantation bed of any of the analyzed biomaterials at any of the observed time points. Conclusions This study showed that ß-TCP underwent a faster degradation than the HA-based material. The lack of osteoinductivity for both materials might be due to their granular shape, as osteoinductivity in goat muscle has been mainly attributed to cylindrical or disc-shaped bone substitute materials. This hypothesis however requires further investigation to systematically analyze various materials with comparable characteristics in the same experimental setting. PMID:23286366

  6. Multi-frequency characterization of radar backscatter and the formation of ice layers in the southeast percolation area of the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Forster, R. R.; Box, J. E.; Long, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between radar backscatter and the formation of ice layers in the southeast percolation area of the Greenland ice sheet is explored using two scatterometer data sets, 1999-2009 data acquired from NASA's Ku-band SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite (QSCAT), and 2009 data acquired from ESA's C-band advanced scatterometer (ASCAT) on the MetOp satellite, together with 1999-2009 annually dated ice layers from five firn cores acquired during the 2010 and 2011 Arctic Circle Traverse (ACT) campaigns. Snowpack stratigraphy within the southeast percolation area is complex and forms as the result of the seasonal progression of snow accumulation at the surface followed by melt water infiltration. Melt water may be retained in liquid form, or refreeze which creates scattering layers embedded within snow and firn layers at differing depths. Ice layers are created by shallow infiltration and refreezing of melt water at the surface or by downward percolation and lateral infiltration and refreezing of melt water at depth. Ice layers are spatially continuous over large areas and identified in firn core data. Ice pipes, lenses, and glands are created by the downward percolation of melt water at point locations, which subsequently refreezes at depth within percolation channels. Ice pipes, lenses, and glands are spatially discontinuous and rarely identified in firn core data, however, contribute to the microwave response as observed over the large-scale antenna footprint of a satellite- bourne scatterometer. Microwave signatures within this region exhibit what appear to be distinct seasonal responses to melt and refreeze events resulting in the formation of scattering layers within the snowpack, in the form of rapid relative increases and decreases in backscatter measurements followed by a step response in the signal. Two backscatter models identifying both the timing and spatial extent of the given parameter are derived from the observed responses: 1) a melt/refreeze model which estimates the thickness of the wet snow layer, and 2) an ice layer model which estimates increases in the density of the scattering layer. Modeled results using twice-daily 1999-2009 QSCAT enhanced resolution 'slice' data (~5 km) are compared with annually dated firn core ice layers. An approximate sub-annual timing of the formation of the firn core ice layers is established, as well as the large-scale spatial continuity of the ice layers between firn cores. Similarities and differences between firn core ice layer thicknesses and both modeled thickness of the wet snow layer and modeled density increases in the scattering layer are observed and characterized. A second comparison is made between modeled results, using near-daily 2009 QSCAT and ASCAT enhanced resolution 'egg' data (~10 km). Frequency dependent differences linked to the penetration depth are also characterized.

  7. Early Mars climate near the Noachian-Hesperian boundary: Independent evidence for cold conditions from basal melting of the south polar ice sheet (Dorsa Argentea Formation) and implications for valley network formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.; Forget, Francois; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-05-01

    Currently, and throughout much of the Amazonian, the mean annual surface temperatures of Mars are so cold that basal melting does not occur in ice sheets and glaciers and they are cold-based. The documented evidence for extensive and well-developed eskers (sediment-filled former sub-glacial meltwater channels) in the south circumpolar Dorsa Argentea Formation is an indication that basal melting and wet-based glaciation occurred at the South Pole near the Noachian-Hesperian boundary. We employ glacial accumulation and ice-flow models to distinguish between basal melting from bottom-up heat sources (elevated geothermal fluxes) and top-down induced basal melting (elevated atmospheric temperatures warming the ice). We show that under mean annual south polar atmospheric temperatures (-100 °C) simulated in typical Amazonian climate experiments and typical Noachian-Hesperian geothermal heat fluxes (45-65 mW/m2), south polar ice accumulations remain cold-based. In order to produce significant basal melting with these typical geothermal heat fluxes, the mean annual south polar atmospheric temperatures must be raised from today's temperature at the surface (-100 °C) to the range of -50 to -75 °C. This mean annual polar surface atmospheric temperature range implies lower latitude mean annual temperatures that are likely to be below the melting point of water, and thus does not favor a "warm and wet" early Mars. Seasonal temperatures at lower latitudes, however, could range above the melting point of water, perhaps explaining the concurrent development of valley networks and open basin lakes in these areas. This treatment provides an independent estimate of the polar (and non-polar) surface temperatures near the Noachian-Hesperian boundary of Mars history and implies a cold and relatively dry Mars climate, similar to the Antarctic Dry Valleys, where seasonal melting forms transient streams and permanent ice-covered lakes in an otherwise hyperarid, hypothermal climate.

  8. Maternal antioxidants prevent beta cell apoptosis and promote formation of dual hormone-expressing endocrine cells in male offspring following fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure

    PubMed Central

    BRUIN, Jennifer E; WOYNILLOWICZ, Amanda K; HETTINGA, Bart P; TARNOPOLSKY, Mark A; MORRISON, Katherine M; GERSTEIN, Hertzel C; HOLLOWAY, Alison C

    2013-01-01

    Aim Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure causes beta cell oxidative stress and apoptosis in neonates, leading to adult-onset dysglycemia. The goal of this study was to determine whether an antioxidant intervention could prevent nicotine-induced beta cell loss. Methods Nulliparous female Wistar rats received daily subcutaneous injections of either saline or nicotine bitartrate (1.0 mg/kg/d) for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. Nicotine-exposed dams received either normal chow or diet containing antioxidants (1000 IU/kg vitamin E, 0.25% w/w coenzyme Q10 and 0.1% w/w alpha-lipoic acid) during mating, pregnancy and lactation; saline-exposed dams received normal chow. Pancreas tissue was collected from male offspring at 3 weeks of age to measure beta cell fraction, apoptosis, proliferation and the presence of cells co-expressing insulin and glucagon. Results The birth weight of the offspring born to nicotine-exposed dams receiving dietary antioxidants was significantly reduced. Most interestingly, the antioxidant intervention to nicotine-exposed dams prevented the beta cell loss and apoptosis observed in nicotine exposed male offspring whose mothers did not receive antioxidants. Male pups born to nicotine-treated mothers receiving antioxidants also had a trend towards increased beta cell proliferation and a significant increase in islets containing insulin/glucagon bi-hormonal cells relative to the other two treatment groups. Conclusion This study demonstrates that exposure to maternal antioxidants protects beta cells from the damaging effects of nicotine thus preserving beta cell mass. PMID:22385833

  9. Secondary structure formation in peptide amphiphile micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirrell, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are capable of self-assembly into micelles for use in the targeted delivery of peptide therapeutics and diagnostics. PA micelles exhibit a structural resemblance to proteins by having folded bioactive peptides displayed on the exterior of a hydrophobic core. We have studied two factors that influence PA secondary structure in micellar assemblies: the length of the peptide headgroup and amino acids closest to the micelle core. Peptide length was systematically varied using a heptad repeat PA. For all PAs the addition of a C12 tail induced micellization and secondary structure. PAs with 9 amino acids formed beta-sheet interactions upon aggregation, whereas the 23 and 30 residue peptides were displayed in an apha-helical conformation. The 16 amino acid PA experienced a structural transition from helix to sheet, indicating that kinetics play a role in secondary structure formation. A p53 peptide was conjugated to a C16 tail via various linkers to study the effect of linker chemistry on PA headgroup conformation. With no linker the p53 headgroup was predominantly alpha helix and a four alanine linker drastically changed the structure of the peptide headgroup to beta-sheet, highlighting the importance of hydrogen boding potential near the micelle core.

  10. Ice sheets

    E-print Network

    Bentley, Charles G.; Thomas, Robert H.; Velicogna, Isabella

    2007-01-01

    Surface melt-induced acceleration of Greenland ice- sheetmass of ice in Greenland and Antarctica were to melt CHAPTERGreenland, only a tiny proportion of the mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet occurs by melting from the surface – summer- time melt

  11. Synthetic peptide homologous to beta protein from Alzheimer disease forms amyloid-like fibrils in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kirschner, D A; Inouye, H; Duffy, L K; Sinclair, A; Lind, M; Selkoe, D J

    1987-01-01

    Progressive amyloid deposition in senile plaques and cortical blood vessels may play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. We have used x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy to study the molecular organization and morphology of macromolecular assemblies formed by three synthetic peptides homologous to beta protein of brain amyloid: beta-(1-28), residues 1-28 of the beta protein; [Ala16]beta-(1-28), beta-(1-28) with alanine substituted for lysine at position 16; and beta-(18-28), residues 18-28 of the beta protein. beta-(1-28) readily formed fibrils in vitro that were similar in ultrastructure to the in vivo amyloid and aggregated into large bundles resembling those of senile plaque cores. X-ray patterns from partially dried, oriented pellets showed a cross-beta-conformation. A series of small-angle, equatorial maxima were consistent with a tubular fibril having a mean diameter of 86 A and a wall composed of pairs of cross-beta-pleated sheets. The data may also be consistent with pairs of cross-beta-sheets that are centered 71-A apart. [Ala16]beta-(1-28) formed beta-pleated sheet assemblies that were dissimilar to in vivo fibrils. The width of the 10-A spacing indicated stacks of about six sheets. Thus, substitution of the uncharged alanine for the positively charged lysine in the beta-strand region enhances the packing of the sheets and dramatically alters the type of macromolecular aggregate formed. beta-(18-28) formed assemblies that had even a greater number of stacked sheets, approximately equal to 24 per diffracting domain as indicated by the sharp intersheet reflection. Our findings on these homologous synthetic assemblies help to define the specific sequence that is required to form Alzheimer-type amyloid fibrils, thus providing an in vitro model of age-related cerebral amyloidogenesis. Images PMID:3477820

  12. Beta Beams

    E-print Network

    M. Mezzetto

    2004-11-12

    Beta Beams could address the needs of long term neutrino oscillation experiments. They can produce extremely pure neutrino beams through the decays of relativistic radioactive ions. The baseline scenario is described, together with its physics performances. Using a megaton water Cerenkov detector installed under the Frejus, Beta Beams could improve by a factor 200 the present limits on $\\sin^2{2 \\thetaot}$ and discover leptonic CP violating effects if the CP phase delta would be greater than 30 degree and theta13 greater than 1 degree. These performances can be further improved if a neutrino SuperBeam generated by the SPL 4MW, 2.2 GeV, proton Linac would be fired to the same detector. Innovative ideas on higher and lower energy Beta Beams are also described.

  13. Copper(II) inhibits the formation of amylin amyloid in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ward, Benjamin; Walker, Karen; Exley, Christopher

    2008-02-01

    The amyloidogenic peptide amylin is found associated with pancreatic islet beta-cells and is implicated in the aetiology of type-2 diabetes mellitus. We have used fluorimetry and transmission electron microscopy to investigate in vitro the influence of Al(III), Fe(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II) on amylin amyloid formation under near-physiological conditions. Cu(II) at 10.0 microM inhibited amylin of 0.4 and 2.0 microM from forming amyloid fibrils while the same concentration of either Al(III) or Zn(II) promoted the formation of beta-pleated sheet structures. If amylin amyloid is cytotoxic to beta-cells then Cu(II) should protect against the degeneration of the islets in type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:18022240

  14. Glacial landforms on German Bank, Scotian Shelf: evidence for Late Wisconsinan ice-sheet dynamics and implications for the formation of De Geer moraines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Brian J.; Valentine, Page C.; Longva, Oddvar; Shaw, John

    2007-01-01

    The extent and behaviour of the southeast margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in Atlantic Canada is of significance in the study of Late Wisconsinan ice sheet-ocean interactions. Multibeam sonar imagery of subglacial, ice-marginal and glaciomarine landforms on German Bank, Scotian Shelf, provides evidence of the pattern of glacial-dynamic events in the eastern Gulf of Maine. Northwest-southeast trending drumlins and megaflutes dominate northern German Bank. On southern German Bank, megaflutes of thin glacial deposits create a distinct northwest-southeast grain. Lobate regional moraines (>10km long) are concave to the northwest, up-ice direction and strike southwest-northeast, normal to the direction of ice flow. Ubiquitous, overlying De Geer moraines (

  15. Experimental Study of Lower-hybrid Drift Turbulence in a Reconnecting Current Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, T. A.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R. M.; Trintchouck, F.

    2002-06-18

    The role of turbulence in the process of magnetic reconnection has been the subject of a great deal of study and debate in the theoretical literature. At issue in this debate is whether turbulence is essential for fast magnetic reconnection to occur in collisionless current sheets. Some theories claim it is necessary in order to provide anomalous resistivity, while others present a laminar fast reconnection mechanism based on the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law. In this work, a thorough study of electrostatic potential fluctuations in the current sheet of the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) [M. Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)] was performed in order to ascertain the importance of turbulence in a laboratory reconnection experiment. Using amplified floating Langmuir probes, broadband fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range (fLH approximately 5-15 MHz) were measured which arise with the formation of the current sheet in MRX. The frequency spectrum, spatial amplitude profile, and spatial correlation characteristics of the measured turbulence were examined carefully, finding consistency with theories of the lower-hybrid drift instability (LHDI). The LHDI and its role in magnetic reconnection has been studied theoretically for decades, but this work represents the first detection and detailed study of the LHDI in a laboratory current sheet. The observation of the LHDI in MRX has provided the unique opportunity to uncover the role of this instability in collisionless reconnection. It was found that: (1) the LHDI fluctuations are confined to the low-beta edge of current sheets in MRX; (2) the LHDI amplitude does not correlate well in time or space with the reconnection electric field, which is directly related to the rate of reconnection; and (3) significant LHDI amplitude persists in high collisionality current sheets where the reconnection rate is classical. These findings suggest that the measured LHDI fluctuations do not play an essential role in determining the reconnection rate in MRX.

  16. In-situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction of ErD2 (beta phase) formation during D2 loading.

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, James Frederick; Llobet, Anna; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Wixom, Ryan R.

    2008-06-01

    In an effort to better understand the structural changes occurring during hydrogen loading of erbium target materials, we have performed D{sub 2} loading of erbium metal (powder) with simultaneous neutron diffraction analysis. This experiment tracked the conversion of Er metal to the {alpha} erbium deuteride (solid-solution) phase and then on to the {beta} (fluorite) phase. Complete conversion to ErD{sub 2.0} was accomplished at 10 Torr D{sub 2} pressure with deuterium fully occupying the tetrahedral sites in the fluorite lattice. Increased D{sub 2} pressure (up to 500 Torr at 450 C) revealed {approx}10 % deuterium occupation of the octahedral sites. Subsequent vacuum pumping of the sample at 450 C removed octahedral site occupancy while maintaining tetrahedral deuterium occupancy, thereby yielding stoichiometric ErD{sub 2.0} {beta} phase.

  17. Formation of gamma'-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma plus beta (+Al2O3) equals gamma'(+Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%Al and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma'-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3) = gamma + beta (+ Al2O3), at 1640 plus or minus 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 plus or minus 0.2 at.%Al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + beta + Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 - 1640 K, and gamma'-Ni3Al forms via the peritectiod, gamma + beta (+ Al2O3) = gamma'(+ Al2O3), at 1633 plus or minus 1 K. This behavior is inconsistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma'-Ni3Al phase field.

  18. Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%Al and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2Al phase field.

  19. Fact Sheets from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    The document is a compilation of 15 fact sheets developed during 1980 by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children. Fact sheets are single sheets which provide basic information in a question-answer format and include additional resources and references. The fact sheets have the following titles: "Sex Education for Retarded…

  20. The iA{beta}5p {beta}-breaker peptide regulates the A{beta}(25-35) interaction with lipid bilayers through a cholesterol-mediated mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Vitiello, Giuseppe; CSGI , Florence ; Grimaldi, Manuela; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; D'Errico, Gerardino; CSGI , Florence

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p shows a significant tendency to deeply penetrates the hydrophobic core of lipid membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}(25-35) locates in the external region of the membrane causing a re-positioning of CHOL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p withholds cholesterol in the inner hydrophobic core of the lipid membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p prevents the A{beta}(25-35) release from the lipid membrane. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the deposition of aggregates of the {beta}-amyloid peptide (A{beta}) in the brain. A potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease is the use of synthetic {beta}-sheet breaker peptides, which are capable of binding A{beta} but unable to become part of a {beta}-sheet structure, thus inhibiting the peptide aggregation. Many studies suggest that membranes play a key role in the A{beta} aggregation; consequently, it is strategic to investigate the interplay between {beta}-sheet breaker peptides and A{beta} in the presence of lipid bilayers. In this work, we focused on the effect of the {beta}-sheet breaker peptide acetyl-LPFFD-amide, iA{beta}5p, on the interaction of the A{beta}(25-35) fragment with lipid membranes, studied by Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy, using spin-labeled membrane components (either phospholipids or cholesterol). The ESR results show that iA{beta}5p influences the A{beta}(25-35) interaction with the bilayer through a cholesterol-mediated mechanism: iA{beta}5p withholds cholesterol in the inner hydrophobic core of the bilayer, making the interfacial region more fluid and capable to accommodate A{beta}(25-35). As a consequence, iA{beta}5p prevents the A{beta}(25-35) release from the lipid membrane, which is the first step of the {beta}-amyloid aggregation process.

  1. MESSENGER and Venus Express Observations of the Near-tail of Venus: Magnetic Flux Transport, Current Sheet Structure, and Flux Rope Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Sarantos, M.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Barabash, S.; Benna, M.; Fraenz, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Gold, R. E.; Ho, G. C.; Korth, H.; Krimigis, S. M.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Raines, J. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Zhang, T.-L.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    At 23:08 UT on 5 June 2007 the MESSENGER spacecraft reached its closest approach altitude (338 km) during its second flyby of Venus en route to its 2011 orbit insertion at Mercury. Whereas no measurements were collected during MESSENGER'S first Venus flyby in October 2006, the Magnetometer (MAG) and the Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) operated successfully throughout this second encounter. Venus provides the solar system's best example to date of a solar wind - ionosphere planetary interaction. We present MESSENGER observations of the near-tail of Venus with emphasis on determining the time scales for magnetic flux transport, the structure of the cross-tail current sheet at very low altitudes (approx. 300 to 1000 km), and the nature and origin of a magnetic flux rope observed in the current sheet. The availability of the simultaneous Venus Express upstream measurements provides a unique opportunity to examine the influence of solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field conditions on this planet's solar wind interaction at solar minimum.

  2. Relative efficacies of amyloid beta peptide (A beta) binding proteins in A beta aggregation.

    PubMed

    Webster, S; Rogers, J

    1996-10-01

    The aggregation of amyloid beta peptide (A beta) into its fibrillar, cross beta-pleated configuration is generally viewed as a critical event in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A diverse group of molecules, the A beta binding proteins, has been evaluated for their effects on this process. However, most of these studies have used micromolar or greater reagent concentrations, and their different methods have not permitted quantitative comparisons of the efficacy of different A beta binding proteins in augmenting or inhibiting aggregation. In the present work we have undertaken a coherent analysis using fluorimetry of thioflavin T-stained experimental solutions. The complement protein C1q, serum amyloid P, and transthyretin significantly enhanced the formation of precipitable, cross beta-pleated aggregates in solutions of 800 nM A beta 1-42. Under these same experimental conditions, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin had no significant effect on the aggregation process, and both the E3 and E4 isoforms of apolipoprotein E were significant inhibitors. There was a non-significant trend toward the E3 isoform exhibiting greater inhibition than the E4 isoform. Of the aggregation-facilitating molecules, C1q was substantially and significantly the most potent. PMID:8892106

  3. Cosuppression of the alpha subunits of beta-conglycinin in transgenic soybean seeds induces the formation of endoplasmic reticulum-derived protein bodies.

    PubMed

    Kinney, A J; Jung, R; Herman, E M

    2001-05-01

    The expression of the alpha and alpha' subunits of beta-conglycinin was suppressed by sequence-mediated gene silencing in transgenic soybean seed. The resulting seeds had similar total oil and protein content and ratio compared with the parent line. The decrease in beta-conglycinin protein was apparently compensated by an increased accumulation of glycinin. In addition, proglycinin, the precursor of glycinin, was detected as a prominent polypeptide band in the protein profile of the transgenic seed extract. Electron microscopic analysis and immunocytochemistry of maturing transgenic soybean seeds indicated that the process of storage protein accumulation was altered in the transgenic line. In normal soybeans, the storage proteins are deposited in pre-existing vacuoles by Golgi-derived vesicles. In contrast, in transgenic seed with reduced beta-conglycinin levels, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vesicles were observed that resembled precursor accumulating-vesicles of pumpkin seeds and the protein bodies accumulated by cereal seeds. Their ER-derived membrane of the novel vesicles did not contain the protein storage vacuole tonoplast-specific protein alpha-TIP, and the sequestered polypeptides did not contain complex glycans, indicating a preGolgi and nonvacuolar nature. Glycinin was identified as a major component of these novel protein bodies and its diversion from normal storage protein trafficking appears to be related to the proglycinin buildup in the transgenic seed. The stable accumulation of proteins in a protein body compartment instead of vacuolar accumulation of proteins may provide an alternative intracellular site to sequester proteins when soybeans are used as protein factories. PMID:11340189

  4. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ying; Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 ; Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min; Sun, Gui-yuan; Liu, Rui-tian

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  5. In vivo formation of gene fusions encoding hybrid beta-galactosidase proteins in one step with a transposable Mu-lac transducing phage.

    PubMed Central

    Casadaban, M J; Chou, J

    1984-01-01

    A Mu-lac bacteriophage transposon, MudII301 (Ap, lac), was constructed to form hybrid protein gene fusions. When it integrates into structural genes in the appropriate direction and reading phase, transcription and translation from outside gene controlling regions can proceed across 116 nucleotides from the right end of Mu into lacZ codons to form hybrid proteins that are enzymatically active for beta-galactosidase. Integration can be obtained either by infection to form lysogens or by transposition during growth of a lysogen. The size of the hybrid protein product either corresponds to or, in the cases of translation restart or protein degradation, is a minimal estimate of the distance of the Mu insertion from the translation initiation site of the gene. Hybrid proteins formed by insertions in randomly selected genes and in the araB and A genes were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Images PMID:6320194

  6. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Robert Irvine Pregnant? What to Expect Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Heart & Blood Vessels > Beta ... Types of Beta Thalassemia Complications Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  7. Beta-helix core packing within the triple-stranded oligomerization domain of the P22 tailspike.

    PubMed Central

    Kreisberg, J. F.; Betts, S. D.; King, J.

    2000-01-01

    A right-handed parallel beta-helix of 400 residues in 13 tightly packed coils is a major motif of the chains forming the trimeric P22 tailspike adhesin. The beta-helix domains of three identical subunits are side-by-side in the trimer and make predominantly hydrophilic inter-subunit contacts (Steinbacher S et al., 1994, Science 265:383-386). After the 13th coil the three individual beta-helices terminate and the chains wrap around each other to form three interdigitated beta-sheets organized into the walls of a triangular prism. The beta-strands then separate and form antiparallel beta-sheets, but still defining a triangular prism in which each side is a beta-sheet from a different subunit (Seckler R, 1998, J Struct Biol 122:216-222). The subunit interfaces are buried in the triangular core of the prism, which is densely packed with hydrophobic side chains from the three beta-sheets. Examination of this structure reveals that its packed core maintains the same pattern of interior packing found in the left-handed beta-helix, a single-chain structure. This packing is maintained in both the interdigitated parallel region of the prism and the following antiparallel sheet section. This oligomerization motif for the tailspike beta-helices presumably contributes to the very high thermal and detergent stability that is a property of the native tailspike adhesin. PMID:11206055

  8. Protein purification with novel porous sheets containing derivatized cellulose.

    PubMed

    Manganaro, J L; Goldberg, B S

    1993-01-01

    Novel porous sheets containing commercially available cellulosic ion exchange media of several different functionalities in a PVC matrix have been prepared and evaluated. The advantages of these materials are resistance to alkali, clean in place procedures and low nonspecific binding. These sheets thus provide well-known and well-characterized particulate chromatographic media in a porous sheet format. The porous sheet format permits use of short, squat geometries (stacked sheets) as well as tolerance of high pressure gradients. The net result is the ability to handle much higher flow rates (10-fold or greater) than achievable by comparable cellulosic packed columns of the neat particulate media. Chromatographic separation of natural egg white proteins by a linear salt gradient on a single sheet of 1.3-mm thickness was demonstrated. In addition, a very significant advantage of the porous sheet format is that it permits the fabrication of devices which are not possible with particulate media. An example of such a device is the Acti-Mod Spiral Module. In the spiral module a spiral flow channel is formed by wrapping the porous sheet material around a mandrel. Embossed ribbing in the porous sheet provides channel spacing. The small open channel accommodates high flow rates of biological suspensions while the porous sheet walls selectively remove components of the suspension. PMID:7763697

  9. Influence of Humidity, Temperature and Radicals on the Formation and Thermal Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) from Ozonolysis of {\\beta}-pinene

    E-print Network

    Emanuelsson, Eva U; Lutz, Anna; Ljungström, Evert; Hallquist, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    The influence of water and radicals on SOAs produced by {\\beta}-pinene ozonolysis was investigated at 298 and 288 K using a laminar flow reactor. A volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) was used to measure the evaporation of the SOA, enabling the parameterization of its volatility properties. The parameters extracted included the temperature at which 50% of the aerosol had evaporated (TVFR0.5) and the slope factor (SVFR). An increase in SVFR indicates a broader distribution of vapor pressures for the aerosol constituents. Reducing the reaction temperature increased SVFR and decreased TVFR0.5 under humid conditions but had less effect on TVFR0.5 under dry conditions. In general, higher water concentrations gave lower TVFR0.5 values, more negative SVFR values, and a reduction in total SOA production. The radical conditions were changed by introducing OH scavengers to generate systems with and without OH radicals and with different [HO2]/[RO2] ratios. Presence of a scavenger and lower [HO2]/[R...

  10. In silico and in vitro studies to elucidate the role of Cu2+ and galanthamine as the limiting step in the amyloid beta (1-42) fibrillation process.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rodríguez, Maricarmen; Correa-Basurto, José; Benitez-Cardoza, Claudia G; Resendiz-Albor, Aldo Arturo; Rosales-Hernández, Martha C

    2013-10-01

    The formation of fibrils and oligomers of amyloid beta (A?) with 42 amino acid residues (A? 1-42 ) is the most important pathophysiological event associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The formation of A? fibrils and oligomers requires a conformational change from an ?-helix to a ?-sheet conformation, which is encouraged by the formation of a salt bridge between Asp 23 or Glu 22 and Lys 28. Recently, Cu(2+) and various drugs used for AD treatment, such as galanthamine (Reminyl(®) ), have been reported to inhibit the formation of A? fibrils. However, the mechanism of this inhibition remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this work was to explore how Cu(2+) and galanthamine prevent the formation of A?1-42 fibrils using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (20 ns) and in vitro studies using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. The MD simulations revealed that A?1-42 acquires a characteristic U-shape before the ?-helix to ?-sheet conformational change. The formation of a salt bridge between Asp 23 and Lys 28 was also observed beginning at 5 ns. However, the MD simulations of A? 1-42 in the presence of Cu(2+) or galanthamine demonstrated that both ligands prevent the formation of the salt bridge by either binding to Glu 22 and Asp 23 (Cu(2+) ) or to Lys 28 (galanthamine), which prevents A? 1-42 from adopting the U-characteristic conformation that allows the amino acids to transition to a ?-sheet conformation. The docking results revealed that the conformation obtained by the MD simulation of a monomer from the 1Z0Q structure can form similar interactions to those obtained from the 2BGE structure in the oligomers. The in vitro studies demonstrated that A? remains in an unfolded conformation when Cu(2+) and galanthamine are used. Then, ligands that bind Asp 23 or Glu 22 and Lys 28 could therefore be used to prevent ? turn formation and, consequently, the formation of A? fibrils. PMID:23904252

  11. Amyloid fibril formation of hen lysozyme depends on the instability of the C-helix (88-99).

    PubMed

    Harada, Akihito; Azakami, Hiroyuki; Kato, Akio

    2008-06-01

    Stable and unstable mutant lysozymes in long helices B and C were constructed to evaluate the effect of the helices on amyloid fibril formation at pH 2. Stable mutant N27D and unstable mutant K33D in the B-helix did not change in amyloid fibril formation. In contrast, stable mutant N93D and unstable mutant K97D in the C-helix showed big differences in behavior as to amyloid fibril formation. Stable mutant N93D showed a longer lag phase of aggregation and suppressed the amyloid fibril formation, whereas unstable mutant K97D showed a shorter lag phase of aggregation and accelerated amyloid fibril formation. These results suggest that the long C-helix is involved mainly in the alpha-helix to beta-sheet transition during amyloid formation of lysozyme. PMID:18540107

  12. Cereal beta-glucans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal beta-glucans occur predominantly in oats and barley, but can be found in other cereals. Beta-glucan structure is a mixture of single beta-1,3-linkages and consecutive beta-1,4-linkages, and cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units typically make up 90-95% of entire molecule. Lichenase can hydr...

  13. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  14. Beta amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau deposits in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Miklossy, Judith; Qing, Hong; Radenovic, Aleksandra; Kis, Andras; Vileno, Bertrand; Làszló, Forró; Miller, Lisa; Martins, Ralph N.; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Bosman, Fred; Khalili, Kamel; Darbinian, Nune; McGeer, Patrick L.

    2014-01-01

    Strong epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes. To determine if amyloid beta (A?) and hyperphosphorylated tau occurs in type 2 diabetes, pancreas tissues from 21 autopsy cases (10 type 2 diabetes and 11 controls) were analyzed. APP and tau mRNAs were identified in human pancreas and in cultured insulinoma beta cells (INS-1) by RT-PCR. Prominent APP and tau bands were detected by Western blotting in pancreatic extracts. Aggregated A?, hyperphosphorylated tau, ubiquitin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein(a), IB1/JIP-1 and JNK1 were detected in Langerhans islets in type 2 diabetic patients. A? was co-localized with amylin in islet amyloid deposits. In situ beta sheet formation of islet amyloid deposits was shown by infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS). LPS increased APP in non-neuronal cells as well. We conclude that A? deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau are also associated with type 2 diabetes, highlighting common pathogenetic features in neurodegenerative disorders, including AD and type 2 diabetes and suggesting that A? deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau may also occur in other organs than the brain. PMID:18950899

  15. Improving the medical ‘take sheet

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The GMC states that “Trainees in hospital posts must have well organised handover arrangements, ensuring continuity of patient care[1]”. In the Belfast City Hospital throughout the day there can be multiple new medical admissions. These can be via the GP Unit, transfers for tertiary care, and transfers due to bed shortages in other hospitals. Over the course of 24 hours there can be up to four medical SHOs and three registrars that fill in the take sheet. Due to the variety of admission routes and number of doctors looking after the medical take information can be lost during handover between SHOs. In the current format there is little room to write and key and relevant information on the medical take sheet about new and transferring patients. I felt that this handover sheet could be improved. An initial questionnaire demonstrated that 47% found the old proforma easy to use and 28.2% felt that it allowed them to identify sick patients. 100% of SHOs and Registrars surveyed felt that it could be improved from its current form. From feedback from my colleagues I created a new template and trialled it in the hospital. A repeat questionnaire demonstrated that 92.3% of responders felt the new format had improved medical handover and that 92.6% felt that it allowed safe handover most of the time/always. The success of this new proforma resulted in it being implemented on a permanent basis for new medical admissions and transfers to the hospital.

  16. A Logical OR Redundancy within the Asx-Pro-Asx-Gly Type 1 {Beta}-Turn Motif

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jihun; Dubey, Vikash Kumar; Longo, Lian M.; Blaber, Michael

    2008-04-19

    Turn secondary structure is essential to the formation of globular protein architecture. Turn structures are, however, much more complex than either {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet, and the thermodynamics and folding kinetics are poorly understood. Type I {beta}-turns are the most common type of reverse turn, and they exhibit a statistical consensus sequence of Asx-Pro-Asx-Gly (where Asx is Asp or Asn). A comprehensive series of individual and combined Asx mutations has been constructed within three separate type I 3:5 G1 bulge {beta}-turns in human fibroblast growth factor-1, and their effects on structure, stability, and folding have been determined. The results show a fundamental logical OR relationship between the Asx residues in the motif, involving H-bond interactions with main-chain amides within the turn. These interactions can be modulated by additional interactions with residues adjacent to the turn at positions i + 4 and i + 6. The results show that the Asx residues in the turn motif make a substantial contribution to the overall stability of the protein, and the Asx logical OR relationship defines a redundant system that can compensate for deleterious point mutations. The results also show that the stability of the turn is unlikely to be the prime determinant of formation of turn structure in the folding transition state.

  17. Ferulic acid destabilizes preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kenjiro; Hirohata, Mie; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS, would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported previously that curcumin (Cur) inhibits fA{beta} formation from A{beta} and destabilizes preformed fA{beta} in vitro. Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of ferulic acid (FA) on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 deg C in vitro. We next compared the anti-amyloidogenic activities of FA with Cur, rifampicin, and tetracycline. Ferulic acid dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-peptide, as well as their extension. Moreover, it destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. The overall activity of the molecules examined was in the order of: Cur > FA > rifampicin = tetracycline. FA could be a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for AD.

  18. Absorption of Beta Particles in Different Materials: An Undergraduate Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The absorption of beta rays from a radioactive source in different materials was investigated by the use of a simple setup based on a Geiger counter and a set of absorber sheets. The number of electrons traversing the material was measured as a function of its thickness. Detailed GEANT simulations were carried out to reproduce the obtained…

  19. Conformational restriction via cyclization in beta-amyloid peptide Abeta(1-28) leads to an inhibitor of Abeta(1-28) amyloidogenesis and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kapurniotu, Aphrodite; Buck, Andreas; Weber, Marco; Schmauder, Anke; Hirsch, Thomas; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Tatarek-Nossol, Marianna

    2003-02-01

    The aggregation process of beta-amyloid peptide Abeta into amyloid is strongly associated with the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aggregation may involve a transition of an alpha helix in Abeta(1-28) into beta sheets and interactions between residues 18-20 of the "Abeta amyloid core." We applied an i, i+4 cyclic conformational constraint to the Abeta amyloid core and devised side chain-to-side chain lactam-bridged cyclo(17, 21)-[Lys(17), Asp(21)]Abeta(1-28). In contrast to Abeta(1-28) and [Lys(17), Asp(21)]Abeta(1-28), cyclo(17, 21)-[Lys(17), Asp(21)]Abeta(1-28) was not able to form beta sheets and cytotoxic amyloid aggregates. Cyclo(17, 21)-[Lys(17), Asp(21)]Abeta(1-28) was able to interact with Abeta(1-28) and to inhibit amyloid formation and cytotoxicity. Cyclo(17, 21)-[Lys(17), Asp(21)]Abeta(1-28) also interacted with Abeta(1-40) and interfered with its amyloidogenesis. Cyclo(17, 21)-[Lys(17), Asp(21)]Abeta(1-28) or similarly constrained Abeta sequences may find therapeutic and diagnostic applications in AD. PMID:12618187

  20. Divergent effects of 17-{beta}-estradiol on human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell function diminishes TNF-{alpha}-induced neointima formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nintasen, Rungrat; Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center , University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT; Department of Tropical Pathology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University ; Riches, Kirsten; Mughal, Romana S.; Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center , University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT ; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Chaisri, Urai; Maneerat, Yaowapa; Turner, Neil A.; Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center , University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT ; Porter, Karen E.

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} augments neointimal hyperplasia in human saphenous vein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces detrimental effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol exerts modulatory effects on TNF-induced vascular cell functions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modulatory effects of estradiol are discriminatory and cell-type specific. -- Abstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition characterized by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). TNF-{alpha} can induce vascular endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) dysfunction, central events in development of neointimal lesions. The reduced incidence of CHD in young women is believed to be due to the protective effects of estradiol (E2). We therefore investigated the effects of TNF-{alpha} on human neointima formation and SMC/EC functions and any modulatory effects of E2. Saphenous vein (SV) segments were cultured in the presence of TNF-{alpha} (10 ng/ml), E2 (2.5 nM) or both in combination. Neointimal thickening was augmented by incubation with TNF-{alpha}, an effect that was abolished by co-culture with E2. TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner that was optimal at 10 ng/ml (1.5-fold increase), and abolished by E2 at all concentrations studied (1-50 nM). Surprisingly, E2 itself at low concentrations (1 and 5 nM) stimulated SV-SMC proliferation to a level comparable to that of TNF-{alpha} alone. SV-EC migration was significantly impaired by TNF-{alpha} (42% of control), and co-culture with E2 partially restored the ability of SV-EC to migrate and repair the wound. In contrast, TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC migration by 1.7-fold, an effect that was completely reversed by co-incubation with E2. Finally, TNF-{alpha} potently induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in both SV-EC and SV-SMC. However there was no modulation by E2 in either cell-type. In conclusion, TNF-{alpha} induced SV neointima formation, increased SMC proliferation and migration, impaired SV-EC migration and increased expression of adhesion molecules. E2 exerted distinct cell-type and function-specific modulation, the mechanisms underlying which are worthy of further detailed study.

  1. New hydrolysis products of the beta-lactam antibiotic amoxicillin, their pH-dependent formation and search in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hirte, Kristin; Seiwert, Bettina; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is a widespread ?-lactam-antibiotic and, together with some of its transformation products (TPs) originating from hydrolysis, a known environmental contaminant. To shed light on the abiotic degradation of AMX and the stability of its known TPs, laboratory hydrolysis experiments of AMX were carried out at pH 3, 7 and 11. Not only the rate of hydrolysis but also the pattern of TPs was strongly pH-dependent. The time courses of the obtained transformation products were analyzed by UPLC-HR-QToF-MS. AMX penicilloic acid (TP 1), AMX 2',5'-diketopiperazine (TP 2), AMX penilloic acid (TP 3) and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazinol (TP 4) were found at neutral pH. Surprisingly, the first three were not stable but transformed into 23 yet unknown TPs within three to four weeks. Seven TPs were tentatively identified, based on their product ion spectra and, where possible, confirmed with reference standards, e.g. penicillamine disulfide, 2-[amino(carboxy)methyl]-5,5-dimethyl-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and dehydrocarboxylated amoxicillin penilloic acid. Analysis of samples from municipal wastewater treatment plants confirmed these findings with TP 1 being the dominant TP in the influent and a shift towards TP 2, TP 3 and TP 4 in the effluents. The lab experiments predicted up to 13 consecutive TPs from TP 1, TP 2 and TP 3 under neutral conditions. Their detection from surface waters will be difficult, because their large number and slow formation kinetics will lead to comparatively low environmental concentrations. Nevertheless the abiotic degradation of TP 1, TP 2 and TP 3 to further TPs needs to be considered in future studies of the environmental fate of amoxicillin. PMID:26613181

  2. Low-Temperature Forming of Beta Titanium Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, R. S.; Woods, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Low cost methods for titanium structural fabrication using advanced cold-formable beta alloys were investigated for application in a Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicle. This work focuses on improving processing and structural efficiencies as compared with standard hot formed and riveted construction of alpha-beta alloy sheet structure. Mechanical property data and manufacturing parameters were developed for cold forming, brazing, welding, and processing Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al sheet, and Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr on a more limited basis. Cost and structural benefits were assessed through the fabrication and evaluation of large structural panels. The feasibility of increasing structural efficiency of beta titanium structure by selective reinforcement with metal matrix composite was also explored.

  3. FTIR reveals structural differences between native ?-sheet proteins and amyloid fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Zandomeneghi, Giorgia; Krebs, Mark R.H.; McCammon, Margaret G.; Fändrich, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    The presence of ?-sheets in the core of amyloid fibrils raised questions as to whether or not ?-sheet-containing proteins, such as transthyretin, are predisposed to form such fibrils. However, we show here that the molecular structure of amyloid fibrils differs more generally from the ?-sheets in native proteins. This difference is evident from the amide I region of the infrared spectrum and relates to the distribution of the ?/? dihedral angles within the Ramachandran plot, the average number of strands per sheet, and possibly, the ?-sheet twist. These data imply that amyloid fibril formation from native ?-sheet proteins can involve a substantial structural reorganization. PMID:15537750

  4. Effect of initial stagger selection on the handedness of Amyloid beta helical fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Ghattyvenkatakrishna, Pavan K; Cheng, Xiaolin; Uberbacher, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    Various structural models for Amyloid $\\beta$ fibrils derived from a variety of experimental techniques are currently available. However, this data cannot differentiate between the relative position of the two arms of the $\\beta$ hairpin called the stagger. Amyloid fibrils of various heirarchical levels form left--handed helices composed of $\\beta$ sheets. However it is unclear if positive, negative and neutral staggers all form the macroscopic left--handed helices. Studying this is important since the success of computational approaches to develop drugs for amyloidic diseases will depend on selecting the physiologically relevant structure of the sheets. To address this issue we have conducted extensive molecular dynamics simulations of Amyloid$\\beta$ sheets of various staggers and show that only negative staggers generate the experimentally observed left--handed helices while positive staggers generate the incorrect right--handed helices. The implications of this result extend in to all amyloidic--aggregation type diseases.

  5. beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( beta - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 85 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Asses

  6. Emittance Measurements for a Thin Liquid Sheet Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englehart, Amy N.; McConley, Marc W.; Chubb, Donald L.

    1996-01-01

    The Liquid Sheet Radiator (LSR) is an external flow radiator that uses a triangular-shaped flowing liquid sheet as the radiating surface. It has potentially much lower mass than solid wall radiators such as pumped loop and heat pipe radiators, along with being nearly immune to micrometeoroid penetration. The LSR has an added advantage of simplicity. Surface tension causes a thin (100-300 microns) liquid sheet to coalesce to a point, causing the sheet flow to have a triangular shape. Such a triangular sheet is desirable since it allows for simple collection of the flow at a single point. A major problem for all external flow radiators is the requirement that the working fluid be of very low (approx. 10(sup -8) torr) vapor pressure to keep evaporative losses low. As a result, working fluids are limited to certain oils (such as used in diffusion pumps) for low temperatures (300-400 K) and liquid metals for higher temperatures. Previous research on the LSR has been directed at understanding the fluid mechanics of thin sheet flows and assessing the stability of such flows, especially with regard to the formation of holes in the sheet. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. The latest research has been directed at determining the emittance of thin sheet flows. The emittance was calculated from spectral transmittance data for the Dow Corning 705 silicone oil. By experimentally setting up a sheet flow, the emittance was also determined as a function of measurable quantities, most importantly, the temperature drop between the top of the sheet and the temperature at the coalescence point of the sheet. Temperature fluctuations upstream of the liquid sheet were a potential problem in the analysis and were investigated.

  7. Spontaneous formation of polyglutamine nanotubes with molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Laghaei, Rozita; Mousseau, Normand

    2010-04-28

    Expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) beyond the pathogenic threshold (35-40 Gln) is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease, several forms of spinocerebellar ataxias and spinobulbar muscular atrophy. To determine the structure of polyglutamine aggregates we perform replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations coupled with the optimized potential for effective peptide forcefield. Using a range of temperatures from 250 to 700 K, we study the aggregation kinetics of the polyglutamine monomer and dimer with chain lengths from 30 to 50 residues. All monomers show a similar structural change at the same temperature from alpha-helical structure to random coil, without indication of any significant beta-strand. For dimers, by contrast, starting from random structures, we observe spontaneous formation of antiparallel beta-sheets and triangular and circular beta-helical structures for polyglutamine with 40 residues in a 400 ns 50 temperature replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulation (total integrated time 20 micros). This approximately 32 A diameter structure reorganizes further into a tight antiparallel double-stranded approximately 22 A nanotube with 22 residues per turn close to Perutz' model for amyloid fibers as water-filled nanotubes. This diversity of structures suggests the existence of polymorphism for polyglutamine with possibly different pathways leading to the formation of toxic oligomers and to fibrils. PMID:20441310

  8. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the last glacial maximum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, Michael E.; Clark, Peter U.; Ricken, Werner; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood. We develop a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates that the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was within dating uncertainties synchronous with most sectors of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. Surface climate forcing of Antarctic mass balance would probably cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Our new data support teleconnections involving sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deep-water formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets.

  9. Beta-amyloidbased immunotherapy as a treatment of Alzheimers disease.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Beka

    2007-05-01

    The pathology of Alzheimer's disease shows a significant correlation between beta-amyloid peptide conformation and the clinical severity of dementia. For many years efforts have been focused on the development of inhibitors of beta-amyloid formation and its related neurotoxic effects. A new concept has been developed which shows that site-directed antibodies may modulate formation of beta-amyloid. The performance of anti-beta-amyloid antibodies in transgenic mice models of Alzheimer's disease showed that they are delivered to the central nervous system, preventing in vivo formation of beta-amyloid. Moreover, those antibodies dissolve beta-amyloid plaques and protect the mice from learning and age-related memory deficits. Experimental active immunization with beta-amyloid (1-42) in humans was stopped in phase II of their clinical trials. However, several new preparations, able to provide antibodies against beta-amyloid by either active or passive routes, have been formulated and have reached clinical testing. The data presented support the hypothesis that beta-amyloid peptide plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease, and antibodies which modulate beta-amyloid conformation may lead to immunotherapy of the disease. PMID:17724499

  10. BetaSearch: a new method for querying ?-residue motifs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Searching for structural motifs across known protein structures can be useful for identifying unrelated proteins with similar function and characterising secondary structures such as ?-sheets. This is infeasible using conventional sequence alignment because linear protein sequences do not contain spatial information. ?-residue motifs are ?-sheet substructures that can be represented as graphs and queried using existing graph indexing methods, however, these approaches are designed for general graphs that do not incorporate the inherent structural constraints of ?-sheets and require computationally-expensive filtering and verification procedures. 3D substructure search methods, on the other hand, allow ?-residue motifs to be queried in a three-dimensional context but at significant computational costs. Findings We developed a new method for querying ?-residue motifs, called BetaSearch, which leverages the natural planar constraints of ?-sheets by indexing them as 2D matrices, thus avoiding much of the computational complexities involved with structural and graph querying. BetaSearch exhibits faster filtering, verification, and overall query time than existing graph indexing approaches whilst producing comparable index sizes. Compared to 3D substructure search methods, BetaSearch achieves 33 and 240 times speedups over index-based and pairwise alignment-based approaches, respectively. Furthermore, we have presented case-studies to demonstrate its capability of motif matching in sequentially dissimilar proteins and described a method for using BetaSearch to predict ?-strand pairing. Conclusions We have demonstrated that BetaSearch is a fast method for querying substructure motifs. The improvements in speed over existing approaches make it useful for efficiently performing high-volume exploratory querying of possible protein substructural motifs or conformations. BetaSearch was used to identify a nearly identical ?-residue motif between an entirely synthetic (Top7) and a naturally-occurring protein (Charcot-Leyden crystal protein), as well as identifying structural similarities between biotin-binding domains of avidin, streptavidin and the lipocalin gamma subunit of human C8. PMID:22839199

  11. Forced crumpling of self-avoiding elastic sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vliegenthart, G. A.; Gompper, G.

    2006-03-01

    Thin elastic sheets are important materials across length scales ranging from mesoscopic (polymerized membranes, clay platelets, virus capsids) to macroscopic (paper, metal foils). The crumpling of such sheets by external forces is characterized by the formation of a complex pattern of folds. We have investigated the role of self-avoidance, the fact that the sheets cannot self-intersect, for the crumpling process by large-scale computer simulations. At moderate compression, the force-compression relations of crumpled sheets for both self-avoiding and phantom sheets are found to obey universal power-law behaviours. However, self-avoiding sheets are much stiffer than phantom sheets and, for a given compression, develop many more folds. Moreover, self-avoidance is relevant already at very small volume fractions. The fold-length distribution for crumpled sheets is determined, and is found to be well-described by a log-normal distribution. The stiffening owing to self-avoidance is reflected in the changing nature of the sheet-to-sheet contacts from line-like to two-dimensionally extended with increasing compression.

  12. Current status of liquid sheet radiator research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.

    1993-01-01

    Initial research on the external flow, low mass liquid sheet radiator (LSR), has been concentrated on understanding its fluid mechanics. The surface tension forces acting at the edges of the sheet produce a triangular planform for the radiating surface of width, W, and length, L. It has been experimentally verified that (exp L)/W agrees with the theoretical result, L/W = (We/8)exp 1/2, where We is the Weber number. Instability can cause holes to form in regions of large curvature such as where the edge cylinders join the sheet of thickness, tau. The W/tau limit that will cause hole formation with subsequent destruction of the sheet has yet to be reached experimentally. Although experimental measurements of sheet emissivity have not yet been performed because of limited program scope, calculations of the emissivity and sheet lifetime is determined by evaporation losses were made for two silicon based oils; Dow Corning 705 and Me(sub 2). Emissivities greater than 0.75 are calculated for tau greater than or equal to 200 microns for both oils. Lifetimes for Me(sub 2) are much longer than lifetimes for 705. Therefore, Me(sub 2) is the more attractive working fluid for higher temperatures (T greater than or equal to 400 K).

  13. Core binding factor beta (Cbf?) controls the balance of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation by up-regulating Indian hedgehog (Ihh) expression and inhibiting parathyroid hormone-related protein Receptor (PPR) expression in postnatal cartilage and bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lianfu; Zhu, Guochun; Ma, Junqing; Gao, Bo; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Core binding factor beta (Cbf?) is essential for embryonic bone morphogenesis. Yet, the mechanisms by which Cbf? regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation as well as postnatal cartilage and bone formation remain unclear. Hence, using the paired-related homeobox transcription factor 1-Cre (Prx1-Cre) mice, mesenchymal stem cell-specific Cbf?-deficient (Cbf?f/f Prx1-Cre) mice were generated to study the role of Cbf? in postnatal cartilage and bone development. These mutant mice survived to adulthood but exhibited severe sternum and limb malformations. Sternum ossification was largely delayed in the Cbf?f/fPrx1-Cre mice and the xiphoid process was non-calcified and enlarged. In newborn and 7-day-old Cbf?f/fPrx1-Cre mice, the resting zone was dramatically elongated, the proliferation zone and hypertrophic zone of the growth plates were drastically shortened and disorganized, and trabecular bone formation was reduced. Moreover, in one-month-old Cbf?f/fPrx1-Cre mice, the growth plates were severely deformed and trabecular bone was almost absent. In addition, Cbf? deficiency impaired intramembranous bone formation both in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, while the expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) was largely reduced, the expression of Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) receptor (PPR) was dramatically increased in the Cbf?f/fPrx1-Cre growth plate, indicating that that Cbf? deficiency disrupted the Ihh-PTHrP negative regulatory loop. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis and promoter luciferase assay demonstrated that the Runx/Cbf? complex binds putative Runx-binding sites of the Ihh promoter regions, and also Runx/Cbf? complex directly up-regulates Ihh expression at the transcriptional level. Consistently, the expressions of Ihh target genes, including CyclinD1, Ptc and Pthlh, were down-regulated in Cbf?-deficient chondrocytes. Taken together, our study reveals not only that Cbf? is essential for chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation for the growth and maintenance of the skeleton in postnatal mice, but also that it functions in up-regulating Ihh expression to promoter chondrocyte proliferation and osteoblast differentiation and inhibiting PPR expression to enhance chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:24821091

  14. Cross-talk between integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1 in renal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abair, Tristin D.; Sundaramoorthy, Munirathinam; Chen, Dong; Heino, Jyrki; Ivaska, Johanna; Hudson, Billy G.; Sanders, Charles R.; Pozzi, Ambra; Zent, Roy

    2008-11-15

    The collagen-binding integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1 have profoundly different functions, yet they are often co-expressed in epithelial cells. When both integrins are expressed in the same cell, it has been suggested that {alpha}1{beta}1 negatively regulates integrin {alpha}2{beta}1-dependent functions. In this study we utilized murine ureteric bud (UB) epithelial cells, which express no functionally detectable levels of endogenous integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1, to determine the mechanism whereby this regulation occurs. We demonstrate that UB cells expressing integrin {alpha}2{beta}1, but not {alpha}1{beta}1 adhere, migrate and proliferate on collagen I as well as form cellular cords in 3D collagen I gels. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of the integrin {alpha}2 subunit with that of {alpha}1 results in decreased cell adhesion, migration and cord formation. In contrast, substitution of the integrin {alpha}2 cytoplasmic tail with that of {alpha}1, decreases cell migration and cord formation, but increases proliferation. When integrin {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 subunits are co-expressed in UB cells, the {alpha}1 subunit negatively regulates integrin {alpha}2{beta}1-dependent cord formation, adhesion and migration and this inhibition requires expression of both {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 tails. Thus, we provide evidence that the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the {alpha}2 integrin subunit, as well as the {alpha}1 integrin subunit, regulate integrin {alpha}2{beta}1 cell function.

  15. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 193

    SciTech Connect

    Achterberg, E.; Capurro, O.A.; Marti, G.V.; Vanin, V.R.; Castro, R.M.

    2006-01-15

    The present revision of the properties for the nuclides belonging to the A = 193 mass chain contains many improvements, corrections and additions to the material presented in previous evaluations (1998Ar07, Nucl. Data Sheets 83, 921 (1998); 1990Sh30, Nucl, Data Sheets 61, 519 (1990)). Among these are measurement results for quadrupole moments, angular distribution coefficients, half-lives and g-factors, for both previously known and new transitions and levels. In addition, major changes to the previously known status of this mass chain consist in the inclusion of data for new superdeformed bands in {sup 193}Pb, and the creation of level schemes for {sup 193}Bi, {sup 193}Po and {sup 193}At. The latter were previously unavailable, except for a very limited attempt in the case of {sup 193}Po, which was not confirmed in later work. Furthermore, the {sup 193}Os beta decay was re-evaluated in order to account for new absolute intensity measurements.

  16. Singular Solutions and Pattern Formation in Aggregation Equations

    E-print Network

    Sun, Hui

    2013-01-01

    singularity formation in vortex-sheet motion by a spectrallypreviously, the motion of the vortex sheet is governed byvortex patches in incompressible inviscid fluids and swarm patches, which both exhibit rotational motion

  17. [The neurotropic activity of food-derived opioid peptides beta-casomorphins].

    PubMed

    Dubynin, V A; Ivleva, Iu A; Kamenski?, A A

    2004-01-01

    In the review the history of food-derived opioid peptides beta-casomorphins (beta-cas) discovery is given. The beta-cas formation in gastrointestinal tract during the beta-casein degradation and the following penetration into the blood are described, in the first place in newborn mammals. The attention is focused on neurotropic activity of beta-cas: their influence on the pain sensitivity, locomotion, anxiety and learning of experimental animals. The beta-cas ability to change the characteristics of mother-infant interaction is specially analysed. The necessity to take into consideration of beta-cas physiological effects on nursing dams and newborns behaviour is noted. PMID:15027175

  18. Different transition-state structures for the reactions of beta-lactams and analogous beta-sultams with serine beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Wing Y; Ahmed, Naveed; Hinchliffe, Paul S; Wood, J Matthew; Harding, Lindsay P; Laws, Andrew P; Page, Michael I

    2005-12-14

    Beta-sultams are the sulfonyl analogues of beta-lactams, and N-acyl beta-sultams are novel inactivators of the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99. They sulfonylate the active site serine residue to form a sulfonate ester which subsequently undergoes C-O bond fission and formation of a dehydroalanine residue by elimination of the sulfonate anion as shown by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. The analogous N-acyl beta-lactams are substrates for beta-lactamase and undergo enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis presumably by the normal acylation-deacylation process. The rates of acylation of the enzyme by the beta-lactams, measured by the second-order rate constant for hydrolysis, kcat/K(m), and those of sulfonylation by the beta-sultams, measured by the second-order rate constant for inactivation, k(i), both show a similar pH dependence to that exhibited by the beta-lactamase-catalyzed hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics. Electron-withdrawing groups in the aryl residue of the leaving group of N-aroyl beta-lactams increase the rate of alkaline hydrolysis and give a Bronsted beta(lg) of -0.55, indicative of a late transition state for rate-limiting formation of the tetrahedral intermediate. Interestingly, the corresponding Bronsted beta(lg) for the beta-lactamase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the same substrates is -0.06, indicative of an earlier transition state for the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. By contrast, although the Bronsted beta(lg) for the alkaline hydrolysis of N-aroyl beta-sultams is -0.73, similar to that for the beta-lactams, that for the sulfonylation of beta-lactamase by these compounds is -1.46, compatible with significant amide anion expulsion/S-N fission in the transition state. In this case, the enzyme reaction displays a later transition state compared with hydroxide-ion-catalyzed hydrolysis of the beta-sultam. PMID:16332108

  19. Latent TGF-[beta] structure and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Minlong; Zhu, Jianghai; Wang, Rui; Chen, Xing; Mi, Lizhi; Walz, Thomas; Springer, Timothy A.

    2011-09-16

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} is stored in the extracellular matrix as a latent complex with its prodomain. Activation of TGF-{beta}1 requires the binding of {alpha}v integrin to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-{beta} binding proteins. Crystals of dimeric porcine proTGF-{beta}1 reveal a ring-shaped complex, a novel fold for the prodomain, and show how the prodomain shields the growth factor from recognition by receptors and alters its conformation. Complex formation between {alpha}v{beta}6 integrin and the prodomain is insufficient for TGF-{beta}1 release. Force-dependent activation requires unfastening of a 'straitjacket' that encircles each growth-factor monomer at a position that can be locked by a disulphide bond. Sequences of all 33 TGF-{beta} family members indicate a similar prodomain fold. The structure provides insights into the regulation of a family of growth and differentiation factors of fundamental importance in morphogenesis and homeostasis.

  20. COED BASKETBALL Information Sheet

    E-print Network

    Martinez, Tony R.

    COED BASKETBALL Information Sheet Fall 2015 This information sheet is intended to provide basic. Team rosters are limited to fifteen players. Each participant may play for only one Coed Basketball The participants must provide basketballs. A limited supply of basketballs is available in the locker rooms. A 28

  1. Magnetic nonequilibrium and current sheet formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vainshtein, S. I.; Parker, E. N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper investigates the equilibrium of a cluster of long, straight, twisted magnetic flux tubes extending in the z-direction in a highly conducting fluid, subject to the boundary condition that the cluster is surrounded by a uniform pressure P. It is shown that there is equilibrium only for axial symmetry, i.e., only for a single twisted flux tube. Any more complicated cluster of twisted tubes is subject to nonequilibrium reconnection of the transverse component of the field. The example provides another perspective on the general absence of equilibrium, and consequent rapid dissipation, of any magnetic field subject to random small-scale internal strains, such as the fields extending outward from the convective zones of stars.

  2. Can prominences form in current sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malherbe, J. M.; Forbes, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of the formation of cold condensations in a vertical current sheet have been performed using the radiative, resistive MHD equations with line-tied boundary conditions at one end of the sheet. Prominence-like condensations are observed to appear above and below an X-line produced by the onset of the tearing-mode instability. Cooling in the sheet is initiated by Ohmic decay, with the densest condensations occurring in the region downstream of a fast-mode shock. This shock, which is due to the line-tied boundary conditions, terminates one of the two supermagnetosonic reconnection jets that develop when the tearing is fully developed. The condensation properties of shock waves, which may trigger or considerably enhance the conditions for thermal condensation are emphasized.

  3. Interhemispheric Ice-Sheet Synchronicity During the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. E.; Clark, P. U.; Kuhn, G.; Ricken, W.; Sprenk, D.

    2011-12-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood because only a few findings with robust chronologies exist for Antarctic ice sheets. We developed a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic ice sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was nearly synchronous with Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. As for the deglaciation, modeling studies suggest a late ice-sheet retreat starting around 14 ka BP and ending around 7 ka BP with a large impact of an unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and a small impact of a stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). However, the Weddell Sea sites studied here, as well as sites from the Scotia Sea, provide evidence that specifically the EAIS responded much earlier, possibly provided a significant contribution to the last sea-level rise, and was much more dynamic than previously thought. Deep-sea sediment sites from the central Scotia Sea "iceberg alley" show four phases of enhanced deposition of ice-rated detritus (IRD) occurred at 19.5, 16.5,14.5, and 12 ka. The first two relate to the two ice-sheet retreat signals documented for the Weddell Sea; the third phase indicates an Antarctic component to meltwater pulse 1a; the fourth phase falls roughly into period of the Younger Dryas. Our modeling studies show that surface climate forcing of Antarctic ice sheets would have likely increased ice mass balance during deglaciation, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. We propose that sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deepwater formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines provided the teleconnections to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets.

  4. Looking for a generic inhibitor of amyloid-like fibril formation among flavone derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Šneideris, Tomas; Baranauskien?, Lina; Cannon, Jonathan G.; Rutkien?, Rasa; Meškys, Rolandas

    2015-01-01

    A range of diseases is associated with amyloid fibril formation. Despite different proteins being responsible for each disease, all of them share similar features including beta-sheet-rich secondary structure and fibril-like protein aggregates. A number of proteins can form amyloid-like fibrils in vitro, resembling structural features of disease-related amyloids. Given these generic structural properties of amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils, generic inhibitors of fibril formation would be of interest for treatment of amyloid diseases. Recently, we identified five outstanding inhibitors of insulin amyloid-like fibril formation among the pool of 265 commercially available flavone derivatives. Here we report testing of these five compounds and of epi-gallocatechine-3-gallate (EGCG) on aggregation of alpha-synuclein and beta-amyloid. We used a Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay, relying on halftimes of aggregation as the measure of inhibition. This method avoids large numbers of false positive results. Our data indicate that four of the five flavones and EGCG inhibit alpha-synuclein aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. However none of these derivatives were able to increase halftimes of aggregation of beta-amyloid. PMID:26421240

  5. Tau Beta Pi 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    for nixtamalized corn flour at 10-25% to evaluate tortilla quality improvement as dietary fiber content increases. Beta-glucan content of flours correlated positively with water absorption and with improved texture. Recent trials were made with waxy barley... flour with 10% beta-glucan. These tortillas had improved texture during storage and suggest that the hydrocolloids in barley may cause the texture improvements in tortillas (Silva 2003). When the experiment was repeated and compared to a purified beta-glucan...

  6. Immunolocalization of alpha-keratins and feather beta-proteins in feather cells and comparison with the general process of cornification in the skin of mammals.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, L

    2013-03-01

    The maturation of the corneous material of feathers is a special case of cornification in vertebrate epidermis and is believed to occur mainly by the accumulation of small proteins of about 100 amino acids and a central beta-pleated sheet region known as feather keratins. The present immunocytochemical study carried out using double-labeling immunogold shows that a small amount of alpha-keratins of intermediate filament type form the early keratin clumps in barb and barbule cells. These initial nuclei of formation of corneous material are rapidly coated by the deposition of large amounts of small feather keratin-associated beta-proteins (feather keratins). The latter proteins turn the keratin bundles of barb and barbule cells into a compact and apparently amorphous mass of corneous material where no sign of intermediate filaments are seen. Feather beta-proteins however form an irregular filamentous network of 2-3nm thick electron-pale filaments and produce the characteristic feather X-ray pattern due to their prevalent amount over any other protein present in feather cells. The modality of cornification in feathers is discussed in relation to the process of formation of corneous material in the skin of vertebrates in general that occurs by the association of intermediate filament proteins and keratin-associated proteins. PMID:23228339

  7. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); McDonald, Carolyn E. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  8. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

    1997-03-18

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

  9. Liquid sheet radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; White, K. Alan, III

    1987-01-01

    A new external flow radiator concept, the liquid sheet radiator (LSR), is introduced. The LSR sheet flow is described and an expression for the length/width (l/w), ratio is presented. A linear dependence of l/w on velocity is predicted that agrees with experimental results. Specific power for the LSR is calculated and is found to be nearly the same as the specific power of a liquid droplet radiator, (LDR). Several sheet thicknesses and widths were experimentally investigated. In no case was the flow found to be unstable.

  10. Simulating Thin Sheets: Buckling, Wrinkling, Folding and Growth

    E-print Network

    Vetter, Roman; Wittel, Falk K; Herrmann, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulations of thin sheets undergoing large deformations are computationally challenging. Depending on the scenario, they may spontaneously buckle, wrinkle, fold, or crumple. Nature's thin tissues often experience significant anisotropic growth, which can act as the driving force for such instabilities. We use a recently developed finite element model to simulate the rich variety of nonlinear responses of Kirchhoff-Love sheets. The model uses subdivision surface shape functions in order to guarantee convergence of the method, and to allow a finite element description of anisotropically growing sheets in the classical Rayleigh-Ritz formalism. We illustrate the great potential in this approach by simulating the inflation of airbags, the buckling of a stretched cylinder, as well as the formation and scaling of wrinkles at free boundaries of growing sheets. Finally, we compare the folding of spatially confined sheets subject to growth and shrinking confinement to find that the two processes are equivale...

  11. Amino acid distribution rules predict protein fold: protein grammar for beta-strand sandwich-like structures.

    PubMed

    Kister, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We present an alternative approach to protein 3D folding prediction based on determination of rules that specify distribution of "favorable" residues, that are mainly responsible for a given fold formation, and "unfavorable" residues, that are incompatible with that fold, in polypeptide sequences. The process of determining favorable and unfavorable residues is iterative. The starting assumptions are based on the general principles of protein structure formation as well as structural features peculiar to a protein fold under investigation. The initial assumptions are tested one-by-one for a set of all known proteins with a given structure. The assumption is accepted as a "rule of amino acid distribution" for the protein fold if it holds true for all, or near all, structures. If the assumption is not accepted as a rule, it can be modified to better fit the data and then tested again in the next step of the iterative search algorithm, or rejected. We determined the set of amino acid distribution rules for a large group of beta sandwich-like proteins characterized by a specific arrangement of strands in two beta sheets. It was shown that this set of rules is highly sensitive (~90%) and very specific (~99%) for identifying sequences of proteins with specified beta sandwich fold structure. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it does not require that query proteins have a high degree of homology to proteins with known structure. So long as the query protein satisfies residue distribution rules, it can be confidently assigned to its respective protein fold. Another advantage of our approach is that it allows for a better understanding of which residues play an essential role in protein fold formation. It may, therefore, facilitate rational protein engineering design. PMID:25625198

  12. Beta-Carotene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-carotene is a pigment that occurs naturally in many photosynthetic plants and organisms and one of the most abundant carotenoids found in human blood. The richest dietary sources of beta-carotene are yellow, orange, and leafy green fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes...

  13. Current status of solar cell performance of unconventional silicon sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.; Liu, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that activities in recent years directed towards reduction in the cost of silicon solar cells for terrestrial photovoltaic applications have resulted in impressive advancements in the area of silicon sheet formation from melt. The techniques used in the process of sheet formation can be divided into two general categories. All approaches in one category require subsequent ingot wavering. The various procedures of the second category produce silicon in sheet form. The performance of baseline solar cells is discussed. The baseline process included identification marking, slicing to size, and surface treatment (etch-polishing) when needed. Attention is also given to the performance of cells with process variations, and the effects of sheet quality on performance and processing.

  14. Sheet electron beam tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, Alexander Grenbeaux

    The DARPA HiFIVE project uses a pulsed electron sheet beam gun to power a traveling wave tube amplifier operating at 220 GHz. Presented is a method for characterizing the high current density 0.1 mm by 1 mm sheet electron beam. A tungsten tipped probe was scanned through the cross section of the sheet electron beam inside of a vacuum vessel. The probe was controlled with sub-micron precision using stepper motors and LabView computer control while boxcar averaging hardware sampled the pulsed beam. Matlab algorithms were used to interpret the data, calculate beam dimensions and current density, and create 2-dimensional cross section images. Full characterization of two separate HiFIVE sheet electron guns was accomplished and is also presented.

  15. Global ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  16. Viscous fluid sheets

    E-print Network

    Savva, Nikos

    2007-01-01

    We present a general theory for the dynamics of thin viscous sheets. Employing concepts from differential geometry and tensor calculus we derive the governing equations in terms of a coordinate system that moves with the ...

  17. Fact Sheet HEALTH SCIENCE

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiao

    Fact Sheet HEALTH SCIENCE Highlights · Health Science is the multidisciplinary study of the factors that influence health across the life course to health for all. · Health Science majors learn in the classroom

  18. Avian Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Wildlife Work Group

    2004-12-01

    OAK-B135 After conducting four national research meetings, producing a document guiding research: Metrics and Methods for Determining or Monitoring Potential Impacts on Birds at Existing and Proposed Wind Energy Sites, 1999, and another paper, Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States, 2001, the subcommittee recognized a need to summarize in a short fact sheet what is known about avian-wind interaction and what questions remain. This fact sheet attempts to summarize in lay terms the result of extensive discussion about avian-wind interaction on land. This fact sheet does not address research conducted on offshore development. This fact sheet is not intended as a conclusion on the subject; rather, it is a summary as of Fall/Winter 2002.

  19. Planning Sheet NAME ____________________________ _______________________ ___________________

    E-print Network

    Tong, Liang

    Planning Sheet NAME ____________________________ _______________________ ___________________ Last Major Fall Spring Dept. Course (Name or #) Pts./ Grade Dept. Course (Name or #) Pts./ Grade _____ ____________________ ______ _____ ____________________ ______ _____ ____________________ ______ _____ ____________________ ______ _____ ____________________ ______ _____ ____________________ ______ _____ ____________________ ______ _____ ____________________ ______ Courses Completed in Sophomore Year Towards Major Fall Spring Dept. Course (Name or #) Pts./ Grade Dept

  20. Energy information sheets

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  1. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  2. Beta-ensembles with covariance

    E-print Network

    Dubbs, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents analytic samplers for the [beta]-Wishart and [beta]-MANOVA ensembles with diagonal covariance. These generalize the [beta]-ensembles of Dumitriu-Edelman, Lippert, Killip-Nenciu, Forrester-Rains, and ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Beta thalassemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Beta thalassemia On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... Glossary definitions Reviewed September 2015 What is beta thalassemia? Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces ...

  4. Isolation and identification of singlet oxygen oxidation products of beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Stratton, S P; Schaefer, W H; Liebler, D C

    1993-01-01

    Singlet oxygen is a highly reactive form of oxygen produced by many toxic photosensitizers. beta-Carotene quenches singlet oxygen catalytically through a very efficient physical reaction. However, concomitant chemical reactions during photosensitized oxidations consume beta-carotene. To investigate the hypothesis that chemical reactions with singlet oxygen consume beta-carotene, we characterized products of the photosensitized oxidation of beta-carotene. beta-Carotene and the photosensitizer rose bengal were dissolved in toluene/methanol (85:15 v/v), which was bubbled with O2 and illuminated with a quartz-halogen lamp for 30 min at 5 degrees C. Reaction products were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC, UV-vis spectrophotometry, and mass spectrometry. beta-Carotene oxidation products were identified as beta-ionone, beta-apo-14'-carotenal, beta-apo-10'-carotenal, beta-apo-8'-carotenal, and beta-carotene 5,8-endoperoxide. Formation of these products was dependent on the presence of the photosensitizer. The products apparently were formed from the action of singlet oxygen rather than by photochemically-initiated beta-carotene autoxidation, since suppression of autoxidation by equimolar alpha-tocopherol did not diminish product formation. beta-Carotene autoxidation initiated by 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile), which generates peroxyl radicals, yielded a different product distribution than that from photosensitized oxidation. Specific products formed by singlet oxygen oxidation of beta-carotene may serve as markers for singlet oxygen quenching in biological systems. PMID:8374054

  5. Raman and AFM study of gamma irradiated plastic bottle sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Yasir; Kumar, Vijay; Dhaliwal, A. S.; Sonkawade, R. G.

    2013-02-05

    In this investigation, the effects of gamma irradiation on the structural properties of plastic bottle sheet are studied. The Plastic sheets were exposed with 1.25MeV {sup 60}Co gamma rays source at various dose levels within the range from 0-670 kGy. The induced modifications were followed by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Raman spectrum shows the decrease in Raman intensity and formation of unsaturated bonds with an increase in the gamma dose. AFM image displays rough surface morphology after irradiation. The detailed Raman analysis of plastic bottle sheets is presented here, and the results are correlated with the AFM observations.

  6. Ribbed moraine formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hättestrand, Clas; Kleman, Johan

    Ribbed (Rogen) moraines are conspicuous landforms found in interior parts of formerly glaciated areas. Two major theories for ribbed moraine formation have been suggested in recent years: (i) the shear and stack theory, which explains ribbed moraine formation by shearing and stacking of till slabs or englacially entrained material during compressive flow, followed by basal melt-out of transverse moraine ridges, and (ii) the fracturing theory, according to which ribbed moraines form by fracturing of frozen pre-existing till sheets, at the transition from cold- to warm-based conditions under deglaciating ice sheets. In this paper, we present new data on the distribution of ribbed moraines and their close association with areas of frozen-bed conditions under ice sheets. In addition, we show examples of ribbed moraine ridges that fit together like a jig-saw puzzle. These observations indicate that fracturing and extension of a pre-existing till sheet may be a predominant process in ribbed moraine formation. In summary, we conclude that all described characteristics of ribbed moraines are compatible with the fracturing theory, while the shear and stack theory is hampered by an inability to explain many conspicuous features in the distribution pattern and detailed morphology of ribbed moraines. One implication of the fracturing theory is that the distribution of ribbed moraines can be used to reconstruct the extent of areas that underwent a change from frozen-bed to thawed-bed conditions under former ice sheets.

  7. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  8. {alpha}-Lipoic acid exhibits anti-amyloidogenicity for {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kenjiro; Hirohata, Mie; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2006-03-24

    Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of {alpha}-lipoic acid (LA) and the metabolic product of LA, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 {sup o}C in vitro. LA and DHLA dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-protein, as well as their extension. Moreover, they destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. LA and DHLA could be key molecules for the development of therapeutics for AD.

  9. Thermodynamics of amyloid formation and the role of intersheet interactions

    E-print Network

    Irbäck, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The self-assembly of proteins into $\\beta$-sheet-rich amyloid fibrils has been observed to occur with sigmoidal kinetics, indicating that the system initially is trapped in a metastable state. Here, we use a minimal lattice-based model to explore the thermodynamic forces driving amyloid formation in a finite canonical ($NVT$) system. By means of generalized-ensemble Monte Carlo techniques and a semi-analytical method, the thermodynamic properties of this model are investigated for different sets of intersheet interaction parameters. When the interactions support lateral growth into multi-layered fibrillar structures, an evaporation/condensation transition is observed, between a supersaturated solution state and a thermodynamically distinct state where small and large fibril-like species exist in equilibrium. Intermediate-size aggregates are statistically suppressed. These properties do not hold if aggregate growth is one-dimensional.

  10. Double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, M.K.; Rosen, S.P.

    1989-11-01

    In a double-beta event, two neutrons decay simultaneouly into two protons, two beta rays (electrons) and two antineutrinos. Experimentalists are now searching for another form of double-beta decay, one that does not produce neutrinos or antineutrinos. If such an event is found, it could unravelone of nature's great mysteries: What, if anything, is the mass of the neutrino According to the Standard Model, the neutrino accompanying a negative beta ray is the distinct antiparticle of the one accompanying a positive beta ray. The theories that go beyond the Standard Model and assign a mass to the neutrino, however, predict that the particle emitted with a negative beta ray should be the same as the one emitted with a positive ray. In other words, the neutrino would be its own antiparticle. How can we tell whether these predictions are right Double-beta decay is the ideal process in which to seek an answer to this question. If the neutrino has mass and is its own antiparticle, then the neutrino emitted in the first stage of the process might be reaborbed in the second, yielding a form of decay in which no neutrinos materialize. 8 figs.

  11. Chasing the center of the Saturnian plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergis, N.; Jackman, C. M.; Arridge, C. S.; Krimigis, S. M.; Hamilton, D. C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krupp, N.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2013-09-01

    After 9 years in orbit around Saturn, Cassini has collected an enormous amount of in-situ and remote measurements, covering a significant part of the giant planet's magnetosphere, during different seasonal conditions. In this study we use particle and magnetic field data to provide a statistical approach to the average conditions of the Saturnian plasma sheet. In contrast to previous works, we determine plasma sheet intervals based on criteria incorporating the radial components of the magnetic field Br and the field root mean square (RMS), rather than the distance from the rotational equatorial plane that we now know that does not follow the plasma sheet as closely. This way, we minimize (as possible) effects related to the well monitored seasonal or periodic (short scale) displacement of the plasma sheet that is usually compared to the scale heights for most of the particle populations therein, we produce particle property maps (such as particle pressure and beta, spectral index, pressure gradient etc) that describe for the first time the actual center region of the Saturnian plasma sheet and we further compare pre to post-equinox behavior. Our final outcome will be in the form of long term statistical grid maps that follow the center region of the plasma sheet and reveal in what degree the measured dynamics should be attributed to local particle dynamics or to the motion of the plasma sheet as a structure. In addition, the accurate determination of the plasma sheet using essentially all date available since Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) in 2004, will give us the opportunity of looking closer into features that are still insufficiently explained, such as the systematic local time asymmetry observed in the particle energization or the radial plasma and energy transport, and provide a global, season-independed, magnetospheric map for Saturn.

  12. Alzheimer A beta neurotoxicity: promotion by antichymotrypsin, ApoE4; inhibition by A beta-related peptides.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Brewer, H B; Potter, H

    1996-01-01

    Two inflammation-associated proteins found in the Alzheimer amyloid deposits-alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4)-have been shown to be genetic risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease and to promote the polymerization of the A beta peptide into amyloid filaments in vitro. In the present study, we show that ACT and apoE4 increase the neurotoxicity of the A beta peptide in parallel with their promotion of filament formation. Preincubation of ACT or apoE4 with small A beta-related peptides, or of apoE4 with apoE2, abrogated their subsequent ability to promote both the formation and the neurotoxicity of A beta filaments. These results indicate that ACT and apoE4 may play a stimulatory role in the formation of neurotoxic amyloid in Alzheimer's disease, and that their amyloid promoting activity can be blocked by inhibitory peptides. PMID:8892351

  13. Atomic structure of Beta-tantalum nanocrystallites.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Karsten; Thust, Andreas; Gerber, Andreas; Weides, Martin P; Urban, Knut

    2005-12-01

    The structural properties of beta-phase tantalum nanocrystallites prepared by room temperature magnetron sputter deposition on amorphous carbon substrates are investigated at atomic resolution. For these purposes spherical aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is applied in tandem with the numerical retrieval of the exit-plane wavefunction as obtained from a through-focus series of experimental micrographs. We demonstrate that recent improvements in the resolving power of electron microscopes enable the imaging of the atomic structure of beta-tantalum with column spacings of solely 0.127 nm with directly interpretable contrast features. For the first time ever, we substantiate the existence of grain boundaries of 30 degrees tilt type in beta-Ta whose formation may be well explained by atomic agglomeration processes taking place during sputter deposition. PMID:17481332

  14. Preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils are destabilized by coenzyme Q{sub 10} in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kenjiro; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Naiki, Hironobu; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2005-04-29

    Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS, would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported previously that nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and wine-related polyphenol, myricetin (Myr), inhibit fA{beta} formation from A{beta} and destabilize preformed fA{beta} in vitro. Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of coenzyme Q{sub 10} (CoQ{sub 10}) on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 deg C in vitro. We next compared the anti-amyloidogenic activities of CoQ{sub 10} with NDGA and Myr. CoQ{sub 10} dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-peptide (A{beta}), as well as their extension. Moreover, it destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. The anti-amyloidogenic effects of CoQ{sub 10} were slightly weaker than those of NDGA and Myr. CoQ{sub 10} could be a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for AD.

  15. Evolution of the H$\\beta$+[OIII] and [OII] luminosity functions and the [OII] star-formation history of the Universe up to $z$ ~ 5 from HiZELS

    E-print Network

    Khostovan, Ali Ahmad; Mobasher, Bahram; Best, Philip N; Smail, Ian; Stott, John P; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Nayyeri, Hooshang

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the H$\\beta$+[OIII] and [OII] luminosity functions from $z$ ~ 0.8 to ~ 5 in multiple redshift slices using data from the High-$z$ Emission Line Survey (HiZELS). This is the first time that the H$\\beta$+[OIII] and [OII] luminosity functions have been studied at these redshifts in a self-consistent analysis. This is also the largest sample of [OII] and H$\\beta$+[OIII] emitters (3484 and 3301 emitters, respectively) in this redshift range, with large co-moving volumes ~ $1 \\times 10^6$ Mpc$^{3}$ in two independent volumes (COSMOS and UDS), greatly reducing the effects of cosmic variance. The emitters were selected by a combination of photometric redshift and color-color selections, as well as spectroscopic follow-up, including recent spectroscopic observations using DEIMOS and MOSFIRE on the Keck Telescopes and FMOS on Subaru. We find a strong increase in $L_\\star$ and a decrease in $\\phi_\\star$ with increasing redshift up to $z \\sim 2$ and $z \\sim 5$ for H$\\beta$+[OIII] and [OII]...

  16. Crumpled liquid sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuissier, Henri; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2010-11-01

    When a liquid jet of density ? impacts a solid disk at right angle, it expands radially into a thin sheet with velocity u and thickness h. The sheet possibly bends under the action of surface tension ? to form a stationary closed bell. For particular impacting conditions and pressure in the enclosure, spectacular stable shapes exhibiting sharp edges, sudden inflections and liquid points are observed. Those sharp wrinkles develop when the ratio We = ?u^2 h/? of the flow inertia to capillary confinement approaches a critical value Wec=2. There, the local curvature of the sheet in the direction of the flow ? diverges. However, accounting for finite thickness effects (i.e. ?h=O(1)), we show that two coexisting solutions for ? emerge, explaining the sudden inflection of the sheet, as if it were crumpled. The development of regularly spaced liquid points that form along the crumpled edge, breaking the initial axial symmetry is a consequence of the centripetal acceleration ?u^2 the liquid suffers as it flows past the edge. The resulting inertial destabilization induces thickness modulations with drapes like shapes on the sheet, forming an alternation of subcritical (WeWec) regions downstream.

  17. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET #21, Showing the house as restored since Survey. (Dormer windows omitted as not authentic) - Samuel des Marest House, River Road, New Milford, Bergen County, NJ

  18. 71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 3; DECEMBER 20, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Beta-carotene

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain in people who drink alcohol. Preventing abdominal aortic aneurysm, or the enlargement of a large vessel running ... years does not reduce the occurrence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in male smokers. Cancer. Beta-carotene does not ...

  20. Reduced immunogenicity of beta-lactoglobulin by conjugation with acidic oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Makoto; Miyakawa, Shunpei; Ohama, Yukie; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Tadashi; To-o, Kenji; Kuriki, Takashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2004-07-14

    Bovine beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) was conjugated with the acidic oligosaccharides, alginic acid oligosaccharide (ALGO) and phosphoryl oligosaccharides (POs) by the Maillard reaction to reduce the immunogenicity of beta-LG. The molar ratios of beta-LG to ALGO and POs in the conjugates were 1:6 and 1:8. The carbohydrate-binding sites in the beta-LG-ALGO conjugate were partially identified to be (60)Lys, (77)Lys, (100)Lys, (138)Lys, and (141)Lys. The isoelectric point of each conjugate was lower than that of beta-LG. CD spectra indicated that the secondary structure of beta-LG was almost maintained after conjugation. The results of fluorescence studies indicated that the conformation around Trp had not changed in each conjugate and that the surface of each conjugate was covered with a saccharide chain. Structural analyses with monoclonal antibodies indicated that the conformation around (8)Lys-(19)Trp (beta-sheet, random coil, short helix) in the conjugates had changed, whereas the native structure was maintained around (15)Val-(29)Ile (beta-sheet) and (125)Thr-(135)Lys (alpha-helix). The beta-LG-ALGO and beta-LG-POs conjugates maintained 77 and 70% of the retinol binding activity of beta-LG. Conjugation with ALGO and POs substantially enhanced the thermal stability of beta-LG. The anti-beta-LG antibody response was markedly reduced after immunization with both conjugates in BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H/He mice. B cell epitopes of beta-LG and the conjugate recognized in these mice were determined with 15-mer multipin peptides, and the linear epitope profiles of the conjugates were found to be similar to those of beta-LG, whereas the antibody response to each epitope was dramatically reduced. In particular, effective reduction of the antibody response was observed in the vicinity of the carbohydrate-binding sites. Conjugation of beta-LG with these acidic oligosaccharides was effective in reducing the immunogenicity of beta-LG. The conjugates obtained in this study are edible, so they would be very useful for food application. PMID:15237965

  1. Amyloid formation of native folded protein induced by peptide-based graft copolymer.

    PubMed

    Koga, Tomoyuki; Taguchi, Kazuhiro; Kogiso, Masaki; Kobuke, Yoshiaki; Kinoshita, Takatoshi; Higuchi, Masahiro

    2002-11-01

    We report here that a native folded holo-myoglobin, when incubated with a synthetic amyloidogenic peptide in aqueous solutions, forms fibrils. These fibrils took a cross-beta form (inter-strand spacing: 4.65 A and inter-sheet spacing: 10.65 A) and bound the amyloidophilic dye Congo red as did the authentic amyloid fibrils. In contrast such fibril formation of myoglobin did not occur in the absence of the peptide. These results suggest the possibility that inter-molecular interaction of native protein with the amyloidogenic peptide trigger the amyloid formation even for the non-pathogenic native protein like myoglobin, which itself exists as a globular form, under certain conditions. PMID:12417301

  2. Dynamics of dikes versus cone sheets in volcanic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Olivier; Burchardt, Steffi; Hallot, Erwan; Mourgues, Régis; Bulois, Cédric

    2015-04-01

    Igneous sheet intrusions of various shapes, such as dikes and cone sheets, coexist as parts of complex volcanic plumbing systems likely fed by common sources. How they form is fundamental regarding volcanic hazards, but yet no dynamic model simulates and predicts satisfactorily their diversity. Here we present scaled laboratory experiments that reproduced dikes and cone sheets under controlled conditions (Galland et al., 2014). Our models show that their formation is governed by a dimensionless ratio (?1), which describes the shape of the magma source, and a dynamic dimensionless ratio (?2), which compares the viscous stresses in the flowing magma to the host-rock strength. Plotting our experiments against these two numbers results in a phase diagram evidencing a dike and a cone-sheet field, separated by a sharp transition that fits a power law. This result shows that dikes and cone sheets correspond to distinct physical regimes of magma emplacement in the crust. For a given host-rock strength, cone sheets preferentially form when the source is shallow, relative to its lateral extent, or when the magma influx velocity (or viscosity) is high. Conversely, dikes form when the source is deep compared to its size, or when magma influx rate (or viscosity) is low. Both dikes and cone sheets may form from the same source, the shift from one regime to the other being then controlled by magma dynamics, i.e., different values of ?2. The extrapolated empirical dike-to-cone sheet transition is in good agreement with the occurrence of dikes and cone sheets in various natural volcanic settings. Galland, O., Burchardt, S., Hallot, E., Mourgues, R., Bulois, C., 2014. Dynamics of dikes versus cone sheets in volcanic systems. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 2014JB011059, 10.1002/2014jb011059.

  3. The viscous Savart sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villermaux, Emmanuel; Pistre, Violaine; Lhuissier, Henri

    2013-11-01

    We study the viscous version of the planar Savart sheet problem, using an impacting liquid jet up to 300 times more viscous than water. Two surprising observations are made, contrasting with the traditional case introduced by Savart where viscosity plays no role: First, if the radius of a viscous sheet is typically reduced compared to the water case for a given jet radius and impacting velocity, the smooth/flapping transition is delayed, allowing for smooth sheet radii substantially bigger than those permitted with water at large impacting Weber number. Second, the drop size distribution is bimodal, with a substantial fraction of the drops having a very small, well defined diameter. We understand these two facts in terms of an additional model experiment, and simple physical arguments.

  4. Measles - Fact Sheet for Parents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1 dose of MMR shot before traveling abroad. Fact Sheet for Parents Printer friendly version[2 pages] ... receive all vaccines according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that ...

  5. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... through 15 months and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Printer friendly version[2 pages] ... receive their vaccines according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that ...

  6. Curved cap corrugated sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. C.; Bales, T. T.; Royster, D. M.; Jackson, L. R. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    The report describes a structure for a strong, lightweight corrugated sheet. The sheet is planar or curved and includes a plurality of corrugation segments, each segment being comprised of a generally U-shaped corrugation with a part-cylindrical crown and cap strip, and straight side walls and with secondary corrugations oriented at right angles to said side walls. The cap strip is bonded to the crown and the longitudinal edge of said cap strip extends beyond edge at the intersection between said crown and said side walls. The high strength relative to weight of the structure makes it desirable for use in aircraft or spacecraft.

  7. Energy information sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  8. On Compressible Vortex Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secchi, Paolo

    2005-05-01

    We introduce the main known results of the theory of incompressible and compressible vortex sheets. Moreover, we present recent results obtained by the author with J. F. Coulombel about supersonic compressible vortex sheets in two space dimensions. The problem is a nonlinear free boundary hyperbolic problem with two difficulties: the free boundary is characteristic and the Lopatinski condition holds only in a weak sense, yielding losses of derivatives. Under a supersonic condition that precludes violent instabilities, we prove an energy estimate for the boundary value problem obtained by linearization around an unsteady piecewise solution.

  9. Three-dimensional solution structure of beta cryptogein, a beta elicitin secreted by a phytopathogenic fungus Phytophthora cryptogea.

    PubMed Central

    Fefeu, S.; Bouaziz, S.; Huet, J. C.; Pernollet, J. C.; Guittet, E.

    1997-01-01

    Cryptogein belongs to a new family of 10-kDa proteins called elicitins. Elicitins are necrotic and signaling proteins secreted by Phytophthora spp. responsible for the incompatible reaction and systemic hypersensitive-like necroses of diverse plant species leading to resistance against fungal or bacterial plant pathogens. The solution structure of beta cryptogein from Phytophthora cryptogea fungus was determined by using multidimensional heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A set of 18 structures was calculated using 1360 NOE-derived distance restraints and 40 dihedral angle restraints obtained from 3JHNH alpha couplings. The RMS deviation from the mean structure is 0.87 +/- 0.14 A for backbone atoms and 1.34 +/- 0.14 A for all the non-hydrogen atoms of residues 2 to 98. The structure of beta cryptogein reveals a novel protein fold, with five helices and a double-stranded beta-sheet facing an omega-loop. One edge of the beta-sheet and the adjacent face of the omega-loop form a hydrophobic cavity. This cavity made of highly conserved residues represents a plausible binding site. Residue 13, which has been identified from directed mutagenesis and natural sequence comparison studies as a key amino acid involved in the differential control of necrosis, is surface exposed and could contribute to the binding to a ligand or a receptor. The solution structure is close to the X-ray structure, with slight differences lightly due to the crystal packing. PMID:9385630

  10. Fast Light-Sheet Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, William W., Jr.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Bartram, Scott M.

    1995-01-01

    Optomechanical apparatus maintains sheet of pulsed laser light perpendicular to reference axis while causing sheet of light to translate in oscillatory fashion along reference axis. Produces illumination for laser velocimeter in which submicrometer particles entrained in flow illuminated and imaged in parallel planes displaced from each other in rapid succession. Selected frequency of oscillation range upward from tens of hertz. Rotating window continuously shifts sheet of light laterally while maintaining sheet parallel to same plane.

  11. Swimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters

    E-print Network

    Chrispell, John

    of swimming sheet at t = 0 and t = 2.0. 5 Swimming Speed: A plot of the swimming sheet at time t = 0 and t = 2 4 ) = 2.6771e-03 where U is the mean swimming speed, and V is the phase speed (V = /).In this runSwimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters: This is a report that examines a swimming sheet of the form: y

  12. Swimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters

    E-print Network

    Chrispell, John

    of swimming sheet at t = 0 and t = 2.0. 5 Swimming Speed: A plot of the swimming sheet at time t = 0 and t = 2 4 ) = 1.5420e-02 where U is the mean swimming speed, and V is the phase speed (V = /).In this runSwimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters: This is a report that examines a swimming sheet of the form: y

  13. Swimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters

    E-print Network

    Chrispell, John

    .0 Figure 3: Plot of swimming sheet at t = 0 and t = 2.0. 5 Swimming Speed: A plot of the swimming sheet = 1 4 b2 2 1 + 1 F(Re) + O(b4 4 ) = 4.2833e-04 where U is the mean swimming speed, and V is the phaseSwimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters: This is a report that examines a swimming sheet of the form: y

  14. Swimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters

    E-print Network

    Chrispell, John

    sheet at t = 0 and t = 2.0. 5 Swimming Speed: A plot of the swimming sheet at time t = 0 and t = 2 4 ) = 1.7133e-05 where U is the mean swimming speed, and V is the phase speed (V = /).In this runSwimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters: This is a report that examines a swimming sheet of the form: y

  15. Beta-cardiotoxin: a new three-finger toxin from Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) venom with beta-blocker activity.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Pung, Yuh Fen; Zhu, Yi Zhun; Wong, Peter Tsun Hon; Kumar, Prakash P; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2007-11-01

    Snake venoms have provided a number of novel ligands with therapeutic potential. We have constructed a partial cDNA library from the mRNA of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) venom gland tissue and identified five new genes encoding proteins belonging to the three-finger toxin family of snake venom proteins. We have isolated and characterized one of these beta-sheet containing proteins with a mass of 7012.43 +/- 0.91 Da from the venom. The protein was nonlethal up to a dose of 10 mg/kg when injected intraperitoneally into Swiss albino mice. However, it induces labored breathing and death at a dose of 100 mg/kg. It does not show any hemolytic or anticoagulant activity. It caused a dose-dependent decrease of heart rate in vivo (anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats) and also ex vivo (Langendorff isolated rat heart). This is in contrast to classical cardiotoxins from snake venom that increase the heart rate in animals. Radioligand displacement studies showed that this protein targets beta-adrenergic receptors with a binding affinity (Ki) of 5.3 and 2.3 microM toward beta1 and beta2 subtypes, respectively, to bring about its effect, and hence, it was named as beta-cardiotoxin. This is the first report of a natural exogenous beta-blocker. PMID:17616557

  16. Beginning Child Care Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, Pat

    These six fact sheets from Child Care Aware are designed to help parents ease their children's transition to child care. The first fact sheet, "Before Your Child's First Day," discusses tips such as: (1) "prepare your child"; (2) read and look at picture books about child care; and (3) "prepare yourself." The second fact sheet, "First Day Tips,"…

  17. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 33 skill sheets for agricultural mechanics was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Some sheets teach operational procedures while others are for simple projects. Each skill sheet covers a single topic and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step construction or operational…

  18. The Physics of Ice Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassis, J. N.

    2008-01-01

    The great ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland are vast deposits of frozen freshwater that contain enough to raise sea level by approximately 70 m if they were to completely melt. Because of the potentially catastrophic impact that ice sheets can have, it is important that we understand how ice sheets have responded to past climate changes and…

  19. Swimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters

    E-print Network

    Chrispell, John

    Swimming Speed: A plot of the swimming sheet at time t = 0 and t = 2.0 is given in Figure 3. A comparison swimming speed, and V is the phase speed (V = /).In this run of the code we find the average velocitySwimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters: This is a report that examines a swimming sheet of the form: y

  20. Quick Information Sheets. 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Trace Center.

    The Trace Center gathers and organizes information on communication, control, and computer access for handicapped individuals. The information is disseminated in the form of brief sheets describing print, nonprint, and organizational resources and listing addresses and telephone numbers for ordering or for additional information. This compilation…

  1. Insulation Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Heating and cooling account for 50-70% of the energy consumed in the average American home. Heating water accounts for another 20%. A poorly insulated home loses much of this energy, causing drafty rooms and high energy bills. This fact sheet discusses how to determine if your home needs more insulation, the additional thermal resistance (called…

  2. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  3. Ethanol Myths Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    Ethanol is a clean, renewable fuel that is helping to reduce our nation’s dependence on oil and can offer additional economic and environmental benefits in the future. This fact sheet is intended to address some common misconceptions about this important alternative fuel.

  4. Cheat Sheet Scanner class

    E-print Network

    Yates, Alexander

    Cheat Sheet Scanner class import java.util.Scanner; Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in); Scanner scan = new Scanner((File) f); int num = scan.nextInt(); double d = scan.nextDouble(); String s = scan import java.awt.Point; Point p = new Point(); Point p = new Point(2, 3); p.setLocation(2, 4); p

  5. GED Testing Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GED Testing Service, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This GED Testing fact sheet provides information on: (1) GED[R] Tests; (2) Versions and Editions of the GED Tests; (3) Earning a Credential; (4) GED Testing Service[R]; (5) History of the GED Tests; (6) Who Accepts the GED Credential; (7) Public/Private Partnership of GEDTS; (8) Renowned GED Credential Recipients; (9) GED Testing Numbers for 2008;…

  6. Algal Biofuels Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    This fact sheet provides information on algal biofuels, which are generating considerable interest around the world. They may represent a sustainable pathway for helping to meet the U.S. biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  7. Catalytic carbonylation of beta-lactones to succinic anhydrides.

    PubMed

    Getzler, Yutan D Y L; Kundnani, Vinod; Lobkovsky, Emil B; Coates, Geoffrey W

    2004-06-01

    A well-defined, highly active and selective catalyst for the synthesis of succinic anhydrides from CO and beta-lactones is reported. At 200 psi of CO, the catalyst [(N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidene)phenylenediamino)Al(THF)2][Co(CO)4] carbonylates beta-propiolactones to succinic anhydrides in high yield. (R)-beta-Butyrolactone is carbonylated to (S)-methylsuccinic anhydride with clean inversion of stereochemistry, while cis-2,3-dimethyl-beta-propiolactone yields exclusively trans-2,3-dimethylsuccinic anhydride. These data are consistent with a mechanism involving nucleophilic attack by [Co(CO)4]- on the beta carbon of the lactone, followed by CO insertion and anhydride formation. PMID:15174834

  8. [Clip Sheets from BOCES. Opportunities. Health. Careers. = Oportunidades. Salud. Una Camera En...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Geneseo. Coll. at Geneseo. Migrant Center.

    This collection of 83 clip sheets, or classroom handouts, was created to help U.S. migrants learn more about health, careers, and general "opportunities" including education programs. They are written in both English and Spanish and are presented in an easily understandable format. Health clip-sheet topics include the following: Abuse; AIDS;…

  9. Fact Sheets from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children: 1977 Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    A series of 11 fact sheets giving basic information on specific subjects of interest to those working with handicapped and gifted children. The fact sheets, developed by the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children during fiscal year 1977, are designed in a question/answer format and have…

  10. Fact Sheets from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    Fifteen fact sheets--two page overviews of issues in special education developed by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children in 1981--are presented. The fact sheets address topics in a question and answer format and provide references as well as resources on each subject. The following titles are included, "The Administrator's…

  11. Luminescence Chronology for the Formation of Glacial Lake Calgary, Southern Alberta, Canada: Age Constraints for the Initiation of the Late Pleistocene Retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from its Western Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyikwa, K.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial Lake Calgary in southern Alberta, Canada, was a Late Pleistocene proglacial lake that formed along the southwest margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS), dammed by the retreating ice sheet margin. Attempts to constrain the age of the lake using radiocarbon methods have been hampered by the lack of datable organic material. In an effort to apply an alternative chronometer, this study uses two optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating approaches to date fine grained sand and silt that were deposited in the lake during its existence. OSL dating determines the depositional ages of sediments by measuring the energy from ionizing radiation that is stored in mineral grains such as quartz and feldspar. Dividing the stored energy, also referred to as the paleodose, by the rate at which the dose accumulated, allows an age to be ascertained. In one method applied in this study, the paleodose stored in the feldspar component of the sediment is determined using normalized infrared stimulated luminescence signals acquired using a portable OSL reader. In the second method, blue optically stimulated luminescence signals obtained from quartz separates from the sediment by employing a regular OSL reader and standard protocols are used to determine the paleodose. After correcting the feldspar data for anomalous fading, the age results from the two dating approaches are compared. The ages signify a time period by which the LIS had retreated from the study area and, hence, serve as constraints for the initiation of the retreat of the ice sheet from its western limit. Advantages and limitations of the dating methods are briefly discussed. Constraining the chronology of the retreat of the LIS from western Canada allows for a better understanding of the driving forces behind ice sheet retreat. Secondly, assigning a temporal scale to the postglacial evolution of the environment of the region permits a better insight into the dynamics of the physical and biological environments of the time. Thirdly, the region is at the heart of the ice-free corridor that was ostensibly used by early humans to migrate southwards to populate the Americas ca. 16 ka ago. Hence, an improved deglaciation chronology would allow a more comprehensive evaluation of this concept.

  12. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 81

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2008-10-15

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to all nuclei with mass number A = 81 (Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb) have been compiled and evaluated and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This publication for A = 81 supersedes the previous publication (Coral M. Baglin, Nuclear Data Sheets79, 447 (1996), literature cutoff 1 November 1996) and the subsequent updates by C. Baglin for {sup 81}Y (literature cutoff 8 October 1998) and {sup 81}Zr (literature cutoff 24 March 2000). All literature available prior to 15 August 2008 has been considered. Subsequent to previous A = 81 evaluations, excited states have been reported for the first time in {sup 81}Ga, and knowledge of excited state properties for {sup 81}Y and {sup 81}Zr has been significantly expanded. However, the expected {epsilon}+{beta}{sup +} decay of {sup 81}Zr has yet to be studied.

  13. Surface behavior and lipid interaction of Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide 1-42: a membrane-disrupting peptide.

    PubMed

    Ambroggio, Ernesto E; Kim, Dennis H; Separovic, Frances; Barrow, Colin J; Barnham, Kevin J; Bagatolli, Luis A; Fidelio, Gerardo D

    2005-04-01

    Amyloid aggregates, found in patients that suffer from Alzheimer's disease, are composed of fibril-forming peptides in a beta-sheet conformation. One of the most abundant components in amyloid aggregates is the beta-amyloid peptide 1-42 (Abeta 1-42). Membrane alterations may proceed to cell death by either an oxidative stress mechanism, caused by the peptide and synergized by transition metal ions, or through formation of ion channels by peptide interfacial self-aggregation. Here we demonstrate that Langmuir films of Abeta 1-42, either in pure form or mixed with lipids, develop stable monomolecular arrays with a high surface stability. By using micropipette aspiration technique and confocal microscopy we show that Abeta 1-42 induces a strong membrane destabilization in giant unilamellar vesicles composed of palmitoyloleoyl-phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol, lowering the critical tension of vesicle rupture. Additionally, Abeta 1-42 triggers the induction of a sequential leakage of low- and high-molecular-weight markers trapped inside the giant unilamellar vesicles, but preserving the vesicle shape. Consequently, the Abeta 1-42 sequence confers particular molecular properties to the peptide that, in turn, influence supramolecular properties associated to membranes that may result in toxicity, including: 1), an ability of the peptide to strongly associate with the membrane; 2), a reduction of lateral membrane cohesive forces; and 3), a capacity to break the transbilayer gradient and puncture sealed vesicles. PMID:15681641

  14. NMR solution structure of BmK-betaIT, an excitatory scorpion beta-toxin without a 'hot spot' at the relevant position.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiaotian; Yao, Jing; He, Fahu; Chen, Xiang; Zheng, Xunhai; Xie, Chang; Wu, Gong; Zhang, Naixia; Ding, Jiuping; Wu, Houming

    2006-10-27

    BmK-betaIT (previously named as Bm32-VI in the literature), an excitatory scorpion beta-toxin, is purified from the venom of the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. It features a primary sequence typical of the excitatory anti-insect toxins: two contiguous Cys residues (Cys37-Cys38) and a shifted location of the fourth disulfide bridges (Cys38-Cys64), and demonstrates bioactivity characteristic of the excitatory beta-toxins. However, it is noteworthy that BmK-betaIT is not conserved with a glutamate residue at the preceding position of the third Cys residue, and is the first example having a non-glutamate residue at the relevant position in the excitatory scorpion beta-toxin subfamily. The 3D structure of BmK-betaIT is determined with 2D NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The solution structure of BmK-betaIT is closely similar to those of BmK IT-AP and Bj-xtrIT, only distinct from the latter by lack of an alpha(0)-helix. The surface functional patch comparison with those of BmK IT-AP and Bj-xtrIT reveals their striking similarity in the spatial arrangement. These results infer that the functional surface of beta-toxins is composed of two binding regions and a functional site. The main binding site is consisted of hydrophobic residues surrounding the alpha(1)-helix and its preceding loop, which is common to all beta-type scorpion toxins affecting Na(+) channels. The second binding site, which determines the specificity of the toxin, locates at the C-terminus for excitatory insect beta-toxin, while rests at the beta-sheet and its linking loop for anti-mammal toxins. The functional site involved in the voltage sensor-trapping model, which characterizes the function of all beta-toxins, is the negatively charged residue Glu15. PMID:16970911

  15. The quantitative inspection of iron aluminide green sheet using transient thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Michael L.; Hinders, Mark K.; Scorey, Clive; Winfree, William

    1999-12-02

    The recent development of manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of thin iron aluminide, FeAl, sheet requires advanced quantitative methods for on-line inspection. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for flaws and the development of appropriate flaw detection methods are key elements in an effective quality management system. The first step in the fabrication of thin FeAl alloy sheet is the formation of a green sheet, either by cold rolling or tape casting FeAl powder mixed with organic binding agents. The finished sheet is obtained using a series of process steps involving binder elimination, densification, sintering, and annealing. Non-uniformities within the green sheet are the major contributor to material failure in subsequent sheet processing and the production of non-conforming finished sheet. Previous work has demonstrated the advantages of using active thermography to detect the flaws and heterogeneity within green powder composites (1)(2)(3). The production environment and physical characteristics of these composites provide for unique challenges in developing a rapid nondestructive inspection capability. Thermography is non-contact and minimizes the potential damage to the fragile green sheet. Limited access to the material also demands a one-sided inspection technique. In this paper, we will describe the application of thermography for 100% on-line inspection within an industrial process. This approach is cost competitive with alternative technologies, such as x-ray imaging systems, and provides the required sensitivity to the variations in material composition. The formation of green sheet flaws and their transformation into defects within intermediate and finished sheet products will be described. A green sheet conformance criterion will be presented which would significantly reduce the probability of processing poor quality green sheet which contributes to higher waste and inferior bulk alloy sheet.

  16. The effect of tachykinin neuropeptides on amyloid {beta} aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Flashner, Efrat; Raviv, Uri; Friedler, Assaf

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Mechanistic explanation of how tachykinin neuropeptides reduce A{beta}-induced neurotoxicity. {yields} Biophysical studies suggest that tachykinins do not modulate the distribution of A{beta} oligomeric states, but rather may incorporate into the fibrils. {yields} A possible strategy to inhibit toxicity of amyloid fibrils. -- Abstract: A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is production of amyloid {beta} peptides resulting from aberrant cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Amyloid {beta} assembles into fibrils under physiological conditions, through formation of neurotoxic intermediate oligomers. Tachykinin peptides are known to affect amyloid {beta} neurotoxicity in cells. To understand the mechanism of this effect, we studied how tachykinins affect A{beta}(1-40) aggregation in vitro. Fibrils grown in the presence of tachykinins exhibited reduced thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence, while their morphology, observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM), did not alter. Cross linking studies revealed that the distribution of low molecular weight species was not affected by tachykinins. Our results suggest that there may be a specific interaction between tachykinins and A{beta}(1-40) that allows them to co-assemble. This effect may explain the reduction of A{beta}(1-40) neurotoxicity in cells treated with tachykinins.

  17. An unusual beta-spectrin associated with clustered acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) in the postsynaptic membrane is an early event in the formation of the neuromuscular junction. The mechanism of clustering is still unknown, but is generally believed to be mediated by the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. We have identified an unusual isoform of beta-spectrin which colocalizes with AChR in AChR clusters isolated from rat myotubes in vitro. A related antigen is present postsynaptically at the neuromuscular junction of the rat. Immunoprecipitation, peptide mapping and immunofluorescence show that the beta-spectrin in AChR clusters resembles but is distinct from the beta-spectrin of human erythrocytes. alpha-Spectrin appears to be absent from AChR clusters. Semiquantitative immunofluorescence techniques indicate that there are from two to seven beta-spectrin molecules present for every clustered AChR, the higher values being obtained from rapidly prepared clusters, the lower values from clusters that require several minutes or more for isolation. Upon incubation of isolated AChR clusters for 1 h at room temperature, beta-spectrin is slowly depleted and the AChR redistribute into microaggregates. The beta-spectrin that remains associated with the myotube membrane is concentrated at these microaggregates. beta- Spectrin is quantitatively lost from clusters upon digestion with chymotrypsin, which causes AChR to redistribute in the plane of the membrane. These results suggest that AChR in clusters is closely linked to an unusual isoform of beta-spectrin. PMID:2645300

  18. Evolution of supra-glacial lakes across the Greenland Ice Sheet 

    E-print Network

    Sundal, Aud

    2008-12-05

    estimates were obtained by developing an automated classification method for their identification based on 250 m resolution MODIS surface reflectance data. Widespread supra-glacial lake formation and drainage are observed across the ice sheet, with a 2...

  19. beta-Chloronaphthalene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Chloronaphthalene ; CASRN 91 - 58 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  20. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  1. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    E-print Network

    Heinrich Päs; Werner Rodejohann

    2015-07-01

    We review the potential to probe new physics with neutrinoless double beta decay $(A,Z) \\to (A,Z+2) + 2 e^-$. Both the standard long-range light neutrino mechanism as well as short-range mechanisms mediated by heavy particles are discussed. We also stress aspects of the connection to lepton number violation at colliders and the implications for baryogenesis.

  2. beta-Propiolactone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Propiolactone ; CASRN 57 - 57 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  3. Cartilage engineering using chondrocyte cell sheets and its application in reconstruction of microtia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Libin; Ding, Ruiying; Li, Baowei; Han, Haolun; Wang, Hongnan; Wang, Gang; Xu, Bingxin; Zhai, Suoqiang; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The imperfections of scaffold materials have hindered the clinical application of cartilage tissue engineering. The recently developed cell-sheet technique is adopted to engineer tissues without scaffold materials, thus is considered being potentially able to overcome the problems concerning the scaffold imperfections. This study constructed monolayer and bilayer chondrocyte cell sheets and harvested the sheets with cell scraper instead of temperature-responsive culture dishes. The properties of the cultured chondrocyte cell sheets and the feasibility of cartilage engineering using the chondrocyte cell sheets was further investigated via in vitro and in vivo study. Primary extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and type II collagen expression was detected in the cell sheets during in vitro culture. After implanted into nude mice for 8 weeks, mature cartilage discs were harvested. The morphology of newly formed cartilage was similar in the constructs originated from monolayer and bilayer chondrocyte cell sheet. The chondrocytes were located within evenly distributed ovoid lacunae. Robust ECM formation and intense expression of type II collagen was observed surrounding the evenly distributed chondrocytes in the neocartilages. Biochemical analysis showed that the DNA contents of the neocartilages were higher than native human costal cartilage; while the contents of the main component of ECM, glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline, were similar to native human costal cartilage. In conclusion, the chondrocyte cell sheet constructed using the simple and low-cost technique is basically the same with the cell sheet cultured and harvested in temperature-responsive culture dishes, and can be used for cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25755694

  4. Cartilage engineering using chondrocyte cell sheets and its application in reconstruction of microtia

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Libin; Ding, Ruiying; Li, Baowei; Han, Haolun; Wang, Hongnan; Wang, Gang; Xu, Bingxin; Zhai, Suoqiang; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The imperfections of scaffold materials have hindered the clinical application of cartilage tissue engineering. The recently developed cell-sheet technique is adopted to engineer tissues without scaffold materials, thus is considered being potentially able to overcome the problems concerning the scaffold imperfections. This study constructed monolayer and bilayer chondrocyte cell sheets and harvested the sheets with cell scraper instead of temperature-responsive culture dishes. The properties of the cultured chondrocyte cell sheets and the feasibility of cartilage engineering using the chondrocyte cell sheets was further investigated via in vitro and in vivo study. Primary extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and type II collagen expression was detected in the cell sheets during in vitro culture. After implanted into nude mice for 8 weeks, mature cartilage discs were harvested. The morphology of newly formed cartilage was similar in the constructs originated from monolayer and bilayer chondrocyte cell sheet. The chondrocytes were located within evenly distributed ovoid lacunae. Robust ECM formation and intense expression of type II collagen was observed surrounding the evenly distributed chondrocytes in the neocartilages. Biochemical analysis showed that the DNA contents of the neocartilages were higher than native human costal cartilage; while the contents of the main component of ECM, glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline, were similar to native human costal cartilage. In conclusion, the chondrocyte cell sheet constructed using the simple and low-cost technique is basically the same with the cell sheet cultured and harvested in temperature-responsive culture dishes, and can be used for cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25755694

  5. Silicon sheet surface studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danyluk, S.

    1985-06-01

    Results of the program are presented on developing an understanding of the basic mechanisms of abrasion and wear of silicon and on the nondestructive measurement of residual stresses in sheet silicon. Experiments were conducted at various temperatures and in the presence of various fluids. In abrasive wear, it was shown that dislocations, microtwins, and cracks are generated beneath the contact surface. Residual stresses in ribbon by the edge defined film growth process were measured by use of a shadow moire interferometry technique.

  6. Topographical atlas sheets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, George Montague

    1876-01-01

    The following topographical atlas sheets, accompanying Appendix J.J. of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army-being Annual Report upon U. S. Geographical Surveys-have been published during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, and are a portion of the series projected to embrace the territory of the United States lying west of the 100th meridian.

  7. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  8. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  9. Beta-Cryptoxanthin- and alpha-carotene-rich foods have greater apparent bioavailability than beta-carotene-rich foods in Western diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Beta-carotene (BC), beta-cryptoxanthin (CX) and alpha-carotene (AC) are common carotenoids that form vitamin A (VA). Conversion ratios for VA formation have been set at 12:1 for BC- and 24:1 for CX- and AC-rich foods, respectively. These conversion ratios are based on chemical structure...

  10. Consequences of beta-glucocerebrosidase deficiency in epidermis. Ultrastructure and permeability barrier alterations in Gaucher disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holleran, W M; Ginns, E I; Menon, G K; Grundmann, J U; Fartasch, M; McKinney, C E; Elias, P M; Sidransky, E

    1994-01-01

    Hydrolysis of glucosylceramide by beta-glucocerebrosidase results in ceramide, a critical component of the intercellular lamellae that mediate the epidermal permeability barrier. A subset of type 2 Gaucher patients displays ichthyosiform skin abnormalities, as do transgenic Gaucher mice homozygous for a null allele. To investigate the relationship between glucocerebrosidase deficiency and epidermal permeability barrier function, we compared the stratum corneum (SC) ultrastructure, lipid content, and barrier function of Gaucher mice to carrier and normal mice, and to hairless mice treated topically with bromoconduritol B epoxide (BrCBE), an irreversible inhibitor of glucocerebrosidase. Both Gaucher mice and BrCBE-treated mice revealed abnormal, incompletely processed, lamellar body-derived sheets throughout the SC interstices, while transgenic carrier mice displayed normal bilayers. The SC of a severely affected type 2 Gaucher's disease infant revealed similarly abnormal ultrastructure. Furthermore, the Gaucher mice demonstrated markedly elevated transepidermal water loss (4.2 +/- 0.6 vs < 0.10 g/m2 per h). The electron-dense tracer, colloidal lanthanum, percolated between the incompletely processed lamellar body-derived sheets in the SC interstices of Gaucher mice only, demonstrating altered permeability barrier function. Gaucher and BrCBE-treated mice showed < 1% and < 5% of normal epidermal glucocerebrosidase activity, respectively, and the epidermis/SC of Gaucher mice demonstrated elevated glucosylceramide (5- to 10-fold), with diminished ceramide content. Thus, the skin changes observed in Gaucher mice and infants may result from the formation of incompetent intercellular lamellar bilayers due to a decreased hydrolysis of glucosylceramide to ceramide. Glucocerebrosidase therefore appears necessary for the generation of membranes of sufficient functional competence for epidermal barrier function. Images PMID:8163674

  11. Expression of S100 beta in sensory and secretory cells of the vertebrate inner ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Martin, D. S.

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated anti-S100 beta expression in the chick (Gallus domesticus) inner ear and determined that: 1) the monomer anti-S100 beta is expressed differentially in the vestibular and auditory perikarya; 2) expression of S100 beta in the afferent nerve terminals is time-related to synapse and myelin formation; 3) the expression of the dimer anti-S100 alpha alpha beta beta and monomer anti-S100 beta overlaps in most inner ear cell types. Most S100 alpha alpha beta beta positive cells express S100 beta, but S100 beta positive cells do not always express S100 alpha alpha beta beta. 4) the expression of S100 beta is diffused over the perikaryal cytoplasm and nuclei of the acoustic ganglia but is concentrated over the nuclei of the vestibular perikarya. 6) S100 beta is expressed in secretory cells, and it is co-localized with GABA in sensory cells. 7) Color thresholding objective quantitation indicates that the amount of S100 beta was higher (mean 22, SD +/- 4) at E19 than at E9 (mean 34, SD +/- 3) in afferent axons. 8) Moreover, S100 beta was unchanged between E11-E19 in the perikaryal cytoplasm, but did change over the nuclei. At E9, 74%, and at E21, 5% of vestibular perikarya were positive. The data suggest that S100 beta may be physically associated with neuronal and ionic controlling cells of the vertebrate inner ear, where it could provide a dual ionic and neurotrophic modulatory function.

  12. Magnetic Reconnection Onset via Disruption of a Forming Current Sheet by the Plasmoid Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri; Loureiro, Nuno

    2013-10-01

    The recent realization that thin Sweet-Parker reconnection current sheets are violently unstable to the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability implies that such current sheets are unlikely to be realized in real natural systems. This suggests that, in order to understand the onset of magnetic reconnection, one needs to consider the growth of the tearing instability in a current layer as it is just being formed. The current sheet formation process thus leads the system directly into plasmoid-dominated reconnection regime. Such an analysis is performed here in the context of resistive MHD for generic time-dependent equilibrium representing a gradually forming current sheet. Both linear and nonlinear (Rutherford and X-point collapse) stages of the evolution of the instability are considered. It is shown that, under most conditions, the longest-wavelength mode dominates, resulting in just one or two big plasmoids produced in the immediate aftermath of current sheet formation.

  13. Active volcanism beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet and implications for ice-sheet stability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenship, D.D.; Bell, R.E.; Hodge, S.M.; Brozena, J.M.; Behrendt, John C.; Finn, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    IT is widely understood that the collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) would cause a global sea level rise of 6 m, yet there continues to be considerable debate about the detailed response of this ice sheet to climate change1-3. Because its bed is grounded well below sea level, the stability of the WAIS may depend on geologically controlled conditions at the base which are independent of climate. In particular, heat supplied to the base of the ice sheet could increase basal melting and thereby trigger ice streaming, by providing the water for a lubricating basal layer of till on which ice streams are thought to slide4,5. Ice streams act to protect the reservoir of slowly moving inland ice from exposure to oceanic degradation, thus enhancing ice-sheet stability. Here we present aerogeophysical evidence for active volcanism and associated elevated heat flow beneath the WAIS near the critical region where ice streaming begins. If this heat flow is indeed controlling ice-stream formation, then penetration of ocean waters inland of the thin hot crust of the active portion of the West Antarctic rift system could lead to the disappearance of ice streams, and possibly trigger a collapse of the inland ice reservoir.

  14. Beta vulgaris var. cicla (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    Monique D. Reed

    2011-08-10

    (beta = 0.243, p = 0.009 and beta = 0.120, p = 0.038, respectively). In Model 2, the component of mobility of environmental accessibility mediated the relationship between functional independence and self-perceived health status (beta = 0.288, p = 0...

  15. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

  16. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI)

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed.

  17. Swimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters

    E-print Network

    Chrispell, John

    at t = 0 and t = 2.0. 5 Swimming Speed: A plot of the swimming sheet at time t = 0 and t = 2.0 is given-02 where U is the mean swimming speed, and V is the phase speed (V = /).In this run of the code weSwimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters: This is a report that examines a swimming sheet of the form: y

  18. Swimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters

    E-print Network

    Chrispell, John

    at t = 0 and t =2.0 Figure 3: Plot of swimming sheet at t = 0 and t = 2.0. 5 Swimming Speed: A plot , then U V = 1 4 b2 2 1 + 1 F(Re) + O(b4 4 ) = 1.0708e-02 where U is the mean swimming speed, and VSwimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters: This is a report that examines a swimming sheet of the form: y

  19. Swimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters

    E-print Network

    Chrispell, John

    and t =2.0 Figure 3: Plot of swimming sheet at t = 0 and t = 2.0. 5 Swimming Speed: A plot of the swimming , then U V = 1 4 b2 2 1 + 1 F(Re) + O(b4 4 ) = 3.8550e-03 where U is the mean swimming speed, and VSwimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters: This is a report that examines a swimming sheet of the form: y

  20. Swimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters

    E-print Network

    Chrispell, John

    and t =2.0 Figure 3: Plot of swimming sheet at t = 0 and t = 2.0. 5 Swimming Speed: A plot of the swimming , then U V = 1 4 b2 2 1 + 1 F(Re) + O(b4 4 ) = 2.0988e-02 where U is the mean swimming speed, and VSwimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters: This is a report that examines a swimming sheet of the form: y

  1. Swimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters

    E-print Network

    Chrispell, John

    at t = 0 and t = 2.0. 5 Swimming Speed: A plot of the swimming sheet at time t = 0 and t = 2.0 is given-03 where U is the mean swimming speed, and V is the phase speed (V = /).In this run of the code weSwimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters: This is a report that examines a swimming sheet of the form: y

  2. Swimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters

    E-print Network

    Chrispell, John

    and t =2.0 Figure 3: Plot of swimming sheet at t = 0 and t = 2.0. 5 Swimming Speed: A plot of the swimming , then U V = 1 4 b2 2 1 + 1 F(Re) + O(b4 4 ) = 9.6374e-04 where U is the mean swimming speed, and VSwimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters: This is a report that examines a swimming sheet of the form: y

  3. Swimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters

    E-print Network

    Chrispell, John

    and t = 2.0. 5 Swimming Speed: A plot of the swimming sheet at time t = 0 and t = 2.0 is given in Figure 3 is the mean swimming speed, and V is the phase speed (V = /).In this run of the code we find the averageSwimming Sheet Report 1 Parameters: This is a report that examines a swimming sheet of the form: y

  4. A facile liquid phase exfoliation method to prepare graphene sheets with different sizes expandable graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Keqing; Shi, Yongqian; Jiang, Saihua; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan; Gui, Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This study presented a novel method for the production of high-quality graphene sheets through the exfoliation of Li-intercalated EG with sonication. • The quality of the graphene sheets produced from different sizes EG was compared for the first time and the formation mechanism was discussed. • The graphene sheets obtained from the small size EG have less layers than the large size EG. - Abstract: In this work, graphene sheets suspension were synthesized directly from expandable graphite (EG) via an intercalation and exfoliation pathway using n-butyl lithium as the intercalating agent, water and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as the exfoliating agent. The quality of the graphene sheets produced from different sizes EG was compared and the formation mechanism was discussed. The formation of the graphene sheets and its formation mechanism were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Raman spectroscopy measurement, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The graphene sheets obtained from the small size EG have less layers than the large size EG.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF PLASMA BETA AND ANISOTROPY INSTABILITIES ON THE DYNAMICS OF RECONNECTING MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE HELIOSHEATH

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeffler, K. M.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2011-12-10

    The plasma {beta} (the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure) of a system can have a large effect on its dynamics as high {beta} enhances the effects of pressure anisotropies. We investigate the effects of {beta} in a system of stacked current sheets that break up into magnetic islands due to magnetic reconnection, which is analogous to the compressed heliospheric current sheet in the heliosheath. We find significant differences between systems with low and high initial values of {beta}. At low {beta}, growing magnetic islands are modestly elongated and become round as contraction releases magnetic stress and reduces magnetic energy. At high {beta}, the increase of the parallel pressure in contracting islands causes saturation of modestly elongated islands as island cores approach the marginal firehose condition. Only highly elongated islands reach finite size. The anisotropy within these islands prevents full contraction, leading to a final state of highly elongated islands in which further reconnection is suppressed. The elongation of islands at finite {beta} is further enhanced by reducing the electron-to-ion mass ratio to more realistic values. The results are directly relevant to reconnection in the sectored region of the heliosheath where there is evidence that elongated islands are present, and possibly to other high-{beta} systems such as astrophysical accretion flows and the magnetosphere of Saturn.

  6. Beta-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta globin gene on chromosome 11, leading to reduced (beta+) or absent (beta0) synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin (Hb). Transmission is autosomal recessive; however, dominant mutations have also been reported. Diagnosis of thalassemia is based on hematologic and molecular genetic testing. Differential diagnosis is usually straightforward but may include genetic sideroblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and other conditions with high levels of HbF (such as juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and aplastic anemia). Genetic counseling is recommended and prenatal diagnosis may be offered. Treatment of thalassemia major includes regular RBC transfusions, iron chelation and management of secondary complications of iron overload. In some circumstances, spleen removal may be required. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only definitive cure currently available. Individuals with thalassemia intermedia may require splenectomy, folic acid supplementation, treatment of extramedullary erythropoietic masses and leg ulcers, prevention and therapy of thromboembolic events. Prognosis for individuals with beta-thalassemia has improved substantially in the last 20 years following recent medical advances in transfusion, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation therapy. However, cardiac disease remains the main cause of death in patients with iron overload. PMID:20492708

  7. Thermophilic Beta-Glycosidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grogan, Dennis W.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes identification of thermophilic Beta-glycosidase enzyme from isolate of Sulfolobus solfataricus, sulfur-metabolizing archaebacteria growing aerobically and heterotrophically to relatively high cell yields. Enzyme useful in enzymatic conversion of cellulose to D-glucose and important in recycling of biomass. Used for removal of lactose from milk products. Offers promise as model substance for elucidation of basic principles of structural stabilization of proteins.

  8. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Päs, Heinrich; Rodejohann, Werner

    2015-11-01

    We review the potential to probe new physics with neutrinoless double beta decay (A,Z)\\to (A,Z+2)+2{e}-. Both the standard long-range light neutrino mechanism as well as non-standard long-range and short-range mechanisms mediated by heavy particles are discussed. We also stress aspects of the connection to lepton number violation at colliders and the implications for baryogenesis.

  9. A novel chemosynthetic peptide with ?-sheet motif efficiently kills Klebsiella pneumoniae in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shirui; Gan, Changpei; Li, Rongpeng; Ye, Yan; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Xu; Yang, Yi Yan; Fan, Weimin; Wu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) is one of the most common pathogens in nosocomial infections and is increasingly becoming multiple drug resistant. However, the molecular pathogenesis of Kp in causing tissue injury and dysregulated host defense remains elusive, further dampening the development of novel therapeutic measures. We have previously screened a series of synthetic antimicrobial beta-sheet forming peptides and identified a peptide (IRIKIRIK; ie, IK8L) with a broad range of bactericidal activity and low cytotoxicity in vitro. Here, employing an animal model, we investigated the antibacterial effects of IK8L in acute infection and demonstrated that peritoneal injection of IK8L to mice down-regulated inflammatory cytokines, alleviated lung injury, and importantly, decreased mortality compared to sham-injected controls. In addition, a math model was used to evaluate in vivo imaging data and predict infection progression in infected live animals. Mechanistically, IK8L can kill Kp by inhibiting biofilm formation and modulating production of inflammatory cytokines through the STAT3/JAK signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these findings reveal that IK8L may have potential for preventing or treating Kp infection. PMID:25709431

  10. A novel chemosynthetic peptide with ?-sheet motif efficiently kills Klebsiella pneumoniae in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shirui; Gan, Changpei; Li, Rongpeng; Ye, Yan; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Xu; Yang, Yi Yan; Fan, Weimin; Wu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) is one of the most common pathogens in nosocomial infections and is increasingly becoming multiple drug resistant. However, the molecular pathogenesis of Kp in causing tissue injury and dysregulated host defense remains elusive, further dampening the development of novel therapeutic measures. We have previously screened a series of synthetic antimicrobial beta-sheet forming peptides and identified a peptide (IRIKIRIK; ie, IK8L) with a broad range of bactericidal activity and low cytotoxicity in vitro. Here, employing an animal model, we investigated the antibacterial effects of IK8L in acute infection and demonstrated that peritoneal injection of IK8L to mice down-regulated inflammatory cytokines, alleviated lung injury, and importantly, decreased mortality compared to sham-injected controls. In addition, a math model was used to evaluate in vivo imaging data and predict infection progression in infected live animals. Mechanistically, IK8L can kill Kp by inhibiting biofilm formation and modulating production of inflammatory cytokines through the STAT3/JAK signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these findings reveal that IK8L may have potential for preventing or treating Kp infection. PMID:25709431

  11. 17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePLUS

    ... DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | ... Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked ...

  13. Polymeric Beta-Hydroxyalkanoates from Environmental Samples and Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Robert H.; White, David C.

    1983-01-01

    The procaryotic endogenous storage polymer known as poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate is actually a mixed polymer of short-chain beta-hydroxy fatty acids. A method for the quantitative recovery of this mixed polymer, called poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA), with analysis by capillary gas-liquid chromatography, showed the presence of at least 11 short-chain beta-hydroxy acids in polymers extracted from marine sediments. Polymers extracted from Bacillus megaterium monocultures were also a complex mixture of beta-hydroxy acids with chain lengths between four and eight carbons. Lyophilized sediments were extracted in a modified Soxhlet extractor, and the polymer was purified with ethanol and diethyl ether washes. The purified polymer was treated with ethanol-chloroform-hydrochloric acid (8.5:2.5:1) for 4 h at 100°C, a treatment which resulted in the formation of the ethyl esters of the constituent beta-hydroxy acids. Subsequent assay of the products by gas-liquid chromatography indicated excellent reproducibility and sensitivity (detection limit, 100 fmol). Disturbing sediments mechanically or adding natural chelators increased all major PHA components relative to the bacterial biomass. Gardening of sedimentary microbes by Clymenella sp., an annelid worm, induced decreases in PHA, with changes in the relative proportion of component beta-hydroxy acids. The concentration of PHA relative to the bacterial biomass can reflect the recent metabolic status of the microbiota. PMID:16346184

  14. Development of measurement technique for carbon atoms employing vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy with a microdischarge hollow-cathode lamp and its application to diagnostics of nanographene sheet material formation plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Wakana; Sasaki, Hajime; Takashima, Seigo; Kato, Satoru; Hiramatsu, Mineo; Hori, Masaru

    2009-06-01

    This study describes the development of a compact measurement technique for absolute carbon (C) atom density in processing plasmas, using vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy (VUVAS) employing a high-pressure CO{sub 2} microdischarge hollow-cathode lamp (C-MHCL) as the light source. The characteristics of the C-MHCL as a resonance line source of C atoms at 165.7 nm for VUVAS measurements of the absolute C atom density are reported. The emission line profile of the C-MHCL under typical operating conditions was estimated to be the Voigt profile with a DELTAnu{sub L}/DELTAnu{sub D} value of 2.5, where DELTAnu{sub L} is the Lorentz width and DELTAnu{sub D} is the Doppler width. In order to investigate the behavior of C and H atoms in the processing plasma used for the fabrication of two-dimensional nanographene sheet material, measurements of the atom densities were carried out using the VUVAS technique. The H atom density increased with increasing pressure, while the C atom density was almost constant at 5x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}. The density ratio of C to H atoms in the plasma was found to influence the morphology of carbon nanowalls (CNWs). With increasing H/C density ratio, the growth rate decreased and the space between the walls of the CNWs became wider.

  15. Osteoblast-like cell proliferation on tape-cast and sintered tricalcium phosphate sheets.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Shibata, Yo; Kataoka, Yu; Miyazaki, Takashi; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2008-03-01

    The influence of sintering temperature on the in vitro proliferation of osteoblast-like cells to sintered tricalcium phosphate (TCP) sheets prepared by tape-casting was investigated. Green sheets of tape-cast beta-TCP were sintered for 2h in a furnace at atmospheric pressure at five different sintering temperatures: 900, 1000, 1100, 1150 and 1200 degrees C. The number of osteoblast-like (MC3T3-E1) cells deposited onto TCP sheets was counted after cell cultivation for 1week and was found to have increased with increasing sintering temperature. The TCP sheets sintered at 900 degrees C exhibited a significantly lower cell number than TCP sheets sintered at 1000, 1100, 1150 and 1200 degrees C. In the attenuated total reflection infrared spectra, the peaks around 900-1150cm(-1), corresponding to the P-O vibration mode of the phosphate group, gradually decreased and shifted to lower wavenumbers with increasing sintering temperature. Meanwhile, the zeta potential of TCP sintered at 900 degrees C showed a highly negative charge when compared with the other groups. This would suggest that the higher solubility of the TCP sheets sintered at 900 degrees C exerted the higher negative charge obtained from zeta potential measurement. Within the limitations of this study, it was indicated that osteoblast-like cell proliferation increased with increasing sintering temperature. The biological stability of the sintered TCP sheet surface was considered to have affected cell proliferation. PMID:18054299

  16. Structure-based design of non-natural amino-acid inhibitors of amyloid fibril formation

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, Stuart A.; Karanicolas, John; Chang, Howard W.; Zhao, Anni; Jiang, Lin; Zirafi, Onofrio; Stevens, Jason T.; Münch, Jan; Baker, David; Eisenberg, David

    2011-09-20

    Many globular and natively disordered proteins can convert into amyloid fibrils. These fibrils are associated with numerous pathologies as well as with normal cellular functions, and frequently form during protein denaturation. Inhibitors of pathological amyloid fibril formation could be useful in the development of therapeutics, provided that the inhibitors were specific enough to avoid interfering with normal processes. Here we show that computer-aided, structure-based design can yield highly specific peptide inhibitors of amyloid formation. Using known atomic structures of segments of amyloid fibrils as templates, we have designed and characterized an all-D-amino-acid inhibitor of the fibril formation of the tau protein associated with Alzheimer's disease, and a non-natural L-amino-acid inhibitor of an amyloid fibril that enhances sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Our results indicate that peptides from structure-based designs can disrupt the fibril formation of full-length proteins, including those, such as tau protein, that lack fully ordered native structures. Because the inhibiting peptides have been designed on structures of dual-{beta}-sheet 'steric zippers', the successful inhibition of amyloid fibril formation strengthens the hypothesis that amyloid spines contain steric zippers.

  17. Structural consequences of chromophore formation and exploration of conserved lid residues amongst naturally occurring fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Matthew H.; Li, Binsen; Shahid, Ramza; Peshkepija, Paola; Zimmer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Computational methods were used to generate the lowest energy conformations of the immature precyclized forms of the 28 naturally occurring GFP-like proteins deposited in the pdb. In all 28 GFP-like proteins, the beta-barrel contracts upon chromophore formation and becomes more rigid. Our prior analysis of over 260 distinct naturally occurring GFP-like proteins revealed that most of the conserved residues are located in the top and bottom of the barrel in the turns between the ?-sheets (Ong et al. 2011) [1]. Structural analyses, molecular dynamics simulations and the Anisotropic Network Model were used to explore the role of these conserved lid residues as possible folding nuclei. Our results are internally consistent and show that the conserved residues in the top and bottom lids undergo relatively less translational movement than other lid residues, and a number of these residues may play an important role as hinges or folding nuclei in the fluorescent proteins.

  18. Beta-2 microglobulin is an amyloidogenic protein in man.

    PubMed Central

    Gorevic, P D; Casey, T T; Stone, W J; DiRaimondo, C R; Prelli, F C; Frangione, B

    1985-01-01

    Curvilinear fibrils with the tinctorial properties of amyloid were isolated from a patient with bone and joint involvement complicating chronic dialysis for renal disease. Subunit fractions of 24,000 and 12,000 mol wt were identified after gel filtration under dissociating conditions, the latter containing a significant amount of a dimer of the former. This was confirmed by Edman degradation of each fraction, which yielded the amino terminal sequence of normal human beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) to residues 20 and 30, respectively. The size of the subunit protein (12,000 mol wt) and the amino acid composition make it likely that intact B2M is a major constituent of the fibrils. B2M is thus another example of a low molecular weight serum protein, with a prominent beta-pleated sheet structure, that may adopt the fibrillar configuration of amyloid in certain pathologic states. Images PMID:3908488

  19. Understanding Laboratory Tests Fact Sheet

    Cancer.gov

    A fact sheet that describes the role of screening and diagnostic laboratory tests. Includes a list of the common tests used in cancer medicine and a brief discussion of how to interpret test results. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 5.27

  20. Safety data sheet Oxygen, compressed.

    E-print Network

    Wikswo, John

    Safety data sheet Oxygen, compressed. Creation date : 27.01.2005 Version : 1.3 GB / E SDS No.3. Details of the supplier of the safety data sheet Company identification BOC, Priestley Road, Worsley376 In case of fire: Stop leak if safe to do so. Precautionary Statement Storage P403 Store in a well

  1. Fifty Years Later: The Sequence, Structure and Function of Lacewing Cross-beta Silk

    SciTech Connect

    Weisman, Sarah; Okada, Shoko; Mudie, Stephen T.; Huson, Mickey G.; Trueman, Holly E.; Sriskantha, Alagacone; Haritos, Victoria S.; Sutherland, Tara D.

    2009-12-01

    Classic studies of protein structure in the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated that green lacewing egg stalk silk possesses a rare native cross-beta sheet conformation. We have identified and sequenced the silk genes expressed by adult females of a green lacewing species. The two encoded silk proteins are 109 and 67 kDa in size and rich in serine, glycine and alanine. Over 70% of each protein sequence consists of highly repetitive regions with 16-residue periodicity. The repetitive sequences can be fitted to an elegant cross-beta sheet structural model with protein chains folded into regular 8-residue long beta strands. This model is supported by wide-angle X-ray scattering data and tensile testing from both our work and the original papers. We suggest that the silk proteins assemble into stacked beta sheet crystallites bound together by a network of cystine cross-links. This hierarchical structure gives the lacewing silk high lateral stiffness nearly threefold that of silkworm silk, enabling the egg stalks to effectively suspend eggs and protect them from predators.

  2. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-05-04

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points ({beta}*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of {beta}* value and {beta}-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for {beta}-waist location control.

  3. Ice sheets and nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    Snow and ice play their most important role in the nitrogen cycle as a barrier to land–atmosphere and ocean–atmosphere exchanges that would otherwise occur. The inventory of nitrogen compounds in the polar ice sheets is approximately 260 Tg N, dominated by nitrate in the much larger Antarctic ice sheet. Ice cores help to inform us about the natural variability of the nitrogen cycle at global and regional scale, and about the extent of disturbance in recent decades. Nitrous oxide concentrations have risen about 20 per cent in the last 200 years and are now almost certainly higher than at any time in the last 800 000 years. Nitrate concentrations recorded in Greenland ice rose by a factor of 2–3, particularly between the 1950s and 1980s, reflecting a major change in NOx emissions reaching the background atmosphere. Increases in ice cores drilled at lower latitudes can be used to validate or constrain regional emission inventories. Background ammonium concentrations in Greenland ice show no significant recent trend, although the record is very noisy, being dominated by spikes of input from biomass burning events. Neither nitrate nor ammonium shows significant recent trends in Antarctica, although their natural variations are of biogeochemical and atmospheric chemical interest. Finally, it has been found that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack leads to significant re-emissions of NOx that can strongly impact the regional atmosphere in snow-covered areas. PMID:23713125

  4. Immobilization of TiO2 nanofibers on reduced graphene sheets: Novel strategy in electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Pant, Hem Raj; Adhikari, Surya Prasad; Pant, Bishweshwar; Joshi, Mahesh K; Kim, Han Joo; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2015-11-01

    A simple and efficient approach is developed to immobilize TiO2 nanofibers onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. Here, TiO2 nanofiber-intercalated RGO sheets are readily produced by two-step procedure involving the use of electrospinning process to fabricate TiO2 precursor containing polymeric fibers on the surface of GO sheets, followed by simultaneous TiO2 nanofibers formation and GO reduction by calcinations. GO sheets deposited on the collector during electrospinning/electrospray can act as substrate on to which TiO2 precursor containing polymer nanofibers can be deposited which give TiO2 NFs doped RGO sheets on calcinations. Formation of corrugated structure cavities of graphene sheets decorated with TiO2 nanofibers on their surface demonstrates that our method constitutes an alternative top-down strategy toward fabricating verities of nanofiber-decorated graphene sheets. It was found that the synthesized TiO2/RGO composite revealed a remarkable increased in photocatalytic activity compared to pristine TiO2 nanofibers. Therefore, engineering of TiO2 nanofiber-intercalated RGO sheets using proposed facile technique can be considered a promising method for catalytic and other applications. PMID:26164250

  5. Structure and Dynamics of Current Sheets in 3D Magnetic Fields with the X-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Anna G.; Bogdanov, S. Yu.; Bugrov, S. G.; Markov, V. S.; Dreiden, G. V.; Ostrovskaya, G. V.

    2004-11-01

    Experimental results are presented on the structure of current sheets formed in 3D magnetic fields with singular lines of the X-type. Two basic diagnostics were used with the device CS - 3D: two-exposure holographic interferometry and magnetic measurements. Formation of extended current sheets and plasma compression were observed in the presence of the longitudinal magnetic field component aligned with the X-line. Plasma density decreased and the sheet thickness increased with an increase of the longitudinal component. We succeeded to reveal formation of the sheets taking unusual shape, namely tilted and asymmetric sheets, in plasmas with the heavy ions. These current sheets were obviously different from the planar sheets formed in 2D magnetic fields, i.e. without longitudinal component. Analysis of typical plasma parameters made it evident that plasma dynamics and current sheet evolution should be treated on the base of the two-fluid approach. Specifically it is necessary to take into account the Hall currents in the plane perpendicular to the X-line, and the dynamic effects resulting from interaction of the Hall currents and the 3D magnetic field. Supported by RFBR, grant 03-02-17282, and ISTC, project 2098.

  6. INDIUM MEDIATED REACTIONS IN WATER: SYNTHESIS OF BETA-HYDROXYL ESTERS. (R822668)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A variety of beta.gif" alt="small beta, Greek" border=0>-hydroxyl esters were synthesized efficiently through indium mediated carbon-carbon bond formation in water followed by ozonolysis.

  7. Younger Dryas interval and outflow from the Laurentide ice sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.C., Jr.; Walker, J.C.G.; Rea, David K.; Lewis, C.F.M.; Shane, L.C.K.; Smith, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    A boxmodel of the Great Lakes is used to estimate meltwater flow into the North Atlantic between 8000 and 14,000 calendar years B.P. Controls on the model include the oxygen isotopic composition of meltwaters and lake waters as measured in the shells of ostracodes. Outflow rates are highest when oxygen isotopic values of the lake waters are most negative, denoting a maximum glacial meltwater component. Flow rates reach maximum values before the onset of the Younger Dryas and after it ends. These maxima appear to be correlative with the major meltwater pulses MWP 1A and 1B. Although the resumption of North Atlantic Deep Water formation may be tied to the reduction in ice sheet melting, neither the onset nor the end of the Younger Dryas, as recorded in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP2) records, appear tied to maxima in meltwater outflow from the Laurentide ice sheet. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Neutron Induced Beta Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, A. M.; Shylaja, D.

    2011-07-15

    In the present paper we give a new methodology named, 'neutron induced beta radiography-NIBR' which makes use of neutron activated Dy or In foils as source of (3-radiation. Radiographs are obtained with an aluminium cassette containing image plate, a sample under inspection and the activated Dy or In foil kept in tight contact. The sensitivity of the technique to thickness was evaluated for different materials in the form of step wedges. Some radiographs are presented to demonstrate potential of method to inspect thin samples.

  9. Quantitative analysis of cyclic beta-turn models.

    PubMed Central

    Perczel, A.; Fasman, G. D.

    1992-01-01

    The beta-turn is a frequently found structural unit in the conformation of globular proteins. Although the circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the alpha-helix and beta-pleated sheet are well defined, there remains some ambiguity concerning the pure component CD spectra of the different types of beta-turns. Recently, it has been reported (Hollósi, M., Kövér, K.E., Holly, S., Radics, L., & Fasman, G.D., 1987, Biopolymers 26, 1527-1572; Perczel, A., Hollósi, M., Foxman, B.M., & Fasman, G.D., 1991a, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 9772-9784) that some pseudohexapeptides (e.g., the cyclo[(delta)Ava-Gly-Pro-Aaa-Gly] where Aaa = Ser, Ser(OtBu), or Gly) in many solvents adopt a conformational mixture of type I and the type II beta-turns, although the X-ray-determined conformation was an ideal type I beta-turn. In addition to these pseudohexapeptides, conformational analysis was also carried out on three pseudotetrapeptides and three pseudooctapeptides. The target of the conformation analysis reported herein was to determine whether the ring stress of the above beta-turn models has an influence on their conformational properties. Quantitative nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) measurements yielded interproton distances. The conformational average distances so obtained were interpreted utilizing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to yield the conformational percentages. These conformational ratios were correlated with the conformational weights obtained by quantitative CD analysis of the same compounds. The pure component CD curves of type I and type II beta-turns were also obtained, using a recently developed algorithm (Perczel, A., Tusnády, G., Hollósi, M., & Fasman, G.D., 1991b, Protein Eng. 4(6), 669-679). For the first time the results of a CD deconvolution, based on the CD spectra of 14 beta-turn models, were assigned by quantitative NOE results. The NOE experiments confirmed the ratios of the component curves found for the two major beta-turns by CD analysis. These results can now be used to enhance the conformational determination of globular proteins on the basis of their CD spectra. PMID:1304345

  10. Concept Formation Concept Formation

    E-print Network

    Goldstone, Robert

    Concept Formation 1 Concept Formation Robert L. Goldstone Thomas T. Hills Samuel B. Day Indiana, IN. 47408 Other Correspondences: rgoldsto@indiana.edu (812) 855-4853 Keywords: Concepts, Learning, Representation, Prototypes, Exemplars #12;Concept Formation 2 Concept Formation A concept is a mentally possessed

  11. Current sheet bifurcations observed by Cluster during plasma sheet flapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runov, A.; Sergeev, V.; Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R.; Balogh, A.; Klecker, B.; Reme, H.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Andre, M.

    2003-04-01

    We examined the structure of the tail current sheet at XGSM˜-19~R_E using fast flapping oscillation. It was found that during 1055 -1107 UT on 29 August 2001 and 2220 - 2235 UT on 26 September 2001, following substorm intensifications, the flapping current sheet displayed a clearly bifurcated structure with current density peaks at |B_x|˜0.5~B_L and a pronounced broad current density minimum in between. In both cases the bifurcation was associated with the current sheet flapping in the Y-Z plane, with very large tilts (exceeding 45o). The origins of current bifurcation and of severe flapping motions are discussed.

  12. Inhibition of {beta}-catenin-mediated transactivation by flavanone in AGS gastric cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Chi Hoon; Hahm, Eun Ryeong; Lee, Ju Hyung; Jung, Kyung Chae; Yang, Chul Hak . E-mail: chulyang@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2005-06-17

    Recently, data which prove that Wnt pathway activation may be an early event in multistep carcinogenesis in the stomach have been accumulating. We examined the effect of flavanone against {beta}-catenin/Tcf signaling in AGS gastric cancer cells. Reporter gene assay showed that flavanone inhibited {beta}-catenin/Tcf signaling efficiently. In addition, the inhibition of {beta}-catenin/Tcf signaling by flavanone in HEK293 cells transiently transfected with constitutively mutant {beta}-catenin gene, whose product is not phosphorylated by GSK3{beta}, indicates that its inhibitory mechanism was related to {beta}-catenin itself or downstream components. To investigate the precise inhibitory mechanism, we performed immunofluorescence, Western blot, and EMSA. As a result, our data revealed that there is no change of {beta}-catenin distribution and of nuclear {beta}-catenin levels through flavanone. In addition, the binding of Tcf complexes to DNA is not influenced by flavanone. The {beta}-catenin/Tcf transcriptional target gene cyclinD1 was downregulated by flavanone. These data suggest that flavanone inhibits the transcription of {beta}-catenin/Tcf responsive genes, by modulating Tcf activity without disrupting {beta}-catenin/Tcf complex formation.

  13. Global ice-sheet system interlocked by sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, G.H.; Hughes, T.J.; Karlen, W.

    1986-01-01

    Denton and Hughes postulated that sea level linked a global ice-sheet system with both terrestrial and grounded marine components during later Quaternary ice ages. Summer temperature changes near Northern Hemisphere melting margins initiated sea-level fluctuations that controlled marine components in both polar hemispheres. It was further proposed that variations of this ice-sheet system amplified and transmitted Milankovitch summer half-year insolation changes between 45 and 75/sup 0/N into global climatic changes. New tests of this hypothesis implicate sea level as a major control of the areal extent of grounded portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. But factors other than areal changes of the grounded Antarctic Ice Sheet may have strongly influenced Southern Hemisphere climate and terminated the last ice age simultaneously in both polar hemispheres. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked to high-latitude oceans is the most likely candidate, but another potential influence was high-frequency climatic oscillations. It is postulated that variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide acted through an Antarctic ice shelf linked to the grounded ice sheet to produce and terminate Southern Hemisphere ice-age climate. It is further postulated that Milankovitch summer insolation combined with a warm-high frequency oscillation caused marked recession of Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet melting margins and the North Atlantic polar front about 14,000 /sup 14/C yr B.P. This permitted renewed formation of North Atlantic Deep Water, which could well have controlled atmospheric carbon dioxide. Combined melting and consequent sea-level rise from the three warming factors initiated irreversible collapse of the interlocked global ice-sheet system, which was at its largest but most vulnerable configuration.

  14. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Farsoni, Abdollah T. (Corvallis, OR); Hamby, David M. (Corvallis, OR)

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  15. On the Significance of Alternating Patterns of Polar and Non-polar Residues in Beta-strands

    E-print Network

    Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    On the Significance of Alternating Patterns of Polar and Non-polar Residues in Beta-strands Yael-strands is that they have alternating patterns of polar and non-polar residues. It is thought that such patterns reflect the interior/exterior geometry of amino acid residue side-chains on a b-sheet. Here we study the prevalence

  16. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5?nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  17. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5?nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  18. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  19. Crystal structure of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides at 2.2 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Oyama, T; Kusunoki, M; Kishimoto, Y; Takasaki, Y; Nitta, Y

    1999-06-01

    The crystal structure of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides was determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement method. The structure was refined to a final R-factor of 0.186 for 102,807 independent reflections with F/sigma(F) > or = 2.0 at 2.2 A resolution with root-mean-square deviations from ideality in bond lengths, and bond angles of 0.014 A and 3.00 degrees, respectively. The asymmetric unit comprises four molecules exhibiting a dimer-of-dimers structure. The enzyme, however, acts as a monomer in solution. The beta-amylase molecule folds into three domains; the first one is the N-terminal catalytic domain with a (beta/alpha)8 barrel, the second one is the excursion part from the first one, and the third one is the C-terminal domain with two almost anti-parallel beta-sheets. The active site cleft, including two putative catalytic residues (Glu172 and Glu367), is located on the carboxyl side of the central beta-sheet in the (beta/alpha)8 barrel, as in most amylases. The active site structure of the enzyme resembles that of soybean beta-amylase with slight differences. One calcium ion is bound per molecule far from the active site. The C-terminal domain has a fold similar to the raw starch binding domains of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and glucoamylase. PMID:10348915

  20. Scintillator based beta batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  1. TGF-{beta} receptors, in a Smad-independent manner, are required for terminal skeletal muscle differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Droguett, Rebeca; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Santander, Cristian; Brandan, Enrique

    2010-09-10

    Skeletal muscle differentiation is strongly inhibited by transforming growth factor type {beta} (TGF-{beta}), although muscle formation as well as regeneration normally occurs in an environment rich in this growth factor. In this study, we evaluated the role of intracellular regulatory Smads proteins as well as TGF-{beta}-receptors (TGF-{beta}-Rs) during skeletal muscle differentiation. We found a decrease of TGF-{beta} signaling during differentiation. This phenomenon is explained by a decline in the levels of the regulatory proteins Smad-2, -3, and -4, a decrease in the phosphorylation of Smad-2 and lost of nuclear translocation of Smad-3 and -4 in response to TGF-{beta}. No change in the levels and inhibitory function of Smad-7 was observed. In contrast, we found that TGF-{beta}-R type I (TGF-{beta}-RI) and type II (TGF-{beta}-RII) increased on the cell surface during skeletal muscle differentiation. To analyze the direct role of the serine/threonine kinase activities of TGF-{beta}-Rs, we used the specific inhibitor SB 431542 and the dominant-negative form of TGF-{beta}-RII lacking the cytoplasmic domain. The TGF-{beta}-Rs were important for successful muscle formation, determined by the induction of myogenin, creatine kinase activity, and myosin. Silencing of Smad-2/3 expression by specific siRNA treatments accelerated myogenin, myosin expression, and myotube formation; although when SB 431542 was present inhibition in myosin induction and myotube formation was observed, suggesting that these last steps of skeletal muscle differentiation require active TGF-{beta}-Rs. These results suggest that both down-regulation of Smad regulatory proteins and cell signaling through the TGF-{beta} receptors independent of Smad proteins are essential for skeletal muscle differentiation.

  2. Penguin Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flotsam and Jetsam: A Newsletter for Massachusetts Marine Educators, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents factual information on penguins using an outline format. Includes descriptions of physical characteristics, behavioral mechanisms, geographical distribution, and physiological processes. Provides separate bibliographies for teachers and students. (ML)

  3. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

    1998-09-22

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

  4. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA); Birmingham, Joseph G. (Richland, WA); McDonald, Carolyn Evans (Richland, WA); Kurath, Dean E. (Benton County, WA); Friedrich, Michele (Prosser, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  5. Computing Vortex Sheet Motion Robert Krasny

    E-print Network

    Krasny, Robert

    Computing Vortex Sheet Motion Robert Krasny Department of Mathematics, University of Michigan, Ann discontinuity. Vortex sheet motion belongs to thefieldof vortex dynamics, one of the main approaches of vortex sheets. Difficulties arise in computing vortex sheet motion due to short wavelength instability

  6. Current sheets at three-dimensional magnetic nulls: Effect of compressibility

    SciTech Connect

    Pontin, D. I.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Galsgaard, K.

    2007-05-15

    The nature of current sheet formation in the vicinity of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic null points is investigated. The particular focus is upon the effect of the compressibility of the plasma on the qualitative and quantitative properties of the current sheet. An initially potential 3D null is subjected to shearing perturbations, as in a previous paper [Pontin et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 052106 (2007)]. It is found that as the incompressible limit is approached, the collapse of the null point is suppressed and an approximately planar current sheet aligned to the fan plane is present instead. This is the case regardless of whether the spine or fan of the null is sheared. Both the peak current and peak reconnection rate are reduced. The results have a bearing on previous analytical solutions for steady-state reconnection in incompressible plasmas, implying that fan current sheet solutions are dynamically accessible, while spine current sheet solutions are not.

  7. Response of Atlantic overturning to future warming in a coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice sheet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierz, Paul; Lohmann, Gerrit; Wei, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Climate change can influence sea surface conditions and the melting rates of ice sheets; resulting in decreased deep water formation rates and ultimately affecting the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). As such, a detailed study of the interactive role of dynamic ice sheets on the AMOC and therefore on global climate is required. We utilize a climate model in combination with a dynamic ice sheet model to investigate changes to the AMOC and North Atlantic climate in response to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios for RCP4.5 and RCP6. It is demonstrated that the inclusion of an ice sheet component results in a drastic freshening of the North Atlantic by up to 2 practical salinity units, enhancing high-latitude haloclines and weakening the AMOC by up to 2 sverdrup (106 m3/s). Incorporating a bidirectionally coupled dynamic ice sheet results in relatively reduced warming over Europe due to the associated decrease in heat transport.

  8. Quantification of ridging in ferritic stainless steel sheets by electron backscattered diffraction R-value maps.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kye-Man; Park, Jieon; Kim, Sangseok; Park, Sooho; Huh, Moo-Young

    2013-08-01

    In ferritic stainless steel (FSS), undesirable surface defects of ridging appear during deep drawing. The formation of these defects is attributed to the inhomogeneous distribution of orientations of individual grains. In the present work, a new electron backscattered diffraction R(?)-value map was introduced, and the dependence of the tensile directions on the formation of ridging in an FSS sheet was discussed using this map. The results showed that large grain colonies in the R(?)-value maps lead to the formation of severe ridging in an FSS sheet. PMID:23920166

  9. Development of ADA against recombinant human interferon beta in immune tolerant mice requires rapid recruitment of CD4? T cells, induces formation of germinal centers but lacks susceptibility for (most) adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Kijanka, Grzegorz; Sauerborn, Melody; Boon, Louis; Schellekens, Huub; Brinks, Vera

    2015-02-01

    Immunological processes leading to formation of antidrug antibodies (Abs) against recombinant human proteins remain poorly understood. Animal and clinical studies revealed that immunogenicity shares both T-cell-dependent (requirement of CD4(+) T cells, isotype switching) and T-cell-independent (involvement of Marginal Zone B cells, apparent lack of memory) characteristics. We used immune tolerant mice to study the mechanism underlying immunogenicity in more detail. We found that CD4(+) T cells were crucial at early stages of Ab responses against rhIFN?. In addition, we found a similar number of germinal centers (GCs) in spleen after rhIFN? treatment as after treatment with a foreign protein. However, neither Ab titers nor the number of GCs was increased by adsorption of rhIFN? on aluminum hydroxide. Therefore, we tested the effect of several immune adjuvants in a follow-up study. We found that only conjugation of rhIFN? to a carrier protein (cholera toxin subunit B) was effective in boosting Ab titers. However, these conjugates failed to trigger rhIFN? specific memory formation. Our findings show that early events of the immunogenicity reaction to self-proteins are CD4(+) T-cell dependent. Nevertheless, despite those similarities, immunogenicity of human proteins is clearly not a classical CD4(+) T-cell-dependent response. PMID:25219665

  10. Decrease in IgE Fc receptor expression on mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells and inhibition of PAF-acether formation and of. beta. -hexosaminidase release by dexamethasone

    SciTech Connect

    Benhamou, M.; Ninio, E.; Salem, P.; Hieblot, C.; Bessou, G.; Pitton, C.; Liu, F.; Mencia-Huerta, J.M.

    1986-02-15

    The effect of dexamethasone (DM) on the immunologic and nonimmunologic release of paf-acether and of the granule marker ..beta..-hexosaminidase (BHEX) from mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) was studied. Preincubation of BMMC with DM inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion the immunologic release of paf-acether and of BHEX as compared with control cells. The antigen-induced increase in acetyltransferase activity, used as an index of cellular activation, was inhibited by 37 +/- 16% in 1 ..mu..M DM-treated BMMC as compared with untreated cells. Preincubation of BMMC with DM for 24 hr caused a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 125/I-IgE binding to the cells, with a half-maximal effect at 14 nM. The number of IgE Fc receptors was decreased by 55% in 1 ..mu..M DM-treated BMMC as compared with untreated cells. Cytofluorometer analysis of BMMC sensitized with a saturating amount of purified monoclonal IgE, followed by addition of a fluoresceinated anti-mouse IgG (heavy and light chains), revealed a single cellular population for both DM-treated and untreated BMMC. The possible link between the decreased sensitization of the cells consequent to the reduction in IgG Fc receptor expression and the alteration of the secretory response and acetyltransferase activity was investigated. BMMC were incubated with IgE under experimental conditions giving half-sensitization of the cells. Upon antigen challenge, a 10.5 +/- 3.7% decrease in acetyltransferase activity and a 29.2 +/- 3.5% decrease in paf-acether release were observed with half-sensitized cells as compared with cells sensitized with a saturating amount of IgE. These results indicate that DM inhibits the immunologic release of paf-acether and of BHEX from passively sensitized BMMC and decreases the IgE Fc receptor number available for sensitization. Thus, the modulation of IgE Fc receptor number could explain part of the anti-allergic properties of glucocorticosteroids.

  11. Late Weichselian ice sheet of Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosswald, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    A considerable portion of Northern Eurasia, and particularly its continental shelf, was glaciated by inland ice during late Weichsel time. This was first inferred from such evidence as glacial striae, submarine troughs, sea-bed diamictons, boulder trains on adjacent land, and patterns of glacioisostatic crustal movements. Subsequently, the inference was confirmed by data on the occurrence and geographic position of late Weichselian end moraines and proglacial lacustrine deposits. The south-facing outer moraines in the northeastern Russian Plain, northern West Siberia, and on Taimyr Peninsula are underlain by sediments containing wood and peat, the radiocarbon dating of which yielded ages of 22,000 to 45,000 yr B.P. The youngest late-glacial moraines are of Holocene age: the double Markhida moraine in the lower Pechora River basin, presumably associated with "degradational" surges of the Barents Ice Dome, is underlain by sediments with wood and peat dated at 9000 to 9900 yr B.P.: this suggests that deglaciation of the Arctic continental shelf of Eurasia was not completed until after 9000 yr B.P. The reconstructed ice-front lines lead to the conclusion that the late Weichselian ice sheet of Northern Eurasia (proposed name: the Eurasian Ice Sheet) extended without interruptions from southwestern Ireland to the northeastern end of Taimyr Peninsula, a distance of 6000 km: it covered an area of 8,370,000 km 2, half of which lay on the present-day continental shelves and a quarter on lowlands that were depressed isostatically below sea level. Hence, the ice sheet was predominantly marine-based. A contour map of the ice sheet based both on the dependence of the heights of ice domes upon their radii and on factual data concerning the impact of bedrock topography upon ice relief has been constructed. The major features of the ice sheet were the British, Scandinavian, Barents, and Kara Ice Domes that had altitudes of 1.9 to 3.3 km and were separated from one another by ice saddles about 1.5 km high. At the late Weichselian glacial maximum, all the main ice-dispersion centers were on continental shelves and coastal lowlands, whereas mountain centers, such as the Polar Urals and Byrranga Range, played only a local role. The portions of the ice sheet that were grounded on continental shelves some 700 to 900 m below sea level were inherently unstable and could exist only in conjunction with confined and pinned floating ice shelves that covered the Arctic Ocean and the Greenland and Norwegian Seas. The Eurasian Ice Sheet impounded the Severnaya Dvina, Mezen, Pechora, Ob, Irtysh, and Yneisei Rivers, and caused the formation of ice-dammed lakes on the northern Russian Plain and in West Siberia. Until about 13,500 yr B.P. the proglacial system of lakes and spillways had a radial pattern; it included large West Siberian lakes, the Caspian and Black Seas, and ended in the Mediterranian Sea. Later, the system became marginal and discharged proglacial water mainly into the Norwegian Sea.

  12. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing the overall capabilities of the NREL CSP Program: collector/receiver characterization, advanced reflector and absorber materials, thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids, and CSP modeling and analysis.

  13. Analysis of a Sheet Silicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, J. M.; Evans, S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student project in analytical chemistry using sheet silicates. Provides specific information regarding the use of phlogopite in an experiment to analyze samples for silicon, aluminum, magnesium, iron, potassium, and fluoride. (CS)

  14. Measurements and Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Analytical Microscopy, Electro-Optical Characterization, Surface Analysis, and Cell and Module Performance.

  15. SEER Cancer Stat Fact Sheets

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  16. Deep Space 1 (fact sheet)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    Exerting less force than does a single sheet of paper resting in your hand, Deep Space 1's ion propulsion system will slowly, yet continuously accelerate the spacecraft well beyond speeds attainable by conventional chemical propulsion.

  17. Expression and subcellular localization of thymosin beta15 following kainic acid treatment in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young Woong; Kim, Younghwa; Kim, Eun Hae; Koh, Doyle; Sun, Woong Kim, Hyun

    2008-07-11

    Thymosin {beta}15 (T{beta}15) is a pleiotropic factor which exerts multiple roles in the development of nervous system and brain diseases. In this study, we found that the expressions of T{beta}15 mRNA and protein were substantially increased in several brain regions including hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex, following kainic acid (KA)-evoked seizures in rat. Interestingly, a subset of cortex neurons exhibited nuclear T{beta}15 immunoreactivity upon KA treatment. Furthermore, translocation of T{beta}15 from cytosol to nuclei was observed in cultured neurons or HeLa cells during staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis, which was also verified by time-lapse imaging of YFP-tagged T{beta}15. It appeared that localization of T{beta}15 is restricted to the cytosol in normal condition by its G-actin-interacting domain, because site-directed mutagenesis of this region resulted in the nuclear localization of T{beta}15 in the absence of STS treatment. To explore the role of nuclear T{beta}15, we enforced T{beta}15 to localize in the nuclei by fusion of T{beta}15 with nuclear localization signal (NLS-T{beta}15). However, overexpression of NLS-T{beta}15 did not alter the viability of cells in response to STS treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that nuclear localization of T{beta}15 is a controlled process during KA or STS stimulation, although its functional significance is yet to be clarified.

  18. Inclusion of riboflavin in beta-cyclodextrin: a fluorimetric and absorption spectrometric study.

    PubMed

    Roy, Dalim Kumar; Deb, Nipamanjari; Ghosh, Bankim Chandra; Mukherjee, Asok K

    2009-07-01

    Formation of inclusion complexes between riboflavin and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) with both 1:1 and 1:2 stoichiometry has been established by fluorimetric titration. However, in absorption spectrometric experiment, spectral change of riboflavin in the visible range could be observed only by taking beta-CD at a much higher concentration (about 100 times) than riboflavin and under such condition only 1:2 complexes could be detected. Its formation constant (K) was determined by a multiple linear regression analysis of the absorption data. The reliability of the K value was confirmed by the consistency achieved on analyzing the data at two different wavelengths. PMID:19261541

  19. Predicting neutrinoless double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.; Villanova del Moral, A.; Valle, J.W.F.

    2005-11-01

    We give predictions for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in a simple variant of the A{sub 4} family symmetry model. We show that there is a lower bound for the {beta}{beta}{sub 0{nu}} amplitude even in the case of normal hierarchical neutrino masses, corresponding to an effective mass parameter vertical bar m{sub ee} vertical bar {>=}0.17{radical}({delta}m{sub ATM}{sup 2}). This result holds both for the CP conserving and CP violating cases. In the latter case we show explicitly that the lower bound on vertical bar m{sub ee} vertical bar is sensitive to the value of the Majorana phase. We conclude therefore that in our scheme, {beta}{beta}{sub 0{nu}} may be accessible to the next generation of high sensitivity experiments.

  20. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  1. Energy information sheets, September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  2. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  3. Three-dimensional cardiac tissue fabrication based on cell sheet technology.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Shinako; Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2016-01-15

    Cardiac tissue engineering is a promising therapeutic strategy for severe heart failure. However, conventional tissue engineering methods by seeding cells into biodegradable scaffolds have intrinsic limitations such as inflammatory responses and fibrosis arising from the degradation of scaffolds. On the other hand, we have developed cell sheet engineering as a scaffold-free approach for cardiac tissue engineering. Confluent cultured cells are harvested as an intact cell sheet using a temperature-responsive culture surface. By layering cardiac cell sheets, it is possible to form electrically communicative three-dimensional cardiac constructs. Cell sheet transplantation onto damaged hearts in several animal models has revealed improvements in heart functions. Because of the lack of vasculature, the thickness of viable cardiac cell sheet-layered tissues is limited to three layers. Pre-vascularized structure formation within cardiac tissue and multi-step transplantation methods has enabled the formation of thick vascularized tissues in vivo. Furthermore, development of original bioreactor systems with vascular beds has allowed reconstruction of three-dimensional cardiac tissues with a functional vascular structure in vitro. Large-scale culture systems to generate pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac cells can create large numbers of cardiac cell sheets. Three-dimensional cardiac tissues fabricated by cell sheet engineering may be applied to treat heart disease and tissue model construction. PMID:25980939

  4. Widespread Refreezing of Both Surface and Basal Melt Water Beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Das, I.; Wolovick, M.; Chu, W.; Creyts, T. T.; Frearson, N.

    2013-12-01

    The isotopically and chemically distinct, bubble-free ice observed along the Greenland Ice Sheet margin both in the Russell Glacier and north of Jacobshavn must have formed when water froze from subglacial networks. Where this refreezing occurs and what impact it has on ice sheet processes remain unclear. We use airborne radar data to demonstrate that freeze-on to the ice sheet base and associated deformation produce large ice units up to 700 m thick throughout northern Greenland. Along the ice sheet margin, in the ablation zone, surface meltwater, delivered via moulins, refreezes to the ice sheet base over rugged topography. In the interior, water melted from the ice sheet base is refrozen and surrounded by folded ice. A significant fraction of the ice sheet is modified by basal freeze-on and associated deformation. For the Eqip and Petermann catchments, representing the ice sheet margin and interior respectively, extensive airborne radar datasets show that 10%-13% of the base of the ice sheet and up to a third of the catchment width is modified by basal freeze-on. The interior units develop over relatively subdued topography with modest water flux from basal melt where conductive cooling likely dominates. Steps in the bed topography associated with subglacial valley networks may foster glaciohydraulic supercooling. The ablation zone units develop where both surface melt and crevassing are widespread and large volumes of surface meltwater will reach the base of the ice sheet. The relatively steep topography at the upslope edge of the ablation zone units combined with the larger water flux suggests that supercooling plays a greater role in their formation. The ice qualities of the ablation zone units should reflect the relatively fresh surface melt whereas the chemistry of the interior units should reflect solute-rich basal melt. Changes in basal conditions such as the presence of till patches may contribute to the formation of the large basal units near the Northeast Ice Stream. The contrasting rheology of glacial and interglacial ice may also enhance the deformation associated with freeze-on beneath large ice sheets. The occurrence of basal units both in the ice sheet interior and in the thermally very different ablation zone indicates refreezing is widespread and can occur in many environments beneath an ice sheet. This process appears to influence the morphology and behavior of the ice sheet from top to bottom.

  5. Combinatorial effect of substratum properties on mesenchymal stem cell sheet engineering and subsequent multi-lineage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chuah, Yon Jin; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Yingnan; Menon, Nishanth V; Goh, Ghim Hian; Lee, Ann Charlene; Chan, Vincent; Zhang, Yilei; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-09-01

    Cell sheet engineering has been exploited as an alternative approach in tissue regeneration and the use of stem cells to generate cell sheets has further showed its potential in stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration. There exist vast interests in developing strategies to enhance the formation of stem cell sheets for downstream applications. It has been proved that stem cells are sensitive to the biophysical cues of the microenvironment. Therefore we hypothesized that the combinatorial substratum properties could be tailored to modulate the development of cell sheet formation and further influence its multipotency. For validation, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) of different combinatorial substratum properties (including stiffness, roughness and wettability) were created, on which the human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were cultured to form cell sheets with their multipotency evaluated after induced differentiation. The results showed that different combinatorial effects of these substratum properties were able to influence BMSC behavior such as adhesion, spreading and proliferation during cell sheet development. Collagen formation within the cell sheet was enhanced on substrates with lower stiffness, higher hydrophobicity and roughness, which further assisted the induced chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, respectively. These findings suggested that combinatorial substratum properties had profound effects on BMSC cell sheet integrity and multipotency, which had significant implications for future biomaterials and scaffold designs in the field of BMSC-mediated tissue regeneration. PMID:26026305

  6. AM1 study of the electronic structure of some androgens 5{beta}-reduced

    SciTech Connect

    Kubli-Garfias, C.; Vazquez, R.; Vega-Velazquez, C.

    1996-12-31

    Among the possible derivatives of testosterone are known the metabolites reduced at position 5. From this, two conformations are feasible; trans and cis resulting in 5{alpha} and 5{beta}-configured compounds. In this work four of the most important 5{beta}-reduced androgens were studied, namely: 5{beta}-androstanedione (5{beta}- androstane-3,17-dione (1)), 5{beta}-dihydrotestosterone (17{beta}-hydroxy-5{beta} androstan-3- one; (2)), etiocholanol-one (3{alpha}-hyroxy-5{beta}-androstan-17-one (3)) and epietiocholanolone (3{beta}-hydroxy-5{beta}-androstan-17-one; (4)). Initially geometries were optimized with molecular mechanics (MM2), and refined by the Austin Model 1 method (AM1). Thus, the following electronic structure properties were calculated: heat of formation ({Delta}Hf), dipole moment, and frontier orbitals (HOMO and LUMO). Although HOMO and LUMO were somewhat similar in energies, they were located differently into the molecular frame. Thus, HOMO was located at 17C-carbonyl group in structures 1,3 and 4 and at the carbonyl at C3 in 2; The LUMO was placed in the carbonyl at C3 in 1 and 2, whereas in 3 and 4 was placed at C17. It is concluded that these location of valence orbitals might facilitate the action of enzymes yielding androstanediols, explaining the last step in the metabolism of androgens.

  7. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 ? m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  8. Early-time, beta-hairpin peptide self-assembly and hydrogelation: Structure, kinetics, and shear-recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, Tuna

    Recently, there has been growing interest in the supramolecular self-assembly and hydrogelation of peptides for potential biomaterials applications. However, there has been limited work on the physicochemical characterization of these systems that will be crucial for the development of these materials for future applications. The main objective of this dissertation was to provide a solid understanding of the self-assembly kinetics, hydrogelation pathways and the physical origins of the shear-recovery behavior of a self-assembled, peptidic hydrogel system. The MAX1 peptide, (VK)4-VDPPT-(KV)4-NH 2 is unfolded, and completely soluble in acidic to neutral aqueous solution. Increasing the pH or ionic strength of the solution triggers intramolecular peptide folding into beta-hairpins and concomitant intermolecular self-assembly into bilayered nanofibrils. Combined static and dynamic light scattering experiments revealed a direct transition from the initial, monomeric state to self-assembled nanofibrils, without an intermediate self-assembly step. The energy barrier associated with MAX1 self-assembly suggested that the self-assembly process involved intramolecular peptide folding events and cluster reorganization to facilitate intermolecular self-assembly. The assembly kinetics could be modeled using Smoluchowski's equation which indicated an essentially diffusion-limited assembly process. The analysis of early-stage dependence of apparent mass on size and the concentration dependence of assembly kinetics gave different fractal dimension values: The former indicated that the nanofibrils behaved locally as rigid rods, while the latter analysis suggested an increase in the apparent fractal dimension at larger length scales. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy indicated that the increase in the apparent fractal dimension could be attributed to the formation of branched clusters of well-defined (uniform, 3 nm cross section), semi-flexible, beta-sheet-rich nanofibrils. Dangling fibrils extended from one growing cluster to another and lead to early, intercluster communication in solution. At the apparent percolation threshold, the dynamic shear modulus measured by oscillatory rheology (G'(o),G"(o) infinityo n) and the field-intensity autocorrelation function measured by dynamic light scattering (g1 (tau) infinity tau --beta) showed power-law behavior with comparable critical dynamic exponents (n ? 0.47 and beta' ? 0.45). Finite interpenetration of percolating clusters with smaller clusters, along with permanent intercluster entanglements, increased the rigidity of the beta-sheet hydrogel network. The network shear-thinned when high amplitude strain was applied, while the rigidity recovered immediately after removal of stress. Hydrogels were PEGylated immediately after shear-thinning to investigate the effects of interfibrillar interactions on the recovery behavior. The PEGylation prevented reformation of interfibrillar crosslinks and lead to self-avoiding, branched nanofibril clusters. Consequently, the PEGylated network did not recover after shear-thinning, implying a strong correlation between the lifetime of the interfibrillar interactions between branched, nanofibril clusters and the shear-recovery behavior. Considering the ethylene oxide chain length necessary for sufficient screening of interfibrillar crosslinks, it was estimated that these interactions operated at length scales comparable to the fibril cross-section. On the other hand, the recovery behavior could not be explained by reformation of defect-induced branches after shear-thinning. This was a significant finding for the potential applications of these materials for in vivo tissue regeneration applications.

  9. 14 CFR 6 - Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements Section 6 Section...FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section 6 Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements Source:...

  10. 14 CFR Section 6 - Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements Section 6 Section...FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section 6 Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements Source:...

  11. 14 CFR Section 6 - Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements Section 6 Section...FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section 6 Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements Source:...

  12. 14 CFR Section 6 - Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements Section 6 Section...FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section 6 Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements Source:...

  13. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 229

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.; Tuli, J.K.

    2008-11-15

    The evaluators present in this publication spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies for all nuclei with mass number A = 229. These nuclei belong to a region of coexisting quadrupole with possible octupole deformations. The latter have been observed in {sup 229}Ra, but in {sup 229}Pa the experimental evidence is inconclusive. The present evaluation of A = 229, which includes all data received by June 2008, supersedes the 1989 evaluation by Y.A. Akovali, published in Nuclear Data Sheets58, 555 (1989). Highlights of this publication are given below: A comprehensive spectroscopic study of {sup 229}Fr(50.2 s) {beta}- decay using mass-separated sources have provided the first evidence of parity doublets in {sup 229}Ra due to nuclear octupole deformation (1999Fr33). In {sup 229}Th a level at 7.6 5 eV - the closest level to the ground state ever known - has been confirmed through extremely precise measurements of {gamma}-ray energies from {sup 233}U {alpha} decay (1994He08, 2007Be16). A nuclear level at such low energy may be used for studying a large variety of atomic properties associated to nuclear decay. The level structure in {sup 229}Pa has been interpreted in terms of the rotational model (1994Le22). Some authors, however, have proposed the existence of parity doublets as evidence of octupole nuclear deformation (1982Ah08). This interpretation has not been confirmed.

  14. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 178

    SciTech Connect

    Achterberg, E.; Capurro, O.A.; Marti, G.V.

    2009-07-15

    The present revision of the nuclear structure properties for the nuclides belonging to the A = 178 mass chain contains many improvements and additions to the material presented in the previous evaluation (1994Br18, Nucl. Data Sheets 72, 221 (1994)). Besides updating many values, and including supplementary data for already known levels, transitions and level schemes, the most noteworthy modifications with respect to the prior evaluation are extensive additions to the level schemes of {sup 178}Yb, {sup 178}Hf, {sup 178}Ta, {sup 178}W. {sup 178}Ir, {sup 178}Pt and {sup 178}Hg, based on HI reaction works performed after the last cutoff date (July 1993), and to {sup 178}Hf due to new data from recent Coulomb excitation experiments. Light ion ({sup 3}He, {alpha}) beam experiments have added many data for {sup 178}Ta. Beta decay studies have also provided significant data for {sup 178}W and {sup 178}Pt. Lastly the first report of the identification of {sup 178}Tl and {sup 178}Pb is included.

  15. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  16. Characteristics of ion flow in the quiet state of the inner plasma sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Angelopoulos, V.; Kennel, C.F.; Coroniti, F.V.; Pellat, R.; Kivelson, M.G.; Walker, R.J.; Russell, C.T. ); Spence, H.E. ); Baumjohann, W. ); Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T. )

    1993-08-20

    The authors model the properties of the ion flow in the high [beta][sub i], inner plasma sheet, during periods when geomagnetic activity is relatively low. They adopt the approach that the plasma sheet can be modeled in terms of bursty bulk flows (BBF's), irrespective of the auroral electrojet index. They then model the average flow pattern in the inner plasma sheet after the obvious BBF events have been removed from the data. The average flow properties found do not represent the instantaneous flow fields however, as there are large variances observed, even in the non-BBF part of the flow field. They are able to generate the same average flow patterns with their model, taking into account flow due to corotation, crossed field flow, and diamagnetic drift, as the T87 model.

  17. Application Cover Sheet Please clearly enter all the information on this application cover sheet.

    E-print Network

    Snider, Barry B.

    Application Cover Sheet Please clearly enter all the information on this application cover sheet./Degree: _________________________________________________________________________________ Date you entered Brandeis: _______________________ Expected Degree completion

  18. Mechanical loading prevents the stimulating effect of IL-1{beta} on osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N.; Bakker, Astrid D.; Everts, Vincent; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteocyte incubation with IL-1{beta} stimulated osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditioned medium from IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes increased osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-1{beta} upregulated RANKL and downregulated OPG gene expression by osteocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYR61 is upregulated in mechanically stimulated osteocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical loading of osteocytes may abolish IL-1{beta}-induced osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are often accompanied by higher plasma and synovial fluid levels of interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), and by increased bone resorption. Since osteocytes are known to regulate bone resorption in response to changes in mechanical stimuli, we investigated whether IL-1{beta} affects osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis in the presence or absence of mechanical loading of osteocytes. MLO-Y4 osteocytes were pre-incubated with IL-1{beta} (0.1-1 ng/ml) for 24 h. Cells were either or not subjected to mechanical loading by 1 h pulsating fluid flow (PFF; 0.7 {+-} 0.3 Pa, 5 Hz) in the presence of IL-1{beta} (0.1-1 ng/ml). Conditioned medium was collected after 1 h PFF or static cultures. Subsequently mouse bone marrow cells were seeded on top of the IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes to determine osteoclastogenesis. Conditioned medium from mechanically loaded or static IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes was added to co-cultures of untreated osteocytes and mouse bone marrow cells. Gene expression of cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61/CCN1), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) by osteocytes was determined immediately after PFF. Incubation of osteocytes with IL-1{beta}, as well as conditioned medium from static IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes increased the formation of osteoclasts. However, conditioned medium from mechanically loaded IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes prevented osteoclast formation. Incubation with IL-1{beta} upregulated RANKL and downregulated OPG gene expression by static osteocytes. PFF upregulated CYR61, RANKL, and OPG gene expression by osteocytes. Our results suggest that IL-1{beta} increases osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis, and that mechanical loading of osteocytes may abolish IL-1{beta}-induced osteoclastogenesis.

  19. Identifying and rationalizing the morphological, structural, and optical properties of {\\boldsymbol{\\beta }}-Ag2MoO4 microcrystals, and the formation process of Ag nanoparticles on their surfaces: combining experimental data and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbro, Maria T.; Saliby, Carla; Rios, Larissa R.; La Porta, Felipe A.; Gracia, Lourdes; Li, Máximo S.; Andrés, Juan; Santos, Luís P. S.; Longo, Elson

    2015-12-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of ?-Ag2MoO4 microcrystals. ?-Ag2MoO4 samples were prepared by a co-precipitation method. The nucleation and formation of Ag nanoparticles on ?-Ag2MoO4 during electron beam irradiation were also analyzed as a function of electron beam dose. These events were directly monitored in real-time using in situ field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The thermodynamic equilibrium shape of the ?-Ag2MoO4 crystals was built with low-index surfaces (001), (011), and (111) through a Wulff construction. This shape suggests that the (011) face is the dominating surface in the ideal morphology. A significant increase in the values of the surface energy for the (011) face versus those of the other surfaces was observed, which allowed us to find agreement between the experimental and theoretical morphologies. Our investigation of the different morphologies and structures of the ?-Ag2MoO4 crystals provided insight into how the crystal morphology can be controlled so that the surface chemistry of ?-Ag2MoO4 can be tuned for specific applications. The presence of structural disorder in the tetrahedral [MoO4] and octahedral [AgO6] clusters, the building blocks of ?-Ag2MoO4, was used to explain the experimentally measured optical properties.

  20. Magnetic Reconnection Onset and Energy Release at Current Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2015-04-01

    Reconnection and energy release at current sheets are important at the Sun (coronal heating, coronal mass ejections, flares, and jets) and at the Earth (magnetopause flux transfer events and magnetotail substorms) and other magnetized planets, and occur also at the interface between the Heliosphere and the interstellar medium, the heliopause. The consequences range from relatively quiescent heating of the ambient plasma to highly explosive releases of energy and accelerated particles. We use the Adaptively Refined Magnetohydrodynamics Solver (ARMS) model to investigate the self-consistent formation and reconnection of current sheets in an initially potential 2D magnetic field containing a magnetic null point. Unequal stresses applied to the four quadrants bounded by the X-line separatrix distort the potential null into a double-Y-type current sheet. We find that this distortion eventually leads to onset of fast magnetic reconnection across the sheet, with copious production, merging, and ejection of magnetic islands due to plasmoid instability. In the absence of a mechanism for ideal instability or loss of equilibrium of the global structure, however, this reconnection leads to minimal energy release. Essentially, the current sheet oscillates about its force-free equilibrium configuration. When the structure is susceptible to a large-scale rearrangement of the magnetic field, on the other hand, the energy release becomes explosive. We identify the conditions required for reconnection to transform rapidly a large fraction of the magnetic free energy into kinetic and other forms of plasma energy, and to restructure the current sheet and its surrounding magnetic field dramatically. We discuss the implications of our results for understanding heliophysical activity, particularly eruptions, flares, and jets in the corona.Our research was supported by NASA’s Heliophysics Supporting Research and Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology programs.

  1. The influence of cellular source on periodontal regeneration using calcium phosphate coated polycaprolactone scaffold supported cell sheets.

    PubMed

    Dan, Hongxia; Vaquette, Cédryck; Fisher, Anthony G; Hamlet, Stephen M; Xiao, Yin; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Ivanovski, Saso

    2014-01-01

    Cell-based therapy is considered a promising approach to achieving predictable periodontal regeneration. In this study, the regenerative potential of cell sheets derived from different parts of the periodontium (gingival connective tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament) were investigated in an athymic rat periodontal defect model. Periodontal ligament (PDLC), alveolar bone (ABC) and gingival margin-derived cells (GMC) were obtained from human donors. The osteogenic potential of the primary cultures was demonstrated in vitro. Cell sheets supported by a calcium phosphate coated melt electrospun polycaprolactone (CaP-PCL) scaffold were transplanted to denuded root surfaces in surgically created periodontal defects, and allowed to heal for 1 and 4 weeks. The CaP-PCL scaffold alone was able to promote alveolar bone formation within the defect after 4 weeks. The addition of ABC and PDLC sheets resulted in significant periodontal attachment formation. The GMC sheets did not promote periodontal regeneration on the root surface and inhibited bone formation within the CaP-PCL scaffold. In conclusion, the combination of either PDLC or ABC sheets with a CaP-PCL scaffold could promote periodontal regeneration, but ABC sheets were not as effective as PDLC sheets in promoting new attachment formation. PMID:24120045

  2. Effect of beta blockade and beta stimulation on stage fright.

    PubMed

    Brantigan, C O; Brantigan, T A; Joseph, N

    1982-01-01

    Stage fright, physiologically the "fight or flight" reaction, is a disabling condition to the professional musician. Because it is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, we have investigated the effects of beta blockade on musical performance with propranolol in a double blind fashion and the effects of beta stimulation using terbutaline. Stage fright symptoms were evaluated in two trials, which included a total of 29 subjects, by questionnaire and by the State Trai Anxiety Inventory. Quality of musical performance was evaluated by experienced music critics. Beta blockade eliminates the physical impediments to performance caused by stage fright and even eliminates the dry mouth so frequently encountered. The quality of musical performance as judged by experienced music critics is significantly improved. This effect is achieved without tranquilization. Beta stimulating drugs increase stage fright problems, and should be used in performing musicians only after consideration of the detrimental effects which they may have on musical performance. PMID:6120650

  3. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2015-07-14

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  4. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2014-10-07

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  5. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana (Davis, CA); Lamsa, Michael (Davis, CA); Clancy, Brian Gorre (Elk Grove, CA)

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  6. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana (Davis, CA); Lamsa, Michael (Davis, CA); Gorre-Clancy, Brian (Elk Grove, CA)

    2009-12-29

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  7. Manufacturing Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Manufacturing Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Manufacturing Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) focuses on developing methods and technologies that will assist manufacturers of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, as well as other renewable energy technologies, to scale up their manufacturing capabilities to volumes that meet DOE and industry targets. Specifically, the manufacturing activity is currently focused on developing and validating quality control techniques to assist manufacturers of low temperature and high temperature fuel cells in the transition from low to high volume production methods for cells and stacks. Capabilities include initial proof-of-concept studies through prototype system development and in-line validation. Existing diagnostic capabilities address a wide range of materials, including polymer films, carbon and catalyst coatings, carbon fiber papers and wovens, and multi-layer assemblies of these materials, as well as ceramic-based materials in pre- or post-fired forms. Work leading to the development of non-contact, non-destructive techniques to measure critical dimensional and functional properties of fuel cell and other materials, and validation of those techniques on the continuous processing line. This work will be supported by materials provided by our partners. Looking forward, the equipment in the laboratory is set up to be modified and extended to provide processing capabilities such as coating, casting, and deposition of functional layers, as well as associated processes such as drying or curing. In addition, continuous processes are used for components of organic and thin film photovoltaics (PV) as well as battery technologies, so synergies with these important areas will be explored.

  8. Development of transparent polycrystalline beta-silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam S.; Villalobos, Guillermo R.; Hunt, Michael P.; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Sadowski, Bryan M.; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Cinibulk, Michael; Carney, Carmen; Keller, Kristin

    2013-09-01

    Transparent beta-SiC is of great interest because its high strength, low coefficient of thermal expansion, very high thermal conductivity, and cubic crystal structure give it a very high thermal shock resistance. A transparent, polycrystalline beta-SiC window will find applications in armor, hypersonic missiles, and thermal control for thin disc lasers. SiC is currently available as either small transparent vapor grown disks or larger opaque shapes. Neither of which are useful in window applications. We are developing sintering technology to enable transparent SiC ceramics. This involves developing procedures to make high purity powders and studying their densification behavior. We have been successful in demonstrating transparency in thin sections using Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST). This paper will discuss the reaction mechanisms in the formation of beta-SiC powder and its sintering behavior in producing transparent ceramics.

  9. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) targets {beta}-catenin for phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Ji Eon; Sung, Ki Sa; Choi, Dong Wook; Lee, Byeong Jae; Choi, Cheol Yong

    2010-04-16

    The regulation of intracellular {beta}-catenin levels is central in the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling cascade and the activation of the Wnt target genes. Here, we show that homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) acts as a negative regulator of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway. Knock-down of endogenous HIPK2 increases the stability of {beta}-catenin and results in the accumulation of {beta}-catenin in the nucleus, consequently enhancing the expression of Wnt target genes and cell proliferation both in vivo and in cultured cells. HIPK2 inhibits TCF/LEF-mediated target gene activation via degradation of {beta}-catenin. HIPK2 phosphorylates {beta}-catenin at its Ser33 and Ser37 residues without the aid of a priming kinase. Substitutions of Ser33 and Ser37 for alanines abolished the degradation of {beta}-catenin associated with HIPK2. In ex vivo mouse model, HIPK2 knock-down resulted in accumulation of {beta}-catenin, thereby potentiated {beta}-catenin-mediated cell proliferation and tumor formation. Furthermore, the axis duplication induced by the ectopic expression of {beta}-catenin was blocked by co-injection of HIPK2 mRNAs into Xenopus embryos. Taken together, HIPK2 appears to function as a novel negative regulator of {beta}-catenin through its phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation.

  10. Greenland Ice Sheet’s response to global warming (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, K.

    2009-12-01

    Air temperatures along the west coast on the Greenland ice sheet have increased by 2 deg. C per decade since 1991, with largest warming during the winter months. The ice sheet melt area increased by 20% since 1979, and the increase in bare ice area is unmistakable at 13% per year. Warm summers and extended melt seasons are to blame for 3.5 m surface lowering at the long-term equilibrium line altitude, (1100 m elevation at 70 deg. N) between 2000 and 2007. The precipitation does not show a clear trend and varies between 30 cm and 200 cm annual snow accumulation at the equilibrium line altitude along the western slope of the ice sheet, 1979-2008. Increase in ice velocity in the ablation region and the concurrent increase in melt water suggests that water penetrates to great depth through moulins and cracks, lubricating the bottom of the ice sheet. The mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet has been negative for the past decade and the ice loss seems to be accelerating in recent years. Some of the ice loss can be explained by increase in surface melting (40%), however, ocean-ice interaction and ice dynamics play a major role. Several glaciers located north of Jakobshavn Isbrea (70 N) have increased flow velocities and loosing considerable ice volume to the ocean. New insight was gained of subsurface hydrologic channels and cavities using new instrumentation and a video system during the melt peak in August 2006-2009. Volume and geometry of a 100 m deep moulin were mapped with a rotating laser, and photographs with digital cameras. Sub-glacial hydrologic channels were investigated and filmed using a tethered, autonomous system, several hundred meters into the ice. These new results will be discussed in view of the rapid increase in melt area and mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet due to increasing air temperatures.

  11. Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Buechele, A.C.

    1982-05-01

    Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

  12. The Alpha-Beta Heuristic

    E-print Network

    Edwards, D.J.

    1961-12-01

    The Alpha-Beta heuristic is a method for pruning unneeded branches from the move tree of a game. The algorithm makes use of information gained about part of the tree to reject those branches which will not affect the ...

  13. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means.

  14. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  15. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... peginterferon beta-1a injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  16. Glass Concrete Thin Sheets Reinforced with Prestressed Aramid Fabrics

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Christian

    Glass Concrete Thin Sheets Reinforced with Prestressed Aramid Fabrics Gregor Vilkner Submitted Glass Concrete Thin Sheets Reinforced with Prestressed Aramid Fabrics Gregor Vilkner Thin sheet concrete presented in this work explored the possibilities of prestressing thin sheet glass concrete products

  17. Ion beta dependence on the development of Alfvénic fluctuations in reconnection jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashimori, Katsuaki; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    The generation of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) to ion-scale fluctuations in collisionless magnetic reconnection is discussed using a two-dimensional electromagnetic hybrid code. It is shown that reconnection jets become turbulent specifically in low beta conditions, ?i0<0.1-0.2 (where ?i0 is the ion plasma beta in initial inflow regions). The fluctuations observed in reconnection jets consist of outgoing Alfvénic fluctuations. As probable candidates for the origin of Alfvénic fluctuations, this study focused on the dynamics in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) and a current sheet. We suggest that PSBL ion dynamics play an important part in excitation and suppression of waves. PSBL beam ions drive Alfvén waves in MHD to ion scale, k?i<0.5 (?i is ion inertial length), independent of ?i0. On the other hand, because the beam temperature is highly correlated with that of inflowing ions, the waves decay by cyclotron damping as the value of the inflow ion beta increases. Local linear analysis suggests that this damping signature changes in ?i0˜0.1-0.2 and suppresses the wave activity of Alfvén modes in high beta reconnection jets.

  18. Protein Topology Determines Cysteine Oxidation Fate: The Case of Sulfenyl Amide Formation among Protein Families

    PubMed Central

    Defelipe, Lucas A.; Lanzarotti, Esteban; Gauto, Diego; Marti, Marcelo A.; Turjanski, Adrián G.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine residues have a rich chemistry and play a critical role in the catalytic activity of a plethora of enzymes. However, cysteines are susceptible to oxidation by Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species, leading to a loss of their catalytic function. Therefore, cysteine oxidation is emerging as a relevant physiological regulatory mechanism. Formation of a cyclic sulfenyl amide residue at the active site of redox-regulated proteins has been proposed as a protection mechanism against irreversible oxidation as the sulfenyl amide intermediate has been identified in several proteins. However, how and why only some specific cysteine residues in particular proteins react to form this intermediate is still unknown. In the present work using in-silico based tools, we have identified a constrained conformation that accelerates sulfenyl amide formation. By means of combined MD and QM/MM calculation we show that this conformation positions the NH backbone towards the sulfenic acid and promotes the reaction to yield the sulfenyl amide intermediate, in one step with the concomitant release of a water molecule. Moreover, in a large subset of the proteins we found a conserved beta sheet-loop-helix motif, which is present across different protein folds, that is key for sulfenyl amide production as it promotes the previous formation of sulfenic acid. For catalytic activity, in several cases, proteins need the Cysteine to be in the cysteinate form, i.e. a low pKa Cys. We found that the conserved motif stabilizes the cysteinate by hydrogen bonding to several NH backbone moieties. As cysteinate is also more reactive toward ROS we propose that the sheet-loop-helix motif and the constraint conformation have been selected by evolution for proteins that need a reactive Cys protected from irreversible oxidation. Our results also highlight how fold conservation can be correlated to redox chemistry regulation of protein function. PMID:25741692

  19. Selective regulation of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the human heart by chronic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, M. C.; Pingsmann, A.; Beckeringh, J. J.; Zerkowski, H. R.; Doetsch, N.; Brodde, O. E.

    1988-01-01

    1. In 44 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the effect of chronic administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists sotalol, propranolol, pindolol, metoprolol and atenolol on beta-adrenoceptor density in right atria (containing 70% beta 1- and 30% beta 2-adrenoceptors) and in lymphocytes (having only beta 2-adrenoceptors) was studied. 2. beta-Adrenoceptor density in right atrial membranes and in intact lymphocytes was assessed by (-)-[125I]-iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) binding; the relative amount of right atrial beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors was determined by inhibition of ICYP binding by the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551 and analysis of the resulting competition curves by the iterative curve fitting programme LIGAND. 3. With the exception of pindolol, all beta-adrenoceptor antagonists increased right atrial beta-adrenoceptor density compared to that observed in atria from patients not treated with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. 4. All beta-adrenoceptor antagonists increased right atrial beta 1-adrenoceptor density; on the other hand, only sotalol and propranolol also increased right atrial beta 2-adrenoceptor density, whereas metoprolol and atenolol did not affect it and pindolol decreased it. 5. Similarly, in corresponding lymphocytes, only sotalol or propranolol increased beta 2-adrenoceptor density, while metoprolol and atenolol did not affect it and pindolol decreased it. 6. It is concluded that beta-adrenoceptor antagonists subtype-selectively regulate cardiac and lymphocyte beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. The selective increase in cardiac beta 1-adrenoceptor density evoked by metoprolol and atenolol may be one of the reasons for the beneficial effects observed in patients with end-stage congestive cardiomyopathy following intermittent treatment with low doses of selective beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonists. PMID:2902891

  20. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G. (Stansbury Park, UT); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Wilsonville, OR); Van Voris, Peter (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  1. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    DOEpatents

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1993-01-26

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  2. Adhesion Transition of Flexible Sheets

    E-print Network

    Arthur A. Evans; Eric Lauga

    2009-05-31

    Intermolecular forces are known to precipitate adhesion events between solid bodies. Inspired by a macro-scale experiment showing the hysteretic adhesion of a piece of flexible tape over a plastic substrate, we develop here a model of far-field dry adhesion between two flexible sheets interacting via a power-law potential. We show that phase transitions from unadhered to adhered states occur as dictated by a dimensionless bending parameter representing the ratio of interaction strength to bending stiffness. The order of the adhesion transitions, as well as their hysteretic nature, is shown to depend on the form of the interaction potential between the flexible sheets. When three or more sheets interact, additional geometrical considerations determine the hierarchical or sequential nature of the adhesion transitions.

  3. Optimal swimming of a sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D.; Lauga, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Propulsion at microscopic scales is often achieved through propagating traveling waves along hairlike organelles called flagella. Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model is frequently used to provide insight into problems of flagellar propulsion. We derive numerically the large-amplitude wave form of the two-dimensional swimming sheet that yields optimum hydrodynamic efficiency: the ratio of the squared swimming speed to the rate-of-working of the sheet against the fluid. Using the boundary element method, we show that the optimal wave form is a front-back symmetric regularized cusp that is 25% more efficient than the optimal sine wave. This optimal two-dimensional shape is smooth, qualitatively different from the kinked form of Lighthill's optimal three-dimensional flagellum, not predicted by small-amplitude theory, and different from the smooth circular-arc-like shape of active elastic filaments.

  4. Subglacial floods beneath ice sheets.

    PubMed

    Evatt, G W; Fowler, A C; Clark, C D; Hulton, N R J

    2006-07-15

    Subglacial floods (jökulhlaups) are well documented as occurring beneath present day glaciers and ice caps. In addition, it is known that massive floods have occurred from ice-dammed lakes proximal to the Laurentide ice sheet during the last ice age, and it has been suggested that at least one such flood below the waning ice sheet was responsible for a dramatic cooling event some 8000 years ago. We propose that drainage of lakes from beneath ice sheets will generally occur in a time-periodic fashion, and that such floods can be of severe magnitude. Such hydraulic eruptions are likely to have caused severe climatic disturbances in the past, and may well do so in the future. PMID:16782609

  5. Global ice-sheet system interlocked by sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, George H.; Hughes, Terence J.; Karlén, Wibjörn

    1986-07-01

    Denton and Hughes (1983, Quaternary Research20, 125-144) postulated that sea level linked a global ice-sheet system with both terrestrial and grounded marine components during late Quaternary ice ages. Summer temperature changes near Northern Hemisphere melting margins initiated sea-level fluctuations that controlled marine components in both polar hemispheres. It was further proposed that variations of this ice-sheet system amplified and transmitted Milankovitch summer half-year insolation changes between 45 and 75°N into global climatic changes. New tests of this hypothesis implicate sea level as a major control of the areal extent of grounded portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, thus fitting the concept of a globally interlocked ice-sheet system. But recent atmospheric modeling results ( Manabe and Broccoli, 1985, Journal of Geophysical Research90, 2167-2190) suggest that factors other than areal changes of the grounded Antarctic Ice Sheet strongly influenced Southern Hemisphere climate and terminated the last ice age simultaneously in both polar hemispheres. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked to high-latitude oceans is the most likely candidate ( Shackleton and Pisias, 1985, Atmospheric carbon dioxide, orbital forcing, and climate. In "The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO 2: Natural Variations Archean to Present" (E. T. Sundquest and W. S. Broecker, Eds.), pp. 303-318. Geophysical Monograph 32, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.), but another potential influence was high-frequency climatic oscillations (2500 yr). It is postulated that variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide acted through an Antarctic ice shelf linked to the grounded ice sheet to produce and terminate Southern Hemisphere ice-age climate. It is further postulated that Milankovitch summer insolation combined with a warm high-frequency oscillation caused marked recession of Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet melting margins and the North Atlantic polar front about 14,000 14C yr B.P. This permitted renewed formation of North Atlantic Deep Water, which could well have controlled atmospheric carbon dioxide ( W. S. Broecker, D. M. Peteet, and D. Rind, 1985, Nature ( London) 315, 21-26). Combined melting and consequent sea-level rise from the three warming factors initiated irreversible collapse of the interlocked global ice-sheet system, which was at its largest but most vulnerable configuration.

  6. Apollo applications of beta fiber glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naimer, J.

    1971-01-01

    The physical characteristics of Beta fiber glass are discussed. The application of Beta fiber glass for fireproofing the interior of spacecraft compartments is described. Tests to determine the flammability of Beta fiber glass are presented. The application of Beta fiber glass for commercial purposes is examined.

  7. Magnetic Reconnection: Recursive Current Sheet Collapse Triggered by “Ideal” Tearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenerani, Anna; Velli, Marco; Rappazzo, Antonio Franco; Pucci, Fulvia

    2015-11-01

    We study, by means of MHD simulations, the onset and evolution of fast reconnection via the “ideal” tearing mode within a collapsing current sheet at high Lundquist numbers (S\\gg {10}4). We first confirm that as the collapse proceeds, fast reconnection is triggered well before a Sweet–Parker-type configuration can form: during the linear stage, plasmoids rapidly grow in a few Alfvén times when the predicted “ideal” tearing threshold S?1/3 is approached from above; after the linear phase of the initial instability, X-points collapse and reform nonlinearly. We show that these give rise to a hierarchy of tearing events repeating faster and faster on current sheets at ever smaller scales, corresponding to the triggering of “ideal” tearing at the renormalized Lundquist number. In resistive MHD, this process should end with the formation of sub-critical (S ? 104) Sweet–Parker sheets at microscopic scales. We present a simple model describing the nonlinear recursive evolution that explains the timescale of the disruption of the initial sheet.

  8. Integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} effectors p130Cas, Src and talin regulate carcinoma invasion and chemoresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Sansing, Hope A.; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R.; Patel, Vyomesh; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Berrier, Allison L.

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Proteomics of clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinoma. {yields} p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin regulate oral carcinoma invasion. {yields} p130Cas, talin, Src and zyxin regulate oral carcinoma resistance to cisplatin. -- Abstract: Ligand engagement by integrins induces receptor clustering and formation of complexes at the integrin cytoplasmic face that controls cell signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics critical for adhesion-dependent processes. This study searches for a subset of integrin effectors that coordinates both tumor cell invasion and resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in oral carcinomas. Candidate integrin effectors were identified in a proteomics screen of proteins recruited to clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta} or {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinomas. Proteins with diverse functions including microtubule and actin binding proteins, and factors involved in trafficking, transcription and translation were identified in oral carcinoma integrin complexes. Knockdown of effectors in the oral carcinoma HN12 cells revealed that p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin were required for invasion through Matrigel. Disruption of talin or p130Cas by RNA interference increased resistance to cisplatin, whereas targeting Dek, Src or zyxin reduced HN12 resistance to cisplatin. Analysis of the spreading of HN12 cells on collagen I and laminin I revealed that a decrease in p130Cas or talin expression inhibited spreading on both matrices. Interestingly, a reduction in zyxin expression enhanced spreading on laminin I and inhibited spreading on collagen I. Reduction of Dek, Src, talin or zyxin expression reduced HN12 proliferation by 30%. Proliferation was not affected by a reduction in p130Cas expression. We conclude that p130Cas, Src and talin function in both oral carcinoma invasion and resistance to cisplatin.

  9. Neutrinoless double beta decay and neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Duerr, Michael

    2012-07-27

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) is a promising test for lepton number violating physics beyond the standard model (SM) of particle physics. There is a deep connection between this decay and the phenomenon of neutrino masses. In particular, we will discuss the relation between 0{nu}{beta}{beta} and Majorana neutrino masses provided by the so-called Schechter-Valle theorem in a quantitative way. Furthermore, we will present an experimental cross check to discriminate 0{nu}{beta}{beta} from unknown nuclear background using only one isotope, i.e., within one experiment.

  10. Responsive systems for cell sheet detachment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nikul G.; Zhang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Cell sheet engineering has been progressing rapidly during the past few years and has emerged as a novel approach for cell based therapy. Cell sheet harvest technology enables fabrication of viable, transplantable cell sheets for various tissue engineering applications. Currently, the majority of cell sheet studies use thermo-responsive systems for cell sheet detachment. However, other responsive systems began showing their potentials for cell sheet harvest. This review provides an overview of current techniques in creating cell sheets using different types of responsive systems including thermo-responsive, electro-responsive, photo-responsive, pH-responsive and magnetic systems. Their mechanism, approach, as well as applications for cell detachment have been introduced. Further development of these responsive systems will allow efficient cell sheet harvesting and patterning of cells to reconstruct complex tissue for broad clinical applications. PMID:23820033

  11. Safe bending of boron/aluminum sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liskay, G. G.; Yoshino, S. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Low cost procedure utilizing aluminum backing sheets protects boron/aluminum sheet from cracking during bending. Process utilizes inexpensive universal-brake bending dies rather than special hydroforming dies.

  12. beta-cell apoptosis and defense mechanisms: lessons from type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Eizirik, D L; Darville, M I

    2001-02-01

    Increased evidence suggests that apoptosis is the main mode of beta-cell death in early type 1 diabetes. Cytokines mediate beta-cell apoptosis, and in this article, we discuss some of the cytokine-modified genes that may contribute to beta-cell survival or death. The gene encoding for the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase is induced by interleukin (IL)-1beta or IL-1beta plus gamma-interferon in rodent and human islets, respectively. This leads to nitric oxide (NO) formation, which contributes to a major extent to beta-cell necrosis and to a minor extent to the process of beta-cell apoptosis. The main mode of cell death induced by cytokines in human beta-cells is apoptosis, whereas cytokines lead to both necrosis and apoptosis in rat and mouse beta-cells. It is suggested that the necrotic component in rodent islets is due to NO-induced mitochondrial impairment and consequent decreased ATP production. Human islets, possessing better antioxidant defenses, are able to preserve glucose oxidation and ATP production, and can thus complete the apoptotic program after the death signal delivered by cytokines. We propose that this death signal results from cytokine-induced parallel and/or sequential changes in the expression of multiple proapoptotic and prosurvival genes. The identity of these "gene modules" and of the transcription factors regulating them remains to be established. PMID:11272205

  13. Fact Sheet: Summary of Self-Determination. NRC Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael; Lewin, Lori

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides an explanation of what self determination is, provides the four principles of self determination, describes the values supported by self determination. The authors contend that if self-determination is going to be successful, it requires that those who supply services and fund them make certain changes in both the way they…

  14. Student Information Sheet Group Name: _____________________________________ Visit Date: _____________________

    E-print Network

    Lee, Tonghun

    Student Information Sheet Group Name: _____________________________________ Visit Date: _____________________ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Name of Student: _____________________________________________________ Date of Birth: __________________________________ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Name of Student: _______________________________________________________ Date of Birth

  15. 3D modelling of the Tejeda Caldera cone-sheet swarm, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samrock, Lisa K.; Jensen, Max J.; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Mattsson, Tobias; Geiger, Harri

    2015-04-01

    Cone-sheet swarms provide vital information on the interior of volcanic systems and their plumbing systems (e.g. Burchardt et al. 2013). This information is important for the interpretation of processes and dynamics of modern and ancient volcanic systems, and is therefore vital for assessing volcanic hazards and to reduce risks to modern society. To more realistically model cone-sheet emplacement an approximation of their 3D shape needs to be known. Most cone-sheet swarms are not sufficiently exposed laterally and/or vertically, however, which makes it difficult to determine the geometry of a cone-sheet swarm at depth, especially since different shapes (e.g. convex, straight or concave continuations) would produce a similar trace at the surface (cf. Burchardt et al. 2011, and references therein). The Miocene Tejeda Caldera on Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain, hosts a cone-sheet swarm that was emplaced into volcaniclastic caldera infill at about 12.3-7.3 Ma (Schirnick et al. 1999). The dyke swarm displays over 1000 m of vertical exposure and more than 15 km of horizontal exposure, making it a superb locality to study the evolution of cone-sheet swarms in detail and to determine its actual geometry in 3D space. We have used structural data of Schirnick (1996) to model the geometry of the Tejeda cone-sheet in 3D, using the software Move® by Midland Valley Ltd. Based on previous 2D projections, Schirnick et al. (1999) suggested that the cone-sheet swarm is formed by a stack of parallel intrusive sheets which have a truncated dome geometry and form a concentric structure around a central axis, assuming straight sheet-intrusions. Our 3D model gives insight into the symmetries of the sheets and the overall geometry of the cone-sheet swarm below the surface. This visualization now allows to grasp the complexity of the Tejeda cone-sheet swarm at depth, particularly in relation to different possible cone-sheet geometries suggested in the literature (cf. Burchardt et al. 2011, and references therein), and we discuss the implications of this architecture for the feeding system of the Tejeda volcano and the associated temporal variations of cone-sheet emplacement. References: Burchardt, S., Tanner, D.C., Troll, V.R., Krumbholz, M., Gustafsson, L.E. (2011) Three-dimensional geometry of concentric intrusive sheet swarms in the Geitafell and the Dyrfjöll volcanoes, eastern Iceland. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 12(7): Q0AB09. Burchardt, S., Troll, V.R., Mathieu, L., Emeleus, H.C., Donaldson, C.H. (2013) Ardnamruchan 3D cone-sheet architecture explained by a single elongate magma chamber. Scientific Reports 3:2891. Schirnick, C. (1996) Formation of an intracaldera cone sheet dike swarm (Tejeda Caldera, Gran Canaria) (Dissertation). Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel, Germany. Schirnick, C., van den Bogaard, P., Schmincke, H.-U. (1999) Cone-sheet formation and intrusive growth of an oceanic island - The Miocene Tejeda complex on Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Geology, 27: 207-210.

  16. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.; Couture, P.; Fishman, H.; Fonck, R.; Gammel, G.; Grek, B.; Ida, K.; Itami, K.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high ..beta.. discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present ..beta.. limit.

  17. An ancient role for nuclear beta-catenin in the evolution of axial polarity and germ layer segregation.

    PubMed

    Wikramanayake, Athula H; Hong, Melanie; Lee, Patricia N; Pang, Kevin; Byrum, Christine A; Bince, Joanna M; Xu, Ronghui; Martindale, Mark Q

    2003-11-27

    The human oncogene beta-catenin is a bifunctional protein with critical roles in both cell adhesion and transcriptional regulation in the Wnt pathway. Wnt/beta-catenin signalling has been implicated in developmental processes as diverse as elaboration of embryonic polarity, formation of germ layers, neural patterning, spindle orientation and gap junction communication, but the ancestral function of beta-catenin remains unclear. In many animal embryos, activation of beta-catenin signalling occurs in blastomeres that mark the site of gastrulation and endomesoderm formation, raising the possibility that asymmetric activation of beta-catenin signalling specified embryonic polarity and segregated germ layers in the common ancestor of bilaterally symmetrical animals. To test whether nuclear translocation of beta-catenin is involved in axial identity and/or germ layer formation in 'pre-bilaterians', we examined the in vivo distribution, stability and function of beta-catenin protein in embryos of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Here we show that N. vectensis beta-catenin is differentially stabilized along the oral-aboral axis, translocated into nuclei in cells at the site of gastrulation and used to specify entoderm, indicating an evolutionarily ancient role for this protein in early pattern formation. PMID:14647383

  18. An ancient role for nuclear beta-catenin in the evolution of axial polarity and germ layer segregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wikramanayake, Athula H.; Hong, Melanie; Lee, Patricia N.; Pang, Kevin; Byrum, Christine A.; Bince, Joanna M.; Xu, Ronghui; Martindale, Mark Q.

    2003-01-01

    The human oncogene beta-catenin is a bifunctional protein with critical roles in both cell adhesion and transcriptional regulation in the Wnt pathway. Wnt/beta-catenin signalling has been implicated in developmental processes as diverse as elaboration of embryonic polarity, formation of germ layers, neural patterning, spindle orientation and gap junction communication, but the ancestral function of beta-catenin remains unclear. In many animal embryos, activation of beta-catenin signalling occurs in blastomeres that mark the site of gastrulation and endomesoderm formation, raising the possibility that asymmetric activation of beta-catenin signalling specified embryonic polarity and segregated germ layers in the common ancestor of bilaterally symmetrical animals. To test whether nuclear translocation of beta-catenin is involved in axial identity and/or germ layer formation in 'pre-bilaterians', we examined the in vivo distribution, stability and function of beta-catenin protein in embryos of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Here we show that N. vectensis beta-catenin is differentially stabilized along the oral-aboral axis, translocated into nuclei in cells at the site of gastrulation and used to specify entoderm, indicating an evolutionarily ancient role for this protein in early pattern formation.

  19. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact sheets for the insulation products you sell to them. Each sheet must contain what is listed here. You can... uses. (b) A heading: “This is ____ insulation.” Fill in the blank with the type and form of...

  20. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact sheets for the insulation products you sell to them. Each sheet must contain what is listed here. You can... uses. (b) A heading: “This is ____ insulation.” Fill in the blank with the type and form of...

  1. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact sheets for the insulation products you sell to them. Each sheet must contain what is listed here. You can... uses. (b) A heading: “This is ____ insulation.” Fill in the blank with the type and form of...

  2. Sheet Metal Worker: A Training Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    This training profile is intended for use by program developers and trainers in the development of training courses and programs for sheet metal workers. It contains 17 modules: safety for sheet metal worker; tools and machinery; materials and gauges; drafting and shop drawing; pattern development; methods of joining sheet metal; shearing and…

  3. Microporous polypropylene sheets containing polymethylsilsesquioxane filler

    SciTech Connect

    Nago, Satoshi; Mizutani, Yukio )

    1993-12-10

    Microporous sheets were prepared by biaxially stretching composite nonporous sheets composed of microspherical polymethylsilsesquioxane particles encased in polypropylene. The structural and physical property studies of the sheets obtained thereby show that the porosity, pore-size distribution, and the tortuosity vary with the average diameter of the encased particles as expected on the basis of theory.

  4. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fact sheets. 460.13 Section 460.13... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact... provisions of this regulation. Do not add anything else. Each fact sheet must contain these items: (a)...

  5. Manifold free multiple sheet superplastic forming

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Bridges, Robert L.

    2004-01-13

    Fluid-forming compositions in a container attached to enclosed adjacent sheets are heated to relatively high temperatures to generate fluids (gases) that effect inflation of the sheets. Fluid rates to the enclosed space between the sheets can be regulated by the canal from the container. Inflated articles can be produced by a continuous, rather than batch-type, process.

  6. Material Safety Data Sheet Mastisol Liquid Adhesive

    E-print Network

    Wikswo, John

    Material Safety Data Sheet ­ Mastisol® Liquid Adhesive Page 1 of 5 This Material Safety Data sheet 48220 Emergency Telephone: For emergency involving spill, leak, fire exposure or accident, call CHEMTREC, and redness. #12;Material Safety Data Sheet ­ Mastisol® Liquid Adhesive Page 2 of 5 Skin Contact: Repeated

  7. Material Safety Data Sheet Detachol Adhesive Remover

    E-print Network

    Wikswo, John

    Material Safety Data Sheet ­ Detachol® Adhesive Remover Page 1 of 4 This Material Safety Data sheet, Michigan 48220-2498 Emergency Telephone: For emergency involving spill, leak, fire exposure or accident;Material Safety Data Sheet ­ Detachol® Adhesive Remover Page 2 of 4 4. FIRST AID MEASURES Inhalation

  8. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fact sheets. 460.13 Section 460.13... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact... provisions of this regulation. Do not add anything else. Each fact sheet must contain these items: (a)...

  9. Manifold free multiple sheet superplastic forming

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W. (Danville, CA); Bridges, Robert L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    Fluid-forming compositions in a container attached to enclosed adjacent sheets are heated to relatively high temperatures to generate fluids (gases) that effect inflation of the sheets. Fluid rates to the enclosed space between the sheets can be regulated by the canal from the container. Inflated articles can be produced by a continuous, rather than batch-type, process.

  10. Aluminizing a Ni sheet through severe plastic deformation induced by ball collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romankov, S.; Shchetinin, I. V.; Park, Y. C.

    2015-07-01

    Aluminizing a Ni sheet was performed through severe plastic deformation induced by ball collisions. The Ni sheet was fixed in the center of a mechanically vibrated vial between two connected parts. The balls were loaded into the vial on both sides of the Ni disk. Al disks, which were fixed on the top and the bottom of the vial, served as the sources of Al contamination. During processing, the Ni sheet was subject to intense ball collisions. The Al fragments were transferred and alloyed to the surface of the Ni sheet by these collisions. The combined effects of deformation-induced plastic flow, mechanical intermixing, and grain refinement resulted in the formation of a dense, continuous nanostructured Al layer on the Ni surface on both sides of the sheet. The Al layer consisted of Al grains with an average size of about 40 nm. The Al layer was reinforced with nano-sized Ni flakes that were introduced from the Ni surface during processing. The local amorphization at the Ni/Al interface revealed that the bonding between Ni and Al was formed by mechanical intermixing of atomic layers at the interface. The hardness of the fabricated Al layer was 10 times that of the initial Al plate. The ball collisions destroyed the initial rolling texture of the Ni sheet and induced the formation of the mixed [1 0 0] + [1 1 1] fiber texture. The laminar rolling structure of the Ni was transformed into an ultrafine grain structure.

  11. Facile synthesis of highly conductive sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide sheets.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhengshan; Li, Jitao; Zhu, Gangyi; Lu, Junfeng; Wang, Yueyue; Shi, Zengliang; Xu, Chunxiang

    2015-12-23

    A facile hydrothermal strategy to synthesize sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide (S-RGO) sheets with good conductivity is proposed by using only graphene oxide (GO) sheets and sodium sulphide (Na2S) as precursors through a hydrothermal reaction process at 200 °C in one pot. The introduced Na2S can act as not only a sulfur dopant, but also as a highly efficient reducing agent in the formation of S-RGO sheets, which dramatically improves the electrical conductivities of the resulting S-RGO sheets compared with previous reports. The current reaches about 50.0 mA at an applied bias of 2.0 V for the optimized sample with 2.22 at% sulfur doping. This current value is much higher than that of RGO sheets (?1.2 mA) annealed at 200 °C, and very close to that of single-layer graphene sheets (?68.0 mA) prepared using chemical vapor deposition under the same test conditions. The resulting highly conductive S-RGO sheets offer many promising technological applications such as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts in oxygen reduction reactions in fuel cells and as supercapacitor electrode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries. PMID:26659603

  12. Do climate mode flips control the dynamics of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell, T.V. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Mode flips, major reorganizations of the earth's ocean-atmosphere system, are being debated as the cause of glacial terminations. If these do occur, one important implication is that ice sheets responded to, rather than drove, climate changes. Using the Laurentide Ice Sheet as an example, the author explores this implication and suggest that ice sheets acted in three fundamentally different modes. In the growth mode the LIS expanded under cold conditions, produced little meltwater and left little sediment. Equilibrium profiles were maintained during growth. During it's full extent mode, the ice sheet remained in a quasi-equilibrium state for several thousand years with minor marginal changes but produced little meltwater. In the decay mode, despite its rapid retreat, the ice sheet did most of its geomorphic work largely because of the abundant water produced from a rapid rise in ELA. Surface profiles would be low from the increased surface melting. This model explains the large volumes of meltwater that are necessary for deforming beds, surges, major subglacial erosion, and formation of proglacial lakes. If this hypothesis is correct it implies that the role of ice sheets in GCM models must be modified from driving to driven, and that anthropogenic warming may change the behavior of the Antarctic Ice Sheet by introducing a large ablation zone.

  13. Structural and electronic properties of hydrogen adsorptions on BC3 sheet and graphene: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Lin, Wen-Huan; Albao, Marvin A.; Su, Wan-Sheng

    2011-04-01

    We have systematically investigated the effect of hydrogen adsorption on a single BC3 sheet as well as graphene using first-principles calculations. Specifically, a comparative study of the energetically favorable atomic configurations for both H-adsorbed BC3 sheets and graphene at different hydrogen concentrations ranging from 1/32 to 4/32 ML and 1/8 to 1 ML was undertaken. The preferred hydrogen arrangement on the single BC3 sheet and graphene was found to have the same property as that of the adsorbed H atoms on the neighboring C atoms on the opposite sides of the sheet. Moreover, at low coverage of H, the pattern of hydrogen adsorption on the BC3 shows a proclivity toward formation on the same ring, contrasting their behavior on graphene where they tend to form the elongated zigzag chains instead. Lastly, both the hydrogenated BC3 sheet and graphene exhibit alternation of semiconducting and metallic properties as the H concentration is increased. These results suggest the possibility of manipulating the bandgaps in a single BC3 sheet and graphene by controlling the H concentrations on the BC3 sheet and graphene.

  14. Structural and electronic properties of hydrogen adsorptions on BC? sheet and graphene: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Lin, Wen-Huan; Albao, Marvin A; Su, Wan-Sheng

    2011-04-01

    We have systematically investigated the effect of hydrogen adsorption on a single BC? sheet as well as graphene using first-principles calculations. Specifically, a comparative study of the energetically favorable atomic configurations for both H-adsorbed BC? sheets and graphene at different hydrogen concentrations ranging from 1/32 to 4/32 ML and 1/8 to 1 ML was undertaken. The preferred hydrogen arrangement on the single BC? sheet and graphene was found to have the same property as that of the adsorbed H atoms on the neighboring C atoms on the opposite sides of the sheet. Moreover, at low coverage of H, the pattern of hydrogen adsorption on the BC? shows a proclivity toward formation on the same ring, contrasting their behavior on graphene where they tend to form the elongated zigzag chains instead. Lastly, both the hydrogenated BC? sheet and graphene exhibit alternation of semiconducting and metallic properties as the H concentration is increased. These results suggest the possibility of manipulating the bandgaps in a single BC? sheet and graphene by controlling the H concentrations on the BC? sheet and graphene. PMID:21343638

  15. Key residues for the oligomerization of A{beta}42 protein in Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, Sam; Guo, Zhefeng

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta} oligomers are neurotoxins and likely the causing agents for Alzheimer's disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein form globular oligomers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein oligomers contain SDS-resistant tetramers and hexamers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cysteine substitutions at residues 31, 32, 34, 39-41 disrupt A{beta}42 oligomerization. -- Abstract: Deposition of amyloid fibrils consisting of amyloid {beta} (A{beta}) protein as senile plaques in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. However, a growing body of evidence shows that soluble A{beta} oligomers correlate better with dementia than fibrils, suggesting that A{beta} oligomers may be the primary toxic species. The structure and oligomerization mechanism of these A{beta} oligomers are crucial for developing effective therapeutics. Here we investigated the oligomerization of A{beta}42 in the context of a fusion protein containing GroES and ubiquitin fused to the N-terminus of A{beta} sequence. The presence of fusion protein partners, in combination with a denaturing buffer containing 8 M urea at pH 10, is unfavorable for A{beta}42 aggregation, thus allowing only the most stable structures to be observed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed globular oligomers, which bound weakly to thioflavin T and Congo red. SDS-PAGE shows that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed SDS-resistant hexamers and tetramers. In contrast, A{beta}40 fusion protein remained as monomers on SDS gel, suggesting that the oligomerization of A{beta}42 fusion protein is not due to the fusion protein partners. Cysteine scanning mutagenesis at 22 residue positions further revealed that single cysteine substitutions of the C-terminal hydrophobic residues (I31, I32, L34, V39, V40, and I41) led to disruption of hexamer and tetramer formation, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions between these residues are most critical for A{beta}42 oligomerization.

  16. Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model

    SciTech Connect

    Anzai, Jun; Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 ; Kitamura, Masahiro; Nozaki, Takenori; Nagayasu, Toshie; Terashima, Akio; Asano, Taiji; Murakami, Shinya

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. {yields} FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via {beta}-TCP at the defects. {yields} In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. {yields} Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. {yields} This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontal tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus {beta}-TCP or {beta}-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with {beta}-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal regeneration following severe destruction by progressive periodontitis.

  17. Distinct functions for integrins alpha 3 beta 1 in focal adhesions and alpha 6 beta 4/bullous pemphigoid antigen in a new stable anchoring contact (SAC) of keratinocytes: relation to hemidesmosomes

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Basal cells of stratified epidermis are anchored to the basement membrane zone (BMZ) of skin via hemidesmosomes. We previously identified integrin alpha 3 beta 1, in focal adhesions (FAs), of cultured human keratinocytes (HFKs) as a mediator of HFK adhesion to secreted BMZ-like extracellular matrix (ECM; Carter, W.G., E.A. Wayner, T.S. Bouchard, and P. Kaur. 1990. J. Cell Biol. 110: 1387-1404). Here, we have examined the relation of integrins alpha 6 beta 4 and alpha 3 beta 1, to bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), a component of hemidesmosomes. We conclude that alpha 6 beta 4 in HFKs localizes in a new stable anchoring contact (SAC) that cooperates with alpha 3 beta 1- FAs to mediate adhesion to ECM, based on the following. (a) Comparison of secreted ECM, with exogenous laminin, fibronectin and collagen identified ECM as the preferred ligand for HFK adhesion and spreading and for formation of both alpha 6 beta 4-SACs and alpha 3 beta 1-FAs. (b) Inhibition of HFK adhesion with combined anti-alpha 3 beta 1 (P1B5) and anti-alpha 6 beta 4 (GoH3) antibodies indicated that both receptors were functional in adhesion to ECM while alpha 3 beta 1 played a dominant role in spreading. (c) alpha 6 beta 4 colocalized with BPA in SACs that were proximal to but excluded from FAs. Both alpha 6 beta 4- SACs and alpha 3 beta 1-FAs were in contact with the adhesion surface as indicated by antibody exclusion and interference reflection microscopy. (d) In contrast to alpha 3 beta 1-FAs, alpha 6 beta 4-SACs were present only in nonmotile cells, not associated with stress fibers, and were relatively stable to detergents and urea, suggesting a nonmotile, or anchoring function for SACs and motility functions for alpha 3 beta 1-FAs. (e) alpha 6 beta 4 formed a detergent-insoluble complex with exogenous ECM in an affinity isolation procedure, confirming the ability of an unidentified ECM ligand to interact with alpha 6 beta 4. (f) We suggest that alpha 6 beta 4/BPA-SACs in culture restrict migration of HFKs on ECM while alpha 3 beta 1-FAs form dynamic adhesions in spreading and migrating cells. alpha 6 beta 4/BPA-SACs in culture bear functional and compositional similarities to hemidesmosomes in skin. PMID:2269668

  18. Differential adrenergic regulation of the gene expression of the beta-adrenoceptor subtypes beta1, beta2 and beta3 in brown adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, T; Cannon, B; Nedergaard, J

    2000-01-01

    In brown adipocytes, fundamental cellular processes (cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis) are regulated by adrenergic stimulation, notably through beta-adrenergic receptors. The presence of all three beta-receptor subtypes has been demonstrated in brown adipose tissue. Due to the significance of the action of these receptors and indications that the subtypes govern different processes, the adrenergic regulation of the expression of the beta(1)-(,) beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenoceptor genes was examined in murine brown-fat primary cell cultures. Moderate levels of beta(1)-receptor mRNA, absence of beta(2)-receptor mRNA and high levels of beta(3)-receptor mRNA were observed in mature brown adipocytes (day 6 in culture). Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) addition led to diametrically opposite effects on beta(1)- (markedly enhanced expression) and beta(3)-gene expression (full cessation of expression, as previously shown). beta(2)-Gene expression was induced by noradrenaline, but only transiently (<1 h). The apparent affinities (EC(50)) of noradrenaline were clearly different (7 nM for the beta(1)-gene andbeta(3)-gene), as were the mediation pathways (solely via beta(3)-receptors and cAMP for the beta(1)-gene and via beta(3)-receptors and cAMP, as well as via alpha(1)-receptors and protein kinase C, for the beta(3)-gene). The half-lives of the corresponding mRNA species were very short but different (17 min for beta(1)-mRNA and 27 min for beta(3)-mRNA), and these degradation rates were not affected by noradrenaline, implying that the mRNA levels were controlled by transcription. Inhibition of protein synthesis also led to diametrically opposite effects on beta(1)- and beta(3)-gene expression, but - notably - these effects were congruent with the noradrenaline effects, implying that a common factor regulating beta(1)-gene expression negatively and beta(3)-gene expression positively could be envisaged. In conclusion, very divergent effects of adrenergic stimulation on the expression of the different beta-receptor genes were found within one cell type, and no unifying concept of adrenergic control of beta-receptor gene expression can be formulated, either concerning different cell types, or concerning the different beta-receptor subtype genes. PMID:10769166

  19. Magnetic Reconnection Onset via Disruption of a Forming Current Sheet by the Plasmoid Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Nuno; Uzdensky, Dmitri

    The recent realization that Sweet-Parker reconnection current sheets are violently unstable to the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability implies that such current sheets are unlikely to be realized in real systems. This suggests that, in order to understand the onset of magnetic reconnection, one needs to consider the growth of the tearing instability in a current layer as it is just being formed. We present such an analysis in the context of nonlinear resistive MHD for a generic time-dependent equilibrium representing a gradually forming current sheet. It is shown that, under most conditions, the longest-wavelength mode dominates, resulting in just one or two big plasmoids produced in the immediate aftermath of current sheet formation. Specific examples pertaining to solar flares and to parasitic modes of the magnetorotational instability are provided.

  20. Stress localisation in annular sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Gert; Starostin, Eugene

    2015-03-01

    For very thin sheets stretching is much more costly in terms of energy than bending. The limiting behaviour of thin sheets is therefore governed by geometry only and thus applies to a wide range of materials at vastly different scales: it is equally valid for a microscopic graphene sheet and a macroscopic solar sail. We derive new geometrically-exact equations for the deformation of annular strips. We use a formulation in which the inextensibility constraint is used to reduce the problem to a suitably-chosen reference curve (here the circular centreline). The equations are therefore ODEs, which allow for a detailed bifurcation analysis. Closed conical solutions are found for centreline lengths L less than Lc = 2 ??g , where ?g is the geodesic curvature of the strip. For such `short' strips we find in addition a second branch of stable solutions easily reproduced in a paper strip. For `long' strips (L >Lc) we find modes of undulating solutions. All non-conical solutions turn out to feature points of stress localisation on the edge of the annulus, the outer edge for short solutions and the inner edge of long solutions. Our theory may be used to investigate singularities of constrained or loaded sheets more general than conical ones.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Facility (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Magnetic Resonance Facility capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center. Liquid and solid-state analysis capability for a variety of biomass, photovoltaic, and materials characterization applications across NREL. NREL scientists analyze solid and liquid samples on three nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers as well as an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer.

  2. Bedload sheets in heterogeneous sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, P.J.; Dietrich, W.E.; Leopold, L.B.; Drake, T.G.; Shreve, R.L.

    1988-02-01

    Field observations in streams with beds of coarse sand and fine gravel have revealed that bedload moves primarily as thin, migrating accumulations of sediment, and coarse grains cluster at their leading edge. These accumulations are one or two coarse grains high and are much longer (0.2-0.6 m long in sand; 0.5-2.0 m in fine gravel) than their height. The authors propose the term bedload sheet for these features, and the authors argue that they result from an instability inherent to bedload movement of moderately and poorly sorted sediment. In essence, coarse particles in the bedload slow or stop each other, trap finer particles in their interstices, and thus cause the coarse particles to become mobile again. Bedload sheets develop on the stoss side of dunes, causing the dune to advance incrementally with the arrival of each sheet. Successive deposition of coarse sediment from the leading edge followed by fine sediment may generate the grain-size sorting that distinguishes cross-bedding. Available flume experiments and field observations indicate that bedload sheets are a common, but generally unrecognized, feature of heterogeneous sediment transport.

  3. IMMUNIZATION COVER SHEET HEALTH SERVICES

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    IMMUNIZATION COVER SHEET HEALTH SERVICES 327 HIGH STREET MIDDLETOWN, CT 06459 University Health of adequate immunization against measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and chicken pox (varicella). Please indicate the documentation provided by you or your physician as proof of adequate immunization or the exemption that applies

  4. Strategic Energy Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    NREL complements its scientific research with high-quality, credible, technology-neutral, objective analysis that informs policy and investment decisions as renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies move from innovation through integration. This sheet highlights NREL's analytical capabilities and achievements.

  5. Fact Sheets on Institutional Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Change, Inc., New York, NY.

    This fact sheet on institutional racism contains statistics on white control of the economy, health, housing, education, the media, and government. It also shows the oppression of minorities in these areas. The areas of wealth, the stock exchange, business, banks, unions, poverty, and unemployment, are discussed in terms of economy. Health matters…

  6. Multiparameter Display and Data Sheet

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists used this multiparameter display system attached to a water-quality sonde and the accompanying data sheet as they collected water-quality data from the lower Boise River near Veterans Memorial Parkway in Boise, ID. The data collected are being used to develop models of total pho...

  7. Technology Performance Exchange (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    This fact sheet, 'The Technology Performance Exchange' will be presented at the ET Summit, held at the Pasadena Convention Center on October 15-17, 2012. The Technology Performance Exchange will be a centralized, Web-based portal for finding and sharing energy performance data for commercial building technologies.

  8. Structure-reactivity relationships in the inactivation of elastase by beta-sultams.

    PubMed

    Hinchliffe, Paul S; Wood, J Matthew; Davis, Andrew M; Austin, Rupert P; Beckett, R Paul; Page, Michael I

    2003-01-01

    N-Acyl-beta-sultams are time dependent irreversible active site directed inhibitors of elastase. The rate of inactivation is first order with respect to beta-sultam concentration and the second order rate constants show a similar dependence on pH to that for the hydrolysis of a peptide substrate. Inactivation is due to the formation of a stable 1:1 enzyme inhibitor complex as a result of the active site serine being sulfonylated by the beta-sultam. Ring opening of the beta-sultam occurs by S-N fission in contrast to the C-N fission observed in the acylation of elastase by N-acylsulfonamides. Structure-activity effects are compared between sulfonylation of the enzyme and alkaline hydrolysis. Variation in 4-alkyl and N-substituted beta-sultams causes differences in the rates of inactivation by 4 orders of magnitude. PMID:12929392

  9. Targeted inhibition of {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin with an RNA aptamer impairs endothelial cell growth and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Mi Jing; Zhang Xiuwu; Giangrande, Paloma H.; McNamara, James O.; Nimjee, Shahid M.; Sarraf-Yazdi, Shiva; Sullenger, Bruce A.; Clary, Bryan M. . E-mail: mi001@duke.edu

    2005-12-16

    {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin is a crucial factor involved in a variety of physiological processes, such as cell growth and migration, tumor invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin exerts its effect by regulating endothelial cell (EC) migration, proliferation, and survival. Inhibiting the function of {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin, therefore, represents a potential anti-cancer, anti-thrombotic, and anti-inflammatory strategy. In this study, we tested an RNA aptamer, Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 that binds recombinant {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin, for its ability to bind endogenous {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin on the surface of cells in culture and to subsequently affect cellular response. Our data illustrate that Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 binds {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin expressed on the surface of live HUVECs. This interaction significantly decreases both basal and PDGF-induced cell proliferation as well as inhibition of cell adhesion. Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 can also reduce PDGF-stimulated tube formation and increase HUVEC apoptosis through inhibition of FAK phosphorylation pathway. Our results demonstrate that by binding to its target, Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 can efficiently inhibit human EC proliferation and survival, resulting in reduced angiogenesis. It predicts that Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 could become useful in both tumor imaging and the treatment of tumor growth, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and inflammation.

  10. Field reversing magnetotail current sheets: earth, Venus, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.

    1986-09-01

    This dissertation examines the field reversing magnetotail current sheets at the earth, Venus, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner. In the near earth study a new analysis technique is developed to calculate the detailed current density distributions within the cross tail current sheet for the first time. This technique removes the effects of a variable sheet velocity by inverting intersatellite timings between the co-orbiting satellites ISEE-1 and -2. Case studies of three relatively geomagnetically quiet crossings are made; sheet thicknesses and peak current densities are approx.1-5 x 10/sup 4/ km and approx.5-50 nA/m/sup 2/. Current density distributions reveal a high density central region, lower density shoulders, and considerable fine structure throughout. In the Venus study another new analysis technique is developed to reconstruct the average tail configuration from a correlation between field magnitude and draping angle in a large statistical data set. In the comet study, high resolution magnetic field and plasma electron data from the ICE traversal of Giacobini-Zinner are combined for the first time to determine the tail/current sheet geometry and calculate certain important but unmeasured local ion and upstream properties. Pressure balance across the tail gives ion temperatures and betas of approx.1.2 x 10/sup 5/ K and approx.40 in the center of the current sheet to approx.1 x 10/sup 6/ K and approx.3 in the outer lobes. Axial stress balance shows that the velocity shear upstream near the nucleus is >6 (approx.1 at ICE), and that a region of strongly enhanced mass loading (ion source rate approx.24 times that upstream from lobes) exists upstream from the current sheet. The integrated downtail mass flux is approx.2.6 x 10/sup 26/ H/sub 2/O+/sec, which is only approx.1% of the independently determined total cometary efflux. 79 refs., 37 figs.

  11. Epistemology of Ice Sheet Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waibel, M. S.; Hulbe, C. L.; Johnson, J. V.

    2012-12-01

    Recent change in the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets is observed as surface lowering accompanied by speed up of the ice. One of two types of perturbation is usually invoked to account for these changes, unbalanced forces at either the bed or at the marine margin of the ice sheet. The former is linked to change in meltwater at the bed while the latter is linked to a change in the temperature of the ocean near the margin. Observational data have been used together with numerical models to reproduce both cases. What we ask here is whether or not there is anything distinctive in the observed patterns of change that warrants preferring one type of perturbation over the other. That is, our interest is epistemological: is there anything distinctive in the pattern of ice sheet response to environmental forcing that allows the correct forcing to be identified using observational data? We hypothesize that specific changes in ice dynamics—perturbation at the bed or at the margin—lead to unique patterns of change in ice sheet flow, and thus geometry. For example, ocean warming may have its largest expression close to the coast and then propagate into the interior on time and spatial scales set by the material properties of the ice and various boundary conditions. Other perturbations may yield different patterns. The hypothesis is tested using an ice sheet model and a set of simple perturbations that represent environmental changes that might drive ice sheet change. We use surface lowering (ice thinning) as our indicator of change and conduct an EOF analysis to identify modes in that time dependent field. If leading modes derived from different perturbation experiments are distinguishable, the null hypothesis—that there is nothing diagnostic in the observed changes—is rejected and we conclude that observed patterns of change in ice sheets may be used to identify underlying causes for that change. This, in turn, would yield normal mode "finger prints" for different types of perturbations that could be used to interpret observed patterns of change.

  12. Hepatic progenitor cell resistance to TGF-{beta}1's proliferative and apoptotic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J. Brian; Rice, Lisa; Sadiq, Tim; Brittain, Evan; Song, Lujun; Wang Jian; Gerber, David A. . E-mail: David_Gerber@med.unc.edu

    2005-04-01

    The success of hepatocellular therapies using stem or progenitor cell populations is dependent upon multiple factors including the donor cell, microenvironment, and etiology of the liver injury. The following experiments investigated the impact of TGF-{beta}1 on a previously described population of hepatic progenitor cells (HPC). The majority of the hepatic progenitor cells were resistant to endogenously produced TGF-{beta}1's proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects unlike more well-differentiated cellular populations (e.g., mature hepatocytes). Surprisingly, in vitro TGF-{beta}1 supplementation significantly inhibited de novo hepatic progenitor cell colony formation possibly via an indirect mechanism(s). Therefore despite the HPC's direct resistance to supplemental TGF-{beta}1, this cytokine's inhibitory effect on colony formation could have a potential negative impact on the use of these cells as a therapy for patients with liver disease.

  13. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  14. Equilibrium ice sheet scaling in climate modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Verbitsky, M.Y.

    1992-03-01

    A set of simple scaling formulas related to ice sheet evolution is derived from the dynamic and thermodynamic equations for ice and is used to consider two common situations: (1) when we wish to estimate potential ice sheet characteristics given the prescribed net snow accumulation over an area; and (b) when we wish to reconstruct net snow accumulation and vertical temperature difference within the ice sheet area and volume. The scaling formulas are applied to the present day Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, as well as to some ancient ice sheets, and are used to estimate the potential global sea level change due to greenhouse warming. 23 refs.

  15. Study of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Effects on Workpiece Quality in Sheet Metal Extrusion Process.

    PubMed

    Suriyapha, Chatkaew; Bubphachot, Bopit; Rittidech, Sampan

    2015-01-01

    Sheet metal extrusion is a metal forming process in which the movement of a punch penetrates a sheet metal surface and it flows through a die orifice; the extruded parts can be deflected to have an extrusion cavity and protrusion on the opposite side. Therefore, this process results in a narrow region of highly localized plastic deformation due to the formation and microstructure effect on the work piece. This research investigated the characteristics of the material-flow behavior during the formation and its effect on the microstructure of the extruded sheet metal using the finite element method (FEM). The actual parts and FEM simulation model were developed using a blank material made from AISI-1045 steel with a thickness of 5 mm; the material's behavior was determined subject to the punch penetration depths of 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of the sheet thickness. The results indicated the formation and microstructure effects on the sheet metal extrusion parts and defects. Namely, when increasing penetration, narrowing the die orifice the material flows through, the material was formed by extruding, and defects were visibility, and the microstructure of the material's grains' size was flat and very fine. Extrusion defects were not found in the control material flow. The region of highly localized plastic deformation affected the material gain and mechanical properties. The FEM simulation results agreed with the experimental results. Moreover, FEM could be investigated as a tool to decrease the cost and time in trial and error procedures. PMID:26229979

  16. Study of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Effects on Workpiece Quality in Sheet Metal Extrusion Process

    PubMed Central

    Suriyapha, Chatkaew; Bubphachot, Bopit; Rittidech, Sampan

    2015-01-01

    Sheet metal extrusion is a metal forming process in which the movement of a punch penetrates a sheet metal surface and it flows through a die orifice; the extruded parts can be deflected to have an extrusion cavity and protrusion on the opposite side. Therefore, this process results in a narrow region of highly localized plastic deformation due to the formation and microstructure effect on the work piece. This research investigated the characteristics of the material-flow behavior during the formation and its effect on the microstructure of the extruded sheet metal using the finite element method (FEM). The actual parts and FEM simulation model were developed using a blank material made from AISI-1045 steel with a thickness of 5?mm; the material's behavior was determined subject to the punch penetration depths of 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of the sheet thickness. The results indicated the formation and microstructure effects on the sheet metal extrusion parts and defects. Namely, when increasing penetration, narrowing the die orifice the material flows through, the material was formed by extruding, and defects were visibility, and the microstructure of the material's grains' size was flat and very fine. Extrusion defects were not found in the control material flow. The region of highly localized plastic deformation affected the material gain and mechanical properties. The FEM simulation results agreed with the experimental results. Moreover, FEM could be investigated as a tool to decrease the cost and time in trial and error procedures. PMID:26229979

  17. Radar measurements of melt zones on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, Kenneth C.; Gogineni, Prasad; Shanableh, M.

    1994-01-01

    Surface-based microwave radar measurements were performed at a location on the western flank of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Here, firn metamorphasis is dominated by seasonal melt, which leads to marked contrasts in the vertical structure of winter and summer firn. This snow regime is also one of the brightest radar targets on Earth with an average backscatter coefficient of 0 dB at 5.3 GHz and an incidence angle of 25 deg. By combining detailed observations of firn physical properties with ranging radar measurements we find that the glaciological mechanism associated with this strong electromagnetic response is summer ice lens formation within the previous winter's snow pack. This observation has important implications for monitoring and understanding changes in ice sheet volume using spaceborne microwave sensors.

  18. Novel mechanism of inhibiting beta-lactamases by sulfonylation using beta-sultams.

    PubMed

    Page, Michael I; Hinchliffe, Paul S; Wood, J Matthew; Harding, Lindsay P; Laws, Andrew P

    2003-12-15

    Beta-sultams are the sulfonyl analogues of beta-lactams and N-acyl beta-sultams are novel inactivators of the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99. The rates of inactivation show a similar pH-rate dependence as that exhibited by the beta-lactam antibiotics and with ESIMS data it is suggested that beta-sultams sulfonylate the active site serine residue to form a sulfonate ester. PMID:14643353

  19. Targeting ILK and {beta}4 integrin abrogates the invasive potential of ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yoon Pyo; Kim, Baek Gil; Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul ; Gao, Ming-Qing; Kang, Suki; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of targeting ILK and integrins for highly aggressive ovarian cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unanticipated synergistic effect for the combination of ILK/{beta}4 integrin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ILK/{beta}4 integrin effectively inhibited the PI3K/Akt/Rac1 cascade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting of {beta}4 integrin/ILK had potent inhibitory effects in ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) are essential to cancerous invasion because they mediate physical interactions with the extracellular matrix, and regulate oncogenic signaling pathways. The purpose of our study is to determine whether deletion of {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin and ILK, alone or in combination, has antitumoral effects in ovarian cancer. Expression of {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin and ILK was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 196 ovarian cancer tissue samples. We assessed the effects of depleting these molecules with shRNAs in ovarian cancer cells by Western blot, conventional RT-PCR, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and in vitro Rac1 activity assays, and in vivo xenograft formation assays. Overexpression of {beta}4 integrin and ILK in human ovarian cancer specimens was found to correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Depletion of these targets efficiently suppresses ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and xenograft tumor formation in vivo. We also demonstrated that single depletion of ILK or combination depletion of {beta}4 integrin/ILK inhibits phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets, p-Ser 473 Akt and p-Thr202/Tyr204 Erk1/2, and activation of Rac1, as well as reduce expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increase expression of caspase-3 in vitro. In conclusion, targeting {beta}4 integrin combined with ILK can instigate the latent tumorigenic potential and abrogate the invasive potential in ovarian cancer.

  20. Resonant Alfven wave heating of the plasma sheet boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrold, B. G.; Goertz, C. K.; Smith, R. A.; Hansen, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The exchange of energy between the plasma mantle and the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) is examined with a one-dimensional magnetotail model. The energy exchange occurs via Poynting flux generated by the localized mode conversion of a surface wave to an Alfven wave. This Poynting flux propagates through the lobe and into the PSBL where it is absorbed by two processes. The first arises from a gradient in the plasma beta causing a smooth absorption of Poynting flux. The second process results from the localized mode conversion of the decaying surface wave to an Alfven wave, causing a localized absorption of energy. A numerical solution of the linearized ideal MHD equations is obtained by assuming an adiabatic equation of state.

  1. Functional properties of an isolated. cap alpha beta. heterodimeric human placenta insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Feltz, S.M.; Swanson, M.L.; Wemmie, J.A.; Pessin, J.E.

    1988-05-03

    Treatment of human placenta membranes at pH 8.5 in the presence of 2.0 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) for 5 min, followed by the simultaneous removal of the DTT and pH adjustment of pH 7.6, resulted in the formation of a functional ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor complex from the native ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state. The membrane-bound ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complex displayed similar curvilinear /sup 125/I-IGF-1 equilibrium binding compared to the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric complex. /sup 125/I-IGF-1 binding to both the isolated ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes demonstrated a marked straightening of the Scatchard plots, compared to the placenta membrane-bound IGF-1 receptors, with a 2-fold increase in the high-affinity binding component. IGF-1 stimulation of IGF-1 receptor autophosphorylation indicated that the ligand-dependent activation of ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric protein kinase activity occurred concomitant with the reassociation into a covalent ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric state. These data demonstrate that (i) a combination of alkaline pH and DTT treatment of human placenta membranes results in the formation of an ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex, (ii) unlike the insulin receptor, high-affinity homogeneous IGF-1 binding occurs in both the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes, and (iii) IGF-1-dependent autophosphorylation of the ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex correlates wit an IGF-1 dependent covalent reassociation into an ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state.

  2. Membrane adhesion and domain formation

    E-print Network

    Thomas R. Weikl; Reinhard Lipowsky

    2007-09-23

    We review theoretical results for the adhesion-induced phase behavior of biomembranes. The focus is on models in which the membranes are represented as discretized elastic sheets with embedded adhesion molecules. We present several mechanism that lead to the formation of domains during adhesion, and discuss the time-dependent evolution of domain patterns obtained in Monte-Carlo simulations. The simulated pattern dynamics has striking similarities to the pattern evolution observed during T cell adhesion.

  3. [Beta blockers and cardiac decompensation].

    PubMed

    Puddu, G M; Cravero, E; Puddu, P

    1999-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that beta blockers are able to modify the course of the disease, through the reduction of hemodynamic in stabilization and mortality cases. The success of these drugs in the treatment of chronic heart failure is related to the sympathoadrenergic activation and to renin-angiothensin-aldosteron system. Various molecules are available at the moment. Recent research has been done on third generation beta blockers (carvedilol, nebivolol, bucindolol). These drugs have shown to possess some peculiar characteristics, in particular the ability of reducing the number of side effects which may be seen while using beta blockers of the first generations. Although it is currently difficult to give general informations based only on the pharmacologic profile, the choice of the type of drug to use in the single patient with chronic heart failure should be made considering the adequacy of the pharmacologic characteristics in each specific situation. PMID:10756664

  4. Method and apparatus for selective capture of gas phase analytes using metal .beta.-diketonate polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Scott D

    2011-06-21

    A process and sensor device are disclosed that employ metal .beta.-diketonate polymers to selectively capture gas-phase explosives and weaponized chemical agents in a sampling area or volume. The metal .beta.-diketonate polymers can be applied to surfaces in various analytical formats for detection of: improvised explosive devices, unexploded ordinance, munitions hidden in cargo holds, explosives, and chemical weapons in public areas.

  5. Expression of GH, TSH beta, LH beta and FSH beta genes during fetal pituitary development in the pig.

    PubMed

    Ma, E; Klempt, N; Grossmann, R; Ivell, R; Kato, Y; Ellendorff, F

    1996-01-01

    The development of the anterior pituitary gland involves the proliferation and differentiation of ectodermal cells in Rathke's pouch to generate distinct cell types, each of which produces its corresponding trophic hormone. Studying pituitary development will therefore reveal novel aspects of organogenesis. In the present study, we examined by in situ hybridization the expression of genes for anterior pituitary hormones during development of the fetal pig pituitary. We found that the beta-subunit gene of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH beta) was first expressed at E40, (E = day of embryonal/fetal life), growth hormone (GH) mRNA appeared between E40 and E50, and the gonadotrophin genes (LH beta and FSH beta) were expressed at E50. The transcripts for TSH beta, LH beta and FSH beta were abundantly expressed at about E80, while GH mRNA continued to be richly expressed until after birth. The GH gene was first expressed in the mantle layer of the anterior lobe, while the TSH beta and gonadotrophin (LH beta and FSH beta) mRNAs were found in the central and the basal regions of the anterior lobe, respectively. All of these mRNAs (GH, TSH beta, LH beta, and FSH beta) remained concentrated until the end of gestation in the area where they first appeared. The distinctive pattern of developmental expression of these hormone genes in the fetal pig anterior pituitary makes this tissue an excellent system in which to study tissue-specific gene activation and regulation. PMID:9021348

  6. Constitution of pseudobinary hypoeutectic beta-NiAl + alpha-V alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, J. D.; Kaufman, M. J.; Noebe, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of pseudobinary eutectics between NiAl (beta) and V (alpha) at high temperatures was investigated as a possible way of improving the ductility and toughness of the alloy. It is found that a pseudobinary eutectic, characterized by a large beta+alpha field, is formed in the Ni-Al-V ternary system below about 1370 C. The high-temperature solubility of V in beta is about 14 percent, decreasing markedly with decreasing temperature and increasing Al content above 50 at. pct Al. The pseudobinary hypoeutectic exibits crack resistance under indentation loading.

  7. Salmon, Mississippi Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-04

    The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site overlies a salt formation called the Tatum Salt Dome. Land around the Salmon site has residential, industrial, and commercial use, although no one lives within the boundary of the site itself. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense conducted two underground nuclear tests at the site under the designation of Project Dribble, part of a larger program known as the Vela Uniform program. Two gas explosive tests, designated Project Miracle Play, were also conducted at the site.

  8. Effects of turn residues on beta-hairpin folding--a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Sung, S S

    1999-12-01

    Folding of beta-hairpin structures of synthetic peptides has been simulated using the molecular dynamics method with a solvent-referenced potential. Two similar sequences, Ac-MQIFVKS(D)PGKTITLKV-NH(2) and Ac-MQIFVKS(L)PGKTITLKV-NH(2), derived from the N-terminal beta-hairpin of ubiquitin, were used to study the effects of turn residues in beta-hairpin folding. The simulations were carried out for 80 ns at 297 K. With extended initial conformation, the (D)P-containing peptide folded into a stable 2:2 beta-hairpin conformation with a type II' beta-turn at (D)PG. The overall beta-hairpin ratio, calculated by the DSSP algorithm, was 32.6%. With randomly generated initial conformations, the peptide also formed the stable 2:2 beta-hairpin conformation. The interactions among the side chains in the 2:2 beta-hairpin were almost identical to those in the native protein. These interactions reduced the solvation energy upon folding and stabilized the beta-hairpin conformation. Without the solvent effect, the peptide did not fold into stable beta-hairpin structures. The solvent effect is crucial for the formation of the beta-hairpin conformation. The effect of the temperature has also been studied. The (L)P-containing peptide did not fold into a stable beta-hairpin conformation and had a much lower beta-hairpin ratio (16.6%). The( L)P-containing peptide has similar favorable side-chain interactions, but the turn formed by (L)PG does not connect well with the right-handed twist of the beta-strands. For comparison, the isolated N-terminal peptide of ubiquitin, Ac-MQIFVKTLTGKTITLEV-NH(2), was also simulated and its beta-hairpin ratio was low, indicating that the beta-hairpin in the native structure is stabilized by the interaction with the protein environment. These simulation results agreed qualitatively with the available experimental findings. PMID:10547531

  9. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Impink, Jr., Albert J. (Murrysville, PA); Goldstein, Norman P. (Murrysville, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  10. From pancreatic islet formation to beta-cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ben-Othman, Nouha; Courtney, Monica; Vieira, Andhira; Pfeifer, Anja; Druelle, Noémie; Gjernes, Elisabet; Faurite, Biljana; Avolio, Fabio; Collombat, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus represents a major healthcare burden and, due to the increasing prevalence of type I diabetes and the complications arising from current treatments, other alternative therapies must be found. Type I diabetes arises as a result of a cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic ?-cells. Thus, a cell replacement therapy would be appropriate, using either in vitro or in vivo cell differentiation/reprogramming from different cell sources. Increasing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling endocrine cell specification during pancreas morphogenesis and gaining further insight into the complex transcriptional network and signaling pathways governing ?-cell development should facilitate efforts to achieve this ultimate goal, that is to regenerate insulin-producing ?-cells. This review will therefore describe briefly the genetic program underlying mouse pancreas development and present new insights regarding ?-cell regeneration. PMID:23380136

  11. A Warmer Atmosphere on Mars near the Noachian-Hesperian Boundary: Evidence from Basal Melting of the South Polar Ice Cap (Dorsa Argentea Formation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, J. L.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.; Forget, F.; Madeleine, J.-B.

    2012-05-01

    Eskers in the Dorsa Argentea Formation imply the presence of an ice sheet with a wet bed. With an ice sheet model, we examine a range of geothermal heat fluxes and warmer climates to determine what conditions could produce such an ice sheet.

  12. Intermediates caught in the act: tracing insulin amyloid fibril formation in time by combined optical spectroscopy, light scattering, mass spectrometry and microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gladytz, A; Lugovoy, E; Charvat, A; Häupl, T; Siefermann, K R; Abel, B

    2015-01-14

    Interest in the topic of amyloid formation by peptides and proteins has increased dramatically in recent years, transforming it from a puzzling phenomenon associated with a small number of diseases into a major subject of study in disciplines ranging from material science to biology and medicine. The tendency of numerous (also non-pathogenic) proteins such as insulin to self-assemble into amyloid-like fibrils is well known. While fibrils are usually easily detected, the observation of transient intermediates is a big challenge in general. They are the key and the 'holy grail' for a molecular understanding of mechanisms in this context. Here we show that intermediates, i.e. oligomers, can be detected and their hydrodynamic radius RH as well as their overall conformation and structure can be monitored and the aggregation dynamics as well as structure formation can be detected in time with a suitable combination of experimental techniques. We have observed transient intermediates that resemble large oligomers held together in solution by non-covalent forces. The oligomers appear to convert into building blocks for mature fibrils with largely beta-sheet conformation resembling key players in a mechanism, which is termed 'nucleated conformation conversion' in the literature. Structural transformations of oligomers in time towards dominant beta-sheet conformations have been observed for the first time. The structures can even be observed in liquid phase AFM experiments. With this approach we have successfully shed new light into the aggregation and fibrilization process of insulin being possibly a model system for other amyloid systems. PMID:25408431

  13. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.; Sitzman, G.W.

    1998-10-27

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet is disclosed including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet. 2 figs.

  14. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI); Sitzman, Gary W. (Walled Lake, MI)

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet.

  15. Enhanced polymerization of recombinant human deoxyhemoglobin. beta. 6 Glu yields Ile

    SciTech Connect

    Baudin-Chich, V.; Pagnier, J.; Marden, M.; Bohn, B.; Lacaze, N.; Kister, J.; Poyart, C. ); Schaad, O.; Edelstein, S.J. )

    1990-03-01

    Polymerization of the deoxy form of sickle cell hemoglobin involves both hydrophobic and electrostatic intermolecular contacts. These interactions drive the mutated molecules into long fibrous rods composed of seven pairs of strands. X-ray crystallography of Hb S and electron microscopy image reconstruction of the fibers have revealed the remarkable complementarity between one of the {beta}6 valines of each molecule (the donor site) and an acceptor site at the EF corner of a neighboring tetramer. To estimate the relative importance of this key hydrophobic contact in polymer formation the authors have generated a polymerizing Hb with isoleucine at the {beta}6 position ({beta}E6I) by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutated {beta} chains were produced in Escherichia coli and reassembled into functional tetramers with native {alpha} chains. Compared to native Hb S, the {beta}E6I mutant polymerizes faster and with a shortened delay time in 1.8 M phosphate buffer, indicating an increased stability of the nuclei preceding fiber growth. Computer modeling of the donor-acceptor interaction shows that the presence of an isoleucine side chain at the donor site induced increased contacts with the receptor site and an increased buried surface area, in agreement with the higher hydrophobicity of the isoleucine residue. The agreement between the predicted and experimental differences in solubility suggests that the transfer of the {beta}6 valine or isoleucine side chain from water to a hydrophobic environment is sufficient to explain the observations.

  16. Characterization of products formed during the autoxidation of beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Handelman, G J; van Kuijk, F J; Chatterjee, A; Krinsky, N I

    1991-01-01

    The anticarcinogenic action of carotenoids such as beta-carotene has been frequently ascribed to their antioxidant properties. However, very little is actually known about the nature of the antioxidant reaction or the products that are formed. beta-Carotene was exposed to either spontaneous autoxidation conditions or to radical-initiated autoxidation conditions. The products were separated by reverse-phase HPLC, and individual peaks were characterized with an on-line diode array detector. Carbonyl products were isolated and characterized by several procedures, including borohydride reduction to the corresponding alcohols, derivatization with O-ethyl-hydroxylamine to the corresponding O-ethyl-oximes of the carbonyls, and analysis by GC-MS. Under the conditions of the experiments, the formation of a homologous series of carbonyl products was demonstrated, including beta-apo-13-carotenone, retinal, beta-apo-14'-carotenal, beta-apo-12'-carotenal, and beta-apo-10'-carotenal. Several very hydrophobic compounds were formed, which have not been previously identified. In addition, the products of NaOCl-treatment of beta-carotene were analyzed, and shown to be significantly different from the autoxidation products. This type of product analysis should be useful in determining the nature of the oxidants reacting with beta-carotene in vivo. PMID:1894165

  17. Microtubule assembly by the Apc protein is regulated by importin-beta--RanGTP.

    PubMed

    Dikovskaya, Dina; Li, Zhuoyu; Newton, Ian P; Davidson, Iain; Hutchins, James R A; Kalab, Petr; Clarke, Paul R; Näthke, Inke S

    2010-03-01

    Mutations in the tumour suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) initiate most sporadic colorectal cancers. Apc is implicated in regulating microtubule (MT) dynamics in interphase and mitosis. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism or regulation of this Apc function. We identified importin-beta as a binding partner of Apc that regulates its effect on MTs. Apc binds importin-beta in vitro and in Xenopus egg extracts, and RanGTP inhibits this interaction. The armadillo-like repeat domain of importin-beta binds to the middle of Apc, where it can compete with beta-catenin. In addition, two independent sites in the C terminus of Apc bind the N-terminal region of importin-beta. Binding to importin-beta reduces the ability of Apc to assemble and bundle MTs in vitro and to promote assembly of microtubule asters in Xenopus egg extracts, but does not affect the binding of Apc to MTs or to EB1. Depletion of Apc decreases the formation of cold-stable spindles in Xenopus egg extracts. Importantly, the ability of purified Apc to rescue this phenotype was reduced when it was constitutively bound to importin-beta. Thus, importin-beta binds to Apc and negatively regulates the MT-assembly and spindle-promoting activity of Apc in a Ran-regulatable manner. PMID:20144988

  18. {beta}-Catenin/LEF1 activated enamelin expression in ameloblast-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Hua; Lv, Ping; Ma, Kangtao; Zhou, Chunyan; Gao, Xuejun

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} {beta}-Catenin/LEF1 complex could activate enamelin gene transcription. {yields} {beta}-Catenin/LEF1 can directly bind to enamelin 5' regulatory region. {yields} Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling can upregulate enamelin expression in ameloblast-like cells. -- Abstract: Enamelin is an ameloblast-specific matrix protein believed to play essential roles in enamel formation. However, mechanisms of enamelin transcription regulation are not clear. {beta}-Catenin/LEF1 is a key transcriptional complex involved in tooth development. In this study, the role of {beta}-catenin/LEF1 in enamelin expression was investigated. The 5'-flanking region of the mouse enamelin gene was analyzed and cloned. Co-transfection analysis and mutation assays revealed that two conserved LEF1 responsive elements located at -1002 and -597 bp upstream of the enamelin translation initiation site could augment transcriptional activity of the enamelin. The interaction between the enamelin elements and {beta}-catenin/LEF1 was further confirmed by electrophoresis mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. In addition, LiCl treatment induced nuclear translocation of {beta}-catenin and elevated endogenous enamelin expression in mouse ameloblast-like cells. The results suggested that Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling could function in enamelin gene expression by direct interaction through two conserved LEF1 responsive elements on the enamelin gene in ameloblast-like cells.

  19. Optimization of platelet isolation and extraction of autogenous TGF-beta in cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Staudenmaier, Rainer; Froelich, K; Birner, M; Kindermann, J; The Hoang, Nguyen; Pueschel, R C; Mandlik, V

    2009-01-01

    Platelets are enriched with Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta). However, information is limited concerning TGF-beta's effects at the molecular level. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that TGF-beta activates cell proliferation and its positive influence on cartilage formation has been proven within the field of Tissue Engineering (TE). As Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) contains TGF-beta, it was the purpose of this study to optimize PRP-isolation for further TGF-beta extraction. Red blood cell count (RBC) was separated from whole blood by centrifugation. From the supernatant PRP and platelet poor plasma (PPP) layer, the latter supernatant was re-centrifuged to extract PRP. Various experimental series were run to investigate influences concerning anticoagulating alternatives, different amounts of buffer, various centrifugal forces, or substituting centrifugation for sedimentation. TGF-beta levels were determined using ELISA. The technique of platelet-/ TGF-beta-extraction described here proves to be more effective than other methods, is easily repeatable and not time-consuming, which predisposes it for TE requirements. PMID:19922166

  20. Identification of distinct physiochemical properties of toxic prefibrillar species formed by A{beta} peptide variants

    SciTech Connect

    Goeransson, Anna-Lena; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Kagedal, Katarina; Brorsson, Ann-Christin

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of toxic prefibrillar A{beta} species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence measurements using a combined set of fluorophores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology studies using transmission electron microscopy. -- Abstract: The formation of amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) aggregates at an early stage during the self-assembly process is an important factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. The toxic effect is believed to be exerted by prefibrillar species of A{beta}. It is therefore important to identify which prefibrillar species are toxic and characterize their distinct properties. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro aggregation behavior of A{beta}-derived peptides possessing different levels of neurotoxic activity, using fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with transmission electron microscopy. The toxicity of various A{beta} aggregates was assessed by using cultures of human neuroblastoma cells. Through combined use of the fluorescence probe 8-anilino-1-napthalenesulfonate (ANS) and the novel luminescent probe pentamer formyl thiophene acetic acid (p-FTAA), we were able to identify those A{beta} peptide-derived prefibrillar species which exhibited cellular toxicity. In particular, species, which formed early during the aggregation process and showed strong p-FTAA and ANS fluorescence, were the species that possessed toxic activities. Moreover, by manipulating the aggregation conditions, it was possible to change the capacity of the A{beta} peptide to form nontoxic versus toxic species.