Sample records for beta thalassaemia trait

  1. The spectrum of beta thalassaemia in Burma.

    PubMed

    Brown, J M; Thein, S L; Weatherall, D J; Mar, K M

    1992-08-01

    The molecular defects causing beta thalassaemia have been analysed in 85 unrelated Burmese patients. The patients included 14 with homozygous beta thalassaemia, 70 with HbE/beta thalassaemia and one with HbS/beta thalassaemia. Using a combination of allele-specific oligoprobe hybridization and direct sequencing of genomic DNA amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, 95/99 of the beta-thalassaemia alleles have been characterized. Six mutations have been identified of which three, the G-T at IVS-1 position 1, the G-C at IVS-1 position 5 and the deletion of TCTT in codons 41/42, accounted for 85% of the alleles. Despite the diversity of ethnic groups in Burma, the number of beta-thalassaemia alleles in Burma is relatively small. Thus, diagnosis of the majority of the beta thalassaemias would be possible using a limited number of oligonucleotide probes. PMID:1356413

  2. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Turkish Cypriots.

    PubMed Central

    Sozuoz, A; Berkalp, A; Figus, A; Loi, A; Pirastu, M; Cao, A

    1988-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide hybridisation or restriction endonuclease analysis, we have characterised the molecular defect in 94 patients with thalassaemia major and four with thalassaemia intermedia of Turkish Cypriot descent. We found that four mutations, namely beta+ IVS-1 nt 110, beta zero IVS-1 nt, beta+ IVS-1 nt 6, and beta+ IVS-2 nt 745 were prevalent, accounting for 69.9%, 11.7%, 8.7%, and 5.6% respectively of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes. This information may help in the organisation of a large scale prevention programme based on fetal diagnosis of beta thalassaemia by DNA analysis in the Turkish population. PMID:3236356

  3. Pathophysiology of beta thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Origa, Raffaella; Galanello, Renzo

    2011-03-01

    In beta thalassemia, unbalanced alpha globin chain synthesis results in severely rheologically compromised erythrocytes with premature destruction in the peripheral circulation and ineffective erythropoiesis within the bone marrow and in extramedullary sites. In nontransfused beta thalassemia patients, erythropoiesis,anemia and hypoxia down-regulate hepcidin, the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Hepcidin deficiency in turn allows excessive duodenal iron absorption and development of systemic iron overload. In regularly transfused patients iron overload is mostly due to red cell breakdown. When the iron binding capacity of transferrin is saturated, iron can appear in the serum in a free form, called Non-Transferrin-Bound Iron, a powerful catalyst for the formation of free radicals, capable of causing oxidative stress and damage to mitochondria, lysosomes, lipid membranes, proteins, and DNA. Apart from the iron overload-related complications, other pathological conditions such as bone disease, gallstones and thromboembolic events occur in a relevant proportion of subjects with thalassemia. PMID:21705976

  4. Serum ferritin spectrotypes in patients with heterozygous beta-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Lasne, Y; Francina, A; Benzerara, O

    1991-03-15

    Serum ferritin spectrotypes from patients heterozygous for beta-thalassaemia were determined after agarose isoelectric focusing followed by radio-immunofixation with anti-ferritin antibody. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a specific spectrotype for heterozygous beta-thalassaemia. This spectrotype was shown to be different from those in hereditary spherocytosis and idiopathic haemochromatosis. Statistical discrimination reached 100% of well-classified patients between these pathological conditions. PMID:2049859

  5. Identification of a novel beta O-thalassaemia mutation in a Greek family and subsequent prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Waye, J S; Eng, B; Olivieri, N F; Chui, D H

    1994-10-01

    We present a case in which a Greek couple was considered not to be at risk of having children with homozygous beta-thalassaemia, an assessment based largely on the father's belief that he carried alpha-thalassaemia. After their first child was diagnosed with homozygous beta-thalassaemia, the case was re-assessed and both parents were shown to have the haematological profile of beta-thalassaemia trait. Screening for the common Mediterranean mutations demonstrated that the mother carries the IVS-1 nt 110 G-->A beta(+)-thalassaemia mutation. Direct nucleotide sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA revealed that the father carries a novel beta O-thalassaemia mutation, frameshift codons 9/10 (+T). The couple's second pregnancy was terminated after prenatal testing revealed that the fetus had inherited both parental mutations. This case illustrates the need to confirm the carrier status of individuals prior to assessing their genetic risks, and highlights the importance of being able to identify rare or novel beta-thalassaemia mutations. PMID:7899267

  6. Epistasis and the sensitivity of phenotypic screens for beta thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Penman, Bridget S; Gupta, Sunetra; Weatherall, David J

    2015-04-01

    Genetic disorders of haemoglobin, particularly the sickle cell diseases and the alpha and beta thalassaemias, are the commonest inherited disorders worldwide. The majority of affected births occur in low-income and lower-middle income countries. Screening programmes are a vital tool to counter these haemoglobinopathies by: (i) identifying individual carriers and allowing them to make informed reproductive choices, and (ii) generating population level gene-frequency estimates, to help ensure the optimal allocation of public health resources. For both of these functions it is vital that the screen performed is suitably sensitive. One popular first-stage screening option to detect carriers of beta thalassaemia in low-income countries is the One Tube Osmotic Fragility Test (OTOFT). Here we introduce a population genetic framework within which to quantify the likely sensitivity and specificity of the OTOFT in different epidemiological contexts. We demonstrate that interactions between the carrier states for beta thalassaemia and alpha thalassaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis have the potential to reduce the sensitivity of OTOFTs for beta thalassaemia heterozygosity to below 70%. Our results therefore caution against the widespread application of OTOFTs in regions where these erythrocyte variants co-occur. PMID:25521998

  7. The spectrum of beta-thalassaemia in Burma.

    PubMed

    Brown, J M; Thein, S L; Mar, K M; Weatherall, D J

    1989-01-01

    The molecular defects causing beta-thalassaemia (beta-thal) have been analyzed in 63 unrelated Burmese patients. The patients include 49 with Hb E/beta-thal, 13 with beta-thal major and 1 with Hb S/beta-thal. Using synthetic oligonucleotide probes and aided by the polymerase chain reaction 64/76 (84%) of the alleles have been characterized. To date 6 mutations have been identified. The most common mutation is the splicing defect at IVS-1 nt 1 which accounts for 32% of the alleles. Complete characterization of these alleles should aid the initiation of a prenatal diagnosis programme for beta-thalassaemia in the Burmese population. PMID:2575755

  8. Iron Overload in Beta Thalassaemia Major and Intermedia Patients

    PubMed Central

    MISHRA, Amit Kumar; TIWARI, Archana

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In beta thalassaemia major multiple blood transfusions, ineffective erythropoiesis and increased gastrointestinal iron absorption lead to iron overload in the body. Iron overload impairs the immune system, placing patients at greater risk of infection and illness. Iron overload can be determined by serum ferritin measurement. Objective: The aim of the present study is to assess the serum ferritin levels in multi-transfused Thalassaemia major and Thalassaemia intermedia patients. The study was also done to estimate the present situation of awareness of iron overload in them. Methods: Seventy two blood samples from clinically diagnosed thalassaemia major and intermedia patients were collected from different tertiary care hospitals in Bhopal, India for their serum ferritin estimation. Serum ferritin measurement was performed using indirect enzyme linked immune sorbent based serum ferritin assay kit. Data were analyzed to determine association between variables. The association between age, sex, and serum ferritin level were established. Results: 87.4% of the beta thalassaemia major patients showed very high ferritin levels. The mean serum ferritin level was found to be 2767.52 ng/ml. 44.4% patients had serum ferritin between 1000 to 2500 ng/ml, while 43.05% patients had values above 2500 ng/ml. These levels reflect inadequate chelation and vulnerability to develop iron overload related complications. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to rationalize the chelation therapy and to create awareness about the consequences of iron overload in the patients. The study showed high levels of serum ferritin beta thalassaemia major patients which give an overall bleak view. PMID:24790662

  9. A wider molecular spectrum of beta-thalassaemia in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Win, Ne; Harano, Teruo; Harano, Keiko; Myint, Thein-Thein; Mra, Rai; Okada, Shigeru; Shimono, Kunio; Myint, Aye-Aye

    2002-06-01

    Two hundred and nine beta-thalassaemia (beta-Thal) alleles of 158 unrelated Myanmar patients (107 HbE-beta-Thal; 51 beta-Thal major) were analysed for beta-globin gene mutations. Amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) characterized six beta-thal mutations known to Myanmar [betaIVSI-1(G-->T), codon 41/42(-TCTT), betaIVSI-5(G-->C), codon 17(A-->T), betaIVS II-654(C-->T), and -28 Cap (A-->G)] in 166/209 (79.4%) alleles. DNA sequencing of 24 alleles from 43 ARMS-negative samples (20.6%) identified an additional 12 new mutations, to produce a total of 18 different mutations. Nineteen alleles (9.1%) remained for further characterization. The molecular spectrum of Myanmar beta-Thal is wider and more heterogeneous than previously reported. PMID:12060142

  10. Psychosocial functioning in adults with beta-thalassaemia major: evidence for resilience.

    PubMed

    Zani, Bruna; Prati, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    Our aims were to compare the psychosocial functioning of a sample of adults with beta-thalassaemia major to that of a control sample and to examine the protective role of quality of relationship with parents during adolescence and perceived quality of care. A total of 85 Italian beta-thalassaemia major participants and 73 controls completed an ad hoc questionnaire. Compared with controls, beta-thalassaemia major participants did not differ on relationships with significant others and coping strategies. Beta-thalassaemia major participants reported higher scores on job satisfaction, self-esteem and self-description. The relationship with parents during adolescence and the perceived quality of care significantly predicted higher well-being and psychosocial functioning. PMID:24058126

  11. Screening for beta-thalassaemia carriers in Egypt: significance of the osmotic fragility test.

    PubMed

    El-Beshlawy, A; Kaddah, N; Moustafa, A; Mouktar, G; Youssry, I

    2007-01-01

    To estimate beta-thalassaemia carrier rate and to determine an accurate mass screening test, we tested 1000 randomly selected children aged 5-16 years from different geographical areas of Egypt. Microcytosis was present in 412 participants. The osmotic fragility test was positive in 81.1% of the 90 beta-thalassaemia carriers; in the indeterminate group (12 participants), the test was positive in 83.3%; in the 310 who were iron deficient, the test was positive in 63.9%. beta-thalassaemia carrier rate was > or = 9%. Serum iron, microcytosis, HbA2 level and transferrin saturation were accurate tests for detecting carriers. For the one-tube osmotic fragility test, sensitivity was 87.0% and specificity 34.1%; the test has limited use for a mass screening programme in Egypt, where iron deficiency is prevalent. PMID:17955759

  12. Thalassaemia in Azerbaijan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A M Kuliev; I M Rasulov; T Dadasheva; E I Schwarz; C Rosatelli; L Saba; A Meloni; E Gemidjioglu; M Petrou; B Modell

    1994-01-01

    beta thalassaemia is present throughout the southern regions of the former USSR. We have defined the clinical picture of the disorder, the spectrum of beta thalassaemia mutations, and the role of customary consanguineous marriage in Azerbaijan, where thalassaemia presents a public health problem of the same order as that in Greece. Contrary to earlier suggestions, we found that the common

  13. A Java-based Electronic Healthcare Record Software for Beta-thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Lambrinoudakis, C; Andriopoulos, P; Farmakis, D; Aessopos, A

    2001-01-01

    Background Beta-thalassaemia is a hereditary disease, the prevalence of which is high in persons of Mediterranean, African, and Southeast Asian ancestry. In Greece it constitutes an important public health problem. Beta-thalassaemia necessitates continuous and complicated health care procedures such as daily chelation; biweekly transfusions; and periodic cardiology, endocrinology, and hepatology evaluations. Typically, different care items are offered in different, often-distant, health care units, which leads to increased patient mobility. This is especially true in rural areas. Medical records of patients suffering from beta-thalassaemia are inevitably complex and grow in size very fast. They are currently paper-based, scattered over all units involved in the care process. This hinders communication of information between health care professionals and makes processing of the medical records difficult, thus impeding medical research. Objective Our objective is to provide an electronic means for recording, communicating, and processing all data produced in the context of the care process of patients suffering from beta-thalassaemia. Methods We have developed - and we present in this paper - Java-based Electronic Healthcare Record (EHCR) software, called JAnaemia. JAnaemia is a general-purpose EHCR application, which can be customized for use in all medical specialties. Customization for beta-thalassaemia has been performed in collaboration with 4 Greek hospitals. To be capable of coping with patient record diversity, JAnaemia has been based on the EHCR architecture proposed in the ENV 13606:1999 standard, published by the CEN/TC251 committee. Compliance with the CEN architecture also ensures that several additional requirements are fulfilled in relation to clinical comprehensiveness; to record sharing and communication; and to ethical, medico-legal, and computational issues. Special care has been taken to provide a user-friendly, form-based interface for data entry and processing. Results The experience gained through the use of JAnaemia in 4 Greek hospitals reveals a significant contribution towards (1) improvement of the quality of the data being recorded, since data entry is guided by appropriate forms, (2) easier cooperation between physicians, who share a common information repository, and (3) increased processing capabilities, which facilitate medical research. Conclusions JAnaemia appears to be a useful tool, which can improve the quality of care offered to beta-thalassaemic patients in Greece. PMID:11772548

  14. A national register for surveillance of inherited disorders: beta thalassaemia in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Modell, B.; Khan, M.; Darlison, M.; King, A.; Layton, M.; Old, J.; Petrou, M.; Varnavides, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the value of a national register for surveillance of services for an inherited disorder. METHODS: Data from the United Kingdom Thalassaemia Register and the United Kingdom Register of Prenatal Diagnosis for Haemoglobin Disorders were combined in a database; these registers include all fetuses known to have been diagnosed with beta thalassaemia major, beta thalassaemia intermedia, or haemoglobin E/beta thalassaemia in the United Kingdom. Data were extracted to show outcomes (selective abortion or live birth) of all fetuses and the status of those born with a disorder (alive, dead, successful bone marrow transplant, or lost to follow-up) by parents' region of residence and ethnicity. FINDINGS: At the end of 1999 the register included 1074 patients, 807 of whom were alive and residing in the United Kingdom. A successful bone marrow transplant has been performed for 117 out of 581 (20%) patients born since 1975. Residents of Pakistani origin are now the main group at risk in the United Kingdom, replacing residents of Cypriot origin. This has led to a marked shift in the need for services from the south-east of England to the Midlands and the north of England. Despite the acceptability of prenatal diagnosis, the proportion of affected births remains 50% higher than would be expected, reflecting a widespread failure to deliver timely screening and counselling to carriers. Even though effective treatment is available the annual number of deaths is rising, indicating that better tolerated treatments are needed. CONCLUSION: A national diagnosis register is a powerful instrument for monitoring the treatment and prevention of inherited disorders and for highlighting correctable shortcomings. In view of the increasing possibilities for genetic screening there is a strong case for central funding for such databases within modern health services. PMID:11731807

  15. Thalassaemia in Azerbaijan.

    PubMed Central

    Kuliev, A M; Rasulov, I M; Dadasheva, T; Schwarz, E I; Rosatelli, C; Saba, L; Meloni, A; Gemidjioglu, E; Petrou, M; Modell, B

    1994-01-01

    beta thalassaemia is present throughout the southern regions of the former USSR. We have defined the clinical picture of the disorder, the spectrum of beta thalassaemia mutations, and the role of customary consanguineous marriage in Azerbaijan, where thalassaemia presents a public health problem of the same order as that in Greece. Contrary to earlier suggestions, we found that the common form of the disorder is typically severe. Typical Turkish, Mediterranean, Azeri, Kurdish, and Asian Indian mutations were found, consistent with the history of the region. The common Mediterranean beta 0 thalassaemia mutation (codon 39) was not found. Three mutations (codon 8-AA, IVS2-1 and IVS1-110) account for over 80% of beta thalassaemia genes. Consanguineous marriage appears to contribute relatively little to the frequency of affected births. These observations provide the basis for a thalassaemia prevention programme in Azerbaijan. PMID:8014969

  16. Beta-Thalassaemia Intermedia: Evaluation of Endocrine and Bone Complications

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, M.; Marcon, A.; Cassin, R.; Ulivieri, F. M.; Spinelli, D.; Cappellini, M. D.; Graziadei, G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Data about endocrine and bone disease in nontransfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) is scanty. The aim of our study was to evaluate these complications in ?-TI adult patients. Methods. We studied retrospectively 70 ?-TI patients with mean followup of 20 years. Data recorded included age, gender, haemoglobin and ferritin levels, biochemical and endocrine tests, liver iron concentration (LIC) from T2*, transfusion regimen, iron chelation, hydroxyurea, splenectomy, and bone mineralization by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Thirty-seven (53%) males and 33 (47%) females were studied, with mean age 41 ± 12 years, mean haemoglobin 9.2 ± 1.5?g/dL, median ferritin 537 (range 14–4893), and mean LIC 7.6 ± 6.4?mg?Fe/g?dw. Thirty-three patients (47%) had been transfused, occasionally (24/33; 73%) or regularly (9/33; 27%); 37/70 (53%) had never been transfused; 34/70 patients had been splenectomized (49%); 39 (56%) were on chelation therapy; and 11 (16%) were on hydroxyurea. Endocrinopathies were found in 15 patients (21%): 10 hypothyroidism, 3 hypogonadism, 2 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and one diabetes. Bone disease was observed in 53/70 (76%) patients, osteoporosis in 26/53 (49%), and osteopenia in 27/53 (51%). Discussion and Conclusions. Bone disease was found in most patients in our study, while endocrinopathies were highly uncommon, especially hypogonadism. We speculate that low iron burden may protect against endocrinopathy development. PMID:25110660

  17. Carrier screening for Beta-thalassaemia: a review of international practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole E Cousens; Clara L Gaff; Sylvia A Metcalfe; Martin B Delatycki

    2010-01-01

    ?-thalassaemia is one of the most common single-gene inherited conditions in the world, and thalassaemia carrier screening is the most widely performed genetic screening test, occurring in many different countries. ?-thalassaemia carrier screening programmes provide a unique opportunity to compare the delivery of carrier screening programmes carried out in different cultural, religious and social contexts. This review compares the key

  18. Analysis of beta-globin gene haplotypes in Asian Indians: origin and spread of beta-thalassaemia on the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Varawalla, N Y; Fitches, A C; Old, J M

    1992-12-01

    beta-globin gene haplotypes were determined for 196 normal (beta-A) and 419 thalassaemia (beta-Th) chromosomes of individuals from four different regions of the Indian subcontinent; North-west Pakistan, Gujarat, Punjab and Sindh. Analysis of beta-A and beta-Th haplotypes and haplotype-mutation associations in each regional group along with a consideration of Indian history provided information about the origin and spread of beta-thalassaemia mutations on the Indian subcontinent. The data are consistent with relatively recent and local origins for most beta-thalassaemia mutations. The frequencies of particular alleles differ markedly in various regions and these may be useful population markers. Of the high frequency alleles, intervening sequence 1 (IVS-1) nucleotide 5 (G-C) and codons 41/42 (-CTTT) appear to be older as suggested by multiple haplotype associations and a widespread geographical distribution. The microepidemiology of beta-thalassaemia in this region reflects considerable ethnic diversity, gene flow from population migration and natural selection by malaria infection. PMID:1362388

  19. Effective chelation of iron in beta thalassaemia with the oral chelator 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G J Kontoghiorghes; M A Aldouri; A V Hoffbrand; J Barr; B Wonke; T Kourouclaris; L Sheppard

    1987-01-01

    The main iron chelator used for transfusional iron overload is desferrioxamine, which is expensive, has toxic side effects, and has to be given subcutaneously. An orally active iron chelator is therefore required. The effects of oral 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one on urinary iron excretion were studied in eight patients who had received multiple transfusions: four had myelodysplasia and four beta thalassaemia major. Different

  20. Pharmacokinetics of oral busulphan in children with beta thalassaemia major undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Poonkuzhali, B; Srivastava, A; Quernin, M H; Dennison, D; Aigrain, E J; Kanagasabapathy, A S; Krishnamoorthy, R; Chandy, M

    1999-07-01

    The pharmacokinetics of busulphan were studied in 23 thalassaemic children undergoing BMT. Patients received busulphan at a dose of either 16 mg/kg with cyclophosphamide and ATG (Group A) or 600 mg/m2 (with cyclophosphamide alone) (Group B) in 16 divided doses every 6 h over 4 days. Busulphan levels were analyzed by a modified GC-MS method. The dose of busulphan/kg for patients in group B was 64% (range 56-71%) higher than that for patients in group A. The mean AUC, Css, Cmax and MRV were significantly higher in group B as compared with group A for both doses 1 and 13. There was no significant difference in Vd/F, T1/2 and Kel between the two groups. A significant decrease in AUC and Css was found between 1st and 13th doses in group B, but not in group A. The Cl/F values in group A were significantly higher than those in group B after dose 1, but not after dose 13. No increase in toxicity due to the higher dose of busulphan was noted. We conclude that busulphan at 600 mg/m2 results in much higher systemic exposure to the drug as compared to 16 mg/kg, without increase in toxicity in children with beta thalassaemia major. PMID:10435727

  1. Prevalence of Endocrinopathies in Patients with Beta-Thalassaemia Major - A Cross-Sectional Study in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah; Al Hashmi, Huda; Al Muslahi, Muhanna; Al Muslahi, Hilal; Al Lamki, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Background Beta-thalassaemia major is a common medical problem worldwide. There is little data dealing with the nature and prevalence of different endocrine disorders in this disease in the Sultanate of Oman. Objectives To establish the prevalence and times of occurrence of endocrine disorders in patients with beta-thalassaemia major. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted during Jan-Jul 2008 and dealt with 30 Omani patients with transfusion-dependent homozygous beta-thalassaemia major who were consulting Thalassaemia Clinic, Royal Hospital. They included 15 males and 15 females, aged 16 to 32 years with median of 21 years and mean ± SD of 21.23 ± 3.42 years. The medical records of these patients were reviewed and their endocrine functions were assessed. This assessment included pituitary and gonadal function, thyroid function, bone profile (including Parathyroid Hormone), morning cortisol and fasting glucose. These profiles were reviewed to exclude hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, hypoadrenalism or diabetes mellitus. Results Hypogonadism was reported in 22 (73.3%) patients (13 female, 9 male). Low levels of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and low Luteinizing Hormone (LH) with low estradiol (in females) or testosterone (in males) was noted in 15 (50.0%) patients (7 female, 8 male). Normal (but inappropriately low) levels of FSH and LH with low estradiol (in females) or testosterone (in males) was noted in 7 (23.3%) patients (6 female, 1 male). Primary hypothyroidism was present in only 1 (3.3%) patient (female) who Hypoparathyroidism was found in 3 (10.0%) patients (2 female, 1 male). Diabetes mellitus with high fasting glucose was noted in 8 (26.7%) patients (2 female, 6 male). Morning cortisol levels for all patients were within the reference range with no suspicion of hypoadrenal cortical function. Eight (26.7%) patients had no endocrine disorder, 12 (40.0%) patients had one disorder, 8 (26.7%) patients had 2 disorders, and 2 (6.7%) patients had 3 endocrine disorders. There was no significant difference (p>0.050) in mean serum ferritin in thalassaemics with or without endocrinopathy, regardless of the number of endocrinopathy. Conclusion There is high prevalence of endocrine disorders among Omani beta-thalassaemic adult patients. This signifies the importance of awareness for their development and monitoring for early detection and replacement therapy. No relationship between serum ferritin and development of endocrinopathy was noted. PMID:22334838

  2. Chelation therapy with desferrioxamine does not normalize ferritin level but attenuates oxidative damage and improves total antioxidant level in Malaysian Chinese beta-thalassaemia major patients.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, U R; Tan, J A M A

    2011-01-01

    Beta-thalassaemia major causes severe anaemia and patients with it may be transfusion-dependent for life. Regular blood transfusions cause iron-overload that leads to oxidative damage which can hasten mortality. The objective of this research was to study the oxidant-antioxidant indices in beta-thalassaemia major patients at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) who were on desferrioxamine-chelation or without chelation therapy. Blood was collected from 39 Chinese patients and 20 controls. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysates (PBMC) were extracted and biochemical tests to evaluate oxidative stress were performed. Oxidative stress was evident in these patients as advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP) and lipid hydroperoxides were elevated, whereas glutathione peroxidase activity and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were reduced. The catalase activity in the patients' PBMC was elevated, possibly as a compensatory mechanism for the reduced glutathione peroxidase activity in both red blood cells and PBMC. The lower FRAP and higher AOPP levels in the non-chelated patients compared with the chelated patients were indicative of a lower oxidative stress level in the chelated patients. The ferritin levels in the chelated and non-chelated patients were high and the mean levels of liver enzyme activities in the majority of patients were elevated regardless of chelation therapy. In conclusion, this study indicates that desferrioxamine chelation therapy does not normalize ferritin level but attenuates oxidative damage and improves total antioxidant level in Malaysian Chinese beta-thalassaemia major patients. PMID:21809703

  3. Effective chelation of iron in beta thalassaemia with the oral chelator 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one.

    PubMed Central

    Kontoghiorghes, G J; Aldouri, M A; Hoffbrand, A V; Barr, J; Wonke, B; Kourouclaris, T; Sheppard, L

    1987-01-01

    The main iron chelator used for transfusional iron overload is desferrioxamine, which is expensive, has toxic side effects, and has to be given subcutaneously. An orally active iron chelator is therefore required. The effects of oral 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one on urinary iron excretion were studied in eight patients who had received multiple transfusions: four had myelodysplasia and four beta thalassaemia major. Different daily doses of the drug up to 100 mg/kg/day, alone or in combination with ascorbic acid, were used. In three patients with thalassaemia the effect of the drug was compared with that of subcutaneous desferrioxamine at the same daily dose. In all eight patients a single dose of oral 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one resulted in substantial urinary iron excretion, mainly in the first 12 hours. Urinary iron excretion increased with the dose and with the degree of iron loading of the patient. Giving two or three divided doses over 24 hours resulted in higher urinary iron excretion than a single dose of the same amount over the same time. In most patients coadministration of oral ascorbic acid further increased urinary iron excretion. 1,2-Dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one caused similar iron excretion to that achieved with subcutaneous desferrioxamine at a comparable dose. In some cases the iron excretion was sufficiently high (maximum 99 mg/day) to suggest that a negative iron balance could be easily achieved with these protocols in patients receiving regular transfusions. No evidence of toxicity was observed on thorough clinical examination or haematological and biochemical testing in any of the patients. None of the patients had any symptoms that could be ascribed to the drug. These results suggest that the oral chelator 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one is as effective as subcutaneous desferrioxamine in increasing urinary iron excretion in patients loaded with iron. Its cheap synthesis, oral activity, and lack of obvious toxicity at effective doses suggest that it should be developed quickly and thoroughly tested for the management of transfusional iron overload. PMID:3122880

  4. A rise in haemoglobin levels may enhance serum triiodothyronine (T3). Concentrations in prepubertal patients with beta-thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Celani, M F; Corradini, M C; Rota, C; Massolo, F

    1990-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of increased haemoglobin (Hb) levels on the thyroid function in patients with beta-thalassaemia major. Basal levels of thyroid hormones (T4, T3) and free thyroid hormones (fT4, fT3), basal TSH concentrations and the TSH responses to a TRH bolus (0.2 mg iv) were studied in ten euthyroid thalassaemic patients, aged 8 to 19 years, and in one 12 years-old thalassaemic girl with primary hypothyroidism. Five euthyroid thalassaemic patients (aged 8 to 12 years), as well as the hypothyroid thalassaemic girl, were prepubertal, whereas five euthyroid thalassaemic patients (aged 15 to 19 years) had delayed puberty. In each patient, the endocrine evaluation was carried out under conditions of low Hb levels (31 days after the last blood transfusion, mean Hb = 9.8 +/- 1.5 g/dl), and 11 days after the transfusion of 2 units packed red blood cells (PRBC). The latter increased significantly Hb concentrations in all the thalassaemic patients (mean Hb = 12.8 +/- 2.5 g/dl, P less than 0.001). Twelve normal prepubertal subjects, aged 6 to 11 years, served as the control group. Before the PRBC transfusion, basal T4, T3, fT4, fT3 and TSH concentrations were similar in euthyroid prepubertal thalassaemic patients (EPT) and in euthyroid patients with delayed puberty (EDPT), and were comparable to those in control subjects. The TSH responses to TRH (TSH peak, area and delta area) observed in EPT patients were similar to those in the EDPT group, but significantly higher in comparison with the normal children.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2129031

  5. Counselling for prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell disease and beta thalassaemia major: a four year experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E N Anionwu; N Patel; G Kanji; H Renges; M Brozovi?

    1988-01-01

    A non-directive programme of prenatal counselling was used during a four year period. Forty-three couples at risk for having a baby with a haemoglobinopathy were identified. Prenatal diagnosis was offered in 19 pregnancies to 14 couples at risk of having a baby with sickle cell anaemia and in two pregnancies in two couples at risk of a baby with beta

  6. Serum non-transferrin-bound iron in beta-thalassaemia major patients treated with desferrioxamine and L1.

    PubMed

    al-Refaie, F N; Wickens, D G; Wonke, B; Kontoghiorghes, G J; Hoffbrand, A V

    1992-10-01

    Non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) in plasma is toxic due to its ability to participate in free radical formation with resultant peroxidation and damage to cell membranes and other biomolecules. NTBI concentration was determined in serum in 12 normal volunteers and in 52 patients with beta-thalassaemia major by a modification of the method described by Singh et al (1990). There was no detectable NTBI in normal individuals. In the patients NTBI values ranged from -1.5 to 9.0 mumol/l (mean +/- SD: 3.6 +/- 2.3). The patients' serum ferritin concentrations ranged from 207 to 11,400 micrograms/l (2674 +/- 2538), total serum iron from 20 to 61 mumol/l (39.5 +/- 9.6) and transferrin saturation from 44 to 110% (84.5 +/- 13.8). The NTBI correlated significantly with serum ferritin (r = 0.467, P < 0.001), total serum iron (r = 0.608, P < 0.001) and transferrin saturation (r = 0.481, P < 0.005). When patients were grouped according to their compliance with desferrioxamine (DFX) therapy, the good compliers had significantly lower NTBI concentrations compared to the poor compliers (poor: 5.4 +/- 1.8 mumol/l v good: 2.7 +/- 1.7 mumol/l, P < 0.001). There was also a significant difference between the level of NTBI and whether or not the patients had complications of iron overload (5.2 +/- 1.7 mumol/l v 2.9 +/- 1.6 mumol/l, P < 0.001). During this study 10 patients were entered into a trial of the oral iron chelator 1,2- dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one (L1). Their NTBI values were observed during the first 6 months of the trial and showed a significant fall (paired t-test: P = 0.007). These results suggest that the level of NTBI may prove helpful in assessing the efficiency of chelation in patients with transfusion dependent anaemia and help to predict organ damage. PMID:1419825

  7. L1 (1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one) for oral iron chelation in patients with beta-thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Töndury, P; Kontoghiorghes, G J; Ridolfi-Lüthy, A; Hirt, A; Hoffbrand, A V; Lottenbach, A M; Sonderegger, T; Wagner, H P

    1990-12-01

    L1 was given to eight patients with beta-thalassaemia major who had previously been treated with deferoxamine (DF) for 4-10 years. The patients' ages ranged from 11 to 27 years. Serum ferritin values ranged from 1.3 to 11.5 x 10(3) micrograms/l. L1 was given twice daily at a daily dose of 55-80 mg/kg body weight and was continued for 10 months in two patients, 9 months in three, 7 months in two patients and 4 months in one patient. As previously observed with DF, each patient's urinary iron excretion (UIE) varied greatly from day to day. The mean UIE of the eight patients ranged from 11 to 49 mg/d (0.2-0.87 mmol/d) on subcutaneous DF and from 16 to 53 mg/d (0.28-0.95 mmol/d) on L1. Two patients excreted significantly more and one patient significantly less iron while on L1. If the UIE was calculated as mmol Fe/mmol creatinine there was no statistically significant difference. Serum ferritin values fluctuated widely in all, with a consistent downward trend in three, no change in four and an increase in one of two non-splenectomized patients. This patient's splenomegaly and need for transfusions continued to increase while on L1. No toxicities attributable to the drug were detected during the period of study and tolerance of the drug was excellent. PMID:2265118

  8. Alpha thalassaemia in tribal communities of coastal Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Madhav G.; Pawar, Prakash V.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: In a routine community health survey conducted in adult Adivasis of the costal Maharashtra, microcytosis and hyprochromia were observed in more than 80 per cent of both males and females having normal haemoglobin levels suggesting the possibility of ?-thalassaemia in these communities. We conducted a study in Adivasi students in the same region to find out the magnitude of ?-thalessaemia. Methods: The participants (28 girls and 23 boys) were 14-17 yr old studying in a tribal school. Fasting venous blood samples (5 ml) were subjected to complete blood count (CBC), Hb-HPLC and DNA analysis using gap-PCR for deletion of – ?3.7 and – ?4.2, the two most common molecular lesions observed in ?-thalassaemia in India. Results: Microcytic hypochromic anaemia was observed 50 and 35 per cent girls and boys, respectively. Iron supplementation improved Hb levels but did not correct microcytois and hypochromia. More than 80 per cent non-anaemic students of both sexes showed microcytois and hypochromia. DNA analysis confirmed that the haematological alterations were due to ?-thalassaemia trait characterized by deletion of – ?3.7. Majority (> 60%) of the affected students had two deletions (-?3.7/-?3.7) genotype ?+ thalassaemia. Interpretation & conclusions: This is perhaps the first report on the occurrence of ?-thalassaemia in tribal communities of coastal Maharashtra. Very high (78.4%) haplotype frequency of -?3.7 suggests that the condition is almost genetically fixed. These preliminary observations should stimulate well planned large scale epidemiological studies on ?-thalassaemia in the region. PMID:25297356

  9. Molecular characterization of ?- and ?-thalassaemia among Malay patients.

    PubMed

    Yatim, Nur Fatihah Mohd; Rahim, Masitah Abd; Menon, Kavitha; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Ahmad, Rahimah; Manocha, Anita Bhajan; Saleem, Mohamed; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Both ?- and ?-thalassaemia syndromes are public health problems in the multi-ethnic population of Malaysia. To molecularly characterise the ?- and ?-thalassaemia deletions and mutations among Malays from Penang, Gap-PCR and multiplexed amplification refractory mutation systems were used to study 13 ?-thalassaemia determinants and 20 ?-thalassaemia mutations in 28 and 40 unrelated Malays, respectively. Four ?-thalassaemia deletions and mutations were demonstrated. --SEA deletion and ?CS? accounted for more than 70% of the ?-thalassaemia alleles. Out of the 20 ?-thalassaemia alleles studied, nine different ?-thalassaemia mutations were identified of which ?E accounted for more than 40%. We concluded that the highest prevalence of (?- and ?-thalassaemia alleles in the Malays from Penang are --SEA deletion and ?E mutation, respectively. PMID:24857915

  10. Cirrhosis associated with multiple transfusions in thalassaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Jean, G; Terzoli, S; Mauri, R; Borghetti, L; Di Palma, A; Piga, A; Magliano, M; Melevendi, M; Cattaneo, M

    1984-01-01

    The study of surgical liver biopsy specimens obtained during splenectomy in 86 children with thalassaemia indicated that such patients may develop liver disease that evolves into cirrhosis. Histological characteristics suggest that it is post-necrotic cirrhosis. Onset of cirrhosis in some patients may occur as early as 7-8 years old, and at age about 15-16 years most children with thalassaemia show features of cirrhosis. In addition to fibrosis, hepatitis, or even aggressive hepatitis may develop as has also been observed in patients without thalassaemia who have undergone multiple transfusions. This study presents the current probable evolution of liver disease in patients with thalassaemia and may thus serve as a reference from which to evaluate any future progress in the treatment and care of patients with Cooley's disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6696498

  11. Improved survival of thalassaemia major in the UK and relation to T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Modell, Bernadette; Khan, Maren; Darlison, Matthew; Westwood, Mark A; Ingram, David; Pennell, Dudley J

    2008-01-01

    Background The UK Thalassaemia Register records births, deaths and selected clinical data of patients with thalassaemia who are resident in the UK. A study of survival and causes of death was undertaken which aimed to include the possible impact of T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods The Register was updated to the end of 2003, copies of death certificates were obtained, and causes of death in beta thalassaemia major were extracted. In addition, patients who had T2* CMR assessment of cardiac iron load and/or received the oral iron chelator deferiprone were identified from clinical records. Results The main causes of death were anaemia (before 1980), infections, complications of bone marrow transplantation and cardiac disease due to iron overload. From 1980 to 1999 there were 12.7 deaths from all causes per 1,000 patient years. Forty per cent of patients born before 1980 had T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance between 2000 and 2003, and 36% of these patients were prescribed deferiprone before end of 2003. In 2000–2003, the death rate from all causes fell significantly to 4.3 per 1,000 patient years (-62%, p < 0.05). This was mainly driven by the reduction in the rate of deaths from iron overload which fell from 7.9 to 2.3 deaths per 1,000 patient years (-71%, p < 0.05). Conclusion Since 1999, there has been a marked improvement in survival in thalassaemia major in the UK, which has been mainly driven by a reduction in deaths due to cardiac iron overload. The most likely causes for this include the introduction of T2* CMR to identify myocardial siderosis and appropriate intensification of iron chelation treatment, alongside other improvements in clinical care. PMID:18817553

  12. Cost Effectiveness of Once-Daily Oral Chelation Therapy with Deferasirox versus Infusional Deferoxamine in Transfusion-Dependent Thalassaemia Patients: US Healthcare System Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. Delea; Oleg Sofrygin; Simu K. Thomas; Jean-Francois Baladi; Pradyumna D. Phatak; Thomas D. Coates

    2007-01-01

    Background: Deferasirox is a recently approved once-daily oral iron chelator that has been shown to reduce liver iron concentrations and serum ferritin levels to a similar extent as infusional deferoxamine. Objective: To determine the cost effectiveness of deferasirox versus deferoxamine in patients with beta-thalassaemia major from a US healthcare system perspective. Methods: A Markov model was used to estimate the

  13. Hematological Indices for Differential Diagnosis of Beta Thalassemia Trait and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Vehapoglu, Aysel; Ozgurhan, Gamze; Demir, Ay?egul Dogan; Uzuner, Selcuk; Nursoy, Mustafa Atilla; Turkmen, Serdar; Kacan, Arzu

    2014-01-01

    Background. The two most frequent types of microcytic anemia are beta thalassemia trait (?-TT) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). We retrospectively evaluated the reliability of various indices for differential diagnosis of microcytosis and ?-TT in the same patient groups. Methods. A total of 290 carefully selected children aged 1.1–16 years were evaluated. We calculated 12 discrimination indices in all patients with hemoglobin (Hb) values of 8.7–11.4?g/dL. None of the subjects had a combined case of IDA and ?-TT. All children with IDA received oral iron for 16 weeks, and HbA2 screening was performed after iron therapy. The patient groups were evaluated according to red blood cell (RBC) count; red blood distribution width index; the Mentzer, Shine and Lal, England and Fraser, Srivastava and Bevington, Green and King, Ricerca, Sirdah, and Ehsani indices; mean density of hemoglobin/liter of blood; and mean cell density of hemoglobin. Results. The Mentzer index was the most reliable index, as it had the highest sensitivity (98.7%), specificity (82.3%), and Youden's index (81%) for detecting ?-TT; this was followed by the Ehsani index (94.8%, 73.5%, and 68.3%, resp.) and RBC count (94.8%, 70.5%, and 65.3%). Conclusion. The Mentzer index provided the highest reliabilities for differentiating ?-TT from IDA. PMID:24818016

  14. Polymorphism of follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSH?) subunit gene and its association with litter traits in giant panda.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Li, Desheng; Wang, Jiwen; Huang, Yan; Han, Chunchun; Zhang, Guiquan; Huang, Zhi; Wu, Honglin; Wei, Ming; Wang, Guosong; Hu, Haiping; Deng, Tao; He, Tao; Zhou, Yingming; Song, Shixian; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Heming

    2013-11-01

    The different SSCP patterns of the follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSH?) gene amplified by three pairs of primers were sequenced. Comparisons among the three nucleotide sequences of three genotypes indicated that three base substitutions (A213T, A91G, and A89C) were detected in FSH? gene, which A213T substitution led to one amino acids mutation (Lys > Met), and the other two substitutions were synonymous mutations. The AA, AB and BB genotypes patterns obtained by FSH? primer1 had evident relation with the litter traits, but the SSCP genotypes patterns obtained by FSH? primer2 and primer3 had no evident relation with the litter traits in giant panda. The giant panda with AA and AB genotype had the largest litter size and multiparity rate compared with the BB genotypes (P < 0.05). We speculated that the giant pandas with the A allele have better litter traits than those with the B allele. PMID:24057246

  15. Dysregulated arginine metabolism and cardiopulmonary dysfunction in patients with thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Claudia R; Kim, Hae-Young; Klings, Elizabeth S; Wood, John; Porter, John B; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Sweeters, Nancy; Olivieri, Nancy F; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Virzi, Lisa; Hassell, Kathryn; Taher, Ali; Neufeld, Ellis J; Thompson, Alexis A; Larkin, Sandra; Suh, Jung H; Vichinsky, Elliott P; Kuypers, Frans A

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) commonly develops in thalassaemia syndromes, but is poorly characterized. The goal of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the cardiopulmonary and biological profile of patients with thalassaemia at risk for PH. A case-control study of thalassaemia patients at high versus low PH-risk was performed. A single cross-sectional measurement for variables reflecting cardiopulmonary status and biological pathophysiology were obtained, including Doppler-echocardiography, 6-min-walk-test, Borg Dyspnoea Score, New York Heart Association functional class, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), chest-computerized tomography, pulmonary function testing and laboratory analyses targeting mechanisms of coagulation, inflammation, haemolysis, adhesion and the arginine-nitric oxide pathway. Twenty-seven thalassaemia patients were evaluated, 14 with an elevated tricuspid-regurgitant-jet-velocity (TRV) ? 2·5 m/s. Patients with increased TRV had a higher frequency of splenectomy, and significantly larger right atrial size, left atrial volume and left septal-wall thickness on echocardiography and/or MRI, with elevated biomarkers of abnormal coagulation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and arginase concentration, and lower arginine-bioavailability compared to low-risk patients. Arginase concentration correlated significantly to several echocardiography/MRI parameters of cardiovascular function in addition to global-arginine-bioavailability and biomarkers of haemolytic rate, including LDH, haemoglobin and bilirubin. Thalassaemia patients with a TRV ? 2·5 m/s have additional echocardiography and cardiac-MRI parameters suggestive of right and left-sided cardiac dysfunction. In addition, low arginine bioavailability may contribute to cardiopulmonary dysfunction in ?-thalassaemia. PMID:25907665

  16. Screening and genetic counseling for beta-thalassemia trait in a population unselected for interest: effects on knowledge and mood.

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, P T; Fisher, L; Lipkin, M

    1979-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of genetic screening and counseling in a population unselected for interest, adults in a health maintenance organization (HMO) were screened for beta-thalassemia trait as part of health care or multiphasic screening. Counseling was provided by either a trained physician or a videotape containing the same information, followed by an opportunity to question a trained physician. Knowledge of thalassemia, knowledge of genetics, and mood were assessed by standardized questionnaires and by interview immediately before and after counseling. Compared to controls, trait subjects demonstrated significant learning about thalassemia (P less than .001) and about genetics (P less than .001) and recorded significant mood changes, namely, surprise (startle) (P less than .05), increased alertness (decreased deactivation) (P less than .05), and decreased skepticism (P less than .01). Screening and genetic counseling for beta-thalassemia trait conducted as part of multiphasic screening of the population of a HMO, essentially and unselected population, can result in significant overall learning with acceptable effects on mood. PMID:517521

  17. Public perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia: Influencing factors in a multi-racial population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Thalassaemia is a common public health problem in Malaysia and about 4.5 to 6% of the Malays and Chinese are carriers of this genetic disorder. The major forms of thalassaemia result in death in utero of affected foetuses (?-thalassaemia) or life-long blood transfusions for survival in ?-thalassaemia. This study, the first nationwide population based survey of thalassaemia in Malaysia, aimed to determine differences in public awareness, perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia in the multi-racial population in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey of a representative sample of multi-racial Malaysians aged 18 years and above was conducted between July and December 2009. Results Of a total of 3723 responding households, 2846 (76.4%) have heard of thalassaemia. Mean knowledge score was 11.85 (SD ± 4.03), out of a maximum of 21, with higher scores indicating better knowledge. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in total knowledge score by age groups, education attainment, employment status, and average household income were observed. Although the majority expressed very positive attitudes toward screening for thalassaemia, only 13.6% of married participants interviewed have been screened for thalassaemia. The majority (63.4%) were unsupportive of selective termination of foetuses diagnosed with thalassaemia major. Conclusion Study shows that carrier and premarital screening programs for thalassaemia may be more effective and culturally acceptable in the reduction of pregnancies with thalassaemia major. The findings provide insights into culturally congruent educational interventions to reach out diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities to increase knowledge and cultivate positive attitudes toward prevention of thalassaemia. PMID:21447191

  18. Effect of casein genes - beta-LGB, DGAT1, GH, and LHR - on milk production and milk composition traits in crossbred Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Molee, A; Poompramun, C; Mernkrathoke, P

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a single gene and composite genotype of the casein gene family, including the beta-lactoglobulin gene (beta-LGB), acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene (DGAT1), growth hormone gene (GH), and luteinizing hormone receptor gene (LHR) on milk yield, milk composition, the percentage of fat, protein, solids-not-fat, and total solid in crossbred Holsteins. A total of 231 crossbred Holstein cows were examined for the study. The genotype of the beta-casein gene was analyzed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, while the alpha-S1, alpha-S2, kappa-casein, DGAT1, beta-LGB, and GH genes were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The association between genes and milk yield and milk composition was analyzed. Three pairs of genes, for which significant associations were detected, were beta + kappa-casein, DGAT1 + beta-casein, and GH + beta-LGB. In the single-gene model, most loci are significantly associated with traits. A significant association between the composite genotype and the traits was detected in all composite genotypes. GH + beta-LGB appears to be the most suitable variants for improving milk production and percentage of milk protein. Overall, the effects of the composite genotype and single gene were different. A physical or functional relationship between genes is necessary for investigating gene markers. PMID:25867403

  19. Laboratory investigation of platelet function in patients with thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Theodoridou, S; Economou, M; Vyzantiadis, T-A; Teli, A; Vlachaki, E; Neokleous, N; Kargioti, A; Vakalopoulou, S; Garypidou, V; Gombakis, N; Papachristou, F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate platelet function in patients with thalassaemia and to detect any relation to chelation treatment (deferasirox or deferiprone/deferiprone plus desferioxamine). Thirty-three transfusion-dependent patients with thalassaemia were included. The investigation consisted of aggregation testing of platelet-rich plasma by light transmission aggregometry (LTA) with the use of 5 agonists as well as the global test of haemostasis by means of the PFA-100 platelet function analyser. In 66.67% of the patients, there was reduced LTA to at least one agonist and in 18.18% there was reduced LTA to two or more agonists. The PFA-100 test was prolonged in 60.6% of the cases. An abnormal LTA and a prolonged PFA-100 time were recorded in 33.3% of the patients and 27.4% had a normal aggregation and PFA-100 test. No correlation between chelation regimen and either LTA or PFA-100 test was found. The abnormal LTA can be explained either by the release of ADP from the haemolysed red blood cells, which leads to defective platelet aggregation, or by the presence of two platelet populations. An in vitro effect without an in vivo impact could be an alternative explanation. In patients with thalassaemia, the reduced LTA and the prolonged PFA-100 closure time could be an in vitro effect and has a close correlation to the bleeding phenotype of each patient. PMID:24434633

  20. Oxidative stress and inflammation in iron-overloaded patients with ?-thalassaemia or sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Patrick B.; Fung, Ellen B.; Killilea, David W.; Jiang, Qing; Hudes, Mark; Madden, Jacqueline; Porter, John; Evans, Patricia; Vichinsky, Elliott; Harmatz, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Summary Blood transfusion therapy is life-saving for patients with ?-thalassaemia and sickle cell disease (SCD), but often results in severe iron overload. This pilot study examined whether the biomarkers of tissue injury or inflammation differ in these two diseases. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly increased 1.8-fold in thalassaemia relative to control patients. In contrast, MDA in SCD was not significantly different from controls. In multivariate analysis, the strongest predictors of elevated MDA were liver iron concentration (P < 0.001) and specific diagnosis (P = 0.019). A significant 2-fold elevation of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) was observed in thalassaemia relative to SCD. NTBI was not a significant predictor of high MDA in multivariate analysis. SCD patients showed a significant 2.2-fold elevation of the inflammatory marker interleukin (IL)-6 relative to controls, and a 3.6- and 1.7-fold increase in IL-5 and IL-10 relative to thalassaemia. Although ?-tocopherol was significantly decreased by at least 32% in both thalassaemia and SCD, indicating ongoing oxidant stress and antioxidant consumption, ?-tocopherol, a nitric oxide-selective antioxidant, was increased 36% in SCD relative to thalassaemia. These results demonstrate that thalassaemia patients have increased MDA and circulating NTBI relative to SCD patients and lower levels of some cytokines and ?-tocopherol. This supports the hypothesis that the biology of SCD may show increased inflammation and increased levels of protective antioxidants compared with thalassaemia. PMID:17010049

  1. Myocardial iron overload in thalassaemia major. How early to check?

    PubMed

    Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Meloni, Antonella; Guerrini, Giulia; Gulino, Letizia; Filosa, Aldo; Ruffo, Giovan B; Casini, Tommaso; Chiodi, Elisabetta; Lombardi, Massimo; Pepe, Alessia

    2014-02-01

    The age at which it is necessary to start Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) T2* screening in thalassaemia major (TM) is still uncertain. To clarify this point, we evaluated the prevalence of myocardial iron overload (MIO), function and fibrosis by CMR in TM patients younger than 10 years. We retrospectively selected 35 TM patients enrolled in the Myocardial Iron Overload in Thalassaemia network. MIO was measured by T2* multislice multiecho technique. Biventricular function parameters were evaluated by cine images. To detect myocardial fibrosis, late gadolinium enhancement images were acquired. Patients' age ranged from 4·2 to 9·7 years. All scans were performed without sedation. Nine patients showed no MIO, 22 patients had heterogeneous MIO with a T2* global value ?20 ms; two patients had heterogeneous MIO with a T2* global value <20 ms and two patients showed homogeneous MIO. No patient showed myocardial fibrosis. Among the patients with heart T2*<20 ms, the youngest was 6 years old, none showed heart dysfunction and the iron transfused was <35 g in all cases. Cardiac iron loading can occur much earlier than previously described. The first cardiac T2* assessment should be performed as early as feasible without sedation, especially if chelation is started late or if poor compliance is suspected. PMID:24460526

  2. Thalassaemia: a study on the perception of patients and family members.

    PubMed

    Wahab, I Abdul; Naznin, M; Nora, M Z; Suzanah, A R; Zulaiho, M; Faszrul, A R Aidl; Kamaruzaman, W S

    2011-10-01

    Marked improvement in the management of thalassaemia has not been matched by progress in psychosocial rehabilitation as thalassaemia continues to pose challenges to patients and their family members. Few studies have been carried out in Malaysia to look at such issues. This study is therefore to explore the concerns, beliefs and feelings about thalassaemia. It was conducted in the year 2009 over 7 months on "focus groups", in patients aged 8-22 years and parents attending Paediatric Clinic of Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital, Kuantan, Pahang. Results showed that concerns and adverse impact were related to lower grades in education, poor self-image, less chance of employment, marriage, financial burden and social integration. Compliance to subcutaneous iron chelator was poor. There were various concerns related to blood transfusion therapy. It is evident that thalassaemia greatly affects the psychosocial dimensions and a more structured long term psychosocial support is needed to improve quality of life of patients. PMID:22299552

  3. Benign Obstetric History in Women with Sickle-cell Anaemia Associated with ?-Thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    van Enk, A.; Lang, A.; White, J. M.; Lehmann, H.

    1972-01-01

    Two Ghanaian women with sickle-cell anaemia and ?-thalassaemia were found to have an unusually benign obstetric history. In addition to two factors present which are known to moderate the clinical course of sickle-cell anaemia, good socioeconomic status and a relatively high Hb F level, it is suggested that ?-thalassaemia may act among other things by lowering the haemoglobin concentration in the red cells and thereby lowering their tendency to sickle in vivo. PMID:4642791

  4. Increased oxidative metabolism is associated with erythroid precursor expansion in ?0-thalassaemia/Hb E disease.

    PubMed

    Leecharoenkiat, Amporn; Wannatung, Tirawat; Lithanatudom, Pathrapol; Svasti, Saovaros; Fucharoen, Suthat; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Smith, Duncan R

    2011-10-15

    Erythropoiesis in ?0-thalassaemia/Hb E patients, the most common variant form of ?-thalassaemia in Southeast Asia, is characterized by accelerated differentiation and over-expansion of erythroid precursor cells. The mechanism driving this accelerated expansion and differentiation remain unknown. To address this issue a proteomic analysis was undertaken to firstly identify proteins differentially expressed during erythroblast differentiation and a second analysis was undertaken to identify proteins differentially expressed between ?0-thalassaemia/Hb E erythroblasts and control erythroblasts. The majority of proteins identified as being differentially expressed between ?0-thalassaemia/Hb E and control erythroblasts were constituents of the glycolysis/TCA pathway and levels of oxidative stress correlated with the degree of erythroid expansion. A model was constructed linking these observations with previous studies showing increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in thalassemic erythroblasts which predicted the increased activation of PKA, PKB and PKC which Western analysis confirmed. Inhibition of PKA or PKC reduced ?0-thalassaemia/Hb E erythroblast differentiation and/or expansion. We propose that increased expansion and differentiation of ?0-thalassaemia/Hb E erythroblasts occur as a result of feedback loops acting through increased oxidative metabolism. PMID:21783389

  5. Beta event-related desynchronization as an index of individual differences in processing human facial expression: further investigations of autistic traits in typically developing adults

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Nicholas R.; Simpson, Andrew; Till, Amy; Simmons, Kelly; Puzzo, Ignazio

    2013-01-01

    The human mirror neuron system (hMNS) has been associated with various forms of social cognition and affective processing including vicarious experience. It has also been proposed that a faulty hMNS may underlie some of the deficits seen in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the present study we set out to investigate whether emotional facial expressions could modulate a putative EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) and if so, would this differ according to the individual level of autistic traits [high versus low Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score]. Participants were presented with 3 s films of actors opening and closing their hands (classic hMNS mu-suppression protocol) while simultaneously wearing happy, angry, or neutral expressions. Mu-suppression was measured in the alpha and low beta bands. The low AQ group displayed greater low beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) to both angry and neutral expressions. The high AQ group displayed greater low beta ERD to angry than to happy expressions. There was also significantly more low beta ERD to happy faces for the low than for the high AQ group. In conclusion, an interesting interaction between AQ group and emotional expression revealed that hMNS activation can be modulated by emotional facial expressions and that this is differentiated according to individual differences in the level of autistic traits. The EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) seems to be a sensitive measure of the variability in facial processing in typically developing individuals with high and low self-reported traits of autism. PMID:23630489

  6. Red cell alloimmunization and autoantibodies in Egyptian transfusion-dependent thalassaemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Azza Mohamed; Ragab, Shadia Hassan; Habib, Sonia Adolf; Emara, Nahed Abdelmonem; Aly, Azza Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to explore the frequency of red cell alloantibodies and autoantibodies among ?-thalassaemia patients who received regular transfusions. Material and methods This study included 501 patients with ?-thalassaemia. This work planned to study the presence of alloantibodies and autoantibodies to different red cell antigens in multitransfused thalassaemia patients using the ID. Card micro typing system. Results Of a total of 501 ?-thalassaemia patients included in the study, 11.3% of patients developed alloantibodies; 9.7% of these alloantibodies were clinically significant. The most common alloantibodies were anti-K, anti-E and anti-C. The rate of incidence of these alloantibodies was 3.9%, 3.3% and 1.7% respectively. Autoantibodies occurred in 28.8% of the patients and 22.1% of these antibodies were typed IgG. There was a significant association between splenectomy with alloimmunization and autoantibody formation (p = 0.03, p = 0.001 respectively). There was no significant association between alloantibody, autoantibody formation and number of transfused packed red cells. Conclusions Alloimmunization to minor erythrocyte antigens and erythrocyte autoantibodies of variable clinical significance are frequent findings in transfused ?-thalassaemia patients. There is an association between absence of the spleen and the presence of alloimmunization and autoantibody formation. PMID:22371805

  7. Non-Invasive Haemoglobin Estimation in Patients with Thalassaemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Al Khabori, Murtadha K.; Al-Riyami, Arwa Z.; Al-Farsi, Khalil; Al-Huneini, Mohammed; Al-Hashim, Abdulhakeem; Al-Kemyani, Nasser; Al-Qarshoubi, Issa; Khan, Hammad; Al-Amrani, Khalfan; Daar, Shahina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to validate pulse CO-oximetry-based haemoglobin (Hb) estimation in children and adults with thalassaemia major (TM) and to determine the impact of different baseline variables on the accuracy of the estimation. Methods: This observational study was conducted over a five-week period from March to April 2012. A total of 108 patients with TM attending the daycare thalassaemia centre of a tertiary care hospital in Muscat, Oman, were enrolled. Spot (Sp) Hb measurements were estimated using a Pronto-7® pulse CO-oximetry device (Masimo Corp., Irvine, California, USA). These were compared to venous samples of Hb using the CELL-DYN Sapphire Hematology Analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA) to determine the reference (Ref) Hb levels. A multivariable linear regression model was used to assess the impact of baseline variables such as age, gender, weight, height, Ref Hb and blood pressure on the Hb estimations. Results: Of the 108 enrolled patients, there were 54 males and 54 females with a mean age of 21.6 years (standard deviation [SD] = 7.3 years; range: 2.5–38 years). The mean Ref Hb and Sp Hb were 9.4 g/dL (SD = 0.9 g/dL; range: 7.5–12.3 g/dL) and 11.1 g/dL (SD = 1.2 g/dL; range: 7.5–14.7 g/dL), respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2) was 21% with a mean difference of 1.7 g/dL (SD = 1.1 g/dL; range: ?0.9–4.3 g/dL). In the multivariable model, the Ref Hb level (P = 0.001) was the only statistically significant predictor. Conclusion: The Pronto-7® pulse CO-oximetry device was found to overestimate Hb levels in patients with TM and therefore cannot be recommended. Further larger studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25364548

  8. Effect of introducing antenatal diagnosis on reproductive behaviour of families at risk for thalassaemia major.

    PubMed Central

    Modell, B; Ward, R H; Fairweather, D V

    1980-01-01

    Families who were at risk of producing a child with thalassaemia major were studied to determine the sequential effects on their reproductive behaviour of knowing the risk and, subsequently, of knowing that antenatal diagnosis was available. Knowing the risk caused them virtually to stop reproduction and to seek termination of 70% of pregnancies, most of which were accidental. The introduction of antenatal diagnosis in 1975 permitted the resumption of nearly normal reproduction by at-risk families, with fewer than 30% of pregnancies being terminated for thalassaemia major. All couples at risk for thalassaemia major should be detected and counselled before they produce an affected child; responsibility for either choosing or refusing antenatal diagnosis should be theirs alone. PMID:7388536

  9. Expression of embryonic hemoglobin genes in mice heterozygous for. cap alpha. -thalassemia or. beta. -duplication traits and in mice heterozygous for both traits

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, R.A.; Marsh, C.L.; Skow, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Hemoglobins of mouse embryos at 11.5 through 16.5 days of gestation were separated by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate and quantitated by a scanning densitometer to study the effects of two radiation-induced mutations on the expression of embryonic hemoglobin genes in mice. Normal mice produce three kinds of embryonic hemoglobins. In heterozygous ..cap alpha..-thalassemic embryos, expression of EI (x/sub 2/y/sub 2/) and EII (..cap alpha../sub 2/y/sub 2/) is deficient because the x- and ..cap alpha..-globin genes of one of the allelic pairs of Hba on chromosome 11 was deleted or otherwise inactivated by X irradiation. Simultaneous inactivation of the x- and ..cap alpha..-globin genes indicates that these genes must be closely linked. Reduced x- and ..cap alpha..-chain synthesis results in an excess of y chains that associate as homotetramers. This unique y/sub 4/ hemoglobin also appears in ..beta..-duplication embryos where excess y chains are produced by the presence of three rather than two functional alleles of y- and ..beta..-globin genes. In double heterozygotes, which have a single functional allele of x- and ..cap alpha..-globin genes and three functional alleles of y- and ..beta..-globin genes, synthesis of ..cap alpha.. and non-..cap alpha.. chains is severely imbalanced and half of the total hemoglobin is y/sub 4/. Mouse y/sub 4/ has a high affinity for oxygen, P/sub 50/ of less than 10 mm Hg, but it lacks cooperativity so is inefficient for oxygen transport. The death of double heterozygotes in late fetal or neonatal life may be in large part to oxygen deprivation to the tissues.

  10. When to consider transfusion therapy for patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Taher, A T; Radwan, A; Viprakasit, V

    2015-01-01

    Non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) refers to all thalassaemia disease phenotypes that do not require regular blood transfusions for survival. Thalassaemia disorders were traditionally concentrated along the tropical belt stretching from sub-Saharan Africa through the Mediterranean region and the Middle East to South and South-East Asia, but global migration has led to increased incidence in North America and Northern Europe. Transfusionists may be familiar with ?-thalassaemia major because of the lifelong transfusions needed by these patients. Although patients with NTDT do not require regular transfusions for survival, they may require transfusions in some instances such as pregnancy, infection or growth failure. The complications associated with NTDT can be severe if not properly managed, and many are directly related to chronic anaemia. Awareness of NTDT is important, and this review will outline the factors that should be taken into consideration when deciding whether to initiate and properly plan for transfusion therapy in these patients in terms of transfusion interval and duration of treatment. PMID:25286743

  11. When to consider transfusion therapy for patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Taher, A T; Radwan, A; Viprakasit, V

    2015-01-01

    Non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) refers to all thalassaemia disease phenotypes that do not require regular blood transfusions for survival. Thalassaemia disorders were traditionally concentrated along the tropical belt stretching from sub-Saharan Africa through the Mediterranean region and the Middle East to South and South-East Asia, but global migration has led to increased incidence in North America and Northern Europe. Transfusionists may be familiar with ?-thalassaemia major because of the lifelong transfusions needed by these patients. Although patients with NTDT do not require regular transfusions for survival, they may require transfusions in some instances such as pregnancy, infection or growth failure. The complications associated with NTDT can be severe if not properly managed, and many are directly related to chronic anaemia. Awareness of NTDT is important, and this review will outline the factors that should be taken into consideration when deciding whether to initiate and properly plan for transfusion therapy in these patients in terms of transfusion interval and duration of treatment. PMID:25286743

  12. Impact of psychosocial status and disease knowledge on deferoxamine adherence among thalassaemia major adolescents.

    PubMed

    Al-Kloub, Manal Ibrahim; Salameh, Taghreed Nayel; Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan

    2014-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the relationship between psychosocial status, disease knowledge and adherence to deferoxamine treatment in adolescents with thalassaemia major. A purposive sample of 36 adolescents with transfusion dependence, ages 12-19 years, was recruited. A semi-structured interview and two structured questionnaires were used. In this sample, 56% were low adherence and 36% were psychologically impaired. Statistically significant factors associated with psychological impairment were: adolescents more than 16 years; low deferoxamine adherence; mean ferritin more than 2500 ?g/L; family size more than six; family income equal or less than 350 Jordanian dinar and having sibling with thalassaemia. Additionally, adolescents with high level of knowledge had significantly lower scores on Pediatric Symptom Checklist. PMID:24888999

  13. Present status and future prospects of oral iron chelation therapy in thalassaemia and other diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Kontoghiorghes

    1993-01-01

    In the last few years we have witnessed the emergence of oral chelation which is a new form of therapy for transfusional iron-loaded\\u000a patients in thalassaemia and other refractory anaemias. The need for a cheap, non-toxic, orally effective iron chelator is\\u000a paramount because it could potentially save the lives of many thousands of patients. At present, less than 10% of

  14. Unrelated cord blood transplantation for thalassaemia: a single-institution experience of 35 patients.

    PubMed

    Jaing, T-H; Hung, I-J; Yang, C-P; Chen, S-H; Chung, H-T; Tsay, P-K; Wen, Y-C

    2012-01-01

    Our study was designed to prospectively determine whether or not unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) can produce outcomes comparable to related donor transplantation for children with ?-thalassaemia. In 35 patients, 40 transplants were performed between October 2003 and September 2009. HLA matching at enrolment was 6/6 (n=8), 5/6 (n=16), 4/6 (n=27), or 3/6 (n=1) by low-resolution HLA-A, -B, and high-resolution DRB1. These patients received non-manipulated grafts without ex vivo expansion or T-cell depletion. The median number of nucleated and CD34+ cells infused was 7.8 × 10(7)/kg (range, 2.8-14.7 × 10(7)/kg) and 4.0 × 10(5)/kg (range, 1.7-19.9 × 10(5)/kg), respectively. The 5-year OS and thalassaemia-free survival after the first transplant were 88.3 and 73.9%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of TRM at 2 years was 11.7%. Fourteen patients developed chronic skin GVHD. Thirty patients were alive and transfusion-independent with a Lansky performance score ?80% achieved between 6 and 76 months post transplant (median, 36 months). These data compare acceptably with the survival rates of related-donor BMT for thalassaemia and suggest that patients without an available HLA-compatible sibling but who have well-matched unrelated donors should also be considered for CBT. PMID:21383683

  15. Extramedullary haematopoiesis in thalassaemia major causing spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Chiam, Q L L; Lau, K K

    2007-04-01

    A 33-year-old, homozygous beta-thalassaemic, Jehovah witness man presented with subacute spinal cord compression secondary to extramedullary haematopoiesis within the thoracic spinal canal. In this case, MRI showed characteristic features of extramedullary haematopoiesis, leading to an early diagnosis. PMID:17419864

  16. Long-term Chelation Therapy in Thalassaemia Major: Effect on Liver Iron Concentration, Liver Histology, and Clinical Progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Barry; David M. Flynn; Elizabeth A. Letsky; R. A. Risdon

    1974-01-01

    A prospective trial of continuous chelation therapy in children with homozygous thalassaemia on a high transfusion regimen was started in April 1966. The effect of treatment on iron concentration in the liver and on hepatic histology was examined in 49 biopsy specimens obtained from nine chelator-treated patients and nine control patients between April 1966 and April 1973.Chelation therapy was associated

  17. Differential gene expression analysis in early and late erythroid progenitor cells in ?-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Forster, Luke; McCooke, John; Bellgard, Matthew; Joske, David; Finlayson, Jill; Ghassemifar, Reza

    2015-07-01

    ?- thalassaemia is a disorder of globin gene synthesis resulting in reduced or absent production of the ?-globin chain in red blood cells. In this study, haematopoietic stem cells were isolated from the peripheral blood of six transfusion dependent ?-thalassaemia patients and six healthy controls. Following 7 and 14 d in culture, early- and late- erythroblasts were isolated and purified. No morphological difference in maturation was observed following 7 d in culture, while a delayed maturation was observed in the patient group after 14 d. Following RNA isolation and linear amplification, gene expression analyses were performed using microarray technology. The generated data were analysed by two methods: the BRB-ArrayTools platform and the Bioconductor platform using bead level data. Following 7 d culture, there was no difference in gene expression between the control and patient groups. Following 14 d culture, 384 differentially expressed genes were identified by either analysis. A subset of 90 genes was selected and the results were confirmed by Quantitative-Real-Time-polymerase chain reaction. Pathways shown to be significantly altered in the patient group include apoptosis, MAPKinase and the nuclear factor-?B pathway. PMID:25892530

  18. Deferasirox effect on renal haemodynamic parameters in patients with transfusion-dependent ? thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Piga, Antonio; Fracchia, Silvia; Lai, Maria E; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Hirschberg, Raimund; Habr, Dany; Wegener, Antje; Bouillaud, Emmanuel; Forni, Gian Luca

    2015-03-01

    Some patients with ? thalassaemia experience non-progressive creatinine increases with deferasirox, mostly within normal limits; the mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. The effects of deferasirox on renal haemodynamics, including glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF), were investigated in a Phase I, open-label study in ? thalassaemia major patients with iron overload. Patients received deferasirox 30 mg/kg/d up to Week 8, followed by a 2-week washout period, and extended treatment up to Week 104 with a 4-week washout period. In the short-term study (n = 11), mean GFR and RPF declined from baseline to Week 8 (mean [%] change:-9·2 [-9·5%] and -105·7 ml/min [-17·8%], respectively). A similar pattern was observed during the long-term study (n = 5); mean GFR and RPF decreased up to Week 52 (-19·1 [-17·7%] and -155·6 ml/min [-26·1%]), with similar change at Week 104 (-18·4 [-17·2%] and -115·9 ml/min [-19·6%]). Measures returned to baseline values after each washout. Serum creatinine and creatinine clearance followed a similar pattern. Effects of deferasirox on renal haemodynamics were mild and reversible for up to 2 years of treatment, with no progressive worsening of renal function over time. www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00560820. PMID:25402221

  19. Status of Superoxide Dismutase in Transfusion Dependent Thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Rujito, Lantip; Mulatsih, Sri; Sofro, Abdul Salam M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thalassemia is a collection of genetic impairments in beta and alpha genes causing various states of anemia. Severe types of the disease need lifelong transfusions, leading to oxidant-antioxidant disturbance due to massive iron deposits. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant enzyme Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and ferritin levels of thalassemia major patients in a peripheral health facility. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and nine probands were recruited and performed laboratory experiments for SOD and Ferritin levels. Chelation administration and clinical score were taken from interviewing the family and from medical report data. Results: The study showed that SOD intensity was lower (162.41 u/ml) compared to the normal cutoff point (P = 0.001), while the mean of Ferritin levels was ten times over the normal value (4226,67 ng/dl). Observations also reported that chelation medicine was not administrated properly. Conclusions: The data indicates that thalassemic patients have oxidant-antioxidant uproar due to oxidative stress. Monitored chelating administration, selective antioxidant, and a well-balanced diet may prevent oxidative injury.

  20. The heart in transfusion dependent homozygous thalassaemia today – prediction, prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Aessopos, Athanassios; Berdoukas, Vasilios; Tsironi, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac disease remains the major cause of death in thalassaemia major. This review deals with the mechanisms involved in heart failure development, the peculiar clinical presentation of congestive heart failure and provides guidelines for diagnosis and management of the acute phase of cardiac failure. It emphasizes the need for intensive medical – cardiac care and aggressive iron chelating management as, with such approaches, today, the patients outcomes can be favourable in the long term. It covers advances in the assessment of cardiac iron overload with the use of magnetic resonance imaging and makes recommendations for preventing the onset of cardiac problems by tailoring iron chelation therapy appropriate to the degree of cardiac iron loading found. PMID:18081719

  1. The involvement of Alu repeats in recombination events at the ?-globin gene cluster: characterization of two ?°-thalassaemia deletion breakpoints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kees L. Harteveld; Monique Losekoot; Riccardo Fodde; Piero C. Giordano; Luigi F. Bernini

    1997-01-01

    Alu repetitive sequences are frequently involved in homologous and non-homologous recombination events in the ?-cluster.\\u000a Possible mechanisms involved in Alu-mediated recombination events are strand exchange, promoted by DNA pairing between highly\\u000a homologous Alu repeats, and subsequent strand invasion. Alternatively, Alu sequences might play a more active role in recombinogenic\\u000a processes in the ?-cluster. We describe a novel 33-kb ?°-thalassaemia deletion

  2. Cardiac T2* MRI assessment in patients with thalassaemia major and its effect on the preference of chelation therapy.

    PubMed

    Akcay, Arzu; Salcioglu, Zafer; Oztarhan, Kazim; Tugcu, Deniz; Aydogan, Gonul; Ayaz, Nuray Aktay; Bornaun, Helen; Sen, Hulya Sayilan; Akici, Ferhan; Akdana, Burhan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) values and age, serum ferritin level, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), splenectomy status, and to identify appropriate modifications to chelation therapy based on T2* MRI results of children with thalassaemia major. Sixty-four patients with thalassaemia major (37 girls/27 boys) older than 8 years of age were enrolled in the study. Based on the first T2* MRI, the patients' myocardial iron depositions were classified into three groups: T2* MRI <10 ms (high risk group), T2* MRI 10-20 ms (medium-risk group) and T2* MRI >20 ms (low-risk group). There was no significant relationship between T2* MRI value and ages, serum ferritin levels and splenectomy status of thalassaemia major patients. The mean LVEFs were 60, 75, and 72.5 % in the high-, medium-, and low-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.006). The mean cardiac iron concentrations calculated from the T2* MRI values were 4.96 ± 1.93, 1.65 ± 0.37, and 0.81 ± 0.27 mg/g in the high-, medium-, and low-risk groups, respectively. Chelation therapies were re-designed in 24 (37.5 %) patients according to cardiac risk as assessed by cardiac T2* MRI. In conclusion, until recently, T2* MRI has been employed to demonstrate cardiac siderosis without a direct relationship with the markers used in follow-up of patients with thalassaemia. However, modifications of chelation therapies could reliably be planned according to severity of iron load displayed by T2* MRI. PMID:24719246

  3. Human Traits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners investigate variations in human traits. This allows learners' natural curiosity about their identity to draw them into the study of heredity. Learners can investigate traits such as earlobe attachment, tongue rolling, hair and eye color, and hair texture. Through these traits, learners get an introduction to different inheritance patterns such as simple and incomplete dominance. Activity is usually done over multiple days to give learners time to survey people about their traits.

  4. 13. Traits! Selected literature!

    E-print Network

    Nierstrasz, Oscar

    .3 Roadmap! > Why traits?" > Traits in a Nutshell" > Case study -- Streams" > Traits in Pharo" > Future in a Nutshell" > Case study -- Streams" > Traits in Pharo" > Future of Traits" #12;Problem: how to share study -- Streams" > Traits in Pharo" > Future of Traits" #12;Traits are parameterized behaviours

  5. Frequency and origin of haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster in individuals with trait and sickle cell anemia in the Atlantic and Pacific coastal regions of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Cristian; Lizarralde-Iragorri, María Alejandra; Rojas-Gallardo, Diana; Barreto, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease with high prevalence in people of African descent. There are five typical haplotypes associated with this disease and the haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster have been used to establish the origin of African-descendant people in America. In this work, we determined the frequency and the origin of haplotypes associated with hemoglobin S in a sample of individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) and sickle cell hemoglobin trait (HbAS) in coastal regions of Colombia. Blood samples from 71 HbAS and 79 HbSS individuals were obtained. Haplotypes were determined based on the presence of variable restriction sites within the ?-globin gene cluster. On the Pacific coast of Colombia the most frequent haplotype was Benin, while on the Atlantic coast Bantu was marginally higher than Benin. Eight atypical haplotypes were observed on both coasts, being more diverse in the Atlantic than in the Pacific region. These results suggest a differential settlement of the coasts, dependent on where slaves were brought from, either from the Gulf of Guinea or from Angola, where the haplotype distributions are similar. Atypical haplotypes probably originated from point mutations that lost or gained a restriction site and/or by recombination events. PMID:24385850

  6. Transition of Thalassaemia and Friedreich ataxia from fatal to chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Kolnagou, Annita; Kontoghiorghe, Christina N; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2014-12-26

    Thalassaemia major (TM) and Friedreich's ataxia (FA) are autosomal recessive inherited diseases related to the proteins haemoglobin and frataxin respectively. In both diseases abnormalities in iron metabolism is the main cause of iron toxicity leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Major efforts are directed towards the prevention of these diseases and also in their treatment using iron chelation therapy. Both TM and FA are endemic in Cyprus, where the frequency per total population of asymptomatic heterozygote carriers and patients is the highest worldwide. Cyprus has been a pioneering nation in preventing and nearly eliminating the birth of TM and FA patients by introducing an organized health structure, including prenatal and antenatal diagnosis. Effective iron chelation therapy, improved diagnostic methods and transfusion techniques as well as supportive therapy from other clinical specializations have improved the survival and quality of life of TM patients. Despite the tiresome clinical management regimes many TM patients are successful in their professional lives, have families with children and some are now living well into their fifties. The introduction of deferiprone led to the elimination of cardiac failure induced by iron overload toxicity, which was the major cause of mortality in TM. Effective combinations of deferiprone with deferoxamine in TM patients caused the fall of body iron to normal physiological ranges. In FA different mechanisms of iron metabolism and toxicity apply to that of TM, which can be targeted with specific iron chelation protocols. Preliminary findings from the introduction of deferiprone in FA patients have increased the hopes for improved and effective therapy in this untreatable condition. New and personalised treatments are proposed in TM and FA. Overall, advances in treatments and in particular of chelation therapy using deferiprone are transforming TM and FA from fatal to chronic conditions. The paradigm of Cyprus in the prevention and treatment of TM can be used for application worldwide. PMID:25541601

  7. Present status and future prospects of oral iron chelation therapy in thalassaemia and other diseases.

    PubMed

    Kontoghiorghes, G J

    1993-01-01

    In the last few years we have witnessed the emergence of oral chelation which is a new form of therapy for transfusional iron-loaded patients in thalassaemia and other refractory anaemias. The need for a cheap, non-toxic, orally effective iron chelator is paramount because it could potentially save the lives of many thousands of patients. At present, less than 10% of the patients requiring iron chelation therapy worldwide receive the widely used chelating drug desferrioxamine (DF) because of its high cost, oral inactivity and toxicity. The most promising oral iron chelator is 1, 2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one (L1 or INN: Deferiprone), which has so far been taken by over 450 patients in 15 countries, and in some cases daily for over 4 years with very promising results. L1 was shown at 50-100 mg/kg/day to be effective in bringing patients to negative iron balance. It increases urinary iron excretion, decreases serum ferritin levels and reduces liver iron in multi-transfused iron-loaded patients. Toxic side effects were mainly encountered at high doses (80-100 mg/kg/day) and include transient agranulocytosis (5 cases), transient musculoskeletal and joint pains (10-20%), gastric intolerance (2-6%) and zinc deficiency (1%). The incidence of these toxic side effects was reduced by using lower doses of 50-75 mg/kg/day. The overall efficacy and toxicity of L1 is comparable to that of DF in animals and humans. Further work is required for identifying susceptible individuals to L1 toxicity, and also optimum dose protocols of L1 which can maximise iron excretion and minimise the incidence of toxic side effects. PMID:8262586

  8. Evaluation of existing limited sampling models for busulfan kinetics in children with beta thalassaemia major undergoing bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Balasubramanian; M Chandy; R Krishnamoorthy; A Srivastava

    2001-01-01

    Busulfan pharmacokinetic parameters are useful in predicting the outcome of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Standard pharmacokinetic measurements require multiple blood samples. Various limited sampling models (LSM) have been proposed for reducing the sample number required for these measurements, essentially for patients with malignant disorders undergoing BMT. This study was undertaken to evaluate the existing LSM for busulfan pharmacokinetics to

  9. The Least-Squares Estimation of Latent Trait Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi

    This paper presents a new method for estimating a given latent trait variable by the least-squares approach. The beta weights are obtained recursively with the help of Fourier series and expressed as functions of item parameters of response curves. The values of the latent trait variable estimated by this method and by maximum likelihood method…

  10. Sickle Cell Trait

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  11. The Trait in Latent Trait Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael V.

    Significant to a latent trait or item response theory analysis of a mental test is the determination of exactly what is being quantified. The following are practical problems to be considered in the formulation of a good theory: (1) deciding whether two tests measure the same trait or traits; (2) analyzing the relative contributions of a pair of…

  12. Trait anxiety, trait depression, worry, and memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Reidy

    2004-01-01

    A study is reported which investigated the proposal that high trait anxiety is associated with a memory bias for worry themes. Forty-five participants were categorised as being high or low trait anxious on the basis of scores on the (Spielberger et al., 1983) (Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y) (1983)). The participants were requested to rate a number

  13. Deferasirox: a review of its use for chronic iron overload in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Matt; Plosker, Greg L

    2014-06-01

    Deferasirox (Exjade(®)) is a once-daily orally administered iron chelator which has been approved for use in the treatment of transfusional-dependent chronic iron overload since 2005. Based primarily on the findings of the THALASSA (Assessment of Exjade(®) in Non-Transfusion-Dependent THALASSemiA) trial, the approval for deferasirox has recently been expanded to include the management of chronic iron overload in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) syndromes. Despite the lack of regular blood transfusions, NTDT patients can still develop clinically relevant iron overload, primarily due to increased gastrointestinal absorption secondary to ineffective erythropoiesis, and may require chelation therapy. The THALASSA trial, the first placebo-controlled clinical trial of an iron chelator in NTDT patients, demonstrated that deferasirox was effective in reducing liver iron and serum ferritin levels in this population. Deferasirox has an acceptable tolerability profile, with the most common adverse events reported in the THALASSA trial being related to mild to moderate gastrointestinal disorders. Although further long-term studies will be required to clearly demonstrate the clinical benefit of chelation therapy in NTDT patients, deferasirox presents a useful tool in the management of iron overload in this population. PMID:24919862

  14. Safety issues of iron chelation therapy in patients with normal range iron stores including thalassaemia, neurodegenerative, renal and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Kontoghiorghes, G J; Kolnagou, A; Peng, C-T; Shah, S V; Aessopos, A

    2010-03-01

    An increased number of thalassaemia patients treated with effective chelation therapy protocols are achieving body iron levels similar to those of normal individuals. Iron chelation therapy has also been recently used in a number of other categories of patients with no excess body iron load such as neurodegenerative, renal and infectious diseases. Chelation therapy in the absence of iron overload in the latter conditions raises many safety issues including chelator overdose toxicity and toxicity related to iron and other essential metal deficiencies. Preliminary preclinical and clinical toxicity evidence suggest that deferoxamine and deferasirox can only be safely used for these non-iron loaded conditions for short-term treatments of a few weeks, whereas deferiprone can be used for longer term treatments of many months. The selection of the chelating drug and appropriate dose protocols for targeting specific organs and conditions is critical for the safety of patients with normal iron stores. Chelation therapy is likely to play a major role as adjuvant, alternative or main therapy in many non-iron loading conditions in the forthcoming years. PMID:20059374

  15. Pharmacoeconomic considerations in treating iron overload in patients with ?-thalassaemia, sickle cell disease and myelodysplastic syndromes in the US: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Donga, Prina Z; Corral, Mitra; Sasane, Medha; Miller, Jeffrey D; Pashos, Chris L

    2011-06-01

    Patients with ?-thalassaemia, sickle cell disease (SCD) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) require chronic blood transfusions, which can lead to iron overload and substantial morbidity and mortality. To reduce the excess iron and its deleterious effects, available iron chelation therapy (ICT) in the US includes oral deferasirox or infusional deferoxamine (DFO). The aim of this study was to review and synthesize the available pharmacoeconomic evidence on ICT in patients with ?-thalassaemia, SCD and MDS in the US. We systematically identified and reviewed pharmacoeconomic studies of ICT in patients with ?-thalassaemia, SCD and MDS that either were published in MEDLINE-indexed, English-language journals from 1999 to 2009, or appeared in medical society websites and scientific meeting abstracts. We assessed available cost-of-illness, cost-of-treatment, cost-consequence, cost-effectiveness, utility and patient-satisfaction studies. The majority of the 20 identified studies assessed cost of treatment, mainly focusing on acquisition and administration costs of ICTs. Gaps in the published literature include current data on direct medical costs for patients with MDS, direct medical costs associated with complications of iron overload, direct non-medical costs, indirect costs and patient utilities. Different underlying model assumptions, methodologies and comparators were found in the cost-effectiveness studies, which yielded a broad range of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for different ICTs. Comprehensive cost-of-illness studies are needed to address data gaps in the published literature regarding the economic burden of iron overload. Comparative-effectiveness studies that evaluate clinical, economic and patient-reported outcomes would help the medical community to better understand the value of different ICTs. PMID:21452907

  16. Uncertainty quantified trait predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazayeli, Farideh; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Schrodt, Franziska; Reich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Functional traits of organisms are key to understanding and predicting biodiversity and ecological change, which motivates continuous collection of traits and their integration into global databases. Such composite trait matrices are inherently sparse, severely limiting their usefulness for further analyses. On the other hand, traits are characterized by the phylogenetic trait signal, trait-trait correlations and environmental constraints, all of which provide information that could be used to statistically fill gaps. We propose the application of probabilistic models which, for the first time, utilize all three characteristics to fill gaps in trait databases and predict trait values at larger spatial scales. For this purpose we introduce BHPMF, a hierarchical Bayesian extension of Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF). PMF is a machine learning technique which exploits the correlation structure of sparse matrices to impute missing entries. BHPMF additionally utilizes the taxonomic hierarchy for trait prediction. Implemented in the context of a Gibbs Sampler MCMC approach BHPMF provides uncertainty estimates for each trait prediction. We present comprehensive experimental results on the problem of plant trait prediction using the largest database of plant traits, where BHPMF shows strong empirical performance in uncertainty quantified trait prediction, outperforming the state-of-the-art based on point estimates. Further, we show that BHPMF is more accurate when it is confident, whereas the error is high when the uncertainty is high.

  17. Beta Thalassemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... iron overload which must be treated with chelation therapy to prevent early death from organ failure. In a somewhat milder form, the inheritance of two abnormal beta globin genes may cause beta thalassemia intermedia, in which the lack of beta globin ...

  18. Next generation sequencing of SNPs for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis: challenges and feasibility as illustrated by an application to ?-thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Papasavva, Thessalia; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Kockx, Christel E M; van den Hout, Mirjam C G N; Kountouris, Petros; Kythreotis, Loukas; Kalogirou, Eleni; Grosveld, Frank G; Kleanthous, Marina

    2013-01-01

    ?-Thalassaemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive single-gene disorder worldwide, with a carrier frequency of 12% in Cyprus. Prenatal tests for at risk pregnancies use invasive methods and development of a non-invasive prenatal diagnostic (NIPD) method is of paramount importance to prevent unnecessary risks inherent to invasive methods. Here, we describe such a method by assessing a modified version of next generation sequencing (NGS) using the Illumina platform, called ‘targeted sequencing', based on the detection of paternally inherited fetal alleles in maternal plasma. We selected four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the ?-globin locus with a high degree of heterozygosity in the Cypriot population. Spiked genomic samples were used to determine the specificity of the platform. We could detect the minor alleles in the expected ratio, showing the specificity of the platform. We then developed a multiplexed format for the selected SNPs and analysed ten maternal plasma samples from pregnancies at risk. The presence or absence of the paternal mutant allele was correctly determined in 27 out of 34 samples analysed. With haplotype analysis, NIPD was possible on eight out of ten families. This is the first study carried out for the NIPD of ?-thalassaemia using targeted NGS and haplotype analysis. Preliminary results show that NGS is effective in detecting paternally inherited alleles in the maternal plasma. PMID:23572027

  19. Genetic red cell disorders and severity of falciparum malaria in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Oo, M; Tin-Shwe; Marlar-Than; O'Sullivan, W J

    1995-01-01

    A hospital-based survey was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the incidence and severity of malaria infection and various red cell disorders in Myanmar. The mean parasitaemia levels of patients with alpha- or beta-thalassaemia trait or with severe glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency were lower than those of individuals with normal haemoglobin AA or with heterozygous haemoglobin E. The double genetic defect of thalassaemia trait and severe G6PD deficiency appeared to confer some degree of protection against malaria. PMID:8846492

  20. Beta experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

  1. Defining serum ferritin thresholds to predict clinically relevant liver iron concentrations for guiding deferasirox therapy when MRI is unavailable in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Taher, Ali T; Porter, John B; Viprakasit, Vip; Kattamis, Antonis; Chuncharunee, Suporn; Sutcharitchan, Pranee; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Origa, Raffaella; Karakas, Zeynep; Habr, Dany; Zhu, Zewen; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

    2015-01-01

    Liver iron concentration (LIC) assessment by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the gold standard to diagnose iron overload and guide iron chelation therapy in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT). However, limited access to MRI technology and expertise worldwide makes it practical to also use serum ferritin assessments. The THALASSA (assessment of Exjade(®) in non-transfusion-dependent THALASSemiA patients) study assessed the efficacy and safety of deferasirox in iron-overloaded NTDT patients and provided a large data set to allow exploration of the relationship between LIC and serum ferritin. Using data from screened patients and those treated with deferasirox for up to 2 years, we identified clinically relevant serum ferritin thresholds (for when MRI is unavailable) for the initiation of chelation therapy (>800 ?g/l), as well as thresholds to guide chelator dose interruption (<300 ?g/l) and dose escalation (>2000 ?g/l). (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00873041). PMID:25212456

  2. Benefits and risks of deferiprone in iron overload in Thalassaemia and other conditions: comparison of epidemiological and therapeutic aspects with deferoxamine.

    PubMed

    Kontoghiorghes, George J; Neocleous, Katia; Kolnagou, Annita

    2003-01-01

    Deferiprone is the only orally active iron-chelating drug to be used therapeutically in conditions of transfusional iron overload. It is an orphan drug designed and developed primarily by academic initiatives for the treatment of iron overload in thalassaemia, which is endemic in the Mediterranean, Middle East and South East Asia and is considered an orphan disease in the European Union and North America. Deferiprone has been used in several other iron or other metal imbalance conditions and has prospects of wider clinical applications. Deferiprone has high affinity for iron and interacts with almost all the iron pools at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organ levels. Doses of 50-120 mg/kg/day appear to be effective in bringing patients to negative iron balance. It increases urinary iron excretion, which mainly depends on the iron load of patients and the dose of the drug. It decreases serum ferritin levels and reduces the liver and heart iron content in the majority of chronically transfused iron loaded patients at doses >80 mg/kg/day. It is metabolised to a glucuronide conjugate and cleared through the urine in the metabolised and a non-metabolised form, usually of a 3 deferiprone: 1 iron complex, which gives the characteristic red colour urine. Peak serum levels of deferiprone are observed within 1 hour of its oral administration and clearance from blood is within 6 hours. There is variation among patients in iron excretion, the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of deferiprone. Deferiprone has been used in more than 7500 patients aged from 2-85 years in >50 countries, in some cases daily for >14 years. All the adverse effects of deferiprone are considered reversible, controllable and manageable. These include agranulocytosis with frequency of about 0.6%, neutropenia 6%, musculoskeletal and joint pains 15%, gastrointestinal complains 6% and zinc deficiency 1%. Discontinuation of the drug is recommended for patients developing agranulocytosis. Deferiprone is of similar therapeutic index to subcutaneous deferoxamine but is more effective in iron removal from the heart, which is the target organ of iron toxicity and mortality in iron-loaded thalassaemia patients. Deferiprone is much less expensive to produce than deferoxamine. Combination therapy of deferoxamine and deferiprone has been used in patients not complying with subcutaneous deferoxamine or experiencing toxicity or not excreting sufficient amounts of iron with use of either drug alone. New oral iron-chelating drugs are being developed, but even if successful these are likely to be more expensive than deferiprone and are not likely to become available in the next 5-8 years. About 25% of treated thalassaemia patients in Europe and more than 50% in India are using deferiprone. For most thalassaemia patients worldwide who are not at present receiving any form of chelation therapy the choice is between deferiprone and fatal iron toxicity. PMID:12825969

  3. Associations between frequencies of a susceptible TNF-alpha promoter allele and protective alpha-thalassaemias and malaria parasite incidence in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Ubalee, R; Tsukahara, T; Kikuchi, M; Lum, J K; Dzodzomenyo, M; Kaneko, A; Hirayama, K

    2005-06-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is one of the key cytokines that influence the pathology of microbial infections. The genetic susceptibility to severe forms of falciparum malaria is differentially associated with TNF-alpha promoter gene polymorphisms (TNFP alleles). In a previous study, we identified a TNFP-allele characterized by a C to T transition at position -857 (TNFP-D allele) as a marker for susceptibility to cerebral malaria in Myanmar. The frequencies of TNFP alleles on six islands of Vanuatu, Melanesia (South-west Pacific) were estimated to investigate whether malaria selection pressure on this susceptibility marker has influenced its prevalence. Within the archipelago of Vanuatu there is a decreasing cline of parasite incidence from North to South. Of the four alleles of the TNFP gene detected in Vanuatu, the TNFP-D allele frequencies were inversely correlated with the parasite incidence of islands; TNFP-D varied from 0.55 on the island with the lowest parasite incidence to 0.26 on the island with the highest parasite incidence (r = -0.855, P = 0.03). We also observed a significant correlation between the frequencies of alpha-thalassaemia alleles, thought to protect against malaria and parasite incidence in the same populations. These data are consistent with a previously reported correspondence between the frequencies of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and parasite incidences on the islands of Vanuatu (Kaneko et al. 1998) and indicate that the degree of malaria endemicity has influenced the allele frequencies of at least three loci that confer both susceptibility (TNFP-D) and protection (alpha-thalassaemias and G6PD deficiency). PMID:15941417

  4. Reducing Bias in CAT Trait Estimation: A Comparison of Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou; Hanson, Bradley A.; Lau, Che-Ming A.

    1999-01-01

    Extended the use of a beta prior in trait estimation to the maximum expected a posteriori (MAP) method of Bayesian estimation. This new method, essentially unbiased MAP, was compared with MAP, essentially unbiased expected a posteriori, weighted likelihood, and maximum-likelihood estimation methods. The new method significantly reduced bias in…

  5. Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Sandel, Brody; Šímová, Irena; Donoghue, John C.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; McGill, Brian J.; Boyle, Brad; Buzzard, Vanessa; Dolins, Steven; Jørgensen, Peter M.; Marcuse-Kubitza, Aaron; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K.; Piel, William H.; Regetz, James; Schildhauer, Mark; Spencer, Nick; Thiers, Barbara; Wiser, Susan K.; Enquist, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha (within local assemblages), beta (among assemblages), and gamma (regional pool) scales. We test these predictions by quantifying hypervolumes constructed from functional traits representing major axes of plant strategy variation (specific leaf area, plant height, and seed mass) in tree assemblages spanning the temperate and tropical New World. Alpha-scale trait volume decreases with absolute latitude and is often lower than sampling expectation, consistent with environmental filtering theory. Beta-scale overlap decays with geographic distance fastest in the temperate zone, again consistent with environmental filtering theory. In contrast, gamma-scale trait space shows a hump-shaped relationship with absolute latitude, consistent with no theory. Furthermore, the overall temperate trait hypervolume was larger than the overall tropical hypervolume, indicating that the temperate zone permits a wider range of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory. PMID:25225365

  6. Does Hakka ethnic group have higher incidence of thalassemia traits in Taiwanese population?

    PubMed

    Chien, C C; Lin, C K; Jiang, M L; Wang, C C; Lin, J S

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this survey is to find out whether Hakka group has higher incidence of thalassemia traits in our population. A total of 1,115 healthy employees from a company were screened by complete blood count (CBC) with indices. Those subjects with mean corpuscular volume (MCV) less than 80 fl were further evaluated by hemoglobin electrophoresis and modified hemoglobin H (Hb H) inclusion staining to confirm the diagnosis of beta- and alpha-thalassemia traits, respectively. We evaluated and compared the crude occurrence rates of thalassemia traits in Hakka, non-Hakka, and Taiwanese. Subjects with one or both Hakka parents had higher crude incidence of alpha-thalassemia traits than other groups of subjects, but this phenomenon wasn't found in beta-thalassemia traits. PMID:1334786

  7. The Trait Psychology Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

  8. Hemoglobin D/beta-thalassemia and beta-thalassemia major in a Saudi family.

    PubMed

    Owaidah, Tarek M; Al-Saleh, Mahasen M; Al-Hellani, Ali M

    2005-04-01

    The present report describes the clinical, hematological and molecular characteristics in a family with unique interaction between 3 different mutations discovered during routine workup for bone marrow transplantation. In this report, complete hematological and molecular studies were performed for a large Saudi family. The family consisted of parents and 9 children, which revealed that the father is compound heterozygous for hemoglobin Hb D Punjab/beta-thalassemia, the mother is a carrier for beta-thalassemia and 3 of their children are transfusion dependent beta-thalassemia. Two of the children are compound heterozygous for Hb D Punjab/beta-thalassemia like the father but with different genotype. The other 2 children have Hb D Punjab traits while 2 other children have beta-thalassemia traits. Although, compound heterozygous for Hb D/beta-thalassemia has been well described in the literature, our report emphasizes the importance of careful analysis of the electrophoresis results and the usefulness of molecular studies in premarital screening and other screening hemoglobinopathy programs. PMID:15900384

  9. Adaptive Traits, 1 Running Head: ADAPTIVE TRAITS ASSOCIATED WITH PSYCHOPATHY

    E-print Network

    Scholl, Brian

    Adaptive Traits, 1 Running Head: ADAPTIVE TRAITS ASSOCIATED WITH PSYCHOPATHY Adaptive Traits Associated with Psychopathy in a "Successful," Non-Criminal Population Scott A. Snyder Advisor: Kristi-institutionalized in society. Using the PPI- R, a self-report measure of psychopathy, this study investigated which

  10. cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status.

    E-print Network

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    blood flow to the tissues and muscles. During intense exercise, athletes with sickle cell trait haveWhat is sickle cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status. Engage in a slow and gradual or a breather. If you experience symptoms such as muscle pain, abnormal weakness, undue fatigue

  11. Putting Traits in Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Ducasse

    2009-01-01

    Traits have been proposed as a mechanism to compose and share behavioral units between distinct class hierarchies. Several\\u000a versions have been developed and they have been used to build complex libraries. This keynote puts in perspective the current\\u000a versions and stress their relationships and limits.

  12. Selected highlights of the VIII International Symposium of Clinicians for Endocrinopathies in Thalassemia and Adolescent Medicine (ICET-A) on Growth, Puberty and Endocrine Complications in Thalassaemia. Auditorium of the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) Muscat (Sultanate of Oman), 20th of December 2014.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T; Wali, Yasser; Elsedfy, Heba; Daar, Shahina; Al-Yaarubi, Saif A H; Tony, Surekha; Elshinawy, Mohamed; Fawzy, Hanan; Al-Subhi, Taimoora; Al-Rawas, Abulhakim; Al-Muslehi, Muhanna; El Kholy, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    The VIII ICET-A International Symposium was held in Muscat (Sultanate of Oman) on the 20th of December, 2014. The symposium included four sessions on a wide range of topics covering growth disorders and endocrine complications in thalassaemia. Despite the fact that endocrine complications are very common in multi-transfused thalassaemia patients a recent survey conducted by the International Network of Clinicians for Endocrinopathies in Thalassemia and Adolescent Medicine (ICET-A) in 2014 in Acitrezza (Catania, Italy) showed that the major difficulties reported by hematologists or pediatricians experienced in thalassaemias or thalassaemia syndromes in following endocrine complications included: Lack of familiarity with medical treatment of endocrine complications, interpretation of endocrine tests, lack of collaboration and on-time consultation between thalassaemic centres supervised by haematologists and endocrinologists. Endocrine monitoring of growth, pubertal development, reproductive ability and endocrine function in general are essential to achieve a good quality of life as well as controlling the pain which results from the defects of bone structure, all of which increase with the age of patients. Such comprehensive care is best provided by coordinated, multidisciplinary teams working in expert centres. The multidisciplinary team must include an endocrinologist, preferably someone experienced in the management of hormonal deficiencies caused early in life by transfusion-induced iron overload. PMID:25962210

  13. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that play an important role in determining physical traits and many other things about us. Humans are ... is right- or left-handed, and many more traits. DNA, along with genes and the information they ...

  14. Clines in polygenic traits.

    PubMed

    Barton, N H

    1999-12-01

    This article outlines theoretical models of clines in additive polygenic traits, which are maintained by stabilizing selection towards a spatially varying optimum. Clines in the trait mean can be accurately predicted, given knowledge of the genetic variance. However, predicting the variance is difficult, because it depends on genetic details. Changes in genetic variance arise from changes in allele frequency, and in linkage disequilibria. Allele frequency changes dominate when selection is weak relative to recombination, and when there are a moderate number of loci. With a continuum of alleles, gene flow inflates the genetic variance in the same way as a source of mutations of small effect. The variance can be approximated by assuming a Gaussian distribution of allelic effects; with a sufficiently steep cline, this is accurate even when mutation and selection alone are better described by the 'House of Cards' approximation. With just two alleles at each locus, the phenotype changes in a similar way: the mean remains close to the optimum, while the variance changes more slowly, and over a wider region. However, there may be substantial cryptic divergence at the underlying loci. With strong selection and many loci, linkage disequilibria are the main cause of changes in genetic variance. Even for strong selection, the infinitesimal model can be closely approximated by assuming a Gaussian distribution of breeding values. Linkage disequilibria can generate a substantial increase in genetic variance, which is concentrated at sharp gradients in trait means. PMID:10689800

  15. Evaluation of genetic diversity and root traits of sea beet accessions of the Adriatic Sea coast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty nine sea beet [Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang.] accessions of the Adriatic coast were screened genetically and for their adaptive morpho-functional root traits in order to identify new sources of abiotic resistances for sugar beet breeding programs. Genetic diversity was evaluat...

  16. Exaggerated trait growth in insects.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Laura; Gotoh, Hiroki; Brent, Colin S; Dworkin, Ian; Emlen, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size the surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles (Lucanidae), the claspers of praying mantids (Mantidae), the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera), and the giant heads of soldier ants (Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera). Developmentally, disproportionate growth can arise through trait-specific modifications to the activity of at least four pathways: the sex determination pathway, the appendage patterning pathway, the insulin/IGF signaling pathway, and the juvenile hormone/ecdysteroid pathway. Although most exaggerated traits have not been studied mechanistically, it is already apparent that distinct developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of the different types of exaggerated traits. We suggest this reflects the nature of selection in each instance, revealing an exciting link between mechanism, form, and function. We use this information to make explicit predictions for the types of regulatory pathways likely to underlie each type of exaggerated trait. PMID:25341090

  17. Effect of L-type calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) on myocardial iron deposition in patients with thalassaemia with moderate-to-severe myocardial iron deposition: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Shakoor, Amarah; Zahoor, Maaman; Sadaf, Alina; Alvi, Najveen; Fadoo, Zehra; Rizvi, Arjumand; Quadri, Farheen; Tipoo, Fateh Ali; Khurshid, Mohammad; Sajjad, Zaffar; Colan, Steven; Hasan, Babar S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sideroblastic cardiomyopathy secondary to repeated blood transfusions is a feared complication in thalassaemia. Control of myocardial iron is thus becoming the cornerstone of thalassaemia management. Recent evidence suggests a role for L-type Ca2+ channels in mediating iron uptake by the heart. Blocking the cellular iron uptake through these channels may add to the benefit of therapy to standard chelation in reducing myocardial iron. We aim to determine the efficacy of amlodipine (a calcium channel blocker) as an adjunct to standard aggressive chelation in retarding myocardial iron deposition in thalassaemics with or without cardiomyopathy. Outcomes The primary outcome is to compare the efficacy of amlodipine+chelation (intervention) versus standard chelation (control) in retarding myocardial iron deposition. Secondary outcomes include the effect of amlodipine therapy on systolic and diastolic function, strain and strain rate and liver iron content. Methods and analysis This is a single-centre, parallel-group, prospective randomised control trial. Twenty patients will be randomised in a 1:1 allocation ratio into the intervention and control arms. In addition to conventional echocardiography, MRI T2* values for assessment of cardiac and liver iron load will be obtained at baseline and at 6 and 12?months. Cardiac T2* will be reported as the geometric mean and per cent coefficient of variation, and an increase in cardiac T2* values from baseline will be used as an end point to compare the efficacy of therapy. A p Value of <0.05 will be considered significant. Study setting Department of Pediatric and Child Health, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Ethics Review Committee and Clinical Trials Unit at The Aga Khan University with respect to scientific content and compliance with applicable research and human subjects regulations. Findings will be reported through scientific publications and research conferences and project summary papers for participants. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.Gov. Registration no: NCT02065492. PMID:25492271

  18. Gamma, Beta, Erf

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page includes the encyclopedia entries for gamma, beta and erf functions including factorials, binomials, gamma functions and inverses, differentiated gamma functions, beta functions and inverses, probability integrals and inverses, Frensnel integrals and exponential integrals.

  19. Proton-conducting beta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brent William Kirby

    2008-01-01

    Proton Conducting beta-alumina via Microwave Assisted Synthesis. The microwave assisted synthesis of proton conducting Mg- and Li-stabilized NH4+\\/H3O+ beta-alumina from a solution based gel precursor is reported. beta-alumina is a ceramic fast ion conductor containing two-dimensional sheets of mobile cations. Na +-beta-alumina is the most stable at the sintering temperatures (1740°C) reached in a modified microwave oven, and can be

  20. Cognitive and affective mechanisms linking trait mindfulness to craving among individuals in addiction recovery.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia; Kelley, Karen; Tronnier, Christine; Hanley, Adam

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to identify affective, cognitive, and conative mediators of the relation between trait mindfulness and craving in data culled from an urban sample of 165 persons (in abstinence verified by urinalysis) entering into residential treatment for substance use disorders between 2010 and 2012. Multivariate path analysis adjusting for age, gender, education level, employment status, and substance use frequency indicated that the association between the total trait mindfulness score on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and alcohol/drug craving was statistically mediated by negative affect (measured by the PANAS, beta = -.13) and cognitive reappraisal (measured by the CERQ, beta = -.08), but not by readiness to change (measured by the URICA, beta = -.001). Implications for mindfulness-oriented treatment of persons with substance use disorders are discussed. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:24611848

  1. MAPPING PHENOTYPIC TRAITS IN SWINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERIN KRISTEN WAGNER

    2011-01-01

    The Illinois Meat Quality Pedigree (IMQP), a three-generation Berkshire x Duroc resource population, was created to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing carcass composition, growth, and meat quality traits in pigs. Each animal in the IMQP population was genotyped for 137 microsatellite markers and 43,486 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Two different analyses were performed to detect QTL in this population. For

  2. Anaemia in pregnant Ghanaian women: importance of malaria, iron deficiency, and haemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Mockenhaupt, F P; Rong, B; Günther, M; Beck, S; Till, H; Kohne, E; Thompson, W N; Bienzle, U

    2000-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, anaemia in pregnancy results from multiple causes including malaria, iron deficiency and haemoglobinopathies. In a cross-sectional study among 530 pregnant women in Ghana in November-December 1998, red blood cell indices were analysed with respect to malaria, serum concentrations of ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP), and the haemoglobin and alpha-globin genotypes. Anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] < 11 g/dL) was found in 54% of the women; 63% harboured malaria parasites at predominantly low numbers. Ferritin levels were considerably influenced by malaria and inflammatory processes (CRP > 0.6 mg/dL). Depending on the definition applied, the prevalence of iron deficiency ranged between 5% and 46%. The HbAS trait was observed in 14%, HbAC and elevated HbF in 7% each, and sickle cell disease in 1%. Heterozygous beta-thalassaemia was present in 1% of the women and alpha(+)-thalassaemia in 33% (29% heterozygous, 4% homozygous). Women with HbAS had higher malaria parasite densities than those with HbAA. In individuals with highly elevated HbF (> 10%), parasitaemia occurred in 27% only. Low gravidity, second trimester of pregnancy, malaria, raised CRP levels, and homozygous alpha(+)-thalassaemia were independent risk factors for anaemia in multivariate analysis. alpha(+)-Thalassaemia, however, was associated with a lesser degree of malarial anaemia when compared to non-thalassaemic women. Iron deficiency appears not to be a major health problem in this population. Haemoglobinopathies are common but, except for homozygous alpha(+)-thalassaemia, do not substantially contribute to anaemia in pregnancy. alpha(+)-Thalassaemia ameliorates malarial anaemia in pregnant women. PMID:11132370

  3. Frequency and clinical significance of erythrocyte genetic abnormalities in Omanis.

    PubMed

    White, J M; Christie, B S; Nam, D; Daar, S; Higgs, D R

    1993-05-01

    The frequencies of four malaria associated erythrocyte genetic abnormalities have been established in 1000 Omani subjects. They are: homozygous alpha+ thalassaemia (-alpha/-alpha) 0.45; high Hb A2 beta thalassaemia trait 0.015; sickle trait (Hb A/S) 0.061; and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (Gd-): males 0.27, females 0.11. From our data the alpha+ (-alpha/) thal gene (confirmed by Southern blotting) is pandemic in this population. Moreover, in spite of the very high frequency of Gd-, oxidative haemolytic syndromes are very uncommon. Also preliminary data indicate that among the Omani population with sickle cell disease, homozygosity of the alpha+ gene markedly modifies the clinical picture. PMID:8320702

  4. Multiple trait analysis of genetic mapping for quantitative trait loci

    SciTech Connect

    Changjian Jiang [Jiangsu Agricultural College (China)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Zhao-Bang Zeng, [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    We present in this paper models and statistical methods for performing multiple trait analysis on mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the composite interval mapping method. By taking into account the correlated structure of multiple traits, this joint analysis has several advantages, compared with separate analyses, for mapping QTL, including the expected improvement on the statistical power of the test for QTL and on the precision of parameter estimation. Also this joint analysis provides formal procedures to test a number of biologically interesting hypotheses concerning the nature of genetic correlations between different traits. Among the testing procedures considered are those for joint mapping, pleiotropy, QTL by environment interaction, and pleiotropy vs. close linkage. The test of pleiotropy (one pleiotropic QTL at a genome position) vs. close linkage (multiple nearby nonpleiotropic QTL) can have important implications for our understanding of the nature of genetic correlations between different traits in certain regions of a genome and also for practical applications in animal and plant breeding because one of the major goals in breeding is to break unfavorable linkage. Results of extensive simulation studies are presented to illustrate various properties of the analyses. 14 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Imperfect World of $\\beta\\beta$-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    E-print Network

    Pritychenko, B

    2015-01-01

    The precision of double-beta ($\\beta\\beta$) decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for $\\beta\\beta$-decay T$_{1/2}^{2\

  6. Double Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nanal, Vandana [Dept. of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2011-11-23

    At present, neutrinoless double beta decay is perhaps the only experiment that can tell us whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. Given the significance of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta}, there is a widespread interest for these rare event studies employing a variety of novel techniques. This paper describes the current status of DBD experiments. The Indian effort for an underground NDBD experiment at the upcoming INO laboratory is also presented.

  7. Root traits for infertile soils

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; Karley, Alison J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Wiesel, Lea; Wishart, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Crop production is often restricted by the availability of essential mineral elements. For example, the availability of N, P, K, and S limits low-input agriculture, the phytoavailability of Fe, Zn, and Cu limits crop production on alkaline and calcareous soils, and P, Mo, Mg, Ca, and K deficiencies, together with proton, Al and Mn toxicities, limit crop production on acid soils. Since essential mineral elements are acquired by the root system, the development of crop genotypes with root traits increasing their acquisition should increase yields on infertile soils. This paper examines root traits likely to improve the acquisition of these elements and observes that, although the efficient acquisition of a particular element requires a specific set of root traits, suites of traits can be identified that benefit the acquisition of a group of mineral elements. Elements can be divided into three Groups based on common trait requirements. Group 1 comprises N, S, K, B, and P. Group 2 comprises Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni. Group 3 contains mineral elements that rarely affect crop production. It is argued that breeding for a limited number of distinct root ideotypes, addressing particular combinations of mineral imbalances, should be pursued. PMID:23781228

  8. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings. PMID:24576635

  9. Double beta decay experiments

    E-print Network

    A. S. Barabash

    2006-02-22

    The present status of double beta decay experiments are reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments, NEMO-3 and CUORICINO, are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments are considered. In these experiments sensitivity for the effective neutrino mass will be on the level of (0.1-0.01) eV.

  10. Beta Decay of Hyperons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Oehme; Roland Winston; Augusto Garcia

    1971-01-01

    The formulas for spin and angular correlations in hyperon beta decay are brought into forms which can give specific information about the character of possible deviations from the universal SU(3) scheme. The recent experimental results for Lambda-particle beta decay are discussed qualitatively in terms of the proposed combinations of integrated correlation coefficients.

  11. Double beta decay experiments

    E-print Network

    A. S. Barabash

    2011-07-28

    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  12. BETA GAUGE OPERATION MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual provides description and operating instructions for a redesigned Beta Gauge for measuring particles from vehicle exhaust. The improvements and a new control system including a control unit which is radically different from the prior unit, are described. Complete Beta ...

  13. Beta Coin Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Siegrist

    This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet illustrates Bayesian estimation of the probability of heads for a coin. The prior beta distribution, true probability of heads, and the sample size can be specified. The applet shows the posterior beta distribution.

  14. Zeolite Beta nanosized assemblies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Majano; S. Mintova; O. Ovsitser; B. Mihailova; T. Bein

    2005-01-01

    Nanosized zeolite Beta assemblies are prepared by a steam assisted conversion (SAC) method from micron-sized porous amorphous silica grains soaked in clear solutions containing the alumina source and organic template. The zeolite Beta assemblies are built of closely packed uniform nanocrystals (100nm) and retain the size and morphological features of the primary silica grains. The crystallinity and the phase purity

  15. Beta-Carotene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-carotene is a pigment that occurs naturally in many photosynthetic plants and organisms and one of the most abundant carotenoids found in human blood. The richest dietary sources of beta-carotene are yellow, orange, and leafy green fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes...

  16. Software for quantitative trait analysis

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of software currently available for the genetic analysis of quantitative traits in humans. Programs that implement variance components, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Haseman-Elston (H-E) and penetrance model-based linkage analyses are discussed, as are programs for measured genotype association analyses and quantitative trait transmission disequilibrium tests. The software compared includes LINKAGE, FASTLINK, PAP, SOLAR, SEGPATH, ACT, Mx, MERLIN, GENEHUNTER, Loki, Mendel, SAGE, QTDT and FBAT. Where possible, the paper provides URLs for acquiring these programs through the internet, details of the platforms for which the software is available and the types of analyses performed. PMID:16197737

  17. Genetics of reproductive traits: Antagonisms with production traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science, because artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. The addition of genetic techn...

  18. Modulation of leaf economic traits and trait relationships by climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian J. Wright; J. H. C. Cornelissen; D. S. Falster; P. K. Groom; J. Gulias; Kouki Hikosaka; William Lee; Christopher H. Lusk; J. Oleksyn; N. Osada; H. Poorter; David I. Warton; Mark Westoby

    2005-01-01

    Aim Our aim was to quantify climatic influences on key leaf traits and relationships at the global scale. This knowledge provides insight into how plants have adapted to different environmental pressures, and will lead to better calibration of future vegetation-climate models. Location The data set represents vegetation from 175 sites around the world. Methods For more than 2500 vascular plant

  19. Components of Young Children's Trait Understanding: Behavior-to-Trait Inferences and Trait-to-Behavior Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, David; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2007-01-01

    Trait attribution is central to people's naive theories of people and their actions. Previous developmental research indicates that young children are poor at predicting behaviors from past trait-relevant behaviors. We propose that the cognitive process of behavior-to-behavior predictions consists of two component processes: (1) behavior-to-trait…

  20. Recurrence risks for Mendelian traits Autosomal Dominant

    E-print Network

    Dellaire, Graham

    ;· Definition ­ Multifactorial Trait · Trait determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors, which by genetic and environmental factors #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;HIV Environmental exposure Mutated CCR5 receptor

  1. Fitness Traits in Animal Breeding Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Goddard

    Traits measuring reproduction and survival sometimes show a negative genetic trend in livestock populations despite their\\u000a importance to profitability. This occurs due to inbreeding depression and selection for other traits. For many traits there\\u000a are genes with an allele that increases the trait value but is initially at low frequency due to negative effects on fitness.\\u000a Therefore, theory suggests that

  2. Traits of Pathogens Negatively Affecting

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Traits of Pathogens Negatively Affecting Livestock Lindsey Youngman, Kelly Moffett, Ryan Crawford, Taylor Arsenault #12;Hypothesis Pathogens that can be transmitted via multiple pathways are most likely to have a significant negative consequence on livestock. On the contrary, pathogens that are transmitted

  3. Trait Affectivity and Nonreferred Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…

  4. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS ANALYSIS AND METABOLIC PATHWAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of molecular markers for crop plants has enabled research on the genetic basis of quantitative traits. However, despite more than a decade of these studies, called quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, the molecular basis for variation in most agronomic traits is still largely unk...

  5. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject’s ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial ?2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial ?2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak. PMID:25978647

  6. Interactions between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and their human leucocyte antigen Class I ligands influence the outcome of unrelated haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for thalassaemia: a novel predictive algorithm.

    PubMed

    Littera, Roberto; Orrù, Nicola; Caocci, Giovanni; Sanna, Marco; Mulargia, Marina; Piras, Eugenia; Vacca, Adriana; Giardini, Claudio; Orofino, Maria G; Visani, Giuseppe; Bertaina, Alice; Giorgiani, Giovanna; Locatelli, Franco; Carcassi, Carlo; La Nasa, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted on 114 patients undergoing unrelated donor haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for thalassaemia, we observed that the lack of activating killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) on donor natural killer (NK) cells significantly increased the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) [hazard risk (HR) 4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-10.1, P = 0.002] and transplantation-related mortality (HR 4.7, 95% CI 1.6-14.2, P = 0.01). The risk of GvHD furthermore increased when recipients heterozygous for HLA-C KIR ligand groups (C1/C2) were transplanted from donors completely lacking activating KIRs (HR 6.1, 95% CI 1.9-19.2, P = 0.002). We also found that the risk of rejection was highest when the recipient was homozygous for the C2 HLA-KIR ligand group and the donor carried two or more activating KIRs (HR 6.8, 95% CI 1.9-24.4, P = 0.005). By interpolating the number of donor activating KIRs with recipient HLA-C KIR ligands, we created an algorithm capable of stratifying patients according to the immunogenetic risk of complications following unrelated HSCT. In clinical practice, this predictive tool could serve as an important supplement to clinical judgement and decision-making. PMID:22077388

  7. Beta-carotene

    MedlinePLUS

    ... antioxidants such as vitamin A or vitamin E plus vitamin C doesn’t seem to reduce the ... concern that taking large amounts of a multivitamin plus a separate beta-carotene supplement increases the chance ...

  8. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    E-print Network

    K. Zuber

    2012-01-23

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations are presented as well as the current status of experiments. Finally an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  9. Beta vulgaris (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    Beta-carotene presence or absence in muskmelon is controlled by two genes, green flesh gf and white flesh wf. In its dominant form the wf gene is responsible for orange flesh color; however, the epistatic interactions of ...

  10. Beta Estimate Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Siegrist

    This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates a random sample from a beta distribution, and computes standard point estimates of the left and right parameters. The bias and mean square error are also computed.

  11. High beta multipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, S C

    1982-05-01

    Multipoles are being employed as devices to study fusion issues and plasma phenomena at high values of beta (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) in a controlled manner. Due to their large volume, low magnetic field (low synchrotron radiation) region, they are also under consideration as potential steady state advanced fuel (low neutron yield) reactors. Present experiments are investigating neoclassical (bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter) currents and plasma stability at extremely high beta.

  12. Beta-thalassemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renzo Galanello; Raffaella Origa

    2010-01-01

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms

  13. The beta cell immunopeptidome.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Nadine L; Purcell, Anthony W

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin-secreting beta cells, leading to beta cell loss and insulin deficiency. Presentation of peptides derived from beta cell proteins to autoreactive lymphocytes is critical for the development of disease, and the list of antigens recognized is increasing. A number of these proteins are found within the beta cell secretory granules, which are transiently exposed to the immune system during normal cellular function. How the interplay of environmental and genetic determinants culminates in destructive autoimmunity remains to be clearly defined. Nonconventional presentation of peptide ligands, posttranslational modification of peptides, and the role of the gut microbiome in the development of the immune system are all considered central topics in disease pathogenesis. Each of these may provide a mechanism by which presentation of antigenic peptides in the target tissue differs from presentation in the thymus, allowing autoreactive cells to escape tolerance induction. The high metabolic demand on pancreatic islets, the high concentration of granule proteins, and the susceptibility of islets to cellular stress may all contribute to the presentation of abnormal ligands in the pancreas. Moreover, the finding that small molecules can alter the repertoire of peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex molecules provides a tantalizing hypothesis for the presentation of autoantigenic peptides in the presence of microbial or endogenous metabolites. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the immunopeptidome of beta cells and the key factors that may influence presentation of beta cell antigens to the immune system. PMID:24559916

  14. Quantitative genetics of disease traits.

    PubMed

    Wray, N R; Visscher, P M

    2015-04-01

    John James authored two key papers on the theory of risk to relatives for binary disease traits and the relationship between parameters on the observed binary scale and an unobserved scale of liability (James Annals of Human Genetics, 1971; 35: 47; Reich, James and Morris Annals of Human Genetics, 1972; 36: 163). These two papers are John James' most cited papers (198 and 328 citations, November 2014). They have been influential in human genetics and have recently gained renewed popularity because of their relevance to the estimation of quantitative genetics parameters for disease traits using SNP data. In this review, we summarize the two early papers and put them into context. We show recent extensions of the theory for ascertained case-control data and review recent applications in human genetics. PMID:25823843

  15. 5th- Heredity and Traits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss B

    2011-11-11

    These are a list of links and activities about Heredity and Traits. ACTIVITIES Where Did It Come From? (UEN) - Talks about the topics in the 5th grade science core. BEST PICK! Heredity (BrainPop) - Video and activities about Heredity. BEST PICK! Study Jams: Heredity - Video and short quiz about Heredity. BEST PICK! Dog Breeding (PBS Kids) - An interactive experience where you need to figure out which animals to breed to get ...

  16. Trait-based tests of coexistence mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Adler, Peter B; Fajardo, Alex; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Kraft, Nathan J B

    2013-10-01

    Recent functional trait studies have shown that trait differences may favour certain species (environmental filtering) while simultaneously preventing competitive exclusion (niche partitioning). However, phenomenological trait-dispersion analyses do not identify the mechanisms that generate niche partitioning, preventing trait-based prediction of future changes in biodiversity. We argue that such predictions require linking functional traits with recognised coexistence mechanisms involving spatial or temporal environmental heterogeneity, resource partitioning and natural enemies. We first demonstrate the limitations of phenomenological approaches using simulations, and then (1) propose trait-based tests of coexistence, (2) generate hypotheses about which plant functional traits are likely to interact with particular mechanisms and (3) review the literature for evidence for these hypotheses. Theory and data suggest that all four classes of coexistence mechanisms could act on functional trait variation, but some mechanisms will be stronger and more widespread than others. The highest priority for future research is studies of interactions between environmental heterogeneity and trait variation that measure environmental variables at within-community scales and quantify species' responses to the environment in the absence of competition. Evidence that similar trait-based coexistence mechanisms operate in many ecosystems would simplify biodiversity forecasting and represent a rare victory for generality over contingency in community ecology. PMID:23910482

  17. The biogeography of marine plankton traits.

    PubMed

    Barton, Andrew D; Pershing, Andrew J; Litchman, Elena; Record, Nicholas R; Edwards, Kyle F; Finkel, Zoe V; Kiørboe, Thomas; Ward, Ben A

    2013-04-01

    Changes in marine plankton communities driven by environmental variability impact the marine food web and global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and other elements. To predict and assess these community shifts and their consequences, ecologists are increasingly investigating how the functional traits of plankton determine their relative fitness along environmental and biological gradients. Laboratory, field and modelling studies are adopting this trait-based approach to map the biogeography of plankton traits that underlies variations in plankton communities. Here, we review progress towards understanding the regulatory roles of several key plankton functional traits, including cell size, N2 -fixation and mixotrophy among phytoplankton, and body size, ontogeny and feeding behaviour for zooplankton. The trait biogeographical approach sheds light on what structures plankton communities in the current ocean, as well as under climate change scenarios, and also allows for finer resolution of community function because community trait composition determines the rates of significant processes, including carbon export. Although understanding of trait biogeography is growing, uncertainties remain that stem, in part, from the paucity of observations describing plankton functional traits. Thus, in addition to recommending widespread adoption of the trait-based approach, we advocate for enhanced collection, standardisation and dissemination of plankton functional trait data. PMID:23360597

  18. Identification of ISSR markers associated with productivity traits in silkworm, Bombyx moni L.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S N; Mohandas, T P

    2003-06-01

    Bombyx mori L., commonly recognised around the world as the mulberry silkworm, is characterized by a wide variability in yield and developmental traits, which have been proven through conventional genetic analysis to be of polygenic nature. A large number of morpho-biochemical traits and RFLP and RAPD markers are mapped on different linkage groups, but to this point very little attention has been given to unravelling the genetics of yield traits. To address this issue, polymorphic profiles of 147 markers generated with 12 ISSR primers on the genomic DNA of 20 silkworm stocks of diverse yield status were subjected to multiple regression and discriminant function analyses (DFA). This led to the identification of eight markers generated by six primers, which demonstrated high beta-coefficient indices of -0.451 to -0.940. Furthermore, a significant difference between the yield traits for stocks with and without the specific marker could also be established. The inheritance pattern of one marker, L13800bp, identified at the first step of selection of markers through stepwise regression analyses for five yield parameters is discussed in the context of applying multiple regression analysis for establishing association, if not linkage, between a group of DNA markers and a particular yield trait of polygenic nature and using such markers in molecular marker-assisted breeding programs. PMID:12834060

  19. Boosted Beta Regression

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Matthias; Wickler, Florian; Maloney, Kelly O.; Mitchell, Richard; Fenske, Nora; Mayr, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1). Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures. PMID:23626706

  20. Valence Effects in Reasoning About Evaluative Traits.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Gail D; Giles, Jessica W

    2004-01-01

    Reasoning about evaluative traits was investigated among a group of 7- and 8-year-olds (N = 34), a group of 11- to 13-year olds (N = 25), and a group of adults (N = 23) to determine whether their inferences would be sensitive to the valence of social and academic traits. Four aspects of trait-relevant beliefs were examined: (1) malleability, (2) stability over time, (3) origin in terms of nature versus nurture, and (4) an inference criterion that concerns how readily traits are inferred. Although there was evidence of an age-related decrease in the tendency to emphasize positive information, participants of all ages responded that positive traits are less malleable and more stable over time than negative traits, that the positive influences of biological and environmental factors are likely to override the negative influences, and that competence can be more readily inferred from positive outcomes than from negative outcomes. PMID:20953297

  1. Relation between the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} and 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simkovic, Fedor [Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-12-16

    A formal relation between the GT part of the nuclear matrix elements M{sub GT}{sup 0{nu}} of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the closure matrix elements M{sub cl}{sup 2{nu}} of 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is established. This relation is based on the integral representation of these quantities in terms of their dependence on the distance r between the two nucleons undergoing transformation. We also discuss the difficulties in determining the correct values of the closure 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay matrix elements.

  2. Beta particle spectrometer for measuring aggregate beta spectra following fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schier, W. A.; Campbell, J. M.; Couchell, G. P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H. V.; Pullen, D. J.; Seabury, E. H.; Tipnis, S. V.

    1998-02-01

    The beta spectrometer consists of a gated plastic scintillator suitable for measuring aggregate beta energy spectra following fission. This general utility spectrometer is very insensitive to the gamma rays accompanying the fission products, has good linearity, and adequate energy resolution for these continuous beta energy distributions. Response functions are measured below 1 MeV and trial sets of response functions are tested with known beta spectra extending to 5 MeV.

  3. Trait Emotions and Affective Modulation of the Startle Eyeblink: On the Unique Relationship of Trait Anger

    E-print Network

    of Trait Anger David M. Amodio New York University Eddie Harmon-Jones Texas A&M University We examined. In particular, we examined the extent to which trait anger, which is negative in valence, would be associated appetitive, aversive, and neutral pictures. Results revealed that trait anger, enjoyment, and surprise were

  4. Quantitative Trait Loci and Epistasis for Oat Winter Hardiness Component Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter hardiness is a complex trait and poor winter hardiness limits commercial production of winter oat (Avena species). The objective of this study was to identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for five winter hardiness component traits in a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross ...

  5. ACCOUNTING FOR HETEROGENEOUS VARIANCES IN MULTI-TRAIT EVALUATION OF JERSEY TYPE TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The multi-trait genetic evaluation system for type traits was modified to estimate adjustments for heterogeneous variance (HV) simultaneously with estimated breeding values (EBV) for final score and 14 linear traits. Each within herd-year parity variance was regressed toward a predicted variance whi...

  6. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    E-print Network

    Petr Vogel

    2006-11-17

    The status of the search for neutrinoless double beta decay is reviewed. The effort to reach the sensitivity needed to cover the effective Majorana neutrino mass corresponding to the degenerate and inverted mass hierarchy is described. Various issues concerning the theory (and phenomenology) of the relation between the $0\

  7. Double Beta-Disintegration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Goeppert-Mayer

    1935-01-01

    From the Fermi theory of beta-disintegration the probability of simultaneous emission of two electrons (and two neutrinos) has been calculated. The result is that this process occurs sufficiently rarely to allow a half-life of over 1017 years for a nucleus, even if its isobar of atomic number different by 2 were more stable by 20 times the electron mass.

  8. GROSS BETA PHOTON CALCULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The program facilitates fast & easy calculation of total annual dose from beta and photon emitters in water from pCi/l or Bq/cubic meter measurements. GBPcalc compares the total dose per year to the 4 mrem established as an MCL in the Radionuclides section of the Safe Drinking W...

  9. ChemTeacher: Beta Decay

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Beta Decay page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery and applications of beta decay.

  10. Life Cycles and Inherited Traits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2005-04-01

    Young children are fascinated as they watch lizards, frogs, butterflies and other small animals develop through life stages, from being born to adult to death. Some of them experience pets at home, while others visit zoos and learn through online resources. Gardening offers an opportunity to observe stages of growth in plants and presents another view of the diversity of life. Characteristics of living organisms, their stages of life and the diversity around us are major concepts developed within this guide. Elementary students learn about growth and development and characteristics of organisms by observing plants and animals that are part of their immediate environment. Through these observations and experiences they begin to notice and develop an understanding that offspring resemble their parents; that characteristics (traits that are observed) are diverse even within same species; and that patterns and variations occur at every level of life. This foundation provides the basic building blocks that are instrumental to the further understanding of genes, traits, heredity and reproductions that they will study in later grades. All resources within this guide correspond to the National Science Education Standards and have been reviewed and evaluated by a team of experienced science teachers, taking into account the needs and concerns of elementary school teachers and students.

  11. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  12. beta-Lactoglobulin identified in marsupial milk. The primary structure, binding site and possible function of beta-lactoglobulin from eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Godovac-Zimmermann, J; Shaw, D

    1987-07-01

    beta-Lactoglobulin has been isolated in the milk of the Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). This is the first time this protein has been reported to be in the milk of marsupials. The complete amino-acid sequence has been determined by spinning cup and pulsed liquid phase microsequencing of the protein and peptides after enzymatic or cyanogen bromide cleavages. The 155-residue protein is the shortest beta-lactoglobulin so far sequenced. When the kangaroo protein is included in a comparison of the members of the beta-lactoglobulin family, the percentage of residues common to all members is reduced from 33% to 13%. Despite the large number of accumulated amino-acid exchanges the protein exists as a dimer and shows higher homology to the usually very conservative dimeric, ruminant beta-lactoglobulins than to the monomeric protein from monogastrics. Half-cystine residues that form disulphide bridges are conserved. The Eastern Grey Kangaroo beta-lactoglobulin possesses significant homology in several characteristic segments thought to be important for a functional trait common to the beta-lactoglobulin family and retinol-binding proteins. Structural similarity to the retinol-binding protein is indicated by 22% of identical residues. Homology to the beta-lactoglobulins and retinol-binding proteins, the binding site and possible function based on comparative structural studies are discussed. PMID:3620116

  13. Speed-Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Using Microarrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining the genetic architecture of complex traits is important for human health, agriculture, and understanding adaptive evolution, but is challenging because high resolution quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping requires evaluation of thousands of recombinant individuals for the trait and clo...

  14. Prediction of carcass traits utilizing growth and feedlot performance

    E-print Network

    Smith, John Berryman

    1997-01-01

    on calves from birth to slaughter (n = 448). Measurements were used to develop prediction equations for carcass traits. Statistical analyses were performed for each carcass trait in two approaches-a prediction equation with covariate animal traits...

  15. Insect Traits Amanda Bertino, Adam Burt, Nikki Gautreau, Emily Mei

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    of Species Analyzed: - 174 - All species analyzed were potential invaders to Hawaii Traits tested: - Average invasion for insects: Traits from Readings: - Body size - Behavior - Climate tolerance Traits from Data #12;Examples of Invasive Insects: Specialist: Aphis ilicis http

  16. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI?6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  17. Sickle Cell Trait, Exercise, and Altitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1986-01-01

    Sickle cell trait is generally benign and does not shorten life, but it may confer some small risk with extremes of exercise or altitude. Research concerning these risks is presented, and it is concluded sickle cell trait is no barrier to outstanding athletic performance. (Author/MT)

  18. Original article Heritabilities for several colony traits

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Heritabilities for several colony traits in the honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica the heritability of queen and worker ef- fects, observed covariances of related colonies are expressed as functions, and therefore tends to stabilize it at a particular value. heritability / colony trait / genetic correlation

  19. Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits in Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic architecture refers to the numbers and genome locations of genes affecting a trait, the magnitude of their effects, and the relative contributions of additive, dominant, and epistatic gene effects. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping techniques are commonly used to investigate genetic ar...

  20. Adaptive population divergence: markers, QTL and traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. McKay; Robert G. Latta

    2002-01-01

    Molecular markers appear to be poor indicators of heritable variation in adaptive traits. Direct comparison of population structure in markers with that in traits is made possible by the measure Qst, which partitions quantitative genetic variation in a manner analogous to Fst for single gene markers. A survey of the literature reveals that mean Qst is typically larger than and

  1. Motivational Traits of Elite Young Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Craig; Meyers, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Among the most overlooked aspects in the development of elite young soccer players is that of specific psychological traits. Of those traits, motivation has important implications for programs whose objectives are identification and cultivation of young, skilled performers. The growth in popularity of soccer by youth and the successes experienced…

  2. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for meat quality and muscle metabolic traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Esmailizadeh, A K; Morris, C A; Cullen, N G; Kruk, Z A; Lines, D S; Hickey, S M; Dobbie, P M; Bottema, C D K; Pitchford, W S

    2011-12-01

    A whole-genome scan was carried out in New Zealand and Australia to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for live animal and carcass composition traits and meat quality attributes in cattle. Backcross calves (385 heifers and 398 steers) were generated, with Jersey and Limousin backgrounds. The New Zealand cattle were reared and finished on pasture, whilst Australian cattle were reared on grass and finished on grain for at least 180 days. This paper reports on meat quality traits (tenderness measured as shear force at 4-5 ages on two muscles as well as associated traits of meat colour, pH and cooking loss) and a number of metabolic traits. For meat quality traits, 18 significant QTL (P?traits, 11 significant QTL (P?traits and meat quality traits. Six significant QTL for meat quality and metabolic traits were found at the proximal end of chromosome 2. BTA2 and BTA29 were the most common chromosomes harbouring QTL for meat quality traits; QTL for improved tenderness were associated with Limousin-derived and Jersey-derived alleles on these two chromosomes, respectively. PMID:22035000

  3. Double beta decay: present status

    E-print Network

    A. S. Barabash

    2008-07-18

    The present status of double beta decay experiments (including the search for $2\\beta^{+}$, EC$\\beta^{+}$ and ECEC processes) are reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Average and recommended half-life values for two-neutrino double beta decay are presented. Conservative upper limits on effective Majorana neutrino mass and the coupling constant of the Majoron to the neutrino are established as $ beta decay experiments with a sensitivity for the $$ at the level of (0.01-0.1) eV are considered.

  4. Neutron beta decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Nico

    2009-01-01

    Studies of low-energy processes, such as neutron beta-decay, contribute important information regarding different aspects of physics including nuclear and particle physics and cosmology. The information from these systems is often complementary to that obtained from high-energy sources. Neutron decay is the most basic charged-current weak interaction in baryons. Precise measurement of the parameters characterizing it can be used to study

  5. The contrasting roles of growth traits and architectural traits in diversity maintenance in clonal plant communities.

    PubMed

    Wildová, Radka; Goldberg, Deborah E; Herben, Tomáš

    2012-12-01

    Plant communities often exhibit high diversity, even though pairwise experiments usually result in competitive hierarchies that should result in competitive exclusion. Such experiments, however, do not typically allow expression of spatial traits, despite theoretical studies showing the potential importance of spatial mechanisms of diversity maintenance. Here we ask whether, in a clonal plant model system, spatial trait variation is more likely than growth trait variation to maintain diversity. We used a field-calibrated, spatially explicit model to simulate communities comprising sets of four simulated species differing in only one of a suite of architectural or growth traits at a time, examining their dynamics and long-term diversity. To compare trait manipulation effects across traits measured in different units, we scaled traits to have identical effects on initial productivity. We found that in communities of species differing only in an architectural trait, all species usually persist, whereas communities of species differing only in a growth trait experienced rapid competitive exclusion. To examine the roles of equalizing and stabilizing mechanisms in maintaining diversity, we conducted reciprocal invasion experiments for species pairs differing only in single traits. The results suggest that stabilizing mechanisms cannot account for the observed long-term co-occurrence. Strong positive correlations between diversity and similarity both in monoculture carrying capacity and reciprocal invasion ability suggesting equalizing mechanisms may instead be responsible. PMID:23149395

  6. Plant trait expression responds to establishment timing.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Angela J; Leahy, S Conor; Zimmerman, Nicole M; Burns, Jean H

    2015-06-01

    Trait divergence between co-occurring individuals could decrease the strength of competition between these individuals, thus promoting their coexistence. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated establishment timing for four congeneric pairs of perennial plants and assessed trait plasticity. Because soil conditions can affect trait expression and competition, we grew the plants in field-collected soil from each congener. Competition was generally weak across species, but the order of establishment affected divergence in biomass between potmates for three congeneric pairs. The type of plastic response differed among genera, with trait means of early-establishing individuals of Rumex and Solanum spp. differing from late-establishing individuals, and trait divergence between potmates of Plantago and Trifolium spp. depending on which species established first. Consistent with adaptive trait plasticity, higher specific leaf area (SLA) and root-shoot ratio in Rumex spp. established later suggest that these individuals were maximizing their ability to capture light and soil resources. Greater divergence in SLA correlated with increased summed biomass of competitors, which is consistent with trait divergence moderating the strength of competition for some species. Species did not consistently perform better in conspecific or congener soil, but soil type influenced the effect of establishment order. For example, biomass divergence between Rumex potmates was greater in R. obtusifolius soil regardless of which species established first. These results suggest that plant responses to establishment timing act in a species-specific fashion, potentially enhancing coexistence in plant communities. PMID:25616649

  7. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-05-04

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points ({beta}*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of {beta}* value and {beta}-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for {beta}-waist location control.

  8. Mapping of major quantitative trait loci for economic traits of silkworm cocoon.

    PubMed

    Lie, Z; Cheng, L; Fang-yin, D; Shou-min, F

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with cocoon traits in silkworms were mapped in 44 individuals of a backcross of Dazao females with hybrid F(1) males; the hybrid males were from females of inbred C(1)00 strain, which have white cocoons and superior cocoon traits, crossed with males of inbred strain Dazao, which have green cocoons and inferior cocoon traits. Nineteen putative major QTLs of silkworm cocoon traits, five QTLs of whole cocoon weight, four QTLs of cocoon shell weight, six QTLs of pupa weight, and four QTLs of cocoon shell rate were scattered across nine linkage groups. The variances explained by QTLs for whole cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, pupa weight, and cocoon shell rate were 51.0, 73.69, 51.80, and 59.52%, respectively. The numbers of major QTLs with contributions above 10% for these traits were two, three, two, and four, respectively. PMID:20092037

  9. Is the beta phase maximal?

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrandis, Javier; Ferrandis, Javier

    2005-04-20

    indicates that 2|Vub / Vcb/ Vus| = (1-z) with z given by z = 0.19 +(-) 0.14. This fact implies that irrespective of the form of the quark Yukawa matrices, the measured value of the SM CP phase beta is approximately the maximum allowed by the measured absolute values of the CKM elements. This is beta = pi/6 - z/sqrt{3} for gamma = pi/3 + z/sqrt{3}, which implies alpha = pi/2. Alternatively, assuming that beta is exactly maximal and using the experimental measurement, sin(2beta) = 0.726+(-) 0.037, the phase gamma is predicted to be gamma = pi/2 - beta = 66.3 +(-) 1.7. The maximality of beta, if confirmed by the near-future experiments, may give us some clues as to the origin of CP violation.

  10. Neutron Induced Beta Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, A. M.; Shylaja, D. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-07-15

    In the present paper we give a new methodology named, 'neutron induced beta radiography-NIBR' which makes use of neutron activated Dy or In foils as source of (3-radiation. Radiographs are obtained with an aluminium cassette containing image plate, a sample under inspection and the activated Dy or In foil kept in tight contact. The sensitivity of the technique to thickness was evaluated for different materials in the form of step wedges. Some radiographs are presented to demonstrate potential of method to inspect thin samples.

  11. Inflated Beta Distributions

    E-print Network

    Ospina, Raydonal

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the issue of modeling fractional data observed in the interval [0,1), (0,1] or [0,1]. Mixed continuous-discrete distributions are proposed. The beta distribution is used to describe the continuous component of the model since its density can have quite diferent shapes depending on the values of the two parameters that index the distribution. Properties of the proposed distributions are examined. Also, maximum likelihood and method of moments estimation is discussed. Finally, practical applications that employ real data are presented.

  12. Self as a default target in thinking about traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerzy J. Karylowski; Joseph F. Ranieri

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments provide evidence for the recruitment of self as a default target in thinking about traits. Results show that semantic processing of trait labels, when no specific target is named, facilitates subsequent trait judgments more for self than for other social exemplars, including exemplars of highly familiar others. The effect is not qualified by trait desirability. However, as predicted,

  13. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah R.; Fu, Yu; Depue, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i) a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness), and (ii) attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically. PMID:25009524

  14. Estimating the genetic architecture of quantitative traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZHAO-BANG ZENG; CHEN-HUNG KAO; CHRISTOPHER J. BASTEN

    1999-01-01

    this paper, we review the theory and methodology of MIM, with particular emphasis on its potential power and advantages in studying the genetic architecture of quantitative traits. We also point out areas that need more detailed study.

  15. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global environmental change affects exotic plant invasions, which profoundly impact native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, including those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness), and impacts, as well as the integration of these...

  16. Function-valued traits in evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hadjipantelis, Pantelis Z.; Jones, Nick S.; Moriarty, John; Springate, David A.; Knight, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Many biological characteristics of evolutionary interest are not scalar variables but continuous functions. Given a dataset of function-valued traits generated by evolution, we develop a practical, statistical approach to infer ancestral function-valued traits, and estimate the generative evolutionary process. We do this by combining dimension reduction and phylogenetic Gaussian process regression, a non-parametric procedure that explicitly accounts for known phylogenetic relationships. We test the performance of methods on simulated, function-valued data generated from a stochastic evolutionary model. The methods are applied assuming that only the phylogeny, and the function-valued traits of taxa at its tips are known. Our method is robust and applicable to a wide range of function-valued data, and also offers a phylogenetically aware method for estimating the autocorrelation of function-valued traits. PMID:23427095

  17. Integrating microbial traits into ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Diverse bacterial and fungal communities control the decomposition of complex organic material, thereby driving important ecosystem functions such as CO2 production and nutrient regeneration. Predicting these functions is challenging because microbial communities and the chemical substrates they metabolize are complex. To address this challenge, I developed a theoretical model of microbial decomposition based on microbial traits involved in substrate degradation, uptake, and growth. The model represents a large number of microbial taxa, each of which possesses a set of trait values drawn at random from empirically-based distributions. The model also includes a large number of chemical substrates that can be degraded by microbial extracellular enzymes and taken up by membrane transporters. Microbes with different trait values for enzyme production and uptake capacity compete for chemical substrates and vary in abundance during model runs. I used the model to predict rates of plant litter decomposition and determine which traits were associated with high microbial abundance under different environmental conditions. The model predicted that optimal traits depend on the level of enzyme production in the whole community, which determines resource availability and decomposition rates. There is also evidence for facilitation and competition among microbial taxa that co-occur on decomposing litter, suggesting that microbial interactions may play a role in determining ecosystem function. These interactions vary with community investment in extracellular enzyme production and the magnitude of tradeoffs affecting biochemical traits such as enzyme kinetic parameters. The model accounted for 69% of the variation in decomposition rates and up to 26% of the variation in enzyme activities in an empirical dataset with 15 types of Hawaiian plant litter. By explicitly representing microbial diversity, trait-based models can predict ecosystem processes based on functional trait distributions in a community. Traits influencing microbial enzyme production are some of the key controls on litter decomposition rates, but other traits may control different ecosystem processes and microbial responses to environmental change. Identifying these traits and their inter-relationships is an essential step for improving ecosystem models.

  18. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. C.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the charge conjugation nature and the absolute mass scale of neutrinos will lead to valuable insights into physics beyond the Standard Model. Both of these aspects can be probed by the observation of neutrinoless double beta decay. The experimental search for neutrinoless double beta decay is thus an important, next step in neutrino physics. Several experiments have recently started taking data and several more are under construction. The sensitivity of upcoming double beta decay experiments will begin to probe neutrino masses as would be suggested by the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. A summary of the capabilities and status of several double beta decay experiments was presented at NuPhys 2013.

  19. Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lidan; Wu, Rongling

    2015-06-01

    Despite increasing emphasis on the genetic study of quantitative traits, we are still far from being able to chart a clear picture of their genetic architecture, given an inherent complexity involved in trait formation. A competing theory for studying such complex traits has emerged by viewing their phenotypic formation as a "system" in which a high-dimensional group of interconnected components act and interact across different levels of biological organization from molecules through cells to whole organisms. This system is initiated by a machinery of DNA sequences that regulate a cascade of biochemical pathways to synthesize endophenotypes and further assemble these endophenotypes toward the end-point phenotype in virtue of various developmental changes. This review focuses on a conceptual framework for genetic mapping of complex traits by which to delineate the underlying components, interactions and mechanisms that govern the system according to biological principles and understand how these components function synergistically under the control of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to comprise a unified whole. This framework is built by a system of differential equations that quantifies how alterations of different components lead to the global change of trait development and function, and provides a quantitative and testable platform for assessing the multiscale interplay between QTLs and development. The method will enable geneticists to shed light on the genetic complexity of any biological system and predict, alter or engineer its physiological and pathological states.

  20. Parental attachment and its relationship to contextualised trait expression and mean-corrected cross-context trait variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Robinson; Gordon R. T. Wright; Elaine Kendall

    2011-01-01

    The study explored relationships between attachment to parents, personality traits and cross-context trait variability in adulthood. The 209 adult participants completed the Parental Attachment Questionnaire (PAQ), and rated themselves on a Big Five trait inventory to describe their personality as it manifests when with parents, friends and work colleagues. Indices of intra-individual variability were corrected to negate correlations between trait

  1. Clinical role of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nelson; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Kumana, Cyrus R

    2003-01-01

    The use of beta-lactamase inhibitors in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics is currently the most successful strategy to combat a specific resistance mechanism. Their broad spectrum of activity originates from the ability of respective inhibitors to inactivate a wide range of beta-lactamases produced by Gram-positive, Gram-negative, anaerobic and even acid-fast pathogens. Clinical experience confirms their effectiveness in the empirical treatment of respiratory, intra-abdominal, and skin and soft tissue infections. There is evidence to suggest that they are efficacious in treating patients with neutropenic fever and nosocomial infections, especially in combination with other agents. beta-Lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations are particularly useful against mixed infections. Their role in treating various multi-resistant pathogens such as Acinetobacter species and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are gaining importance. Although, generally, they do not constitute reliable therapy against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers, their substitution in place of cephalosporins appears to reduce emergence of the latter pathogens. Similarly, their use may also curtail the emergence of other resistant pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. beta-Lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations are generally well tolerated and their oral forms provide effective outpatient therapy against many commonly encountered infections. In certain scenarios, they could even be more cost-effective than conventional combination therapies. With the accumulation of so much clinical experience, their role in the management of infections is now becoming more clearly defined. PMID:12834367

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V. Petrides

    This chapter presents an introduction to the theory and psychometric properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire\\u000a (TEIQue). We discuss the necessity of conceptualizing the increasing number of faux intelligences as personality traits, rather\\u000a than as cognitive abilities, and give a detailed description of the TEIQue as the operationalization vehicle for trait emotional\\u000a intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy).

  3. Cyclic modular beta-sheets.

    PubMed

    Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S

    2007-03-01

    The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (beta-sheets 1a, 1b, and 1f each have a phenylalanine directly across from Hao, suggesting that cyclic modular beta-sheets containing aromatic residues across from Hao are better folded. PMID:17295482

  4. Invasive Plants and Enemy Release: Evolution of Trait Means and Trait Correlations in Ulex europaeus

    PubMed Central

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Tarayre, Michèle; Hervé, Maxime; Gigord, Luc; Atlan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability) hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species. PMID:22022588

  5. Edge Universality of Beta Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgade, Paul; Erdös, László; Yau, Horng-Tzer

    2014-11-01

    We prove the edge universality of the beta ensembles for any , provided that the limiting spectrum is supported on a single interval, and the external potential is and regular. We also prove that the edge universality holds for generalized Wigner matrices for all symmetry classes. Moreover, our results allow us to extend bulk universality for beta ensembles from analytic potentials to potentials in class.

  6. DEPLOYMENT OF BETA GENETIC RESOURCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm resources for the improvement of sugar beet and other Beta spp. cultivated crops are held in germplasm collections and gene banks worldwide. Characterization and deployment of these resources into crop types is an enormous task considering the thousands of Beta accessions available. Mole...

  7. The Age of Beta Pic

    E-print Network

    D. Barrado y Navascues; J. R. Stauffer; I. Song; J-P. Caillault

    1999-05-19

    We have reanalyzed data for the proposed moving group associated with beta Pic in order to determine if the group (or part of it) is real, and, if so, to derive an improved age estimate for beta Pic. By using new, more accurate proper motions from PPM and Hipparcos and a few new radial velocities, we conclude that on kinematic grounds, two M dwarfs have space motions that coincide with that of beta Pic to within 1 km/s with small error bars. Based on a CM diagram derived from accurate photometry and Hipparcos parallaxes, these two possible proper-motion companions to beta Pic are very young; we derive an age of $\\sim$20 Myr by comparison to theoretical tracks from D'Antona & Mazzitelli. In fact, the proposed beta Pic companions comprise two of the three youngest M dwarfs in the sample of 160 dM stars for which we have data. The chromospheric and coronal activity of these two stars also confirm that they are quite young. We argue that the probability that two of the three youngest nearby M dwarfs would accurately share the space motion of beta Pic by chance is quite small, and therefore we believe that beta Pic and the two M dwarfs (GL 799 and GL 803) were formed together. The estimated age for beta Pic is then 20$\\pm$10 Myr.

  8. Beta doses to spherical grains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Brennan

    2003-01-01

    The classic paper of Mejdahl (1979) on beta doses to quartz grains has been a standard reference for many years. In this paper we present an update of the data for beta doses to spherical quartz grains from internal and external natural sources, using dose point kernels based on modern spectra and Monte Carlo calculations. The differences from the Mejdahl

  9. Vus and neutron beta decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. García; G. Sánchez-Colón

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the effect of the recent change of Vus by 3 standard deviations on the standard model predictions for neutron beta decay observables. We also discuss the effect the experimental error bars of Vus have on such predictions. Refined precision tests of the standard model will be made by a combined effort to improve measurements in neutron beta decay

  10. Trait anxiety impact on posterior activation asymmetries at rest and during evoked negative emotions: EEG investigation.

    PubMed

    Aftanas, Ljubomir I; Pavlov, Sergey V

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to examine how high trait anxiety would influence cortical EEG asymmetries under non-emotional conditions and while experiencing negative emotions. The 62-channel EEG was recorded in control (n=21) and high anxiety (HA, n=18) non-patient individuals. Results showed that in HA subjects, the lowest level of arousal (eyes closed) was associated with stronger right-sided parieto-temporal theta-1 (4-6 Hz) and beta-1 (12-18 Hz) activity, whereas increased non-emotional arousal (eyes open, viewing neutral movie clip) was marked by persisting favored right hemisphere beta-1 activity. In turn, viewing aversive movie clip by the HA group led to significant lateralized decrease of the right parieto-temporal beta-1 power, which was initially higher in the emotionally neutral conditions. The EEG data suggests that asymmetrical parieto-temporal theta-1 and beta-1 EEG activity might be better interpreted in terms of Gray's BAS and BIS theory. PMID:15598519

  11. Sex as aSex as a Threshold TraitThreshold Trait

    E-print Network

    Canberra, University of

    1 Sex as aSex as a Threshold TraitThreshold Trait Overturning traditional paradigms on evolution and modes of sex determination in reptiles Arthur GeorgesArthur Georges Institute for Applied EcologyInstitute for Applied Ecology University of CanberraUniversity of Canberra We all agree that sex is a fundamental

  12. Traits as Dimensions or Categories? Developmental Change in the Understanding of Trait Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Celia M.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that young children have relatively well-developed trait concepts. However, this literature overlooks potential age-related differences in children's appreciation of the fundamentally dimensional nature of traits. In Study 1, we presented 4-, 5-, and 7-year-old children and adults with sets of characters and asked…

  13. Quantitative Trait Loci for Root Architecture Traits Correlated with Phosphorus Acquisition in Common Bean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen E. Beebe; Marcela Rojas-Pierce; Xiaolong Yan; Matthew W. Blair; Fabio Pedraza; Fernando Muñoz; Joe Tohme; Jonathan P. Lynch

    2006-01-01

    Low soil P availability is a primary constraint to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Latin America and Africa. Substantial genotypic variation in bean adaptation to low phosphorus (LP) availability has been linked with root traits that enhance the efficiency of soil foraging. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for P accumulation and

  14. Beta systems error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric backscatter coefficient, beta, measured with an airborne CO Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system operating in a continuous wave, focussed model is discussed. The Single Particle Mode (SPM) algorithm, was developed from concept through analysis of an extensive amount of data obtained with the system on board a NASA aircraft. The SPM algorithm is intended to be employed in situations where one particle at a time appears in the sensitive volume of the LDV. In addition to giving the backscatter coefficient, the SPM algorithm also produces as intermediate results the aerosol density and the aerosol backscatter cross section distribution. A second method, which measures only the atmospheric backscatter coefficient, is called the Volume Mode (VM) and was simultaneously employed. The results of these two methods differed by slightly less than an order of magnitude. The measurement uncertainties or other errors in the results of the two methods are examined.

  15. The Vertebrate Trait Ontology: a controlled vocabulary for the annotation of trait data across species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ontologies to standardize biological data and facilitate comparisons among datasets has steadily grown as the complexity and amount of available data have increased. Despite the numerous ontologies available, one area currently lacking a robust ontology is the description of vertebrate traits. A trait is defined as any measurable or observable characteristic pertaining to an organism or any of its substructures. While there are several ontologies to describe entities and processes in phenotypes, diseases, and clinical measurements, one has not been developed for vertebrate traits; the Vertebrate Trait Ontology (VT) was created to fill this void. Description Significant inconsistencies in trait nomenclature exist in the literature, and additional difficulties arise when trait data are compared across species. The VT is a unified trait vocabulary created to aid in the transfer of data within and between species and to facilitate investigation of the genetic basis of traits. Trait information provides a valuable link between the measurements that are used to assess the trait, the phenotypes related to the traits, and the diseases associated with one or more phenotypes. Because multiple clinical and morphological measurements are often used to assess a single trait, and a single measurement can be used to assess multiple physiological processes, providing investigators with standardized annotations for trait data will allow them to investigate connections among these data types. Conclusions The annotation of genomic data with ontology terms provides unique opportunities for data mining and analysis. Links between data in disparate databases can be identified and explored, a strategy that is particularly useful for cross-species comparisons or in situations involving inconsistent terminology. The VT provides a common basis for the description of traits in multiple vertebrate species. It is being used in the Rat Genome Database and Animal QTL Database for annotation of QTL data for rat, cattle, chicken, swine, sheep, and rainbow trout, and in the Mouse Phenome Database to annotate strain characterization data. In these databases, data are also cross-referenced to applicable terms from other ontologies, providing additional avenues for data mining and analysis. The ontology is available at http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/50138. PMID:23937709

  16. Sub-threshold autism traits: The role of trait emotional intelligence and cognitive flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Gökçen, Elif; Petrides, Konstantinos V; Hudry, Kristelle; Frederickson, Norah; Smillie, Luke D

    2014-01-01

    Theory and research suggests that features of autism are not restricted to individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and that autism-like traits vary throughout the general population at lower severities. The present research first investigated the relationship of autism traits with trait emotional intelligence and empathy in a sample of 163 adults aged between 18 and 51 years (44% male). It then examined performance on a set of tasks assessing social cognition and cognitive flexibility in 69 participants with either high or low scores on ASD traits. Results confirm that there is pronounced variation within the general population relating to ASD traits, which reflect similar (though less severe) social-cognitive and emotional features to those observed in ASDs. PMID:24754807

  17. Multiple-interval mapping for quantitative trait loci controlling endosperm traits.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chen-Hung

    2004-01-01

    Endosperm traits are trisomic inheritant and are of great economic importance because they are usually directly related to grain quality. Mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying endosperm traits can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. As the traditional QTL mapping methods (diploid methods) are usually designed for traits under diploid control, they are not the ideal approaches to map endosperm traits because they ignore the triploid nature of endosperm. In this article, a statistical method considering the triploid nature of endosperm (triploid method) is developed on the basis of multiple-interval mapping (MIM) to map for the underlying QTL. The proposed triploid MIM method is derived to broadly use the marker information either from only the maternal plants or from both the maternal plants and their embryos in the backcross and F2 populations for mapping endosperm traits. Due to the use of multiple intervals simultaneously to take multiple QTL into account, the triploid MIM method can provide better detection power and estimation precision, and as shown in this article it is capable of analyzing and searching for epistatic QTL directly as compared to the traditional diploid methods and current triploid methods using only one (or two) interval(s). Several important issues in endosperm trait mapping, such as the relation and differences between the diploid and triploid methods, variance components of genetic variation, and the problems if effects are present and ignored, are also addressed. Simulations are performed to further explore these issues, to investigate the relative efficiency of different experimental designs, and to evaluate the performance of the proposed and current methods in mapping endosperm traits. The MIM-based triploid method can provide a powerful tool to estimate the genetic architecture of endosperm traits and to assist the marker-assisted selection for the improvement of grain quality in crop science. The triploid MIM FORTRAN program for mapping endosperm traits is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/). PMID:15342535

  18. Comparing the adaptive landscape across trait types: larger QTL effect size in traits under biotic selection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a spatially and temporally variable adaptive landscape, mutations operating in opposite directions and mutations of large effect should be commonly fixed due to the shifting locations of phenotypic optima. Similarly, an adaptive landscape with multiple phenotypic optima and deep valleys of low fitness between peaks will favor mutations of large effect. Traits under biotic selection should experience a more spatially and temporally variable adaptive landscape with more phenotypic optima than that experienced by traits under abiotic selection. To test this hypothesis, we assemble information from QTL mapping studies conducted in plants, comparing effect directions and effect sizes of detected QTL controlling traits putatively under abiotic selection to those controlling traits putatively under biotic selection. Results We find no differences in the fraction of antagonistic QTL in traits under abiotic and biotic selection, suggesting similar consistency in selection pressure on these two types of traits. However, we find that QTL controlling traits under biotic selection have a larger effect size than those under abiotic selection, supporting our hypothesis that QTL of large effect are more commonly detected in traits under biotic selection than in traits under abiotic selection. For traits under both abiotic and biotic selection, we find a large number of QTL of large effect, with 10.7% of all QTLs detected controlling more than 20% of the variance in phenotype. Conclusion These results suggest that mutations of large effect are more common in adaptive landscapes strongly determined by biotic forces, but that these types of adaptive landscapes do not result in a higher fraction of mutations acting in opposite directions. The high number of QTL of large effect detected shows that QTL of large effect are more common than predicted by the infinitesimal model of genetic adaptation. PMID:21385379

  19. Evaluating simulated functional trait patterns and quantifying modelled trait diversity effects on simulated ecosystem fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlick, R.; Schimel, D.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) typically employ only a small set of Plant Functional Types (PFTs) to represent the vast diversity of observed vegetation forms and functioning. There is growing evidence, however, that this abstraction may not adequately represent the observed variation in plant functional traits, which is thought to play an important role for many ecosystem functions and for ecosystem resilience to environmental change. The geographic distribution of PFTs in these models is also often based on empirical relationships between present-day climate and vegetation patterns. Projections of future climate change, however, point toward the possibility of novel regional climates, which could lead to no-analog vegetation compositions incompatible with the PFT paradigm. Here, we present results from the Jena Diversity-DGVM (JeDi-DGVM), a novel traits-based vegetation model, which simulates a large number of hypothetical plant growth strategies constrained by functional tradeoffs, thereby allowing for a more flexible temporal and spatial representation of the terrestrial biosphere. First, we compare simulated present-day geographical patterns of functional traits with empirical trait observations (in-situ and from airborne imaging spectroscopy). The observed trait patterns are then used to improve the tradeoff parameterizations of JeDi-DGVM. Finally, focusing primarily on the simulated leaf traits, we run the model with various amounts of trait diversity. We quantify the effects of these modeled biodiversity manipulations on simulated ecosystem fluxes and stocks for both present-day conditions and transient climate change scenarios. The simulation results reveal that the coarse treatment of plant functional traits by current PFT-based vegetation models may contribute substantial uncertainty regarding carbon-climate feedbacks. Further development of trait-based models and further investment in global in-situ and spectroscopic plant trait observations are needed.

  20. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions, and individual differences in regulating emotions. PMID:24427152

  1. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven G; Hulsey, C Darrin; de León, Francisco J García

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus) and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi), we examined three components of this interaction: 1) spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2) whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3) whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity) and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses. PMID:17397540

  2. Trait mindfulness and autobiographical memory specificity.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Rosalind

    2015-02-01

    Training in mindfulness skills has been shown to increase autobiographical memory specificity. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is also an association between individual differences in trait mindfulness and memory specificity using a non-clinical student sample (N = 70). Also examined were the relationships between other memory characteristics and trait mindfulness, self-reported depression and rumination. Participants wrote about 12 autobiographical memories, which were recalled in response to emotion word cues in a minimal instruction version of the Autobiographical Memory Test, rated each memory for seven characteristics, and completed the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, and the Ruminative Responses Scale. Higher rumination scores were associated with more reliving and more intense emotion during recall. Depression scores were not associated with any memory variables. Higher trait mindfulness was associated with lower memory specificity and with more intense and more positive emotion during recall. Thus, trait mindfulness is associated with memory specificity, but the association is opposite to that found in mindfulness training studies. It is suggested that this difference may be due to an influence of trait mindfulness on memory encoding as well as retrieval processes and an influence on the mode of self-awareness that leads to a greater focus on momentary rather than narrative self-reference. PMID:25120213

  3. Epistasis for quantitative traits in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-01-01

    The role of gene-gene interactions in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial, despite the biological plausibility of nonlinear molecular interactions underpinning variation in quantitative traits. In strictly outbreeding populations, genetic architecture is inferred indirectly by estimating variance components; however, failure to detect epistatic variance does not mean lack of epistatic gene action and is even consistent with pervasive epistasis. In Drosophila, more focused approaches to detecting epistatic gene action are possible, based on the ability to create de novo mutations and perform crosses among them; to construct inbred lines, artificial selection lines, and chromosome substitution lines; to map quantitative trait loci affecting complex traits by linkage and association; and to evaluate effects of induced mutations on multiple wild-derived backgrounds. Here, I review evidence for epistasis in Drosophila from the application of these methods, and conclude that additivity is an emergent property of underlying epistatic gene action for Drosophila quantitative traits. Such studies can be used to infer novel, highly interconnected genetic networks that are enriched for gene ontology categories and metabolic and cellular pathways. The consequence of epistasis is that the main effects of each of the interacting loci depend on allele frequency, which negatively impacts the predictive ability of additive models. Finally, epistasis results in hidden quantitative genetic variation in natural populations (genetic canalization) and the potential for rapid evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities (speciation). PMID:25403527

  4. Influence of beta-agonists (ractopamine HCI and zilpaterol HCI) on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of two beta-agonists [ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx**R) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (Zilmax**R)], recently approved for use in feedlot cattle to improve performance traits and carcass leanness, were examined on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle. Fecal samples (...

  5. Overexpression of beta-arrestin and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase augment desensitization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Pippig, S; Andexinger, S; Daniel, K; Puzicha, M; Caron, M G; Lefkowitz, R J; Lohse, M J

    1993-02-15

    Receptor-specific or homologous desensitization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors is thought to be effected via phosphorylation of the receptor by the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK), followed by binding of beta-arrestin. We have generated stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cell lines overexpressing either of the two regulatory proteins and also expressing low or high levels of beta 2-adrenergic receptors (approximately 80 and approximately 600 fmol/mg of membrane protein). In these cells, we studied the process of desensitization induced by the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol. In cells expressing high levels of beta 2-adrenergic receptors, desensitization to high concentrations of isoproterenol (previously shown to be mediated by both beta ARK and protein kinase A) amounted to approximately 50% in control cells, approximately 80% in beta ARK-overexpressing cells, and approximately 90% in beta-arrestin-overexpressing cells. In cells expressing low levels of beta 2-adrenergic receptors, these values were approximately 50, approximately 60, and approximately 60%, respectively. Desensitization to low concentrations of isoproterenol (previously shown to be essentially protein kinase A-mediated and not receptor-specific, i.e. heterologous) was not affected by overexpression of either beta ARK or beta-arrestin. These data suggest that in cells expressing high levels of beta 2-adrenergic receptors, beta-arrestin and beta ARK become limiting for homologous receptor desensitization. They provide further support for the involvement of these two proteins in the regulation of beta 2-adrenergic receptor function. PMID:8381421

  6. Relation between the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} and 2{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Simkovic, Fedor; Hodak, Rastislav; Faessler, Amand; Vogel, Petr [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region, Russia and Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Institute fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Kellogg Radiation Laboratory and Physics Department, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    We show that the dominant Gamow-Teller part, M{sub GT}{sup 0}{nu} of the nuclear matrix element governing the neutrinoless {beta}{beta} decay is related to the matrix element M{sub cl}{sup 2}{nu} governing the allowed two-neutrino {beta}{beta} decay. That relation is revealed when these matrix elements are expressed as functions of the relative distance r between the pair of neutrons that are transformed into a pair of protons in the {beta}{beta} decay. Analyzing this relation allows us to understand the contrasting behavior of these matrix elements when A and Z is changed; while M{sub GT}{sup 0}{nu} changes slowly and smoothly, M{sup 2}{nu} has pronounced shell effects. We also discuss the possibility of phenomenological determination of the M{sub cl}{sup 2}{nu} and from them of the M{sub GT}{sup 0}{nu}values from the experimental study of the {beta}{sup {+-}} strength functions.

  7. Mammalian mitochondrial beta-oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, S; Bartlett, K; Pourfarzam, M

    1996-01-01

    The enzymic stages of mammalian mitochondrial beta-oxidation were elucidated some 30-40 years ago. However, the discovery of a membrane-associated multifunctional enzyme of beta-oxidation, a membrane-associated acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and characterization of the carnitine palmitoyl transferase system at the protein and at the genetic level has demonstrated that the enzymes of the system itself are incompletely understood. Deficiencies of many of the enzymes have been recognized as important causes of disease. In addition, the study of these disorders has led to a greater understanding of the molecular mechanism of beta-oxidation and the import, processing and assembly of the beta-oxidation enzymes within the mitochondrion. The tissue-specific regulation, intramitochondrial control and supramolecular organization of the pathway is becoming better understood as sensitive analytical and molecular techniques are applied. This review aims to cover enzymological and organizational aspects of mitochondrial beta-oxidation together with the biochemical aspects of inherited disorders of beta-oxidation and the intrinsic control of beta-oxidation. PMID:8973539

  8. Mapping Splicing Quantitative Trait Loci in RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Cheng; Hu, Yu; Liu, Yichuan; Li, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND One of the major mechanisms of generating mRNA diversity is alternative splicing, a regulated process that allows for the flexibility of producing functionally different proteins from the same genomic sequences. This process is often altered in cancer cells to produce aberrant proteins that drive the progression of cancer. A better understanding of the misregulation of alternative splicing will shed light on the development of novel targets for pharmacological interventions of cancer. METHODS In this study, we evaluated three statistical methods, random effects meta-regression, beta regression, and generalized linear mixed effects model, for the analysis of splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL) using RNA-Seq data. All the three methods use exon-inclusion levels estimated by the PennSeq algorithm, a statistical method that utilizes paired-end reads and accounts for non-uniform sequencing coverage. RESULTS Using both simulated and real RNA-Seq datasets, we compared these three methods with GLiMMPS, a recently developed method for sQTL analysis. Our results indicate that the most reliable and powerful method was the random effects meta-regression approach, which identified sQTLs at low false discovery rates but higher power when compared to GLiMMPS. CONCLUSIONS We have evaluated three statistical methods for the analysis of sQTLs in RNA-Seq. Results from our study will be instructive for researchers in selecting the appropriate statistical methods for sQTL analysis. PMID:25733796

  9. Mapping Splicing Quantitative Trait Loci in RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Cheng; Hu, Yu; Liu, Yichuan; Li, Mingyao

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND One of the major mechanisms of generating mRNA diversity is alternative splicing, a regulated process that allows for the flexibility of producing functionally different proteins from the same genomic sequences. This process is often altered in cancer cells to produce aberrant proteins that drive the progression of cancer. A better understanding of the misregulation of alternative splicing will shed light on the development of novel targets for pharmacological interventions of cancer. METHODS In this study, we evaluated three statistical methods, random effects meta-regression, beta regression, and generalized linear mixed effects model, for the analysis of splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL) using RNA-Seq data. All the three methods use exon-inclusion levels estimated by the PennSeq algorithm, a statistical method that utilizes paired-end reads and accounts for non-uniform sequencing coverage. RESULTS Using both simulated and real RNA-Seq datasets, we compared these three methods with GLiMMPS, a recently developed method for sQTL analysis. Our results indicate that the most reliable and powerful method was the random effects meta-regression approach, which identified sQTLs at low false discovery rates but higher power when compared to GLiMMPS. CONCLUSIONS We have evaluated three statistical methods for the analysis of sQTLs in RNA-Seq. Results from our study will be instructive for researchers in selecting the appropriate statistical methods for sQTL analysis. PMID:25452687

  10. 0{nu}{beta}{beta}: The experimental challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Ferroni, Fernando [Sapienza Universita' and INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma I-00185 (Italy)

    2010-11-24

    This paper describes the main experimental issues related to neutrinoless double beta decay searches. It discusses, although briefly, the past, present and future of this exciting, fundamental but extremely complex field of research.

  11. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Constraints

    E-print Network

    Hiroaki Sugiyama

    2003-07-25

    A brief overview is given of theoretical analyses with neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. Theoretical bounds on the ``observable'', _betabeta, are presented. By using experimental bounds on _betabeta, allowed regions are obtained on the m_l-cos{2theta_12} plane, where m_l stands for the lightest neutrino mass. It is shown that Majorana neutrinos can be excluded by combining possible results of future neutrinoless double beta decay and {}^3H beta decay experiments. A possibility to constrain one of two Majorana phases is discussed also.

  12. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. PMID:25466078

  13. Genome Informed Trait-Based Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoz, U.; Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Tang, J.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E.; Riley, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Trait-based approaches are powerful tools for representing microbial communities across both spatial and temporal scales within ecosystem models. Trait-based models (TBMs) represent the diversity of microbial taxa as stochastic assemblages with a distribution of traits constrained by trade-offs between these traits. Such representation with its built-in stochasticity allows the elucidation of the interactions between the microbes and their environment by reducing the complexity of microbial community diversity into a limited number of functional ';guilds' and letting them emerge across spatio-temporal scales. From the biogeochemical/ecosystem modeling perspective, the emergent properties of the microbial community could be directly translated into predictions of biogeochemical reaction rates and microbial biomass. The accuracy of TBMs depends on the identification of key traits of the microbial community members and on the parameterization of these traits. Current approaches to inform TBM parameterization are empirical (i.e., based on literature surveys). Advances in omic technologies (such as genomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics) pave the way to better-initialize models that can be constrained in a generic or site-specific fashion. Here we describe the coupling of metagenomic data to the development of a TBM representing the dynamics of metabolic guilds from an organic carbon stimulated groundwater microbial community. Illumina paired-end metagenomic data were collected from the community as it transitioned successively through electron-accepting conditions (nitrate-, sulfate-, and Fe(III)-reducing), and used to inform estimates of growth rates and the distribution of metabolic pathways (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic oxidation, fermentation) across a spatially resolved TBM. We use this model to evaluate the emergence of different metabolisms and predict rates of biogeochemical processes over time. We compare our results to observational outputs.

  14. (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Dharmaratne, H Ranjith; Nanayakkara, N P; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2002-07-01

    Chemical investigation of the root extract of Valeriana officinalis afforded a new bicyclic sesquiterpene acid, (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid together with valerenic acid and hexadecanoic acid. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic data and confirmed by partial synthesis of its methyl ester from valerenic acid. Methyl (-)-3 alpha,4 alpha-epoxyvalerenate was obtained as a minor product from the above reaction. PMID:12143008

  15. Genetic relationship of body measurement traits at early age with carcass traits in Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Munim, Tahmina; Oikawa, Takuro; Ibi, Takayuki; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2013-03-01

    Estimates of genetic parameters were obtained for body measurement traits of 648 animals at 4 months of age, of 545 at 8 months and carcass traits of 14 972 animals with the use of an animal model by the restricted maximum likelihood procedure. The estimated heritabilities for carcass traits were high (0.41 to 0.54). At 4 months the estimated direct heritabilities for body measurement traits were moderate to high (0.28 to 0.64), except for chest width (0.19); at 8 months they were also moderate to high (0.23 to 0.49), except for chest depth and chest width (0.18 and 0.06, respectively). Maternal heritabilities for all body measurement traits were low at both ages. The results indicate that because of their moderate direct genetic correlations with body measurement traits, carcass weight, rib thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness can be improved; however, rib eye area and beef marbling standard show little such possibility considering their correlation with body measurement traits. PMID:23480700

  16. Magic trait electric organ discharge (EOD)

    PubMed Central

    Plath, Martin; Engelmann, Jacob; Kirschbaum, Frank; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    A unique evolutionary specialization of African weakly electric fish (Mormyridae) is their ability to produce and perceive electric signals. Mormyrids use their electric organs discharge (EOD) for electrolocation and electrocommunication. Here we discuss the adaptive significance of the EOD in foraging (electric prey detection) in light of recent results demonstrating that mormyrid fish mate assortatively according to EOD waveform characteristics (electric mate choice). Therefore the EOD as a single trait pleiotropically combines natural divergent selection and reproductive isolation. Consequently we postulate the EOD as a “magic trait” promoting the diversification of African weakly electric fish. PMID:19721881

  17. Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits

    SciTech Connect

    Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Epigenetics meets metabolomics: an epigenome-wide association study with blood serum metabolic traits

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Zeilinger, Sonja; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Brugger, Markus; Peters, Annette; Meisinger, Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Hengstenberg, Christian; Pagel, Philipp; Huber, Fritz; Mohney, Robert P.; Grallert, Harald; Illig, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Waldenberger, Melanie; Gieger, Christian; Suhre, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported strong influences of genetic variants on metabolic phenotypes, some of them with clinical relevance. Here, we hypothesize that DNA methylation may have an important and potentially independent effect on human metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we conducted what is to the best of our knowledge the first epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) between DNA methylation and metabolic traits (metabotypes) in human blood. We assess 649 blood metabolic traits from 1814 participants of the Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg (KORA) population study for association with methylation of 457 004 CpG sites, determined on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip platform. Using the EWAS approach, we identified two types of methylome–metabotype associations. One type is driven by an underlying genetic effect; the other type is independent of genetic variation and potentially driven by common environmental and life-style-dependent factors. We report eight CpG loci at genome-wide significance that have a genetic variant as confounder (P = 3.9 × 10?20 to 2.0 × 10?108, r2 = 0.036 to 0.221). Seven loci display CpG site-specific associations to metabotypes, but do not exhibit any underlying genetic signals (P = 9.2 × 10?14 to 2.7 × 10?27, r2 = 0.008 to 0.107). We further identify several groups of CpG loci that associate with a same metabotype, such as 4-vinylphenol sulfate and 4-androsten-3-beta,17-beta-diol disulfate. In these cases, the association between CpG-methylation and metabotype is likely the result of a common external environmental factor, including smoking. Our study shows that analysis of EWAS with large numbers of metabolic traits in large population cohorts are, in principle, feasible. Taken together, our data suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in regulating human metabolism. PMID:24014485

  19. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  20. Beta vulgaris var. cicla (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    Monique D. Reed

    2011-08-10

    The deterministic design of the alpha-beta filter and the stochastic design of its Kalman counterpart are placed on a common basis. The first step is to find the continuous-time filter architecture which transforms into ...

  1. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means.

  2. Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker

    MedlinePLUS

    ... urine increase (see the Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease test article ). Drugs such as lithium, cyclosporine, cisplatin, ... the News Article Index About This Site Send Us Your Comments For ...

  3. The temporal relationship of personality traits to personality disorders 

    E-print Network

    Warner, Megan Beth

    2002-01-01

    Personality disorders are presumed to be stable because of underlying stable and maladaptive personality traits. It has been argued that it is the stability of these traits that makes personality disorders difficult to treat. Previous research has...

  4. Beta function and anomalous dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco [CP3-Origins, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-orders beta-function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the 2-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows us to determine the anomalous dimension of the fermion masses at the infrared fixed point, and the resulting values compare well with the lattice determinations.

  5. Predicting Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hirsch; Ernest Ma; J. W. F. Valle; A. Villanova del Moral

    2005-01-01

    We give predictions for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in a simple\\u000avariant of the A_4 family symmetry model. We show that there is a lower bound\\u000afor the neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude even in the case of normal\\u000ahierarchical neutrino masses, corresponding to an effective mass parameter\\u000a|m_{ee}| >= 0.17 \\\\sqrt{\\\\Delta m^2_{ATM}}. This result holds both for

  6. NSAC Subcommittee Double Beta Decay

    E-print Network

    NSAC Subcommittee Double Beta Decay Overview Stuart Freedman University of California, Berkeley;Experimental Signal of Double Beta Decay 0 = G0(Q,Z) |Mnucl|2 2 dN dE E(Q - E)5 (1+ 2E + 4E2 3 + E3 3 + E4 and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory #12;2 Decay #12;2 0 0 Decay If 0 occurs then the neutrino

  7. Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay

    E-print Network

    S. M. Bilenky

    2010-01-12

    The neutrinoless double $\\beta$-decay of nuclei is reviewed. We discuss neutrino mixing and 3x3 PMNS neutrino mixing matrix. Basic theory of neutrinoless double $\\beta$-decay is presented in some details. Results of different calculations of nuclear matrix element are discussed. Experimental situation is considered. The Appendix is dedicated to E. Majorana (brief biography and his paper in which the theory of Majorana particles is given)

  8. Does selection for production traits affect the ability to cope with pathogens? 

    E-print Network

    Coltherd, Jennifer Carolyn

    2011-06-27

    Phenotypic selection for production traits causes changes in the underlying genetics of the animal. As such, intensive selection on one trait may have consequences on other traits. Indeed alterations to traits seemingly unrelated to the desirable...

  9. Ruthenium on Beta Zeolite in Cinnamaldehyde Hydrogenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lashdaf; M. Tiitta; T. Venäläinen; H. Österholm; A. O. I. Krause

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of ruthenium was studied in relation to the acidity of beta zeolite. The impregnation of beta zeolite with ruthenium chloride decreased the crystallite size of beta zeolite. The acidity of the beta zeolite influenced the particle size of ruthenium. The particle size of ruthenium increased with decreasing acidity. Even catalysts with large particle size of ruthenium were selective

  10. On the criterion and incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V. Petrides; Juan Carlos Pérez-González; Adrian Furnham

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the criterion and incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy), which is defined as a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies (Petrides & Furnham, 2001). In Studies 1 and 2 (N=166 and 354, respectively) trait EI is shown to be

  11. Coevolution between Parasite Virulence and Host Life?History Traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Gandon; Philip Agnew; Yannis Michalakis

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological models generally explore the evolution of parasite life-history traits, namely, virulence and transmission, against a background of constant host life-history traits. However, life-history models have predicted the evolution of host traits in response to parasitism. The coevolution of host and parasite life- history traits remains largely unexplored. We present an epidemio- logical model, based on resource allocation theory, that

  12. Critical review of state-trait curiosity test development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Boyle

    1983-01-01

    State-trait research offers good prospects for new insights into human curiosity. It has already generated development of new scales, and several studies have been undertaken independently in Australia and the United States. This paper critically reviews the development of state [C-State] and trait [C-Trait] curiosity scales, pointing out methodological limitations in the existing state-trait curiosity studies. Specific recommendations are made

  13. Neutrinoless double beta decay and neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Duerr, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-27

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) is a promising test for lepton number violating physics beyond the standard model (SM) of particle physics. There is a deep connection between this decay and the phenomenon of neutrino masses. In particular, we will discuss the relation between 0{nu}{beta}{beta} and Majorana neutrino masses provided by the so-called Schechter-Valle theorem in a quantitative way. Furthermore, we will present an experimental cross check to discriminate 0{nu}{beta}{beta} from unknown nuclear background using only one isotope, i.e., within one experiment.

  14. Asymptotic behavior of beta-integers

    E-print Network

    L. Balková; J. P. Gazeau; E. Pelantová

    2008-02-21

    Beta-integers (``$\\beta$-integers'') are those numbers which are the counterparts of integers when real numbers are expressed in irrational basis $\\beta > 1$. In quasicrystalline studies $\\beta$-integers supersede the ``crystallographic'' ordinary integers. When the number $\\beta$ is a Parry number, the corresponding $\\beta$-integers realize only a finite number of distances between consecutive elements and somewhat appear like ordinary integers, mainly in an asymptotic sense. In this letter we make precise this asymptotic behavior by proving four theorems concerning Parry $\\beta$-integers.

  15. Sickle Cell Trait and Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Yvonne; Ayrer, James

    1974-01-01

    In a preliminary study, no significant interaction effects were found between scholastic achievement and sickle cell trait in black children currently in eight and ninth grades, as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills over a consecutive period of four years, 1968 through 1971, grades four through seven. (EH)

  16. Perverse political correctness and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Neduva, Alexander; Kanevsky, Michael; Lerner, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Political correctness (PC) commonly refers to a mutual respect for the views and beliefs of others, including enemies, and while differing in opinions, the willfulness to overcome the existing disagreements, and to prevent animosity. To date however, the term PC is sometimes used in a perverted sense aimed for disintegration of solidarity in a society, thus giving birth to a new powerful conceptual tool, the perverse political correctness (PPC). PPC ideology resides in people with certain psychological types. We assume that there are basic psychological variations of personality traits and the mechanisms of their formation that promote not only insertion, but rapid distribution of modern PPC ideology. Although the dimension of their behavior is very similar, the personality traits of these persons can be divided into three groups: The subjects from the first group are characterized by general traits of one's personality, such as kindness, empathy, and humanism. This is true PC--an expression of proper humanistic personality traits, which are developed in a specific kind of environment. The subjects from second group are usually artistic, theatrical, vain and narcissistic, poseurs who need attention at any cost. Their views on life in general, as well as on questions of PC are characterized by colorfulness, picturesqueness and emotional satiety. The subjects from the third group, conjoined with the previous variety of demonstrative-theatrical PC, use mystical and religious contents as part of their propaganda of PPC activity. PMID:22070886

  17. Multiple Interval Mapping for Quantitative Trait Loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen-Hung Kao; Zhao-Bang Zeng; Robert D. Teasdale

    A new statistical method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL), called multiple interval mapping (MIM), is presented. It uses multiple marker intervals simultaneously to fit multiple putative QTL directly in the model for mapping QTL. The MIM model is based on Cockerham's model for interpreting genetic parameters and the method of maximum likelihood for estimating genetic parameters. With the MIM

  18. Precision mapping of quantitative trait loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao-Bang Zeng

    1994-01-01

    Adequate separation of effects of possible multiple linked quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on mapping QTLs is the key to increasing the precision of QTL mapping. A new method of QTL mapping is proposed and analyzed in this paper by combining interval mapping with multiple regression. The basis of the proposed method is an interval test in which the test statistic

  19. Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Churchill; R. W. Doerge

    1994-01-01

    The detection of genes that control quantitative characters is a problem of great interest to the genetic mapping community. Methods for locating these quantitative trait loci (QTL) relative to maps of genetic markers are now widely used. This paper addresses an issue common to all QTL mapping methods, that of determining an appropriate threshold value for declaring significant QTL effects.

  20. Personality Traits and College Student Reading Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, J.; And Others

    This document is concerned with studies of the possible relationship between the college reader and his personality traits. The results of the three studies reported gave evidence that there was a relationship between personality types and college reading skills. Intuitive and introverted personality types were better readers. When students were…

  1. Attitudinal Loyalty - Personality trait or brand specific?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebekah Bennett; Sharyn Rundle-Thiele

    2000-01-01

    A combination of two main measurement approaches have been advocated in the marketing literature for the measurement of attitudinal loyalty; namely brand-specific measures and personality trait measures. This paper demonstrates that attitudinal loyalty should be measured using brand specific measures rather than measures which relate to an individual's propensity to be brand loyal, as brand-specific measures will better explain purchasing

  2. Model selection in binary trait locus mapping.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Cynthia J; Doerge, R W; Simonsen, Katy L; Nichols, Krista M; Duarte, Christine K; Wolfinger, Russell D; McIntyre, Lauren M

    2005-07-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping methodology for continuous normally distributed traits is the subject of much attention in the literature. Binary trait locus (BTL) mapping in experimental populations has received much less attention. A binary trait by definition has only two possible values, and the penetrance parameter is restricted to values between zero and one. Due to this restriction, the infinitesimal model appears to come into play even when only a few loci are involved, making selection of an appropriate genetic model in BTL mapping challenging. We present a probability model for an arbitrary number of BTL and demonstrate that, given adequate sample sizes, the power for detecting loci is high under a wide range of genetic models, including most epistatic models. A novel model selection strategy based upon the underlying genetic map is employed for choosing the genetic model. We propose selecting the "best" marker from each linkage group, regardless of significance. This reduces the model space so that an efficient search for epistatic loci can be conducted without invoking stepwise model selection. This procedure can identify unlinked epistatic BTL, demonstrated by our simulations and the reanalysis of Oncorhynchus mykiss experimental data. PMID:15834149

  3. Color Traits Transfer to Grayscale Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Kekre; Sudeep D. Thepade

    2008-01-01

    Here we are presenting some novel techniques for squirting colors in grayscale images. The problem of coloring grayscale images has no exact solution. Here we are attempting to minimize the human efforts needed in manually coloring the grayscale images. We need human interaction only to find a reference color image, then the job of transferring color traits from reference color

  4. Trait anxiety, visuospatial processing, and working memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Eysenck; Susanna Payne; Nazanin Derakshan

    2005-01-01

    This experiment assessed the components of Baddeley's working memory system impaired by anxiety during performance of the Corsi Blocks Test. The Corsi task was performed concurrently with different secondary tasks (i.e., articulatory suppression; counting backwards; spatial tapping; simple tapping). Results showed Corsi performance depended mainly on the central executive and visuospatial sketchpad components of working memory. Adverse effects of trait

  5. Flexible Emotional Responsiveness in Trait Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, Christian E.; Thompson, Renee J.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    Field studies and laboratory experiments have documented that a key component of resilience is emotional flexibility – the ability to respond flexibly to changing emotional circumstances. In the present study we tested the hypotheses that resilient people exhibit emotional flexibility: a) in response to frequently changing emotional stimuli; and b) across multiple modalities of emotional responding. As participants viewed a series of emotional pictures, we assessed their self-reported affect, facial muscle activity, and startle reflexes. Higher trait resilience predicted more divergent affective and facial responses (corrugator and zygomatic) to positive versus negative pictures. Thus, compared with their low resilient counterparts, resilient people appear to be able to more flexibly match their emotional responses to the frequently changing emotional stimuli. Moreover, whereas high trait resilient participants exhibited divergent startle responses to positive versus negative pictures regardless of the valence of the preceding trial, low trait resilient participants did not exhibit divergent startle responses when the preceding picture was negative. High trait resilient individuals, therefore, appear to be better able than are their low-resilient counterparts to either switch or maintain their emotional responses depending on whether the emotional context changes. The present findings broaden our understanding of the mechanisms underlying resilience by demonstrating that resilient people are able to flexibly change their affective and physiological responses to match the demands of frequently changing environmental circumstances. PMID:21707168

  6. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities

    E-print Network

    and freshwater envir- onments (Kiørboe, 2008a). Knowledge of the structure and functioning of zooplanktonHORIZONS Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities ELENA LITCHMAN1,2,*, MARK D. OHMAN3@msu.edu Received August 31, 2012; accepted February 19, 2013 Corresponding editor: Roger Harris Zooplankton

  7. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  8. CHAPTER NINE Progressive levels of trait divergence

    E-print Network

    an environmental gradient of water clarity in Lake Victoria. I will subsequently refer to this as a `speciationCHAPTER NINE Progressive levels of trait divergence along a `speciation transect' in the Lake Victoria cichlid fish Pundamilia ole seehausen Introduction and outline Identifying mechanisms

  9. Advances in Phenotyping of Functional Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plants, functional traits are morphological, biochemical, physiological, structural, phenological, or behavioral characteristics that are expressed in phenotypes of individual plants,that are relevant to the plant’s role in the ecosystem or its agronomic performance. By themselves, functional tra...

  10. 5, 35933621, 2008 Species traits and

    E-print Network

    Erwin, Terry

    growth rates across functional groups defined on the basis of these two traits. In similar size classes, biomass growth rates vary10 little between trees that differ in wood density and maximum height. However, biomass growth rates are generally higher in western Amazonia across all functional groups. Thirdly, we

  11. Dissociative experiences, trait anxiety and paranormal beliefs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Wolfradt

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between dissociative experiences, trait-anxiety and paranormal beliefs among students was investigated. Significant gender differences were found; females scored higher than males on the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) by Bernstein and Putnam (The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 727–735, 1986) and some subscales of the revised Paranormal Belief Scale by Tobacyk (A Revised Paranormal Belief Scale, unpublished

  12. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR INFECTIOUS BOVINE KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an economically important disease in cattle. The objective of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in offspring from a Brahman x Hereford sire. The sire was mated to H...

  13. Callous-unemotional traits in incarcerated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kimonis, Eva R; Fanti, Kostas; Goldweber, Asha; Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    The presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits designates a subgroup of antisocial youth at risk for severe, aggressive, and stable conduct problems. As a result, these traits should be considered as part of the criteria for conduct disorder. The present study tests 2 possible symptom sets (4- and 9-item criteria sets) of CU traits that could be used in diagnostic classification, assessed using self-report with a sample of 643 incarcerated adolescent (M age = 16.50, SD = 1.63 years) boys (n = 493) and girls (n = 150). Item response theory analysis was employed to examine the unique characteristics of each criterion comprising the 2 sets to determine their clinical utility. Results indicated that most items comprising the measure of CU traits demonstrated adequate psychometric properties. Whereas the 9-item criteria set provided more information and was internally consistent, the briefer 4-item set was equally effective at identifying youth at-risk for poor outcomes associated with the broader CU construct. Supporting the clinical utility of the criteria sets, incarcerated boys and girls who endorsed high levels of CU symptoms across criteria sets were particularly at-risk for proactive aggression and violent delinquency. PMID:24079957

  14. Biotechnological interventions to improve plant developmental traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental traits are coordinated at various levels in a plant and involve organ to organ communications via long distance signaling processes that integrate transcription, hormonal action and environmental cues. Thus, plant architecture, root-soil-microbe interactions, flowering, fruit (and seed...

  15. JOINT ANALYSIS OF HEALTH AND PRODUCTION TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between health and production traits in chickens. The data were obtained from a closed, fully pedigreed, commercial broiler line. Records included measurements of body weight (BW), residual feed intake (RFI), percent breast meat (PBM),...

  16. Trait Affect and Job Search Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Stephane; Saks, Alan M.; Zikic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the role of trait affect in job search. One hundred and twenty-three university students completed measures of positive and negative affectivity, conscientiousness, job search self-efficacy, job search clarity, and job search intensity during their last year of school while on the job market. At the end of the school…

  17. Personality traits, traitedness, and disorders: towards an enhanced understanding of trait-disorder relationships 

    E-print Network

    Warner, Megan Beth

    2006-10-30

    . ...............................................................................................80 Figure 6. Interaction of avoidant score at baseline by self-consciousness trait level predicting consistency of avoidant PD diagnosis............................................87 Figure 7. Gregariousness traitedness moderating avoidant PD...

  18. Personality traits, traitedness, and disorders: towards an enhanced understanding of trait-disorder relationships

    E-print Network

    Warner, Megan Beth

    2006-10-30

    variables and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1968) such that the Inventory was more predictive of behavior for the lower variability, or more consistent individuals. Bem and Allen (1974) did not replicate this result for the trait...

  19. Epistasis and balanced polymorphism influencing complex trait variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juergen Kroymann; Thomas Mitchell-Olds

    2005-01-01

    Complex traits such as human disease, growth rate, or crop yield are polygenic, or determined by the contributions from numerous genes in a quantitative manner. Although progress has been made in identifying major quantitative trait loci (QTL), experimental constraints have limited our knowledge of small-effect QTL, which may be responsible for a large proportion of trait variation. Here, we identified

  20. Epistasis: too often neglected in complex trait studies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris S. Haley; Örjan Carlborg

    2004-01-01

    Interactions among loci or between genes and environmental factors make a substantial contribution to variation in complex traits such as disease susceptibility. Nonetheless, many studies that attempt to identify the genetic basis of complex traits ignore the possibility that loci interact. We argue that epistasis should be accounted for in complex trait studies; we critically assess current study designs for

  1. Relationship between longevity and selected production, reproduction and type traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. STRAPÁK; J. CANDRÁK; J. AUMANN; Neustadt Aisch

    2005-01-01

    The correlations between longevity, functional longevity, stayability and selected milk, reproductive and type traits were estimated; it was done on the basis of estimated breeding values for longevity, functional lon- gevity, dairy traits, reproductive traits and stayability rates at the age of 60, 72, 84, and 96 months. The correlation between breeding values for longevity and functional longevity was 0.69.

  2. Genetic Analysis of Autoimmune and Metabolic Traits in Chickens

    E-print Network

    of Publications 7 Abbreviations 8 Introduction 9 Background 13 Metabolic traits 13 Autoimmune diseases 13 SystemicGenetic Analysis of Autoimmune and Metabolic Traits in Chickens Weronica Ek Faculty of Veterinary Cover: Ronald Nelson, SLU #12;Genetic Analysis of Autoimmune and Metabolic Traits in Chickens Abstract

  3. An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Career Satisfaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Lounsbury; James M. Loveland; Eric D. Sundstrom; Lucy W. Gibson; Adam W. Drost; Frances L. Hamrick

    2003-01-01

    We examined personality traits in relation to career satisfaction and job satisfaction for 5,932 individuals in career transition. Personality traits were related to career satisfaction and job satisfaction in the total sample and 14 separate occupational groups. Regression analyses revealed three personality traits consistently related to career satisfaction: emotional resilience, optimism, and work drive in initial and holdout samples as

  4. BRIEF REPORT Enhanced Attentional Capture in Trait Anxiety

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    BRIEF REPORT Enhanced Attentional Capture in Trait Anxiety Jason S. Moser, Mark W. Becker, and Tim the relationships between trait anxiety and worry and attentional distraction by a salient, task-irrelevant color singleton in a visual search task. Results revealed that trait anxiety, but not worry, was related

  5. Identifying Loci for Behavioral Traits Using Genome-Tagged Mice

    E-print Network

    Smith, Desmond J.

    Identifying Loci for Behavioral Traits Using Genome-Tagged Mice Dahai Liu,1,2 Ram Pyare Singh,1 Identification of behavioral loci through complex trait mapping remains a widely employed approach but suf- fers introgressed onto a C57BL/6J background were em- ployed for localization of behavioral traits. These GTMs were

  6. Estimates of genetic correlations among growth traits including competition effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic parameters of direct and competition effects for traits measured at the end of a growth test utilizing multi-trait analyses. A total of 9,720 boars were tested with 15 boars per pen from about 71 to 161 d of age and weight from 31 to 120 kg. Traits analyzed wi...

  7. Variation, selection and evolution of function-valued traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel G. Kingsolver; Richard Gomulkiewicz; Patrick A. Carter

    2001-01-01

    We describe an emerging framework for understanding variation, selection and evolution of phenotypic traits that are mathematical functions. We use one specific empirical example – thermal performance curves (TPCs) for growth rates of caterpillars – to demonstrate how models for function-valued traits are natural extensions of more familiar, multivariate models for correlated, quantitative traits. We emphasize three main points. First,

  8. Sex dependent imprinting effects on complex traits in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinmar Hager; James M Cheverud; Larry J Leamy; Jason B Wolf

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic source of variation in quantitative traits that results from monoallelic gene expression, where commonly either only the paternally- or the maternally-derived allele is expressed. Imprinting has been shown to affect a diversity of complex traits in a variety of species. For several such quantitative traits sex-dependent genetic effects have been discovered, but whether imprinting

  9. Skills Diagnosis Using IRT-Based Continuous Latent Trait Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, William

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the continuous latent trait IRT approach to skills diagnosis as particularized by a representative variety of continuous latent trait models using item response functions (IRFs). First, several basic IRT-based continuous latent trait approaches are presented in some detail. Then a brief summary of estimation, model…

  10. Trait procrastination and the Big-five factors of personality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henri C. Schouwenburg; Clarry H. Lay

    1995-01-01

    Trait procrastination is viewed as a summary variable linked to the predisposition to engage in dilatory behaviour. This paper sought to trace the sources of trait procrastination by locating it within the five-factor personality structure. Study 1 concerned self-ratings on trait adjectives (in Dutch) that were relevant in some way to procrastinatory behaviour. The position of these adjectives on the

  11. Quantitative trait loci controlling water use efficiency and related traits in Quercus robur L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Brendel; Didier Le Thiec; Caroline Scotti-Saintagne; Catherine Bodénès; Antoine Kremer; Jean-Marc Guehl

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variation for intrinsic water use efficiency (W\\u000a i) and related traits was estimated in a full-sib family of Quercus robur L. over 3 years. The genetic linkage map available for this F1 family was used to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for\\u000a W\\u000a i, as estimated by leaf carbon stable isotope composition (?\\u000a 13C) or the ratio of net CO2

  12. Double Beta Decays and Neutrino Masses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyasu Ejiri

    2005-01-01

    Neutrino-less double beta decays (0nu beta beta), which violate the lepton number conservation law by Delta L= 2, are of great interest for studying the fundamental properties of neutrinos beyond the standard electroweak theory. High-sensitivity 0 nu beta beta studies with mass sensitivities of the solar and atmospheric nu-masses are crucial for studying the Majorana nature of nu's, the nu

  13. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.; Couture, P.; Fishman, H.; Fonck, R.; Gammel, G.; Grek, B.; Ida, K.; Itami, K.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high ..beta.. discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present ..beta.. limit.

  14. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  15. On the Social Malleability of Traits: Variability and Consistency in Big 5 Trait Expression Across Three Interpersonal Contexts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver C. Robinson

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of social context on Big 5 trait expression, and the moderating influence of social context on gender differences in personality. A short Big 5 instrument assessed trait expression in three contexts: with parents, with friends, and with work colleagues. Findings indicated significant cross-context variation in all five traits, while also showing cross-context within-trait correlations.

  16. Network-based Analysis of Genome Wide Association Data Provides Novel Candidate Genes for Lipid and Lipoprotein Traits*

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amitabh; Gulbahce, Natali; Pevzner, Samuel J.; Menche, Jörg; Ladenvall, Claes; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Orho-Melander, Marju; Barabási, Albert-László

    2013-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) identify susceptibility loci for complex traits, but do not identify particular genes of interest. Integration of functional and network information may help in overcoming this limitation and identifying new susceptibility loci. Using GWAS and comorbidity data, we present a network-based approach to predict candidate genes for lipid and lipoprotein traits. We apply a prediction pipeline incorporating interactome, co-expression, and comorbidity data to Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (GLGC) GWAS for four traits of interest, identifying phenotypically coherent modules. These modules provide insights regarding gene involvement in complex phenotypes with multiple susceptibility alleles and low effect sizes. To experimentally test our predictions, we selected four candidate genes and genotyped representative SNPs in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cardiovascular Cohort. We found significant associations with LDL-C and total-cholesterol levels for a synonymous SNP (rs234706) in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene (p = 1 × 10?5 and adjusted-p = 0.013, respectively). Further, liver samples taken from 206 patients revealed that patients with the minor allele of rs234706 had significant dysregulation of CBS (p = 0.04). Despite the known biological role of CBS in lipid metabolism, SNPs within the locus have not yet been identified in GWAS of lipoprotein traits. Thus, the GWAS-based Comorbidity Module (GCM) approach identifies candidate genes missed by GWAS studies, serving as a broadly applicable tool for the investigation of other complex disease phenotypes. PMID:23882023

  17. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for lactation persistency traits in German Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Harder, B; Bennewitz, J; Reinsch, N; Thaller, G; Thomsen, H; Kühn, C; Schwerin, M; Erhardt, G; Förster, M; Reinhardt, F; Kalm, E

    2006-04-01

    A whole genome scan to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for persistency of milk yield (PMY), persistency of fat yield (PFY), persistency of protein yield (PPY) and persistency of milk energy yield (PEY) was performed in a granddaughter design in the German Holstein dairy cattle population. The analysis included 16 paternal half-sib families with a total of 872 bulls. The analysis was carried out for the first lactation and for the first three lactations combined using univariate weighted multimarker regression. Controlling the false discovery rate across traits and data sets at a level of 0.15 and treating the four persistency traits as different traits revealed 27 significant QTL. A total of 12 chromosomes showed significant QTL effects on a chromosomewise basis. The DGAT1 effect was highly significant for PPY and protein yield. A haplotype analysis using results of previous studies of the same design revealed a co-segregation of various persistency QTL and QTL affecting health traits like dystocia and stillbirth and functional traits like non-return rate 90 and somatic cell score. PMID:16533362

  18. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in a Wild Boar × Large White Intercross1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Andersson-Eklund; L. Marklund; K. Lundstrom; C. S. Haley; K. Andersson; I. Hansson; M. Moller; L. Andersson

    2010-01-01

    An intercross between wild boar and a domestic Large White pig population was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body propor- tions, weight of internal organs, carcass composition, and meat quality. The results concerning growth traits and fat deposition traits have been reported elsewhere. In the present study, all 200 F2 animals, their parents, and their grandparents were

  19. Identification and characterization of quantitative trait loci related to lodging resistance and associated traits in bread wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Verma; A. J. Worland; E. J. Sayers; L. Fish; P. D. S. Caligari; J. W. Snape

    2005-01-01

    Lodging is a major constraint to increasing yield in many crops, but is of particular importance in the small-grained cereals. This study investigated the genetic control of lodging and component traits in wheat through the detection of underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). The analysis was based on the identification of genomic regions which affect various traits related to lodging resistance

  20. Try-A Global Database of Plant Traits

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Peter E [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world s 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.

  1. The key ingredients of personality traits: situations, behaviors, and explanations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Read, Stephen J; Denson, Thomas F; Xu, Yiyuan; Zhang, Jin; Pedersen, William C

    2014-01-01

    The trait and social cognitive perspectives are considered disparate approaches to understanding personality. We suggest an integrative view in which three elements derived from the social cognitive perspective (i.e., situations, behaviors, and explanations [SBEs]) form the basis of personality traits. Study 1 demonstrated strong associations between traits and SBEs across the Big Five dimensions. Studies 2 through 7 tested the discriminative validity, internal structure, and unique contributions of the individual components of SBEs. Studies 8 and 9 demonstrated that the strong associations between traits and SBEs generalize to different cultures. The present work suggests that SBEs may be a universal folk psychological mechanism underlying personality traits. PMID:24072753

  2. Fundamental processes in the interacting boson model: 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Iachello, F. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Barea, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2011-05-06

    A program to calculate nuclear matrix elements for fundamental processes in the interacting boson model has been initiated. Results for the nuclear matrix elements in neutrinoless double beta decay 0{nu}{beta}{beta} are presented.

  3. Utilization of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for diagnosis of {beta}-thalassemia and ascertainment of new mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, K.Y.; Liu, D.; Lee, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    During the past two years we have tested 2,300 Southeast Asians for alpha- and beta-thaleassemia mutations. We found the incidence of hemoglobin E ({beta}{sup 26}) to be 47% among Laotians and 38% among Cambodians. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait is 9% for Laotians and 6% for Cambodians. Thus, the risk for hemoglobin E/{beta}{sup 26} thalassemia, a transfusion-dependent disorder, is increased in these two population groups. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has proven to be useful in testing for beta-thalassemia carriers and identifying new mutations in the beta globin gene. DNA was extracted from venous blood obtained from patients with elevated Hgb A2 (>4%). Five DNA fragments, encompassing the beta globin gene cluster, were amplified by PCR and analyzed, along with known beta gene mutations as controls, by DGGE using different denaturing gradient concentrations. Different mutations at the same nucleotide position can be distinguished by migration pattern on the DGGE (e.g., in IVS-I-1, G{r_arrow}A and T). Compound heterozygotes for {beta}-thalassemia can be detected on the same gel (e.g., HbE/mutation codon 17). New mutations are identified by their migration pattern compared with controls and determined by subsequent sequencing. We have identified three new mutations: codon 82 CAA{r_arrow}AAA in one Cambodian patient; IVS-II-667, T{r_arrow}C and IVS-II-672, A{r_arrow}C in two Laotian patients. When the parent`s genotypes are known, prenatal diagnosis can be obtained within 24 hours. Thus, PCR/DGGE combination is a rapid and reliable diagnostic approach to clinically significant {beta}-thalassemia. The most important steps are carefully designed primers and predetermined gradient concentrations for DGGE.

  4. How are personality trait and profile agreement related?

    PubMed Central

    Allik, Jüri; Borkenau, Peter; H?ebí?ková, Martina; Kuppens, Peter; Realo, Anu

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that if we compute self-other agreement on some personality traits then we possess no or very little information about the individuals who are the targets of this judgment. This idea is largely based on two separate ways of computing self-other agreement: trait agreement (rT) and profile agreement (rP), which are typically associated with two different trait-centered and person-centered approaches in personality research. Personality traits of 4115 targets from Czech, Belgian, Estonian, and German samples were rated by themselves and knowledgeable informants. We demonstrate that trait agreement can be partialled into individual contributions so that it is possible to show how much each individual pair of judges contributes to agreement on a particular trait. Similarly, it is possible to decompose agreement between two personality profiles into the individual contributions of traits from which these profiles are assembled. If normativeness is separated from distinctiveness of personality scores and individual profiles are ipsatized, then mean profile agreement rP becomes identical to mean trait agreement rT. The views that trait-by-trait analysis does not provide information regarding accuracy level of a particular pair of judges and profile analysis does not permit assessment of the relative contributions of traits to overall accuracy are not supported.

  5. Plant functional traits and the multidimensional nature of species coexistence.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Nathan J B; Godoy, Oscar; Levine, Jonathan M

    2015-01-20

    Understanding the processes maintaining species diversity is a central problem in ecology, with implications for the conservation and management of ecosystems. Although biologists often assume that trait differences between competitors promote diversity, empirical evidence connecting functional traits to the niche differences that stabilize species coexistence is rare. Obtaining such evidence is critical because traits also underlie the average fitness differences driving competitive exclusion, and this complicates efforts to infer community dynamics from phenotypic patterns. We coupled field-parameterized mathematical models of competition between 102 pairs of annual plants with detailed sampling of leaf, seed, root, and whole-plant functional traits to relate phenotypic differences to stabilizing niche and average fitness differences. Single functional traits were often well correlated with average fitness differences between species, indicating that competitive dominance was associated with late phenology, deep rooting, and several other traits. In contrast, single functional traits were poorly correlated with the stabilizing niche differences that promote coexistence. Niche differences could only be described by combinations of traits, corresponding to differentiation between species in multiple ecological dimensions. In addition, several traits were associated with both fitness differences and stabilizing niche differences. These complex relationships between phenotypic differences and the dynamics of competing species argue against the simple use of single functional traits to infer community assembly processes but lay the groundwork for a theoretically justified trait-based community ecology. PMID:25561561

  6. Thalassemia in the outpatient department of the Yangon Children's Hospital in Myanmar: basic hematological values of thalassemia traits.

    PubMed

    Khin Ei Han; Aung Myo Han; Kyaw Win; Thein Thein Myint

    1992-06-01

    The present study was conducted in the Outpatient Department (OPD) of Yangon Children's Hospital (YCH) during June to November 1990 to determine the hematological data of 133 Myanmar patients with thalassemia trait who were the parents of patients with known beta-thalassemia major or hemoglobin E (Hb E)/beta-thalassemia. The mean values of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell volume (MCV) were significantly lower than normal controls but the mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was the same as controls. Increased osmotic resistance tested in 0.36% buffered saline was detected in 81-97% of cases depending on the cut-off point. High levels of Hb A2 (> 3.5%) were found in 93% of cases whereas Hb F was increased (> 0.8%) only in 23% of cases. Although the mean red cell count (RBC) was significantly higher than normal, only 79% of thalassemia traits were detected if the RBC count of > 5.0 x 10(12)/1 was taken as the discrimination limit. Other discrimination functions such as MCH/RBC, MCV/RBC, (MCV)2 x MCH x 0.01 and MCV-(RBC/10(12)/1)-(5 x Hb) - 3.4 or - 8.4 were tested for their utility in diagnosing thalassemia traits. All of them were found not to be superior to each of the simple tests (MCV, MCH, Hb A2 or osmotic fragility) in diagnosing thalassemia traits. The one tube osmotic fragility test is a the suitable test to be used in future thalassemia screening programs in Myanmar. PMID:1439979

  7. Predicting Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    E-print Network

    M. Hirsch; Ernest Ma; J. W. F. Valle; A. Villanova del Moral

    2005-07-12

    We give predictions for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in a simple variant of the A_4 family symmetry model. We show that there is a lower bound for the neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude even in the case of normal hierarchical neutrino masses, corresponding to an effective mass parameter |m_{ee}| >= 0.17 \\sqrt{\\Delta m^2_{ATM}}. This result holds both for the CP conserving and CP violating cases. In the latter case we show explicitly that the lower bound on |m_{ee}| is sensitive to the value of the Majorana phase. We conclude therefore that in our scheme, neutrinoless double beta decay may be accessible to the next generation of high sensitivity experiments.

  8. Thiazides, beta blockers and lipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Ballantyne, D.; Ballantyne, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the more important recent studies on the effect of thiazides and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents is conflicting, possibly because of differences in patient compliance and in lipoprotein methodology and quality assurance between studies. It is likely that in the short-term, thiazide diuretics produce an increase in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol and in LDL-cholesterol. No consistent effect of monotherapy with beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents was seen. Further long-term studies of monotherapy with both of these classes of drugs are required. Combined therapy with thiazides or beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents consistently increased plasma triglyceride concentrations, but their effect on VLDL, LDL and HDL concentrations is uncertain. Further research required into the effect of these drugs on apolipoproteins which may be useful discriminators for patients with coronary heart disease (Avogaro et al., 1979) and on HDL subfractions. PMID:6137813

  9. Temperamental traits associated with conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, P; Sumesh, P; Mathews, Lulu

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the temperamental traits associated with conversion disorder in children. Thirty children with conversion disorder attending a child guidance clinic were compared with an age and sex matched control group of normal children for life stresses and temperament dimensions. The temperament measurement schedule (TMS) and the life event scale for Indian children (LESIC) were used for evaluating the temperament dimensions and life stresses respectively. Children with conversion disorder experienced significantly more stressful life events compared to the children in the control group. The stress factors included scholastic difficulties, examination failures, punishment by teacher, conflict with peers, parental disharmony and family problems and sibling rivalry. The characteristic temperamental traits associated with conversion disorder were low emotionality and low threshold of responsiveness. PMID:17079833

  10. Human Genetics and the Dominant Trait

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Koen, Joshua

    2007-10-31

    The Center for Innovation in Engineering and Science Education presents a series of activities dealing with human genetics and dominant traits. In this activity, students can make theories and then test those predictions concerning genetics and dominant inherited traits by using a very small sample - classroom peers - and then modeling their collected information on a worldwide project. By using a small sample, the worldwide survey and reading of information becomes real for the student, while providing the information of a larger sample to compare with the students' conclusions. The activity includes detailed instructions for the activity, course objectives, potential problem areas, and a guide to assessment of information collected. This website could be useful for teachers planning lessons or for students designing projects based on class work and class material.

  11. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    E-print Network

    K. Zuber

    2006-10-04

    The study of neutrinoless double beta decay is of outmost importance for neutrino physics. It is considered to be the gold plated channel to probe the fundamental character of neutrinos and to determine the neutrino mass. From the experimental point about nine different isotopes are explored for the search. After a general introduction follows a short discussion on nuclear matrix element calculations and supportive measurements. The current experimental status of double beta searches is presented followed by a short discussion of the ideas and proposals for large scale experiments.

  12. Introduction to Double Beta Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Stoica, Sabin [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Horia Hulubei Foundation, 407, Atomistilor street, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2010-11-24

    While the neutrino oscillation experiments have measured non-zero square mass differences between neutrino flavors, the double beta decay is the most sensitive process to the absolute mass of the neutrinos and the only that can distinguish whether neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. These are a few but not the only reasons that many efforts, both theoretically and experimentally, are dedicated to the study of this process. In this lecture I'll give a short introduction to the double beta decay process. Different decay modes and mechanisms, a short history, decay rates and extraction of the neutrino mass parameter are presented.

  13. Vus and neutron beta decay

    E-print Network

    A. Garcia; G. Sanchez-Colon

    2010-06-28

    We discuss the effect of the recent change of $V_{\\rm us}$ by three standard deviations on the standard model predictions for neutron beta decay observables. We also discuss the effect the experimental error bars of $V_{\\rm us}$ have on such predictions. Refined precision tests of the standard model will be made by a combined effort to improve measurements in neutron beta decay and in strangeness-changing decays. By itself the former will yield very precise measurements of $V_{\\rm ud}$ and make also very precise predictions for $V_{\\rm us}$.

  14. How Old is Beta Pic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binks, A.

    2014-09-01

    The absolute age of Beta Pic is a vital parameter in confronting its circumstellar matter and planetary system with theoretical models. In this talk I will review the widely varying age estimates for Beta Pic, that often rely on its membership of the ÓBeta Pic moving groupÓ (BPMG). I will discuss the BPMG and ages derived from model isochrone fits; from kinematical traceback; from empirical activity-age, gyrochronology and lithium depletion relations; and finally from the Ólithium depletion boundaryÓ method in its low-mass stars. This latter technique is almost model independent and yields an absolute age of 21+/- 4 Myr.

  15. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Impink, Jr., Albert J. (Murrysville, PA); Goldstein, Norman P. (Murrysville, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  16. Interplanetary Lyman-beta emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paresce, F.

    1973-01-01

    Derivation of the intensity of the diffuse hydrogen Lyman-beta glow at 1025 A which is due to resonance scattering of the solar H I 1025 A line by interstellar and interplanetary hydrogen. Two sources of neutral hydrogen are considered: the local interstellar medium interacting with the solar system, and the dust deionization of the H(+) component of the solar wind. It is shown that if the dust geometrical factor is less than or equal to five quintillionths per cm, observations of backscattered Lyman-beta radiation will provide a unique determination of the density and temperature of the local interstellar medium.

  17. Multi-ethnic studies in complex traits.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jingyuan; Festen, Eleonora A M; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2011-10-15

    The successes of genome-wide association (GWA) studies have mainly come from studies performed in populations of European descent. Since complex traits are characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity, the findings so far may provide an incomplete picture of the genetic architecture of complex traits. However, the recent GWA studies performed on East Asian populations now allow us to globally assess the heterogeneity of association signals between populations of European ancestry and East Asians, and the possible obstacles for multi-ethnic GWA studies. We focused on four different traits that represent a broad range of complex phenotypes, which have been studied in both Europeans and East Asians: type 2 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, ulcerative colitis and height. For each trait, we observed that most of the risk loci identified in East Asians were shared with Europeans. However, we also observed that a significant part of the association signals at these shared loci seems to be independent between populations. This suggests that disease aetiology is common between populations, but that risk variants are often population specific. These variants could be truly population specific and result from natural selection, genetic drift and recent mutations, or they could be spurious, caused by the limitations of the method of analysis employed in the GWA studies. We therefore propose a three-stage framework for multi-ethnic GWA analyses, starting with the commonly used single-nucleotide polymorphism-based analysis, and followed by a gene-based approach and a pathway-based analysis, which will take into account the heterogeneity of association between populations at different levels. PMID:21890495

  18. Modelling the ecological niche from functional traits

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Michael; Simpson, Stephen J.; Raubenheimer, David; Helmuth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The niche concept is central to ecology but is often depicted descriptively through observing associations between organisms and habitats. Here, we argue for the importance of mechanistically modelling niches based on functional traits of organisms and explore the possibilities for achieving this through the integration of three theoretical frameworks: biophysical ecology (BE), the geometric framework for nutrition (GF) and dynamic energy budget (DEB) models. These three frameworks are fundamentally based on the conservation laws of thermodynamics, describing energy and mass balance at the level of the individual and capturing the prodigious predictive power of the concepts of ‘homeostasis’ and ‘evolutionary fitness’. BE and the GF provide mechanistic multi-dimensional depictions of climatic and nutritional niches, respectively, providing a foundation for linking organismal traits (morphology, physiology, behaviour) with habitat characteristics. In turn, they provide driving inputs and cost functions for mass/energy allocation within the individual as determined by DEB models. We show how integration of the three frameworks permits calculation of activity constraints, vital rates (survival, development, growth, reproduction) and ultimately population growth rates and species distributions. When integrated with contemporary niche theory, functional trait niche models hold great promise for tackling major questions in ecology and evolutionary biology. PMID:20921046

  19. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for seed quality traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Badigannavar, Ashok; Myers, Gerald O

    2015-03-01

    Cottonseed contains 16% seed oil and 23% seed protein by weight. High levels of palmitic acid provides a degree of stability to the oil, while the presence of bound gossypol in proteins considerably changes their properties, including their biological value. This study uses genetic principles to identify genomic regions associated with seed oil, protein and fibre content in upland cotton cultivars. Cotton association mapping panel representing the US germplasm were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, yielding 234 polymorphic DNA fragments. Phenotypic analysis showed high genetic variability for the seed traits, seed oil range from 6.47-25.16%, protein from 1.85-28.45% and fibre content from 15.88-37.12%. There were negative correlations between seed oil and protein content.With reference to genetic diversity, the average estimate of FST was 8.852 indicating a low level of genetic differentiation among subpopulations. The AMOVA test revealed that variation was 94% within and 6% among subpopulations. Bayesian population structure identified five subpopulations and was in agreement with their geographical distribution. Among the mixed models analysed, mixed linear model (MLM) identified 21 quantitative trait loci for lint percentage and seed quality traits, such as seed protein and oil. Establishing genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for the seed quality traits could be valuable in understanding the genetic relationships and their utilization in breeding programmes. PMID:25846880

  20. Running head: TRAIT ANXIETY & AMYGDALA STRUCTURAL CONNECTIVITY 1 Age-related reduced prefrontal-amygdala structural connectivity is associated with lower trait

    E-print Network

    Mather, Mara

    Running head: TRAIT ANXIETY & AMYGDALA STRUCTURAL CONNECTIVITY 1 Age-related reduced prefrontal-amygdala prefrontal- amygdala structural connectivity is associated with lower trait anxiety. Neuropsychology. Author: TRAIT ANXIETY & AMYGDALA STRUCTURAL CONNECTIVITY 2 Abstract Objective: A current neuroanatomical model

  1. Enhanced aggregation and beta structure of amyloid beta peptide after coincubation with C1q.

    PubMed

    Webster, S; O'Barr, S; Rogers, J

    1994-11-01

    Several lines of evidence now suggest that aggregation of soluble amyloid beta peptide (A beta) into a cross beta sheet configuration may be an important factor in mediating potential neurotoxicity of A beta. Synthetic A beta has been shown to self aggregate in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that coincubation of freshly solubilized A beta with C1q, a complement component known to bind A beta in vitro and to colocalize with A beta in vivo, results in as much as a 7-fold enhancement of A beta aggregation, as well as a 2-4-fold enhancement of beta structure within aggregates. The addition of C1q to preformed A beta aggregates also results in significantly increased resistance to aggregate resolubilization. PMID:7884823

  2. Neutrophil chemotaxis in response to TGF-beta isoforms (TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3) is mediated by fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Parekh, T; Saxena, B; Reibman, J; Cronstein, B N; Gold, L I

    1994-03-01

    TGF-beta isoforms regulate numerous cellular functions including cell growth and differentiation, the cellular synthesis and secretion of extracellular matrix proteins, such as fibronectin (Fn), and the immune response. We have previously shown that TGF-beta 1 is the most potent chemoattractant described for human peripheral blood neutrophils (PMNs), suggesting that TGF-beta s may play a role in the recruitment of PMNs during the initial phase of the inflammatory response. In our current studies, we demonstrate that the maximal chemotactic response was attained near 40 fM for all mammalian TGF-beta isoforms. However, there was a statistically significant difference in migratory distance of the PMNs: TGF-beta 2 (556 microM) > TGF-beta 3 (463 microM) > TGF-beta 1 (380 microM) (beta 2: beta 3, p < or = 0.010; beta 3: beta 1, p < or = 0.04; beta 2: beta 1, p < or = 0.0012). A mAb to the cell binding domain (CBD) of Fn inhibited the chemotactic response to TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 3 by 63% and to TGF-beta 2 by 70%, whereas the response to FMLP, a classic chemoattractant, was only inhibited by 18%. In contrast, a mAb to a C-terminal epitope of Fn did not retard migration (< 1.5%). The Arg-gly-Asp-ser tetrapeptide inhibited chemotaxis by approximately the same extent as the anti-CBD (52 to 83%). Furthermore, a mAb against the VLA-5 integrin (VLA-5; Fn receptor) also inhibited TGF-beta-induced chemotaxis. These results indicate that chemotaxis of PMNs in response to TGF-beta isoforms is mediated by the interaction of the Arg-gly-Asp-ser sequence in the CBD of Fn with an integrin on the PMN cell surface, primarily the VLA-5 integrin. TGF-beta isoforms also elicited the release of cellular Fn from PMNs; we observed a 2.3-fold increase in Fn (389 to 401 ng/ml) in the supernatants of TGF-beta-stimulated PMNs compared with unstimulated cells (173.6 ng/ml). The concentration of TGF-beta required to cause maximal release of Fn from PMNs (4000 fM) is a concentration at which TGF-beta is no longer chemotactic, suggesting that PMNs only use Fn that is constitutively expressed for migration. At higher concentrations of TGF-beta, the Fn released may accumulate basal to the cell, ultimately retarding cellular migration and modulating the chemotactic response. PMID:8133057

  3. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    PubMed Central

    Comas, Louise H.; Becker, Steven R.; Cruz, Von Mark V.; Byrne, Patrick F.; Dierig, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less “leaky” and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding. PMID:24204374

  4. Beta decay of Ga-62 

    E-print Network

    Hyman, BC; Iacob, VE; Azhari, A.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Hardy, John C.; Mayes, VE; Neilson, RG; Sanchez-Vega, M.; Tang, X.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    measured with a purified source. We find that (0.120+/-0.021)% of the beta decays are followed by gamma cascades that pass through the Zn-62 2(+) first excited state at 0.954 MeV. The branching ratio to the first-excited 0(+) state in Zn-62 at 2.33 Me...

  5. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    E-print Network

    L. Dorame; D. Meloni; S. Morisi; E. Peinado; J. W. F. Valle

    2011-11-23

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  6. BETA DECAY OF THE A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Crawford; Marcello Cresti; Myron Good; George Kalbfleisch; M. Stevenson; Harold Ticho

    1958-01-01

    In the course ot studying a large number of decays of hyperons, produced ; in a hydrogen bubble chamber by 1.23 Bev\\/c pious, an uanambiguous case or a ; LAMBDA undergotng beta decay was found. Tbe events at the various vertices in ; the photograph are analyzed. (W.D.M.);

  7. Spectrometers for Beta Decay Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yong; Hirshfield, Jay

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the neutrino mass direct measurement experiment Project 8, precision spectrometers are proposed to simultaneously measure energy and momentum of beta-decay electrons produced in rare nuclear events with improved energy resolution. For detecting single beta decay electrons near the end-point from a gaseous source such as tritium, one type of spectrometer is proposed to utilize stimulated cyclotron resonance interaction of microwaves with electrons in a waveguide immersed in a magnetic mirror. In the external RF fields, on-resonance electrons will satisfy both the cyclotron resonance condition and waveguide dispersion relationship. By correlating the resonances at two waveguide modes, one can associate the frequencies with both the energy and longitudinal momentum of an on-resonance electron to account for the Doppler shifts. For detecting neutrino-less double-beta decay, another spectrometer is proposed with thin foil of double-beta-allowed material immersed in a magnetic field, and RF antenna array for detection of synchrotron radiation from electrons. It utilizes the correlation between the antenna signals including higher harmonics of radiation to reconstruct the total energy distribution.

  8. Beta decay of Ga-62

    E-print Network

    Hyman, BC; Iacob, VE; Azhari, A.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Hardy, John C.; Mayes, VE; Neilson, RG; Sanchez-Vega, M.; Tang, X.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    We report a study of the beta decay of Ga-62, whose dominant branch is a superallowed 0(+)-->0(+) transition to the ground state of Zn-62. We find the total half-life to be 115.84+/-0.25 ms. This is the first time that the Ga-62 half-life has been...

  9. Nuclear matrix elements for double beta decay

    E-print Network

    Vadim Rodin

    2009-10-30

    The present status of calculations of the nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay is reviewed. A proposal which allows in principle to measure the neutrinoless double beta decay Fermi matrix element is briefly described.

  10. Neutron Beta Decay Studies with Nab

    E-print Network

    S. Baeßler; R. Alarcon; L. P. Alonzi; S. Balascuta; L. Barrón-Palos; J. D. Bowman; M. A. Bychkov; J. Byrne; J. R. Calarco; T. Chupp; T. V. Vianciolo; C. Crawford; E. Frlež; M. T. Gericke; F. Glück; G. L. Greene; R. K. Grzywacz; V. Gudkov; D. Harrison; F. W. Hersman; T. Ito; M. Makela; J. Martin; P. L. McGaughey; S. McGovern; S. Page; S. I. Penttilä; D. Po?ani?; K. P. Rykaczewski; A. Salas-Bacci; Z. Tompkins; D. Wagner; W. S. Wilburn; A. R. Young

    2012-09-20

    Precision measurements in neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allow for several stringent tests of the standard model. This paper discusses the design and the expected performance of the Nab spectrometer.

  11. Angular correlations in neutron beta decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Bowles

    1993-01-01

    A new generation experiment searching for time reversal violation in polarized neutron beta decay is discussed, including theoretical description of polarized beta decay; measurement of angular correlations; theoretical implications; and future possibilities.

  12. Characterization of beta-adrenoceptor mediated smooth muscle relaxation and the detection of mRNA for beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptors in rat ileum.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S J; Papaioannou, M; Evans, B A; Summers, R J

    1999-06-01

    1. Functional and molecular approaches were used to characterize the beta-AR subtypes mediating relaxation of rat ileal smooth muscle. 2. In functional studies, (-)-isoprenaline relaxation was unchanged by CGP20712A (beta1-AR antagonist) or ICI118551 (beta2-AR antagonist) but shifted by propranolol (pKB=6.69). (+/-)-Cyanopindolol, CGP12177 and ICID7114 did not cause relaxation but antagonized (-)-isoprenaline relaxation. 3. BRL37344 (beta3-AR agonist) caused biphasic relaxation. The high affinity component was shifted with low affinity by propranolol, (+/-)-cyanopindolol, tertatolol and alprenolol. CL316243 (beta3-AR agonist) relaxation was unaffected by CGP20712A or ICI118551 but blocked by SR58894A (beta3-AR antagonist; pA2 = 7.80). Enhanced relaxation after exposure to forskolin and pertussis toxin showed that beta3-AR relaxation can be altered by manipulation of components of the adenylate cyclase signalling pathway. 4. The beta-AR agonist RO363 relaxed the ileum (pEC50=6.18) and was blocked by CGP20712A. Relaxation by the beta2-AR agonist zinterol (pEC50=5.71) was blocked by SR58894A but not by ICI118551. 5. In rat ileum, beta1-, beta2- and beta3-AR mRNA was detected. Comparison of tissues showed that beta3-AR mRNA expression was greatest in WAT>colon=ileum >cerebral cortex>soleus; beta1-AR mRNA was most abundant in cerebral cortex > WAT > ileum = colon > soleus; beta2-AR mRNA was expressed in soleus > WAT > ileum = colon > cerebral cortex. 6. These results show that beta3-ARs are the predominant beta-AR subtype mediating rat ileal relaxation while beta1-ARs may produce a small relaxation. The beta2-AR agonist zinterol produces relaxation through beta3-ARs and there was no evidence for the involvement of beta2-ARs in relaxation despite the detection of beta2-AR mRNA. PMID:10433503

  13. Revisiting the quantitative trait loci for milk production traits on BTA6.

    PubMed

    Weikard, R; Widmann, P; Buitkamp, J; Emmerling, R; Kuehn, C

    2012-06-01

    A parallel association study was performed in two independent cattle populations based on 41 validated, targeted single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and four microsatellite markers to re-evaluate the multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) architecture for milk performance on bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6). Two distinct QTL located in the vicinity of the middle region of BTA6, but differing unambiguously regarding their effects on milk composition and yield traits were validated in the German Holstein population. A highly significant association of the protein variant ABCG2 p.Tyr581Ser with milk composition traits reconfirmed the causative molecular relevance of the ABCG2 gene in QTL region 1, whereas in QTL region 2, significant and tentative associations between gene variants RW070 and RW023 (located in the promoter region and exon 9 of the PPARGC1A gene for milk yield traits) were detected. For the German Fleckvieh population, only RW023 showed a tentative association with milk yield traits, whereas those loci with significant effects in German Holsteins (ABCG2 p.Tyr581Ser, RW070) showed fixed alleles. Even though our new data highlight two variants in the PPARGC1A gene (RW023, RW070) in QTL region 2, based on the results of our study, currently no unequivocal conclusion about the causal background of this QTL affecting milk yield traits can be drawn. Notably, the German Holstein and Fleckvieh populations, known for their divergent degree of dairy type, differ substantially in their allele frequencies for the growth-associated NCAPG p.Ile442Met locus. PMID:22486504

  14. Neoclassical transport in high [beta] tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high [beta] large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high [beta] large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low [beta] values by a factor ([var epsilon]/q[sup 2][beta])[sup [1/2

  15. Pro ls sismiques trait es 252 Pro ls sismiques trait es

    E-print Network

    Clouard, Valerie

    Annexe C Pro ls sismiques trait es #12;252 Pro ls sismiques trait es 4.0 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.4 Temps(std) 6.8 7.2 PR15-2 PR16 PR12 PR15-1 Fig. C.1 Pro ls sismiques PR12, PR15-1, 15-2 et PR16. Les pro ls sont ltr es en fr equence et somm es suivant le point miroir commun qui est report e en abscisse

  16. Operator analysis of neutrinoless double beta decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiwoon Choi; Kwang Sik Jeong; Wan Young Song

    2002-01-01

    We study the effective operators of the standard model fields which would yield an observable rate of neutrinoless double beta decay. We particularly focus on the possibility that neutrinoless double beta decay is dominantly induced by lepton-number-violating higher dimensional operators other than the Majorana neutrino mass. Our analysis can be applied to models in which neutrinoless double beta decay is

  17. Neutron Beta-Decay Jeff Martin

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    Neutron Beta-Decay Jeff Martin University of Winnipeg representing UCNA, abBA, Nab, and TRIUMF Hall C Summer Meeting Jefferson Lab Aug. 10-11, 2007 Outline: Beta-decay and its physics interest How to make neutrons Some beta-decay experiments #12;International Workshop: Ultracold Neutron (UCN) Sources

  18. Does downside beta matter in asset pricing?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian S. Pedersen; Soosung Hwang

    2007-01-01

    By carefully choosing a data-generating process and appropriate distributional assumptions, we formulate a nested econometric model to examine how many equities are explained well by the downside beta or a general asymmetric response model rather than the conventional capital asset pricing model (CAPM) beta. Using UK equity data, we show that the downside beta explains 15–25% of equities in addition

  19. Present and Future Double Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pavan, Maura [Universita di Milano Bicocca e sez. INFN di Milano Bicocca (Italy)

    2007-10-12

    After about 70 years since the birth of the Beta Decay Theory we still miss one of the more fundamental piece of information concerning neutrinos: are they Majorana or Dirac particles? {beta}{beta}0{nu} can address this question and the present and future experimental situation is here reviewed.

  20. Characterization of the binding of transforming growth factor-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 to recombinant beta 1-latency-associated peptide.

    PubMed

    Miller, D M; Ogawa, Y; Iwata, K K; ten Dijke, P; Purchio, A F; Soloff, M S; Gentry, L E

    1992-05-01

    Preprotransforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta 1) is a 390-amino acid precursor polypeptide that undergoes a number of processing steps to yield mature TGF beta 1 (amino acid residues 279-390) and a pro portion (residues 30-278) termed beta 1-latency-associated peptide (beta 1LAP). The dimeric form of beta 1LAP has been shown to associate noncovalently with the mature growth factor, resulting in inactivation of biological activity. To further characterize this interaction, the mature TGF beta 1 was radioiodinated and used to determine dissociation constants. A cross-linking method using the bifunctional covalent cross-linker bis-(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate was found to be the best approach for measuring the amount of bound growth factor. The efficiency of cross-linking was constant within each experiment and varied between 45-55%. Saturation plots and their associated Scatchard analyses indicate apparent Kd values between 1.1-1.8 nM. Competition of TGF beta 1 binding to beta 1LAP by TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 (two closely related growth factors) revealed that the latter also bind beta 1LAP tightly, with apparent Kd values of 1.9 and 0.4 nM, respectively. PMID:1603080

  1. Selection for production and reproduction traits in pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vries de A. G

    1989-01-01

    Introduction<\\/u>Reproduction traits are important for piglet production, whereas production traits are important for fattening. Pig breeding organizations improve both groups of traits by selection in nucleus populations. Optimization of selection in these nucleus populations is important, because these populations determine the performance in all levels of the breeding pyramid, including the piglet production and fattening herds.Optimization of selection in pigs

  2. Readers' Trait-Based Models of Characters in Narrative Comprehension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Rapp; Richard J. Gerrig; Deborah A. Prentice

    2001-01-01

    Our experiments explore readers' application of trait-based situation models for narrative characters. In the first episode of each of our experimental stories, characters performed behaviors that allowed readers to construct trait inferences (e.g., Albert's shoes were “buried under old candy wrappers, crumpled magazines, and some dirty laundry.”). Control stories omitted trait-relevant information. The second episode of each story gave readers

  3. Monthly and seasonal variation of mohair growth and quality traits 

    E-print Network

    Portal, Enrique

    1972-01-01

    MONTHLY AND SEASONAL VARIATION OF MOHAIR GR(%TH AND QUALITY TRAITS A Thesis by Enrique Portal Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972... and Quality Traits. (May 1972) Enrique Portal, Agriculture Engineer, Universidad Central de Venezuela Directed by Dr. James W. Bassett Eleven Angora does were used to measure variation in mohair fleeces traits from five body areas at two consecutive...

  4. Trait anxiety and Children's cognitive behaviors in an evaluative situation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith E. Fox; B. Kent Houston; Mark S. Pittner

    1983-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the cognitive behaviors of high and low trait-anxious children under stress. Six categories of cognitive behavior were inferred from a Think Aloud procedure that took place while 30 4th-grade children anticipated taking an important arithmetic test. The children's trait anxiety scores from Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were found to be related to

  5. Psychopathic Traits and Suicidal Ideation in High-School Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henri Chabrol; Carine Saint-Martin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the contribution of psychopathic traits in the prediction of suicidal ideation among non-clinical non-forensic adolescents. A sample of 312 high-school students completed questionnaires assessing suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms, borderline personality traits, and cannabis use and the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI, Andershed, Kerr, Stattin et al., 2002), which consists of three dimensions,

  6. Genetic architecture of novel traits in the hopi sunflower.

    PubMed

    Wills, David M; Abdel-Haleem, Hussein; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2010-01-01

    Following domestication, crop lineages typically undergo diversification either to adapt to disparate habitats or to fill novel agricultural roles. This process has produced the numerous varieties found in modern-day crop germplasm collections. Here, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying unique traits in the Hopi sunflower, a primitive, Native American domesticate. These traits included a variety of achene (i.e., single-seeded fruit) characters as well as the extremely late flowering time of the Hopi sunflower. Composite interval mapping identified 42 QTLs underlying the 12 traits of interest. Although these QTLs were found on 10 of the 17 sunflower linkage groups, strong genetic correlations were evidenced by the clustering of QTLs across traits in certain genomic regions. The number of QTLs per trait ranged from 2 to 6, and the average QTL explained 14.7% of the variance (range: 2.5-46.9%). The apparent contribution of epistasis was minor, as has previously been observed for domestication-related traits. Unlike typical domestication-related traits in sunflower, the traits under consideration here exhibited a relatively simple genetic basis, with 2 QTL clusters being largely responsible for the unique characteristics of the Hopi sunflower. Based on the rarity of these traits in domesticated sunflower, it would appear that they evolved within the Hopi lineage following domestication. The simple genetic architecture of these traits may be a by-product of genetic constraints imposed by the genetically complex nature of domestication-related traits in sunflower, with the large number of domestication-related QTLs limiting the fraction of the genome that is available for subsequent diversification. PMID:20696668

  7. Gene encoding the human. beta. -hexosaminidase. beta. chain: Extensive homology of intron placement in the. alpha. - and. beta. -chain genes

    SciTech Connect

    Proia, R.L. (National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1988-03-01

    Lysosomal {beta}-hexosaminidase is composed of two structurally similar chains, {alpha} and {beta}, that are the products of different genes. Mutations in either gene causing {beta}-hexosaminidase deficiency result in the lysosomal storage disease GM2-gangliosidosis. To enable the investigation of the molecular lesions in this disorder and to study the evolutionary relationship between the {alpha} and {beta} chains, the {beta}-chain gene was isolated, and its organization was characterized. The {beta}-chain coding region is divided into 14 exons distributed over {approx}40 kilobases of DNA. Comparison with the {alpha}-chain gene revealed that 12 of the 13 introns interrupt the coding regions at homologous positions. This extensive sharing of intron placement demonstrates that the {alpha} and {beta} chains evolved by way of the duplication of a common ancestor.

  8. 0v{beta}{beta} decay: theoretical nuclear matrix elements and their covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Lisi, Eligio [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2009-11-09

    Within the quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA), the covariances associated to the nuclear matrix elements (NME) of neutrinoless double beta decay (0v{beta}{beta}) are estimated. It is shown that correlated NME uncertainties play an important role in the comparison of 0v{beta}{beta} decay rates for different nuclei, both in the standard case of light Majorana neutrino exchange, and in nonstandard physics cases.

  9. Development of Cryogenic Bolometer for 0{nu}{beta}{beta} in {sup 124}Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Vivek; Mathimalar, S.; Dokania, Neha [INO, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Yashwant, G.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G. [Dept. of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Datar, V. M. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-11-23

    Cryogenic bolometer detectors, with their high resolution spectroscopy capability, are ideal for neutrino mass experiments as well as for search of rare processes like neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) and dark matter. A feasibility study for investigation of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} in {sup 124}Sn at the upcoming underground facility of India based Neutrino Observatory (INO) has been initiated. This paper describes endeavors towards cryogenic tin bolometer development.

  10. Variables associated with peripartum traits in dairy cows. IX. Relationship of season and other factors to blood plasma concentrations of progesterone and the estrogens.

    PubMed

    Erb, R E; Chew, B P; Malven, P V; Stewart, T S; D'Amico, M F

    1982-02-01

    Least-squares associations of month, average daily temperature, photoperiod (h daylight/24 h) and other factors with plasma concentrations of hormones during the prepartum period were examined in 172 Holstein cows and heifers. The data were summarized and expressed as values for prepartum d 7, 4 and 1, which represented the means for d 8 to 6, 5 to 3, and 2 to 0. respectively. All animals calved during a period of 19 consecutive months. Across days, least-squares means for plasma hormones were 4.0 ng/ml for progesterone (P4), 232 pg/ml for estradiol-17 beta (E beta), 478 pg/ml for estradiol-17 alpha (E alpha), 1,970 pg/ml for estrone (E1) and 2,680 pg/ml for total estrogen (TE; sum of E beta, E alpha and E1). Variations in plasma concentrations of certain steroids were associated (P less than .05 to P less than .01) with diet group (E beta), calf sex (TE), prepartum day (all hormones), month (E beta, E alpha) and linear covariates of cow weight (E beta, E alpha) calf birth weight (E beta, E alpha, E 1, TE), temperature (P4, E beta) and photoperiod (P4, E beta). The independent linear regressions for temperature and for photoperiod in prediction equations for each plasma hormone were always inversely related. The combined use of these regressions only partially accounted for fluctuations in the least-squares monthly means for hormones. Changes in least-squares monthly means for P4, E beta and E alpha tended to be only partially paralleled during the year. Nonparallel trends among hormones were most apparent during May to July (decreasing P4 but increasing E beta and E alpha), September to November (decreasing P4 and E beta but increasing E alpha) and January and February (only E alpha elevated). We hypothesize that seasonal differences in parturient traits reported for cows may be explained in part by the seasonally associated nonparallel changes in plasma concentrations of P4, E beta and E alpha. PMID:7076592

  11. Relationships between phyllosphere bacterial communities and plant functional traits in a neotropical forest

    PubMed Central

    Kembel, Steven W.; O’Connor, Timothy K.; Arnold, Holly K.; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Wright, S. Joseph; Green, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    The phyllosphere—the aerial surfaces of plants, including leaves—is a ubiquitous global habitat that harbors diverse bacterial communities. Phyllosphere bacterial communities have the potential to influence plant biogeography and ecosystem function through their influence on the fitness and function of their hosts, but the host attributes that drive community assembly in the phyllosphere are poorly understood. In this study we used high-throughput sequencing to quantify bacterial community structure on the leaves of 57 tree species in a neotropical forest in Panama. We tested for relationships between bacterial communities on tree leaves and the functional traits, taxonomy, and phylogeny of their plant hosts. Bacterial communities on tropical tree leaves were diverse; leaves from individual trees were host to more than 400 bacterial taxa. Bacterial communities in the phyllosphere were dominated by a core microbiome of taxa including Actinobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. Host attributes including plant taxonomic identity, phylogeny, growth and mortality rates, wood density, leaf mass per area, and leaf nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations were correlated with bacterial community structure on leaves. The relative abundances of several bacterial taxa were correlated with suites of host plant traits related to major axes of plant trait variation, including the leaf economics spectrum and the wood density–growth/mortality tradeoff. These correlations between phyllosphere bacterial diversity and host growth, mortality, and function suggest that incorporating information on plant–microbe associations will improve our ability to understand plant functional biogeography and the drivers of variation in plant and ecosystem function. PMID:25225376

  12. High Resolution QTL Maps Of 31 Traits in Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...

  13. Bioavailability of beta-carotene (betaC) from purple carrots is the same as typical orange carrots while high-betaC carrots increase betaC stores in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Biofortifying existing sources of beta-carotene (betaC) and increasing dietary betaC could help combat the issue. Two studies were performed to investigate the relative betaC bioavailability of a betaC supplement to purple, high-betaC o...

  14. Expression quantitative trait loci: present and future

    PubMed Central

    Nica, Alexandra C.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.

    2013-01-01

    The last few years have seen the development of large efforts for the analysis of genome function, especially in the context of genome variation. One of the most prominent directions has been the extensive set of studies on expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), namely, the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Such studies have offered promise not just for the characterization of functional sequence variation but also for the understanding of basic processes of gene regulation and interpretation of genome-wide association studies. In this review, we discuss some of the key directions of eQTL research and its implications. PMID:23650636

  15. Expression quantitative trait loci: present and future.

    PubMed

    Nica, Alexandra C; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T

    2013-01-01

    The last few years have seen the development of large efforts for the analysis of genome function, especially in the context of genome variation. One of the most prominent directions has been the extensive set of studies on expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), namely, the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Such studies have offered promise not just for the characterization of functional sequence variation but also for the understanding of basic processes of gene regulation and interpretation of genome-wide association studies. In this review, we discuss some of the key directions of eQTL research and its implications. PMID:23650636

  16. Quantitative autoradiography of. beta. /sub 1/- and. beta. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Rainbow, T.C.; Parsons, B.; Wolfe, B.B.

    1984-03-01

    The authors used quantitative autoradiography to localize in rat brain ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. These receptors were labeled in vitro with /sup 125/I-labeled pindolol, an antagonist of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors that binds nonselectively to both ..beta../sub 1/ and ..beta../sub 2/ subtypes. The selective inhibition of /sup 125/I-labeled pindolol binding with specific antagonists of ..beta../sub 1/ and ..beta../sub 2/ receptors allowed the visualization of ..beta..-adrenergic receptor subtypes. High levels of ..beta../sub 1/ receptors were observed in the cingulate cortex, layers I and II of the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, the Islands of Calleja, and the gelatinosus, mediodorsal, and ventral nuclei of the thalamus. High levels of ..beta../sub 2/ receptors were found in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, over pia mater, and in the central, paraventricular, and caudal lateral posterior thalamic nuclei. Approximately equal levels of ..beta../sub 1/ and ..beta../sub 2/ receptors occurred in the substantia nigra, the olfactory tubercle, layer IV of the cerebral cortex, the medial preoptic nucleus, and all nuclei of the medulla. The pronounced differences in the ratio of ..beta../sub 1/ to ..beta../sub 2/ receptors among brain regions suggests that the subtypes of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors may play different roles in neuronal function. 38 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  17. Differential effects of morphine withdrawal on cerebral beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, K; Muramatsu, M; Ohkuma, S; Tamura, J; Ping, Z P

    1981-01-01

    Effect of morphine dependence and its withdrawal on the 3H-dihydroalprenolol (3H-DHA) binding for beta -adrenergic receptors, beta 1 and beta 2, was examined by a computerized analysis of biphasic Hofstee plots. The relative density of beta 1 and beta 2 receptors in the rat cerebral cortex was found to be approximately 70% and 30%, respectively. In rats rendered dependent on morphine by a subcutaneous implantation of a morphine pellet, the 3H-DHA binding to beta 1 and beta 2 receptors was not altered. During the stage of withdrawal induced by administration of naloxone, however, the 3H-DHA binding to the cerebral particulate fractions was increased, and this increase was due to the increased binding sites in beta 1 and beta 2 receptors. On the other hand, the apparent affinities of beta and beta 2 for atenolol and salbutamol, selective antagonists for beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors, respectively, were not altered under these experimental conditions. These results suggest that an abrupt increase in cerebral beta 1-receptor binding sites occurs at morphine withdrawal, and the occurrence of such a super-sensitivity in cerebral beta 1 receptor may be involved in the exhibition and/or maintenance of the abstinence syndrome in morphine-dependent subjects. PMID:6278157

  18. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Carcass Composition in Swine: I. Fat Deposition Traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Rohrer; J. W. Keele

    One of the major determining factors in the price of market hogs today is backfat depth. Therefore, identification of regions of the genome affecting this trait could be very useful to the swine industry. A large resource population (n = 540) was developed by backcrossing F1 Meishan-White compo- site females to either Meishan or White composite boars. A genomic scan

  19. Explaining the heritability of an ecologically significant trait in terms of individual quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed

    Scoville, Alison G; Lee, Young Wha; Willis, John H; Kelly, John K

    2011-12-23

    Most natural populations display substantial genetic variation in behaviour, morphology, physiology, life history and the susceptibility to disease. A major challenge is to determine the contributions of individual loci to variation in complex traits. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has identified genomic regions affecting ecologically significant traits of many species. In nearly all cases, however, the importance of these QTLs to population variation remains unclear. In this paper, we apply a novel experimental method to parse the genetic variance of floral traits of the annual plant Mimulus guttatus into contributions of individual QTLs. We first use QTL-mapping to identify nine loci and then conduct a population-based breeding experiment to estimate V(Q), the genetic variance attributable to each QTL. We find that three QTLs with moderate effects explain up to one-third of the genetic variance in the natural population. Variation at these loci is probably maintained by some form of balancing selection. Notably, the largest effect QTLs were relatively minor in their contribution to heritability. PMID:21653565

  20. Quantitative Trait Loci for Component Physiological Traits Determining Salt Tolerance in Rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikiko L. Koyama; Aurora Levesley; Robert M. D. Koebner; Timothy J. Flowers; Anthony R. Yeo

    2001-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is sensitive to salinity, which affects one-fifth of irrigated land worldwide. Reducing sodium and chloride uptake into rice while maintaining potassium uptake are characteristics that would aid growth under saline conditions. We describe genetic determinants of the net quantity of ions transported to the shoot, clearly distinguishing between quanti- tative trait loci (QTL) for the quantity of

  1. Bivariate and Multivariate Associations between Trait Listening Goals and Trait Communicator Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Shaughan A.; Keteyian, Robert V.; Bodie, Graham D.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides validity evidence for a measure of listening goals by showing theoretically consistent relationships with an existing communication preference questionnaire. Participants (N = 257) were administered trait measures for listening goals and communicator preferences. The four listening goals--relational, task-oriented,…

  2. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTL) ANALYSIS OF CANNING QUALITY TRAITS IN KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canning quality of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), of which the degree of splitting (SPLT) and overall appearance (APP) if canned beans are major components, is a complex trait that exhibits quantitative. The objectives of this study were to identify major genes that affect APP and SPLT in kidney...

  3. Androgen receptor-beta mRNA levels in different tissues in breeding and post-breeding male and female sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Androgens induce male characters by activating androgen receptors (AR). Previous quantitative studies on AR in fishes have been limited to few tissues and/or a single season/reproductive state. The aim of this investigation was to study the possible role of AR-beta expression levels in the control of male traits in the three-spined stickleback. To that end, AR-beta expression levels in major tissues in breeding and post-breeding male and female sticklebacks were examined. Methods AR-beta mRNA levels were quantified in ten tissues; eye, liver, axial muscle, heart, brain, intestine, ovary, testis, kidney and pectoral muscle in six breeding and post-breeding males and females using reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Results Breeding in contrast to post-breeding males built nests and showed secondary sexual characters (e.g. kidney hypertrophy) and elevated androgen levels. Post-breeding females had lower ovarian weights and testosterone levels than breeding females. AR-beta was expressed in all studied tissues in both sexes and reproductive states with the highest expression in the gonads and in the kidneys. The kidney is an androgen target organ in sticklebacks, from which breeding males produce the protein spiggin, which is used in nest-building. There was also high AR-beta expression in the intestine, an organ that appears to take over hyperosmo-regulation in fresh water when the kidney hypertrophies in mature males and largely loses this function. The only tissue that showed effects of sex or reproductive state on AR-beta mRNA levels was the kidneys, where post-breeding males displayed higher AR-beta mRNA levels than breeding males. Conclusion The results indicate that changes in AR-beta mRNA levels play no or little role in changes in androgen dependent traits in the male stickleback. PMID:22455382

  4. Quantitative trait loci for grain quality, productivity, morphological and agronomical traits in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-F. Rami; P. Dufour; G. Trouche; G. Fliedel; C. Mestres; F. Davrieux; P. Blanchard; P. Hamon

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain quality, yield components and other traits were investigated in two Sorghum caudatumguinea\\u000a recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. A total of 16 traits were evaluated (plant height, panicle length, panicle compactness,\\u000a number of kernels\\/panicle, thousand-kernel weight, kernel weight\\/panicle, threshing percentage, dehulling yield, kernel flouriness,\\u000a kernel friability, kernel hardness, amylose content, protein content, lipid content, germination

  5. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: II. Process efficiency in event pyramiding and trait fixation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ting; Sun, Xiaochun; Mumm, Rita H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple trait integration (MTI) is a multi-step process of converting an elite variety/hybrid for value-added traits (e.g. transgenic events) through backcross breeding. From a breeding standpoint, MTI involves four steps: single event introgression, event pyramiding, trait fixation, and version testing. This study explores the feasibility of marker-aided backcross conversion of a target maize hybrid for 15 transgenic events in the light of the overall goal of MTI of recovering equivalent performance in the finished hybrid conversion along with reliable expression of the value-added traits. Using the results to optimize single event introgression (Peng et al. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: I. Minimizing linkage drag in single event introgression. Mol Breed, 2013) which produced single event conversions of recurrent parents (RPs) with ?8 cM of residual non-recurrent parent (NRP) germplasm with ~1 cM of NRP germplasm in the 20 cM regions flanking the event, this study focused on optimizing process efficiency in the second and third steps in MTI: event pyramiding and trait fixation. Using computer simulation and probability theory, we aimed to (1) fit an optimal breeding strategy for pyramiding of eight events into the female RP and seven in the male RP, and (2) identify optimal breeding strategies for trait fixation to create a 'finished' conversion of each RP homozygous for all events. In addition, next-generation seed needs were taken into account for a practical approach to process efficiency. Building on work by Ishii and Yonezawa (Optimization of the marker-based procedures for pyramiding genes from multiple donor lines: I. Schedule of crossing between the donor lines. Crop Sci 47:537-546, 2007a), a symmetric crossing schedule for event pyramiding was devised for stacking eight (seven) events in a given RP. Options for trait fixation breeding strategies considered selfing and doubled haploid approaches to achieve homozygosity as well as seed chipping and tissue sampling approaches to facilitate genotyping. With selfing approaches, two generations of selfing rather than one for trait fixation (i.e. 'F2 enrichment' as per Bonnett et al. in Strategies for efficient implementation of molecular markers in wheat breeding. Mol Breed 15:75-85, 2005) were utilized to eliminate bottlenecking due to extremely low frequencies of desired genotypes in the population. The efficiency indicators such as total number of plants grown across generations, total number of marker data points, total number of generations, number of seeds sampled by seed chipping, number of plants requiring tissue sampling, and number of pollinations (i.e. selfing and crossing) were considered in comparisons of breeding strategies. A breeding strategy involving seed chipping and a two-generation selfing approach (SC + SELF) was determined to be the most efficient breeding strategy in terms of time to market and resource requirements. Doubled haploidy may have limited utility in trait fixation for MTI under the defined breeding scenario. This outcome paves the way for optimizing the last step in the MTI process, version testing, which involves hybridization of female and male RP conversions to create versions of the converted hybrid for performance evaluation and possible commercial release. PMID:24482601

  6. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments

    E-print Network

    Garfagnini, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been performed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taking data and will provide new limits, should no signal be observed, in the next few years to come. The present contribution reviews the latest public results on double beta decay searches and gives an overview on the expected sensitivities of the experiments in construction which will be able to set stronger limits in the near future.

  7. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments

    E-print Network

    Alberto Garfagnini

    2014-08-11

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been performed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taking data and will provide new limits, should no signal be observed, in the next few years to come. The present contribution reviews the latest public results on double beta decay searches and gives an overview on the expected sensitivities of the experiments in construction which will be able to set stronger limits in the near future.

  8. Beta Beams for Neutrino Production

    SciTech Connect

    Wildner, Elena [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-03-30

    This paper gives an overview of the work done so far to produce sufficient neutrino fluxes for neutrino oscillation physics using beta beams. The design study on a beta beam scenario, the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility) Design Study, a project funded by the European Commission (EC), is now ready to be published. The study is based on the acceleration of {sup 6}He and {sup 18}Ne ions to produce the (anti-)neutrino beam using the existing CERN infrastructure for acceleration of the ions. We will here briefly describe the work with emphasis on how potential showstoppers, in particular radiation safety and equipment damage, have been dealt with. New results for the production of {sup 6}He show very encouraging results. We are now confident that this ion is a good choice to produce antineutrinos. However, the ion production needed for the physics experiments could not, up to now, be reasonably satisfied for {sup 18}Ne. Therefore, studies of alternative beta emitters, {sup 8}Li and {sup 8}B, with properties interesting for physics reach, have been proposed. The production of these ions is studied within the EC funded EUROnu project, ''A High Intensity Neutrino Oscillation Facility for Europe.'' This project will end in 2012. A small storage ring, in which the beam traverses a target, creating the {sup 8}Li and {sup 8}B isotopes that will be collected and accelerated, is studied in this proposal. We present the latest developments for the production of these ions, including a production ring lattice. Extensive Geant4 simulations have been done with the aim of developing a model of the production target that can be used for simulations of the necessary cooling system. In this paper we present the status of the work performed and an overview of ongoing and planned activities to make the beta beam project a solid proposal for neutrino production within the EUROnu project.

  9. Interferon Beta in Multiple Sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry G. W. Arnason

    1996-01-01

    Interferon beta 1B (IFN?1b) lessens multiple sclerosis (MS) attack frequency and accumulating disease burden as assessed by MRI. The agent is an immune system modulator. The immune response in MS is thought to involve a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response mediated by Th1 type T cells. IFN?1blessens expression of MHC-class II proteins on blood monocytes but only after a delay. This

  10. Parallel evolution and inheritance of quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    Schluter, Dolph; Clifford, Elizabeth A; Nemethy, Maria; McKinnon, Jeffrey S

    2004-06-01

    Parallel phenotypic evolution, the independent evolution of the same trait in closely related lineages, is interesting because it tells us about the contribution of natural selection to phenotypic evolution. Haldane and others have proposed that parallel evolution also results from a second process, the similarly biased production of genetic variation in close relatives, an idea that has received few tests. We suggest that influence of shared genetic biases should be detectable by the disproportionate use of the same genes in independent instances of parallel phenotypic evolution. We show how progress in testing this prediction can be made through simple tests of parallel inheritance of genetic differences: similar additive, dominance, and epistasis components in analysis of line means and similar effective numbers of loci. We demonstrate parallel inheritance in two traits, lateral plate number and body shape, in two lineages of threespine stickleback that have adapted independently to freshwater streams on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean. Notably, reduction of plate number in freshwater involves a substitution at the same major locus in both lineages. Our results represent only a first step in the study of the genetics of parallel phenotypic evolution in sticklebacks. Nevertheless, we have shown how such studies can be employed to test the genetic hypothesis of parallel evolution and how study of parallel evolution might yield insights into the roles of both selection and genetic constraint in phenotypic evolution. PMID:15266380

  11. Neural substrates of trait ruminations in depression

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, Darcy; Siegle, Greg; Shutt, Luann; Feldmiller, Josh; Thase, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Rumination in depression is a risk factor for longer, more intense, and harder-to-treat depressions. But there appear to be multiple types of depressive rumination – whether they all share these vulnerability mechanisms, and thus would benefit from the same types of clinical attention is unclear. In the current study, we examined neural correlates of empirically-derived dimensions of trait rumination in 35 depressed participants. These individuals and 29 never-depressed controls completed 17 self-report measures of rumination and an alternating emotion-processing/executive-control task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessment. We examined associations of regions of interest—the amygdala and other cortical regions subserving a potential role in deficient cognitive control and elaborative emotion-processing—with trait rumination. Rumination of all types was generally associated with increased sustained amygdala reactivity. When controlling for amygdala reactivity, distinct activity patterns in hippocampus were also associated with specific dimensions of rumination. We discuss the possibly utility of targeting more basic biological substrates of emotional reactivity in depressed patients who frequently ruminate. PMID:24661157

  12. Modeling the genealogy of a cultural trait.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Elliot; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    The mathematical study of genealogies has yielded important insights in population biology, such as the ability to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of a sample of genetic sequences or of a group of individuals. Here we introduce a model of cultural genealogies that is a step toward answering similar questions for cultural traits. In our model individuals can inherit from a variable, potentially large number of ancestors, rather than from a fixed, small number of ancestors (one or two) as is typical of genetic evolution. We first show that, given a sample of individuals, a cultural common ancestor does not necessarily exist. We then introduce a related concept: the most recent unique ancestor (MRUA), i.e., the most recent single individual who is the earliest cultural ancestor of the sample. We show that, under neutral evolution, the time to the MRUA can be staggeringly larger than the time to MRCA in a single ancestor model, except when the average number of learning opportunities per individuals is small. Our results point out that the properties of cultural genealogies may be very different from those of genetic genealogies, with potential implications for reconstructing the histories of cultural traits. PMID:25575942

  13. De novo design of monomeric beta-hairpin and beta-sheet peptides.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Uceda, David; Santiveri, Clara M; Jiménez, M Angeles

    2006-01-01

    Since the first report in 1993 (JACS 115, 5887-5888) of a peptide able to form a monomeric beta-hairpin structure in aqueous solution, the design of peptides forming either beta-hairpins (two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets) or three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets has become a field of intense interest. These studies have yielded great insights into the principles governing the stability and folding of beta-hairpins and antiparallel beta-sheets. This chapter reviews briefly those principles and describes a protocol for the de novo design of beta-sheet-forming peptides based on them. Criteria to select appropriate turn and strand residues and to avoid aggregation are provided. Because nuclear magnetic resonance is the most appropriate technique to check the success of new designs, the nuclear magnetic resonance parameters characteristic of beta-hairpins and three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets are given. PMID:16957331

  14. TGF-{beta} modulates {beta}-Catenin stability and signaling in mesenchymal proliferations

    SciTech Connect

    Amini Nik, Saeid [Department of Human Genetics, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Ebrahim, Rasoul Pour [Department of Human Genetics, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Dam, Kim van [Department of Human Genetics, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Cassiman, Jean-Jacques [Department of Human Genetics, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Tejpar, Sabine [Department of Human Genetics, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium) and Department of Gastro-Enterology, University Hospital Leuven, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium)]. E-mail: sabine.tejpar@med.kuleuven.be

    2007-08-01

    Here for the first time we showed, despite the oncogenic mutations in {beta}-Catenin, that TGF-{beta} is a modulator of {beta}-Catenin levels in tumoral fibroblasts as well as non-tumoral fibroblasts. The results show that the TGF-{beta} pathway is active in desmoids cells and in in situ tumors. A dose dependent increase in {beta}-Catenin protein levels was observed after TGF-{beta} treatment in combination with an increased repression of GSK-3{beta} both in normal and tumoral fibroblasts. TGF-{beta} stimulation also led to an altered - up to 5 fold - transcriptional activity of {beta}-Catenin responsive promoters, such as IGFBP6 as well as increase of TOPflash activity. TGF-{beta} stimulation increased cell proliferation and BrdU incorporation 2.5 times. Taken together, we propose that TGF-{beta} is a modulator of {beta}-Catenin levels in tumoral fibroblasts and non-tumoral fibroblasts, despite the oncogenic mutations already present in this gene in tumoral fibroblasts of desmoid tumors. This modulation of {beta}-Catenin levels by TGF-{beta} may be involved in determining the tumoral phenotype of the cells.

  15. Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…

  16. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  17. SEXUAL SELECTION DRIVES RAPID DIVERGENCE IN BOWERBIRD DISPLAY TRAITS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Albert C. Uy; Gerald Borgia

    2000-01-01

    Sexual selection driving display trait divergence has been suggested as a cause of rapid speciation, but there is limited supporting evidence for this from natural populations. Where speciation by sexual selection has occurred in newly diverged populations, we expect that there will be significant differences in female preferences and corre- sponding male display traits in the absence of substantial genetic

  18. TRAITS OF THE NEXT WAVE OF GENEVA APPLE ROOTSTOCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of rootstocks that give us confidence, and are worthy inclusion in the decision making process prior to planting a new orchard is not an easy process. We must evaluate many traits in several locations for several years. Some of these traits are measured directly on the plants under...

  19. Competencies and Traits of Successful Agricultural Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, T. Grady; Dooley, Kim E.; Harlin, Julie F.; Murphrey, Theresa P.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to identify the required competencies and traits of successful agricultural science teachers. Data was collected from focus groups of agricultural science teachers and a content analysis of existing research. Results identified 47 unique traits or competencies that were divided into the categories of…

  20. Angus Cow Longevity Estimates and Relationship to Production Traits

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Angus Cow Longevity Estimates and Relationship to Production Traits Arnold M. Saxton, Kenneth J Cow longevity is a trait that has great economic importance to commercial beef cattle producers. Improving longevity allows producers to cull a cow from the breeding herd for voluntary reasons (poor

  1. The Relations of Motivational Traits with Workplace Deviance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefendorff, James M.; Mehta, Kajal

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed and tested new theoretical relations between approach and avoidance motivational traits and deviant work behaviors. Approach motivation was divided into 3 traits: personal mastery (i.e., desire to achieve), competitive excellence (i.e., desire to perform better than others), and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity…

  2. Quantitative Trait Nucleotide Analysis Using Bayesian Model Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Blangero; Harald H. H. GÃring; Jack W. Kent Jr; Jeff T. Williams; Charles P. Peterson; Laura Almasy; Thomas D. Dyer

    2009-01-01

    :Although much attention has been given to statistical genetic methods for the initial localization and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), little methodological work has been done to date on the problem of statistically identifying the most likely functional polymorphisms using sequence data. In this paper we provide a general statistical genetic framework, called Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide (BQTN)

  3. Quantitative Trait Nucleotide Analysis Using Bayesian Model Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Blangero; Harald H. H. Göring; Kent Jr. Jack W; Jeff T. Williams; Charles P. Peterson; Laura Almasy; Thomas D. Dyer

    2009-01-01

    Although much attention has been given to statistical genetic methods for the initial localization and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), little methodological work has been done to date on the problem of statistically identifying the most likely functional polymorphisms using sequence data. In this paper we provide a general statistical genetic framework, called Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide (BQTN)

  4. Quantitative Trait Nucleotide Analysis Using Bayesian Model Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Blangero; Harald H. H. Goring; Kent Jr. Jack W; Jeff T. Williams; Charles P. Peterson; Laura Almasy; Thomas D. Dyer

    2005-01-01

    Although much attention has been given to statistical genetic methods for the initial localization and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), little methodological work has been done to date on the problem of statistically identifying the most likely functional polymorphisms using sequence data. In this paper we provide a general statistical genetic framework, called Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide (BQTN)

  5. REVIEW ARTICLE A trait-based approach to comparative functional

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    REVIEW ARTICLE A trait-based approach to comparative functional plant ecology: concepts, methods functional ecology seeks to under- stand why and how ecological systems and their compo- nents operate ecology that were made possible over the last two decades by the rapid development of a trait

  6. Trait anxiety influences on judgments of frequency and recall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karan S Kverno

    2000-01-01

    Individuals high in trait anxiety believe that they are more at risk for a variety of threatening events. Subjective probability estimates of risk presumably rely on frequency-of-occurrence information in memory. This study sought to compare individuals differing in the trait of anxiety on frequency estimates and recall. Neutral and threatening words were presented varying numbers of times. An interaction between

  7. Explicit and implicit memory, trait anxiety, and repressive coping style

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Oldenburg; Lars-Gunnar Lundh; Pia Kivistö

    2002-01-01

    Individuals with high trait anxiety, low trait anxiety, and repressive coping style were compared on explicit and implicit memory for physical threat words, social threat words, positive words, and neutral words. The results replicate earlier findings to the effect that bias indexes correlate within memory type (implicit and explicit memory, respectively) but not within word category across memory type, suggesting

  8. How Do Trait Dimensions Map onto ADHD Symptom Domains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; Nigg, Joel T.; von Eye, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Theories of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) implicate dysfunctional regulation mechanisms that have been conceptually grouped into "top-down" control and "bottom-up" affective/reactive processes. This dual-process account can be invoked in relation to temperament or personality traits and may clarify how traits relate to ADHD. Two…

  9. Statistics Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Learning Behavior, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…

  10. Effects of Marathon Group Therapy on Trait and State Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.; Auerbach, Stephen M.

    1974-01-01

    Results were interpreted as supporting Spielberger's notion that trait anxiety reflects a dispositional tendency to respond with anxiety in ego-threat situations and as suggesting that personality trait measures may be more relevant outcome indicators than measures of transitory mood states in marathon therapy research. (Author)

  11. Invasive Species Traits Jay, Josia, Rebecca, Alexandra, Vincent

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Introduction? McGregor et al, Diversity & Distributions 2012 #12;Pinus contorta #12;Species Statu s Fire engelmanii 0 2 28 3.5 45 13 Pinus lambertiana 0 2 40 4 216 49 Pinus banksiana 1 0 3 3.5 3 2 Pinus contorta 1Invasive Species Traits of Pinus. Jay, Josia, Rebecca, Alexandra, Vincent #12;. Traits thats

  12. Recognizing Faces Based on Inferred Traits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran, Rajani; Mitchell, Peter; Ropar, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) could, surprisingly, infer traits from behavioural descriptions. Now we need to know whether or not individuals with ASD are able to use trait information to identify people by their faces. In this study participants with and without ASD were presented with pairs of…

  13. Psychopathic Traits of Dutch Adolescents in Residential Care: Identifying Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; Vermulst, Ad; Scholte, Ron H. J.; van Dam, Coleta; Veerman, Jan Willem; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether a sample of 214 (52.8% male, M age = 15.76, SD = 1.29) institutionalized adolescents could be classified into subgroups based on psychopathic traits. Confirmatory Factor Analyses revealed a relationship between the subscales of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI) and the three latent constructs of the…

  14. Ordered subset analysis in genetic linkage mapping of complex traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth R. Hauser; Richard M. Watanabe; William L. Duren; Meredyth P. Bass; Carl D. Langefeld; Michael Boehnke

    2004-01-01

    Etiologic heterogeneity is a fundamental feature of complex disease etiology; genetic linkage analysis methods to map genes for complex traits that acknowledge the presence of genetic heterogeneity are likely to have greater power to identify subtle changes in complex biologic systems. We investigate the use of trait-related covariates to examine evidence for linkage in the presence of heterogeneity. Ordered-subset analysis

  15. Estimation of Effects of Single Genes on Quantitative Traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. W. Kennedy; M. Quinton; J. A. M. van Arendonk

    2009-01-01

    Studies involving the effects of single genes on quantitative traits may involve closed populations, selection may be practiced, and the quantitative trait of concern may also be influenced by background genes that are inherited in a polygenic manner. It is shown analytically that analysis of such data by ordinary least squares, the usual method of analysis, can lead to finding

  16. A Simplified Estimation of Latent State--Trait Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagemann, Dirk; Meyerhoff, David

    2008-01-01

    The latent state-trait (LST) theory is an extension of the classical test theory that allows one to decompose a test score into a true trait, a true state residual, and an error component. For practical applications, the variances of these latent variables may be estimated with standard methods of structural equation modeling (SEM). These…

  17. Multicultural Personality Dispositions and Trait Emotional Intelligence: An Exploratory Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph G. Ponterotto; Daniel E. Ruckdeschel; Alex C. Joseph; Erica A. Tennenbaum; AnnMarie Bruno

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between multicultural personality dispositions and trait emotional intelligence. The sample included 152 graduate education students enrolled at a university in a large northeastern city of the United States. The multicultural personality dispositions of Cultural Empathy and Social Initiative predicted variance in trait emotional intelligence above and beyond the variance accounted for by gender and potential

  18. Heritability of reproductive fitness traits in a human population

    E-print Network

    Abney, Mark

    Heritability of reproductive fitness traits in a human population Gülüm Kosovaa,b , Mark Abneyb significant heritabilities for reproductive traits in both men and women, after accounting for common variation into the genetic and environmental sources, and therefore determining the heritability

  19. Assembling Tests for the Measurement of Multiple Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    1996-01-01

    For measurement of multiple traits, this paper proposes assembling tests based on the targets for the variance functions of the estimators of each of the traits. A linear programming model is presented to computerize the assembly process. An example of test assembly from a two-dimensional item pool is provided. (SLD)

  20. QTL Analysis of Major Agronomic Traits in Soybean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-shan CHEN; Zhong-chen ZHANG; Chun-yan LIU; Da-wei XIN; Hong-mei QIU; Da-peng SHAN; Cai-yun SHAN; Guo-hua HU

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a main crop, and most agronomic traits of soybean are quantitative; therefore, there is very important studying and applying value to locating these traits. A F2:10 RIL population containing 154 lines, derived from the cross between Charleston as female and Dongnong 594 as male parent, were used in this experiment. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 164

  1. Finding the molecular basis of quatitative traits: successes and pitfalls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Flint; Richard Mott

    2001-01-01

    Understanding the molecular basis of quantitative genetic variation is a principal goal for biomedicine. Although the complex genetic architecture of quantitative traits has so far largely frustrated attempts to identify genes in humans by standard linkage methodologies, quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped in plants, insects and rodents. However, identifying the molecular bases of QTL remains a challenge. Here,

  2. Factor Structure of Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Rutter, Michael; Thapar, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often co-occur. Factor analyses of ASD traits in children with and without ASD indicate the presence of social and restrictive-repetitive behaviour (RRB) factors. This study used exploratory factor analyses to determine the structure of ASD traits (assessed using…

  3. Towards identifying genes underlying ecologically relevant traits in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice Roux; Joy Bergelson

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge in evolutionary biology and plant breeding is to identify the genetic basis of complex quantitative traits, including those that contribute to adaptive variation. Here we review the development of new methods and resources to fine-map intraspecific genetic variation that underlies natural phenotypic variation in plants. In particular, the analysis of 107 quantitative traits reported in the first

  4. Association of egg traits and feathering mutants in domestic fowl

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTE Association of egg traits and feathering mutants in domestic fowl R.D. CRAWFORD Department with the wild-type allele. There were no major effects of feathering loci on other egg characteristics examined. Key words :feathering mutants, egg traits, domestic fowl, pleiotropic effects. Résumé Relations entre

  5. Effects of Previous Calf Management on Feedlot and Carcass Traits 

    E-print Network

    Bingham, Bobby Cleave

    2012-02-14

    on several traits, but from this project emphasis was placed on preweaning (PreVac) and postweaning (PosVac) vaccinations and the potential influence on growth and carcass traits. Independent variables used in the analyses were location of the feedyard (LOC...

  6. Improving Recommendations by Using Personality Traits in User Profiles

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such as Personality Traits. This paper is a part of a PhD ongoing work. Key Words: User Psychological Profile's knowledge (Profiles and Rep- utations) about themselves and their community. Research about psychological psychological traits in User Profiles, in order to be able to deduce more interesting recommendations for users

  7. Personality traits and perceived social support among depressed older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly C. Cukrowicz; Alexis T. Franzese; Steven R. Thorp; Jennifer S. Cheavens; Thomas R. Lynch

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of personality traits and social support to mental health is well established, but to our knowledge there have been no longitudinal investigations of the relation between personality and social support in depressed older adults. In the current study, we examined a repeated measures multi-level mixed model of change in perceived social support to determine whether personality traits and

  8. Global Leaf Trait Relationships: Mass, Area, and the Leaf

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Global Leaf Trait Relationships: Mass, Area, and the Leaf Economics Spectrum Jeanne L. D. Osnas,1,2 * Jeremy W. Lichstein,2 Peter B. Reich,3,4 Stephen W. Pacala1 The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes multivariate correlations that constrain leaf traits of plant species primarily to a single axis of variation

  9. Genetic variation in biomass traits among 20 diverse rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Courtney E; Mckay, John K; Mauleon, Ramil; Stephens, Janice; McNally, Kenneth L; Bush, Daniel R; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels provide a promising route of producing energy while reducing reliance on petroleum. Developing sustainable liquid fuel production from cellulosic feedstock is a major challenge and will require significant breeding efforts to maximize plant biomass production. Our approach to elucidating genes and genetic pathways that can be targeted for improving biomass production is to exploit the combination of genomic tools and genetic diversity in rice (Oryza sativa). In this study, we analyzed a diverse set of 20 recently resequenced rice varieties for variation in biomass traits at several different developmental stages. The traits included plant size and architecture, aboveground biomass, and underlying physiological processes. We found significant genetic variation among the 20 lines in all morphological and physiological traits. Although heritability estimates were significant for all traits, heritabilities were higher in traits relating to plant size and architecture than for physiological traits. Trait variation was largely explained by variety and breeding history (advanced versus landrace) but not by varietal groupings (indica, japonica, and aus). In the context of cellulosic biofuels development, cell wall composition varied significantly among varieties. Surprisingly, photosynthetic rates among the varieties were inversely correlated with biomass accumulation. Examining these data in an evolutionary context reveals that rice varieties have achieved high biomass production via independent developmental and physiological pathways, suggesting that there are multiple targets for biomass improvement. Future efforts to identify loci and networks underlying this functional variation will facilitate the improvement of biomass traits in other grasses being developed as energy crops. PMID:21062890

  10. Beta Beams --- An Alternative to Double Beta Decay?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukaszuk, L.; Sujkowski, Z.; Wycech, S.

    2007-09-01

    It is shown that Majorana neutrino's absolute mass scale measurement can in principle be carried out using intense beta beams. This could be achieved by counting the lepton number violating events in a two step process: the nuclear decay in flight and the subsequent neutrino induced interaction. The relativistic boost results in the gain in the content of Majorana neutrino helicities responsible for the lepton number violation. A simple formula to calculate this gain is presented. Specific examples of the two step processes are indicated and relevant cross sections are given.

  11. Plant functional traits predict green roof ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Tran, Stephanie; Gebert, Luke

    2015-02-17

    Plants make important contributions to the services provided by engineered ecosystems such as green roofs. Ecologists use plant species traits as generic predictors of geographical distribution, interactions with other species, and ecosystem functioning, but this approach has been little used to optimize engineered ecosystems. Four plant species traits (height, individual leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content) were evaluated as predictors of ecosystem properties and services in a modular green roof system planted with 21 species. Six indicators of ecosystem services, incorporating thermal, hydrological, water quality, and carbon sequestration functions, were predicted by the four plant traits directly or indirectly via their effects on aggregate ecosystem properties, including canopy density and albedo. Species average height and specific leaf area were the most useful traits, predicting several services via effects on canopy density or growth rate. This study demonstrates that easily measured plant traits can be used to select species to optimize green roof performance across multiple key services. PMID:25599106

  12. Scoring of nonmetric cranial traits: a methodological approach

    PubMed Central

    GUALDI-RUSSO, E.; TASCA, M. A.; BRASILI, P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the replicability of the scoring of discontinuous traits. This was assessed on a sample of 100 skulls from the Frassetto collection (Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale of Bologna University) analysed through intraobserver comparisons: the discontinuous traits were determined on the same skulls and by the same observer on 3 separate occasions. The scoring was also assessed through interobserver comparisons: 3 different observers performed an independent survey on the same skulls. The results show that there were no significant differences in the discontinuous trait frequencies between the 3 different scorings by the same observer, but there were sometimes significant differences between different observers. Caution should thus be taken in applying the frequencies of these traits to population research. After an indispensable control of material conditions (subject age included), consideration must be given to standardisation procedures between observers, otherwise this may be an additional source of variability in cranial discontinuous trait scoring. PMID:10634693

  13. The State-Trait Hopelessness Scale: development and testing.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Susan L; Olamijulo, Grace B; Fuglseth, Heather L; Holden, Theresa P; Swieringa, Lien L; Sit, Michael J; Rieth, Nicole P; Tintle, Nathan L

    2014-04-01

    Hopelessness is predictive in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) and can persist in patients after a CHD event, adversely affecting recovery. Hopelessness may represent a temporary response (state) or a chronic outlook (trait). Common hopelessness measures fail to differentiate state from trait hopelessness, a potentially important differentiation for treatment. The State-Trait Hopelessness Scale (STHS) was developed and pilot tested with two groups of college students (n = 39 and 190) and patients with CHD (n = 44). The instrument was then used with 520 patients, confirming reliability (Cronbach's ?) for the State (.88) and Trait (.91) subscales and concurrent and predictive validity. Separate exploratory factor analyses showed two factors (hopelessness present or hopelessness absent) for the State and Trait subscales, accounting for 58.9% and 57.3% of variance, respectively. These findings support future use of the tool in clinical settings and in intervention studies focused on hopelessness. PMID:24122739

  14. Systemic effects of three beta-blocker eyedrops: comparison in healthy volunteers of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoreceptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Le Jeunne, C; Munera, Y; Hugues, F C

    1990-05-01

    The beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoreceptor blockade by means of the systemic diffusion of three beta-blocker eyedrops--timolol, carteolol, and betaxolol--was evaluated in a randomized, single-blind, three-way crossover study in 18 volunteers. The blockade was evaluated by analyzing the variations of the beta 1- and beta 2-blockade effects of isoproterenol before and after instillation of one drop in each eye. The beta 1-blockade effect was judged on the variation of heart rate, and the beta 2-blockade effect was judged on the change in peripheral blood flow measured by veno-occlusive plethysmography. Comparison of the blockade by these drops showed that carteolol and timolol totally inhibited the beta 1 and beta 2 effects of a dose of isoproterenol able to increase heart rate by 50% (placebo eyedrops were used as a control). Betaxolol differ significantly because it allowed the same effects with the same dose of isoproterenol. Intensity of the blockade was measured by comparison of the effective doses of isoproterenol. Carteolol and timolol were shown to be four times more inhibitory. PMID:1971539

  15. Variability of Root Traits in Spring Wheat Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sruthi; Mohan, Amita; Gill, Kulvinder S.; Prasad, P. V. Vara

    2014-01-01

    Root traits influence the amount of water and nutrient absorption, and are important for maintaining crop yield under drought conditions. The objectives of this research were to characterize variability of root traits among spring wheat genotypes and determine whether root traits are related to shoot traits (plant height, tiller number per plant, shoot dry weight, and coleoptile length), regions of origin, and market classes. Plants were grown in 150-cm columns for 61 days in a greenhouse under optimal growth conditions. Rooting depth, root dry weight, root: shoot ratio, and shoot traits were determined for 297 genotypes of the germplasm, Cultivated Wheat Collection (CWC). The remaining root traits such as total root length and surface area were measured for a subset of 30 genotypes selected based on rooting depth. Significant genetic variability was observed for root traits among spring wheat genotypes in CWC germplasm or its subset. Genotypes Sonora and Currawa were ranked high, and genotype Vandal was ranked low for most root traits. A positive relationship (R2?0.35) was found between root and shoot dry weights within the CWC germplasm and between total root surface area and tiller number; total root surface area and shoot dry weight; and total root length and coleoptile length within the subset. No correlations were found between plant height and most root traits within the CWC germplasm or its subset. Region of origin had significant impact on rooting depth in the CWC germplasm. Wheat genotypes collected from Australia, Mediterranean, and west Asia had greater rooting depth than those from south Asia, Latin America, Mexico, and Canada. Soft wheat had greater rooting depth than hard wheat in the CWC germplasm. The genetic variability identified in this research for root traits can be exploited to improve drought tolerance and/or resource capture in wheat. PMID:24945438

  16. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

  17. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Schäfer, Ralf B.

    2015-01-01

    Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated traits from six grouping features to 35 bioclimatic indices (~18 km resolution) for five insect orders (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera), evaluated their potential for changing distribution pattern under future climate change and identified the most influential bioclimatic indices. The data comprised 782 species and 395 genera sampled in 4,752 stream sites during 2006 and 2007 in Germany (~357,000 km² spatial extent). We quantified the variability and spatial autocorrelation in the traits and orders that are associated with the combined and individual bioclimatic indices. Traits of temperature preference grouping feature that are the products of several other underlying climate-associated traits, and the insect order Ephemeroptera exhibited the strongest response to the bioclimatic indices as well as the highest potential for changing distribution pattern. Regarding individual traits, insects in general and ephemeropterans preferring very cold temperature showed the highest response, and the insects preferring cold and trichopterans preferring moderate temperature showed the highest potential for changing distribution. We showed that the seasonal radiation and moisture are the most influential bioclimatic aspects, and thus changes in these aspects may affect the most responsive traits and orders and drive a change in their spatial distribution pattern. Our findings support the development of trait-based metrics to predict and detect climate-related changes of freshwater assemblages. PMID:26080074

  18. Beta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter covers the use of wild beets in sugar beet improvement, including the basic botany of the species, its distribution; geographical locations of genetic diversity; morphology; cytology and karyotype; genome size; taxonomic position; agricultural status (model plant/weeds/invasive species/...

  19. Beta adrenergic receptor blockade of feline myocardium. Cardiac mechanics, energetics, and beta adrenoceptor regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, G; Kent, R L; McGonigle, P; Watanabe, A M

    1986-01-01

    Myocardial oxygen consumption is regulated by interrelated mechanical and inotropic conditions; there is a parallel increase in the aerobic metabolism and inotropic state during beta-adrenergic stimulation under fixed mechanical conditions. In contrast, there is some evidence that beta-blockade may reduce oxygen consumption through effects independent of its influence on mechanical conditions and contractile state, and that prolonged beta-blockade may sensitize the myocardium to beta-adrenergic stimulation. To clarify these two points, the present study examined the relationship of myocardial energetics to mechanics and inotropism during acute beta-blockade and after the withdrawal of long-term beta-blockade, whereupon the basis for any effect observed was sought by characterizing the number, affinity, and affinity states of the beta-receptors as well as the coupling of activated beta-receptors to cyclic AMP generation. Studies of right ventricular papillary muscles from control and chronically beta-blocked cats demonstrated contractile and energetic properties as well as dose-response behavior and inotropic specificity suggestive of an increase in myocardial sensitivity to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in the latter group. Assays of cardiac beta-adrenoceptors from further groups of control and pretreated cats, both in cardiac tissue and in isolated cardiac muscle cells, failed to define a difference between the two groups either in terms of receptor number and affinity or in terms of the proportion of receptors in the high-affinity state. However, coupling of the activated beta-adrenoceptors to cyclic AMP generation was enhanced in cardiac muscle cells from chronically beta-blocked cats. These data demonstrate that beta-adrenoceptor blockade (a) produces parallel effects on inotropic state and oxygen consumption without an independent effect on either and (b) increases myocardial sensitivity to beta-adrenergic stimulation after beta-blockade withdrawal, not by "up-regulation" of the cardiac beta-adrenoceptors, but instead by more effective coupling of these receptors when activated to cyclic AMP generation. PMID:2868025

  20. Genetic variation and quantitative trait loci associated with developmental stability and the environmental correlation between traits in maize.

    PubMed

    Ordas, Bernardo; Malvar, Rosa A; Hill, William G

    2008-10-01

    There is limited experimental information about the genetic basis of micro-environmental variance (V(E)) (developmental stability) and environmental correlations. This study, by using a population of maize recombinant inbred lines (RIL) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphic markers, aims at the following: firstly, to quantify the genetic component of the V(E) or developmental stability for four traits in maize and the environmental correlation between these traits, and secondly, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that influence these quantities. We found that, when estimating variances and correlations and testing their homogeneity, estimates and tests are needed that are not highly dependent on normality assumptions. There was significant variation among the RILs in V(E) and in the environmental correlation for some of the traits, implying genetic heterogeneity in the V(E) and environmental correlations. The genetic coefficient of variation of the environmental variance (GCV(V(E))) was estimated to be 20%, which is lower than estimates obtained for other species. A few genomic regions involved in the stability of one trait or two traits were detected, and these did not have an important influence on the mean of the trait. One region that could be associated with the environmental correlations between traits was also detected. PMID:19061529

  1. An Application of Affective Events Theory to Workplace Bullying: The Role of Emotions, Trait Anxiety, and Trait Anger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Glasø; Tina Løkke Vie; Gry Rotnes Holmdal; Ståle Einarsen

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of Affective Events Theory (AET), this study examines emotional experiences as a potential mediator between exposure to bullying and job satisfaction and intention to leave, respectively. We also investigate to what extent trait anxiety and trait anger moderate the relationships between these variables. The results show that the relationships between bullying and both job satisfaction and intentions

  2. Inherited anaemias in the Greek community of Cape Town.

    PubMed Central

    Bonafede, R P; Botha, M C; Beighton, P

    1979-01-01

    Cape Town has a Greek community of about 5000, of whom approximately 75% originate from the island of Lesbos. In a survey of inherited haematological conditions in this population, 250 unrelated volunteers were investigated. The prevalence of heterozygous beta-thalassaemia was found to be 6.4%, with a gene frequency of 0.033. G6PD deficiency was detected in 10 males and it can be estimated that the prevalence in the male members of this population is 6.7%, with a gene frequency of 0.067. Hereditary spherocytosis was found in three respondents and this represents a prevalence of 1.2%, with a gene frequency of 0.006. One subject was heterozygous for the sickle cell trait (HbS) and another volunteer had haemoglobin Lepore, which had already been diagnosed in Greece. Our findings with respect to beta-thalassaemia and G6PD deficiency are similar to those reported from regions in Greece where malaria is not highly endemic. PMID:469897

  3. Scintillating double beta decay bolometers

    E-print Network

    S. Pirro; J. W. Beeman; S. Capelli; M. Pavan; E. Previtali; P. Gorla

    2005-10-27

    We present the results obtained in the development of scintillating Double Beta Decay bolometers. Several Mo and Cd based crystals were tested with the bolometric technique. The scintillation light was measured through a second independent bolometer. A 140 g CdWO_4 crystal was run in a 417 h live time measurement. Thanks to the scintillation light, the alpha background is easily discriminated resulting in zero counts above the 2615 keV gamma line of Thallium 208. These results, combined with an extremely easy light detector operation, represent the first tangible proof demonstrating the feasibility of this kind of technique.

  4. Experiment M408: Beta spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marbach, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The beta spectrometer functioned as planned throughout the Gemini 10 mission. The cool temperatures that were recorded from the instrument during the mission were indicative that the evaporative cooler, coupled with apparently lower-than-expected spacecraft-adapter temperatures, maintained ideal operating conditions. The data facilitate a good analysis of the electron directional distribution. The omnidirectional flux that was calculated is apparently consistent with previous measurements. Representative electron spectra, measured during the Gemini 12 mission, established the apparent decay of the artificially injected electrons (from the Starfish high altitude nuclear test) to such low levels that natural trapped electrons were becoming detectable.

  5. Beta cell workshop 2013 Kyoto.

    PubMed

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høriis

    2013-01-01

    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles, Scotland (2009); and Helsingør, Denmark (2011). The Kyoto meeting drew more than 200 attendees from 18 different countries. There were 47 main oral presentations, and approximately 75 posters covered virtually all aspects of the pancreas function, development and genetics of disease. Here we will review some of the newest highlights. PMID:23756674

  6. Association between Expression Quantitative Trait Loci and Metabolic Traits in Two Korean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Myungguen; Cho, Seong Beom

    2014-01-01

    Most genome-wide association studies consider genes that are located closest to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are highly significant for those studies. However, the significance of the associations between SNPs and candidate genes has not been fully determined. An alternative approach that used SNPs in expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) was reported previously for Crohn’s disease; it was shown that eQTL-based preselection for follow-up studies was a useful approach for identifying risk loci from the results of moderately sized GWAS. In this study, we propose an approach that uses eQTL SNPs to support the functional relationships between an SNP and a candidate gene in a genome-wide association study. The genome-wide SNP genotypes and 10 biochemical measures (fasting glucose levels, BUN, serum albumin levels, AST, ALT, gamma GTP, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol) were obtained from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) consortium. The eQTL SNPs were isolated from the SNP dataset based on the RegulomeDB eQTL-SNP data from the ENCODE projects and two recent eQTL reports. A total of 25,658 eQTL SNPs were tested for their association with the 10 metabolic traits in 2 Korean populations (Ansung and Ansan). The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by eQTL and non-eQTL SNPs showed that eQTL SNPs were more likely to be associated with the metabolic traits genetically compared with non-eQTL SNPs. Finally, via a meta-analysis of the two Korean populations, we identified 14 eQTL SNPs that were significantly associated with metabolic traits. These results suggest that our approach can be expanded to other genome-wide association studies. PMID:25493549

  7. Quantitative trait loci linked to PRNP gene controlling health and production traits in INRA 401 sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zulma G Vitezica; Carole R Moreno; Frederic Lantier; Isabelle Lantier; Laurent Schibler; Anne Roig; Dominique François; Jacques Bouix; Daniel Allain; Jean-Claude Brunel; Francis Barillet; Jean-Michel Elsen

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the potential association of PrP genotypes with health and productive traits was investigated. Data were recorded on animals of the INRA 401 breed from the Bourges-La Sapinière INRA experimental farm. The population consisted of 30 rams and 852 ewes, which produced 1310 lambs. The animals were categorized into three PrP genotype classes: ARR homozygous, ARR heterozygous, and

  8. Dust concentration measurement probe using beta attenuation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Slezak; R. O. Buckius

    1983-01-01

    A small probe utilizing the attenuation of the beta emissions from promethium-147 has been constructed and calibrated for measuring the suspension concentration of dusts in the range of 0.1 to 2.0 kg\\/m3. The absorption of beta particles (negatively charged electrons) is related to the amount of matter through which the particles pass. The probe discussed here measures the beta absorption

  9. Operator analysis of neutrinoless double beta decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiwoon Choi; Kwang Sik Jeong; Wan Young Song

    2002-01-01

    We study the effective operators of the standard model fields which would\\u000ayield an observable rate of neutrinoless double beta decay. We particularly\\u000afocus on the possibility that neutrinoless double beta decay is dominantly\\u000ainduced by lepton-number-violating higher dimensional operators other than the\\u000aMajorana neutrino mass. Our analysis can be applied to models in which\\u000aneutrinoless double beta decay is

  10. Systematic study of nuclear beta decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Homma; E. Bender; M. Hirsch; K. Muto; H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus; T. Oda

    1996-01-01

    beta-decay properties of nuclei are studied in the framework of proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation with a schematic Gamow-Teller residual interaction. Particle-hole and particle-particle terms of the separable Gamow-Teller force are consistently included for both beta+ and beta- directions, and their strengths are fixed as smooth functions of mass number A of nuclei in such a way that the calculation reproduces

  11. Expression of beta 1, beta 3, beta 4, and beta 5 integrins by human epidermal keratinocytes and non-differentiating keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Adams, J C; Watt, F M

    1991-11-01

    We have compared the adhesive properties and integrin expression profiles of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and a strain of nondifferentiating keratinocytes (ndk). Both cell types adhered to fibronectin, laminin, and collagen types I and IV, but ndk adhered more rapidly and at lower coating concentrations of the proteins. Antibody blocking experiments showed that adhesion of both cell types to fibronectin was mediated by the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and to laminin by alpha 3 beta 1 in synergy with alpha 2 beta 1. Keratinocytes adhered to collagen with alpha 2 beta 1, but an antibody to alpha 2 did not inhibit adhesion of ndk to collagen. Both cell types adhered to vitronectin by alpha v-containing integrins. Immunoprecipitation of surface-iodinated and metabolically labeled cells showed that in addition to alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1, and alpha 5 beta 1, both keratinocytes and ndk expressed alpha 6 beta 4 and alpha v beta 5. ndk expressed all these integrins at higher levels than normal keratinocytes. ndk, but not normal keratinocytes, expressed alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 3; they also expressed alpha 1 beta 1, an integrin that was not consistently detected on normal keratinocytes. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that in stratified cultures of normal keratinocytes integrin expression was confined to cells in the basal layer; terminally differentiating cells were unstained. In contrast, all cells in the ndk population were integrin positive. Our observations showed that the adhesive properties of ndk differ from normal keratinocytes and reflect differences in the type of integrins expressed, the level of expression and the distribution of integrins on the cell surface. ndk thus have a number of characteristics that distinguish them from normal basal keratinocytes. PMID:1918165

  12. The Beta Cage: Screening Low Radioactive Backgrounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Poinar; D. Akerib; D. Grant; R. Schnee; T. Shutt; S. Golwala; Z. Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    The beta cage is a proposed multi-wire proportional chamber that will be the most sensitive device available to screen low-energy (200 keV) betas emitted at rates as low as 10-5 counts keV^1 cm-2 day-1 (of order 10-4 Bq\\/m^2). The expected sensitivity and details of the construction and commissioning of its prototype chamber are presented. The prototype beta cage is a

  13. Mode identification in Beta Cephei stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizenman, M. L.; Lesh, J. R.

    1980-05-01

    The essential observational characteristics related to mode identification are summarized. Major emphasis is placed on the following: both light and velocity amplitudes; typical periods in both light and radial velocity; the light curve for Beta Cephei stars in comparison to the classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars; the van Hoof effect with respect to the radial velocity curves in many Beta Cephei stars; and the line profiles of many Beta Cephei stars.

  14. First forbidden beta decay in light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Millener, D.J.; Warburton, E.K.

    1984-01-01

    Beta decay matrix elements for the operators sigma dot del and sigma dot r are calculated for eight J/sup +/ ..-->.. J/sup -/ or J/sup -/ ..-->.. J/sup +/ beta transitions. Results using harmonic oscillator wave functions differ markedly from those using more realistic Woods-Saxon wave functions. A substantial contribution to the sigma dot del matrix elements from pion exchange currents is required to reproduce the experimental beta decay rates. 15 references.

  15. Contrasting Effects of Intraspecific Trait Variation on Trait-Based Niches and Performance of Legumes in Plant Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Schmid, Bernhard; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Niche differentiation, assumed to be a key mechanism of species coexistence, requires that species differ in their functional traits. So far it remains unclear to which extent trait plasticity leads to niche shifts of species at higher plant diversity, thereby increasing or decreasing niche overlap between species. To analyse this question it is convenient to measure niches indirectly via the variation in resource-uptake traits rather than directly via the resources used. We provisionally call these indirectly measured niches trait-based niches. We studied shoot- and leaf-morphological characteristics in seven legume species in monoculture and multi-species mixture in experimental grassland. Legume species varied in the extent of trait variation in response to plant diversity. Trait plasticity led to significant shifts in species niches in multiple dimensions. Single-species niches in several traits associated with height growth and filling of canopy space were expanded, while other niche dimensions were compressed or did not change with plant diversity. Niche separation among legumes decreased in dimensions related to height growth and space filling, but increased in dimensions related to leaf size and morphology. The total extent of occupied niche space was larger in mixture than in the combined monocultures for dimensions related to leaf morphology and smaller for dimensions related to whole-plant architecture. Taller growth, greater space filling and greater plasticity in shoot height were positively, while larger values and greater plasticity in specific leaf area were negatively related with increased performance of species in mixture. Our study shows that trait variation in response to plant diversity shifts species niches along trait axes. Plastically increased niche differentiation is restricted to niche dimensions that are apparently not related to size-dependent differences between species, but functional equivalence (convergence in height growth) rather than complementarity (divergence in traits associated with light acquisition) explains increased performance of legumes in mixture. PMID:25781938

  16. Beta cell device using icosahedral boride compounds

    DOEpatents

    Aselage, Terrence L. (62 Avenida Del Sol, Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Emin, David (1502 Harvard Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106-3712)

    2002-01-01

    A beta cell for converting beta-particle energies into electrical energy having a semiconductor junction that incorporates an icosahedral boride compound selected from B.sub.12 As.sub.2, B.sub.12 P.sub.2, elemental boron having an .alpha.-rhombohedral structure, elemental boron having a .beta.-rhombohedral structure, and boron carbides of the chemical formula B.sub.12-x C.sub.3-x, where 0.15beta radiation source, and means for transmitting electrical energy to an outside load. The icosahedral boride compound self-heals, resisting degradation from radiation damage.

  17. beta-decay study of Cu-77

    E-print Network

    N. Patronis; H. De Witte; M. Gorska; M. Huyse; K. Kruglov; D. Pauwels; K. Van de Vel; P. Van Duppen; J. Van Roosbroeck; J. -C. Thomas; S. Franchoo; J. Cederkall; V. N. Fedoseyev; H. Fynbo; U. Georg; O. Jonsson; U. Köster; T. Materna; L. Mathieu; O. Serot; L. Weissman; W. F. Mueller; V. I. Mishin; D. Fedorov

    2009-09-01

    A beta-decay study of Cu-77 has been performed at the ISOLDE mass separator with the aim to deduce its beta-decay properties and to obtain spectroscopic information on Zn-77. Neutron-rich copper isotopes were produced by means of proton- or neutron-induced fission reactions on U-238. After the production, Cu-77 was selectively laser ionized, mass separated and sent to different detection systems where beta-gamma and beta-n coincidence data were collected. We report on the deduced half-live, decay scheme, and possible spin assignment of 77Cu.

  18. The beta-decay of 22Al

    E-print Network

    N. L. Achouri; F. de Oliveira Santos; M. Lewitowicz; B. Blank; J. Aysto; G. Canchel; S. Czajkowski; P. Dendooven; A. Emsallem; J. Giovinazzo; N. Guillet; A. Jokinen; A. M. Laird; C. Longour; K. Perajarvi; N. Smirnova; M. Stanoiu; J. C. Thomas

    2006-08-01

    In an experiment performed at the LISE3 facility of GANIL, we studied the decay of 22Al produced by the fragmentation of a 36Ar primary beam. A beta-decay half-life of 91.1 +- 0.5 ms was measured. The beta-delayed one- and two-proton emission as well as beta-alpha and beta-delayed gamma decays were measured and allowed us to establish a partial decay scheme for this nucleus. New levels were determined in the daughter nucleus 22Mg. The comparison with model calculations strongly favours a spin-parity of 4+ for the ground state of 22Al.

  19. Recent Progress in Double Beta Decay

    E-print Network

    Steven R. Elliott

    2012-03-05

    At least one neutrino has a mass of about 50 meV or larger. However, the absolute mass scale for the neutrino remains unknown. Studies of double beta decay offer hope for determining the absolute mass scale. Furthermore, the critical question: Is the neutrino its own antiparticle? is unanswered. In particular, zero-neutrino double beta decay can address the issues of lepton number conservation, the particle-antiparticle nature of the neutrino, and its mass. A summary of the recent progress in double beta decay, and the related technologies will be discussed in the context of the future double beta decay program.

  20. Double beta decays of {sup 106}Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Suhonen, Jouni [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2011-12-16

    The two-neutrino (2{nu}2{beta}) and neutrinoless (0{nu}2{beta}) double beta decays of {sup 106}Cd are studied for the transitions to the ground state 0{sub gs}{sup +} and 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} excited states in {sup 106}Pd by using realistic many-body wave functions calculated in the framework of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation. Effective, G-matrix-derived nuclear forces are used in realistic single-particle model spaces. All the possible channels, {beta}{sup +}{beta}{sup +}, {beta}{sup +}EC, and ECEC, are discussed for both the 2{nu}2{beta} and 0{nu}2{beta} decays. The associated half-lives are computed and particular attention is devoted to the study of the detectability of the resonant neutrinoless double electron capture (R0{nu}ECEC) process in {sup 106}Cd. The calculations of the present article constitute the thus far most complete and up-to-date investigation of the double-beta-decay properties of {sup 106}Cd.

  1. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    E-print Network

    Riisager, K; Hyldegaard, S; Jensen, A S

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued that beta-decay directly to the continuum should be considered as a possible contributing mechanism in many decays close to the driplines. The signatures in R-matrix fits for such decays directly to continuum states are discussed and illustrated through an analysis of the beta-decay of $^8$B into $2^+$ states in $^8$Be.

  2. Molecular Structure of Beta-carotene

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-13

    Since the time of the ancient Greeks, carrots have been prized for their medicinal properties and beta-Carotene has been attributed as the source of these properties. Beta-carotene causes many plants to have pigment, and provides the color in carrots, cantaloupes and squash. Beta-carotenes have been seen to be of immense help in the maintenance of the human body: it is essential to proper vision, and to the functioning of the respiratory and digestive systems. Beta-carotene is a precursor in the biosynthesis of Vitamin A in the human body.

  3. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    E-print Network

    K. Riisager; H. O. U. Fynbo; S. Hyldegaard; A. S. Jensen

    2015-03-19

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued that beta-decay directly to the continuum should be considered as a possible contributing mechanism in many decays close to the driplines. The signatures in R-matrix fits for such decays directly to continuum states are discussed and illustrated through an analysis of the beta-decay of $^8$B into $2^+$ states in $^8$Be.

  4. Recent Progress in Double Beta Decay

    E-print Network

    Elliott, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    At least one neutrino has a mass of about 50 meV or larger. However, the absolute mass scale for the neutrino remains unknown. Studies of double beta decay offer hope for determining the absolute mass scale. Furthermore, the critical question: Is the neutrino its own antiparticle? is unanswered. In particular, zero-neutrino double beta decay can address the issues of lepton number conservation, the particle-antiparticle nature of the neutrino, and its mass. A summary of the recent progress in double beta decay, and the related technologies will be discussed in the context of the future double beta decay program.

  5. Janus model of the Na,K-ATPase beta-subunit transmembrane domain: distinct faces mediate alpha/beta assembly and beta-beta homo-oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Barwe, Sonali P; Kim, Sanguk; Rajasekaran, Sigrid A; Bowie, James U; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K

    2007-01-19

    Na,K-ATPase is a hetero-oligomer of alpha and beta-subunits. The Na,K-ATPase beta-subunit (Na,K-beta) is involved in both the regulation of ion transport activity, and in cell-cell adhesion. By structure prediction and evolutionary analysis, we identified two distinct faces on the Na,K-beta transmembrane domain (TMD) that could mediate protein-protein interactions: a glycine zipper motif and a conserved heptad repeat. Here, we show that the heptad repeat face is involved in the hetero-oligomeric interaction of Na,K-beta with Na,K-alpha, and the glycine zipper face is involved in the homo-oligomerization of Na,K-beta. Point mutations in the heptad repeat motif reduced Na,K-beta binding to Na,K-alpha, and Na,K-ATPase activity. Na,K-beta TMD homo-oligomerized in biological membranes, and mutation of the glycine zipper motif affected oligomerization and cell-cell adhesion. These results provide a structural basis for understanding how Na,K-beta links ion transport and cell-cell adhesion. PMID:17078968

  6. Neutrinoless double beta decay and nuclear matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Simkovic, Fedor [BLTP, JINR Dubna, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Comenius University, Mlynska dolina, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-11-23

    The fundamental importance of searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay) is widely recognized. Observation of the decay would tell us that the total lepton number is not conserved and that, consequently, neutrinos are massive Majorana fermions. The 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay is discussed in context of neutrino oscillation data. The perspectives of the experimental 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay searches are analyzed. The importance of reliable determination of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay nuclear matrix elements is pointed out.

  7. Morphological and Geographical Traits of the British Odonata

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Trait data are fundamental for many aspects of ecological research, particularly for modeling species response to environmental change. We synthesised information from the literature (mainly field guides) and direct measurements from museum specimens, providing a comprehensive dataset of 26 attributes, covering the 43 resident species of Odonata in Britain. Traits included in this database range from morphological traits (e.g. body length) to attributes based on the distribution of the species (e.g. climatic restriction). We measured 11 morphometric traits from five adult males and five adult females per species. Using digital callipers, these measurements were taken from dry museum specimens, all of which were wild caught individuals. Repeated measures were also taken to estimate measurement error. The trait data are stored in an online repository (https://github.com/BiologicalRecordsCentre/Odonata_traits), alongside R code designed to give an overview of the morphometric data, and to combine the morphometric data to the single value per trait per species data. PMID:24855438

  8. Response monitoring and adjustment: differential relations with psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Bresin, Konrad; Finy, M Sima; Sprague, Jenessa; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the relation between psychopathy and cognitive functioning often show mixed results, partially because different factors of psychopathy have not been considered fully. Based on previous research, we predicted divergent results based on a 2-factor model of psychopathy (interpersonal-affective traits and impulsive-antisocial traits). Specifically, we predicted that the unique variance of interpersonal-affective traits would be related to increased monitoring (i.e., error-related negativity) and adjusting to errors (i.e., posterror slowing), whereas impulsive-antisocial traits would be related to reductions in these processes. Three studies using a diverse selection of assessment tools, samples, and methods are presented to identify response monitoring correlates of the 2 main factors of psychopathy. In Studies 1 (undergraduates), 2 (adolescents), and 3 (offenders), interpersonal-affective traits were related to increased adjustment following errors and, in Study 3, to enhanced monitoring of errors. Impulsive-antisocial traits were not consistently related to error adjustment across the studies, although these traits were related to a deficient monitoring of errors in Study 3. The results may help explain previous mixed findings and advance implications for etiological models of psychopathy. PMID:24933282

  9. Mutation, selection and the heritability of complex traits.

    PubMed

    Pomiankowski, A

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested that complex traits, like intelligence, have low heritabilities. This hypothesis stems from the idea that strong selection for higher intelligence has led to the fixation of genetic variation for this trait. The same hypothesis has been framed for complex sexual ornaments used in courtship display. These traits are also subject to directional selection, in this case caused by sexual selection. However, contrary to the hypothesis, comparative data shows that sexual ornaments have higher additive genetic variation than similar non-sexual traits. It appears that the number of variable genes and the effect per genetic locus have increased for sexual ornaments. Theory suggests this is due to selection for extreme phenotypes resulting in condition-dependent expression of sexual traits. Experimental work on the stalk-eyed fly, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni, confirms that the male sexual trait (exaggerated eyespan) is more sensitive to environmental conditions than other non-sexual traits (wing dimensions and female eyespan). This environmental sensitivity has a genetic basis and environmental stress enhances genetic differences. It is likely that genetic variation in intelligence is maintained in a similar fashion. PMID:11276905

  10. Latitudinal trait variation and responses to drought in Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Paccard, Antoine; Fruleux, Alexandre; Willi, Yvonne

    2014-06-01

    Species may respond in three ways to environmental change: adapt, migrate, or go extinct. Studies of latitudinal clines can provide information on whether species have adapted to abiotic stress such as temperature and drought in the past and what the traits underlying adaptation are. We investigated latitudinal trait variation and response to drought in North American populations of Arabidopsis lyrata. Plants from nine populations collected over 13° latitude were grown under well-watered and dry conditions. A total of 1,620 seedlings were raised and 12 phenological, physiological, morphological, and life history traits were measured. Two traits, asymptotic rosette size and the propensity to flower, were significantly associated with latitude: plants from northern locations grew to a larger size and were more likely to flower in the first season. Most traits displayed a plastic response to drought, but plasticity was never related linearly with latitude nor was it enhanced in populations from extreme latitudes with reduced water availability. Populations responded to drought by adopting mixed strategies of resistance, tolerance, and escape. The study shows that latitudinal adaptation in A. lyrata involves the classic life history traits, size at and timing of reproduction. Contrary to recent theoretical predictions, adaptation to margins is based on fixed trait differences and not on phenotypic plasticity, at least with respect to drought. PMID:24705694

  11. Joint evolution of multiple social traits: a kin selection analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sam P; Taylor, Peter D

    2010-02-01

    General models of the evolution of cooperation, altruism and other social behaviours have focused almost entirely on single traits, whereas it is clear that social traits commonly interact. We develop a general kin-selection framework for the evolution of social behaviours in multiple dimensions. We show that whenever there are interactions among social traits new behaviours can emerge that are not predicted by one-dimensional analyses. For example, a prohibitively costly cooperative trait can ultimately be favoured owing to initial evolution in other (cheaper) social traits that in turn change the cost-benefit ratio of the original trait. To understand these behaviours, we use a two-dimensional stability criterion that can be viewed as an extension of Hamilton's rule. Our principal example is the social dilemma posed by, first, the construction and, second, the exploitation of a shared public good. We find that, contrary to the separate one-dimensional analyses, evolutionary feedback between the two traits can cause an increase in the equilibrium level of selfish exploitation with increasing relatedness, while both social (production plus exploitation) and asocial (neither) strategies can be locally stable. Our results demonstrate the importance of emergent stability properties of multidimensional social dilemmas, as one-dimensional stability in all component dimensions can conceal multidimensional instability. PMID:19828549

  12. Functional traits explain variation in plant life history strategies.

    PubMed

    Adler, Peter B; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Compagnoni, Aldo; Hsu, Joanna S; Ray-Mukherjee, Jayanti; Mbeau-Ache, Cyril; Franco, Miguel

    2014-01-14

    Ecologists seek general explanations for the dramatic variation in species abundances in space and time. An increasingly popular solution is to predict species distributions, dynamics, and responses to environmental change based on easily measured anatomical and morphological traits. Trait-based approaches assume that simple functional traits influence fitness and life history evolution, but rigorous tests of this assumption are lacking, because they require quantitative information about the full lifecycles of many species representing different life histories. Here, we link a global traits database with empirical matrix population models for 222 species and report strong relationships between functional traits and plant life histories. Species with large seeds, long-lived leaves, or dense wood have slow life histories, with mean fitness (i.e., population growth rates) more strongly influenced by survival than by growth or fecundity, compared with fast life history species with small seeds, short-lived leaves, or soft wood. In contrast to measures of demographic contributions to fitness based on whole lifecycles, analyses focused on raw demographic rates may underestimate the strength of association between traits and mean fitness. Our results help establish the physiological basis for plant life history evolution and show the potential for trait-based approaches in population dynamics. PMID:24379395

  13. Callous-unemotional traits and adolescents' role in group crime.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Laura C; Frick, Paul J; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Ray, James V; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined the association of callous-unemotional (CU) traits with group offending (i.e., committing a crime with others; gang involvement) and with the role that the offender may play in a group offense (e.g., being the leader). This analysis was conducted in an ethnically and racially diverse sample (N = 1,216) of justice-involved adolescents (ages 13 to 17) from 3 different sites. CU traits were associated with a greater likelihood of the adolescent offending in groups and being in a gang. Importantly, both associations remained significant after controlling for the adolescent's age, level of intelligence, race and ethnicity, and level of impulse control. The association of CU traits with gang membership also remained significant after controlling for the adolescent's history of delinquent behavior. Further, CU traits were associated with several measures of taking a leadership role in group crimes. CU traits were also associated with greater levels of planning in the group offense for which the adolescent was arrested, although this was moderated by the adolescent's race and was not found in Black youth. These results highlight the importance of CU traits for understanding the group process involved in delinquent acts committed by adolescents. They also underscore the importance of enhancing the effectiveness of treatments for these traits in order to reduce juvenile delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25689410

  14. Predicting leaf traits of herbaceous species from their spectral characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Roelofsen, Hans D; van Bodegom, Peter M; Kooistra, Lammert; Witte, Jan-Philip M

    2014-01-01

    Trait predictions from leaf spectral properties are mainly applied to tree species, while herbaceous systems received little attention in this topic. Whether similar trait–spectrum relations can be derived for herbaceous plants that differ strongly in growing strategy and environmental constraints is therefore unknown. We used partial least squares regression to relate key traits to leaf spectra (reflectance, transmittance, and absorbance) for 35 herbaceous species, sampled from a wide range of environmental conditions. Specific Leaf Area and nutrient-related traits (N and P content) were poorly predicted from any spectrum, although N prediction improved when expressed on a per area basis (mg/m2 leaf surface) instead of mass basis (mg/g dry matter). Leaf dry matter content was moderately to good correlated with spectra. We explain our results by the range of environmental constraints encountered by herbaceous species; both N and P limitations as well as a range of light and water availabilities occurred. This weakened the relation between the measured response traits and the leaf constituents that are truly responsible for leaf spectral behavior. Indeed, N predictions improve considering solely upper or under canopy species. Therefore, trait predictions in herbaceous systems should focus on traits relating to dry matter content and the true, underlying drivers of spectral properties. PMID:24683454

  15. Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The study of ecosystem functioning – the role which organisms play in an ecosystem – is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (http://polytraits.lifewatchgreece.eu), a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida). At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources. PMID:24855436

  16. Morphological and geographical traits of the british odonata.

    PubMed

    Powney, Gary D; Brooks, Stephen J; Barwell, Louise J; Bowles, Phil; Fitt, Robert N L; Pavitt, Alyson; Spriggs, Rebecca A; Isaac, Nick J B

    2014-01-01

    Trait data are fundamental for many aspects of ecological research, particularly for modeling species response to environmental change. We synthesised information from the literature (mainly field guides) and direct measurements from museum specimens, providing a comprehensive dataset of 26 attributes, covering the 43 resident species of Odonata in Britain. Traits included in this database range from morphological traits (e.g. body length) to attributes based on the distribution of the species (e.g. climatic restriction). We measured 11 morphometric traits from five adult males and five adult females per species. Using digital callipers, these measurements were taken from dry museum specimens, all of which were wild caught individuals. Repeated measures were also taken to estimate measurement error. The trait data are stored in an online repository (https://github.com/BiologicalRecordsCentre/Odonata_traits), alongside R code designed to give an overview of the morphometric data, and to combine the morphometric data to the single value per trait per species data. PMID:24855438

  17. Photon spectra from beta sources of the Beta Secondary Standard BSS 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Behrens; G. Hilgers

    2011-01-01

    For several years, the Beta Secondary Standard (BSS 2) developed at PTB has been in worldwide use to perform irradiations with calibrated beta sources. In this work, the photon contamination of the reference beta radiation fields was measured using a high purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometer. Both the spectral distribution of the photons and the resulting dose(rate) was deduced from the

  18. Spectroscopy of Double-Beta and Inverse-Beta Decays from 100Mo for Neutrinos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ejiri; J. Engel; R. Hazama; P. Krastev; N. Kudomi; R. G. H. Robertson

    2000-01-01

    Spectroscopic studies of two beta rays from 100Mo are shown to be of potential interest for investigating both the Majorana nu mass by neutrinoless double beta decay \\\\(0nubetabeta\\\\) and low energy solar nu's by inverse beta decay. With a multiton 100Mo detector, coincidence studies of correlated betabeta from 0nubetabeta, together with the large Q value ( Qbetabeta), permit identification of

  19. Proteopedia: Rossmann Fold: A Beta-Alpha-Beta Fold at Dinucleotide Binding Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanukoglu, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The Rossmann fold is one of the most common and widely distributed super-secondary structures. It is composed of a series of alternating beta strand (ß) and alpha helical (a) segments wherein the ß-strands are hydrogen bonded forming a ß-sheet. The initial beta-alpha-beta (ßaß) fold is the most conserved segment of Rossmann folds. As this segment…

  20. A new method for measuring beta spectra and doses in mixed beta-photon fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Eisen; B. H. Erkkila; R. J. Brake; W. P. Unruh; F. Hajnal

    1985-01-01

    A new method to discriminate betas from photons in a wide range of mixed beta-photon fields by using special phoswich plastic scintillators is described. The phoswich detectors are able to measure beta spectra and doses at selected tissue depths and also measure separately skin and penetrating doses. The method is simple and can be implemented in a portable instrument by

  1. A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R., II; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

  2. Functional traits and root morphology of alpine plants

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Mandy; Stroude, Raphaël; Buttler, Alexandre; Rixen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Vegetation has long been recognized to protect the soil from erosion. Understanding species differences in root morphology and functional traits is an important step to assess which species and species mixtures may provide erosion control. Furthermore, extending classification of plant functional types towards root traits may be a useful procedure in understanding important root functions. Methods In this study, pioneer data on traits of alpine plant species, i.e. plant height and shoot biomass, root depth, horizontal root spreading, root length, diameter, tensile strength, plant age and root biomass, from a disturbed site in the Swiss Alps are presented. The applicability of three classifications of plant functional types (PFTs), i.e. life form, growth form and root type, was examined for above- and below-ground plant traits. Key Results Plant traits differed considerably among species even of the same life form, e.g. in the case of total root length by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the same root diameter, species differed significantly in tensile strength: some species (Geum reptans and Luzula spicata) had roots more than twice as strong as those of other species. Species of different life forms provided different root functions (e.g. root depth and horizontal root spreading) that may be important for soil physical processes. All classifications of PFTs were helpful to categorize plant traits; however, the PFTs according to root type explained total root length far better than the other PFTs. Conclusions The results of the study illustrate the remarkable differences between root traits of alpine plants, some of which cannot be assessed from simple morphological inspection, e.g. tensile strength. PFT classification based on root traits seems useful to categorize plant traits, even though some patterns are better explained at the individual species level. PMID:21795278

  3. Phenotypic plasticity to light and nutrient availability alters functional trait ranking across eight perennial grassland species

    PubMed Central

    Siebenkäs, Alrun; Schumacher, Jens; Roscher, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Functional traits are often used as species-specific mean trait values in comparative plant ecology or trait-based predictions of ecosystem processes, assuming that interspecific differences are greater than intraspecific trait variation and that trait-based ranking of species is consistent across environments. Although this assumption is increasingly challenged, there is a lack of knowledge regarding to what degree the extent of intraspecific trait variation in response to varying environmental conditions depends on the considered traits and the characteristics of the studied species to evaluate the consequences for trait-based species ranking. We studied functional traits of eight perennial grassland species classified into different functional groups (forbs vs. grasses) and varying in their inherent growth stature (tall vs. small) in a common garden experiment with different environments crossing three levels of nutrient availability and three levels of light availability over 4 months of treatment applications. Grasses and forbs differed in almost all above- and belowground traits, while trait differences related to growth stature were generally small. The traits showing the strongest responses to resource availability were similarly for grasses and forbs those associated with allocation and resource uptake. The strength of trait variation in response to varying resource availability differed among functional groups (grasses > forbs) and species of varying growth stature (small-statured > tall-statured species) in many aboveground traits, but only to a lower extent in belowground traits. These differential responses altered trait-based species ranking in many aboveground traits, such as specific leaf area, tissue nitrogen and carbon concentrations and above-belowground allocation (leaf area ratio and root : shoot ratio) at varying resource supply, while trait-based species ranking was more consistent in belowground traits. Our study shows that species grouping according to functional traits is valid, but trait-based species ranking depends on environmental conditions, thus limiting the applicability of species-specific mean trait values in ecological studies. PMID:25818071

  4. Phenotypic plasticity to light and nutrient availability alters functional trait ranking across eight perennial grassland species.

    PubMed

    Siebenkäs, Alrun; Schumacher, Jens; Roscher, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Functional traits are often used as species-specific mean trait values in comparative plant ecology or trait-based predictions of ecosystem processes, assuming that interspecific differences are greater than intraspecific trait variation and that trait-based ranking of species is consistent across environments. Although this assumption is increasingly challenged, there is a lack of knowledge regarding to what degree the extent of intraspecific trait variation in response to varying environmental conditions depends on the considered traits and the characteristics of the studied species to evaluate the consequences for trait-based species ranking. We studied functional traits of eight perennial grassland species classified into different functional groups (forbs vs. grasses) and varying in their inherent growth stature (tall vs. small) in a common garden experiment with different environments crossing three levels of nutrient availability and three levels of light availability over 4 months of treatment applications. Grasses and forbs differed in almost all above- and belowground traits, while trait differences related to growth stature were generally small. The traits showing the strongest responses to resource availability were similarly for grasses and forbs those associated with allocation and resource uptake. The strength of trait variation in response to varying resource availability differed among functional groups (grasses > forbs) and species of varying growth stature (small-statured > tall-statured species) in many aboveground traits, but only to a lower extent in belowground traits. These differential responses altered trait-based species ranking in many aboveground traits, such as specific leaf area, tissue nitrogen and carbon concentrations and above-belowground allocation (leaf area ratio and root : shoot ratio) at varying resource supply, while trait-based species ranking was more consistent in belowground traits. Our study shows that species grouping according to functional traits is valid, but trait-based species ranking depends on environmental conditions, thus limiting the applicability of species-specific mean trait values in ecological studies. PMID:25818071

  5. Functional role of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) in IL-1 beta- converting enzyme-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Prointerleukin-1 beta (pro-IL-1 beta) is the only known physiologic substrate of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)-converting enzyme (ICE), the founding member of the ICE/ced-3 cell death gene family. Since secreted mature IL-1 beta has been detected after apoptosis, we investigated whether this cytokine, when produced endogenously, plays a role in cell death. We found that hypoxia-induced apoptosis can be inhibited by either the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) or by neutralizing antibodies to IL-1 or to its type 1 receptor. IL-1Ra also inhibits apoptosis induced by trophic factor deprivation in primary neurons, as well as by tumor necrosis factor alpha in fibroblasts. In addition, during the G1/S phase arrest, mature IL-1 beta induces apoptosis through a pathway independent of CrmA-sensitive gene activity. We also demonstrate that Ice, when expressed in COS cells, requires the coexpression of pro-IL-1 beta for the induction of apoptosis, which is inhibited by IL-1Ra. Interestingly, we found that mature IL-1 beta has antiapoptotic activity when added exogenously before the onset of hypoxia, which we found is caused in part by its ability to downregulate the IL-1 receptor. Our findings demonstrate that pro-IL-1 beta is a substrate of ICE relevant to cell death, and depending on the temporal cellular commitment to apoptosis, mature IL-1 beta may function as a positive or negative mediator of cell death. PMID:8760825

  6. Neutrinoless double beta decay with scalar bilinears

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus; Utpal Sarkar

    2003-01-01

    One possible probe to physics beyond the standard model is to look for scalar bilinears, which couple to two fermions of the standard model. We point out that the scalar bilinears allow new diagrams contributing to the neutrinoless double beta decay. The neutrinoless double beta decay lifetime would then give new constraints on the ratio of the masses of these

  7. Neutrinoless double beta decay and neutrino physics

    E-print Network

    Werner Rodejohann

    2012-08-20

    The connection of neutrino physics with neutrinoless double beta decay is reviewed. After presenting the current status of the PMNS matrix and the theoretical background of neutrino mass and lepton mixing, we will summarize the various implications of neutrino physics for double beta decay. The influence of light sterile neutrinos and other exotic modifications of the three neutrino picture is also discussed.

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Double-beta decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R. Elliott; Jonathan Engel

    2004-01-01

    We review recent developments in double-beta decay, focusing on what can be learned about the three light neutrinos in future experiments. We examine the effects of uncertainties in already measured neutrino parameters and in calculated nuclear matrix elements on the interpretation of upcoming double-beta decay measurements. We then review a number of proposed experiments.

  9. Double beta decay: experiments and theory review

    E-print Network

    A. Nucciotti

    2007-07-28

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is one of the most powerful tools to set the neutrino mass absolute scale and establish whether the neutrino is a Majorana particle. After a summary of the neutrinoless double beta decay phenomenology, the present status of the experimental search for this rare decay is reported and the prospects for next generation experiments are reviewed.

  10. Nuclear physics aspects of double beta decay

    E-print Network

    Petr Vogel

    2008-07-15

    Comprehensive description of the phenomenology of the $\\beta\\beta$ decay is given, with emphasis on the nuclear physics aspects. After a brief review of the neutrino oscillation results and of motivation to test the lepton number conservation, the mechanism of the $0\

  11. Beta decay properties using a statistical model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Mann; C. Dunn; R. E. Schenter

    1982-01-01

    Beta decay properties (tââ, E-bar\\/sub ..beta..\\/, E-bar\\/sub ..gamma..\\/, E-bar\\/sub n\\/, and P\\/sub n\\/) are calculated for fission product nuclei by a statistical model and are found to be in good agreement with experiment.

  12. Modeling the beta diversity of coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Harborne, Alastair R; Mumby, Peter J; Zychaluk, Kamila; Hedley, John D; Blackwell, Paul G

    2006-11-01

    Quantifying the beta diversity (species replacement along spatiotemporal gradients) of ecosystems is important for understanding and conserving patterns of biodiversity. However, virtually all studies of beta diversity focus on one-dimensional transects orientated along a specific environmental gradient that is defined a priori. By ignoring a second spatial dimension and the associated changes in species composition and environmental gradients, this approach may provide limited insight into the full pattern of beta diversity. Here, we use remotely sensed imagery to quantify beta diversity continuously, in two dimensions, and at multiple scales across an entire tropical marine seascape. We then show that beta diversity can be modeled (0.852 > or = r2 > or = 0.590) at spatial scales between 0.5 and 5.0 km2, using the environmental variables of mean and variance of depth and wave exposure. Beta diversity, quantified within a "window" of a given size, is positively correlated to the range of environmental conditions within that window. For example, beta diversity increases with increasing variance of depth. By analyzing such relationships across seascapes, this study provides a framework for a range of disparate coral reef literature including studies of zonation, diversity, and disturbance. Using supporting evidence from soft-bottom communities, we hypothesize that depth will be an important variable for modeling beta diversity in a range of marine systems. We discuss the implications of our results for the design of marine reserves. PMID:17168031

  13. Beta maritima: the Origin of Beets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Along the undisturbed shores, especially of the Mediterranean Sea and the European North Atlantic Ocean, is a widespread plant called Beta maritima (Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima) by the botanists, or more commonly sea beet. Nothing for the inexperienced observer's eye distinguishes it from surr...

  14. High-. beta. plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.; Couture, P.; Fishman, H.; Fonck, R.; Gammel, G.; Grek, B.; Ida, K.; Itami, K.

    1986-10-13

    Bean-shaped configurations have been successfully formed in the PBX tokamak and ..beta.. values of over 5% have been obtained. These discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present ..beta.. limit.

  15. An Explanation for Beta's Mean-reversion

    E-print Network

    Bodkin, Connor Matthew

    2013-09-26

    for the designation as an UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR Approved by Research Advisor: Dr. Dennis Jansen May 2014 Major: Economics TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................. 8 1 ABSTRACT An Explanation for Beta’s Mean Reversion. (May 2014) Connor Matthew Bodkin Department of Economics Texas A&M University Research Advisor: Dr. Dennis Jansen Department of Economics This study aims to improve upon...

  16. The Beta Cage: Screening Low Radioactive Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinar, K.; Akerib, D.; Grant, D.; Schnee, R.; Shutt, T.; Golwala, S.; Ahmed, Z.

    2006-10-01

    The beta cage is a proposed multi-wire proportional chamber that will be the most sensitive device available to screen low-energy (200 keV) betas emitted at rates as low as 10-5 counts keV^1 cm-2 day-1 (of order 10-4 Bq/m^2). The expected sensitivity and details of the construction and commissioning of its prototype chamber are presented. The prototype beta cage is a 50x50x25 cm frame gridded by stacked wire planes contained in a chamber of gas. To reduce background, the chamber contains only enough mass to stop betas of interest. Samples are placed beneath the grid; the wires multiply the betas and collect their electron avalanche. Readouts allow discrimination of its events from background and determination of the beta (or alpha) source. The beta cage has potential use in carbon or tritium dating, with ^3H/^1H sensitivity of 10-20 and ^ 14C/ ^12C sensitivity of 10-18. Its design was motivated by CDMS, whose sensitivity to the dark matter candidate WIMPs is currently limited by low-energy beta contamination.

  17. The pricing of time-varying beta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria González-Rivera

    1997-01-01

    We generalize an asset pricing model based on the Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) allowing beta to be time-varying. Making beta a random variable adds flexibility to the model because permits a non-linear relation between individual returns and the set of factors, and accounts for the effect of possible omitted variables. We integrate the conditional APT with a general linear stochastic

  18. Venus: Geology of Beta Regio rift system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikishin, A. M.; Borozdin, V. K.; Bobina, N. N.

    1992-01-01

    Beta Regio is characterized by the existence of rift structures. We compiled new geologic maps of Beta Regio according to Magellan data. There are many large uplifted tesserae on beta upland. These tesserae are partly buried by younger volcanic cover. We can conclude, using these observations, that Beta upland formed mainly due to lithospheric tectonic uplifting and was only partly constructed by volcanism. Theia Mons is the center of the Beta rift system. Many rift belts are distributed radially to Theia Mons. Typical widths of rifts are 40-160 km. Rift valleys are structurally represented by crustal grabens or half-grabens. There are symmetrical and asymmetrical rifts. Many rifts have shoulder uplifts up to 0.5-1 km high and 40-60 km wide. Preliminary analysis for rift valley structural cross sections lead to the conclusion that rifts originated due to 5-10 percent crustal extension. Many rifts traverse Beta upland and spread to the surrounding lowlands. We can assume because of these data that Beta rift system has an active-passive origin. It formed due to regional tectonic lithospheric extension. Rifting was accelerated by upper-mantle hot spot origination under the center of passive extension (under the Beta Regio).

  19. Precision measurements in free neutron beta decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Baessler

    2010-01-01

    The study of neutron beta decay serves to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allows several precision tests of the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics at low energies. For this purpose, the neutron lifetime, and correlations between the momenta and spins of the particles involved are measured. In my talk, I will discuss present experiments, with the

  20. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, G.G.; Kato, T.R.; Schonegg, E.

    1985-04-11

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed. 5 tabs.

  1. Effect of finite. beta. on stellarator transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.

    1984-04-01

    A theory of the modification of stellarator transport due to the presence of finite plasma pressure is developed, and applied to a range of stellarator configurations. For many configurations of interest, plasma transport can change by more than an order of magnitude in the progression from zero pressure to the equilibrium ..beta.. limit of the device. Thus, a stellarator with transport-optimized vacuum fields can have poor confinement at the desired operating ..beta... Without an external compensating field, increasing ..beta.. tends to degrade confinement, unless the initial field structure is very carefully chosen. The theory permits one to correctly determine this vacuum structure, in terms of the desired structure of the field at a prescribed operating ..beta... With a compensating external field, the deleterious effect of finite ..beta.. on transport can be partially eliminated.

  2. PBX: the Princeton beta experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, K.; Chance, M.; Dewar, R.

    1983-09-01

    A rearrangement of the divertor coils in PDX will enable a test in 1984 of the MHD stability properties of deeply indented bean-shaped plasmas. The goal is a beta of 10%. Indentation is expected to counter the deterioration of MHD stability against pressure driven modes that is occasioned by the larger aspect ratios typical of anticipated reactor oriented devices. Indeed, as shown by M. Chance et al., indentation may offer direct access to the second region of stability for ballooning modes, and numerical analyses with PEST show the internal kink to be stabilized completely with even relatively modest indentation. The internal kink is implicated in the loss of beam ions in PDX. In this report the theoretical basis for the forthcoming experiment, and the design considerations underlying the modification from PDX to PBX, are described in detail. Additional theoretical material, including an analysis of particle orbits in an indented tokamak plasma, is appended.

  3. DREAM: Research to Operations Beta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, Reiner; Reeves, Geoffrey; Zaharia, Sorin; Koller, Josef; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Mike; Thomsen, Davis

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a dataassimilative model of the Earth's radiation belts that has, until recently, been used primarily as a re-search tool to understand radiation belt dynamics and to develop Kalman filter techniques for application to magnetospheric modeling. More recently, the emphasis of the DREAM program has shifted toward implementation of an operational prototype for testing and validation at the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Space Weather Forecast Laboratory (SWFL) and NASA's Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). The transition has required significant effort, funding, and shifting of priorities that serve as a recent example of the oppor-tunities and challenges of transitioning a model from research to operations (R2O). DREAM is still in the early stages of transition to operations but we do not see any significant obstacles to success. We present here the BETA version of this model, operating in real-time, using GOES energetic particle data as input.

  4. Prediction of Genetic Correlations and International Breeding Values for Missing Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prediction of genetic merit for missing traits is possible by combining non-missing indicator traits. The indicator traits were combined by prior genetic correlations obtained from multiple regression equations of estimated genetic correlations among non-missing indicator traits on variables explain...

  5. Imputation of missing data in life-history trait datasets: which approach performs the best?

    E-print Network

    Davidson, Ana

    evaluated the extent to which the allometric relationship between two traits (body mass and longevity of missing values for all tested traits. The allometric relationship between body mass and longevity relationships among traits. 2. Starting with a nearly complete trait dataset on the mammalian order Carnivora

  6. Relationships between conformation traits and longevity of Holstein cows in the Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vacek; E. Štípková; J. Bouška

    The relationships between conformation traits and longevity traits were analyzed in 41 489 Holstein cows born in the years 1994-1999 which were culled by 30 th June 2005. Pearson correlation coefficients between type traits and the herd life or productive life of cows were calculated. The effects of type trait scoring level on the length of productive life were described

  7. Applying the coalitionary-traits metric: sociality without cooperation in male yellow-bellied marmots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucretia E. Olson; Daniel T. Blumstein

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian sociality varies both within and between species. We developed a trait-based method to quantify sociality in a continuous way to study the adaptive utility and evolution of male social behavior. The metric is based on 3 key traits--mutual tolerance, collaboration, and partner preference; males with no traits are not social, whereas those with all 3 traits are described as

  8. Broad and Narrow Personality Traits in Relation to the Job Performance of Camp Counselors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Loveland; Lucy W. Gibson; John W. Lounsbury; Beverly C. Huffstetler

    2005-01-01

    We examined personality traits important for the job performance of summer camp counselors, including several of the Big Five and narrow personality traits. Performance was based on two composite scales: social performance and task performance. The personality traits of work drive, extraversion, nurturance, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly related to the social performance measure, and the traits of customer service

  9. The impact of trait anxiety and situational stress on the categorization of natural objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Mikulincer Peri Kedem; Dov Paz

    1990-01-01

    The current series of studies assesses the impact of trait anxiety and situational stress on mental categorization. Subjects' trait anxiety was measured and they were exposed to different sources of situational stress while they performed categorization tasks. Results showed that both high trait anxiety subjects in control conditions and low trait anxiety subjects in stress conditions (a) reject more nonprototype

  10. Trait emotional intelligence and the cognitive appraisal of stressful events: An exploratory study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moïra Mikolajczak; Olivier Luminet

    2008-01-01

    The construct of trait emotional intelligence [trait EI] refers to the individual differences in the perception, processing, regulation, and utilization of emotional information. Several studies have found that trait EI was a significant moderator of both subjective and neuroendocrine responses to stress. The present study explores whether trait EI also influences the anticipation of stressful events and, more specifically, how

  11. Relationships Between Attributional Style and Trait Anxiety for Preadolescent Australian Boys and Girls1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Khodayarifard; Mark H. Anshel; Thomas M. Brinthaupt

    2006-01-01

    This study examined relationships among components of attributional style and trait anxiety for 428 English-speaking boys and girls, grades 4-6, from primary public schools in New South Wales, Australia. Students completed general measures of attributional style and trait anxiety. Results showed a small but significant relationship between negative attributional style and trait anxiety. In addition, girls reported higher trait anxiety

  12. Detection of pleiotropic effects of quantitative trait loci in outbred populations using regression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Schrooten; H. Bovenhuis

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented to determine pleiotropic quantitative trait loci (QTL) or closely linked QTL in an outbred population. The method is based on results from single-trait analyses for different traits and is derived for a granddaughter design. The covariance between estimated contrasts of grandsires obtained in single-trait regression analysis is computed. When there is no pleiotropic

  13. Electrophysiological time course and brain areas of spontaneous and intentional trait inferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marijke Van Duynslaeger; Frank Van Overwalle; Edwin Verstraeten

    2007-01-01

    This study measured event-related potentials during spontaneous and intentional trait inferences. Participants read sentences describing the behavior of a target person from which a strong moral trait could be inferred. The last word of each sentence determined the consistency with the trait induced during an introductory paragraph. In comparison with behaviors that were consistent with the implied trait, a P300

  14. 21 CFR 866.3050 - Beta-glucan serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Beta-glucan serological assays. 866.3050 Section 866.3050 Food...866.3050 Beta-glucan serological assays. (a) Identification . Beta-glucan serological assays are devices that consist of antigens...

  15. beta-Hydrogen Kinetic Effect.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Raffaello; D'Amico, Giuseppina; Sicilia, Emilia; Russo, Nino; Rizzato, Silvia

    2007-05-01

    A combined kinetic and DFT study of the uncatalyzed isomerization of cationic solvent complexes of the type cis-[Pt(R')(S)(PR3)2]+ (R' = linear and branched alkyls or aryls and S = solvents) to their trans isomers has shown that the reaction goes through the rate-determining dissociative loss of the weakly bonded molecule of the solvent and the interconversion of two geometrically distinct T-shaped 14-electron three-coordinate intermediates. The Pt-S dissociation energy is strongly dependent on the coordinating properties of S and independent of the nature of R'. The energy barrier for the fluxional motion of [Pt(R')(PR3)2]+ is comparatively much lower ( approximately 8-21 kJ mol-1). The presence of beta-hydrogens on the alkyl chain (R' = Et, Prn, and Bun) produces a great acceleration of the reaction rate. This accelerating effect has been defined as the beta-hydrogen kinetic effect, and it is a consequence of the stabilization of the transition state and of the cis-like three-coordinate [Pt(R')(PR3)2]+ intermediate through an incipient agostic interaction. The DFT optimization of [Pt(R')(PMe3)2]+ (R' = Et, Prn, and Bun) reproduces a classical dihapto Pt....eta2-HC agostic mode between the unsaturated metal and a dangling C-H bond. The value of the agostic stabilization energy (in the range of approximately 21-33 kJ mol-1) was estimated by both kinetic and computational data and resulted in being independent of the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the organic moiety. A better understanding of such interactions in elusive reaction intermediates is of primary importance in the control of reaction pathways, especially for alkane activation by metal complexes. PMID:17408271

  16. Beta-dosimetry studies at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes three beta-dosimetry studies made recently at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first study was to determine the beta-gamma exposure rates at the Los Alamos Godiva IV Critical Assembly. The beta spectra from the assembly were evaluated using absorption curves and the beta-gamma dose-rate ratios were determined at various distances from the assembly. A comparison was made of the doses determined using two types of TLD personnel dosimeters and a film badge. The readings of an Eberline RO-7 instrument and the dose rates determined by TLDs were compared. Shielding provided by various metals, gloves, and clothing were measured. The second study was to determine the beta energy response of the Eberline RO-7 instrument based on measurements made with the PTB beta sources. This study required additional calibration points for the PTB sources which were made using extrapolation chamber measurements. The third study resulted in two techniques to determine the beta energy (E/sub max/) from the readings of this-window portable survey instruments. Both techniques are based on the readings obtained using aluminium filters. One technique is for field application, requires one filter, and provides a quick estimate of the beta energy in three energy groups: < 0.5 MeV, 0.5 MeV to 1.5 MeV and > 1.5 MeV. The second technique is more complex requiring measurements with two or three filters, but gives the beta energy and the approximate shape of the beta spectrum. 9 references, 6 figures.

  17. Variation in ecogeographical traits of pecan cultivars and provenances 

    E-print Network

    Sagaram, Madhulika

    2009-05-15

    with desirable leaf anatomical characteristics for breeding and cultivar development. To achieve the objective of studying anatomical, morphological and physiological traits, Mexican and U.S. provenances grown at the Pecan Genetics and Breeding Program facility...

  18. Is cyberbullying related to trait or state anger?

    PubMed

    Lonigro, Antonia; Schneider, Barry H; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Pallini, Susanna; Brunner, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Anger is a powerful emotion shared by victims and bullies in both physical and electronic forms of bullying. However, little is known about the specific roles of trait anger and state anger in involvement in bullying episodes. The purpose of this study was to verify which component of anger, trait or state, is more strongly related to physical and cyberbullying and victimization. Students between the ages 11-19 (N = 716, 392 female, 324 male) completed the state trait anger expression inventory-2 child and adolescent and a measure of victimization and bullying. Results for cyberbullying suggested a major vulnerability among bullies and victims to experience anger as a personality trait as well some links between state anger, cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Moreover, the outward, explosive expression of anger appears to be common among cyber and physical bullies. Implications for intervention programs are discussed. PMID:25081097

  19. Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum): independent traits

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum): independent traits and basis,VT 05405, USA Plasmodium mexicanum, a malaria parasite of lizards, exhibits substantial variation among histories of microparasites, such as the malaria organisms (Plasmodium). Within its vertebrate host

  20. What constrains directional selection on complex traits in the wild?

    E-print Network

    Mojica, Julius Penalba

    2011-08-31

    The fact that abundant genetic variation persists within populations despite strong directional selection on complex traits is one of the unresolved conundrums in evolutionary biology. In this dissertation, I employed a ...

  1. Traits Affecting Household Livestock Marketing Decisions in Rural Kenya

    E-print Network

    Traits Affecting Household Livestock Marketing Decisions in Rural Kenya Katherine L. Baldwin community of Central Kenya, we regressed household offtake rate of both cattle and smallstock against in Kenya. Because pastoralist economies depend almost exclusively upon livestock production, most recent

  2. Juvenile Psychopathic Personality Traits are Associated with Poor Reading Achievement

    PubMed Central

    DeLisi, Matt; Beaver, Kevin M.; Wexler, Jade; Barth, Amy; Fletcher, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The current study sought to further the understanding of the linkage between maladaptive behavior and cognitive problems by examining the relations between psychopathic personality traits and reading comprehension performance. Data were derived from a study of 432 predominately African-American and Hispanic middle-school students. Dependent variables consisted of three measures of reading comprehension. Psychopathy measures included the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits (ICU—teacher rated) and the self-reported Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI). Findings from regression models indicated that self-report and teacher ratings of psychopathy were statistically significant inverse predictors of reading performance. Specifically, affective facets of psychopathy were potent predictors of reading comprehension over and above ADHD, IQ, and an impulsivity component of psychopathy. Study results extend the utility of psychopathy construct generally and affective traits specifically to reading achievement, which has broad implications. Findings are discussed with respect to future research and prevention. PMID:20957434

  3. Abundant Pleiotropy in Human Complex Diseases and Traits

    E-print Network

    Agakov, Felix

    consortium;10 and pancreatic cancer [MIM 260350];11 (2) single-trait GWASs;12,13 and (3) a recent phe- nome implications for identification of molecular targets for drug development, future genetic risk

  4. EM Algorithm for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci in Multivalent Tetraploids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multivalent tetraploids that include many plant species, such as potato, sugarcane and rose, are of paramount importance to agricultural production and biological research. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in multivalent tetraploids is challenged by their unique cytogenetic properties, such ...

  5. Personality traits and developmental experiences as antecedents of childbearing motivation.

    PubMed

    Miller, W B

    1992-05-01

    Childbearing motivation may be conceptualized as based upon psychological traits and shaped by experiences during childhood, adolescence, and early adult life. This paper explores what those traits and developmental experiences are. Two measures of childbearing motivation, one positive and the other negative, are described. Using a sample of 362 married men and 354 married women, the paper systematically examines the factors associated with these measures. In addition to a set of basic personality traits, these factors include parental characteristics, teenage experiences, and a number of variables from young adult behavior domains such as marriage, education, work, religion, and parental relationships. Stepwise multiple regression analyses lead to two final constrained, simultaneous-equation regression models. These models indicate the importance of both personality traits and diverse life-cycle experiences in the development of childbearing motivation, the differential gender distribution of predictors, and the different experiential antecedents of positive and negative motivation. PMID:1607052

  6. Detection of quantitative trait loci influencing dairy traits using a model for longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Southey, B R; Heyen, D W; Lewin, H A

    2002-10-01

    A longitudinal-linkage analysis approach was developed and applied to an outbred population. Nonlinear mixed-effects models were used to describe the lactation patterns and were extended to include marker information following single-marker and interval mapping models. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the shape and scale of lactation curves for production and health traits in dairy cattle were mapped in three U.S. Holstein families (Dairy Bull DNA Repository families one, four, and five) using the granddaughter design. Information on 81 informative markers on six Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) was combined with milk yield, fat, and protein percentage and somatic cell score (SCS) test-day records. Six percent of the single-marker tests surpassed the experiment-wise significance threshold. Marker BL41 on BTA3 was associated with decrease in milk yield during mid-lactation in family one. The scale and shape of the protein percentage lactation curve in family four varied with BMC4203 (BTA6) allele that the son received from the grandsire. Some map locations were associated with variation in the lactation pattern of multiple traits. In family four, the marker HUJI177 (BTA3) was associated with changes in the milk yield and protein percentage curves suggesting a QTL with pleiotropic effects or multiple QTL in the region. The interval mapping model uncovered a QTL on BTA7 associated with variation in milk-yield pattern in family four and a QTL on BTA21 affecting SCS in family five. The developed approach can be extended to random regressions, covariance functions, spline, gametic and variance component models. The results from the longitudinal-QTL approach will help to understand the genetic factors acting at different stages of lactation and will assist in positional candidate gene research. Identified positions can be incorporated into marker-assisted selection decisions to alter the persistency and peak production or the fluctuation of SCS during a lactation. PMID:12416823

  7. Mixed linear model approach for mapping quantitative trait loci underlying crop seed traits.

    PubMed

    Qi, T; Jiang, B; Zhu, Z; Wei, C; Gao, Y; Zhu, S; Xu, H; Lou, X

    2014-09-01

    The crop seed is a complex organ that may be composed of the diploid embryo, the triploid endosperm and the diploid maternal tissues. According to the genetic features of seed characters, two genetic models for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of crop seed traits are proposed, with inclusion of maternal effects, embryo or endosperm effects of QTL, environmental effects and QTL-by-environment (QE) interactions. The mapping population can be generated either from double back-cross of immortalized F2 (IF2) to the two parents, from random-cross of IF2 or from selfing of IF2 population. Candidate marker intervals potentially harboring QTLs are first selected through one-dimensional scanning across the whole genome. The selected candidate marker intervals are then included in the model as cofactors to control background genetic effects on the putative QTL(s). Finally, a QTL full model is constructed and model selection is conducted to eliminate false positive QTLs. The genetic main effects of QTLs, QE interaction effects and the corresponding P-values are computed by Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for Gaussian mixed linear model via Gibbs sampling. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to investigate the reliability and efficiency of the proposed method. The simulation results showed that the proposed method had higher power to accurately detect simulated QTLs and properly estimated effect of these QTLs. To demonstrate the usefulness, the proposed method was used to identify the QTLs underlying fiber percentage in an upland cotton IF2 population. A computer software, QTLNetwork-Seed, was developed for QTL analysis of seed traits. PMID:24619175

  8. Genomic prediction of complex human traits: relatedness, trait architecture and predictive meta-models.

    PubMed

    Spiliopoulou, Athina; Nagy, Reka; Bermingham, Mairead L; Huffman, Jennifer E; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Wright, Alan F; Wilson, James F; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Agakov, Felix; Navarro, Pau; Haley, Chris S

    2015-07-15

    We explore the prediction of individuals' phenotypes for complex traits using genomic data. We compare several widely used prediction models, including Ridge Regression, LASSO and Elastic Nets estimated from cohort data, and polygenic risk scores constructed using published summary statistics from genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMA). We evaluate the interplay between relatedness, trait architecture and optimal marker density, by predicting height, body mass index (BMI) and high-density lipoprotein level (HDL) in two data cohorts, originating from Croatia and Scotland. We empirically demonstrate that dense models are better when all genetic effects are small (height and BMI) and target individuals are related to the training samples, while sparse models predict better in unrelated individuals and when some effects have moderate size (HDL). For HDL sparse models achieved good across-cohort prediction, performing similarly to the GWAMA risk score and to models trained within the same cohort, which indicates that, for predicting traits with moderately sized effects, large sample sizes and familial structure become less important, though still potentially useful. Finally, we propose a novel ensemble of whole-genome predictors with GWAMA risk scores and demonstrate that the resulting meta-model achieves higher prediction accuracy than either model on its own. We conclude that although current genomic predictors are not accurate enough for diagnostic purposes, performance can be improved without requiring access to large-scale individual-level data. Our methodologically simple meta-model is a means of performing predictive meta-analysis for optimizing genomic predictions and can be easily extended to incorporate multiple population-level summary statistics or other domain knowledge. PMID:25918167

  9. Genomic prediction of complex human traits: relatedness, trait architecture and predictive meta-models

    PubMed Central

    Spiliopoulou, Athina; Nagy, Reka; Bermingham, Mairead L.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Agakov, Felix; Navarro, Pau; Haley, Chris S.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the prediction of individuals' phenotypes for complex traits using genomic data. We compare several widely used prediction models, including Ridge Regression, LASSO and Elastic Nets estimated from cohort data, and polygenic risk scores constructed using published summary statistics from genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMA). We evaluate the interplay between relatedness, trait architecture and optimal marker density, by predicting height, body mass index (BMI) and high-density lipoprotein level (HDL) in two data cohorts, originating from Croatia and Scotland. We empirically demonstrate that dense models are better when all genetic effects are small (height and BMI) and target individuals are related to the training samples, while sparse models predict better in unrelated individuals and when some effects have moderate size (HDL). For HDL sparse models achieved good across-cohort prediction, performing similarly to the GWAMA risk score and to models trained within the same cohort, which indicates that, for predicting traits with moderately sized effects, large sample sizes and familial structure become less important, though still potentially useful. Finally, we propose a novel ensemble of whole-genome predictors with GWAMA risk scores and demonstrate that the resulting meta-model achieves higher prediction accuracy than either model on its own. We conclude that although current genomic predictors are not accurate enough for diagnostic purposes, performance can be improved without requiring access to large-scale individual-level data. Our methodologically simple meta-model is a means of performing predictive meta-analysis for optimizing genomic predictions and can be easily extended to incorporate multiple population-level summary statistics or other domain knowledge. PMID:25918167

  10. Mucins Suppress Virulence Traits of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, Nicole L.; Zhang, Angela Q.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans, causing a variety of diseases ranging from superficial mucosal infections to deep-seated systemic invasions. Mucus, the gel that coats all wet epithelial surfaces, accommodates C. albicans as part of the normal microbiota, where C. albicans resides asymptomatically in healthy humans. Through a series of in vitro experiments combined with gene expression analysis, we show that mucin biopolymers, the main gel-forming constituents of mucus, induce a new oval-shaped morphology in C. albicans in which a range of genes related to adhesion, filamentation, and biofilm formation are downregulated. We also show that corresponding traits are suppressed, rendering C. albicans impaired in forming biofilms on a range of different synthetic surfaces and human epithelial cells. Our data suggest that mucins can manipulate C. albicans physiology, and we hypothesize that they are key environmental signals for retaining C. albicans in the host-compatible, commensal state. PMID:25389175

  11. Flood adaptive traits and processes: an overview.

    PubMed

    Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Unanticipated flooding challenges plant growth and fitness in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Here we describe mechanisms of developmental plasticity and metabolic modulation that underpin adaptive traits and acclimation responses to waterlogging of root systems and submergence of aerial tissues. This includes insights into processes that enhance ventilation of submerged organs. At the intersection between metabolism and growth, submergence survival strategies have evolved involving an ethylene-driven and gibberellin-enhanced module that regulates growth of submerged organs. Opposing regulation of this pathway is facilitated by a subgroup of ethylene-response transcription factors (ERFs), which include members that require low O? or low nitric oxide (NO) conditions for their stabilization. These transcription factors control genes encoding enzymes required for anaerobic metabolism as well as proteins that fine-tune their function in transcription and turnover. Other mechanisms that control metabolism and growth at seed, seedling and mature stages under flooding conditions are reviewed, as well as findings demonstrating that true endurance of submergence includes an ability to restore growth following the deluge. Finally, we highlight molecular insights obtained from natural variation of domesticated and wild species that occupy different hydrological niches, emphasizing the value of understanding natural flooding survival strategies in efforts to stabilize crop yields in flood-prone environments. PMID:25580769

  12. Unusual traits associated with Robinow syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, M A; Ismail, E A; al-Naggar, R L; al-Torki, N A; Farah, S; al-Awadi, S A; Obenbergerova, D; Bastaki, L

    1997-01-01

    We report on some members of two unrelated families showing the characteristic features of Robinow syndrome. In a consanguineous Kuwaiti family, the index case with Robinow syndrome showed some unusual features including severe IUGR, laxity of ligaments, hyperextensible joints, redundant skin folds, severe normocytic anaemia, repeated infection, increased percentage of total T cells and CD4 positive population, reduced percentage of CD8 positive cells, and EMG abnormality. In a Pakistani family with a high degree of multigenerational consanguinity, a single case with the Robinow phenotype also had congenital heart disease, mainly involving the right side of the heart, with pulmonary stenosis, tricuspid atresia, ASD, VSD, double outlet right ventricle, and right atrial isomerism. This report suggests that the disease profile of Robinow syndrome may be extended to accommodate the unusual traits mentioned above. The association of the Robinow phenotype with congenital heart disease in case 2 of this report is consistent with the previously reported finding that congenital heart disease, particularly involving the right side of the heart, may be a prominent component of Robinow syndrome in a subset of patients. Images PMID:9321759

  13. Qualitative dermatoglyphic traits in brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Polovina, Svetislav; Milici?, Jasna; Cvjeticanin, Miljenko; Prolosci?, Tajana Polovina

    2007-12-01

    It has been considered for many years that the cause of perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP) is excessive lateral traction applied to the fetal head at delivery, in association with anterior shoulder dystocia, but this do not explain all cases of brachial plexus palsy. The incidence found in several family members could be suggestive for inheritance with variable expression. The aim of this study was to prove early found confirmations of genetic predisposition for PBPP In the previous studies, the quantitative dermatoglyphic analysis showed some differences in digito-palmar dermatoglyphs between patients with PBPP and healthy controls. Now this qualitative analysis will try to determine hereditary of those diseases. We analyzed digito-palmar dermatoglyphics from 140 subjects (70 males and 70 females) diagnosed with PBPP and 400 phenotypically healthy adults (200 males and 200 females) from Zagreb area as control group. The results of Chi-square test showed statistically significant differences for frequencies of patterns on fingers in females between the groups observed. Statistically significant differences were found on palms in III and IV interdigital areas in both males and females and in thenar and I interdigital area only in females. As it was found in previous researches on quantitative dermatoglyphic traits, more differences are found between females with PBPP and control group, than between males. The fact, that the main presumed cause of PBPP is obstetrical trauma, it could be associated with congenital variability in formation of brachial plexus. PMID:18217462

  14. Rapid evolution of quantitative traits: theoretical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Michael; Matuszewski, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies demonstrate phenotypic and genetic changes in natural populations that are subject to climate change, and there is hope that some of these changes will contribute to avoiding species extinctions (‘evolutionary rescue’). Here, we review theoretical models of rapid evolution in quantitative traits that can shed light on the potential for adaptation to a changing climate. Our focus is on quantitative-genetic models with selection for a moving phenotypic optimum. We point out that there is no one-to-one relationship between the rate of adaptation and population survival, because the former depends on relative fitness and the latter on absolute fitness. Nevertheless, previous estimates that sustainable rates of genetically based change usually do not exceed 0.1 haldanes (i.e., phenotypic standard deviations per generation) are probably correct. Survival can be greatly facilitated by phenotypic plasticity, and heritable variation in plasticity can further speed up genetic evolution. Multivariate selection and genetic correlations are frequently assumed to constrain adaptation, but this is not necessarily the case and depends on the geometric relationship between the fitness landscape and the structure of genetic variation. Similar conclusions hold for adaptation to shifting spatial gradients. Recent models of adaptation in multispecies communities indicate that the potential for rapid evolution is strongly influenced by interspecific competition. PMID:24454555

  15. Sequence kernel association test for survival traits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han; Lumley, Thomas; Brody, Jennifer; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Fox, Caroline S; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dupuis, Josée

    2014-04-01

    Rare variant tests have been of great interest in testing genetic associations with diseases and disease-related quantitative traits in recent years. Among these tests, the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) is an omnibus test for effects of rare genetic variants, in a linear or logistic regression framework. It is often described as a variance component test treating the genotypic effects as random. When the linear kernel is used, its test statistic can be expressed as a weighted sum of single-marker score test statistics. In this paper, we extend the test to survival phenotypes in a Cox regression framework. Because of the anticonservative small-sample performance of the score test in a Cox model, we substitute signed square-root likelihood ratio statistics for the score statistics, and confirm that the small-sample control of type I error is greatly improved. This test can also be applied in meta-analysis. We show in our simulation studies that this test has superior statistical power except in a few specific scenarios, as compared to burden tests in a Cox model. We also present results in an application to time-to-obesity using genotypes from Framingham Heart Study SNP Health Association Resource. PMID:24464521

  16. Basic Religious Beliefs and Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Ali Reza; Sarvarazemy, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Objective Spiritual beliefs can help people find meaning of life, and can also influence their feelings, behaviors and mental health. The present research studied the relationship between basic religious beliefs (Human, Existence and God) and five personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness. Method One hundred seventy eight students of Islamic Azad University in Torbat-jam were randomly selected and completed the basic religious beliefs and NEO Questionnaires. Results Data showed that basic religious beliefs have a significant negative correlation with neuroticism (r=-0.29),and a significant positive relationship with extraversion(r=0.28),openness(r=0.14),agreeableness (r=0.29),and conscientiousness (r=0.48). Also, the results of the regression analysis showed that basic religious beliefs can anticipate neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness, but they cannot anticipate the openness factor significantly. Conclusion The findings of this study demonstrate that basic religious beliefs have a positive relationship with good characteristics that help people resolve the challenges of their lives and identity crisis. Thus, the results of this study support the idea of Religious Cognitive–Emotional Theory that religiosity is correlated with positive personality traits. PMID:22952550

  17. Automatic Prediction of Facial Trait Judgments: Appearance vs. Structural Models

    PubMed Central

    Rojas Q., Mario; Masip, David; Todorov, Alexander; Vitria, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating other individuals with respect to personality characteristics plays a crucial role in human relations and it is the focus of attention for research in diverse fields such as psychology and interactive computer systems. In psychology, face perception has been recognized as a key component of this evaluation system. Multiple studies suggest that observers use face information to infer personality characteristics. Interactive computer systems are trying to take advantage of these findings and apply them to increase the natural aspect of interaction and to improve the performance of interactive computer systems. Here, we experimentally test whether the automatic prediction of facial trait judgments (e.g. dominance) can be made by using the full appearance information of the face and whether a reduced representation of its structure is sufficient. We evaluate two separate approaches: a holistic representation model using the facial appearance information and a structural model constructed from the relations among facial salient points. State of the art machine learning methods are applied to a) derive a facial trait judgment model from training data and b) predict a facial trait value for any face. Furthermore, we address the issue of whether there are specific structural relations among facial points that predict perception of facial traits. Experimental results over a set of labeled data (9 different trait evaluations) and classification rules (4 rules) suggest that a) prediction of perception of facial traits is learnable by both holistic and structural approaches; b) the most reliable prediction of facial trait judgments is obtained by certain type of holistic descriptions of the face appearance; and c) for some traits such as attractiveness and extroversion, there are relationships between specific structural features and social perceptions. PMID:21858069

  18. Neural Basis of Interpersonal Traits in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sollberger, Marc; Stanley, Christine M.; Wilson, Stephen M.; Gyurak, Anett; Beckman, Victoria; Growdon, Matthew; Jang, Jung; Weiner, Michael W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Rankin, Katherine P.

    2009-01-01

    Several functional and structural imaging studies have investigated the neural basis of personality in healthy adults, but human lesions studies are scarce. Personality changes are a common symptom in patients with neurodegenerative diseases like frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and semantic dementia (SD), allowing a unique window into the neural basis of personality. In this study, we used the Interpersonal Adjective Scales to investigate the structural basis of eight interpersonal traits (dominance, arrogance, coldness, introversion, submissiveness, ingenuousness, warmth, and extraversion) in 257 subjects: 214 patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as FTD, SD, progressive non-fluent aphasia, Alzheimer’s disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, corticobasal degeneration, and progressive supranuclear palsy and 43 healthy elderly people. Measures of interpersonal traits were correlated with regional atrophy pattern using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of structural MR images. Interpersonal traits mapped onto distinct brain regions depending on the degree to which they involved agency and affiliation. Interpersonal traits high in agency related to left dorsolateral prefrontal and left lateral frontopolar regions, whereas interpersonal traits high in affiliation related to right ventromedial prefrontal and right anteromedial temporal regions. Consistent with the existing literature on neural networks underlying social cognition, these results indicate that brain regions related to externally-focused, executive control-related processes underlie agentic interpersonal traits such as dominance, whereas brain regions related to internally-focused, emotion- and reward-related processes underlie affiliative interpersonal traits such as warmth. In addition, these findings indicate that interpersonal traits are subserved by complex neural networks rather than discrete anatomic areas. PMID:19540253

  19. Trait Anxiety Modulates the Neural Efficiency of Inhibitory Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Basten; Christine Stelzel; Christian J. Fiebach

    2011-01-01

    An impairment of attentional control in the face of threat-related distracters is well established for high-anxious individuals. Beyond that, it has been hypothesized that high trait anxiety more generally impairs the neural efficiency of cognitive processes requiring attentional control—even in the absence of threat-related stimuli. Here, we use fMRI to show that trait anxiety indeed modulates brain activation and functional

  20. Competition, traits and resource depletion in plant communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyrille Violle; Eric Garnier; Jérémie Lecoeur; Catherine Roumet; Cécile Podeur; Alain Blanchard; Marie-Laure Navas

    2009-01-01

    Although of primary importance to explain plant community structure, general relationships between plant traits, resource\\u000a depletion and competitive outcomes remain to be quantified across species. Here, we used a comparative approach to test whether\\u000a instantaneous measurements of plant traits can capture both the amount of resources depleted under plant cover over time (competitive\\u000a effect) and the way competitors perceived this