Science.gov

Sample records for beta thalassaemia trait

  1. Molecular variants and clinical importance of beta-thalassaemia traits found in the state of Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Nishank, Sudhansu Sekhar; Ranjit, Manoranjan; Kar, Shantanu K; Chhotray, Guru Prasad

    2009-10-01

    Prevention of beta thalassaemia implies knowledge of the molecular spectrum occurring in the population at risk. This knowledge is necessary, especially when a prevention protocol is applied to a multiethnic population. For this purpose, we carried out molecular analysis of 431 beta thalassaemia subjects belonging to tribal (aboriginal) and non-tribal communities of Orissa, a part of peninsular India and found six types of mutation (four previously unreported and two reported). Molecular analysis of beta gene mutation showed that out of 431 beta thalassaemia cases (265 beta thalassaemia traits, 64 beta thalassaemia major, 47 haemoglobin E-beta thalassaemia, 55 haemoglobin S-beta thalassaemia cases), 71% of cases (n=306) showed the IVS I-5(G-->C) mutation, 12% of cases (n=52) showed FS 41/42(-CTTT), 7% of cases (n=30) showed CD 15(G-->A), 4.8% of cases (n=21) showed CD 30 (G-->C), 3% of cases (n=13) showed FS 8/9 (+G), and 2% of cases (n=9) showed IVSI-1(G-->T). The tribal populations possess only the IVS I-5(G-->C) mutation whereas the non-tribal groups possess the FS 41/42(-CTTT), FS 8/9 (+G), IVS I-1(G-->T), CD30(G-->C) and IVS I-5(G-->C) mutations. Among the non-tribal communities, Muslims did not have the IVS I-1 (G-->T) mutation. Clinically, anaemia was mild to moderate in beta thalassaemia trait and was found to be associated with the majority of abnormalities such as pyrexial episodes, fatigue, headache, lethargy and pallor. However, there were no differences in the incidence of clinical abnormalities between tribal and non-tribal populations and also among the different molecular variants of beta gene. This is the first report from Orissa on the prevalence of different molecular variants of beta thalassaemia. The clinical presentation of beta thalassaemia trait cases and their variation from other population have been discussed with reference to the different genetic variants. PMID:19843386

  2. Cardiovascular aspect of Beta-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Taksande, Amar; Prabhu, Shakuntala; Venkatesh, Sumitra

    2012-03-01

    Beta-thalassaemia major is a genetic blood disorder caused by the reduced synthesis of beta globin chain. The consequences of the resulting chronic anaemia are also common and include growth retardation, bone marrow expansion, extramedular hematopoiesis, splenomegaly, increased intestinal iron absorption, susceptibility to infections, and hypercoagulability. Transfusional iron overload can affect heart function by directly damaging tissue through iron deposition or via iron-mediated effects at other sites. Cardiac dysfunction is common in patients with thalassaemia and is the leading cause of mortality. The main cardiac abnormalities reported in patients with thalassaemia major (TM) and iron overload are left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, valvulopathies, arrhythmias and pericarditis. These cardiac abnormalities are a consequence of the general co-morbid conditions in thalassaemia but are closely related to concomitant endocrine deficiencies, hypercoagulability state and inflammatory milieu. Iron's toxicity within cells arises from its capacity to catalyse the production of reactive oxygen species that cause lipid peroxidation and organelle damage, which lead ultimately to cell death and fibrosis. With the introduction of new technologies such as cardiac magnetic resonance T2* , the early detection of cardiac iron overload and associated cardiac dysfunction is now possible, allowing time for reversal through iron chelation therapy. PMID:22239492

  3. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Sardinians: implications for prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Rosatelli, C; Leoni, G B; Tuveri, T; Scalas, M T; Di Tucci, A; Cao, A

    1987-01-01

    In this study we have characterised by oligonucleotide hybridisation and direct restriction endonuclease analysis the beta thalassaemia mutation in 494 Sardinian beta thalassaemia heterozygotes. The most prevalent mutation, accounting for 95.4% of the cases, was the nonsense mutation at codon 39. The remainder, in decreasing order of frequency, were a frameshift at codon 6 (2.2%), beta + IVS-1, nt 110 (0.4%), and beta + IVS-2, nt 745 (0.4%). This information allows prenatal diagnosis by DNA analysis to be made in the great majority of Sardinian couples at risk for beta thalassaemia. Images PMID:3031299

  4. Evaluation of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pattern and prevalence of beta-thalassaemia trait among sickle cell disease patients in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo, Titilope; Ojewunmi, Oyesola; Oyetunji, Ajoke

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common inherited disorder of haemoglobin worldwide. This study evaluated the chromatographic patterns and red blood cell indices of sickle cell patients to determine the co-inheritance of other haemoglobin(Hb) variants and ?-thalassaemia trait. Methods Red cell indices, blood film, sickle solubility test, Hb electrophoresis using alkaline cellulose acetate membrane, and chromatographic patterns using Bio Rad HPLC Variant II were evaluated for 180 subjects. Results Based on low MCV <76fL and MCH<25 pg, in the presence of elevated A2 >4.0% on HPLC and Hb variants eluting outside the S and C windows, at least four haemoglobin phenotypes (SS: 87.7%; SC: 1.1%; SD Punjab: 0.6%; S?-thalassemia: 10.6%) were identified. Mean Hb F% was 8.1±5.1 (median 7.65) for Hb SS and 6.03±5.2 (median 3.9) for Hb S?-thalassemia trait. Majority of Hb SS (69.1%) had Hb F% less than 10 while 27.6% had 10-19.9 and 3.2% had ? 20. Mean Hb F% was higher in female Hb SS (9.55±5.09; mean age 7.4±3.8 years) than the males (7.63±4.80; mean age 6.9±3.8 years) (P=0.02). A borderline significant negative correlation between age and Hb F levels among Hb SS subjects (r= -0.169 P=0.038) was also observed. Conclusion Our data suggests that ? and ?- thalassaemia traits, and other haemoglobin variants co-exist frequently with SCD in our population PMID:25400838

  5. Epistasis and the sensitivity of phenotypic screens for beta thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Penman, Bridget S; Gupta, Sunetra; Weatherall, David J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic disorders of haemoglobin, particularly the sickle cell diseases and the alpha and beta thalassaemias, are the commonest inherited disorders worldwide. The majority of affected births occur in low-income and lower-middle income countries. Screening programmes are a vital tool to counter these haemoglobinopathies by: (i) identifying individual carriers and allowing them to make informed reproductive choices, and (ii) generating population level gene-frequency estimates, to help ensure the optimal allocation of public health resources. For both of these functions it is vital that the screen performed is suitably sensitive. One popular first-stage screening option to detect carriers of beta thalassaemia in low-income countries is the One Tube Osmotic Fragility Test (OTOFT). Here we introduce a population genetic framework within which to quantify the likely sensitivity and specificity of the OTOFT in different epidemiological contexts. We demonstrate that interactions between the carrier states for beta thalassaemia and alpha thalassaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis have the potential to reduce the sensitivity of OTOFTs for beta thalassaemia heterozygosity to below 70%. Our results therefore caution against the widespread application of OTOFTs in regions where these erythrocyte variants co-occur. PMID:25521998

  6. Epistasis and the sensitivity of phenotypic screens for beta thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Penman, Bridget S; Gupta, Sunetra; Weatherall, David J

    2015-04-01

    Genetic disorders of haemoglobin, particularly the sickle cell diseases and the alpha and beta thalassaemias, are the commonest inherited disorders worldwide. The majority of affected births occur in low-income and lower-middle income countries. Screening programmes are a vital tool to counter these haemoglobinopathies by: (i) identifying individual carriers and allowing them to make informed reproductive choices, and (ii) generating population level gene-frequency estimates, to help ensure the optimal allocation of public health resources. For both of these functions it is vital that the screen performed is suitably sensitive. One popular first-stage screening option to detect carriers of beta thalassaemia in low-income countries is the One Tube Osmotic Fragility Test (OTOFT). Here we introduce a population genetic framework within which to quantify the likely sensitivity and specificity of the OTOFT in different epidemiological contexts. We demonstrate that interactions between the carrier states for beta thalassaemia and alpha thalassaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis have the potential to reduce the sensitivity of OTOFTs for beta thalassaemia heterozygosity to below 70%. Our results therefore caution against the widespread application of OTOFTs in regions where these erythrocyte variants co-occur. PMID:25521998

  7. A home blood transfusion programme for beta-thalassaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Madgwick, K V; Yardumian, A

    1999-06-01

    Although home transfusion programmes are relatively common in the USA (Anon, 1990, Home Care in the 1990s. Council on Scientific Affairs. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263, 1241-1244), this type of treatment has only recently been considered in Britain and, where it is in operation, is generally supervised by trained nursing staff or via a hospice. North Middlesex Hospital now has 3 years experience of a home transfusion programme operating for beta-thalassaemia major patients, in which relatives are trained and responsible for supervision of the red-cell transfusions at home. For families who request this service, and who are willing and able to undertake it responsibly, the scheme offers the advantages of improved patient comfort, reduced absences from education or employment and reduced hospital bed usage. Patients and their carers express improved satisfaction with the treatment delivered in this way. PMID:10354383

  8. Molecular nature of mutations causing beta zero-thalassaemia in Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Solovyev, G Y; Gol'tsov, A A; Surin, V L; Lebedenko, E N; Kaboev, O K; Lukianenko, A V; Alekseev, A A; Plutalov, O V; Dadasheva, T S; Rustamov, R Sh

    1990-03-01

    Beta zero-thalassaemia comprises a series of closely related haemoglobinopathies which are widely spread in some areas (the Mediterranean, Caucasus, Central Asia, and others). It is caused by a variety of mutations in the beta-globin gene which damage its expression, thus leading to severe illness, which is often lethal at an early age. By means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction analysis, and sequencing by the Maxam-Gilbert method, we have identified a number of mutations in the beta-globin gene that cause beta zero-thalassaemia in the Azerbaijanian population, viz AA deletion in codon 8, C----T transition in codon 39, and a previously unknown G deletion in codons 82/83. PMID:1983314

  9. Elution of antispectrin antibodies from red cells in homozygous beta-thalassaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, E; Hughes-Jones, N C; Irish, W T; Wickramasinghe, S N

    1986-01-01

    It is well-established that autoantibodies against red cell membrane antigens, such as spectrin are present in plasma of humans and animals. It is shown here that antispectrin IgG antibodies can be eluted from the red cells of patients with beta-thalassaemia intermedia. It is suggested that these antibodies could play a part in the increased rate of destruction of red cells in homozygous beta-thalassemia, either by reacting with spectrin which is abnormally exposed on the red cell surface or by a cross-reaction with a different membrane component. No rise was found in serum antispectrin levels in beta-thalassaemia; anti-red cell membrane IgG levels were slightly raised, but there was considerable overlap between the levels in patients and in normals. No autoantibody could be found in eluates from cells of normal subjects or patients with sickle cell anaemia. PMID:3708907

  10. A national register for surveillance of inherited disorders: beta thalassaemia in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Modell, B.; Khan, M.; Darlison, M.; King, A.; Layton, M.; Old, J.; Petrou, M.; Varnavides, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the value of a national register for surveillance of services for an inherited disorder. METHODS: Data from the United Kingdom Thalassaemia Register and the United Kingdom Register of Prenatal Diagnosis for Haemoglobin Disorders were combined in a database; these registers include all fetuses known to have been diagnosed with beta thalassaemia major, beta thalassaemia intermedia, or haemoglobin E/beta thalassaemia in the United Kingdom. Data were extracted to show outcomes (selective abortion or live birth) of all fetuses and the status of those born with a disorder (alive, dead, successful bone marrow transplant, or lost to follow-up) by parents' region of residence and ethnicity. FINDINGS: At the end of 1999 the register included 1074 patients, 807 of whom were alive and residing in the United Kingdom. A successful bone marrow transplant has been performed for 117 out of 581 (20%) patients born since 1975. Residents of Pakistani origin are now the main group at risk in the United Kingdom, replacing residents of Cypriot origin. This has led to a marked shift in the need for services from the south-east of England to the Midlands and the north of England. Despite the acceptability of prenatal diagnosis, the proportion of affected births remains 50% higher than would be expected, reflecting a widespread failure to deliver timely screening and counselling to carriers. Even though effective treatment is available the annual number of deaths is rising, indicating that better tolerated treatments are needed. CONCLUSION: A national diagnosis register is a powerful instrument for monitoring the treatment and prevention of inherited disorders and for highlighting correctable shortcomings. In view of the increasing possibilities for genetic screening there is a strong case for central funding for such databases within modern health services. PMID:11731807

  11. Osteomyelitis, discitis, epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica in a man with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed ?-thalassaemia trait.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Helen; Abbey, Aoife; Patel, Vinod; Nair, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 65-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and ?-thalassaemia trait. Investigations for relapsing and remitting fever found vertebral osteomyelitis, discitis and epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica. PMID:25608980

  12. Falling prevalence of beta-thalassaemia and eradication of malaria in the Maldives.

    PubMed

    Firdous, Naila; Gibbons, Stephen; Modell, Bernadette

    2011-09-01

    Carriers of haemoglobin disorders have protection against falciparum malaria. Therefore, where this is common, carrier prevalence rises until this selective advantage is offset by deaths of affected children. Theory predicts a corresponding fall in carrier frequency following malaria eradication, but this has not been reported in practice. In the Maldives, malaria eradication (in 1972-1975) unmasked highly prevalent beta-thalassaemia and led to services for patient care and outreach carrier screening. Analysis of 68,986 laboratory screening records for subjects born between 1960 and 1990 showed carrier prevalences ranging from 10.1% to 28.2% by atoll (related to the prevalence of falciparum malaria before eradication) and a steady fall in average carrier prevalence from 21.3% among those born in 1970 to 16% in those born in 1989. Data for individuals born before 1970 suggest that earlier, when malaria was uncontrolled, carrier prevalence was 23-25%. The observed fall in carrier prevalence was broadly consistent with a model based on genetic theory, allowing for the heterogeneous distribution of carrier prevalence and the potential contribution of consanguineous marriage. The possible effects of population mixing and reproductive compensation were calculated, and any contribution to falling carrier prevalence was excluded. It is concluded that the observed fall in thalassaemia carrier prevalence in the Maldives is consistent with the predicted effect of malaria eradication and supportive of the population genetic theory. The observed fall in average carrier prevalence corresponds to a fall in minimum affected birth prevalence from approximately 12/1,000 in 1970 to approximately 6.9/1,000 in 2007. Allowing for this effect, the National Thalassaemia Register has documented a more than 60% fall in affected birth prevalence since outreach population screening was established in 1997. The main contributing factors are considered to be limitation of final family size by informed at-risk couples and utilisation of prenatal diagnosis. PMID:22109823

  13. Alpha and beta cell evaluation in patients with thalassaemia intermedia and iron overload.

    PubMed Central

    De Sanctis, V.; Gamberini, M. R.; Borgatti, L.; Atti, G.; Vullo, C.; Bagni, B.

    1985-01-01

    Insulin and glucagon secretion were studied during an oral glucose tolerance test and arginine infusion in 11 patients with thalassaemia intermedia, who showed laboratory evidence of iron overload. Mean blood glucose concentrations in patients with thalassaemia intermedia were significantly higher than normal and 3 of 11 patients had impaired glucose tolerance. The principal abnormality appears to be a deficiency in insulin and glucagon from the pancreas in response to oral glucose tolerance and arginine stimulation tests. Several factors, such as iron overload, chronic hypoxia, zinc deficiency and increased catecholamine production secondary to anaemia, might play a part in the pathogenesis of these abnormalities. Each of these factors affect individual cases to a varied degree. Our data emphasize the mildness of carbohydrate defect as compared to the degree of insulinopenia and indicate the necessity for prescribing measures which prevent excessive iron deposition and improve iron excretion in thalassaemic patients with iron overload. PMID:3906615

  14. Thalassaemia Intermedia: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Taher, Ali T.; Musallam, Khaled M.; Cappellini, Maria D.

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of the molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the disease process in patients with thalassaemia intermedia (TI) has substantially increased over the past decade. TI encompasses a wide clinical spectrum of beta-thalassaemia phenotypes. Some TI patients are asymptomatic until adult life, whereas others are symptomatic from as young as 2 years of age. A number of clinical complications commonly associated with TI are rarely seen in thalassaemia major, including extramedullary hematopoiesis, leg ulcers, gallstones, thrombosis and pulmonary hypertension. There are a number of options currently available for managing patients with TI, including transfusion therapy, iron chelation therapy, modulation of foetal haemoglobin production and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, at present, there are no clear guidelines for an orchestrated optimal treatment plan. PMID:21415986

  15. Diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia trait from Coulter Counter 'S' indices.

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, U M; White, J M; Hart, G H; Marsh, G W

    1977-01-01

    A number of patients of Mediterranean and Asian origins were found to have unexplained microcytic hypochromic red blood cells. Iron deficiency and beta-thalassaemia trait were both satisfactorily excluded in all of them. The haematological indices of these patients, obtained on a Coulter Model 'S' Counter, were found to be very similar to those seen in obligatory heterozygotes for alpha-thalassaemia. It is postulated that these patients were also carriers for alpha-thalassaemia. Subsequent investigation of some of these patients showed the characteristically reduced rates of alpha-chain synthesis seen in this condition. The discriminant function of England and Fraser (1973) may be of help in diagnosing this state. alpha-Thalassaemia trait should be considered in all patients of 'high-risk' ethnic origins with a blood picture suggestive of beta-thalassaemia trait but in whom the levels of Hb A2 and Hb F are within normal limits. PMID:915018

  16. Taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait Beta diversity in South American hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Ben G; Tinoco, Boris; Parra, Juan Luis; Brown, Leone M; McGuire, Jimmy A; Stiles, F Gary; Graham, Catherine H

    2014-08-01

    Comparison of the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait dimensions of beta diversity may uncover the mechanisms that generate and maintain biodiversity, such as geographic isolation, environmental filtering, and convergent adaptation. We developed an approach to predict the relationship between environmental and geographic distance and the dimensions of beta diversity. We tested these predictions using hummingbird assemblages in the northern Andes. We expected taxonomic beta diversity to result from recent geographic barriers limiting dispersal, and we found that cost distance, which includes barriers, was a better predictor than Euclidean distance. We expected phylogenetic beta diversity to result from historical connectivity and found that differences in elevation were the best predictors of phylogenetic beta diversity. We expected high trait beta diversity to result from local adaptation to differing environments and found that differences in elevation were correlated with trait beta diversity. When combining beta diversity dimensions, we observe that high beta diversity in all dimensions results from adaption to different environments between isolated assemblages. Comparisons with high taxonomic, low phylogenetic, and low trait beta diversity occurred among lowland assemblages separated by the Andes, suggesting that geographic barriers have recently isolated lineages in similar environments. We provide insight into mechanisms governing hummingbird biodiversity patterns and provide a framework that is broadly applicable to other taxonomic groups. PMID:25058281

  17. Distribution of alpha thalassaemia gene variants in diverse ethnic populations in malaysia: data from the institute for medical research.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rahimah; Saleem, Mohamed; Aloysious, Nisha Sabrina; Yelumalai, Punithawathy; Mohamed, Nurul; Hassan, Syahzuwan

    2013-01-01

    Alpha thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the plural society of Malaysia and is a public health problem. Haematological and molecular data from 5016 unrelated patients referred from various hospitals to the Institute for Medical Research for ? thalassaemia screening from 2007 to 2010 were retrieved. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to describe the distribution of various alpha thalassaemia alleles in different ethnic groups, along with their genotypic interactions, and to illustrate the haematological changes associated with each phenotype. Amongst the patients, 51.2% (n = 2567) were diagnosed with ? thalassaemia. Of the 13 ? thalassaemia determinants screened, eight different deletions and mutations were demonstrated: three double gene deletions, --(SEA), --(THAI), --(FIL); two single-gene deletions, ?-³·? and -??·²; and three non-deletion mutations, Cd59G > A (haemoglobin [Hb] Adana), Cd125T > C (Hb Quong Sze) and Cd142 (Hb Constant Spring). A high incidence of ?-³·? deletion was observed in Malays, Indians, Sabahans, Sarawakians and Orang Asli people. However, the --SEA deletion was the most common cause of alpha thalassaemia in Chinese, followed by the ?-³·? deletion. As many as 27 genotypic interactions showed 1023 ? thalassaemia silent carriers, 196 homozygous ?? thalassaemia traits, 973 heterozygous ?? thalassaemia carriers and 375 patients with Hb H disease. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the distribution of ? thalassaemia determinants amongst the various ethnic groups. Hence, the heterogeneous distribution of common determinants indicated that the introduction of an ethnicity-targeted hierarchical ? thalassaemia screening approach in this multi-ethnic Malaysian population would be effective. PMID:24025420

  18. Distribution of Alpha Thalassaemia Gene Variants in Diverse Ethnic Populations in Malaysia: Data from the Institute for Medical Research

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Rahimah; Saleem, Mohamed; Aloysious, Nisha Sabrina; Yelumalai, Punithawathy; Mohamed, Nurul; Hassan, Syahzuwan

    2013-01-01

    Alpha thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the plural society of Malaysia and is a public health problem. Haematological and molecular data from 5016 unrelated patients referred from various hospitals to the Institute for Medical Research for ? thalassaemia screening from 2007 to 2010 were retrieved. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to describe the distribution of various alpha thalassaemia alleles in different ethnic groups, along with their genotypic interactions, and to illustrate the haematological changes associated with each phenotype. Amongst the patients, 51.2% (n = 2567) were diagnosed with ? thalassaemia. Of the 13 ? thalassaemia determinants screened, eight different deletions and mutations were demonstrated: three double gene deletions, – – SEA, – – THAI, ––FIL; two single-gene deletions, ?–3.7 and – ?4.2; and three non-deletion mutations, Cd59G > A (haemoglobin [Hb] Adana), Cd125T > C (Hb Quong Sze) and Cd142 (Hb Constant Spring). A high incidence of ?–3.7 deletion was observed in Malays, Indians, Sabahans, Sarawakians and Orang Asli people. However, the – – SEA deletion was the most common cause of alpha thalassaemia in Chinese, followed by the ?–3.7 deletion. As many as 27 genotypic interactions showed 1023 ? thalassaemia silent carriers, 196 homozygous ?+ thalassaemia traits, 973 heterozygous ?0 thalassaemia carriers and 375 patients with Hb H disease. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the distribution of ? thalassaemia determinants amongst the various ethnic groups. Hence, the heterogeneous distribution of common determinants indicated that the introduction of an ethnicity-targeted hierarchical ? thalassaemia screening approach in this multi-ethnic Malaysian population would be effective. PMID:24025420

  19. Abnormal haemoglobins in the Sudan savanna of Nigeria. I. Prevalence of haemoglobins and relationships between sickle cell trait, malaria and survival.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A F; Storey, J; Molineaux, L; Iroko, E A; Attai, E D

    1979-04-01

    The prevalence of different haemoglobins and their interaction with malaria have been studied in Garki, Kano State, Nigeria. Sickle cell trait was present in 24% of newborn and 29% of those aged over five years. Hb.AC was present in 0.7%. Frequency of both haemoglobin variants was greater in Hausa than Fulani. Sickle cell anaemia was almost invariably fatal in early childhood. The distribution curve of percentage of Hb.S in sickle cell trait subjects was normal, and did not demonstrate any high frequency of a gene for alpha-thalassaemia. The presence of beta-thalassaemia minor could not be tested, but Hb.S/beta-thalassaemia was not detected. Hb.S gene frequency appears to have been maintained by a fitness in heterozygotes of 21% over normal homozygotes; increased fertility and high mutation rate did not make any apparent contribution. Hb.AS subjects had on average lower frequency and considerably lower densities of Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites than Hb.AA from the age of 30 to 59 weeks; density was less in sickle cell trait up to age three years in the dry season only. It is suggested that the survival advantage and hence the prevalence of sickle cell trait may be greatest in some hyperendemic areas and less where malaria transmission is extremely high or when it is high and unvaried. PMID:315211

  20. Molecular Characterization of ?- and ?-Thalassaemia among Malay Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Yatim, Nur Fatihah; Abd. Rahim, Masitah; Menon, Kavitha; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Ahmad, Rahimah; Manocha, Anita Bhajan; Saleem, Mohamed; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Both ?- and ?-thalassaemia syndromes are public health problems in the multi-ethnic population of Malaysia. To molecularly characterise the ?- and ?-thalassaemia deletions and mutations among Malays from Penang, Gap-PCR and multiplexed amplification refractory mutation systems were used to study 13 ?-thalassaemia determinants and 20 ?-thalassaemia mutations in 28 and 40 unrelated Malays, respectively. Four ?-thalassaemia deletions and mutations were demonstrated. ??SEA deletion and ?CS? accounted for more than 70% of the ?-thalassaemia alleles. Out of the 20 ?-thalassaemia alleles studied, nine different ?-thalassaemia mutations were identified of which ?E accounted for more than 40%. We concluded that the highest prevalence of (?- and ?-thalassaemia alleles in the Malays from Penang are ??SEA deletion and ?E mutation, respectively. PMID:24857915

  1. Genotyping of beta thalassemia trait by high-resolution DNA melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Saetung, Rattika; Ongchai, Siriwan; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Sanguansermsri, Torpong

    2013-11-01

    Beta thalassemia is a common hereditary hemalogogical disease in Thailand, with a prevalence of 5-8%. In this study, we evaluated the high resolution DNA melting (HRM) assay to identify beta thalassemia mutation in samples from 143 carriers of the beta thalassemia traits in at risk couples. The DNA was isolated from venous blood samples and tested for mutation under a series of 5 PCR-HRM (A, B, C, D and E primers) protocols. The A primers were for detection of beta thalassemia mutations in the HBB promoter region, the B primers for mutations in exon I, the C primers for exon II, the D primers for exon III and the E primers for the 3.4 kb deletion mutation. The mutations were diagnosed by comparing the complete melting curve profiles of a wild type control with those for each mutant sample. With the PCR-HRM technique, fourteen types of beta thalassemia mutations were detected. Each mutation had a unique and specific melting profile. The mutations included 36.4% (52 cases) codon 41/42-CTTT, 26.6% (38 cases) codon 17 A-T, 11.2% (16 cases) IVS1-1 G-T, 8.4% (12 cases) codon 71/72 +A, 8.4% (12 cases) of the 3.4 kb deletion and 3.5% (5 cases) -28 A-G. The remainder included one instance each of -87 C-A, -31 A-C, codon 27/28 +C, codon 30 G-A, IVS1-5 G-C, codon 35 C-A, codon 41-C and IVSII -654 C-T. Of the total cases, 85.8% of the mutations could be detected by primers B and C. The PCR-HRM method provides a rapid, simple and highly feasible strategy for mutation screening of beta thalassemia traits. PMID:24450243

  2. Hb lepore/?(0)-thalassaemia with ?(+)-thalassaemia interactions, a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Alauddin, H; Mohamad Nasir, S; Ahadon, M; Raja Sabudin, R Z A; Ithnin, A; Hussin, N H; Alias, H; Loh, C H; Abdul Latiff, Z; Abdul Murad, N A; Othman, A

    2015-12-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) Lepore is a variant Hb consisting of two ?-globin and two ??-globin chains. In a heterozygote, it is associated with clinical findings of thalassaemia minor, but interactions with other haemoglobinopathies can lead to various clinical phenotypes and pose diagnostic challenges. We reported a pair of siblings from a Malay family, who presented with pallor and hepatosplenomegaly at the ages of 21 months and 14 months old. The red cell indices and peripheral blood smears of both patients showed features of thalassaemia intermedia. Other laboratory investigations of the patients showed conflicting results. However, laboratory investigation results of the parents had led to a presumptive diagnosis of compound heterozygote Hb Lepore/?-thalassaemia and co-inheritance ?(+)-thalassaemia (-?(3.7)). Hb Lepore has rarely been detected in Southeast Asian countries, particularly in Malaysia. These two cases highlight the importance of family studies for accurate diagnosis, hence appropriate clinical management and genetic counseling. PMID:26712677

  3. Spinal epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis in ?-thalassaemia intermedia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kin Hoi; Li, Allen; Lui, Tun Hing; Sit, Yan Kit

    2014-01-01

    A 22-year-old man known to have ?-thalassaemia intermedia since childhood presented with bilateral lower limb weakness after spinal anaesthesia for an elective minor operation of his left leg. MRI and CT scans were performed to rule out acute epidural haematoma; coincidental imaging features of marrow hyperplasia and spinal epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis were found. This article will present and discuss the imaging features, differential diagnosis, management and literature review of the rare occurrence of extramedullary haematopoiesis in the spinal epidural space. PMID:24390965

  4. Increased leucocyte apoptosis in transfused ?-thalassaemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Patrick B.; Porter, John; Evans, Patricia; Kwiatkowski, Janet L.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Coates, Thomas; Giardina, Patricia J.; Grady, Robert W.; Vichinsky, Elliott; Olivieri, Nancy; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Alberti, Daniele; Fung, Ellen; Ames, Bruce; Higa, Annie; Harmatz, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary This exploratory study assessed apoptosis in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) from ?-thalassaemia patients receiving chronic transfusions and chelation therapy (deferasirox or deferoxamine) at baseline, 1, 6, and 12 months. At baseline, thalassaemic PBLs presented 50% greater levels of Bax (BAX), 75% higher caspase-3/7, 48% higher caspase-8 and 88% higher caspase-9 activities and 428% more nucleosomal DNA fragmentation than control subjects. Only neutrophils correlated significantly with apoptotic markers. Previously, we showed that over the treatment year, hepatic iron declined; we now show that the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 (BCL2), (?27.3%/year), and caspase-9 activity (?13.3%/year) declined in both treatment groups, suggesting that chelation decreases body iron and indicators of PBL apoptosis. PMID:23216540

  5. Frequency distribution of sickle cell anemia, sickle cell trait and sickle/beta-thalassemia among anemic patients in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Elsayid, Mohieldin; Al-Shehri, Mohammed Jahman; Alkulaibi, Yasser Abdullah; Alanazi, Abdullah; Qureshi, Shoeb

    2015-01-01

    Background: Notwithstanding, the growing incidence of sickle cell hemoglobinopathies (SCH) such as sickle cell anemia (SCA) or sickle cell disease, sickle/beta-thalassemia; the exact prevalence remains obscure in Saudi Arabia. Hence, this study is an attempt to determine the frequency of SCA and sickle cell trait (SCT) among all anemic patients with SCH treated at the King Abdul-Aziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the hemoglobin (Hb) S and other Hb patterns (Hb AS and Hb F) were also estimated in SCA and SCT patients. Materials and Methods: Results of Hb capillary electrophoresis performed on all patients with SCH from January 2011 to December 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Of a total of 3332 patient data analyzed, 307 were anemic patients (58% males and 42% females) with SCH. The sickling test showed all the patients to be positive. Hb electrophoresis revealed the incidence of 96.7%, 3.3%, and 0% of the patients suffered from SCA, SCT and sickle/beta-thalassemia, respectively. Patients with SCA had a higher level of Hb F and showed no crisis when compared with other SCA patients who had lower or no Hb F levels. Conclusion: SCA is relatively frequent among males (56.4%) than females out of all patients with SCH. The SCA incidence was more common (48.5%) among children, frequency of SCT among adult age group was 1.6%, while sickle/beta-thalassemia was 0%. PMID:26604627

  6. Laboratory investigation of platelet function in patients with thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Theodoridou, S; Economou, M; Vyzantiadis, T-A; Teli, A; Vlachaki, E; Neokleous, N; Kargioti, A; Vakalopoulou, S; Garypidou, V; Gombakis, N; Papachristou, F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate platelet function in patients with thalassaemia and to detect any relation to chelation treatment (deferasirox or deferiprone/deferiprone plus desferioxamine). Thirty-three transfusion-dependent patients with thalassaemia were included. The investigation consisted of aggregation testing of platelet-rich plasma by light transmission aggregometry (LTA) with the use of 5 agonists as well as the global test of haemostasis by means of the PFA-100 platelet function analyser. In 66.67% of the patients, there was reduced LTA to at least one agonist and in 18.18% there was reduced LTA to two or more agonists. The PFA-100 test was prolonged in 60.6% of the cases. An abnormal LTA and a prolonged PFA-100 time were recorded in 33.3% of the patients and 27.4% had a normal aggregation and PFA-100 test. No correlation between chelation regimen and either LTA or PFA-100 test was found. The abnormal LTA can be explained either by the release of ADP from the haemolysed red blood cells, which leads to defective platelet aggregation, or by the presence of two platelet populations. An in vitro effect without an in vivo impact could be an alternative explanation. In patients with thalassaemia, the reduced LTA and the prolonged PFA-100 closure time could be an in vitro effect and has a close correlation to the bleeding phenotype of each patient. PMID:24434633

  7. Evolutionary optimization of life-history traits in the sea beet Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima: Comparing model to data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautekèete, N.-C.; Van Dijk, H.; Piquot, Y.; Teriokhin, A.

    2009-01-01

    At evolutionary equilibrium, ecological factors will determine the optimal combination of life-history trait values of an organism. This optimum can be assessed by assuming that the species maximizes some criterion of fitness such as the Malthusian coefficient or lifetime reproductive success depending on the degree of density-dependence. We investigated the impact of the amount of resources and habitat stability on a plant's age at maturity and life span by using an evolutionary optimization model in combination with empirical data. We conducted this study on sea beet, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, because of its large variation in life span and age at first reproduction along a latitudinal gradient including considerable ecological variation. We also compared the consequence in our evolutionary model of maximizing either the Malthusian coefficient or the lifetime reproductive success. Both the data analysis and the results of evolutionary modeling pointed to habitat disturbance and resources like length of the growing season as factors negatively related to life span and age at maturity in sea beet. Resource availability had a negative theoretical influence with the Malthusian coefficient as the chosen optimality criterion, while there was no influence in the case of lifetime reproductive success. As suggested by previous theoretical work the final conclusion on what criterion is more adequate depends on the assumptions of how in reality density-dependence restrains population growth. In our case of sea beet data R0 seems to be less appropriate than ?.

  8. Beta event-related desynchronization as an index of individual differences in processing human facial expression: further investigations of autistic traits in typically developing adults

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Nicholas R.; Simpson, Andrew; Till, Amy; Simmons, Kelly; Puzzo, Ignazio

    2013-01-01

    The human mirror neuron system (hMNS) has been associated with various forms of social cognition and affective processing including vicarious experience. It has also been proposed that a faulty hMNS may underlie some of the deficits seen in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the present study we set out to investigate whether emotional facial expressions could modulate a putative EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) and if so, would this differ according to the individual level of autistic traits [high versus low Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score]. Participants were presented with 3 s films of actors opening and closing their hands (classic hMNS mu-suppression protocol) while simultaneously wearing happy, angry, or neutral expressions. Mu-suppression was measured in the alpha and low beta bands. The low AQ group displayed greater low beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) to both angry and neutral expressions. The high AQ group displayed greater low beta ERD to angry than to happy expressions. There was also significantly more low beta ERD to happy faces for the low than for the high AQ group. In conclusion, an interesting interaction between AQ group and emotional expression revealed that hMNS activation can be modulated by emotional facial expressions and that this is differentiated according to individual differences in the level of autistic traits. The EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) seems to be a sensitive measure of the variability in facial processing in typically developing individuals with high and low self-reported traits of autism. PMID:23630489

  9. Oxidative stress in ?-thalassaemia and sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Voskou, S.; Aslan, M.; Fanis, P.; Phylactides, M.; Kleanthous, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease and ?-thalassaemia are inherited haemoglobinopathies resulting in structural and quantitative changes in the ?-globin chain. These changes lead to instability of the generated haemoglobin or to globin chain imbalance, which in turn impact the oxidative environment both intracellularly and extracellularly. The ensuing oxidative stress and the inability of the body to adequately overcome it are, to a large extent, responsible for the pathophysiology of these diseases. This article provides an overview of the main players and control mechanisms involved in the establishment of oxidative stress in these haemoglobinopathies. PMID:26285072

  10. Oxidative stress in ?-thalassaemia and sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Voskou, S; Aslan, M; Fanis, P; Phylactides, M; Kleanthous, M

    2015-12-01

    Sickle cell disease and ?-thalassaemia are inherited haemoglobinopathies resulting in structural and quantitative changes in the ?-globin chain. These changes lead to instability of the generated haemoglobin or to globin chain imbalance, which in turn impact the oxidative environment both intracellularly and extracellularly. The ensuing oxidative stress and the inability of the body to adequately overcome it are, to a large extent, responsible for the pathophysiology of these diseases. This article provides an overview of the main players and control mechanisms involved in the establishment of oxidative stress in these haemoglobinopathies. PMID:26285072

  11. The alpha-chain-termination mutants and their relation to the alpha-thalassaemias.

    PubMed

    Weatherall, D J; Clegg, J B

    1975-08-01

    The structure, synthesis, genetic transmission, clinical associations and distribution of the elongated alpha-chain haemoglobin variants has been described. The data indicate that the most likely molecular basis for these common abnormal haemoglobins is a single base substitution in the alpha-chain termination codon. Because these variants are produced inefficiently they give rise to the clinical picture of alpha-thalassaemia. When these findings are taken together with recent work regarding the molecular basis for other forms of alpha-thalassaemia it is possible to build up a fairly complete picture of the molecular pathology of the alpha-thalassaemias. PMID:240178

  12. Wandering spleen with chronic torsion in a patient with thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chi Long

    2014-01-01

    Wandering spleen or splenoptosis is an uncommon entity and often an asymptomatic finding of acute abdomen in the emergency department. A high index of suspicion for splenic torsion is required, particularly in patients with known splenomegaly, as this condition could potentially lead to splenic infarction. Recognition of this condition can help avoid potential confusion with acute abdomen of other aetiologies. Herein, we present a unique case of wandering spleen with chronic torsion, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been described in an elderly patient with haemoglobin H thalassaemia. We also review the literature for the aetiology and pathogenesis of wandering spleen, and discuss the relevant diagnostic modalities and treatment options. PMID:25630326

  13. Expression of embryonic hemoglobin genes in mice heterozygous for. cap alpha. -thalassemia or. beta. -duplication traits and in mice heterozygous for both traits

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, R.A.; Marsh, C.L.; Skow, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Hemoglobins of mouse embryos at 11.5 through 16.5 days of gestation were separated by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate and quantitated by a scanning densitometer to study the effects of two radiation-induced mutations on the expression of embryonic hemoglobin genes in mice. Normal mice produce three kinds of embryonic hemoglobins. In heterozygous ..cap alpha..-thalassemic embryos, expression of EI (x/sub 2/y/sub 2/) and EII (..cap alpha../sub 2/y/sub 2/) is deficient because the x- and ..cap alpha..-globin genes of one of the allelic pairs of Hba on chromosome 11 was deleted or otherwise inactivated by X irradiation. Simultaneous inactivation of the x- and ..cap alpha..-globin genes indicates that these genes must be closely linked. Reduced x- and ..cap alpha..-chain synthesis results in an excess of y chains that associate as homotetramers. This unique y/sub 4/ hemoglobin also appears in ..beta..-duplication embryos where excess y chains are produced by the presence of three rather than two functional alleles of y- and ..beta..-globin genes. In double heterozygotes, which have a single functional allele of x- and ..cap alpha..-globin genes and three functional alleles of y- and ..beta..-globin genes, synthesis of ..cap alpha.. and non-..cap alpha.. chains is severely imbalanced and half of the total hemoglobin is y/sub 4/. Mouse y/sub 4/ has a high affinity for oxygen, P/sub 50/ of less than 10 mm Hg, but it lacks cooperativity so is inefficient for oxygen transport. The death of double heterozygotes in late fetal or neonatal life may be in large part to oxygen deprivation to the tissues.

  14. Use of Iron Chelating Agents in Transfusion Dependent Thalassaemia Major Patients.

    PubMed

    Santra, S; Bhattacharya, A; Mukhopadhyay, T; Agrawal, D; Kumar, S; Das, P; Chakrabarty, P

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study was done to find and investigate the utilization pattern of iron chelating agents among 73 transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major patients with continuous enrolment for at least 1 year in a day care treatment centre run by The Thalassaemia Society of India, Kolkata from November 2014 to January 2015. Transfusion dependent thalassaemia major patients above the age of 2 years managed by various haematologists and Thalassaemia specialists were studied. The administration of iron chelators namely Desferrioxamine (DFO), Deferiprone (DFP) and Deferasirox (DFX) were evaluated. Forty seven (64%) of the thalassaemics had serum ferritin level below 2500ng/dl, of whom 20(27%) patients have ferritin level below 1000ng/dl. A number of 55(75%) of 73 patients who were treated with a single chelating agent consisted 50 patients only on DFX. Exact 8(67%) patients were on DFO+DFP and 4(33%) are treated with DFX+DFP. The mean age was 19 and mean serum ferritin level was 2280ng/dl among the thalassaemia major patients. DFX was used 68% of patients as monotherapy and 5% patients in combination therapy with DFP. DFX in the dose of 30-40mg/kg/day was prescribed in 52% of patients. Mean dose of 15mg/kg/day of DFX was been administered in combination with DFP (75mg/kg/day) in 5% patients. DFO+DFP were preferred by 8 patients, out of which 6 were aged above 25. Cost of monotherapy is twice that of combination therapy. These data demonstrates the ferritin status and present scenario of utilization of chelating agents among thalassaemia major patients on repeated transfusions. The dosing of new drug, Deferasirox and the cost analysis of various chelating regimen has also been dealt. Individualization rather than rationalization of chelation therapy should be focussed upon in managing iron overload in thalassaemia. PMID:26620028

  15. Red blood cell phenotypes in the alpha + thalassaemias from early childhood to maturity.

    PubMed

    Williams, T N; Maitland, K; Ganczakowski, M; Peto, T E; Clegg, J B; Weatherall, D J; Bowden, D K

    1996-11-01

    The alpha+ thalassaemias are the most common single gene disorders of humans, yet little is known about their haematological characteristics in childhood. Blood samples have been collected randomly from more than 2000 individuals in village communities in Vanuatu in the South West Pacific and analysed for alpha thalassaemia and associated haematological changes. Here we describe the haematological effects of the alpha+ thalassaemias from early childhood through to maturity in this population. Mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) levels in individuals of normal, heterozygous and homozygous genotype differed significantly from one another throughout the entire age range (2P < 0.05). In contrast, haemoglobin levels in heterozygous and homozygous individuals were well maintained throughout development. Adults of normal genotype attain Hb levels which are indistinguishable from Caucasian reference values, a finding made all the more remarkable given the high frequency of clinical malaria in this population. It is clear from these findings that haematological data are valuable in screening for carriers of alpha+ thalassaemia in this population. MCH is clearly the most sensitive discriminator. None of the homozygous adults tested had an MCH of > 27 pg, whereas < 10% of normals had a value of < 27 pg. These data provide reference values for areas in which the alpha+ thalassaemias are common and often confused with iron-deficiency anaemia. PMID:8904880

  16. Thalassaemia in children: from quality of care to quality of life.

    PubMed

    Amid, Ali; Saliba, Antoine N; Taher, Ali T; Klaassen, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a remarkable improvement in the survival of patients with thalassaemia in developed countries. Availability of safe blood transfusions, effective and accessible iron chelating medications, the introduction of new and non-invasive methods of tissue iron assessment and other advances in multidisciplinary care of thalassaemia patients have all contributed to better outcomes. This, however, may not be true for patients who are born in countries where the resources are limited. Unfortunately, transfusion-transmitted infections are still major concerns in these countries where paradoxically thalassaemia is most common. Moreover, oral iron chelators and MRI for monitoring of iron status may not be widely accessible or affordable, which may result in poor compliance and suboptimal iron chelation. All of these limitations will lead to reduced survival and increased thalassaemia-related complications and subsequently will affect the patient's quality of life. In countries with limited resources, together with improvement of clinical care, strategies to control the disease burden, such as public education, screening programmes and appropriate counselling, should be put in place. Much can be done to improve the situation by developing partnerships between developed countries and those with limited resources. Future research should also particularly focus on patient's quality of life as an important outcome of care. PMID:26289062

  17. Erythrocyte Catalase Activity in More Frequent Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia: Beta-Thalassemia Trait and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Lazarte, Sandra Stella; Mónaco, María Eugenia; Jimenez, Cecilia Laura; Ledesma Achem, Miryam Emilse; Terán, Magdalena María; Issé, Blanca Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Most common microcytic hypochromic anemias are iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and ?-thalassemia trait (BTT), in which oxidative stress (OxS) has an essential role. Catalase causes detoxification of H2O2 in cells, and it is an indispensable antioxidant enzyme. The study was designed to measure erythrocyte catalase activity (ECAT) in patients with IDA (10) or BTT (21), to relate it with thalassemia mutation type (?0 or ?+) and to compare it with normal subjects (67). Ninety-eight individuals were analyzed since September 2013 to June 2014 in Tucumán, Argentina. Total blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis at alkaline pH, HbA2, catalase, and iron status were performed. ?-thalassemic mutations were determined by real-time PCR. Normal range for ECAT was 70,0–130,0?MU/L. ECAT was increased in 14% (3/21) of BTT subjects and decreased in 40% (4/10) of those with IDA. No significant difference (p = 0,245) was shown between normal and BTT groups, while between IDA and normal groups the difference was proved to be significant (p = 0,000). In ?0 and ?+ groups, no significant difference (p = 0,359) was observed. An altered ECAT was detected in IDA and BTT. These results will help to clarify how the catalase activity works in these anemia types. PMID:26527217

  18. Co-Incidence or Co-Existence? Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in HbE-alpha Thalassaemia: A Case Report with Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Rithika; Suman, Febe Renjitha; Rajendran, Aruna; Scott, Julius Xavier

    2015-11-01

    Haemoglobin E (HbE) is a Haemoglobin variant that commonly occurs in many places in Asia. As ? thalassaemia and ? thalassaemia also occur in the same regions, the co-inheritance of these conditions leads to various phenotypic forms. HbE ? thalassaemia is less common and of a milder phenotype than HbE ? thalassaemia. Though malignancies are one of the complications in thalassaemia, occurrence of leukaemia is a rare event. Here we present a case of a two-year-old male child co-presenting with pre B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with MLL rearrangement and HbE alpha thalassaemia. The child is on remission 12 months post-therapy with standard ALL high risk protocol with no minimal residual disease (MRD). Haematological and oncological conditions coexisting at presentation is a challenge to therapy. This case is described for its rarity. Informed consent has been obtained from the parents. PMID:26672845

  19. Treosulfan-based conditioning regimen for allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Maria Ester; Zecca, Marco; Piras, Eugenia; Vacca, Adriana; Giorgiani, Giovanna; Cugno, Chiara; Caocci, Giovanni; Comoli, Patrizia; Mastronuzzi, Angela; Merli, Pietro; La Nasa, Giorgio; Locatelli, Franco

    2008-11-01

    The safety and efficacy of a preparation with treosulfan/thiotepa/fludarabine were explored in 20 thalassaemia patients given allogeneic marrow transplantation. Seventeen patients were transplanted from unrelated donors after receiving anti-thymocyte globulin. The regimen was well tolerated. Two patients experienced secondary graft failure; one died of acute graft-versus-host disease. Cumulative incidence (95% confidence interval, CI) of transplantation-related mortality and graft failure was 5% (95% CI, 0-34%) and 11% (95% CI, 3-43%), respectively. Two-year probability of survival and thalassaemia-free survival was 95% (95% CI, 85-100%) and 85% (95% CI, 66-100%), respectively. This regimen might find elective application in patients at high risk of developing life-threatening complications. PMID:18986389

  20. Platelet and not erythrocyte microparticles are procoagulant in transfused thalassaemia major patients.

    PubMed

    Agouti, Imane; Cointe, Sylvie; Robert, Stéphane; Judicone, Coralie; Loundou, Anderson; Driss, Fathi; Brisson, Alain; Steschenko, Dominique; Rose, Christian; Pondarré, Corinne; Bernit, Emmanuelle; Badens, Catherine; Dignat-George, Françoise; Lacroix, Romaric; Thuret, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    The level of circulating platelet-, erythrocyte-, leucocyte- and endothelial-derived microparticles detected by high-sensitivity flow cytometry was investigated in 37 ?-thalassaemia major patients receiving a regular transfusion regimen. The phospholipid procoagulant potential of the circulating microparticles and the microparticle-dependent tissue factor activity were evaluated. A high level of circulating erythrocyte- and platelet-microparticles was found. In contrast, the number of endothelial microparticles was within the normal range. Platelet microparticles were significantly higher in splenectomized than in non-splenectomized patients, independent of platelet count (P < 0·001). Multivariate analysis indicated that phospholipid-dependent procoagulant activity was influenced by both splenectomy (P = 0·001) and platelet microparticle level (P < 0·001). Erythrocyte microparticles were not related to splenectomy, appear to be devoid of proper procoagulant activity and no relationship between their production and haemolysis, dyserythropoiesis or oxidative stress markers could be established. Intra-microparticle labelling with anti-HbF antibodies showed that they originate only partially (median of 28%) from thalassaemic erythropoiesis. In conclusion, when ?-thalassaemia major patients are intensively transfused, the procoagulant activity associated with thalassaemic erythrocyte microparticles is probably diluted by transfusions. In contrast, platelet microparticles, being both more elevated and more procoagulant, especially after splenectomy, may contribute to the residual thrombotic risk reported in splenectomized multi-transfused ?-thalassaemia major patients. PMID:26205481

  1. A novel gap-PCR with high resolution melting analysis for the detection of ?-thalassaemia Southeast Asian and Filipino ?°-thalassaemia deletion.

    PubMed

    Kho, Siew Leng; Chua, Kek Heng; George, Elizabeth; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne

    2015-01-01

    Homozygosity for the ?-thalassaemia Southeast Asian (?-SEA) and Filipino ?°-thalassaemia (?-FIL) deletions can cause serious complications leading to foetal death or life-long blood transfusions. A rapid and accurate molecular detection assay is essential in populations where the deletions are common. In this study, gap-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed to detect both the large deletions. Melting curves at 86.9?±?0.1?°C were generated by normal individuals without the ?-SEA deletion, 84.7?±?0.1?°C by homozygous ?-SEA deletion individuals and two melting curves at 84.7?±?0.1?°C and 86.9?±?0.1?°C by ?-SEA deletion carriers. Normal individuals without the ?-FIL deletion produce amplicons with a melting temperature (Tm) at 74.6?±?0.1?°C, homozygous ?-FIL individuals produce amplicons with Tm at 73.6?±?0.1?°C and heterozygous ?-FIL individuals generate two amplicons with Tm at 73.6?±?0.1?°C and 74.6?±?0.1?°C. Evaluation using blinded tests on 220 DNA samples showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. The developed assays are sensitive and specific for rapid molecular and prenatal diagnosis for the ?-SEA and ?-FIL deletions. PMID:26365497

  2. Population genetics of haemoglobin variants, thalassaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, with particular reference to the malaria hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Siniscalco, M.; Bernini, L.; Filippi, G.; Latte, B.; Khan, P. Meera; Piomelli, S.; Rattazzi, M.

    1966-01-01

    The authors report data on the genetic distribution of thalassaemia and of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the populations of certain Sardinian villages, many of which are not only of great antiquity but have maintained isolation for very long periods and therefore possess the following three requirements for suitability for investigation of the possible interrelationships among malaria, thalassaemia and G-6-PD deficiency: a reasonable degree of ethnic homogeneity, availability of reliable demographic data, and availability of malaria-free populations of adequate size and of ethnic background and genetic isolation similar to those of the malarial populations. Investigations including more than 6000 observations in 52 villages demonstrated a positive correlation between the incidences of thalassaemia and G-6-PD deficiency. It is suggested that the genotype that carries thalassaemia and/or the enzyme deficiency may have a high adaptive value in a malarial environment. It is concluded that there is a need further to investigate human genetic structure and the biological fitness of the principal genotype combinations in both existing environments and those that will result from continued cultural evolution. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:5296398

  3. Deferasirox effect on renal haemodynamic parameters in patients with transfusion-dependent ? thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Piga, Antonio; Fracchia, Silvia; Lai, Maria E; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Hirschberg, Raimund; Habr, Dany; Wegener, Antje; Bouillaud, Emmanuel; Forni, Gian Luca

    2015-03-01

    Some patients with ? thalassaemia experience non-progressive creatinine increases with deferasirox, mostly within normal limits; the mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. The effects of deferasirox on renal haemodynamics, including glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF), were investigated in a Phase I, open-label study in ? thalassaemia major patients with iron overload. Patients received deferasirox 30 mg/kg/d up to Week 8, followed by a 2-week washout period, and extended treatment up to Week 104 with a 4-week washout period. In the short-term study (n = 11), mean GFR and RPF declined from baseline to Week 8 (mean [%] change:-9·2 [-9·5%] and -105·7 ml/min [-17·8%], respectively). A similar pattern was observed during the long-term study (n = 5); mean GFR and RPF decreased up to Week 52 (-19·1 [-17·7%] and -155·6 ml/min [-26·1%]), with similar change at Week 104 (-18·4 [-17·2%] and -115·9 ml/min [-19·6%]). Measures returned to baseline values after each washout. Serum creatinine and creatinine clearance followed a similar pattern. Effects of deferasirox on renal haemodynamics were mild and reversible for up to 2 years of treatment, with no progressive worsening of renal function over time. www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00560820. PMID:25402221

  4. Status of Superoxide Dismutase in Transfusion Dependent Thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Rujito, Lantip; Mulatsih, Sri; Sofro, Abdul Salam M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thalassemia is a collection of genetic impairments in beta and alpha genes causing various states of anemia. Severe types of the disease need lifelong transfusions, leading to oxidant-antioxidant disturbance due to massive iron deposits. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant enzyme Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and ferritin levels of thalassemia major patients in a peripheral health facility. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and nine probands were recruited and performed laboratory experiments for SOD and Ferritin levels. Chelation administration and clinical score were taken from interviewing the family and from medical report data. Results: The study showed that SOD intensity was lower (162.41 u/ml) compared to the normal cutoff point (P = 0.001), while the mean of Ferritin levels was ten times over the normal value (4226,67 ng/dl). Observations also reported that chelation medicine was not administrated properly. Conclusions: The data indicates that thalassemic patients have oxidant-antioxidant uproar due to oxidative stress. Monitored chelating administration, selective antioxidant, and a well-balanced diet may prevent oxidative injury. PMID:26110130

  5. Attitudes towards prenatal diagnosis and abortion in a multi-ethnic country: a survey among parents of children with thalassaemia major in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ngim, Chin Fang; Lai, Nai Ming; Ibrahim, Hishamshah; Ratnasingam, Vanassa

    2013-04-01

    Thalassaemia is a public health problem in multi-ethnic Malaysia which mainly affects the Malays, Kadazan-Dusuns and Chinese. This study, the first in Malaysia, aims to evaluate the acceptability of prenatal diagnosis and abortion among Malaysian parents who have a child or children with thalassaemia major and the socio-demographic factors affecting their decision-making. A pre-structured questionnaire was distributed to parents of children with thalassaemia major. Response rate for completed surveys was 99.1 %. Out of 116 respondents, the majority (83/71.6 %) were agreeable for prenatal diagnosis, but only 33 (28.4 %) agreed to both prenatal diagnosis followed by termination of affected foetuses. Of parents who declined abortion, 77.6 % cited religious restriction as the main reason, and their religious background was a significant factor (p?=?0.001), with 73.4 % of Muslim participants against termination compared to 25 % of Christians and 13.3 % of Buddhists. Gender, age, highest education level and number of children affected with thalassaemia were non-significant predictors in decision-making regarding abortion. The acceptance rate for termination of foetuses with thalassaemia major in Malaysia is low especially among the Muslims due to religious non-permissibility. Therefore, scholarly deliberations among the Malaysian Muslim religious authorities that result in a supportive stance in this issue may contribute to a more successful prevention programme. PMID:23296641

  6. Type I allergic hypersensitivity reactions due to ethylene oxide sterilised leucocyte filters in patients with thalassaemia: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Belen, Burcu; Polat, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene oxide (EO) is a highly reactive gas used in sterilisation of heat sensitive medical devices, such as infusion sets, cannulae, intubation materials, ventriculoperitoneal shunts, dialysis catheters and stents. Allergic reactions due to EO have been reported in haemodialysis patients, patients undergoing extracorporeal photopheresis and donors of plasmapheresis. Clinical manifestations vary considerably and generally do not allow differentiation between IgE-mediated anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions. We report four patients with thalassaemia who experienced anaphylaxis during transfusion due to ethylene oxide sterilised leucocyte filters. The aim of this report is to highlight the fact that frequently transfused patients can have allergic reactions due to EO particles left in leucocyte filters. PMID:25725028

  7. Transition of Thalassaemia and Friedreich ataxia from fatal to chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kolnagou, Annita; Kontoghiorghe, Christina N; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2014-01-01

    Thalassaemia major (TM) and Friedreich’s ataxia (FA) are autosomal recessive inherited diseases related to the proteins haemoglobin and frataxin respectively. In both diseases abnormalities in iron metabolism is the main cause of iron toxicity leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Major efforts are directed towards the prevention of these diseases and also in their treatment using iron chelation therapy. Both TM and FA are endemic in Cyprus, where the frequency per total population of asymptomatic heterozygote carriers and patients is the highest worldwide. Cyprus has been a pioneering nation in preventing and nearly eliminating the birth of TM and FA patients by introducing an organized health structure, including prenatal and antenatal diagnosis. Effective iron chelation therapy, improved diagnostic methods and transfusion techniques as well as supportive therapy from other clinical specializations have improved the survival and quality of life of TM patients. Despite the tiresome clinical management regimes many TM patients are successful in their professional lives, have families with children and some are now living well into their fifties. The introduction of deferiprone led to the elimination of cardiac failure induced by iron overload toxicity, which was the major cause of mortality in TM. Effective combinations of deferiprone with deferoxamine in TM patients caused the fall of body iron to normal physiological ranges. In FA different mechanisms of iron metabolism and toxicity apply to that of TM, which can be targeted with specific iron chelation protocols. Preliminary findings from the introduction of deferiprone in FA patients have increased the hopes for improved and effective therapy in this untreatable condition. New and personalised treatments are proposed in TM and FA. Overall, advances in treatments and in particular of chelation therapy using deferiprone are transforming TM and FA from fatal to chronic conditions. The paradigm of Cyprus in the prevention and treatment of TM can be used for application worldwide. PMID:25541601

  8. Detection of ?-globin Gene Mutations Among ?-thalassaemia Carriers and Patients in Malaysia: Application of Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System–Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Syahzuwan; Ahmad, Rahimah; Zakaria, Zubaidah; Zulkafli, Zefarina; Abdullah, Wan Zaidah

    2013-01-01

    Background: ?-thalassaemia is one of the most common single-gene disorders worldwide. Each ethnic population has its own common mutations, accounting for the majority of cases, with a small number of mutations for the rarer alleles. Due to the heterogeneity of ?-thalassaemia and the multi-ethnicity of Malaysians, molecular diagnostics may be expensive and time consuming. Methods: A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach involving a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (MARMS) and one amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), consisting of 20 ?-globin gene mutations, were designed and employed to investigate ?-thalassaemia patients and carriers. Results: Out of 169 carriers tested with the MARMS, Cd 41/42 (–TTCT), Cd 26 (A–G) HbE, IVS 1–1 (G–T), and IVS 1–5 (G–C) were the most common mutations, accounting for 78.1%. Among the Malays, Cd 26 (A–G) HbE, Cd 41/42 (–TTCT), IVS 1–1 (G–T), and IVS 1–5 (G–C) were the most common mutations, accounting for 81.4%, whereas Cd 41/42 (–TTCT) and IVS 2–654 (C–T) were most common among the Chinese (79.1%). Conclusion: We propose the use of this cheap, easy to interpret, and simple system for the molecular diagnostics of ?-thalassaemia among Malaysians at the Institute for Medical Research (IMR). PMID:23613656

  9. Beta Thalassemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Beta thalassemia is found in people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, African, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin genes found on chromosomes ...

  10. The Least-Squares Estimation of Latent Trait Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi

    This paper presents a new method for estimating a given latent trait variable by the least-squares approach. The beta weights are obtained recursively with the help of Fourier series and expressed as functions of item parameters of response curves. The values of the latent trait variable estimated by this method and by maximum likelihood method…

  11. A BETA-1,3-GALACTOSYLTRANSFERASE AND BRAINIAC/BRE5 HOMOLOG EXPRESSED IN THE MIDGUT DID NOT CONTRIBUTE TO A CRY1AB TOXIN RESISTANCE TRAIT IN OSTRINIA NUBILALIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postranslational glycosylation of midgut epithelial peptide and lipid receptors may be required prior to activated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxin binding. A 931 nt mRNA encoding a putative 297 residue Beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase (Beta3GalT5) was isolated from larval O. nubilalis midgut ti...

  12. Emotional impact in ?-thalassaemia major children following cognitive-behavioural family therapy and quality of life of caregiving mothers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cognitive-Behavioural Family Therapy (CBFT) can be an effective psychological approach for children with ?-thalassaemia major, increasing compliance to treatment, lessening the emotional burden of disease, and improving the quality of life of caregivers. Design and methods Twenty-eight ?-thalassaemic major children that followed CBFT for one year were compared with twenty-eight age-matched healthy children, focusing particularly on behavioural, mood, and temperamental characteristics as well as compliance with chelation, assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), and Emotionality, Activity, Sociability and Shyness Scale (EAS). We also monitored the quality of life of caregiving mothers using the World Health Organization Quality Of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Data were analysed with non-parametric standard descriptive statistics. Results 90% of ?-Thalassaemic children showed good compliance with chelation therapy; however they had significantly increased somatic complains, physical symptoms and separation panic. Moreover, temperamental assessment revealed high emotionality and poor sociability in treated thalassaemic children and in their mothers. Physical and psychological domains concerning individual's overall perception of quality of life resulted impaired in mothers of ?-thalassaemic children. Conclusion CBFT can be a valid tool to increase the compliance with chelation therapy in ?-thalassaemic children; however, treated children continue to show an important emotional burden; moreover, CBFT therapy seems not to have any positive impact on the quality of life of caregiving mothers, who may therefore need additional psychological support. PMID:19236719

  13. Uncertainty quantified trait predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazayeli, Farideh; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Schrodt, Franziska; Reich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Functional traits of organisms are key to understanding and predicting biodiversity and ecological change, which motivates continuous collection of traits and their integration into global databases. Such composite trait matrices are inherently sparse, severely limiting their usefulness for further analyses. On the other hand, traits are characterized by the phylogenetic trait signal, trait-trait correlations and environmental constraints, all of which provide information that could be used to statistically fill gaps. We propose the application of probabilistic models which, for the first time, utilize all three characteristics to fill gaps in trait databases and predict trait values at larger spatial scales. For this purpose we introduce BHPMF, a hierarchical Bayesian extension of Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF). PMF is a machine learning technique which exploits the correlation structure of sparse matrices to impute missing entries. BHPMF additionally utilizes the taxonomic hierarchy for trait prediction. Implemented in the context of a Gibbs Sampler MCMC approach BHPMF provides uncertainty estimates for each trait prediction. We present comprehensive experimental results on the problem of plant trait prediction using the largest database of plant traits, where BHPMF shows strong empirical performance in uncertainty quantified trait prediction, outperforming the state-of-the-art based on point estimates. Further, we show that BHPMF is more accurate when it is confident, whereas the error is high when the uncertainty is high.

  14. Beta experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

  15. Chromosomal aberration frequencies in patients with thalassaemia major undergoing therapy with deferiprone and deferoxamine in a comparative crossover study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, R; Tricta, F; Galanello, R; Leoni, G; Kirkland, D; Minto, S; Spino, M

    2003-09-01

    Measurements of chromosomal aberrations were made in 10 thalassaemia major patients treated long-term with deferiprone (at least 5 years) and compared with an equal number of patients matched for age, sex and iron overload, treated long-term with deferoxamine. Two blood samples were collected from each patient, 7 and 20 days after a transfusion episode, and the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (gaps, breaks and exchanges) in the patients' circulating lymphocytes analysed in both samples using standard cytogenetic staining techniques. The frequency of reciprocal translocations was also analysed using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Relatively low frequencies of cells with stable and unstable aberrations were seen at both sampling times in all patients, with no statistically significant differences between sexes. Chromosomal aberrations were less frequent in patients treated long-term with deferiprone than in patients treated with deferoxamine, although the difference did not reach statistical significance. After the second blood sample had been collected, all patients had their iron chelation therapy switched to the other chelator. Patients treated long-term with deferiprone had their therapy switched to deferoxamine and patients treated long-term with deferoxamine had their therapy switched to deferiprone. After the switch, two further blood samples were collected 7 and 20 days after transfusion for each of the next two transfusion cycles in all patients. Analysis of the post-switch samples also revealed a slightly higher frequency of chromosomal aberrations during therapy with deferoxamine than with deferiprone at all time points. A small, but statistically significant, increase in cells with aberrations was observed at the first post-switch assessment in the group of patients whose therapy was switched from deferiprone to deferoxamine, whereas the switch from deferoxamine to deferiprone was associated with a decrease in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. The results of the study demonstrate that, in a clinical setting, deferiprone has no greater clastogenic activity than that of deferoxamine. PMID:12960415

  16. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  17. Beta Beams

    E-print Network

    M. Mezzetto

    2004-11-12

    Beta Beams could address the needs of long term neutrino oscillation experiments. They can produce extremely pure neutrino beams through the decays of relativistic radioactive ions. The baseline scenario is described, together with its physics performances. Using a megaton water Cerenkov detector installed under the Frejus, Beta Beams could improve by a factor 200 the present limits on $\\sin^2{2 \\thetaot}$ and discover leptonic CP violating effects if the CP phase delta would be greater than 30 degree and theta13 greater than 1 degree. These performances can be further improved if a neutrino SuperBeam generated by the SPL 4MW, 2.2 GeV, proton Linac would be fired to the same detector. Innovative ideas on higher and lower energy Beta Beams are also described.

  18. Defining serum ferritin thresholds to predict clinically relevant liver iron concentrations for guiding deferasirox therapy when MRI is unavailable in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Taher, Ali T; Porter, John B; Viprakasit, Vip; Kattamis, Antonis; Chuncharunee, Suporn; Sutcharitchan, Pranee; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Origa, Raffaella; Karakas, Zeynep; Habr, Dany; Zhu, Zewen; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

    2015-01-01

    Liver iron concentration (LIC) assessment by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the gold standard to diagnose iron overload and guide iron chelation therapy in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT). However, limited access to MRI technology and expertise worldwide makes it practical to also use serum ferritin assessments. The THALASSA (assessment of Exjade(®) in non-transfusion-dependent THALASSemiA patients) study assessed the efficacy and safety of deferasirox in iron-overloaded NTDT patients and provided a large data set to allow exploration of the relationship between LIC and serum ferritin. Using data from screened patients and those treated with deferasirox for up to 2 years, we identified clinically relevant serum ferritin thresholds (for when MRI is unavailable) for the initiation of chelation therapy (>800 ?g/l), as well as thresholds to guide chelator dose interruption (<300 ?g/l) and dose escalation (>2000 ?g/l). (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00873041). PMID:25212456

  19. Mechanisms of plasma non-transferrin bound iron generation: insights from comparing transfused diamond blackfan anaemia with sickle cell and thalassaemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Porter, John B.; Walter, Patrick B.; Neumayr, Lynne D.; Evans, Patricia; Bansal, Sukhvinder; Garbowski, Maciej; Weyhmiller, Marcela G.; Harmatz, Paul R.; Wood, John C.; Miller, Jeffery L.; Byrnes, Colleen; Weiss, Guenter; Seifert, Markus; Grosse, Regine; Grabowski, Dagmar; Schmidt, Angelica; Fischer, Roland; Nielsen, Peter; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    Summary In transfusional iron overload, extra-hepatic iron distribution differs, depending on the underlying condition. Relative mechanisms of plasma non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) generation may account for these differences. Markers of iron metabolism (plasma NTBI, labile iron, hepcidin, transferrin, monocyte SLC40A1 [ferroportin]), erythropoiesis (growth differentiation factor 15, soluble transferrin receptor) and tissue hypoxia (erythropoietin) were compared in patients with Thalassaemia Major (TM), Sickle Cell Disease and Diamond-Blackfan Anaemia (DBA), with matched transfusion histories. The most striking differences between these conditions were relationships of NTBI to erythropoietic markers, leading us to propose three mechanisms of NTBI generation: iron overload (all), ineffective erythropoiesis (predominantly TM) and low transferrin-iron utilization (DBA). PMID:25209728

  20. Mechanisms of plasma non-transferrin bound iron generation: insights from comparing transfused diamond blackfan anaemia with sickle cell and thalassaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Porter, John B; Walter, Patrick B; Neumayr, Lynne D; Evans, Patricia; Bansal, Sukhvinder; Garbowski, Maciej; Weyhmiller, Marcela G; Harmatz, Paul R; Wood, John C; Miller, Jeffery L; Byrnes, Colleen; Weiss, Guenter; Seifert, Markus; Grosse, Regine; Grabowski, Dagmar; Schmidt, Angelica; Fischer, Roland; Nielsen, Peter; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2014-12-01

    In transfusional iron overload, extra-hepatic iron distribution differs, depending on the underlying condition. Relative mechanisms of plasma non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) generation may account for these differences. Markers of iron metabolism (plasma NTBI, labile iron, hepcidin, transferrin, monocyte SLC40A1 [ferroportin]), erythropoiesis (growth differentiation factor 15, soluble transferrin receptor) and tissue hypoxia (erythropoietin) were compared in patients with Thalassaemia Major (TM), Sickle Cell Disease and Diamond-Blackfan Anaemia (DBA), with matched transfusion histories. The most striking differences between these conditions were relationships of NTBI to erythropoietic markers, leading us to propose three mechanisms of NTBI generation: iron overload (all), ineffective erythropoiesis (predominantly TM) and low transferrin-iron utilization (DBA). PMID:25209728

  1. Generalized Latent Trait Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

  2. Haptoglobin HP2-2 genotype, alpha-thalassaemia and acute seizures in children living in a malaria-endemic area.

    PubMed

    Idro, Richard; Williams, Thomas N; Gwer, Samson; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alex; Opi, Herbert; Atkinson, Sarah; Maitland, Kathryn; Kager, Piet A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Neville, Brian G R; Newton, Charles R J C

    2008-10-01

    Polymorphisms of the haptoglobin (HP) gene and deletions in alpha-globin gene (alpha-thalassaemia) are common in malaria-endemic Africa. The same region also has high incidence rates for childhood acute seizures. The haptoglobin HP2-2 genotype has been associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies and altered iron metabolism in children with alpha-thalassaemia can potentially interfere with neurotransmission and increase the risk of seizures. We investigated the hypothesis that the HP2-2 genotype and the common African alpha-globin gene deletions are associated with the increased risk of seizures. 288 children aged 3-156 months admitted with acute seizures to Kilifi District Hospital (Kenya), were matched for ethnicity to an equal number of community controls. The proportion of cases (72/288 [25.0%]) and controls (80/288 [27.8%]) with HP2-2 genotype was similar, p=0.499. The allele frequency of HP2 gene in cases (49.3%) and controls (48.6%) was also similar, p=0.814. Similarly, we found no significant difference between the proportion of cases (177/267 [66.3%]) and controls (186/267 [69.7%]) with deletions in alpha-globin gene (p=0.403). Among cases, HP2-2 polymorphism and deletions in alpha-globin gene were neither associated with changes in the type, number or duration of seizures nor did they affect outcome. We conclude that the HP2-2 polymorphism and deletions in alpha-globin gene are not risk factors for acute seizures in children. Future studies should examine other susceptibility genes. PMID:18554871

  3. Fatal vancomycin- and linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium sepsis in a child undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for beta-thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Marco; Cappelli, Barbara; Biral, Erika; Chiesa, Robert; Biffi, Alessandra; Ossi, Cristina; Moro, Matteo; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Clementi, Massimo; Soliman, Clara; Ciceri, Fabio; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Fumagalli, Luca; Marktel, Sarah

    2010-07-01

    Recently vancomycin-resistant and sporadically linezolid-resistant Enterococcus species have been described in adults. We report what we believe to be the first case of a child with prolonged bone marrow aplasia following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation developing a fatal sepsis caused by Enterococcus faecium resistant to glycopeptides and linezolid. PMID:20299507

  4. Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille; Kraft, Nathan J B; Sandel, Brody; Šímová, Irena; Donoghue, John C; Svenning, Jens-Christian; McGill, Brian J; Boyle, Brad; Buzzard, Vanessa; Dolins, Steven; Jørgensen, Peter M; Marcuse-Kubitza, Aaron; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K; Piel, William H; Regetz, James; Schildhauer, Mark; Spencer, Nick; Thiers, Barbara; Wiser, Susan K; Enquist, Brian J

    2014-09-23

    The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha (within local assemblages), beta (among assemblages), and gamma (regional pool) scales. We test these predictions by quantifying hypervolumes constructed from functional traits representing major axes of plant strategy variation (specific leaf area, plant height, and seed mass) in tree assemblages spanning the temperate and tropical New World. Alpha-scale trait volume decreases with absolute latitude and is often lower than sampling expectation, consistent with environmental filtering theory. Beta-scale overlap decays with geographic distance fastest in the temperate zone, again consistent with environmental filtering theory. In contrast, gamma-scale trait space shows a hump-shaped relationship with absolute latitude, consistent with no theory. Furthermore, the overall temperate trait hypervolume was larger than the overall tropical hypervolume, indicating that the temperate zone permits a wider range of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory. PMID:25225365

  5. Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Sandel, Brody; Šímová, Irena; Donoghue, John C.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; McGill, Brian J.; Boyle, Brad; Buzzard, Vanessa; Dolins, Steven; Jørgensen, Peter M.; Marcuse-Kubitza, Aaron; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K.; Piel, William H.; Regetz, James; Schildhauer, Mark; Spencer, Nick; Thiers, Barbara; Wiser, Susan K.; Enquist, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha (within local assemblages), beta (among assemblages), and gamma (regional pool) scales. We test these predictions by quantifying hypervolumes constructed from functional traits representing major axes of plant strategy variation (specific leaf area, plant height, and seed mass) in tree assemblages spanning the temperate and tropical New World. Alpha-scale trait volume decreases with absolute latitude and is often lower than sampling expectation, consistent with environmental filtering theory. Beta-scale overlap decays with geographic distance fastest in the temperate zone, again consistent with environmental filtering theory. In contrast, gamma-scale trait space shows a hump-shaped relationship with absolute latitude, consistent with no theory. Furthermore, the overall temperate trait hypervolume was larger than the overall tropical hypervolume, indicating that the temperate zone permits a wider range of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory. PMID:25225365

  6. Developing Leadership Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Susan King

    1980-01-01

    Defines six leadership traits that are necessary to and fostered by editing a college newspaper: delegating authority, developing subordinates, motivating others, being approachable, commanding respect, and bringing out optimum performances in others. (TJ)

  7. Genomewide association study for beta-glucan content in North American elite oat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome wide-association studies (GWAS) can be a useful approach to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling complex traits in crop plants. Oat (Avena sativa L.) beta-glucan is a soluble dietary fiber and has been shown to have positive health benefits. We report a GWAS involving 446 elite oa...

  8. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Robert Irvine Pregnant? What to Expect Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Heart & Blood Vessels > Beta ... Types of Beta Thalassemia Complications Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  9. Adaptive Traits, 1 Running Head: ADAPTIVE TRAITS ASSOCIATED WITH PSYCHOPATHY

    E-print Network

    Scholl, Brian

    Adaptive Traits, 1 Running Head: ADAPTIVE TRAITS ASSOCIATED WITH PSYCHOPATHY Adaptive Traits Associated with Psychopathy in a "Successful," Non-Criminal Population Scott A. Snyder Advisor: Kristi-institutionalized in society. Using the PPI- R, a self-report measure of psychopathy, this study investigated which

  10. Assessment and management of iron overload in ?-thalassaemia major patients during the 21st century: a real-life experience from the Italian WEBTHAL project.

    PubMed

    Piga, Antonio; Longo, Filomena; Musallam, Khaled M; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Forni, Gian Luca; Quarta, Giovanni; Chiavilli, Francesco; Commendatore, Francesca; Mulas, Sergio; Caruso, Vincenzo; Galanello, Renzo

    2013-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study on 924 ?-thalassaemia major patients (mean age 30·1 years) treated at nine Italian centres using the WEBTHAL software, to evaluate real-life application of iron overload assessment and management standards. Serum ferritin <2500 ng/ml was a risk factor for never having liver iron concentration (LIC) measurement, while absence of cardiac disease and siderosis were risk factors for a delay in LIC measurement >2 years. Patients who never had a cardiac MRI (CMR) T2* measurement were <18 years, had iron intake ?0·4 mg/kg per day, or a serum ferritin <2500 ng/ml. A history of normal CMR T2* was the main risk factor for a delay in subsequent assessment of >2 years. Deferoxamine (22·8%) was more commonly used in patients with Hepatitis C Virus or high serum creatinine. Deferiprone (20·6%) was less commonly prescribed in patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase; while a deferoxamine + deferiprone combination (17·9%) was more commonly used in patients with serum ferritin >2500 ng/ml or CMR T2* <20 ms. Deferasirox (38·3%) was more commonly prescribed in patients <18 years, but less commonly used in those with heart disease or high iron intake. These observations largely echoed guidelines at the time, although some practices are expected to change in light of evolving evidence. PMID:23600689

  11. Evolving Trait Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1983-01-01

    Redefines intelligence as a useful, comprehensive, and flexible construct that allows its modifiability as a function of age and culture. Reviews theories on two-factor, multiple-factor, facet, and hierarchical models of trait formation based on research in developmental, cross-cultural, learning, and cognitive psychology. (Author/AOS)

  12. Cereal beta-glucans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal beta-glucans occur predominantly in oats and barley, but can be found in other cereals. Beta-glucan structure is a mixture of single beta-1,3-linkages and consecutive beta-1,4-linkages, and cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units typically make up 90-95% of entire molecule. Lichenase can hydr...

  13. Fitness components are complex Genes & Quantitative Traits Quantitative traits = Complex traits, w/ many factors

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    10/7/14 1 Fitness components are complex Genes & Quantitative Traits · Quantitative traits differ in quantity rather than type, they are distributed on a continuous scale. ­ effected by both genes of interactions among the traits · Inheritance of grain color in wheat (Nilsson-Ehle, 1909) · Three independently

  14. Selected highlights of the VIII International Symposium of Clinicians for Endocrinopathies in Thalassemia and Adolescent Medicine (ICET-A) on Growth, Puberty and Endocrine Complications in Thalassaemia. Auditorium of the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) Muscat (Sultanate of Oman), 20th of December 2014.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T; Wali, Yasser; Elsedfy, Heba; Daar, Shahina; Al-Yaarubi, Saif A H; Mevada, Surekha Tony; Tony, Surekha; Elshinawy, Mohamed; Fawzy, Hanan; Al-Subhi, Taimoora; Al-Rawas, Abulhakim; Al-Muslehi, Muhanna; El Kholy, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    The VIII ICET-A International Symposium was held in Muscat (Sultanate of Oman) on the 20th of December, 2014. The symposium included four sessions on a wide range of topics covering growth disorders and endocrine complications in thalassaemia. Despite the fact that endocrine complications are very common in multi-transfused thalassaemia patients a recent survey conducted by the International Network of Clinicians for Endocrinopathies in Thalassemia and Adolescent Medicine (ICET-A) in 2014 in Acitrezza (Catania, Italy) showed that the major difficulties reported by hematologists or pediatricians experienced in thalassaemias or thalassaemia syndromes in following endocrine complications included: Lack of familiarity with medical treatment of endocrine complications, interpretation of endocrine tests, lack of collaboration and on-time consultation between thalassaemic centres supervised by haematologists and endocrinologists. Endocrine monitoring of growth, pubertal development, reproductive ability and endocrine function in general are essential to achieve a good quality of life as well as controlling the pain which results from the defects of bone structure, all of which increase with the age of patients. Such comprehensive care is best provided by coordinated, multidisciplinary teams working in expert centres. The multidisciplinary team must include an endocrinologist, preferably someone experienced in the management of hormonal deficiencies caused early in life by transfusion-induced iron overload. PMID:25962210

  15. beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( beta - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 85 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Asses

  16. FERTILITY TRAIT ECONOMICS AND CORRELATIONS WITH OTHER TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correlations of fertility traits (heifer fertility, interval from calving to first insemination, cow nonreturn rate, and calving interval) with yield traits (milk, fat, and protein), longevity, and somatic cell score (SCS) were compared for 11 countries. Correlations were consistent and small but al...

  17. Quantitative trait loci associated with the tocochromanol (vitamin E) pathway in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the Genome-Wide Association Studies approach was used to detect Quantitative Trait Loci associated with tocochromanol concentrations using a panel of 1,466 barley accessions. All major tocochromanol types- alpha-, beta-, delta-, gamma-tocopherol and tocotrienol- were assayed. We found...

  18. Trait Modification in Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of beneficial traits such as virulence, reproductive potential, and environmental tolerance are key factors in determining an organism’s ability to produce high levels of efficacy in biological control. Beneficial traits in entomopathogenic nematodes have been enhanced through molecular me...

  19. Exaggerated trait growth in insects.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Laura; Gotoh, Hiroki; Brent, Colin S; Dworkin, Ian; Emlen, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size the surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles (Lucanidae), the claspers of praying mantids (Mantidae), the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera), and the giant heads of soldier ants (Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera). Developmentally, disproportionate growth can arise through trait-specific modifications to the activity of at least four pathways: the sex determination pathway, the appendage patterning pathway, the insulin/IGF signaling pathway, and the juvenile hormone/ecdysteroid pathway. Although most exaggerated traits have not been studied mechanistically, it is already apparent that distinct developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of the different types of exaggerated traits. We suggest this reflects the nature of selection in each instance, revealing an exciting link between mechanism, form, and function. We use this information to make explicit predictions for the types of regulatory pathways likely to underlie each type of exaggerated trait. PMID:25341090

  20. Tau Beta Pi 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    for nixtamalized corn flour at 10-25% to evaluate tortilla quality improvement as dietary fiber content increases. Beta-glucan content of flours correlated positively with water absorption and with improved texture. Recent trials were made with waxy barley... flour with 10% beta-glucan. These tortillas had improved texture during storage and suggest that the hydrocolloids in barley may cause the texture improvements in tortillas (Silva 2003). When the experiment was repeated and compared to a purified beta-glucan...

  1. Personality Traits and User Behavior 

    E-print Network

    King, Christopher Ronald

    2012-02-14

    Psychologists and human resources personnel have used personality profiling as a predictor of human behavior in various environments for many decades. Knowing the personality traits of a particular individual allows ...

  2. Effect of L-type calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) on myocardial iron deposition in patients with thalassaemia with moderate-to-severe myocardial iron deposition: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Shakoor, Amarah; Zahoor, Maaman; Sadaf, Alina; Alvi, Najveen; Fadoo, Zehra; Rizvi, Arjumand; Quadri, Farheen; Tipoo, Fateh Ali; Khurshid, Mohammad; Sajjad, Zaffar; Colan, Steven; Hasan, Babar S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sideroblastic cardiomyopathy secondary to repeated blood transfusions is a feared complication in thalassaemia. Control of myocardial iron is thus becoming the cornerstone of thalassaemia management. Recent evidence suggests a role for L-type Ca2+ channels in mediating iron uptake by the heart. Blocking the cellular iron uptake through these channels may add to the benefit of therapy to standard chelation in reducing myocardial iron. We aim to determine the efficacy of amlodipine (a calcium channel blocker) as an adjunct to standard aggressive chelation in retarding myocardial iron deposition in thalassaemics with or without cardiomyopathy. Outcomes The primary outcome is to compare the efficacy of amlodipine+chelation (intervention) versus standard chelation (control) in retarding myocardial iron deposition. Secondary outcomes include the effect of amlodipine therapy on systolic and diastolic function, strain and strain rate and liver iron content. Methods and analysis This is a single-centre, parallel-group, prospective randomised control trial. Twenty patients will be randomised in a 1:1 allocation ratio into the intervention and control arms. In addition to conventional echocardiography, MRI T2* values for assessment of cardiac and liver iron load will be obtained at baseline and at 6 and 12?months. Cardiac T2* will be reported as the geometric mean and per cent coefficient of variation, and an increase in cardiac T2* values from baseline will be used as an end point to compare the efficacy of therapy. A p Value of <0.05 will be considered significant. Study setting Department of Pediatric and Child Health, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Ethics Review Committee and Clinical Trials Unit at The Aga Khan University with respect to scientific content and compliance with applicable research and human subjects regulations. Findings will be reported through scientific publications and research conferences and project summary papers for participants. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.Gov. Registration no: NCT02065492. PMID:25492271

  3. Disorders of haemoglobin in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y T; Huang, S Z

    1987-10-01

    A large scale survey of haemoglobinopathies and thalassaemia has been carried out in China, involving 900,000 people in 28 provinces. It has resulted in the finding of many new variants and some interesting cases of thalassaemia, and in a study on the chemical structure of abnormal haemoglobins and DNA analysis of thalassaemia. We report here data on haemoglobin disorders in the Chinese, mainly the characterisation of the geographical distribution of haemoglobin variants, the analysis of globin genes of alpha, beta, gamma, or delta beta thalassaemia, and the progress in prenatal diagnosis of alpha and beta thalassaemia conducted in the authors' laboratory. PMID:3500312

  4. Beta-Carotene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-carotene is a pigment that occurs naturally in many photosynthetic plants and organisms and one of the most abundant carotenoids found in human blood. The richest dietary sources of beta-carotene are yellow, orange, and leafy green fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes...

  5. Beta-ensembles with covariance

    E-print Network

    Dubbs, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents analytic samplers for the [beta]-Wishart and [beta]-MANOVA ensembles with diagonal covariance. These generalize the [beta]-ensembles of Dumitriu-Edelman, Lippert, Killip-Nenciu, Forrester-Rains, and ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Beta thalassemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Beta thalassemia On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... Glossary definitions Reviewed September 2015 What is beta thalassemia? Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces ...

  7. Quantitative trait loci for biofortification traits in maize grain.

    PubMed

    Simi?, Domagoj; Mladenovi? Drini?, Snezana; Zduni?, Zvonimir; Jambrovi?, Antun; Ledencan, Tatjana; Brki?, Josip; Brki?, Andrija; Brki?, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Detecting genes that influence biofortification traits in cereal grain could help increase the concentrations of bioavailable mineral elements in crops to solve the global mineral malnutrition problem. The aims of this study were to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in maize grain in a mapping population, as well as QTLs for bioavailable Fe, Zn, and Mg, by precalculating their respective ratios with P. Elemental analysis of grain samples was done by coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry in 294 F(4) lines of a biparental population taken from field trials of over 3 years. The population was mapped using sets of 121 polymorphic markers. QTL analysis revealed 32 significant QTLs detected for 7 traits, of which some were colocalized. The Additive-dominant model revealed highly significant additive effects, suggesting that biofortification traits in maize are generally controlled by numerous small-effect QTLs. Three QTLs for Fe/P, Zn/P, and Mg/P were colocalized on chromosome 3, coinciding with simple sequence repeats marker bnlg1456, which resides in close proximity to previously identified phytase genes (ZM phys1 and phys2). Thus, we recommend the ratios as bioavailability traits in biofortification research. PMID:22071312

  8. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  9. Double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, M.K.; Rosen, S.P.

    1989-11-01

    In a double-beta event, two neutrons decay simultaneouly into two protons, two beta rays (electrons) and two antineutrinos. Experimentalists are now searching for another form of double-beta decay, one that does not produce neutrinos or antineutrinos. If such an event is found, it could unravelone of nature's great mysteries: What, if anything, is the mass of the neutrino According to the Standard Model, the neutrino accompanying a negative beta ray is the distinct antiparticle of the one accompanying a positive beta ray. The theories that go beyond the Standard Model and assign a mass to the neutrino, however, predict that the particle emitted with a negative beta ray should be the same as the one emitted with a positive ray. In other words, the neutrino would be its own antiparticle. How can we tell whether these predictions are right Double-beta decay is the ideal process in which to seek an answer to this question. If the neutrino has mass and is its own antiparticle, then the neutrino emitted in the first stage of the process might be reaborbed in the second, yielding a form of decay in which no neutrinos materialize. 8 figs.

  10. Autism traits in the RASopathies

    PubMed Central

    Adviento, Brigid; Corbin, Iris L; Widjaja, Felicia; Desachy, Guillaume; Enrique, Nicole; Rosser, Tena; Risi, Susan; Marco, Elysa J; Hendren, Robert L; Bearden, Carrie E; Rauen, Katherine A; Weiss, Lauren A

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/MAPK) pathway genes lead to a class of disorders known as RASopathies, including neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), Costello syndrome (CS), and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC). Previous work has suggested potential genetic and phenotypic overlap between dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although the literature offers conflicting evidence for association of NF1 and autism, there has been no systematic evaluation of autism traits in the RASopathies as a class to support a role for germline Ras/MAPK activation in ASDs. Methods We examined the association of autism traits with NF1, NS, CS and CFC, comparing affected probands with unaffected sibling controls and subjects with idiopathic ASDs using the qualitative Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the quantitative Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Results Each of the four major RASopathies showed evidence for increased qualitative and quantitative autism traits compared with sibling controls. Further, each RASopathy exhibited a distinct distribution of quantitative social impairment. Levels of social responsiveness show some evidence of correlation between sibling pairs, and autism-like impairment showed a male bias similar to idiopathic ASDs. Conclusions Higher prevalence and severity of autism traits in RASopathies compared to unaffected siblings suggests that dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling during development may be implicated in ASD risk. Evidence for sex bias and potential sibling correlation suggests that autism traits in the RASopathies share characteristics with autism traits in the general population and clinical ASD population and can shed light on idiopathic ASDs. PMID:24101678

  11. Beta-carotene

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain in people who drink alcohol. Preventing abdominal aortic aneurysm, or the enlargement of a large vessel running ... years does not reduce the occurrence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in male smokers. Cancer. Beta-carotene does not ...

  12. Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

  13. TraitBank: An Open Digital Repository for Organism Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TraitBank currently serves over 11 million measurements and facts for more than 1.7 million taxa. These data are mobilized from major biodiversity information systems (e.g., International Union for Conservation of Nature, Ocean Biogeographic Information System, Paleobiology Database), literature sup...

  14. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR WINTER HARDINESS COMPONENT TRAITS IN OAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter hardiness is an important limitation to winter oat (Avena byzantina and A. sativa) production in much of North America, but field evaluation of winter hardiness is difficult. The discovery of quantitative trait loci for winter hardiness should allow markers assisted selection for winter hard...

  15. Genetics of reproductive traits: Antagonisms with production traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science, because artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. The addition of genetic techn...

  16. Components of Young Children's Trait Understanding: Behavior-to-Trait Inferences and Trait-to-Behavior Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, David; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2007-01-01

    Trait attribution is central to people's naive theories of people and their actions. Previous developmental research indicates that young children are poor at predicting behaviors from past trait-relevant behaviors. We propose that the cognitive process of behavior-to-behavior predictions consists of two component processes: (1) behavior-to-trait

  17. Genetic Analyses of Age at Onset Traits 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The identification of factors underlying complex trait variation is a major goal in the field of genetics. For normally distributed, fully observed trait data there are many well established statistical methods for ...

  18. Exaggerated trait growth in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size other, surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles, the claspers of praying mantises, the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers, and the giant heads of soldie...

  19. Heritability of drought resistance traits and correlation of drought resistance and agronomic traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inheritance of traits is important for developing effective breeding schemes for improving desired traits. The aims of this study were to estimate the heritabilities (h2) of drought resistance traits and the genotypic (rG) and phenotypic (rP) correlations between drought resistance traits under str...

  20. DETECTION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING MILK PRODUCTION, HEALTH, AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report putative quantitative trait loci affecting female fertility and milk production traits using the merged data from groups that conducted independent genome scans in Dairy Bull DNA Repository grandsire families to identify quantitative trait loci affecting economically important traits. Six ...

  1. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject’s ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial ?2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial ?2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak. PMID:25978647

  2. A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait

  3. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also augmented with additional traits that are relevant to detecting climate change-related ef...

  4. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS ANALYSIS AND METABOLIC PATHWAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of molecular markers for crop plants has enabled research on the genetic basis of quantitative traits. However, despite more than a decade of these studies, called quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, the molecular basis for variation in most agronomic traits is still largely unk...

  5. Intelligence and Intelligence-Related Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A 76-item test of intellect-related personality traits was developed and administered to 46 gifted 13 year olds, 51 undergraduates, and 53 seventh and eighth graders. Three component-based traits were obtained: intellectual absorption, apathy, and pleasure. These traits were found to be related to intellectual performance. (TJH)

  6. Associations between milk protein polymorphism and first lactation milk production traits in Finnish Ayrshire cows.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, T; Ojala, M; Ruottinen, O

    1999-05-01

    Genotypic effects of beta-casein (CN), kappa-CN, and beta-lactoglobulin (LG) on milk, fat, and protein production and fat and protein percentages were estimated for 18,686 Finnish Ayrshire cows in first lactation using an animal model. Casein genotype effects were estimated including individual beta-CN and kappa-CN simultaneously in a model and then as composite beta-kappa-CN. The A2 allele of beta-CN and the A allele of kappa-CN, as well as the A1 allele of beta-CN and the B or E allele of kappa-CN, appeared together more frequently than was expected. Because of linkage disequilibrium in the casein loci and, consequently, unbalanced data, some contradictory effects of casein genotypes were obtained with the two models. A well-founded way to estimate the effects of casein genotypes was to use beta-kappa-CN genotypes. Composite casein genotypes including the A2 allele of beta-CN were associated with the highest milk and protein production and the lowest fat content, those including the B allele of kappa-CN with the highest protein content, and those including the E allele of kappa-CN with the lowest protein content. The effect of the beta-kappa-CN genotypes on protein content was moderately strong, and the effect was somewhat smaller for other traits. The AA genotype of beta-LG had a favorable effect on milk and protein production, and the BB genotype had a favorable effect on fat content. PMID:10342242

  7. TRY – a global database of plant traits

    PubMed Central

    Kattge, J; Díaz, S; Lavorel, S; Prentice, I C; Leadley, P; Bönisch, G; Garnier, E; Westoby, M; Reich, P B; Wright, I J; Cornelissen, J H C; Violle, C; Harrison, S P; Van Bodegom, P M; Reichstein, M; Enquist, B J; Soudzilovskaia, N A; Ackerly, D D; Anand, M; Atkin, O; Bahn, M; Baker, T R; Baldocchi, D; Bekker, R; Blanco, C C; Blonder, B; Bond, W J; Bradstock, R; Bunker, D E; Casanoves, F; Cavender-Bares, J; Chambers, J Q; Chapin, F S; Chave, J; Coomes, D; Cornwell, W K; Craine, J M; Dobrin, B H; Duarte, L; Durka, W; Elser, J; Esser, G; Estiarte, M; Fagan, W F; Fang, J; Fernández-Méndez, F; Fidelis, A; Finegan, B; Flores, O; Ford, H; Frank, D; Freschet, G T; Fyllas, N M; Gallagher, R V; Green, W A; Gutierrez, A G; Hickler, T; Higgins, S I; Hodgson, J G; Jalili, A; Jansen, S; Joly, C A; Kerkhoff, A J; Kirkup, D; Kitajima, K; Kleyer, M; Klotz, S; Knops, J M H; Kramer, K; Kühn, I; Kurokawa, H; Laughlin, D; Lee, T D; Leishman, M; Lens, F; Lenz, T; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Llusià, J; Louault, F; Ma, S; Mahecha, M D; Manning, P; Massad, T; Medlyn, B E; Messier, J; Moles, A T; Müller, S C; Nadrowski, K; Naeem, S; Niinemets, Ü; Nöllert, S; Nüske, A; Ogaya, R; Oleksyn, J; Onipchenko, V G; Onoda, Y; Ordoñez, J; Overbeck, G; Ozinga, W A; Patiño, S; Paula, S; Pausas, J G; Peñuelas, J; Phillips, O L; Pillar, V; Poorter, H; Poorter, L; Poschlod, P; Prinzing, A; Proulx, R; Rammig, A; Reinsch, S; Reu, B; Sack, L; Salgado-Negret, B; Sardans, J; Shiodera, S; Shipley, B; Siefert, A; Sosinski, E; Soussana, J-F; Swaine, E; Swenson, N; Thompson, K; Thornton, P; Waldram, M; Weiher, E; White, M; White, S; Wright, S J; Yguel, B; Zaehle, S; Zanne, A E; Wirth, C

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.

  8. Group-beneficial traits, frequency-dependent selection and genotypic diversity: an antibiotic resistance paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dugatkin, Lee Alan; Perlin, Michael; Lucas, J Scott; Atlas, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of group-beneficial traits potentially allows the survival of 'cheaters' that would otherwise be unfit. Here we describe experimental work on group-beneficial traits and the consequences of frequency-dependent selection in the context of bacterial antibiotic resistance. We constructed a 'self-limited antibiotic resistant' (SLAR) strain of Escherichia coli in which a TEM-1 beta-lactamase was anchored to the inner membrane. In pairwise competition experiments between the SLAR strain and ampicillin-sensitive strains, only the SLAR strain survived in the presence of ampicillin. We also constructed a 'shared antibiotic resistant' (SAR) strain in which TEM-1 beta-lactamase protected both the SAR strain and nearby sensitive cells, thus acting as a model for a genetically defined group-beneficial trait. In pairwise competition experiments of the SAR strain against two different sensitive strains of E. coli, we found that the sensitive strains maintained themselves at frequencies of 5-12% in the presence of ampicillin. When the relative cost of the SAR strain was lowered, its equilibrial frequency rose. Sensitive strains also arose from pure cultures of the SAR strain. In these cases, too, the sensitive 'cheaters' were maintained in ampicillin at frequencies comparable to those observed in the previous competitions. These results suggest that traits which benefit other group members can permit survival of genotypes that otherwise would be eliminated by natural selection, and allow the maintenance of greater genetic variation upon which evolution can operate. PMID:15875573

  9. Developmental associations between traits: covariance and beyond.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Sean H

    2004-01-01

    Statistical associations between phenotypic traits often result from shared developmental processes and include both covariation between the trait values and more complex associations between higher moments of the joint distribution of traits. In this article, an analytical technique for calculating the covariance between traits is presented on the basis of (1). the distribution of underlying genetic and environmental variation that jointly influences the traits and (2). the mechanics of how these underlying factors influence the development of each trait. It is shown that epistasis can produce patterns of covariation between traits that are not seen in additive models. Applying this approach to a trait in parents and the same trait in their offspring allows us to study the consequences of epistasis for the evolution of additive genetic variance and heritability. This analysis is then extended to the study of more complicated associations between traits. It is shown that even traits that are not correlated may exhibit developmental associations that influence their joint evolution. PMID:15020440

  10. Adult 'fetal-like' erythropoiesis characterizes recovery from bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, R S; Schofield, J M; Lenes, A L; Brochstein, J; Alter, B P

    1986-07-01

    The transient fetal-like erythropoiesis which appears during recovery from bone marrow transplantation has now been examined at the level of erythroid progenitor cells. A 7-year-old boy with beta +-thalassaemia major was studied during engraftment from his beta-thalassaemia trait sister. Hb F and i antigen rose as expected. Macrocytosis never developed, but red cell size distribution became very heterogeneous. Bone marrow CFU-E and BFU-E were detected by 30 d, prior to the appearance of reticulocytes. Marrow erythroid progenitor cell numbers were normal by 146 d, while those in the blood became normal by 360 d. After transplantation globin synthesis ratios in erythroid colonies were diagnostic of thalassaemia trait, indicating engraftment. Individual erythroid colonies derived from both blood and marrow at all times during reconstitution showed no correlation of G gamma and gamma. Thus the fetal-like stress erythropoiesis of marrow expansion following transplantation was derived from adult and not fetal progenitor cells. PMID:3524655

  11. beta-Chloronaphthalene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Chloronaphthalene ; CASRN 91 - 58 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  12. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  13. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    E-print Network

    Heinrich Päs; Werner Rodejohann

    2015-07-01

    We review the potential to probe new physics with neutrinoless double beta decay $(A,Z) \\to (A,Z+2) + 2 e^-$. Both the standard long-range light neutrino mechanism as well as short-range mechanisms mediated by heavy particles are discussed. We also stress aspects of the connection to lepton number violation at colliders and the implications for baryogenesis.

  14. beta-Propiolactone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Propiolactone ; CASRN 57 - 57 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  15. POST-HARVEST STORAGE TRAITS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After harvest, most of the sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) crop is stored in exposed piles for up to 200 days awaiting processing. During this time respiration, rot, accumulation of impurities, and physical deterioration decrease extractable sucrose. Differences in storage respiration rates have been...

  16. Associations between casein haplotypes and first lactation milk production traits in Finnish Ayrshire cows.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, T; Bovenhuis, H; Ojala, M; Ruottinen, O; Georges, M

    2001-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of beta-kappa-casein (CN) haplotypes on first-lactation milk production traits. The beta-kappa-CN haplotypes were deduced using information on beta- and kappa-CN genotypes of cows and their sires for 16,973 Finnish Ayrshire cows that had at least nine paternal half sibs. Effects of CN haplotypes on milk production traits were estimated for one haplotype at a time using an animal model, which included the fixed effects for calving year and month, age at calving, days open, beta-lactoglobulin, and a beta-kappa-CN haplotype. Differences in milk production traits were also estimated between haplotype combinations A1A+A2B and A1B+A2A within beta-kappa-CN genotype A1A2AB and between combinations A1E+A2A and A1A+A2E within genotype A1A2AE. The beta-kappa-CN haplotypes A2A and A2B were associated with high milk and protein yields and low fat content, and those that included the beta-CN A1 allele were associated with low yields and high fat content. Protein content was affected by the kappa-CN locus; haplotype A1B was associated with high protein content and A1E was with low protein content. The haplotype combination A1A+A2B was associated with 140 kg more milk yield (P = 0.045) and 0.03 percentage units less protein content (P = 0.055) than combination A1B+A2A, and combination A1A+A2E showed 0.02 percentage units greater protein content (P = 0.098) than A1E+A2A. These results indicate that genes linked to the CN loci contribute to the variation in milk yield and protein content. PMID:11233036

  17. Application of a multiple-trait, multiple-country genetic evaluation model for female fertility traits.

    PubMed

    Nilforooshan, M A; Jakobsen, J H; Fikse, W F; Berglund, B; Jorjani, H

    2010-12-01

    The need to implement a method that can handle multiple traits per country in international genetic evaluations is evident. Today, many countries have implemented multiple-trait national genetic evaluations and they may expect to have their traits simultaneously analyzed in international genetic evaluations. Traits from the same country are residually correlated and the method currently in use, single-trait multiple across-country evaluation (ST-MACE), cannot handle nonzero residual correlations. Therefore, multiple-trait, multiple across-country evaluation (MT-MACE) was proposed to handle several traits from the same country simultaneously. To test the robustness of MT-MACE on real data, female fertility was chosen as a complex trait with low heritability. Data from 7 Holstein populations, 3 with 2 traits and 4 with 1 trait, were used. The differences in the estimated genetic correlations by MT-MACE and the single ST-MACE analysis (average absolute deviation of 0.064) were due to the bias of considering several traits from the same country in the ST-MACE analysis. However, the differences between the estimated genetic correlations by MT-MACE and multiple ST-MACE analyses avoiding more than one trait per country in each analysis (average absolute deviation of 0.066) were due to the lack of analysis of the correlated traits from the same country together and using the reported within-country genetic correlations. Applying MT-MACE resulted in reliability gain in international genetic evaluations, which was different from trait to trait and from bull to bull. The average reliability gain by MT-MACE over ST-MACE was 3.0 points for domestic bulls and 6.3 points for foreign bulls. Even countries with 1 trait benefited from the joint analysis of traits from the 2-trait countries. Another superiority of MT-MACE over ST-MACE is that the bulls that do not have national genetic evaluation for some traits from multiple trait countries will receive international genetic evaluations for those traits. Rank correlations were high between ST-MACE and MT-MACE when considering all bulls. However, the situation was different for the top 100 bulls. Simultaneous analysis of traits from the same country affected bull ranks, especially for top 100 bulls. Multi-trait MACE is a recommendable and robust method for international genetic evaluations and is appropriate for handling multiple traits per country, which can increase the reliability of international genetic evaluations. PMID:21094772

  18. Beta vulgaris var. cicla (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    Monique D. Reed

    2011-08-10

    (beta = 0.243, p = 0.009 and beta = 0.120, p = 0.038, respectively). In Model 2, the component of mobility of environmental accessibility mediated the relationship between functional independence and self-perceived health status (beta = 0.288, p = 0...

  19. Fat-tailed sheep traits as affected by docking.

    PubMed

    Marai, I F M; Bahgat, L B

    2003-08-01

    The literature mostly indicates that docking fat-tailed lambs initially reduces growth but that post-weaning growth and feed conversion efficiency then increase. The amount of fat deposited, the total separable lean meat to fat ratio and the meat quality all increase, while the percentage of bone in the carcase either decreases or does not change in the carcases of the docked lambs. Wool growth and characteristics are, in general, not affected and reproductive traits in ewes and lambs are improved by docking. The rectal temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate are decreased following docking. The concentrations of immunoreactive beta-endorphin and cortisol in the plasma and the incidence of foot stamping and restlessness, as indicators of stress, increase after docking. Other constituents of the blood are not significantly altered following docking or by the methods of docking. Docking of fat-tailed sheep using rubber rings at one day of age can be recommended. PMID:14509541

  20. Multi-trait mimicry and the relative salience of individual traits.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Baharan; Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella; Leimar, Olof

    2015-11-01

    Mimicry occurs when one species gains protection from predators by resembling an unprofitable model species. The degree of mimic-model similarity is variable in nature and is closely related to the number of traits that the mimic shares with its model. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that the relative salience of traits, as perceived by a predator, is an important determinant of the degree of mimic-model similarity required for successful mimicry. We manipulated the relative salience of the traits of a two-trait artificial model prey, and subsequently tested the survival of mimics of the different traits. The unrewarded model prey had two colour traits, black and blue, and the rewarded prey had two combinations of green, brown and grey shades. Blue tits were used as predators. We found that the birds perceived the black and blue traits to be similarly salient in one treatment, and mimic-model similarity in both traits was then required for high mimic success. In a second treatment, the blue trait was the most salient trait, and mimic-model similarity in this trait alone achieved high success. Our results thus support the idea that similar salience of model traits can explain the occurrence of multi-trait mimicry. PMID:26511051

  1. Beta-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta globin gene on chromosome 11, leading to reduced (beta+) or absent (beta0) synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin (Hb). Transmission is autosomal recessive; however, dominant mutations have also been reported. Diagnosis of thalassemia is based on hematologic and molecular genetic testing. Differential diagnosis is usually straightforward but may include genetic sideroblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and other conditions with high levels of HbF (such as juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and aplastic anemia). Genetic counseling is recommended and prenatal diagnosis may be offered. Treatment of thalassemia major includes regular RBC transfusions, iron chelation and management of secondary complications of iron overload. In some circumstances, spleen removal may be required. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only definitive cure currently available. Individuals with thalassemia intermedia may require splenectomy, folic acid supplementation, treatment of extramedullary erythropoietic masses and leg ulcers, prevention and therapy of thromboembolic events. Prognosis for individuals with beta-thalassemia has improved substantially in the last 20 years following recent medical advances in transfusion, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation therapy. However, cardiac disease remains the main cause of death in patients with iron overload. PMID:20492708

  2. Thermophilic Beta-Glycosidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grogan, Dennis W.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes identification of thermophilic Beta-glycosidase enzyme from isolate of Sulfolobus solfataricus, sulfur-metabolizing archaebacteria growing aerobically and heterotrophically to relatively high cell yields. Enzyme useful in enzymatic conversion of cellulose to D-glucose and important in recycling of biomass. Used for removal of lactose from milk products. Offers promise as model substance for elucidation of basic principles of structural stabilization of proteins.

  3. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Päs, Heinrich; Rodejohann, Werner

    2015-11-01

    We review the potential to probe new physics with neutrinoless double beta decay (A,Z)\\to (A,Z+2)+2{e}-. Both the standard long-range light neutrino mechanism as well as non-standard long-range and short-range mechanisms mediated by heavy particles are discussed. We also stress aspects of the connection to lepton number violation at colliders and the implications for baryogenesis.

  4. Quantitative Trait Loci and Epistasis for Oat Winter Hardiness Component Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter hardiness is a complex trait and poor winter hardiness limits commercial production of winter oat. The objective of this study was to identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for the winter hardiness component traits: winter field survival, crown freeze tolerance, heading date, plant height an...

  5. ACCOUNTING FOR HETEROGENEOUS VARIANCES IN MULTI-TRAIT EVALUATION OF JERSEY TYPE TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The multi-trait genetic evaluation system for type traits was modified to estimate adjustments for heterogeneous variance (HV) simultaneously with estimated breeding values (EBV) for final score and 14 linear traits. Each within herd-year parity variance was regressed toward a predicted variance whi...

  6. Developmental trait evolution in trilobites.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Giuseppe; Garland, Theodore; Hunt, Gene; Hughes, Nigel C

    2012-02-01

    We performed a tree-based analysis of trilobite postembryonic development in a sample of 60 species for which quantitative data on segmentation and growth increments between putative successive instars are available, and that spans much of the temporal, phylogenetic, and habitat range of the group. Three developmental traits were investigated: the developmental mode of trunk segmentation, the average per-molt growth rate, and the conformity to a constant per-molt growth rate (Dyar's rule), for which an original metric was devised. Growth rates are within the normal range with respect to other arthropods and show overall conformity to Dyar's rule. Randomization tests indicate statistically significant phylogenetic signal for growth in early juveniles but not in later stages. Among five evolutionary models fit via maximum likelihood, one in which growth rates vary independently among species, analogous to Brownian motion on a star phylogeny, is the best supported in all ontogenetic stages, although a model with a single, stationary peak to which growth rates are attracted also garners nontrivial support. These results are not consistent with unbounded, Brownian-motion-like evolutionary dynamics, but instead suggest the influence of an adaptive zone. Our results suggest that developmental traits in trilobites were relatively labile during evolutionary history. PMID:22276531

  7. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    PubMed Central

    Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Grewell, Brenda J.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Funk, Jennifer L.; James, Jeremy J.; Molinari, Nicole; Parker, Ingrid M.; Richards, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Global environmental change will affect non-native plant invasions, with profound potential impacts on native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, particularly those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness) and impacts, as well as the integration of these traits across multiple ecological scales, and as a basis for restoration and management. Scope We review the concepts and terminology surrounding functional traits and how functional traits influence processes at the individual level. We explore how phenotypic plasticity may lead to rapid evolution of novel traits facilitating invasiveness in changing environments and then ‘scale up’ to evaluate the relative importance of demographic traits and their links to invasion rates. We then suggest a functional trait framework for assessing per capita effects and, ultimately, impacts of invasive plants on plant communities and ecosystems. Lastly, we focus on the role of functional trait-based approaches in invasive species management and restoration in the context of rapid, global environmental change. Conclusions To understand how the abundance and impacts of invasive plants will respond to rapid environmental changes it is essential to link trait-based responses of invaders to changes in community and ecosystem properties. To do so requires a comprehensive effort that considers dynamic environmental controls and a targeted approach to understand key functional traits driving both invader abundance and impacts. If we are to predict future invasions, manage those at hand and use restoration technology to mitigate invasive species impacts, future research must focus on functional traits that promote invasiveness and invader impacts under changing conditions, and integrate major factors driving invasions from individual to ecosystem levels. PMID:22589328

  8. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants’ regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES. PMID:26484692

  9. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    PubMed

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES. PMID:26484692

  10. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-05-04

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points ({beta}*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of {beta}* value and {beta}-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for {beta}-waist location control.

  11. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI?6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  12. Genetic Dissection of Bioenergy Traits in Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a very attractive biomass crop for ethanol production because of its low water and fertilizer requirements, tolerance to heat and drought, high biomass yield, and great genetic diversity. Two traits are of particular interest: The sweet sorghum trait, which results in the accumulation of ...

  13. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    traits_cover.jpg" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="2" alt="Cover of the Freshwater Biological Traits Database Final Report"> This final report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biolo...

  14. Biological and ecological traits of marine species

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Simon; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Vandepitte, Leen; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Lear, Dan; Tyler-Walters, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species), namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them. PMID:26312188

  15. Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits in Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic architecture refers to the numbers and genome locations of genes affecting a trait, the magnitude of their effects, and the relative contributions of additive, dominant, and epistatic gene effects. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping techniques are commonly used to investigate genetic ar...

  16. Motivational Traits of Elite Young Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Craig; Meyers, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Among the most overlooked aspects in the development of elite young soccer players is that of specific psychological traits. Of those traits, motivation has important implications for programs whose objectives are identification and cultivation of young, skilled performers. The growth in popularity of soccer by youth and the successes experienced…

  17. 2006 BRAHMAN SIRE SUMMARY FOR CARCASS TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carcass and beef palatability data was collected from 1,719 calves of 230 Brahman sires. Single trait mixed models were used to predict breeding values, and subsequent Expected Progeny Differences (EPD) for six traits: 12th rib fat thickness, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, marbling score, perce...

  18. Sickle Cell Trait, Exercise, and Altitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1986-01-01

    Sickle cell trait is generally benign and does not shorten life, but it may confer some small risk with extremes of exercise or altitude. Research concerning these risks is presented, and it is concluded sickle cell trait is no barrier to outstanding athletic performance. (Author/MT)

  19. Speed-Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Using Microarrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining the genetic architecture of complex traits is important for human health, agriculture, and understanding adaptive evolution, but is challenging because high resolution quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping requires evaluation of thousands of recombinant individuals for the trait and clo...

  20. Neutron Induced Beta Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, A. M.; Shylaja, D.

    2011-07-15

    In the present paper we give a new methodology named, 'neutron induced beta radiography-NIBR' which makes use of neutron activated Dy or In foils as source of (3-radiation. Radiographs are obtained with an aluminium cassette containing image plate, a sample under inspection and the activated Dy or In foil kept in tight contact. The sensitivity of the technique to thickness was evaluated for different materials in the form of step wedges. Some radiographs are presented to demonstrate potential of method to inspect thin samples.

  1. A hierarchical bayesian approach to multi-trait clinical quantitative trait locus modeling.

    PubMed

    Mutshinda, Crispin M; Noykova, Neli; Sillanpää, Mikko J

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping and transcript profiling technologies have enabled the inexpensive production of genome-wide dense marker maps in tandem with huge amounts of expression profiles. These large-scale data encompass valuable information about the genetic architecture of important phenotypic traits. Comprehensive models that combine molecular markers and gene transcript levels are increasingly advocated as an effective approach to dissecting the genetic architecture of complex phenotypic traits. The simultaneous utilization of marker and gene expression data to explain the variation in clinical quantitative trait, known as clinical quantitative trait locus (cQTL) mapping, poses challenges that are both conceptual and computational. Nonetheless, the hierarchical Bayesian (HB) modeling approach, in combination with modern computational tools such as Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation techniques, provides much versatility for cQTL analysis. Sillanpää and Noykova (2008) developed a HB model for single-trait cQTL analysis in inbred line cross-data using molecular markers, gene expressions, and marker-gene expression pairs. However, clinical traits generally relate to one another through environmental correlations and/or pleiotropy. A multi-trait approach can improve on the power to detect genetic effects and on their estimation precision. A multi-trait model also provides a framework for examining a number of biologically interesting hypotheses. In this paper we extend the HB cQTL model for inbred line crosses proposed by Sillanpää and Noykova to a multi-trait setting. We illustrate the implementation of our new model with simulated data, and evaluate the multi-trait model performance with regard to its single-trait counterpart. The data simulation process was based on the multi-trait cQTL model, assuming three traits with uncorrelated and correlated cQTL residuals, with the simulated data under uncorrelated cQTL residuals serving as our test set for comparing the performances of the multi-trait and single-trait models. The simulated data under correlated cQTL residuals were essentially used to assess how well our new model can estimate the cQTL residual covariance structure. The model fitting to the data was carried out by MCMC simulation through OpenBUGS. The multi-trait model outperformed its single-trait counterpart in identifying cQTLs, with a consistently lower false discovery rate. Moreover, the covariance matrix of cQTL residuals was typically estimated to an appreciable degree of precision under the multi-trait cQTL model, making our new model a promising approach to addressing a wide range of issues facing the analysis of correlated clinical traits. PMID:22685451

  2. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Farsoni, Abdollah T. (Corvallis, OR); Hamby, David M. (Corvallis, OR)

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  3. Scintillator based beta batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  4. Casein haplotypes and their association with milk production traits in the Finnish Ayrshire cattle.

    PubMed

    Velmala, R; Vilkki, J; Elo, K; Mäki-Tanila, A

    1995-12-01

    Polymorphism of casein genes was studied in half-sib families of artificial insemination bulls of the Finnish Ayrshire dairy breed. Ten grandsires and 300 of their sons were genotyped for the following polymorphisms: alpha s1-casein (B, C), beta-casein (A1, A2), the microsatellite within the kappa-casein gene (ms5, ms4) and kappa-casein (A, B, E). Nine different combinations of these alleles, casein haplotypes, were found. Associations between casein haplotypes and milk production traits (milk and protein yield, fat and protein percentage and milking speed) were studied with ordinary least-squares analysis to find a direct effect of the haplotypes or an association within individual grandsire families using the granddaughter design. Estimated breeding values of sons were obtained from cow evaluation by animal model. No direct effect of the casein haplotypes on the traits was found. Within grandsire families, in one out of four families the chromosomal segment characterized by haplotype 3 (B-A2-ms4-A) was associated with an increase in milk yield (P < 0.01) and a decrease in fat percentage (P < 0.01) when contrasted with haplotype 8 (B-A1-ms4-E). The results provide evidence that in the Finnish Ayrshire breed at least one quantitative trait locus affecting the genetic variation in yields traits is segregating linked to either haplotype 3 (B-A2-ms4-A) or 8 (B-A1-ms4-E). PMID:8572365

  5. Mechanical differences of sickle cell trait (SCT) and normal red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Cachia, Mark A; Ge, Ji; Xu, Zhensong; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2015-08-01

    Sickle cell trait (SCT) is a condition in which an individual inherits one sickle hemoglobin gene (HbS) and one normal beta hemoglobin gene (HbA). It has been hypothesized that under extreme physical stress, the compromised mechanical properties of the red blood cells (RBCs) may be the underlying mechanism of clinical complications of sickle cell trait individuals. However, whether sickle cell trait (SCT) should be treated as physiologically normal remains controversial. In this work, the mechanical properties (i.e., shear modulus and viscosity) of individual RBCs were quantified using a microsystem capable of precisely controlling the oxygen level of RBCs' microenvironment. Individual RBCs were deformed under shear stress. After the release of shear stress, the dynamic cell recovery process was captured and analyzed to extract the mechanical properties of single RBCs. The results demonstrate that RBCs from sickle cell trait individuals are inherently stiffer and more viscous than normal RBCs from healthy donors, but oxygen level variations do not alter their mechanical properties or morphology. PMID:26066022

  6. Genetic parameters for large-scale behavior traits and type traits in Charolais beef cows.

    PubMed

    Vallée, A; Breider, I; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2015-09-01

    In the last decades, beef cattle breeding mainly focused on improving production and reproduction traits. Nowadays, there is a growing interest to include behavior and type traits in the breeding goal. There is an interest in behavior as it is associated with human safety and workability and in type traits as they might be associated with longevity of cows. The objective of the current study was to estimate the heritability for behavior and type traits in Charolais and to estimate the genetic correlations among these traits. Behavior traits, including aggressiveness at parturition, aggressiveness during gestation period, and maternal care, were scored by farmers using an on-farm recording system to enable large-scale collection of phenotypes. Type traits, including udder traits ( = 3), teat traits (3), feet and leg traits (5), and locomotion (1), were scored by 10 trained classifiers. Data was available on 6,649 cows in parity 1 to 12 and located in 380 herds. Results showed that differences between herds explained up to 23% of the total phenotypic variance in behavior traits. This might be due to differences in management or to consistent differences in scoring between farmers. Aggressiveness at parturition had higher heritability (0.19) and higher genetic coefficient of variation (CV = 11%) than aggressiveness during gestation ( = 0.06 and CV = 4%) and maternal care ( = 0.02 and CV = 2%). Heritabilities for udder traits (0.14 to 0.20) and teat traits (0.17 to 0.35) were higher than for feet and leg traits (0.02 to 0.19). Genetic coefficients of variation for udder and teat traits were also higher (up to 21%) than for feet and leg traits (up to 11%). Strong genetic correlations were found between behavior traits (with absolute values from 0.71 to 0.98). The genetic correlations indicate that it is difficulty to simultaneously improve maternal care and reduce aggressiveness. We concluded that there are good opportunities to implement selection for improved udder and teat traits and against aggressiveness at parturition using a simple on-farm recording system of behavior. PMID:26440327

  7. Plant trait expression responds to establishment timing.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Angela J; Leahy, S Conor; Zimmerman, Nicole M; Burns, Jean H

    2015-06-01

    Trait divergence between co-occurring individuals could decrease the strength of competition between these individuals, thus promoting their coexistence. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated establishment timing for four congeneric pairs of perennial plants and assessed trait plasticity. Because soil conditions can affect trait expression and competition, we grew the plants in field-collected soil from each congener. Competition was generally weak across species, but the order of establishment affected divergence in biomass between potmates for three congeneric pairs. The type of plastic response differed among genera, with trait means of early-establishing individuals of Rumex and Solanum spp. differing from late-establishing individuals, and trait divergence between potmates of Plantago and Trifolium spp. depending on which species established first. Consistent with adaptive trait plasticity, higher specific leaf area (SLA) and root-shoot ratio in Rumex spp. established later suggest that these individuals were maximizing their ability to capture light and soil resources. Greater divergence in SLA correlated with increased summed biomass of competitors, which is consistent with trait divergence moderating the strength of competition for some species. Species did not consistently perform better in conspecific or congener soil, but soil type influenced the effect of establishment order. For example, biomass divergence between Rumex potmates was greater in R. obtusifolius soil regardless of which species established first. These results suggest that plant responses to establishment timing act in a species-specific fashion, potentially enhancing coexistence in plant communities. PMID:25616649

  8. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  9. Predicting neutrinoless double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.; Villanova del Moral, A.; Valle, J.W.F.

    2005-11-01

    We give predictions for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in a simple variant of the A{sub 4} family symmetry model. We show that there is a lower bound for the {beta}{beta}{sub 0{nu}} amplitude even in the case of normal hierarchical neutrino masses, corresponding to an effective mass parameter vertical bar m{sub ee} vertical bar {>=}0.17{radical}({delta}m{sub ATM}{sup 2}). This result holds both for the CP conserving and CP violating cases. In the latter case we show explicitly that the lower bound on vertical bar m{sub ee} vertical bar is sensitive to the value of the Majorana phase. We conclude therefore that in our scheme, {beta}{beta}{sub 0{nu}} may be accessible to the next generation of high sensitivity experiments.

  10. Trait Values, Not Trait Plasticity, Best Explain Invasive Species' Performance in a Changing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Matzek, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The question of why some introduced species become invasive and others do not is the central puzzle of invasion biology. Two of the principal explanations for this phenomenon concern functional traits: invasive species may have higher values of competitively advantageous traits than non-invasive species, or they may have greater phenotypic plasticity in traits that permits them to survive the colonization period and spread to a broad range of environments. Although there is a large body of evidence for superiority in particular traits among invasive plants, when compared to phylogenetically related non-invasive plants, it is less clear if invasive plants are more phenotypically plastic, and whether this plasticity confers a fitness advantage. In this study, I used a model group of 10 closely related Pinus species whose invader or non-invader status has been reliably characterized to test the relative contribution of high trait values and high trait plasticity to relative growth rate, a performance measure standing in as a proxy for fitness. When grown at higher nitrogen supply, invaders had a plastic RGR response, increasing their RGR to a much greater extent than non-invaders. However, invasive species did not exhibit significantly more phenotypic plasticity than non-invasive species for any of 17 functional traits, and trait plasticity indices were generally weakly correlated with RGR. Conversely, invasive species had higher values than non-invaders for 13 of the 17 traits, including higher leaf area ratio, photosynthetic capacity, photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency, and nutrient uptake rates, and these traits were also strongly correlated with performance. I conclude that, in responding to higher N supply, superior trait values coupled with a moderate degree of trait variation explain invasive species' superior performance better than plasticity per se. PMID:23119098

  11. Trait emotional intelligence and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sebastiano; Petrides, K V; Tillmann, Taavi

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in the psychological aspects of inflammatory disorders. Within this line of research, the present study compares the trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) profiles of 827 individuals with various inflammatory conditions (rheumatoid arthritis [RA], ankylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis, and RA plus one comorbidity) against 496 healthy controls. Global trait EI scores did not show significant differences between these groups, although some differences were observed when comparisons were carried out against alternative control groups. Significant differences were found on the trait EI factors of Well-being (where the healthy group scored higher than the RA group) and Sociability (where the healthy group scored higher than both the RA group and the RA plus one comorbidity group). The discussion centers on the multifarious links and interplay between emotions and inflammatory conditions. PMID:23725416

  12. Dissecting genetic interactions in complex traits 

    E-print Network

    Hemani, Gibran

    2012-06-30

    Of central importance in the dissection of the components that govern complex traits is understanding the architecture of natural genetic variation. Genetic interaction, or epistasis, constitutes one aspect of this, but ...

  13. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah R.; Fu, Yu; Depue, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i) a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness), and (ii) attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically. PMID:25009524

  14. Regulatory Traits in Cultural Evolution Alberto Acerbi1

    E-print Network

    Enquist, Magnus

    Regulatory Traits in Cultural Evolution Alberto Acerbi1 , Stefano Ghirlanda1,2 , and Magnus Enquist, Sweden Abstract. We call "regulatory traits" those cultural traits that are transmitted through cultural. Our results show that regulatory traits generate peculiar dynamics that may explain complex human

  15. Optimizing selection for function-valued traits Jay H. Beder

    E-print Network

    Beder, Jay H.

    -dimensional trait, function-valued trait, selection gradient, selec- tion differential, fitness function, GaussianOptimizing selection for function-valued traits Jay H. Beder , Richard Gomulkiewicz Abstract We consider a function-valued trait z(t) whose pre-selection distribution is Gaussian, and a fitness function

  16. Using IRT Trait Estimates versus Summated Scores in Predicting Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Ting; Stone, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that item response theory trait estimates should be used in analyses rather than number right (NR) or summated scale (SS) scores. Thissen and Orlando postulated that IRT scaling tends to produce trait estimates that are linearly related to the underlying trait being measured. Therefore, IRT trait estimates can be more useful…

  17. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  18. Generalized Admixture Mapping for Complex Traits

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Ashley-Koch, Allison E.; Dunson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Admixture mapping is a popular tool to identify regions of the genome associated with traits in a recently admixed population. Existing methods have been developed primarily for identification of a single locus influencing a dichotomous trait within a case-control study design. We propose a generalized admixture mapping (GLEAM) approach, a flexible and powerful regression method for both quantitative and qualitative traits, which is able to test for association between the trait and local ancestries in multiple loci simultaneously and adjust for covariates. The new method is based on the generalized linear model and uses a quadratic normal moment prior to incorporate admixture prior information. Through simulation, we demonstrate that GLEAM achieves lower type I error rate and higher power than ANCESTRYMAP both for qualitative traits and more significantly for quantitative traits. We applied GLEAM to genome-wide SNP data from the Illumina African American panel derived from a cohort of black women participating in the Healthy Pregnancy, Healthy Baby study and identified a locus on chromosome 2 associated with the averaged maternal mean arterial pressure during 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. PMID:23665878

  19. Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lidan; Wu, Rongling

    2015-06-01

    Despite increasing emphasis on the genetic study of quantitative traits, we are still far from being able to chart a clear picture of their genetic architecture, given an inherent complexity involved in trait formation. A competing theory for studying such complex traits has emerged by viewing their phenotypic formation as a "system" in which a high-dimensional group of interconnected components act and interact across different levels of biological organization from molecules through cells to whole organisms. This system is initiated by a machinery of DNA sequences that regulate a cascade of biochemical pathways to synthesize endophenotypes and further assemble these endophenotypes toward the end-point phenotype in virtue of various developmental changes. This review focuses on a conceptual framework for genetic mapping of complex traits by which to delineate the underlying components, interactions and mechanisms that govern the system according to biological principles and understand how these components function synergistically under the control of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to comprise a unified whole. This framework is built by a system of differential equations that quantifies how alterations of different components lead to the global change of trait development and function, and provides a quantitative and testable platform for assessing the multiscale interplay between QTLs and development. The method will enable geneticists to shed light on the genetic complexity of any biological system and predict, alter or engineer its physiological and pathological states.

  20. Effect of beta blockade and beta stimulation on stage fright.

    PubMed

    Brantigan, C O; Brantigan, T A; Joseph, N

    1982-01-01

    Stage fright, physiologically the "fight or flight" reaction, is a disabling condition to the professional musician. Because it is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, we have investigated the effects of beta blockade on musical performance with propranolol in a double blind fashion and the effects of beta stimulation using terbutaline. Stage fright symptoms were evaluated in two trials, which included a total of 29 subjects, by questionnaire and by the State Trai Anxiety Inventory. Quality of musical performance was evaluated by experienced music critics. Beta blockade eliminates the physical impediments to performance caused by stage fright and even eliminates the dry mouth so frequently encountered. The quality of musical performance as judged by experienced music critics is significantly improved. This effect is achieved without tranquilization. Beta stimulating drugs increase stage fright problems, and should be used in performing musicians only after consideration of the detrimental effects which they may have on musical performance. PMID:6120650

  1. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2015-07-14

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  2. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2014-10-07

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  3. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana (Davis, CA); Lamsa, Michael (Davis, CA); Clancy, Brian Gorre (Elk Grove, CA)

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  4. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana (Davis, CA); Lamsa, Michael (Davis, CA); Gorre-Clancy, Brian (Elk Grove, CA)

    2009-12-29

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  5. Relative efficacies of amyloid beta peptide (A beta) binding proteins in A beta aggregation.

    PubMed

    Webster, S; Rogers, J

    1996-10-01

    The aggregation of amyloid beta peptide (A beta) into its fibrillar, cross beta-pleated configuration is generally viewed as a critical event in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A diverse group of molecules, the A beta binding proteins, has been evaluated for their effects on this process. However, most of these studies have used micromolar or greater reagent concentrations, and their different methods have not permitted quantitative comparisons of the efficacy of different A beta binding proteins in augmenting or inhibiting aggregation. In the present work we have undertaken a coherent analysis using fluorimetry of thioflavin T-stained experimental solutions. The complement protein C1q, serum amyloid P, and transthyretin significantly enhanced the formation of precipitable, cross beta-pleated aggregates in solutions of 800 nM A beta 1-42. Under these same experimental conditions, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin had no significant effect on the aggregation process, and both the E3 and E4 isoforms of apolipoprotein E were significant inhibitors. There was a non-significant trend toward the E3 isoform exhibiting greater inhibition than the E4 isoform. Of the aggregation-facilitating molecules, C1q was substantially and significantly the most potent. PMID:8892106

  6. Pulmonary function test in transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia patients.

    PubMed

    Azarkeivan, Azita; Mehrvar, Azim; Pour, Hamid Sohrab; Mehrvar, Narjes; Vosough, Parvaneh

    2008-09-01

    Beta-thalassaemia is the most common hemoglobinopathies in our region with treatment of regular blood transfusion. Iron overload and hemosiderosis can cause organ involvement. Recent studies have focused on pulmonary involvement and pathophysiology of lung damage. The goal of this study was to investigate the pulmonary abnormalities in thalassemic patients in relation with sign and symptoms and iron overload. The authors studied pulmonary function test (PFT) at the Adult Thalassemia Clinic in Tehran. The history of blood transfusion, iron chelation, respiratory problems, and drug usage was taken. Physical examination, PFT, arterial blood gas (ABG), and chest X-ray (CXR) were done. In total, 139 patients were studied. The mean age was 21.1 years and mean duration of transfusion was 18 years. It was found that 133 patients (95.7%) did not have respiratory problems and only 6 (4.3%) had some respiratory complaints. In CXR, 100 patients (89.3%) had normal lung pattern and others (10.7%) had variable degrees of abnormal lung pattern. In ABG, mean of Po(2) was 73.5% and mean of O(2) saturation was 90.6%. In PFT, 101 patients (72.7%) had restrictive pattern, 35 (25.1%) had normal pattern, and 3 (2.2%) had combined pattern. According to vital capacity, the patients were placed in five categories: 54 patients (38.8%) normal, 37 (26.6%) mild, 35 (25.3%) moderate, 10 (7.2%) severe, and 3 (2.1%) extremely severe pulmonary deficit. There was no statistical significance between PFT results with all variables studied, except duration of blood transfusion, which may be considered a indirect effect of iron load (p = .05, r = .361). According to these results, restrictive pattern was the most common finding (72.7%) in PFT, while 95.7% of patients had no respiratory complaint, and in the chest X-ray group, 89.3% had normal pattern. The authors conclude that the lung may be considered a site for organ damage, and alteration of pulmonary function may be expected in transfusion-dependent patients in spite of no pulmonary symptoms or normal CXR. In recent years, because of new iron chelating drugs, doctors can expect thalassemic patients to have a long life-time and need to increase their quality of life. One way to do this is to evaluate the respiratory system by PFT to prevent the squeal of pulmonary disease. PMID:18728979

  7. The Alpha-Beta Heuristic

    E-print Network

    Edwards, D.J.

    1961-12-01

    The Alpha-Beta heuristic is a method for pruning unneeded branches from the move tree of a game. The algorithm makes use of information gained about part of the tree to reject those branches which will not affect the ...

  8. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means.

  9. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  10. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... peginterferon beta-1a injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  11. Multiple interval mapping for quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, C H; Zeng, Z B; Teasdale, R D

    1999-01-01

    A new statistical method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL), called multiple interval mapping (MIM), is presented. It uses multiple marker intervals simultaneously to fit multiple putative QTL directly in the model for mapping QTL. The MIM model is based on Cockerham's model for interpreting genetic parameters and the method of maximum likelihood for estimating genetic parameters. With the MIM approach, the precision and power of QTL mapping could be improved. Also, epistasis between QTL, genotypic values of individuals, and heritabilities of quantitative traits can be readily estimated and analyzed. Using the MIM model, a stepwise selection procedure with likelihood ratio test statistic as a criterion is proposed to identify QTL. This MIM method was applied to a mapping data set of radiata pine on three traits: brown cone number, tree diameter, and branch quality scores. Based on the MIM result, seven, six, and five QTL were detected for the three traits, respectively. The detected QTL individually contributed from approximately 1 to 27% of the total genetic variation. Significant epistasis between four pairs of QTL in two traits was detected, and the four pairs of QTL contributed approximately 10.38 and 14.14% of the total genetic variation. The asymptotic variances of QTL positions and effects were also provided to construct the confidence intervals. The estimated heritabilities were 0.5606, 0.5226, and 0. 3630 for the three traits, respectively. With the estimated QTL effects and positions, the best strategy of marker-assisted selection for trait improvement for a specific purpose and requirement can be explored. The MIM FORTRAN program is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/). PMID:10388834

  12. Identifying quantitative end-use quality traits through marker-trait associations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality traits (grain, milling and baking) are generally expensive and difficult to measure. We are in the process of estimating phenotypic trait values for a wide range of Pacific Northwest wheat genotypes, including soft white spring, winter and club, hard red winter and spring, and hard ...

  13. Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing End-use Quality Traits of Hard Red Spring Wheat Breeding Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat end-product quality is determined by a complex group of traits including dough visco-elastic characteristics and bread-making properties. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and analysis were conducted for endosperm texture and polymeric proteins, dough mixing strength and bread-making prop...

  14. Towards a reference plant trait ontology for modeling knowledge of plant traits and phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant tr...

  15. Selective regulation of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the human heart by chronic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, M. C.; Pingsmann, A.; Beckeringh, J. J.; Zerkowski, H. R.; Doetsch, N.; Brodde, O. E.

    1988-01-01

    1. In 44 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the effect of chronic administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists sotalol, propranolol, pindolol, metoprolol and atenolol on beta-adrenoceptor density in right atria (containing 70% beta 1- and 30% beta 2-adrenoceptors) and in lymphocytes (having only beta 2-adrenoceptors) was studied. 2. beta-Adrenoceptor density in right atrial membranes and in intact lymphocytes was assessed by (-)-[125I]-iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) binding; the relative amount of right atrial beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors was determined by inhibition of ICYP binding by the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551 and analysis of the resulting competition curves by the iterative curve fitting programme LIGAND. 3. With the exception of pindolol, all beta-adrenoceptor antagonists increased right atrial beta-adrenoceptor density compared to that observed in atria from patients not treated with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. 4. All beta-adrenoceptor antagonists increased right atrial beta 1-adrenoceptor density; on the other hand, only sotalol and propranolol also increased right atrial beta 2-adrenoceptor density, whereas metoprolol and atenolol did not affect it and pindolol decreased it. 5. Similarly, in corresponding lymphocytes, only sotalol or propranolol increased beta 2-adrenoceptor density, while metoprolol and atenolol did not affect it and pindolol decreased it. 6. It is concluded that beta-adrenoceptor antagonists subtype-selectively regulate cardiac and lymphocyte beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. The selective increase in cardiac beta 1-adrenoceptor density evoked by metoprolol and atenolol may be one of the reasons for the beneficial effects observed in patients with end-stage congestive cardiomyopathy following intermittent treatment with low doses of selective beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonists. PMID:2902891

  16. Sub-threshold autism traits: the role of trait emotional intelligence and cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Gökçen, Elif; Petrides, Konstantinos V; Hudry, Kristelle; Frederickson, Norah; Smillie, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Theory and research suggests that features of autism are not restricted to individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and that autism-like traits vary throughout the general population at lower severities. The present research first investigated the relationship of autism traits with trait emotional intelligence and empathy in a sample of 163 adults aged between 18 and 51 years (44% male). It then examined performance on a set of tasks assessing social cognition and cognitive flexibility in 69 participants with either high or low scores on ASD traits. Results confirm that there is pronounced variation within the general population relating to ASD traits, which reflect similar (though less severe) social-cognitive and emotional features to those observed in ASDs. PMID:24754807

  17. Apollo applications of beta fiber glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naimer, J.

    1971-01-01

    The physical characteristics of Beta fiber glass are discussed. The application of Beta fiber glass for fireproofing the interior of spacecraft compartments is described. Tests to determine the flammability of Beta fiber glass are presented. The application of Beta fiber glass for commercial purposes is examined.

  18. Evaluating simulated functional trait patterns and quantifying modelled trait diversity effects on simulated ecosystem fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlick, R.; Schimel, D.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) typically employ only a small set of Plant Functional Types (PFTs) to represent the vast diversity of observed vegetation forms and functioning. There is growing evidence, however, that this abstraction may not adequately represent the observed variation in plant functional traits, which is thought to play an important role for many ecosystem functions and for ecosystem resilience to environmental change. The geographic distribution of PFTs in these models is also often based on empirical relationships between present-day climate and vegetation patterns. Projections of future climate change, however, point toward the possibility of novel regional climates, which could lead to no-analog vegetation compositions incompatible with the PFT paradigm. Here, we present results from the Jena Diversity-DGVM (JeDi-DGVM), a novel traits-based vegetation model, which simulates a large number of hypothetical plant growth strategies constrained by functional tradeoffs, thereby allowing for a more flexible temporal and spatial representation of the terrestrial biosphere. First, we compare simulated present-day geographical patterns of functional traits with empirical trait observations (in-situ and from airborne imaging spectroscopy). The observed trait patterns are then used to improve the tradeoff parameterizations of JeDi-DGVM. Finally, focusing primarily on the simulated leaf traits, we run the model with various amounts of trait diversity. We quantify the effects of these modeled biodiversity manipulations on simulated ecosystem fluxes and stocks for both present-day conditions and transient climate change scenarios. The simulation results reveal that the coarse treatment of plant functional traits by current PFT-based vegetation models may contribute substantial uncertainty regarding carbon-climate feedbacks. Further development of trait-based models and further investment in global in-situ and spectroscopic plant trait observations are needed.

  19. Neutrinoless double beta decay and neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Duerr, Michael

    2012-07-27

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) is a promising test for lepton number violating physics beyond the standard model (SM) of particle physics. There is a deep connection between this decay and the phenomenon of neutrino masses. In particular, we will discuss the relation between 0{nu}{beta}{beta} and Majorana neutrino masses provided by the so-called Schechter-Valle theorem in a quantitative way. Furthermore, we will present an experimental cross check to discriminate 0{nu}{beta}{beta} from unknown nuclear background using only one isotope, i.e., within one experiment.

  20. Variation in species diversity and functional traits of sponge communities near human populations in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    PubMed Central

    Matterson, Kenan O.; Freeman, Christopher J.; Archer, Stephanie K.; Thacker, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have renewed interest in sponge ecology by emphasizing the functional importance of sponges in a broad array of ecosystem services. Many critically important habitats occupied by sponges face chronic stressors that might lead to alterations in their diversity, relatedness, and functional attributes. We addressed whether proximity to human activity might be a significant factor in structuring sponge community composition, as well as potential functional roles, by monitoring sponge diversity and abundance at two structurally similar sites that vary in distance to areas of high coastal development in Bocas Del Toro, Panama. We surveyed sponge communities at each site using belt transects and differences between two sites were compared using the following variables: (1) sponge species richness, Shannon diversity, and inverse Simpson’s diversity; (2) phylogenetic diversity; (3) taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity; (4) trait diversity and dissimilarity; and (5) phylogenetic and trait patterns in community structure. We observed significantly higher sponge diversity at Punta Caracol, the site most distant from human development (?5 km). Although phylogenetic diversity was lower at Saigon Bay, the site adjacent to a large village including many houses, businesses, and an airport, the sites did not exhibit significantly different patterns of phylogenetic relatedness in species composition. However, each site had a distinct taxonomic and phylogenetic composition (beta diversity). In addition, the sponge community at Saigon included a higher relative abundance of sponges with high microbial abundance and high chlorophyll a concentration, whereas the community at Punta Caracol had a more even distribution of these traits, yielding a significant difference in functional trait diversity between sites. These results suggest that lower diversity and potentially altered community function might be associated with proximity to human populations. This study highlights the importance of evaluating functional traits and phylogenetic diversity in addition to common diversity metrics when assessing potential environmental impacts on benthic communities. PMID:26587347

  1. Variation in species diversity and functional traits of sponge communities near human populations in Bocas del Toro, Panama.

    PubMed

    Easson, Cole G; Matterson, Kenan O; Freeman, Christopher J; Archer, Stephanie K; Thacker, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have renewed interest in sponge ecology by emphasizing the functional importance of sponges in a broad array of ecosystem services. Many critically important habitats occupied by sponges face chronic stressors that might lead to alterations in their diversity, relatedness, and functional attributes. We addressed whether proximity to human activity might be a significant factor in structuring sponge community composition, as well as potential functional roles, by monitoring sponge diversity and abundance at two structurally similar sites that vary in distance to areas of high coastal development in Bocas Del Toro, Panama. We surveyed sponge communities at each site using belt transects and differences between two sites were compared using the following variables: (1) sponge species richness, Shannon diversity, and inverse Simpson's diversity; (2) phylogenetic diversity; (3) taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity; (4) trait diversity and dissimilarity; and (5) phylogenetic and trait patterns in community structure. We observed significantly higher sponge diversity at Punta Caracol, the site most distant from human development (?5 km). Although phylogenetic diversity was lower at Saigon Bay, the site adjacent to a large village including many houses, businesses, and an airport, the sites did not exhibit significantly different patterns of phylogenetic relatedness in species composition. However, each site had a distinct taxonomic and phylogenetic composition (beta diversity). In addition, the sponge community at Saigon included a higher relative abundance of sponges with high microbial abundance and high chlorophyll a concentration, whereas the community at Punta Caracol had a more even distribution of these traits, yielding a significant difference in functional trait diversity between sites. These results suggest that lower diversity and potentially altered community function might be associated with proximity to human populations. This study highlights the importance of evaluating functional traits and phylogenetic diversity in addition to common diversity metrics when assessing potential environmental impacts on benthic communities. PMID:26587347

  2. Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.; Nandakumar, Karthik

    2004-08-01

    Biometrics is rapidly gaining acceptance as the technology that can meet the ever increasing need for security in critical applications. Biometric systems automatically recognize individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics. Hence, the fundamental requirement of any biometric recognition system is a human trait having several desirable properties like universality, distinctiveness, permanence, collectability, acceptability, and resistance to circumvention. However, a human characteristic that possesses all these properties has not yet been identified. As a result, none of the existing biometric systems provide perfect recognition and there is a scope for improving the performance of these systems. Although characteristics like gender, ethnicity, age, height, weight and eye color are not unique and reliable, they provide some information about the user. We refer to these characteristics as "soft" biometric traits and argue that these traits can complement the identity information provided by the primary biometric identifiers like fingerprint and face. This paper presents the motivation for utilizing soft biometric information and analyzes how the soft biometric traits can be automatically extracted and incorporated in the decision making process of the primary biometric system. Preliminary experiments were conducted on a fingerprint database of 160 users by synthetically generating soft biometric traits like gender, ethnicity, and height based on known statistics. The results show that the use of additional soft biometric user information significantly improves (approximately 6%) the recognition performance of the fingerprint biometric system.

  3. Multiple quantitative trait analysis using bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Scutari, Marco; Howell, Phil; Balding, David J; Mackay, Ian

    2014-09-01

    Models for genome-wide prediction and association studies usually target a single phenotypic trait. However, in animal and plant genetics it is common to record information on multiple phenotypes for each individual that will be genotyped. Modeling traits individually disregards the fact that they are most likely associated due to pleiotropy and shared biological basis, thus providing only a partial, confounded view of genetic effects and phenotypic interactions. In this article we use data from a Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) winter wheat population to explore Bayesian networks as a convenient and interpretable framework for the simultaneous modeling of multiple quantitative traits. We show that they are equivalent to multivariate genetic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and that they are competitive with single-trait elastic net and single-trait GBLUP in predictive performance. Finally, we discuss their relationship with other additive-effects models and their advantages in inference and interpretation. MAGIC populations provide an ideal setting for this kind of investigation because the very low population structure and large sample size result in predictive models with good power and limited confounding due to relatedness. PMID:25236454

  4. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven G; Hulsey, C Darrin; de León, Francisco J García

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus) and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi), we examined three components of this interaction: 1) spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2) whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3) whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity) and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses. PMID:17397540

  5. Multiple Quantitative Trait Analysis Using Bayesian Networks

    PubMed Central

    Scutari, Marco; Howell, Phil; Balding, David J.; Mackay, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Models for genome-wide prediction and association studies usually target a single phenotypic trait. However, in animal and plant genetics it is common to record information on multiple phenotypes for each individual that will be genotyped. Modeling traits individually disregards the fact that they are most likely associated due to pleiotropy and shared biological basis, thus providing only a partial, confounded view of genetic effects and phenotypic interactions. In this article we use data from a Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) winter wheat population to explore Bayesian networks as a convenient and interpretable framework for the simultaneous modeling of multiple quantitative traits. We show that they are equivalent to multivariate genetic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and that they are competitive with single-trait elastic net and single-trait GBLUP in predictive performance. Finally, we discuss their relationship with other additive-effects models and their advantages in inference and interpretation. MAGIC populations provide an ideal setting for this kind of investigation because the very low population structure and large sample size result in predictive models with good power and limited confounding due to relatedness. PMID:25236454

  6. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.; Couture, P.; Fishman, H.; Fonck, R.; Gammel, G.; Grek, B.; Ida, K.; Itami, K.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high ..beta.. discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present ..beta.. limit.

  7. Mapping Splicing Quantitative Trait Loci in RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Cheng; Hu, Yu; Liu, Yichuan; Li, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND One of the major mechanisms of generating mRNA diversity is alternative splicing, a regulated process that allows for the flexibility of producing functionally different proteins from the same genomic sequences. This process is often altered in cancer cells to produce aberrant proteins that drive the progression of cancer. A better understanding of the misregulation of alternative splicing will shed light on the development of novel targets for pharmacological interventions of cancer. METHODS In this study, we evaluated three statistical methods, random effects meta-regression, beta regression, and generalized linear mixed effects model, for the analysis of splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL) using RNA-Seq data. All the three methods use exon-inclusion levels estimated by the PennSeq algorithm, a statistical method that utilizes paired-end reads and accounts for non-uniform sequencing coverage. RESULTS Using both simulated and real RNA-Seq datasets, we compared these three methods with GLiMMPS, a recently developed method for sQTL analysis. Our results indicate that the most reliable and powerful method was the random effects meta-regression approach, which identified sQTLs at low false discovery rates but higher power when compared to GLiMMPS. CONCLUSIONS We have evaluated three statistical methods for the analysis of sQTLs in RNA-Seq. Results from our study will be instructive for researchers in selecting the appropriate statistical methods for sQTL analysis. PMID:25733796

  8. Mapping Splicing Quantitative Trait Loci in RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Cheng; Hu, Yu; Liu, Yichuan; Li, Mingyao

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND One of the major mechanisms of generating mRNA diversity is alternative splicing, a regulated process that allows for the flexibility of producing functionally different proteins from the same genomic sequences. This process is often altered in cancer cells to produce aberrant proteins that drive the progression of cancer. A better understanding of the misregulation of alternative splicing will shed light on the development of novel targets for pharmacological interventions of cancer. METHODS In this study, we evaluated three statistical methods, random effects meta-regression, beta regression, and generalized linear mixed effects model, for the analysis of splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL) using RNA-Seq data. All the three methods use exon-inclusion levels estimated by the PennSeq algorithm, a statistical method that utilizes paired-end reads and accounts for non-uniform sequencing coverage. RESULTS Using both simulated and real RNA-Seq datasets, we compared these three methods with GLiMMPS, a recently developed method for sQTL analysis. Our results indicate that the most reliable and powerful method was the random effects meta-regression approach, which identified sQTLs at low false discovery rates but higher power when compared to GLiMMPS. CONCLUSIONS We have evaluated three statistical methods for the analysis of sQTLs in RNA-Seq. Results from our study will be instructive for researchers in selecting the appropriate statistical methods for sQTL analysis. PMID:25452687

  9. Genome Informed Trait-Based Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoz, U.; Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Tang, J.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E.; Riley, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Trait-based approaches are powerful tools for representing microbial communities across both spatial and temporal scales within ecosystem models. Trait-based models (TBMs) represent the diversity of microbial taxa as stochastic assemblages with a distribution of traits constrained by trade-offs between these traits. Such representation with its built-in stochasticity allows the elucidation of the interactions between the microbes and their environment by reducing the complexity of microbial community diversity into a limited number of functional ';guilds' and letting them emerge across spatio-temporal scales. From the biogeochemical/ecosystem modeling perspective, the emergent properties of the microbial community could be directly translated into predictions of biogeochemical reaction rates and microbial biomass. The accuracy of TBMs depends on the identification of key traits of the microbial community members and on the parameterization of these traits. Current approaches to inform TBM parameterization are empirical (i.e., based on literature surveys). Advances in omic technologies (such as genomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics) pave the way to better-initialize models that can be constrained in a generic or site-specific fashion. Here we describe the coupling of metagenomic data to the development of a TBM representing the dynamics of metabolic guilds from an organic carbon stimulated groundwater microbial community. Illumina paired-end metagenomic data were collected from the community as it transitioned successively through electron-accepting conditions (nitrate-, sulfate-, and Fe(III)-reducing), and used to inform estimates of growth rates and the distribution of metabolic pathways (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic oxidation, fermentation) across a spatially resolved TBM. We use this model to evaluate the emergence of different metabolisms and predict rates of biogeochemical processes over time. We compare our results to observational outputs.

  10. Trait procrastination among dental students in India and its influence on academic performance.

    PubMed

    Madhan, Balasubramanian; Kumar, Cholleti Sudheer; Naik, Eslavath Seena; Panda, Sujit; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Barik, Ashish Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Trait procrastination is believed to be highly prevalent among college students and detrimental to their educational performance. As the scenario among dental students is virtually unknown, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of trait procrastination among dental students and to analyze its influence on their academic performance. A total of 174 fourth-year dental students from three dental colleges in India voluntarily completed the Lay's Procrastination Scale-student version (LPS). The mean percentage marks scored in the subsequent final university examinations were used as a measure of academic performance. The descriptive statistics were computed to evaluate the prevalence of significant procrastination (LPS score ?60). Mann-Whitney U test and multiple linear regressions were used to assess the influence of age and gender on procrastination severity, and the latter was again used to analyze the association between procrastination severity and academic performance. The results indicated that 27 percent (n=47) of the students exhibited a significant extent of trait procrastination; neither age nor gender affected its severity (p<0.05). Procrastination had a significant and negative impact on the academic performance of the student (beta=-0.150, p=0.039). These findings highlight the need for active measures to reduce the causes and consequences of procrastination in dental education. PMID:23066141

  11. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. PMID:25466078

  12. Differential adrenergic regulation of the gene expression of the beta-adrenoceptor subtypes beta1, beta2 and beta3 in brown adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, T; Cannon, B; Nedergaard, J

    2000-01-01

    In brown adipocytes, fundamental cellular processes (cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis) are regulated by adrenergic stimulation, notably through beta-adrenergic receptors. The presence of all three beta-receptor subtypes has been demonstrated in brown adipose tissue. Due to the significance of the action of these receptors and indications that the subtypes govern different processes, the adrenergic regulation of the expression of the beta(1)-(,) beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenoceptor genes was examined in murine brown-fat primary cell cultures. Moderate levels of beta(1)-receptor mRNA, absence of beta(2)-receptor mRNA and high levels of beta(3)-receptor mRNA were observed in mature brown adipocytes (day 6 in culture). Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) addition led to diametrically opposite effects on beta(1)- (markedly enhanced expression) and beta(3)-gene expression (full cessation of expression, as previously shown). beta(2)-Gene expression was induced by noradrenaline, but only transiently (<1 h). The apparent affinities (EC(50)) of noradrenaline were clearly different (7 nM for the beta(1)-gene andbeta(3)-gene), as were the mediation pathways (solely via beta(3)-receptors and cAMP for the beta(1)-gene and via beta(3)-receptors and cAMP, as well as via alpha(1)-receptors and protein kinase C, for the beta(3)-gene). The half-lives of the corresponding mRNA species were very short but different (17 min for beta(1)-mRNA and 27 min for beta(3)-mRNA), and these degradation rates were not affected by noradrenaline, implying that the mRNA levels were controlled by transcription. Inhibition of protein synthesis also led to diametrically opposite effects on beta(1)- and beta(3)-gene expression, but - notably - these effects were congruent with the noradrenaline effects, implying that a common factor regulating beta(1)-gene expression negatively and beta(3)-gene expression positively could be envisaged. In conclusion, very divergent effects of adrenergic stimulation on the expression of the different beta-receptor genes were found within one cell type, and no unifying concept of adrenergic control of beta-receptor gene expression can be formulated, either concerning different cell types, or concerning the different beta-receptor subtype genes. PMID:10769166

  13. Sickle Cell Trait Causing Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Priyanka; Dhiman, Pratibha; Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell trait is considered as a benign condition as these individuals carry only one defective gene and typically have their life span similar to the normal population without any health problems related to sickle cell. Only under extreme conditions, red cells become sickled and can cause clinical complications including hematuria and splenic infarction. Although twofold increased risk of venous thrombosis has been described in African Americans, there is no data available from Indian population. We here report a case of sickle cell trait from India whose index presentation was thrombosis of unusual vascular territory. PMID:26221548

  14. [Influence of personality traits on collage works].

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Shiho

    2004-10-01

    The present study investigated whether personality traits may influence the outcome of collage works. In this study, 60 undergraduates were asked to fill Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and generate collage works. The relations between the five factors of the NEO-PI-R (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) and some evaluation measures of collage works (constructional features of collage works and characteristic behavior patterns in the process of their generation) were examined. Results indicated that several subscales of personality traits were substantially correlated with some indices of both two measures. These findings suggest that collage work may be a useful tool for psychological assessment. PMID:15747558

  15. Sickle Cell Trait Causing Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Priyanka; Dhiman, Pratibha; Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell trait is considered as a benign condition as these individuals carry only one defective gene and typically have their life span similar to the normal population without any health problems related to sickle cell. Only under extreme conditions, red cells become sickled and can cause clinical complications including hematuria and splenic infarction. Although twofold increased risk of venous thrombosis has been described in African Americans, there is no data available from Indian population. We here report a case of sickle cell trait from India whose index presentation was thrombosis of unusual vascular territory. PMID:26221548

  16. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken.

    PubMed

    Cahyadi, Muhammad; Park, Hee-Bok; Seo, Dong-Won; Jin, Shil; Choi, Nuri; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Kang, Bo-Seok; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC). F1 samples (n = 595) were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM) of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3) for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001) and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003). Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007) and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027) were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds. PMID:26732327

  17. Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits

    SciTech Connect

    Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. ); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. )

    1993-11-01

    Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Deterministic tropical tree community turnover: evidence from patterns of functional beta diversity along an elevational gradient

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, Nathan G.; Anglada-Cordero, Pedro; Barone, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Explaining the mechanisms that produce the enormous diversity within and between tropical tree communities is a pressing challenge for plant community ecologists. Mechanistic hypotheses range from niche-based deterministic to dispersal-based stochastic models. Strong tests of these hypotheses require detailed information regarding the functional strategies of species. A few tropical studies to date have examined trait dispersion within individual forest plots using species trait means in order to ask whether coexisting species tend to be more or less functionally similar than expected given a null model. The present work takes an alternative approach by: (i) explicitly incorporating population-level trait variability; and (ii) quantifying the functional beta diversity in a series of 15 tropical forest plots arrayed along an elevational gradient. The results show a strong pattern of decay in community functional similarity with elevation. These observed patterns of functional beta diversity are shown to be highly non-random and support a deterministic model of tropical tree community assembly and turnover. PMID:20861048

  19. Novel mechanism of inhibiting beta-lactamases by sulfonylation using beta-sultams.

    PubMed

    Page, Michael I; Hinchliffe, Paul S; Wood, J Matthew; Harding, Lindsay P; Laws, Andrew P

    2003-12-15

    Beta-sultams are the sulfonyl analogues of beta-lactams and N-acyl beta-sultams are novel inactivators of the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99. The rates of inactivation show a similar pH-rate dependence as that exhibited by the beta-lactam antibiotics and with ESIMS data it is suggested that beta-sultams sulfonylate the active site serine residue to form a sulfonate ester. PMID:14643353

  20. [Beta blockers and cardiac decompensation].

    PubMed

    Puddu, G M; Cravero, E; Puddu, P

    1999-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that beta blockers are able to modify the course of the disease, through the reduction of hemodynamic in stabilization and mortality cases. The success of these drugs in the treatment of chronic heart failure is related to the sympathoadrenergic activation and to renin-angiothensin-aldosteron system. Various molecules are available at the moment. Recent research has been done on third generation beta blockers (carvedilol, nebivolol, bucindolol). These drugs have shown to possess some peculiar characteristics, in particular the ability of reducing the number of side effects which may be seen while using beta blockers of the first generations. Although it is currently difficult to give general informations based only on the pharmacologic profile, the choice of the type of drug to use in the single patient with chronic heart failure should be made considering the adequacy of the pharmacologic characteristics in each specific situation. PMID:10756664

  1. The temporal relationship of personality traits to personality disorders 

    E-print Network

    Warner, Megan Beth

    2002-01-01

    Personality disorders are presumed to be stable because of underlying stable and maladaptive personality traits. It has been argued that it is the stability of these traits that makes personality disorders difficult to treat. Previous research has...

  2. Trait correlates and functional significance of heteranthery in flowering plants

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Spencer C.H.

    Trait correlates and functional significance of heteranthery in flowering plants Mario Vallejo. Summary · Flowering plants display extraordinary diversity in the morphology of male sexual organs, yet flowers ­ among angiosperm families to identify traits associated with this condition. · We performed

  3. Local-scale Partitioning of Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversity in a Tropical Tree Assemblage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Swenson, Nathan G; Zhang, Guocheng; Ci, Xiuqin; Cao, Min; Sha, Liqing; Li, Jie; Ferry Slik, J W; Lin, Luxiang

    2015-01-01

    The relative degree to which stochastic and deterministic processes underpin community assembly is a central problem in ecology. Quantifying local-scale phylogenetic and functional beta diversity may shed new light on this problem. We used species distribution, soil, trait and phylogenetic data to quantify whether environmental distance, geographic distance or their combination are the strongest predictors of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity on local scales in a 20-ha tropical seasonal rainforest dynamics plot in southwest China. The patterns of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity were generally consistent. The phylogenetic and functional dissimilarity between subplots (10 × 10 m, 20 × 20 m, 50 × 50 m and 100 × 100 m) was often higher than that expected by chance. The turnover of lineages and species function within habitats was generally slower than that across habitats. Partitioning the variation in phylogenetic and functional beta diversity showed that environmental distance was generally a better predictor of beta diversity than geographic distance thereby lending relatively more support for deterministic environmental filtering over stochastic processes. Overall, our results highlight that deterministic processes play a stronger role than stochastic processes in structuring community composition in this diverse assemblage of tropical trees. PMID:26235237

  4. Local-scale Partitioning of Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversity in a Tropical Tree Assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Swenson, Nathan G.; Zhang, Guocheng; Ci, Xiuqin; Cao, Min; Sha, Liqing; Li, Jie; Ferry Slik, J. W.; Lin, Luxiang

    2015-01-01

    The relative degree to which stochastic and deterministic processes underpin community assembly is a central problem in ecology. Quantifying local-scale phylogenetic and functional beta diversity may shed new light on this problem. We used species distribution, soil, trait and phylogenetic data to quantify whether environmental distance, geographic distance or their combination are the strongest predictors of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity on local scales in a 20-ha tropical seasonal rainforest dynamics plot in southwest China. The patterns of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity were generally consistent. The phylogenetic and functional dissimilarity between subplots (10?×?10?m, 20?×?20?m, 50?×?50?m and 100?×?100?m) was often higher than that expected by chance. The turnover of lineages and species function within habitats was generally slower than that across habitats. Partitioning the variation in phylogenetic and functional beta diversity showed that environmental distance was generally a better predictor of beta diversity than geographic distance thereby lending relatively more support for deterministic environmental filtering over stochastic processes. Overall, our results highlight that deterministic processes play a stronger role than stochastic processes in structuring community composition in this diverse assemblage of tropical trees. PMID:26235237

  5. Expression of GH, TSH beta, LH beta and FSH beta genes during fetal pituitary development in the pig.

    PubMed

    Ma, E; Klempt, N; Grossmann, R; Ivell, R; Kato, Y; Ellendorff, F

    1996-01-01

    The development of the anterior pituitary gland involves the proliferation and differentiation of ectodermal cells in Rathke's pouch to generate distinct cell types, each of which produces its corresponding trophic hormone. Studying pituitary development will therefore reveal novel aspects of organogenesis. In the present study, we examined by in situ hybridization the expression of genes for anterior pituitary hormones during development of the fetal pig pituitary. We found that the beta-subunit gene of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH beta) was first expressed at E40, (E = day of embryonal/fetal life), growth hormone (GH) mRNA appeared between E40 and E50, and the gonadotrophin genes (LH beta and FSH beta) were expressed at E50. The transcripts for TSH beta, LH beta and FSH beta were abundantly expressed at about E80, while GH mRNA continued to be richly expressed until after birth. The GH gene was first expressed in the mantle layer of the anterior lobe, while the TSH beta and gonadotrophin (LH beta and FSH beta) mRNAs were found in the central and the basal regions of the anterior lobe, respectively. All of these mRNAs (GH, TSH beta, LH beta, and FSH beta) remained concentrated until the end of gestation in the area where they first appeared. The distinctive pattern of developmental expression of these hormone genes in the fetal pig anterior pituitary makes this tissue an excellent system in which to study tissue-specific gene activation and regulation. PMID:9021348

  6. Utilization of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for diagnosis of {beta}-thalassemia and ascertainment of new mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, K.Y.; Liu, D.; Lee, J.

    1994-09-01

    During the past two years we have tested 2,300 Southeast Asians for alpha- and beta-thaleassemia mutations. We found the incidence of hemoglobin E ({beta}{sup 26}) to be 47% among Laotians and 38% among Cambodians. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait is 9% for Laotians and 6% for Cambodians. Thus, the risk for hemoglobin E/{beta}{sup 26} thalassemia, a transfusion-dependent disorder, is increased in these two population groups. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has proven to be useful in testing for beta-thalassemia carriers and identifying new mutations in the beta globin gene. DNA was extracted from venous blood obtained from patients with elevated Hgb A2 (>4%). Five DNA fragments, encompassing the beta globin gene cluster, were amplified by PCR and analyzed, along with known beta gene mutations as controls, by DGGE using different denaturing gradient concentrations. Different mutations at the same nucleotide position can be distinguished by migration pattern on the DGGE (e.g., in IVS-I-1, G{r_arrow}A and T). Compound heterozygotes for {beta}-thalassemia can be detected on the same gel (e.g., HbE/mutation codon 17). New mutations are identified by their migration pattern compared with controls and determined by subsequent sequencing. We have identified three new mutations: codon 82 CAA{r_arrow}AAA in one Cambodian patient; IVS-II-667, T{r_arrow}C and IVS-II-672, A{r_arrow}C in two Laotian patients. When the parent`s genotypes are known, prenatal diagnosis can be obtained within 24 hours. Thus, PCR/DGGE combination is a rapid and reliable diagnostic approach to clinically significant {beta}-thalassemia. The most important steps are carefully designed primers and predetermined gradient concentrations for DGGE.

  7. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Impink, Jr., Albert J. (Murrysville, PA); Goldstein, Norman P. (Murrysville, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  8. Quantitative trait loci and metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, M. D.; Byrne, P. F.; Snook, M. E.; Wiseman, B. R.; Lee, E. A.; Widstrom, N. W.; Coe, E. H.

    1998-01-01

    The interpretation of quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies is limited by the lack of information on metabolic pathways leading to most economic traits. Inferences about the roles of the underlying genes with a pathway or the nature of their interaction with other loci are generally not possible. An exception is resistance to the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) in maize (Zea mays L.) because of maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone synthesized in silks via a branch of the well characterized flavonoid pathway. Our results using flavone synthesis as a model QTL system indicate: (i) the importance of regulatory loci as QTLs, (ii) the importance of interconnecting biochemical pathways on product levels, (iii) evidence for “channeling” of intermediates, allowing independent synthesis of related compounds, (iv) the utility of QTL analysis in clarifying the role of specific genes in a biochemical pathway, and (v) identification of a previously unknown locus on chromosome 9S affecting flavone level. A greater understanding of the genetic basis of maysin synthesis and associated corn earworm resistance should lead to improved breeding strategies. More broadly, the insights gained in relating a defined genetic and biochemical pathway affecting a quantitative trait should enhance interpretation of the biological basis of variation for other quantitative traits. PMID:9482823

  9. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research. The paper…

  10. State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions…

  11. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR INFECTIOUS BOVINE KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an economically important disease in cattle. The objective of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in offspring from a Brahman x Hereford sire. The sire was mated to H...

  12. Phylogenetics Exercise Using Inherited Human Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuimala, Jarno

    2006-01-01

    A bioinformatics laboratory exercise based on inherited human morphological traits is presented. It teaches how morphological characters can be used to study the evolutionary history of humans using parsimony. The exercise can easily be used in a pen-and-paper laboratory, but if computers are available, a more versatile analysis can be carried…

  13. THE NEUTRAL DIVERGENCE OF QUANTITATIVE TRAITS

    E-print Network

    Walsh, Bruce

    11 THE NEUTRAL DIVERGENCE OF QUANTITATIVE TRAITS There are some enterprises in which a careful for neutral characters, as isolated demes or species recurrently acquire and become fixed for independent mutations. Here, we explore neutral factors that can drive the evolutionary dynamics of the among

  14. Biodiversity: Predictive traits to the rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisan, Antoine

    2014-03-01

    Climate change poses new challenges to the conservation of species, which at present requires data-hungry models to meaningfully anticipate future threats. Now a study suggests that species traits may offer a simpler way to help predict future extinction risks.

  15. FERTILITY IS NOW A SELECTION TRAIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk production has nearly doubled over the past 40 years, while days open has increased by about 40 days. Although cow fertility has been selected for indirectly via genetic evaluations for productive life, direct selection has been hampered by low heritability of fertility traits (about 4%) and la...

  16. JOINT ANALYSIS OF HEALTH AND PRODUCTION TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between health and production traits in chickens. The data were obtained from a closed, fully pedigreed, commercial broiler line. Records included measurements of body weight (BW), residual feed intake (RFI), percent breast meat (PBM),...

  17. Dependency Traits Among Parents of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Forest S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Studies question whether there is a significant association between parents' dependency traits and drug habits in their offspring. Reported here is a survey of 1,091 young males. The reported occurrence of parents' alcohol consumption, smoking, use of stimulants and sedatives, and overeating were compared among abusers and non-users of hashish,…

  18. Estimating Trait Heritability in Highly Fecund Species

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sarah W.; Scarpino, Samuel V.; Pongwarin, Thanapat; Scott, James; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers are interested in estimating the heritability of traits for nonmodel organisms. However, estimating the heritability of these traits presents both experimental and statistical challenges, which typically arise from logistical difficulties associated with rearing large numbers of families independently in the field, a lack of known pedigree, the need to account for group or batch effects, etc. Here we develop both an empirical and computational methodology for estimating the narrow-sense heritability of traits for highly fecund species. Our experimental approach controls for undesirable culturing effects while minimizing culture numbers, increasing feasibility in the field. Our statistical approach accounts for known issues with model-selection by using a permutation test to calculate significance values and includes both fitting and power calculation methods. We further demonstrate that even with moderately high sample-sizes, the p-values derived from asymptotic properties of the likelihood ratio test are overly conservative, thus reducing statistical power. We illustrate our methodology by estimating the narrow-sense heritability for larval settlement, a key life-history trait, in the reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata. The experimental, statistical, and computational methods, along with all of the data from this study, are available in the R package multiDimBio. PMID:26438295

  19. Genetic and Cultural Inheritance of Continuous Traits

    E-print Network

    Otto, Sarah

    Genetic and Cultural Inheritance of Continuous Traits SARAH P. OTTO Department of Integrative and father by some rule intended to approximate known rules of genetic transmission, its cultural value is determined and how genetic and cultural effects are transmitted between generations. In the first section we

  20. Biotechnological interventions to improve plant developmental traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental traits are coordinated at various levels in a plant and involve organ to organ communications via long distance signaling processes that integrate transcription, hormonal action and environmental cues. Thus, plant architecture, root-soil-microbe interactions, flowering, fruit (and seed...

  1. Personality Traits Predict Music Taxonomy Preferences

    E-print Network

    Widmer, Gerhard

    Personality Traits Predict Music Taxonomy Preferences Bruce Ferwerda Johannes Kepler University Altenberger Str. 69 A-4040 Linz, Austria bruce.ferwerda@jku.at Marko Tkalcic Johannes Kepler University Altenberger Str. 69 A-4040 Linz, Austria marko.tkalcic@jku.at Emily Yang Johannes Kepler University

  2. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  3. Some Personality Traits of Superior University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodman, Frank

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 100 gifted college students matched on race, age, sex, and education with control subjects. High achievers differed statistically from controls on several subscales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Results suggest that certain personality traits (not necessarily desirable or healthy ones) are associated with high…

  4. Sickle Cell Trait and Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Yvonne; Ayrer, James

    1974-01-01

    In a preliminary study, no significant interaction effects were found between scholastic achievement and sickle cell trait in black children currently in eight and ninth grades, as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills over a consecutive period of four years, 1968 through 1971, grades four through seven. (EH)

  5. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for canopy wilting trait in soybean (Glycine max L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought stress adversely affects [Glycine max (L.) Merr] soybean at most developmental stages, which collectively results in yield reduction. Little information is available on relative contribution and chromosomal locations of quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning drought tolerance in soybean...

  6. Traits Contributing to the Autistic Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Steer, Colin D.; Golding, Jean; Bolton, Patrick F.

    2010-01-01

    Background It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. Methods and Principal Findings Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC database. Using missing value imputation, data for 13,138 children were analysed. Factor analysis suggested the existence of 7 factors explaining 85% of the variance. The factors were labelled: verbal ability, language acquisition, social understanding, semantic-pragmatic skills, repetitive-stereotyped behaviour, articulation and social inhibition. Four factors (1, 3, 5 and 7) were specific to ASD being more strongly associated with this phenotype than other co-morbid conditions while other factors were more associated with learning difficulties and specific language impairment. Nevertheless, all 7 factors contributed independently to the explanation of ASD (p<0.001). Exploration of putative genetic causal factors such as variants in the CNTNAP2 gene showed a varying pattern of associations with these traits. An alternative predictive model of ASD was derived using four individual measures: the coherence subscale of the Children's Communication Checklist (9y), the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (91 m), repetitive behaviour (69 m) and the sociability subscale of the Emotionality Activity and Sociability measure (38 m). Although univarably these traits performed better than some factors, their combined explanations of ASD were similar (R2?=?0.48). Conclusions and Significance These results support the fractional nature of ASD with different aetiological origins for these components despite pleiotropic genetic effects being observed. These traits are likely to be useful in the exploration of ASD. PMID:20838614

  7. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  8. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  9. Short-Term Stability of Psychopathic Traits in Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Zina; Klaver, Jessica R.; Hart, Stephen D.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Douglas, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable debate about the assessment of psychopathic traits in adolescence due in part to questions regarding the stability of traits. We investigated the 6-month stability of psychopathic traits in a sample of 83 male adolescent offenders using an augmented protocol for the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and the self-report…

  10. Estimates of genetic correlations among growth traits including competition effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic parameters of direct and competition effects for traits measured at the end of a growth test utilizing multi-trait analyses. A total of 9,720 boars were tested with 15 boars per pen from about 71 to 161 d of age and weight from 31 to 120 kg. Traits analyzed wi...

  11. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geneticists and breeders are poised to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, they need a better understanding of root functional traits and how these traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditio...

  12. Skills Diagnosis Using IRT-Based Continuous Latent Trait Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, William

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the continuous latent trait IRT approach to skills diagnosis as particularized by a representative variety of continuous latent trait models using item response functions (IRFs). First, several basic IRT-based continuous latent trait approaches are presented in some detail. Then a brief summary of estimation, model…

  13. Young Children's Beliefs about the Stability of Traits: Protective Optimism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart, Kristi L.; Chang, Bernard; Story, Tyler

    2002-01-01

    Four studies explored children's beliefs about the stability of positive traits among three groups. Findings indicated that younger children were more likely than older children or adults to believe that negative physical and psychological traits would change positively, that they could control the expression of a trait, and that extreme positive…

  14. Quantitative trait loci linked to PRNP gene controlling health and production traits in INRA 401 sheep

    PubMed Central

    Vitezica, Zulma G; Moreno, Carole R; Lantier, Frederic; Lantier, Isabelle; Schibler, Laurent; Roig, Anne; François, Dominique; Bouix, Jacques; Allain, Daniel; Brunel, Jean-Claude; Barillet, Francis; Elsen, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the potential association of PrP genotypes with health and productive traits was investigated. Data were recorded on animals of the INRA 401 breed from the Bourges-La Sapinière INRA experimental farm. The population consisted of 30 rams and 852 ewes, which produced 1310 lambs. The animals were categorized into three PrP genotype classes: ARR homozygous, ARR heterozygous, and animals without any ARR allele. Two analyses differing in the approach considered were carried out. Firstly, the potential association of the PrP genotype with disease (Salmonella resistance) and production (wool and carcass) traits was studied. The data used included 1042, 1043 and 1013 genotyped animals for the Salmonella resistance, wool and carcass traits, respectively. The different traits were analyzed using an animal model, where the PrP genotype effect was included as a fixed effect. Association analyses do not indicate any evidence of an effect of PrP genotypes on traits studied in this breed. Secondly, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection approach using the PRNP gene as a marker was applied on ovine chromosome 13. Interval mapping was used. Evidence for one QTL affecting mean fiber diameter was found at 25 cM from the PRNP gene. However, a linkage between PRNP and this QTL does not imply unfavorable linkage disequilibrium for PRNP selection purposes. PMID:17612481

  15. Fates beyond traits: ecological consequences of human-induced trait change

    PubMed Central

    Palkovacs, Eric P; Kinnison, Michael T; Correa, Cristian; Dalton, Christopher M; Hendry, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Human-induced trait change has been documented in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. These trait changes are driven by phenotypic plasticity and contemporary evolution. While efforts to manage human-induced trait change are beginning to receive some attention, managing its ecological consequences has received virtually none. Recent work suggests that contemporary trait change can have important effects on the dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Therefore, trait changes caused by human activity may be shaping ecological dynamics on a global scale. We present evidence for important ecological effects associated with human-induced trait change in a variety of study systems. These effects can occur over large spatial scales and impact system-wide processes such as trophic cascades. Importantly, the magnitude of these effects can be on par with those of traditional ecological drivers such as species presence. However, phenotypic change is not always an agent of ecological change; it can also buffer ecosystems against change. Determining the conditions under which phenotypic change may promote vs prevent ecological change should be a top research priority. PMID:25568040

  16. Portable beta spectrometer/dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Erkkila, B.H.; Waechter, D.A.; Brake, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    As part of an ongoing program to upgrade health and safety radiation survey instruments, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a portable, battery-operated, computerized beta spectrometer/dosimeter. The instrument will support many different detectors, but the one chosen here is a combination plastic scintillator and NaI crystal. The instrument includes pulse conditioning circuits, 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display, and a microcomputer system which calculates dose and dose rate from betas incident on the detector. Instrument operating life is about 8 hours between charges. The instrument will, at the user's option, display a beta spectrum or the accumulated dose in millirad, as well as give the user beta dose rates in millirad per hour. Data accumulated in the instrument can be read out through an RS-232 serial port on the instrument. The entire unit weighs 8 pounds, including internal batteries, and is packaged in a small case 25-cm long, 15-cm wide, and 15-cm high.

  17. Spectrometers for Beta Decay Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yong; Hirshfield, Jay

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the neutrino mass direct measurement experiment Project 8, precision spectrometers are proposed to simultaneously measure energy and momentum of beta-decay electrons produced in rare nuclear events with improved energy resolution. For detecting single beta decay electrons near the end-point from a gaseous source such as tritium, one type of spectrometer is proposed to utilize stimulated cyclotron resonance interaction of microwaves with electrons in a waveguide immersed in a magnetic mirror. In the external RF fields, on-resonance electrons will satisfy both the cyclotron resonance condition and waveguide dispersion relationship. By correlating the resonances at two waveguide modes, one can associate the frequencies with both the energy and longitudinal momentum of an on-resonance electron to account for the Doppler shifts. For detecting neutrino-less double-beta decay, another spectrometer is proposed with thin foil of double-beta-allowed material immersed in a magnetic field, and RF antenna array for detection of synchrotron radiation from electrons. It utilizes the correlation between the antenna signals including higher harmonics of radiation to reconstruct the total energy distribution.

  18. Caliber Schools. Caliber: Beta Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Caliber: Beta Academy is reimagining education as we know it, with the belief that the innovations in its model will allow 100% of its students to graduate ready to attend and succeed in a competitive four-year college and beyond. The academic model of the school features personalized learning plans, blended learning for English and math,…

  19. Planets of Beta Pictoris revisited

    E-print Network

    Florian Freistetter; Alexander V. Krivov; Torsten Löhne

    2007-01-18

    Observations have revealed a large variety of structures (global asymmetries, warps, belts, rings) and dynamical phenomena ("falling-evaporating bodies" or FEBs, the "Beta Pic dust stream") in the disc of Beta Pictoris, most of which may indicate the presence of one or more planets orbiting the star. Because planets of Beta Pic have not been detected by observations yet, we use dynamical simulations to find "numerical evidence" for a planetary system. We show that already one planet at 12 AU with a mass of 2 to 5 Mjup and an eccentricity smaller or equal 0.1 can probably account for three major features (main warp, two inner belts, FEBs) observed in the Beta Pic disc. The existence of at least two additional planets at about 25 AU and 45 AU from the star seems likely. We find rather strong upper limits of 0.6 Mjup and 0.2 Mjup on the masses of those planets. The same planets could, in principle, also account for the outer rings observed at 500 - 800 AU.

  20. Try-A Global Database of Plant Traits

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world s 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.

  1. Nuclear matrix elements for double beta decay

    E-print Network

    Vadim Rodin

    2009-10-30

    The present status of calculations of the nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay is reviewed. A proposal which allows in principle to measure the neutrinoless double beta decay Fermi matrix element is briefly described.

  2. Neoclassical transport in high [beta] tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high [beta] large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high [beta] large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low [beta] values by a factor ([var epsilon]/q[sup 2][beta])[sup [1/2

  3. High Resolution QTL Map Of Net Merit Component Traits And Calving Traits From Genome-Wide Association Analysis In Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A QTL map of 725 SNPs affecting 13 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait) was constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 13 traits were net merit (NM$), its 8 component traits and 4 calving traits. The top 100 ef...

  4. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  5. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  6. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  7. Beta measurements at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, L.A.; Swinth, K.L.; Haggard, D.L.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a two-step process to characterize the current beta measurement practices at DOE facilities. PNL issued a survey questionnaire on beta measurement practices to DOE facilities and reported the results. PNL measured beta doses and spectra at seven selected DOE facilities and compared selected measurement techniques in the facility environment. This report documents the results of the radiation field measurements and the comparison of measurement techniques at the seven facilities. Data collected included beta dose and spectral measurements at seven DOE facilities that had high beta-to-gamma ratios (using a silicon surface barrier spectrometer, a plastic scintillator spectrometer, and a multielement beta dosimeter). Other dosimeters and survey meters representative of those used at DOE facilities or under development were also used for comparison. Field spectra were obtained under two distinct conditions. Silicon- and scintillation-based spectrometer systems were used under laboratory conditions where high beta-to-gamma dose ratios made the beta spectra easier to observe and analyze. In the second case, beta spectrometers were taken into actual production and maintenance areas of DOE facilities. Analyses of beta and gamma spectra showed that /sup 234/Th- /sup 234m/Pa, /sup 231/Th, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y were the major nuclides contributing to beta doses at the facilities visited. Beta doses from other fission products and /sup 60/Co were also measured, but the potential for exposure was less significant. 21 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Present and Future Double Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pavan, Maura

    2007-10-12

    After about 70 years since the birth of the Beta Decay Theory we still miss one of the more fundamental piece of information concerning neutrinos: are they Majorana or Dirac particles? {beta}{beta}0{nu} can address this question and the present and future experimental situation is here reviewed.

  9. Plant functional traits and the multidimensional nature of species coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Godoy, Oscar; Levine, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes maintaining species diversity is a central problem in ecology, with implications for the conservation and management of ecosystems. Although biologists often assume that trait differences between competitors promote diversity, empirical evidence connecting functional traits to the niche differences that stabilize species coexistence is rare. Obtaining such evidence is critical because traits also underlie the average fitness differences driving competitive exclusion, and this complicates efforts to infer community dynamics from phenotypic patterns. We coupled field-parameterized mathematical models of competition between 102 pairs of annual plants with detailed sampling of leaf, seed, root, and whole-plant functional traits to relate phenotypic differences to stabilizing niche and average fitness differences. Single functional traits were often well correlated with average fitness differences between species, indicating that competitive dominance was associated with late phenology, deep rooting, and several other traits. In contrast, single functional traits were poorly correlated with the stabilizing niche differences that promote coexistence. Niche differences could only be described by combinations of traits, corresponding to differentiation between species in multiple ecological dimensions. In addition, several traits were associated with both fitness differences and stabilizing niche differences. These complex relationships between phenotypic differences and the dynamics of competing species argue against the simple use of single functional traits to infer community assembly processes but lay the groundwork for a theoretically justified trait-based community ecology. PMID:25561561

  10. How are personality trait and profile agreement related?

    PubMed Central

    Allik, Jüri; Borkenau, Peter; H?ebí?ková, Martina; Kuppens, Peter; Realo, Anu

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that if we compute self-other agreement on some personality traits then we possess no or very little information about the individuals who are the targets of this judgment. This idea is largely based on two separate ways of computing self-other agreement: trait agreement (rT) and profile agreement (rP), which are typically associated with two different trait-centered and person-centered approaches in personality research. Personality traits of 4115 targets from Czech, Belgian, Estonian, and German samples were rated by themselves and knowledgeable informants. We demonstrate that trait agreement can be partialled into individual contributions so that it is possible to show how much each individual pair of judges contributes to agreement on a particular trait. Similarly, it is possible to decompose agreement between two personality profiles into the individual contributions of traits from which these profiles are assembled. If normativeness is separated from distinctiveness of personality scores and individual profiles are ipsatized, then mean profile agreement rP becomes identical to mean trait agreement rT. The views that trait-by-trait analysis does not provide information regarding accuracy level of a particular pair of judges and profile analysis does not permit assessment of the relative contributions of traits to overall accuracy are not supported. PMID:26106356

  11. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting body conformation traits in Spanish Churra dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Alvarez, L; de la Fuente, L F; Sanchez, J P; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J

    2011-08-01

    A genome scan for chromosomal regions influencing body conformation traits was conducted for a population of Spanish Churra dairy sheep following a daughter design. A total of 739 ewes from 11 half-sib sire families were included in the study. The ewes were scored for the 5 linear traits used in the breeding scheme of the Churra breed to assess body conformation: stature, rear legs-rear view, foot angle, rump width, and general appearance. All the animals, including the 11 sires, were genotyped for 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed across the 26 sheep autosomes. Using the yield deviations of the raw scores adjusted for fixed factors as phenotypic measurements, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on the basis of a multi-marker regression method. Seven suggestive QTL were identified on chromosomes Ovis aries (OAR)2, OAR5, OAR16, OAR23, and OAR26, but none reached a genome-wise significance level. Putative QTL were identified for all of the traits analyzed, except for general appearance score. The suggestive QTL showing the highest test statistic influenced rear legs-rear view and was localized on OAR16, close to the growth hormone receptor coding gene, GHR. Some of the putative linkage associations reported here are consistent with previously reported QTL in cattle for similar traits. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first report of QTL for body conformation traits in dairy sheep; further studies will be needed to confirm and redefine the linkage associations reported herein. It is expected that future genome-wide association analyses of larger families will help identify genes underlying these putative genetic effects and provide useful markers for marker-assisted selection of such functional traits. PMID:21787947

  12. Anionic ring-opening polymerization of beta-alkoxymethyl-substituted beta-lactones.

    PubMed

    Adamus, Grazyna; Kowalczuk, Marek

    2008-02-01

    We report on anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of racemic beta-(methoxymethyl)-beta-propiolactone (MOMPL) and beta-(ethoxymethyl)-beta-propiolactone (EOMPL) initiated by supramolecular complex of potassium acetate and tetrabutylammonium acetate (Bu4N+ Ac) as well as by tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, respectively. Structure of the resulting polymers has been established at the molecular level by electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) and has been confirmed by FT-IR, NMR, and GPC analyses. Similar behavior of MOMPL and EOMPL with respect to already-studied beta-alkyl-substituted beta-lactones, e.g., beta-butyrolactone (MPL), has been observed under the conditions of anionic ROP (including observed side reactions leading to unsaturated end groups) and the already-established mechanisms of anionic polymerization of beta-alkyl-substituted beta-lactones are extended on beta-alkoxymethyl-substituted ones. PMID:18179174

  13. The neurobiology of psychopathic traits in youths

    PubMed Central

    Blair, R. James J.

    2015-01-01

    Conduct disorder is a childhood behaviour disorder that is characterized by persistent aggressive or antisocial behaviour that disrupts the child’s environment and impairs his or her functioning. A proportion of children with conduct disorder have psychopathic traits. Psychopathic traits consist of a callous–unemotional component and an impulsive–antisocial component, which are associated with two core impairments. The first is a reduced empathic response to the distress of other individuals, which primarily reflects reduced amygdala responsiveness to distress cues; the second is deficits in decision making and in reinforcement learning, which reflects dysfunction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatum. Genetic and prenatal factors contribute to the abnormal development of these neural systems, and social–environmental variables that affect motivation influence the probability that antisocial behaviour will be subsequently displayed. PMID:24105343

  14. Partitioning the impact of environment and spatial structure on alpha and beta components of taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity in European ants

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Xim; Retana, Javier

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the relative contribution of environmental and spatial variables to the alpha and beta components of taxonomic (TD), phylogenetic (PD), and functional (FD) diversity in ant communities found along different climate and anthropogenic disturbance gradients across western and central Europe, in order to assess the mechanisms structuring ant biodiversity. To this aim we calculated alpha and beta TD, PD, and FD for 349 ant communities, which included a total of 155 ant species; we examined 10 functional traits and phylogenetic relatedness. Variation partitioning was used to examine how much variation in ant diversity was explained by environmental and spatial variables. Autocorrelation in diversity measures and each trait’s phylogenetic signal were also analyzed. We found strong autocorrelation in diversity measures. Both environmental and spatial variables significantly contributed to variation in TD, PD, and FD at both alpha and beta scales; spatial structure had the larger influence. The different facets of diversity showed similar patterns along environmental gradients. Environment explained a much larger percentage of variation in FD than in TD or PD. All traits demonstrated strong phylogenetic signals. Our results indicate that environmental filtering and dispersal limitations structure all types of diversity in ant communities. Strong dispersal limitations appear to have led to clustering of TD, PD, and FD in western and central Europe, probably because different historical and evolutionary processes generated different pools of species. Remarkably, these three facets of diversity showed parallel patterns along environmental gradients. Trait-mediated species sorting and niche conservatism appear to structure ant diversity, as evidenced by the fact that more variation was explained for FD and that all traits had strong phylogenetic signals. Since environmental variables explained much more variation in FD than in PD, functional diversity should be a better indicator of community assembly processes than phylogenetic diversity. PMID:26468433

  15. A transforming growth factor. beta. (TGF-. beta. ) receptor from human placenta exhibits greater affinity for TGF-. beta. 2 than for TGF-. beta. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, E.J.; O'Connor-McCourt, M.D. )

    1991-04-30

    Affinity-labeling techniques have been used to identify three types of high-affinity receptors for transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta}) on the surface of many cells in culture. Here the authors demonstrate that membrane preparations from tissue sources may also be used as an alternative system for studying the binding properties of TGF-{beta} receptors. Using a chemical cross-linking technique with {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}1 and {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}2 and bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS{sup 3}), they have identified and characterized two high-affinity binding components in membrane preparations derived from human term placenta. The larger species, which migrates as a diffuse band of molecular mass 250-350 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels, is characteristic of the TGF-{beta} receptor type III, a proteoglycan containing glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of chondroitin and heparan sulfate. The smaller species of molecular mass 140 kDa was identified as the core glycoprotein of this type III receptor by using the techniques of enzymatic deglycosylation and peptide mapping. Competition experiments, using {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}1 or {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}2 and varying amounts of competing unlabeled TGF-{beta}1 or TGF-{beta}2, revealed that both the placental type III proteoglycan and its core glycoprotein belong to a novel class of type III receptors that exhibit a greater affinity for TGF-{beta}2 than for TGF-{beta}1. This preferential binding of TGF-{beta}2 to placental type III receptors suggests differential roles for TGF-{beta}2 and TGF-{beta} 1 in placental function.

  16. Multi-ethnic studies in complex traits.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jingyuan; Festen, Eleonora A M; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2011-10-15

    The successes of genome-wide association (GWA) studies have mainly come from studies performed in populations of European descent. Since complex traits are characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity, the findings so far may provide an incomplete picture of the genetic architecture of complex traits. However, the recent GWA studies performed on East Asian populations now allow us to globally assess the heterogeneity of association signals between populations of European ancestry and East Asians, and the possible obstacles for multi-ethnic GWA studies. We focused on four different traits that represent a broad range of complex phenotypes, which have been studied in both Europeans and East Asians: type 2 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, ulcerative colitis and height. For each trait, we observed that most of the risk loci identified in East Asians were shared with Europeans. However, we also observed that a significant part of the association signals at these shared loci seems to be independent between populations. This suggests that disease aetiology is common between populations, but that risk variants are often population specific. These variants could be truly population specific and result from natural selection, genetic drift and recent mutations, or they could be spurious, caused by the limitations of the method of analysis employed in the GWA studies. We therefore propose a three-stage framework for multi-ethnic GWA analyses, starting with the commonly used single-nucleotide polymorphism-based analysis, and followed by a gene-based approach and a pathway-based analysis, which will take into account the heterogeneity of association between populations at different levels. PMID:21890495

  17. Explaining additional genetic variation in complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of complex traits, discovering >6000 variants associated with >500 quantitative traits and common complex diseases in humans. The associations identified so far represent only a fraction of those which influence phenotype, as there are likely to be very many variants across the entire frequency spectrum, each of which influences multiple traits, with only a small average contribution to the phenotypic variance. This presents a considerable challenge to further dissection of the remaining unexplained genetic variance within populations, which limits our ability to predict disease risk, identify new drug targets, improve and maintain food sources, and understand natural diversity. This challenge will be met within the current framework through larger sample size, better phenotyping including recording of non-genetic risk factors, focused study designs, and an integration of multiple sources of phenotypic and genetic information. The current evidence supports the application of quantitative genetic approaches, and we argue that one should retain simpler theories until simplicity can be traded for greater explanatory power. PMID:24629526

  18. Morphoscopic Trait Expression in "Hispanic" Populations.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Joseph T; Pilloud, Marin A; Black, Cullen J; Anderson, Bruce E

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluates population variation of eight cranial morphoscopic traits using samples of known southwest Hispanics (n=72), Guatemalans (n=106), American Blacks (n=146), and American Whites (n=218). We applied the support vector machine (SVM) method to build a prediction model based on a subsample (20%) of the data; the remainder of the data was used as a test sample. The SVM approach effectively differentiated between the four groups with correct classification rates between 72% (Guatemalan group) and 94% (American Black group). However, when the Guatemalan and southwest Hispanic samples were pooled, the same model correctly classified all groups with a higher degree of accuracy (American Black=96%; American White=77%; and the pooled Hispanic sample=91%). This study also identified significant differences between the two Hispanic groups in six of the eight traits using univariate statistical tests. These results speak to the unique population histories of these samples and the current use of the term "Hispanic" within forensic anthropology. Finally, we argue that the SVM can be used as a classification model for ancestry estimation in a forensic context and as a diagnostic tool may broaden the application of morphoscopic trait data for the assessment of ancestry. PMID:26272587

  19. Bioavailability of beta-carotene (betaC) from purple carrots is the same as typical orange carrots while high-betaC carrots increase betaC stores in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Biofortifying existing sources of beta-carotene (betaC) and increasing dietary betaC could help combat the issue. Two studies were performed to investigate the relative betaC bioavailability of a betaC supplement to purple, high-betaC o...

  20. Catalog of Galactic Beta Cephei Stars

    E-print Network

    Anamarija Stankov; Gerald Handler

    2005-06-21

    We present an extensive and up-to-date catalog of Galactic Beta Cephei stars. This catalog is intended to give a comprehensive overview of observational characteristics of all known Beta Cephei stars. 93 stars could be confirmed to be Beta Cephei stars. For some stars we re-analyzed published data or conducted our own analyses. 61 stars were rejected from the final Beta Cephei list, and 77 stars are suspected to be Beta Cephei stars. A list of critically selected pulsation frequencies for confirmed Beta Cephei stars is also presented. We analyze the Beta Cephei stars as a group, such as the distributions of their spectral types, projected rotational velocities, radial velocities, pulsation periods, and Galactic coordinates. We confirm that the majority of these stars are multiperiodic pulsators. We show that, besides two exceptions, the Beta Cephei stars with high pulsation amplitudes are slow rotators. We construct a theoretical HR diagram that suggests that almost all 93 Beta Cephei stars are MS objects. We discuss the observational boundaries of Beta Cephei pulsation and their physical parameters. We corroborate that the excited pulsation modes are near to the radial fundamental mode in frequency and we show that the mass distribution of the stars peaks at 12 solar masses. We point out that the theoretical instability strip of the Beta Cephei stars is filled neither at the cool nor at the hot end and attempt to explain this observation.

  1. Beta adrenergic receptors in pigmented ciliary processes.

    PubMed Central

    Trope, G E; Clark, B

    1982-01-01

    Beta adrenergic receptors from membrane fragments of pigmented sheep eyes were studied and characterised by ligand binding techniques after the removal of melanin. In a representative experiment the beta max (total number of beta receptors) was 394.9 fmol/mg protein. The receptor affinity (Ka) was 440 pM. The potency series of drugs to displace 125I-HYP from the receptors was timolol = (-) propranolol greater than (+) propranolol greater than salbutamol greater than practolol. beta 1 Receptors were not detected in the ciliary processes. beta 2 Receptors were the prominent adrenergic receptors present. The theory as to how beta blockers work in glaucoma, their site of action, and the potential role of beta 2 blockers for use in intraocular pressure control is discussed. PMID:6293532

  2. Mammalian. beta. /sub 1/- and. beta. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptors: immunological and structural comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Moxham, C.P.; George, S.T.; Graziano, M.P.; Brandwein, H.J.; Malbon, C.C.

    1986-11-05

    ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors, pharmacologically distinct proteins, have been reported to be structurally dissimilar. In the present study three techniques were employed to compare the nature of mammalian ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. Antibodies against each of the receptor subtypes were raised separately. Polyclonal antisera against ..beta../sub 1/-receptors of rat fat cells were raised in mice, and antisera against ..beta../sub 2/-receptors of guinea pig lung were raised in rabbits. Receptors purified from rat fat cells (..beta../sub 1/-), S49 mouse lymphoma cells (..beta../sub 2/-), and rat liver (..beta../sub 2/-) were probed with these antisera. Each anti-receptor antisera demonstrated the ability to immunoprecipitate purified receptors of both ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-subtypes. The mobility of ..beta..-receptors subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was probed using antireceptor antibodies and nitrocellulose blots of the gels. Fat cell ..beta../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors display M/sub r/ = 67,000 under reducing conditions and M/sub r/ = 54,000 under nonreducing conditions, as previously reported. Both ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-receptors displayed this same shift in electrophoretic mobility observed in the presence as compared to the absence of disulfide bridge-reducing agents, as detected both by autoradiography of the radiolabeled receptors and by immunoblotting of native receptors. Finally, isoelectric focusing of purified radioiodinated ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors revealed identical isoelectric points. These data are the first to provide analyses of immunological, structural, and biochemical features of ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-subtypes in tandem and underscore the structural similarities that exist between these pharmacologically distinct receptors.

  3. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

  4. Plasticity Regulators Modulate Specific Root Traits in Discrete Nitrogen Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Miriam L.; Banta, Joshua A.; Katari, Manpreet S.; Hulsmans, Jo; Chen, Lisa; Ristova, Daniela; Tranchina, Daniel; Purugganan, Michael D.; Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Birnbaum, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    Plant development is remarkably plastic but how precisely can the plant customize its form to specific environments? When the plant adjusts its development to different environments, related traits can change in a coordinated fashion, such that two traits co-vary across many genotypes. Alternatively, traits can vary independently, such that a change in one trait has little predictive value for the change in a second trait. To characterize such “tunability” in developmental plasticity, we carried out a detailed phenotypic characterization of complex root traits among 96 accessions of the model Arabidopsis thaliana in two nitrogen environments. The results revealed a surprising level of independence in the control of traits to environment – a highly tunable form of plasticity. We mapped genetic architecture of plasticity using genome-wide association studies and further used gene expression analysis to narrow down gene candidates in mapped regions. Mutants in genes implicated by association and expression analysis showed precise defects in the predicted traits in the predicted environment, corroborating the independent control of plasticity traits. The overall results suggest that there is a pool of genetic variability in plants that controls traits in specific environments, with opportunity to tune crop plants to a given environment. PMID:24039603

  5. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances.

    PubMed

    Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

  6. Animal trait ontology: The importance and usefulness of a unified trait vocabulary for animal species.

    PubMed

    Hughes, L M; Bao, J; Hu, Z-L; Honavar, V; Reecy, J M

    2008-06-01

    Ontologies help to identify and formally define the entities and relationships in specific domains of interest. Bio-ontologies, in particular, play a central role in the annotation, integration, analysis, and interpretation of biological data. Missing from the number of bio-ontologies is one that includes phenotypic trait information found in livestock species. As a result, the Animal Trait Ontology (ATO) project being carried out under the auspices of the USDA-National Animal Genome Research Program is aimed at the development of a standardized trait ontology for farm animals and software tools to assist the research community in collaborative creation, editing, maintenance, and use of such an ontology. The ATO is currently inclusive of cattle, pig, and chicken species, and will include other livestock species in the future. The ATO will eventually be linked to other species (e.g., human, rat, mouse) so that comparative analysis can be efficiently performed between species. PMID:18272850

  7. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    PubMed Central

    Comas, Louise H.; Becker, Steven R.; Cruz, Von Mark V.; Byrne, Patrick F.; Dierig, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less “leaky” and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding. PMID:24204374

  8. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A; Cervantes, I; Burgos, A; Morante, R; Gutiérrez, J P

    2015-12-01

    One of the main deficiencies affecting animal breeding programs in Peruvian alpacas is the low reproductive performance leading to low number of animals available to select from, decreasing strongly the selection intensity. Some reproductive traits could be improved by artificial selection, but very few information about genetic parameters exists for these traits in this specie. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for six reproductive traits in alpacas both in Suri (SU) and Huacaya (HU) ecotypes, as well as their genetic relationship with fiber and morphological traits. Dataset belonging to Pacomarca experimental farm collected between 2000 and 2014 was used. Number of records for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), copulation time (CT), pregnancy diagnosis (PD), gestation length (GL), and calving interval (CI) were, respectively, 1704, 854, 19,770, 5874, 4290 and 934. Pedigree consisted of 7742 animals. Regarding reproductive traits, model of analysis included additive and residual random effects for all traits, and also permanent environmental effect for CT, PD, GL and CI traits, with color and year of recording as fixed effects for all the reproductive traits and also age at mating and sex of calf for GL trait. Estimated heritabilities, respectively for HU and SU were 0.19 and 0.09 for AFS, 0.45 and 0.59 for AFC, 0.04 and 0.05 for CT, 0.07 and 0.05 for PD, 0.12 and 0.20 for GL, and 0.14 and 0.09 for CI. Genetic correlations between them ranged from -0.96 to 0.70. No important genetic correlations were found between reproductive traits and fiber or morphological traits in HU. However, some moderate favorable genetic correlations were found between reproductive and either fiber and morphological traits in SU. According to estimated genetic correlations, some reproductive traits might be included as additional selection criteria in HU. PMID:26490188

  9. Pro ls sismiques trait es 252 Pro ls sismiques trait es

    E-print Network

    Clouard, Valerie

    Annexe C Pro ls sismiques trait es #12;252 Pro ls sismiques trait es 4.0 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.4 Temps(std) 6.8 7.2 PR15-2 PR16 PR12 PR15-1 Fig. C.1 Pro ls sismiques PR12, PR15-1, 15-2 et PR16. Les pro ls sont ltr es en fr equence et somm es suivant le point miroir commun qui est report e en abscisse

  10. Stereo and enantioselective degradation of beta-Cypermethrin and beta-Cyfluthrin in soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Z Y; Zhang, Z C; Zhang, L; Leng, L

    2008-04-01

    beta-Cypermethrin (beta-CP) and beta-Cyfluthrin (beta-CF) are two important pyrethroid insecticides and both consist of two enantiomeric pairs (diastereomers), i.e. four enantiomers. In this study, the stereo and enantioselective degradation of beta-CP and beta-CF in a Tianjin alkaline soil was studied in details by a combination of achiral and chiral HPLC. The results showed that for the two pyrethroids, the transdiastereomer was degraded faster than the corresponding cis-diastereomer. beta-CP and beta-CF were found to be configurationally unstable in this soil, since isomerization between diastereomers was observed during the degradation process. Further enantioselective analysis showed that significant enantioselectivity occurred during the 30 days incubation time. The enantiomeric ratio (ER) values of cis- and transdiastereomers changed from initial approximately 1.00 to final 0.79 and 0.55 for beta-CP, and to 0.64 and 0.48 for beta-CF, respectively. At last, it was found that beta-CF was degraded at relatively faster degradation rate and higher enantioselectivity than beta-CP. Findings from this study may be used to better understand the chiral profiles of beta-CP and beta-CF as well as relevant pyrethroid analogues in environment. PMID:18311530

  11. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.

    2015-01-03

    The precision of double-beta ??-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ??-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  12. Specific enhancement of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase activity by defined G-protein beta and gamma subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, S; Hekman, M; Lohse, M J

    1993-01-01

    The beta and gamma subunits of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) have recently been shown to play an active role in signal transduction. Among other effects they enable translocation of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK) from the cytosol to the plasma membrane and thus permit phosphorylation and ultimately desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors and other G-protein-coupled receptors. To investigate the specificity of this effect, we have purified various combinations of recombinant beta and gamma subunits expressed in Sf9 cells and measured their effects on beta ARK-catalyzed phosphorylation of beta 2-adrenergic receptors and of rhodopsin. The combinations tested were beta 1 gamma 2, beta 1 gamma 3, beta 2 gamma 2, beta 2 gamma 3, and transducin beta gamma (beta 1 gamma 1). There were clear differences in enhancement of rhodopsin phosphorylation, with an order of efficacy beta 2 gamma 2 > beta 1 gamma 2 >> beta 2 gamma 3 approximately beta 1 gamma 3 approximately beta 1 gamma 1. The first two combinations had larger effects than a mixed beta gamma preparation from bovine brain. In enhancing phosphorylation of beta 2-adrenergic receptors, beta 1 gamma 2 was more efficient and potent than all other combinations. These data suggest a twofold specificity of beta gamma complexes in enhancing beta ARK-catalyzed receptor phosphorylation: the gamma subunits may be important in interacting with beta ARK, with gamma 2 being more potent than gamma 3, whereas the beta subunits may determine coupling to the receptors, with beta 2 being more effective than beta 1 for rhodopsin and beta 1 being more effective than beta 2 for beta 2-adrenergic receptors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8248128

  13. First impressions: gait cues drive reliable trait judgements.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, John C; Vuong, Quoc C; Atkinson, Anthony P

    2012-09-01

    Personality trait attribution can underpin important social decisions and yet requires little effort; even a brief exposure to a photograph can generate lasting impressions. Body movement is a channel readily available to observers and allows judgements to be made when facial and body appearances are less visible; e.g., from great distances. Across three studies, we assessed the reliability of trait judgements of point-light walkers and identified motion-related visual cues driving observers' judgements. The findings confirm that observers make reliable, albeit inaccurate, trait judgements, and these were linked to a small number of motion components derived from a Principal Component Analysis of the motion data. Parametric manipulation of the motion components linearly affected trait ratings, providing strong evidence that the visual cues captured by these components drive observers' trait judgements. Subsequent analyses suggest that reliability of trait ratings was driven by impressions of emotion, attractiveness and masculinity. PMID:22717166

  14. Neighborhood income and the expression of callous-unemotional traits.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Anna Justine; Ryan, Rebecca M; Marsh, Abigail A

    2015-09-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, including an uncaring nature and reduced empathy, represent a strongly heritable pattern of socio-emotional responding linked with elevated risk for severe, persistent delinquent behavior. Although evidence suggests that CU traits vary continuously across the population, research linking CU traits and delinquency is often conducted with incarcerated or clinical samples, obscuring potential heterogeneity in this relationship across the full range of high-CU individuals. Using a nationally representative sample, this study examines the role of neighborhood income in moderating the association between CU traits and delinquency in terms of both level and type of offending. Findings corroborate the link between CU traits and delinquency and suggest that the link between high-CU traits and violent delinquency may be unique to youth living in low-income neighborhoods. PMID:25534926

  15. Plant Thermoregulation: Energetics, Trait-Environment Interactions, and Carbon Economics.

    PubMed

    Michaletz, Sean T; Weiser, Michael D; Zhou, Jizhong; Kaspari, Michael; Helliker, Brent R; Enquist, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    Building a more predictive trait-based ecology requires mechanistic theory based on first principles. We present a general theoretical approach to link traits and climate. We use plant leaves to show how energy budgets (i) provide a foundation for understanding thermoregulation, (ii) explain mechanisms driving trait variation across environmental gradients, and (iii) guide selection on functional traits via carbon economics. Although plants are often considered to be poikilotherms, the data suggest that they are instead limited homeotherms. Leaf functional traits that promote limited homeothermy are adaptive because homeothermy maximizes instantaneous and lifetime carbon gain. This theory provides a process-based foundation for trait-climate analyses and shows that future studies should consider plant (not only air) temperatures. PMID:26476814

  16. Are animal personality traits linked to life-history productivity?

    PubMed

    Biro, Peter A; Stamps, Judy A

    2008-07-01

    Animal personality traits such as boldness, activity and aggressiveness have been described for many animal species. However, why some individuals are consistently bolder or more active than others, for example, is currently obscure. Given that life-history tradeoffs are common and known to promote inter-individual differences in behavior, we suggest that consistent individual differences in animal personality traits can be favored when those traits contribute to consistent individual differences in productivity (growth and/or fecundity). A survey of empirical studies indicates that boldness, activity and/or aggressiveness are positively related to food intake rates, productivity and other life-history traits in a wide range of taxa. Our conceptual framework sets the stage for a closer look at relationships between personality traits and life-history traits in animals. PMID:18501468

  17. Beta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter covers the use of wild beets in sugar beet improvement, including the basic botany of the species, its distribution; geographical locations of genetic diversity; morphology; cytology and karyotype; genome size; taxonomic position; agricultural status (model plant/weeds/invasive species/...

  18. The nature and identification of quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This white paper by eighty members of the Complex Trait Consortium presents a community’s view on the approaches and statistical analyses that are needed for the identification of genetic loci that determine quantitative traits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) can be identified in several ways, but is there a definitive test of whether a candidate locus actually corresponds to a specific QTL? PMID:14634638

  19. Effects of bacteriophage traits on plaque formation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The appearance of plaques on a bacterial lawn is one of the enduring imageries in modern day biology. The seeming simplicity of a plaque has invited many hypotheses and models in trying to describe and explain the details of its formation. However, until now, there has been no systematic experimental exploration on how different bacteriophage (phage) traits may influence the formation of a plaque. In this study, we constructed a series of isogenic ? phages that differ in their adsorption rate, lysis timing, or morphology so that we can determine the effects if these changes on three plaque properties: size, progeny productivity, and phage concentration within plaques. Results We found that the adsorption rate has a diminishing, but negative impact on all three plaque measurements. Interestingly, there exists a concave relationship between the lysis time and plaque size, resulting in an apparent optimal lysis time that maximizes the plaque size. Although suggestive in appearance, we did not detect a significant effect of lysis time on plaque productivity. Nonetheless, the combined effects of plaque size and productivity resulted in an apparent convex relationship between the lysis time and phage concentration within plaques. Lastly, we found that virion morphology also affected plaque size. We compared our results to the available models on plaque size and productivity. For the models in their current forms, a few of them can capture the qualitative aspects of our results, but not consistently in both plaque properties. Conclusions By using a collection of isogenic phage strains, we were able to investigate the effects of individual phage traits on plaque size, plaque productivity, and average phage concentration in a plaque while holding all other traits constant. The controlled nature of our study allowed us to test several model predictions on plaque size and plaque productivity. It seems that a more realistic theoretical approach to plaque formation is needed in order to capture the complex interaction between phage and its bacterium host in a spatially restricted environment. PMID:21827665

  20. Genetic linkage and association analysis of COPD-related traits on chromosome 8p.

    PubMed

    Hersh, Craig P; DeMeo, Dawn L; Raby, Benjamin A; Litonjua, Augusto A; Sylvia, Jody S; Sparrow, David; Reilly, John J; Silverman, Edwin K

    2006-12-01

    Genome-wide linkage analysis in the Boston Early-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Study has demonstrated significant evidence of linkage to chromosome 8p for forced expiratory volume in 1 second, an important COPD-related phenotype. In this study, we sought to fine map the linkage peak and to test variants in two candidate genes for association with COPD and related traits. In a variance component linkage analysis on chromosome 8, including seven additional short tandem repeat markers, the logarithm of the odds of linkage score was reduced from 3.30 to 1.80 (at 1 cM). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Defensin Beta-1 (DEFB1) were genotyped in the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study families; none was significantly associated. Four SNPs and an insertion-deletion polymorphism in Macrophage Scavenger Receptor-1 (MSR1) were also genotyped in the family-based study. A coding variant (Pro275Ala) was marginally associated with two qualitative airflow obstruction traits (p < or = 0.02). This SNP showed a trend toward association in a case-control study comparing participants in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial to smoker controls (p = 0.07). Despite the reduced support for linkage upon further analysis, it remains possible that chromosome 8p contains a gene that influences COPD susceptibility. There is marginal, though not convincing, evidence for association with MSR1. PMID:17361499

  1. Relationships between phyllosphere bacterial communities and plant functional traits in a neotropical forest.

    PubMed

    Kembel, Steven W; O'Connor, Timothy K; Arnold, Holly K; Hubbell, Stephen P; Wright, S Joseph; Green, Jessica L

    2014-09-23

    The phyllosphere--the aerial surfaces of plants, including leaves--is a ubiquitous global habitat that harbors diverse bacterial communities. Phyllosphere bacterial communities have the potential to influence plant biogeography and ecosystem function through their influence on the fitness and function of their hosts, but the host attributes that drive community assembly in the phyllosphere are poorly understood. In this study we used high-throughput sequencing to quantify bacterial community structure on the leaves of 57 tree species in a neotropical forest in Panama. We tested for relationships between bacterial communities on tree leaves and the functional traits, taxonomy, and phylogeny of their plant hosts. Bacterial communities on tropical tree leaves were diverse; leaves from individual trees were host to more than 400 bacterial taxa. Bacterial communities in the phyllosphere were dominated by a core microbiome of taxa including Actinobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. Host attributes including plant taxonomic identity, phylogeny, growth and mortality rates, wood density, leaf mass per area, and leaf nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations were correlated with bacterial community structure on leaves. The relative abundances of several bacterial taxa were correlated with suites of host plant traits related to major axes of plant trait variation, including the leaf economics spectrum and the wood density-growth/mortality tradeoff. These correlations between phyllosphere bacterial diversity and host growth, mortality, and function suggest that incorporating information on plant-microbe associations will improve our ability to understand plant functional biogeography and the drivers of variation in plant and ecosystem function. PMID:25225376

  2. Assessment of Trait and State Aspects of Depression in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chiappelli, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Depression and negative symptoms can be difficult to distinguish in schizophrenia. Assessments for negative symptoms usually account for the longitudinal nature of these symptoms, whereas instruments available to measure depression mainly assess current or recent symptoms. This construct difference may confound comparison of depressive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia because both domains may have trait-like aspects. We developed an instrument to measure both longitudinal “trait” as well as recent “state” symptoms of depression and tested this instrument (Maryland Trait and State Depression [MTSD] scale) in a sample of 98 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 115 community participants without psychotic illness. Exploratory factor analysis of the MTSD revealed 2 factors accounting for 73.4% of the variance; these 2 factors corresponded with “trait” and “state” depression inventory items. Neither MTSD-state nor MTSD-trait was correlated with negative symptoms as measured with the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (r = .07 and ?.06, respectively) in schizophrenia patients. MTSD state and trait scores were significantly correlated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale depression subscale (r = .58 and .53, respectively) as well as the Profile of Mood States depression subscale (r = .57 and .44). Persons with schizophrenia had significantly greater trait depressive symptoms than controls (P = .031). Individuals with schizoaffective disorder had significantly higher trait depression (P = .001), but not state depression (P = .146), compared with schizophrenia patients. Trait depressive symptoms are prominent in schizophrenia and are distinct from negative symptoms. PMID:23686021

  3. Efficient set tests for the genetic analysis of correlated traits.

    PubMed

    Casale, Francesco Paolo; Rakitsch, Barbara; Lippert, Christoph; Stegle, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    Set tests are a powerful approach for genome-wide association testing between groups of genetic variants and quantitative traits. We describe mtSet (http://github.com/PMBio/limix), a mixed-model approach that enables joint analysis across multiple correlated traits while accounting for population structure and relatedness. mtSet effectively combines the benefits of set tests with multi-trait modeling and is computationally efficient, enabling genetic analysis of large cohorts (up to 500,000 individuals) and multiple traits. PMID:26076425

  4. Explaining group-level traits requires distinguishing process from product.

    PubMed

    Panchanathan, Karthik; Mathew, Sarah; Perreault, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Smaldino is right to argue that we need a richer theory of group-level traits. He is wrong, however, in limiting group-level traits to units of cultural selection, which require explanations based on group selection. Traits are best understood when explanations focus on both process (i.e., selection) and product (i.e., adaptation). This approach can distinguish group-level traits that arise through within-group processes from those that arise through between-group processes. PMID:24970416

  5. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTL) ANALYSIS OF CANNING QUALITY TRAITS IN KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canning quality of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), of which the degree of splitting (SPLT) and overall appearance (APP) if canned beans are major components, is a complex trait that exhibits quantitative. The objectives of this study were to identify major genes that affect APP and SPLT in kidney...

  6. LINKING ROOT TRAITS TO SHOOT TRAITS AND LIFE HISTORY IN 25 TEMPERATE FOREST SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in plant carbon budgets and carbon cycling, there is little information available on fine root characteristics of woody species. Comparative approaches were used to examine the roots of 25 diverse species collected from mature forests. Nine root traits were examined that...

  7. Mapping quantitative trait loci for five forage quality traits in a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid.

    PubMed

    Li, J Q; Wang, L H; Zhan, Q W; Liu, Y L; Zhang, Q; Li, J F; Fan, F F

    2015-01-01

    The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting forage quality traits enables an understanding of the genetic mechanism of these loci. The aim of the present study was to detect QTLs for the whole-plant protein content (WP), whole-plant fat content (WF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and whole-plant ash content (WA) using a population of 184 F2 individuals from a cross between sorghum Tx623A and sudangrass Sa. Correlation analysis was performed between the five forage quality traits. WP was found to be positively correlated with WF, NDF, and ADF. Furthermore, NDF was positively correlated with ADF but negatively correlated with WA. A genetic map with 124 SSR markers was constructed for QTL mapping. A total of 12 QTLs associated with the five forage quality traits were detected. Of these QTLs, qNDF3, qNDF8, and qADF8 explained more than 10% of the phenotypic variation. Additionally, although all of the QTLs exhibited additive and dominant effects, they mainly exhibited dominant effects. Our results provide important information for marker-assisted selection breeding of sorghum-sudangrass hybrids. PMID:26535640

  8. Evaluation of two Indian native chicken breeds for reproduction traits and heritability of juvenile growth traits.

    PubMed

    Haunshi, Santosh; Shanmugam, Murugesan; Padhi, Mahendra Kumar; Niranjan, Matam; Rajkumar, Ullengala; Reddy, Maddula Ramakoti; Panda, Arun Kumar

    2012-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate two Indian native chicken breeds, namely, Aseel and Kadaknath for fertility, hatchability, genetic parameters of juvenile growth traits, and semen quality traits at the onset of sexual maturity. The fertility was similar in Aseel (86.96%) and Kadaknath (85.15%); however, a relatively higher hatchability was observed in Kadaknath (77.94%) than Aseel (70.74%). Heritability estimates of body weights at 4 weeks of age were almost similar in Aseel (0.37) and Kadaknath (0.39), while the estimate of body weight at 6 weeks of age was higher in Aseel (0.42) than Kadaknath (0.31). The heritability estimate of shank length at 6 weeks of age was lower in Aseel (0.16) compared to Kadaknath (0.35). The age at first egg in the flock was comparable in Aseel (148 days) and Kadaknath (150 days). Aseel breed with significantly (P ? 0.001) higher body weight, absolute and relative testes weights had significantly higher semen volume (P ? 0.05) and sperm motility (P ? 0.01) but had lower seminal plasma cholesterol level (P ? 0.05) as compared to Kadaknath. It can be concluded that there is a scope for genetic improvement of these two native breeds for juvenile growth traits since heritability estimates of these traits were relatively high. PMID:22068634

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING PARASITE INDICATOR TRAITS IN A DOUBLE BACKCROSS POPULATION OF SHEEP.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural genetic variability of the ruminant immune system provides a feasible means to control gastro-intestinal (GI) parasite infection. To initiate explanation of important allelic differences, a genome-wide analysis for quantitative trait loci (QTL) was initiated in a double backcross populat...

  10. Beta-expansion and continued fraction expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Wu, Jun

    2008-03-01

    For any real number [beta]>1, let [epsilon](1,[beta])=([epsilon]1(1),[epsilon]2(1),...,[epsilon]n(1),...) be the infinite [beta]-expansion of 1. Define . Let x[set membership, variant][0,1) be an irrational number. We denote by kn(x) the exact number of partial quotients in the continued fraction expansion of x given by the first n digits in the [beta]-expansion of x. If is bounded, we obtain that for all , where [beta]*(x), [beta]*(x) are the upper and lower Lévy constants, which generalize the result in [J. Wu, Continued fraction and decimal expansions of an irrational number, Adv. Math. 206 (2) (2006) 684-694]. Moreover, if , we also get the similar result except a small set.

  11. Neutrino Factories and Beta Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-06-21

    In this paper we briefly review the concepts of Neutrino Factories and Beta Beam facilities, and indicate the main challenges in terms of beam performance and technological developments. We also describe the worldwide organizations that have embarked on defining and carrying out the necessary R&D on component design, beam simulations of facility performance, and benchmarking of key subsystems via actual beam tests. Currently approved subsystem tests include the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and the Mercury Intense Target (MERIT) experiment, to be carried out at CERN. These experiments are briefly described, and their schedules are indicated.

  12. Genetic analysis of calving traits by the multi-trait individual animal model.

    PubMed

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2016-01-01

    Five alternative models were applied for analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Models 1 and 2 were included only to estimate the parameters required for model 4, and models 3 and 5 are included only as comparisons to the model 4 estimates. Variance components were estimated by multi-trait REML, including cows with valid calving records for both parities. For the effects of sire of calf on first and second parities, variance components were estimated including only calvings with the same sire of calf for both parities. All heritabilities for the cow effect were quite low, but higher for dystocia than for stillbirth and higher in first parity. The sire-of-calf heritabilities were higher than the cow effect heritabilities, except for stillbirth in parity 2. Unlike the effect of cow correlations, all sire of calf correlations were >0.6, and the correlations for the same trait in parities 1 and 2 were >0.9. Thus, a multi-trait analysis should yield a significant gain in accuracy with respect to the sire of calf effects for bulls not mated to virgin heifers. A multi-trait individual animal model algorithm was developed for joint analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Relationships matrices were included both for the effects of cow and sire of calf. In addition, random herd-year-season and fixed sex of calf effects were included in the model. Records were preadjusted for calving month and age. A total of 899,223 Israeli Holstein cows with first calvings since 1985 were included in the complete analysis. Approximate reliabilities were computed for both sire of cow and sire of calf effects. Correlations between these reliabilities and reliabilities obtained by direct inversion of the coefficient matrix for a sire of cow-sire of calf model were all close to 0.99. Phenotypic trends for cows born from 1983 through 2007 were economically unfavorable for dystocia and favorable for stillbirth in both parities. Genetic trends were economically unfavorable for both dystocia and stillbirth in first parity. First-parity sire of calf trends were unfavorable for dystocia, but favorable for stillbirth. All environmental trends were nearly zero. Regressions of evaluations of the complete analysis on a model including only calvings before 2011 were all >0.8. All evaluations met the Interbull Method 3 criterion for unbiasedness. Model 4, which computed genetic evaluations for all animals for all 4 traits accounting for all known relationships and correlations among the traits, is recommended for routine genetic evaluation of calving traits. PMID:26547643

  13. High Resolution QTL Maps Of 31 Traits in Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...

  14. Expression of beta 1, beta 3, beta 4, and beta 5 integrins by human epidermal keratinocytes and non-differentiating keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    We have compared the adhesive properties and integrin expression profiles of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and a strain of nondifferentiating keratinocytes (ndk). Both cell types adhered to fibronectin, laminin, and collagen types I and IV, but ndk adhered more rapidly and at lower coating concentrations of the proteins. Antibody blocking experiments showed that adhesion of both cell types to fibronectin was mediated by the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and to laminin by alpha 3 beta 1 in synergy with alpha 2 beta 1. Keratinocytes adhered to collagen with alpha 2 beta 1, but an antibody to alpha 2 did not inhibit adhesion of ndk to collagen. Both cell types adhered to vitronectin by alpha v-containing integrins. Immunoprecipitation of surface-iodinated and metabolically labeled cells showed that in addition to alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1, and alpha 5 beta 1, both keratinocytes and ndk expressed alpha 6 beta 4 and alpha v beta 5. ndk expressed all these integrins at higher levels than normal keratinocytes. ndk, but not normal keratinocytes, expressed alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 3; they also expressed alpha 1 beta 1, an integrin that was not consistently detected on normal keratinocytes. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that in stratified cultures of normal keratinocytes integrin expression was confined to cells in the basal layer; terminally differentiating cells were unstained. In contrast, all cells in the ndk population were integrin positive. Our observations showed that the adhesive properties of ndk differ from normal keratinocytes and reflect differences in the type of integrins expressed, the level of expression and the distribution of integrins on the cell surface. ndk thus have a number of characteristics that distinguish them from normal basal keratinocytes. PMID:1918165

  15. Method for preparing Pb-. beta. ''-alumina ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Hellstrom, E.E.

    1984-08-30

    A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic from Na-..beta..''-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

  16. Beta cell device using icosahedral boride compounds

    DOEpatents

    Aselage, Terrence L. (62 Avenida Del Sol, Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Emin, David (1502 Harvard Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106-3712)

    2002-01-01

    A beta cell for converting beta-particle energies into electrical energy having a semiconductor junction that incorporates an icosahedral boride compound selected from B.sub.12 As.sub.2, B.sub.12 P.sub.2, elemental boron having an .alpha.-rhombohedral structure, elemental boron having a .beta.-rhombohedral structure, and boron carbides of the chemical formula B.sub.12-x C.sub.3-x, where 0.15beta radiation source, and means for transmitting electrical energy to an outside load. The icosahedral boride compound self-heals, resisting degradation from radiation damage.

  17. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-09-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates ?-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  18. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-01-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates ?-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  19. Higgs pair production in [beta][beta][tau][tau] final states at the HL-LHC

    E-print Network

    Lawhorn, Jay Mathew

    2015-01-01

    A measurement of standard model Higgs pair production in [beta][beta][tau][tau] final states at the High Luminosity LHC is investigated. Higgs pair production can be used to measure the Higgs trilinear coupling constant, ...

  20. Beta-glucosidase, exo-beta-glucanase and pyridoxine transglucosylase activities of rice BGlu1.

    PubMed Central

    Opassiri, Rodjana; Hua, Yanling; Wara-Aswapati, Onnop; Akiyama, Takashi; Svasti, Jisnuson; Esen, Asim; Ketudat Cairns, James R

    2004-01-01

    The bglu1 cDNA for a beta-glucosidase cloned from rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings was expressed as a soluble and active protein in Escherichia coli and designated BGlu1. This enzyme hydrolysed beta-1,4-linked oligosaccharides with increasing catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) values as the DP (degree of polymerization) increased from 2 to 6. In contrast, hydrolysis of beta-1,3-linked oligosaccharides decreased from DP 2 to 3, and polymers with a DP greater than 3 were not hydrolysed. The enzyme also hydrolysed p -nitrophenyl beta-D-glycosides and some natural glucosides but with lower catalytic efficiency than beta-linked oligosaccharides. Pyridoxine 5'-O-beta-D-glucoside was the most efficiently hydrolysed natural glycoside tested. BGlu1 also had high transglucosylation activity towards pyridoxine, producing pyridoxine 5'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in the presence of the glucose donor p-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucoside. PMID:14692878

  1. Modeling the genealogy of a cultural trait.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Elliot; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    The mathematical study of genealogies has yielded important insights in population biology, such as the ability to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of a sample of genetic sequences or of a group of individuals. Here we introduce a model of cultural genealogies that is a step toward answering similar questions for cultural traits. In our model individuals can inherit from a variable, potentially large number of ancestors, rather than from a fixed, small number of ancestors (one or two) as is typical of genetic evolution. We first show that, given a sample of individuals, a cultural common ancestor does not necessarily exist. We then introduce a related concept: the most recent unique ancestor (MRUA), i.e., the most recent single individual who is the earliest cultural ancestor of the sample. We show that, under neutral evolution, the time to the MRUA can be staggeringly larger than the time to MRCA in a single ancestor model, except when the average number of learning opportunities per individuals is small. Our results point out that the properties of cultural genealogies may be very different from those of genetic genealogies, with potential implications for reconstructing the histories of cultural traits. PMID:25575942

  2. Proteopedia: Rossmann Fold: A Beta-Alpha-Beta Fold at Dinucleotide Binding Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanukoglu, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The Rossmann fold is one of the most common and widely distributed super-secondary structures. It is composed of a series of alternating beta strand (ß) and alpha helical (a) segments wherein the ß-strands are hydrogen bonded forming a ß-sheet. The initial beta-alpha-beta (ßaß) fold is the most conserved segment of Rossmann folds. As this segment…

  3. Pin1 promotes production of Alzheimer's amyloid {beta} from {beta}-cleaved amyloid precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Hirotada; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Uchida, Chiyoko; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Uchida, Takafumi . E-mail: uchidat@cir.tohoku.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Here we show that prolyl isomerase Pin1 is involved in the A{beta} production central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Enzyme immunoassay of brains of the Pin1-deficient mice revealed that production of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 was lower than that of the wild-type mice, indicating that Pin1 promotes A{beta} production in the brain. GST-Pin1 pull-down and immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Pin1 binds phosphorylated Thr668-Pro of C99. In the Pin1 {sup -/-} MEF transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the levels of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 compared to that without Pin1 co-transfection. In COS7 cells transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the generation of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42, and reduced the expression level of C99, facilitating the C99 turnover. Thus, Pin1 interacts with C99 and promotes its {gamma}-cleavage, generating A{beta}40 and A{beta}42. Further, GSK3 inhibitor lithium blocked Pin1 binding to C99 by decreasing Thr668 phosphorylation and attenuated A{beta} generation, explaining the inhibitory effect of lithium on A{beta} generation.

  4. Integrating Taxonomic, Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversities: Interactive Effects with the Biome and Land Use across Taxa

    PubMed Central

    Corbelli, Julian Martin; Zurita, Gustavo Andres; Filloy, Julieta; Galvis, Juan Pablo; Vespa, Natalia Isabel; Bellocq, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of species, functional traits and phylogenetic relationships at both the regional and local scales provide complementary approaches to study patterns of biodiversity and help to untangle the mechanisms driving community assembly. Few studies have simultaneously considered the taxonomic (TBD), functional (FBD) and phylogenetic (PBD) facets of beta diversity. Here we analyze the associations between TBD, FBD, and PBD with the biome (representing different regional species pools) and land use, and investigate whether TBD, FBD and PBD were correlated. In the study design we considered two widely used indicator taxa (birds and ants) from two contrasting biomes (subtropical forest and grassland) and land uses (tree plantations and cropfields) in the southern Neotropics. Non-metric multidimensional scaling showed that taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic distances were associated to biome and land use; study sites grouped into four groups on the bi-dimensional space (cropfields in forest and grassland, and tree plantations in forest and grassland), and that was consistent across beta diversity facets and taxa. Mantel and PERMANOVA tests showed that TBD, FBD and PBD were positively correlated for both bird and ant assemblages; in general, partial correlations were also significant. Some of the functional traits considered here were conserved along phylogeny. Our results will contribute to the development of sound land use planning and beta diversity conservation. PMID:25978319

  5. Effects of Previous Calf Management on Feedlot and Carcass Traits 

    E-print Network

    Bingham, Bobby Cleave

    2012-02-14

    on several traits, but from this project emphasis was placed on preweaning (PreVac) and postweaning (PosVac) vaccinations and the potential influence on growth and carcass traits. Independent variables used in the analyses were location of the feedyard (LOC...

  6. Identification of novel QTL for leaf traits in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several leaf traits of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), including leaf area (LA), leaf shape (LS) and specific leaf weight (SLW) may be related to soybean yield. The objective of this study was to identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) for LA, LS and SLW in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) popul...

  7. Reduced Eye Gaze Explains "Fear Blindness" in Childhood Psychopathic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadds, Mark R.; El Masry, Yasmeen; Wimalaweera, Subodha; Guastella, Adam J.

    2008-01-01

    A study to test whether psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eye region of other people's faces is conducted. It is seen that attention to other people's eyes is reduced in young people with high psychopathic traits, which accounts for their problems with fear recognition.

  8. Effects of Marathon Group Therapy on Trait and State Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.; Auerbach, Stephen M.

    1974-01-01

    Results were interpreted as supporting Spielberger's notion that trait anxiety reflects a dispositional tendency to respond with anxiety in ego-threat situations and as suggesting that personality trait measures may be more relevant outcome indicators than measures of transitory mood states in marathon therapy research. (Author)

  9. The Relations of Motivational Traits with Workplace Deviance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefendorff, James M.; Mehta, Kajal

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed and tested new theoretical relations between approach and avoidance motivational traits and deviant work behaviors. Approach motivation was divided into 3 traits: personal mastery (i.e., desire to achieve), competitive excellence (i.e., desire to perform better than others), and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity…

  10. An Examination of Personality Traits of Motorsports Management Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Joyce A.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Harder, Joseph T.; Peters, Randell

    2013-01-01

    For the motorsports industry, there is a strong desire to recruit individuals that have realistic expectations of the profession as well as exhibit the personality traits needed to be successful in the industry over time. The study sought to examine and compare personality traits of motorsports management students to those of practitioners…

  11. Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…

  12. Charismatic Behaviors and Traits of Future Educational Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafin, Ana Gil

    This paper examines the charismatic behaviors and traits entering graduate students bring to their training as future educational leaders and explores the differences in gender, age, marital status, position held, and sibling ranks of entering graduate students regarding charismatic behaviors and traits. The exploratory descriptive study examined…

  13. TRAITS OF THE NEXT WAVE OF GENEVA APPLE ROOTSTOCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of rootstocks that give us confidence, and are worthy inclusion in the decision making process prior to planting a new orchard is not an easy process. We must evaluate many traits in several locations for several years. Some of these traits are measured directly on the plants under...

  14. Psychopathic Traits of Dutch Adolescents in Residential Care: Identifying Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; Vermulst, Ad; Scholte, Ron H. J.; van Dam, Coleta; Veerman, Jan Willem; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether a sample of 214 (52.8% male, M age = 15.76, SD = 1.29) institutionalized adolescents could be classified into subgroups based on psychopathic traits. Confirmatory Factor Analyses revealed a relationship between the subscales of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI) and the three latent constructs of the…

  15. Callous-unemotional traits in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Leno, Virginia Carter; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Jones, Catherine R G; Baird, Gillian; Happé, Francesca; Simonoff, Emily

    2015-11-01

    BackgroundPeople with callous-unemotional traits and also those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display sociocognitive difficulties. However, the frequency and neurocognitive correlates of callous-unemotional traits within individuals with ASD are unknown.AimsTo determine the prevalence of callous-unemotional traits in individuals with ASD and test their association with behavioural and cognitive measures.MethodParents of 92 adolescents with ASD completed the Antisocial Processes Screening Device (APSD) for callous-unemotional traits. Adolescents participated in tasks of emotion recognition, theory of mind and cognitive flexibility.ResultsIn total 51% (n = 47) scored above a cut-off expected to identify the top 6% on the APSD. Of these 17% (n = 8) had concurrent conduct problems. Regression analyses found callous-unemotional traits were associated with specific impairment in fear recognition but not with theory of mind or cognitive flexibility.ConclusionsAdolescents with ASD show high rates of callous-unemotional traits but, unlike in the general population, these are not strongly associated with conduct problems. The relationship of callous-unemotional traits to impairments in fear recognition suggests similar affective difficulties as in individuals with callous-unemotional traits without ASD. PMID:26382954

  16. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  17. Callous–unemotional traits in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Leno, Virginia Carter; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Baird, Gillian; Happé, Francesca; Simonoff, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Background People with callous–unemotional traits and also those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display sociocognitive difficulties. However, the frequency and neurocognitive correlates of callous–unemotional traits within individuals with ASD are unknown. Aims To determine the prevalence of callous–unemotional traits in individuals with ASD and test their association with behavioural and cognitive measures. Method Parents of 92 adolescents with ASD completed the Antisocial Processes Screening Device (APSD) for callous–unemotional traits. Adolescents participated in tasks of emotion recognition, theory of mind and cognitive flexibility. Results In total 51% (n = 47) scored above a cut-off expected to identify the top 6% on the APSD. Of these 17% (n = 8) had concurrent conduct problems. Regression analyses found callous–unemotional traits were associated with specific impairment in fear recognition but not with theory of mind or cognitive flexibility. Conclusions Adolescents with ASD show high rates of callous–unemotional traits but, unlike in the general population, these are not strongly associated with conduct problems. The relationship of callous–unemotional traits to impairments in fear recognition suggests similar affective difficulties as in individuals with callous–unemotional traits without ASD. PMID:26382954

  18. Global Leaf Trait Relationships: Mass, Area, and the Leaf

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    , we use "N" and "P" to refer to concentrations per unit leaf area or mass, and we use the wordsGlobal Leaf Trait Relationships: Mass, Area, and the Leaf Economics Spectrum Jeanne L. D. Osnas,1 if data are normalized by leaf mass. We show that these traits are approximately distributed proportional

  19. Stability issues: maintenance of beneficial traits in entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of beneficial traits such as virulence, reproductive potential, and environmental tolerance are key factors in determining an organism’s ability to produce high levels of efficacy in biological control. Deterioration or loss of beneficial traits during laboratory or industrial culture prod...

  20. Heritability of reproductive fitness traits in a human population

    E-print Network

    Abney, Mark

    Heritability of reproductive fitness traits in a human population Gülüm Kosovaa,b , Mark Abneyb , and Carole Obera,b,c,1 a Committee on Genetics, Genomics, and Systems Biology, and Departments of b Human. In this study, we inves- tigated the genetic architecture of reproductive fitness traits in a fertile human

  1. Predictable patterns of trait mismatches between interacting plants and insects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are few predictions about the directionality or extent of morphological trait (mis)matches between interacting organisms. We review and analyse studies on morphological trait complementarity (e.g. floral tube length versus insect mouthpart length) at the population and species level. Results Plants have consistently more exaggerated morphological traits than insects at high trait magnitudes and in some cases less exaggerated traits than insects at smaller trait magnitudes. This result held at the population level, as well as for phylogenetically adjusted analyses at the species-level and for both pollination and host-parasite interactions, perhaps suggesting a general pattern. Across communities, the degree of trait mismatch between one specialist plant and its more generalized pollinator was related to the level of pollinator specialization at each site; the observed pattern supports the "life-dinner principle" of selection acting more strongly on species with more at stake in the interaction. Similarly, plant mating system also affected the degree of trait correspondence because selfing reduces the reliance on pollinators and is analogous to pollination generalization. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that there are predictable "winners" and "losers" of evolutionary arms races and the results of this study highlight the fact that breeding system and the degree of specialization can influence the outcome. PMID:20604973

  2. Path analysis of agro-industrial traits in sweet sorghum.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, G M R; Nunes, J A R; Parrella, R A C; Teixeira, D H L; Bruzi, A T; Durães, N N L; Fagundes, T G

    2015-01-01

    Sweet sorghum has considerable potential for ethanol production due to its succulent stalks that contain directly fermentable sugars. Since many traits need to be considered in the selection process to breed superior cultivars for ethanol production, then correlations between the traits might be of use to help the breeder define optimal improvement strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the principal agro-industrial traits in sweet sorghum, and to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of primary and secondary traits on ethanol production per hectare. In total, 45 sweet sorghum genotypes (lineage/hybrids) were evaluated in an experiment designed in an alpha lattice 5 x 9. The data were analyzed using a mixed model approach. A detailed study of simple correlations was accomplished using path analysis. The experimental precision was high, with an accuracy above 76%. The various genotypes showed genetic variation for all agronomic and industrial traits, except stalk diameter. Some agro-industrial traits showed significant simple correlations with ethanol production, but according to the path analysis, some of these traits did not show a significant direct or indirect effect on ethanol production. The results highlighted the primary and secondary traits with practical relevance to sweet sorghum breeding, since they showed director indirect effects on ethanol production. PMID:26662435

  3. Association analysis of candidate SNPs on reproductive traits in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Being able to identify young females with superior reproduction traits would have a large financial impact on commercial swine producers. Previous studies have discovered SNPs associated with economically important traits such as litter size, growth rate, fat deposition, and feed intake. The objecti...

  4. Statistics Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Learning Behavior, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…

  5. Use of Genomics in Economically Important Traits in Ovine Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this review is to summarize relevant results from the use of genomics in sheep. Genomics has been used to identify genes associated with production, reproduction, carcass traits, and disease-related traits in sheep. A brief discussion on the concept of genomics is included. Genome-w...

  6. Assembling Tests for the Measurement of Multiple Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    1996-01-01

    For measurement of multiple traits, this paper proposes assembling tests based on the targets for the variance functions of the estimators of each of the traits. A linear programming model is presented to computerize the assembly process. An example of test assembly from a two-dimensional item pool is provided. (SLD)

  7. Automatic Prediction of Facial Trait Judgments: Appearance vs. Structural Models

    E-print Network

    Todorov, Alex

    Automatic Prediction of Facial Trait Judgments: Appearance vs. Structural Models Mario Rojas Q.1 characteristics plays a crucial role in human relations and it is the focus of attention for research in diverse Prediction of Facial Trait Judgments: Appearance vs. Structural Models. PLoS ONE 6(8): e23323. doi:10

  8. Development of a Scale Measuring Trait Anxiety in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Rodafinos, Angelos; Koidou, Eirini; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of a multi-dimensional measure of trait anxiety specifically designed for the physical education lesson. The Physical Education Trait Anxiety Scale was initially completed by 774 high school students during regular school classes. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the…

  9. Recognizing Faces Based on Inferred Traits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran, Rajani; Mitchell, Peter; Ropar, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) could, surprisingly, infer traits from behavioural descriptions. Now we need to know whether or not individuals with ASD are able to use trait information to identify people by their faces. In this study participants with and without ASD were presented with pairs of…

  10. Psychopathic Traits, Victim Distress and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Baardewijk, Yoast; Stegge, Hedy; Bushman, Brad J.; Vermeiren, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression. As children high in psychopathic traits show a…

  11. Bayesian model determination for quantitative trait Jaya M. Satagopan

    E-print Network

    Yandell, Brian S.

    -maker genetic distances. Given such molecular marker information, the probability distribution of the unobserved Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is illustrated to infer the number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) a ecting a phenotypic trait, their chromosomallocations, and their e ects. A multi

  12. Callous-Unemotional Traits in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Sasagawa, Satoko; Frick, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the structure, distribution, and correlates of a new measure of self-reported callous-unemotional (CU) traits in 1,443 adolescents (774 boys, 669 girls) between the ages of 13 to 18 years. The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits was subjected to exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory…

  13. How Do Trait Dimensions Map onto ADHD Symptom Domains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; Nigg, Joel T.; von Eye, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Theories of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) implicate dysfunctional regulation mechanisms that have been conceptually grouped into "top-down" control and "bottom-up" affective/reactive processes. This dual-process account can be invoked in relation to temperament or personality traits and may clarify how traits relate to ADHD. Two…

  14. Quantitative Trait Loci in Brassica rapa Brian S. Yandell

    E-print Network

    Yandell, Brian S.

    Quantitative Trait Loci in Brassica rapa Brian S. Yandell Departments of Horticulture for a quantitative trait are examined for days to budding as measured on F2 plants from a Brassica rapa cross. The present study concerns the cross of two va- rieties of Brassica rapa, a Michihili Chinese cabbage (M

  15. The effect of beta and kappa casein genes on milk yield and milk composition in different percentages of Holstein in crossbred dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Molee, Amonrat; Boonek, Lerchat; Rungsakinnin, Noppanan

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the genotype, and composite genotype frequency, and the association between beta and kappa casein genes and milk yield (MY), percentage of fat (%Fat), protein (%Prot), and solids non-fat (%SNF) between two groups of crossbred Holstein: G1 ? 87.5% Holstein = 89 cows and G2 > 87.5% Holstein = 142 cows. Five genotypes of beta casein gene were observed. A1A2 and A1B were the most and rarest frequency, respectively, in both groups. Five genotypes of kappa casein gene were found. The highest and the lowest frequency were AA, and BB and BE, respectively, in both groups. Composite genotype A1A2AA was the most frequent in both groups. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between two genes was detected. Significant differences of frequencies between both groups of both genes were not found. The association of the genes and the traits was different between G1 and G2. Negative effects on the traits were found in both groups. In addition, the stronger effect of the beta casein gene was observed in most of the traits. The conclusions were that different %Holstein caused different significant effects of these genes. A study of the association of these genes within each percentage of Holstein is strongly recommended. PMID:21794007

  16. Patterns of Genetic and Reproductive Traits Differentiation in Mainland vs. Corsican Populations of

    E-print Network

    Rasmont, Pierre

    Patterns of Genetic and Reproductive Traits Differentiation in Mainland vs. Corsican Populations differentiation in quantitative reproductive traits involved in chemical communication has received very little. (2013) Patterns of Genetic and Reproductive Traits Differentiation in Mainland vs. Corsican Populations

  17. DSM-5 Personality Traits and DSM-IV Personality Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Two issues pertinent to the DSM-5 proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the six proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders. PMID:22250660

  18. An Interpersonal Analysis of Pathological Personality Traits in DSM-5

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the DSM-5 places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic variation on the expression of personality disorder. In this study, we subject the proposed DSM-5 traits to interpersonal analysis using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems – Circumplex scales via the structural summary method for circumplex data. DSM-5 traits were consistently associated with generalized interpersonal dysfunction suggesting that they are maladaptive in nature, the majority of traits demonstrated discriminant validity with prototypical and differentiated interpersonal problem profiles, and conformed well to a priori hypothesized associations. These results are discussed in the context of the DSM-5 proposal and contemporary interpersonal theory, with a particular focus on potential areas for expansion of the DSM-5 trait model. PMID:22589411

  19. Natural variation of root traits: from development to nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Ristova, Daniela; Busch, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    The root system has a crucial role for plant growth and productivity. Due to the challenges of heterogeneous soil environments, diverse environmental signals are integrated into root developmental decisions. While root growth and growth responses are genetically determined, there is substantial natural variation for these traits. Studying the genetic basis of the natural variation of root growth traits can not only shed light on their evolution and ecological relevance but also can be used to map the genes and their alleles responsible for the regulation of these traits. Analysis of root phenotypes has revealed growth strategies and root growth responses to a variety of environmental stimuli, as well as the extent of natural variation of a variety of root traits including ion content, cellular properties, and root system architectures. Linkage and association mapping approaches have uncovered causal genes underlying the variation of these traits. PMID:25104725

  20. A database of life-history traits of European amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Moulherat, Sylvain; Calvez, Olivier; Stevens, Virginie M; Clobert, Jean; Schmeller, Dirk S

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the current context of climate change and landscape fragmentation, efficient conservation strategies require the explicit consideration of life history traits. This is particularly true for amphibians, which are highly threatened worldwide, composed by more than 7400 species, which is constitute one of the most species-rich vertebrate groups. The collection of information on life history traits is difficult due to the ecology of species and remoteness of their habitats. It is therefore not surprising that our knowledge is limited, and missing information on certain life history traits are common for in this species group. We compiled data on amphibian life history traits from literature in an extensive database with morphological and behavioral traits, habitat preferences and movement abilities for 86 European amphibian species (50 Anuran and 36 Urodela species). When it were available, we reported data for males, females, juveniles and tadpoles. Our database may serve as an important starting point for further analyses regarding amphibian conservation. PMID:25425939

  1. Statistical classification methods for estimating ancestry using morphoscopic traits.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Joseph T; Ousley, Stephen D

    2014-07-01

    Ancestry assessments using cranial morphoscopic traits currently rely on subjective trait lists and observer experience rather than empirical support. The trait list approach, which is untested, unverified, and in many respects unrefined, is relied upon because of tradition and subjective experience. Our objective was to examine the utility of frequently cited morphoscopic traits and to explore eleven appropriate and novel methods for classifying an unknown cranium into one of several reference groups. Based on these results, artificial neural networks (aNNs), OSSA, support vector machines, and random forest models showed mean classification accuracies of at least 85%. The aNNs had the highest overall classification rate (87.8%), and random forests show the smallest difference between the highest (90.4%) and lowest (76.5%) classification accuracies. The results of this research demonstrate that morphoscopic traits can be successfully used to assess ancestry without relying only on the experience of the observer. PMID:24646108

  2. Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Thymotaxin Formal name: Beta 2 Microglobulin, Serum or Urine Related tests: Albumin , Creatinine , BUN , Heavy Metals Were you looking for Beta- ... following situations: In kidney disease , both blood and urine B2M tests may be ... creatinine , and microalbumin to evaluate kidney damage or disease ...

  3. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  4. Beta maritima: the Origin of Beets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Along the undisturbed shores, especially of the Mediterranean Sea and the European North Atlantic Ocean, is a widespread plant called Beta maritima (Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima) by the botanists, or more commonly sea beet. Nothing for the inexperienced observer's eye distinguishes it from surr...

  5. Beta decay properties using a statistical model

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.; Dunn, C.; Schenter, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Beta decay properties (t/sub 1/2/, E-bar/sub ..beta../, E-bar/sub ..gamma../, E-bar/sub n/, and P/sub n/) are calculated for fission product nuclei by a statistical model and are found to be in good agreement with experiment.

  6. Nuclear physics aspects of double beta decay

    E-print Network

    Petr Vogel

    2008-07-15

    Comprehensive description of the phenomenology of the $\\beta\\beta$ decay is given, with emphasis on the nuclear physics aspects. After a brief review of the neutrino oscillation results and of motivation to test the lepton number conservation, the mechanism of the $0\

  7. Nonlinear chromatic effects in the beta function

    SciTech Connect

    Parzen, G.

    1983-01-01

    A theory is presented for computing the nonlinear dependence of the ..beta..-functions on momentum. Results are found for the quadratic term. The results of the theory are compared with computed results. A procedure is proposed for computing the strengths of the sextupole correctors to correct the dependence of the ..beta..-function on momentum.

  8. PBX: the Princeton beta experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, K.; Chance, M.; Dewar, R.

    1983-09-01

    A rearrangement of the divertor coils in PDX will enable a test in 1984 of the MHD stability properties of deeply indented bean-shaped plasmas. The goal is a beta of 10%. Indentation is expected to counter the deterioration of MHD stability against pressure driven modes that is occasioned by the larger aspect ratios typical of anticipated reactor oriented devices. Indeed, as shown by M. Chance et al., indentation may offer direct access to the second region of stability for ballooning modes, and numerical analyses with PEST show the internal kink to be stabilized completely with even relatively modest indentation. The internal kink is implicated in the loss of beam ions in PDX. In this report the theoretical basis for the forthcoming experiment, and the design considerations underlying the modification from PDX to PBX, are described in detail. Additional theoretical material, including an analysis of particle orbits in an indented tokamak plasma, is appended.

  9. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

  10. Variability of Root Traits in Spring Wheat Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sruthi; Mohan, Amita; Gill, Kulvinder S.; Prasad, P. V. Vara

    2014-01-01

    Root traits influence the amount of water and nutrient absorption, and are important for maintaining crop yield under drought conditions. The objectives of this research were to characterize variability of root traits among spring wheat genotypes and determine whether root traits are related to shoot traits (plant height, tiller number per plant, shoot dry weight, and coleoptile length), regions of origin, and market classes. Plants were grown in 150-cm columns for 61 days in a greenhouse under optimal growth conditions. Rooting depth, root dry weight, root: shoot ratio, and shoot traits were determined for 297 genotypes of the germplasm, Cultivated Wheat Collection (CWC). The remaining root traits such as total root length and surface area were measured for a subset of 30 genotypes selected based on rooting depth. Significant genetic variability was observed for root traits among spring wheat genotypes in CWC germplasm or its subset. Genotypes Sonora and Currawa were ranked high, and genotype Vandal was ranked low for most root traits. A positive relationship (R2?0.35) was found between root and shoot dry weights within the CWC germplasm and between total root surface area and tiller number; total root surface area and shoot dry weight; and total root length and coleoptile length within the subset. No correlations were found between plant height and most root traits within the CWC germplasm or its subset. Region of origin had significant impact on rooting depth in the CWC germplasm. Wheat genotypes collected from Australia, Mediterranean, and west Asia had greater rooting depth than those from south Asia, Latin America, Mexico, and Canada. Soft wheat had greater rooting depth than hard wheat in the CWC germplasm. The genetic variability identified in this research for root traits can be exploited to improve drought tolerance and/or resource capture in wheat. PMID:24945438

  11. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Schäfer, Ralf B.

    2015-01-01

    Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated traits from six grouping features to 35 bioclimatic indices (~18 km resolution) for five insect orders (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera), evaluated their potential for changing distribution pattern under future climate change and identified the most influential bioclimatic indices. The data comprised 782 species and 395 genera sampled in 4,752 stream sites during 2006 and 2007 in Germany (~357,000 km² spatial extent). We quantified the variability and spatial autocorrelation in the traits and orders that are associated with the combined and individual bioclimatic indices. Traits of temperature preference grouping feature that are the products of several other underlying climate-associated traits, and the insect order Ephemeroptera exhibited the strongest response to the bioclimatic indices as well as the highest potential for changing distribution pattern. Regarding individual traits, insects in general and ephemeropterans preferring very cold temperature showed the highest response, and the insects preferring cold and trichopterans preferring moderate temperature showed the highest potential for changing distribution. We showed that the seasonal radiation and moisture are the most influential bioclimatic aspects, and thus changes in these aspects may affect the most responsive traits and orders and drive a change in their spatial distribution pattern. Our findings support the development of trait-based metrics to predict and detect climate-related changes of freshwater assemblages. PMID:26080074

  12. Genotypic Variation for Drought Tolerance in Beta vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    OBER, E. S.; LUTERBACHER, M. C.

    2002-01-01

    Insufficient soil moisture during summer months is now the major cause of sugar beet yield losses in the UK. However, selection for increased drought tolerance has not been a breeding priority until recently. Genetic variation for drought tolerance is an essential prerequisite for the development of more stress?tolerant varieties, but commercial sugar beet varieties seem to have similar yield responses to drought. The objective of this study was to assess the degree of genotypic variation for drought tolerance within a wide range of sugar beet germplasm and genebank accessions within Beta. Thirty sugar beet genotypes were screened under field drought conditions, and putative drought tolerant and sensitive lines (in terms of yield reduction in polythene?covered vs. irrigated plots) were identified. Significant genotype × water treatment interactions were found for dry matter yield and relative leaf expansion rate. Genotypic differences for drought susceptibility index were also significant. Differential sensitivity of seedling shoot growth to water deficit was examined by comparing 350 genebank accessions in a simple growth chamber screen. Methods of data management were devised to highlight lines for entry into subsequent field tests. The results of the field and seedling screens indicate that there is variation for tolerance to water deficits within sugar beet and related types, and that there are lines that show greater drought tolerance than selected commercial varieties. Divergent lines showing contrasting behaviour should aid in the identification of key morpho?physiological traits that confer drought tolerance. PMID:12102517

  13. Interspecies genetics of eating disorder traits

    PubMed Central

    Kas, Martien J. H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative genetic approach to reveal novel biological substrates of eating disorder traits analogous in mouse and human. For example, comparable to behavioral hyperactivity that is observed in 40-80% of anorexia nervosa patients, inbred strains of mice with different genetic backgrounds are differentially susceptible to develop behavioral hyperactivity when food restricted. In addition, a list of characteristics that are relevant to eating disorders and approaches to their measurement in humans together with potential analogous rodent models has been generated. Interspecies genetics of neurobehavioral characteristics of eating disorders has the potential to open new roads to identify and functionally test genetic pathways that influence neurocircuits relevant for these heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. PMID:18646037

  14. Genetic Control of Meat Quality Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John L.

    Meat was originally produced from non-specialized animals that were used for a variety of purposes, in addition to being a source of food. However, selective breeding has resulted in “improved” breeds of cattle that are now used to produce either milk or beef, and specialized chicken lines that produce eggs or meat. These improved breeds are very productive under appropriate management systems. The selection methods used to create these specialized breeds were based on easily measured phenotypic variations, such as growth rate or physical size. Improvement in the desired trait was achieved by breeding directly from animals displaying the desired phenotype. However, more recently sophisticated genetic models have been developed using statistical approaches that consider phenotypic information collected, not only from individual animals but also from their parents, sibs, and progeny.

  15. Sleep, Circadian Rhythms, and Anxious Traits.

    PubMed

    Coles, Meredith E; Schubert, Jessica R; Nota, Jacob A

    2015-09-01

    Anxiety is adaptive and plays an important role in keeping us safe. However, when anxiety becomes too extreme, it can cause significant disruptions and distress. Understanding the mechanisms underlying excessive anxiety and how to best treat it is a priority for researchers and clinicians. There is increasing recognition that disruptions in the amount and timing of sleep are associated with anxiety symptoms and characteristics. In the current paper, we explore the intersections between sleep, circadian rhythms, and anxiety. First, we review accumulating evidence that anxiety is associated with disruptions in sleep and circadian rhythms in both clinical and nonclinical samples and across ages. Next, we discuss the data linking sleep disruptions with anxiety-related traits (anxiety sensitivity, neuroticism, and perfectionism) and patterns of cognition and emotion. Finally, potential treatment implications are highlighted. Overall, these data suggest that delineating the role of disruptions in the amount and timing of sleep holds promise for improving the lives of individuals with heightened anxiety. PMID:26216591

  16. Gamma-ray blind beta particle probe

    DOEpatents

    Weisenberger, Andrew G. (Grafton, VA)

    2001-01-01

    An intra-operative beta particle probe is provided by placing a suitable photomultiplier tube (PMT), micro channel plate (MCP) or other electron multiplier device within a vacuum housing equipped with: 1) an appropriate beta particle permeable window; and 2) electron detection circuitry. Beta particles emitted in the immediate vicinity of the probe window will be received by the electron multiplier device and amplified to produce a detectable signal. Such a device is useful as a gamma insensitive, intra-operative, beta particle probe in surgeries where the patient has been injected with a beta emitting radiopharmaceutical. The method of use of such a device is also described, as is a position sensitive such device.

  17. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, G.G.; Kato, T.R.; Schonegg, E.

    1985-04-11

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed. 5 tabs.

  18. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Gifford G. (Cincinnatti, OH); Kato, Takeo R. (Cincinnatti, OH); Schonegg, Edward (Cleves, OH)

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  19. Quantifying hummingbird preference for floral trait combinations: The role of selection on trait interactions in the evolution of pollination syndromes.

    PubMed

    Fenster, Charles B; Reynolds, Richard J; Williams, Christopher W; Makowsky, Robert; Dudash, Michele R

    2015-05-01

    Darwin recognized the flower's importance for the study of adaptation and emphasized that the flower's functionality reflects the coordinated action of multiple traits. Here we use a multitrait manipulative approach to quantify the potential role of selection acting on floral trait combinations underlying the divergence and maintenance of three related North American species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae). We artificially generated 48 plant phenotypes corresponding to all combinations of key attractive traits differing among the three Silene species (color, height, inflorescence architecture, flower orientation, and corolla-tube width). We quantified main and interaction effects of trait manipulation on hummingbird visitation preference using experimental arrays. The main effects of floral display height and floral orientation strongly influenced hummingbird visitation, with hummingbirds preferring flowers held high above the ground and vertically to the sky. Hummingbirds also prefer traits in a nonadditive manner as multiple two-way and higher order interaction effects were important predictors of hummingbird visitation. Contemporary trait combinations found in hummingbird pollinated S. virginica are mostly preferred. Our study demonstrates the likelihood of pollination syndromes evolving due to selection on trait combinations and highlights the importance of trait interactions in understanding the evolution of complex adaptations. PMID:25765062

  20. Association between Expression Quantitative Trait Loci and Metabolic Traits in Two Korean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Myungguen; Cho, Seong Beom

    2014-01-01

    Most genome-wide association studies consider genes that are located closest to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are highly significant for those studies. However, the significance of the associations between SNPs and candidate genes has not been fully determined. An alternative approach that used SNPs in expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) was reported previously for Crohn’s disease; it was shown that eQTL-based preselection for follow-up studies was a useful approach for identifying risk loci from the results of moderately sized GWAS. In this study, we propose an approach that uses eQTL SNPs to support the functional relationships between an SNP and a candidate gene in a genome-wide association study. The genome-wide SNP genotypes and 10 biochemical measures (fasting glucose levels, BUN, serum albumin levels, AST, ALT, gamma GTP, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol) were obtained from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) consortium. The eQTL SNPs were isolated from the SNP dataset based on the RegulomeDB eQTL-SNP data from the ENCODE projects and two recent eQTL reports. A total of 25,658 eQTL SNPs were tested for their association with the 10 metabolic traits in 2 Korean populations (Ansung and Ansan). The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by eQTL and non-eQTL SNPs showed that eQTL SNPs were more likely to be associated with the metabolic traits genetically compared with non-eQTL SNPs. Finally, via a meta-analysis of the two Korean populations, we identified 14 eQTL SNPs that were significantly associated with metabolic traits. These results suggest that our approach can be expanded to other genome-wide association studies. PMID:25493549

  1. Phenotypic Correlations of Testes Size with Semen Traits and the Productive Traits of Young Boars.

    PubMed

    Jacyno, E; Kaw?cka, M; Pietruszka, A; Sosnowska, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship of young boar testes size with semen traits and with productive traits. The dimensions (length, width and volume) of each testis and semen traits (semen volume, percentage of sperm with progressive motility, sperm concentration, total number of sperm in semen, percentage of sperm with normal acrosome, percentage of sperm with major and minor morphological defects, osmotic resistance test value and activity of aspartate aminotransferase in seminal plasma) were determined on 120 young boars aged 6 months. At 180 day of age, the boars backfat thickness and leanness (by ultrasonic apparatus) and body weight were also measured. The average daily gain was determined in the period from 70 to 180 days of age of the boars. The results showed that the sperm concentration, total number of sperm in semen and percentage of progressive motile sperm were a significantly positively correlated with width and volume of the left (p ? 0.01) and right testis (p ? 0.05) and with total volume of both testes (p ? 0.01). But the highest values of correlation coefficients were found between the width of the left testis and sperm concentration, total number of sperm in semen and percentage of progressive motile sperm. A correlations of dimensions (length and width) and volume of testes with other semen traits were very low and statistically non-significant. The volume of testes (left and right testis and total testes) was significantly positively correlated with body weight at 180 days of age and daily gain (p ? 0.01), but lower correlation coefficient was between left testis and daily gain (p ? 0.05), whereas correlations were low and non-significant with leanness and backfat thickness. PMID:26403357

  2. Personality traits, traitedness, and disorders: towards an enhanced understanding of trait-disorder relationships 

    E-print Network

    Warner, Megan Beth

    2006-10-30

    ideas about trait relevance originated in the early theoretical writings of Gordon Allport, they gained their empirical momentum in response to Walter Mischel?s pivotal book, Personality and Assessment (1968), in which he argued that the correlations... of Committee, Leslie C. Morey Committee Members, David H. Gleaves Douglas K. Snyder Craig H. Blakely Head of Department, W. Steven Rholes August 2005 Major Subject: Psychology iii ABSTRACT...

  3. Impaired growth of pancreatic exocrine cells in transgenic mice expressing human activin {beta}E subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Osamu . E-mail: ohashim@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp; Ushiro, Yuuki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa

    2006-03-10

    Activins, TGF-{beta} superfamily members, have multiple functions in a variety of cells and tissues. Recently, additional activin {beta} subunit genes, {beta}C and {beta}E, have been identified. To explore the role of activin E, we created transgenic mice overexpressing human activin {beta}E subunit. There were pronounced differences in the pancreata of the transgenic animals as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pancreatic weight, expressed relative to total body weight, was significantly reduced. Histologically, adipose replacement of acini in the exocrine pancreas was observed. There was a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the acinar cells, indicating reduced proliferation in the exocrine pancreas of the transgenic mice. However, quantitative pancreatic morphometry showed that the total number and mass of the islets of the transgenic mice were comparable with those of the nontransgenic control mice. Our findings suggest a role for activin E in regulating the proliferation of pancreatic exocrine cells.

  4. 21 CFR 866.3050 - Beta-glucan serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Beta-glucan serological assays. 866.3050 Section 866.3050 Food...866.3050 Beta-glucan serological assays. (a) Identification . Beta-glucan serological assays are devices that consist of antigens...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency On this page: Description Genetic ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed September 2008 What is dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency? Dopamine beta (?)-hydroxylase deficiency ...

  6. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section 886...Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to...

  7. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section 886...Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to...

  8. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section 886...Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to...

  9. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section 886...Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to...

  10. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section 886...Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to...

  11. Of intent and action : implementing personality traits for storytelling through concept patterns

    E-print Network

    Song, Susan S. (Susan Shuchen)

    2012-01-01

    Personality traits such as "kind," "aggressive," and "brave" are integral to storytelling because they impart succinct descriptors of character personalities. Authors apply traits to characters, readers infer characters' ...

  12. Detection and characterisation of quantitative trait loci affecting muscle and growth phenotypes in sheep 

    E-print Network

    Hadjipavlou, Georgia

    2010-01-01

    This thesis addresses the dissection and characterisation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting production traits in sheep. Firstly, the association between specific genetic polymorphisms and complex variation in ...

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study of Autistic-Like Traits in a General Population Study of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rachel Maree; Cadby, Gemma; Melton, Phillip E.; Abraham, Lawrence J.; Whitehouse, Andrew J.; Moses, Eric K.

    2013-01-01

    Lay abstract: It has been proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), representing the extreme end of this distribution. The current study undertook a genome-wide association (GWA) scan of 965 young Western Australian adults to identify novel risk variants associated with autistic-like traits. No associations reached genome-wide significance; however, a review of nominally associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indicated two positional candidate loci that have been previously implicated in autistic-like trait etiology. Scientific abstract: Research has proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical ASD representing the extreme end of this distribution. Inherent in this proposal is that biological mechanisms associated with clinical ASD may also underpin variation in autistic-like traits within the general population. A GWA study using 2,462,046 SNPs was undertaken for ASD in 965 individuals from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. No SNP associations reached genome-wide significance (p?beta 1 (PRKCB1) gene on chromosome 16p11. The PRKCB1 gene has been previously reported in linkage and association studies for ASD, and its mRNA expression has been shown to be significantly down regulated in ASD cases compared with controls. The rs16946931 SNP (p?=?1.78?×?10?6) is located in a region flanking the Cerebellin 1 (CBLN1) gene on chromosome 16q12.1. The CBLN1 gene is involved with synaptogenesis and is part of a gene family previously implicated in ASD. This GWA study is only the second to examine SNPs associated with autistic-like traits in the general population, and provides evidence to support roles for the PRKCB1 and CBLN1 genes in risk of clinical ASD. PMID:24133439

  14. Brain structure links trait creativity to openness to experience.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenfu; Li, Xueting; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiangzhen; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Jingguang; Cheng, Hongsheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Jia

    2015-02-01

    Creativity is crucial to the progression of human civilization and has led to important scientific discoveries. Especially, individuals are more likely to have scientific discoveries if they possess certain personality traits of creativity (trait creativity), including imagination, curiosity, challenge and risk-taking. This study used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in trait creativity, as measured by the Williams creativity aptitude test, in a large sample (n = 246). We found that creative individuals had higher gray matter volume in the right posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which might be related to semantic processing during novelty seeking (e.g. novel association, conceptual integration and metaphor understanding). More importantly, although basic personality factors such as openness to experience, extroversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness (as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory) all contributed to trait creativity, only openness to experience mediated the association between the right pMTG volume and trait creativity. Taken together, our results suggest that the basic personality trait of openness might play an important role in shaping an individual's trait creativity. PMID:24603022

  15. Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The study of ecosystem functioning – the role which organisms play in an ecosystem – is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (http://polytraits.lifewatchgreece.eu), a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida). At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources. PMID:24855436

  16. Psychopathic traits in adolescents are associated with higher structural connectivity.

    PubMed

    Pape, Louise E; Cohn, Moran D; Caan, Matthan W A; van Wingen, Guido; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Popma, Arne

    2015-09-30

    Altered structural connectivity has been reported in antisocial juveniles, but findings have been inconsistent. Given the phenotypical heterogeneity among individuals showing antisocial behavior, specification of the association between structural connectivity and the dimensions of psychopathic traits (i.e., callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible traits) may aid in more reliably elucidating the neural mechanisms underlying antisocial behavior during adolescence. In this study, a sample of 145 adolescents (mean age 17.6, SD 1.6) from a childhood arrestee cohort participated in a neuroimaging protocol including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD), as obtained by tract-based spatial statistics, were associated with juveniles' scores on the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory. Grandiose-manipulative traits were positively associated with FA and negatively with RD in a wide range of white matter tracts, suggesting abnormal myelination related to these traits. Callous-unemotional traits were positively associated with FA and AD in specific white matter tracts, including the corpus callosum and corticospinal tract. The differential associations between dimensions of psychopathic traits and measures of structural connectivity support the notion that multiple distinct neural mechanisms underlie antisocial and psychopathic development. PMID:26272037

  17. Predicting leaf traits of herbaceous species from their spectral characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Roelofsen, Hans D; van Bodegom, Peter M; Kooistra, Lammert; Witte, Jan-Philip M

    2014-01-01

    Trait predictions from leaf spectral properties are mainly applied to tree species, while herbaceous systems received little attention in this topic. Whether similar trait–spectrum relations can be derived for herbaceous plants that differ strongly in growing strategy and environmental constraints is therefore unknown. We used partial least squares regression to relate key traits to leaf spectra (reflectance, transmittance, and absorbance) for 35 herbaceous species, sampled from a wide range of environmental conditions. Specific Leaf Area and nutrient-related traits (N and P content) were poorly predicted from any spectrum, although N prediction improved when expressed on a per area basis (mg/m2 leaf surface) instead of mass basis (mg/g dry matter). Leaf dry matter content was moderately to good correlated with spectra. We explain our results by the range of environmental constraints encountered by herbaceous species; both N and P limitations as well as a range of light and water availabilities occurred. This weakened the relation between the measured response traits and the leaf constituents that are truly responsible for leaf spectral behavior. Indeed, N predictions improve considering solely upper or under canopy species. Therefore, trait predictions in herbaceous systems should focus on traits relating to dry matter content and the true, underlying drivers of spectral properties. PMID:24683454

  18. A Thesaurus for Soil Invertebrate Trait-Based Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Nahmani, Johanne; Auclerc, Apolline; Capowiez, Yvan; Caro, Gaël; Cluzeau, Daniel; Cortet, Jérôme; Decaëns, Thibaud; Dubs, Florence; Joimel, Sophie; Guernion, Muriel; Briard, Charlène; Grumiaux, Fabien; Laporte, Baptiste; Pasquet, Alain; Pelosi, Céline; Pernin, Céline; Ponge, Jean-François; Salmon, Sandrine; Santorufo, Lucia; Hedde, Mickaël

    2014-01-01

    Soil invertebrates are known to be much involved in soil behaviour and therefore in the provision of ecosystem services. Functional trait-based approaches are methodologies which can be used to understand soil invertebrates’ responses to their environment. They (i) improve the predictions and (ii) are less dependent on space and time. The way traits have been used recently has led to misunderstandings in the integration and interpretation of data. Trait semantics are especially concerned. The aim of this paper is to propose a thesaurus for soil invertebrate trait-based approaches. T-SITA, an Internet platform, is the first initiative to deal with the semantics of traits and ecological preferences for soil invertebrates. It reflects the agreement of a scientific expert community to fix semantic properties (e.g. definition) of approximately 100 traits and ecological preferences. In addition, T-SITA has been successfully linked with a fully operational database of soil invertebrate traits. Such a link enhances data integration and improves the scientific integrity of data. PMID:25310431

  19. Genetic analysis of root morphological traits in wheat.

    PubMed

    Petrarulo, Maria; Marone, Daniela; Ferragonio, Pina; Cattivelli, Luigi; Rubiales, Diego; De Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-06-01

    Traits related to root architecture are of great importance for yield performance of crop species, although they remain poorly understood. The present study is aimed at identifying the genomic regions involved in the control of root morphological traits in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). A set of 123 recombinant inbred lines derived from the durum wheat cross of cvs. 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' were grown hydroponically to two growth stages, and were phenotypically evaluated for a number of root traits. In addition, meta-(M)QTL analysis was performed that considered the results of other root traits studies in wheat, to compare with the 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' cross and to increase the QTL detection power. Eight quantitative trait loci (QTL) for traits related to root morphology were identified on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 3A, 6A and 6B in the 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' segregating population. Twenty-two MQTL that comprised from two to six individual QTL that had widely varying confidence intervals were found on 14 chromosomes. The data from the present study provide a detailed analysis of the genetic basis of morphological root traits in wheat. This study of the 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' durum-wheat population has revealed some QTL that had not been previously identified. PMID:25416422

  20. Callous-unemotional traits and adolescents' role in group crime.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Laura C; Frick, Paul J; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Ray, James V; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined the association of callous-unemotional (CU) traits with group offending (i.e., committing a crime with others; gang involvement) and with the role that the offender may play in a group offense (e.g., being the leader). This analysis was conducted in an ethnically and racially diverse sample (N = 1,216) of justice-involved adolescents (ages 13 to 17) from 3 different sites. CU traits were associated with a greater likelihood of the adolescent offending in groups and being in a gang. Importantly, both associations remained significant after controlling for the adolescent's age, level of intelligence, race and ethnicity, and level of impulse control. The association of CU traits with gang membership also remained significant after controlling for the adolescent's history of delinquent behavior. Further, CU traits were associated with several measures of taking a leadership role in group crimes. CU traits were also associated with greater levels of planning in the group offense for which the adolescent was arrested, although this was moderated by the adolescent's race and was not found in Black youth. These results highlight the importance of CU traits for understanding the group process involved in delinquent acts committed by adolescents. They also underscore the importance of enhancing the effectiveness of treatments for these traits in order to reduce juvenile delinquency. PMID:25689410

  1. Response Monitoring and Adjustment: Differential Relations with Psychopathic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Bresin, Konrad; Finy, M. Sima; Sprague, Jenessa; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the relation between psychopathy and cognitive functioning often show mixed results, partially because different factors of psychopathy have not been considered fully. Based on previous research, we predicted divergent results based on a two-factor model of psychopathy (interpersonal-affective traits and impulsive-antisocial traits). Specifically, we predicted that the unique variance of interpersonal-affective traits would be related to increased monitoring (i.e., error-related negativity) and adjusting to errors (i.e., post-error slowing), whereas impulsive-antisocial traits would be related to reductions in these processes. Three studies using a diverse selection of assessment tools, samples, and methods are presented to identify response monitoring correlates of the two main factors of psychopathy. In Studies 1 (undergraduates), 2 (adolescents), and 3 (offenders), interpersonal-affective traits were related to increased adjustment following errors and, in Study 3, to enhanced monitoring of errors. Impulsive-antisocial traits were not consistently related to error adjustment across the studies, although these traits were related to a deficient monitoring of errors in Study 3. The results may help explain previous mixed findings and advance implications for etiological models of psychopathy. PMID:24933282

  2. The {beta} integrins and cytoskeletal nanoimprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Mairead A. Bagnaninchi, Pierre; Dalby, Matthew J.

    2008-02-15

    'Nanoimprinting', whereby topographical features are directly imprinted on or in cells, has recently been documented. The mechanism(s) underlying this may explain the cause of cell behavioural alterations as a result of contact with nanotopography. Integrin-mediated cell-substrate adhesions are likely to play a key role in this phenomenon due to their involvement in bidirectional signalling between extra- and intracellular environments. We describe the effects of blocking {beta}{sub 1} and {beta}{sub 3} integrin subunits on the ability of the cytoskeleton to conform to colloidal-derived nanotopography. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy were used to characterise substrate nanofeatures. Nanofeature circularity was calculated relative to substrate topography and the cytoskeleton of cells cultured on patterned and planar surfaces in the presence/absence of {beta}{sub 1}/{beta}{sub 3} integrin antibody. Cross-correlation investigations were similarly conducted by producing a target image relative to individual topographical nanofeatures. This was then compared with cytoskeletal patterning in the presence/absence of {beta} integrin antibodies. Inhibiting the {beta}{sub 1} subunits increased the ability of fibroblasts to nanoimprint, while inhibiting the {beta}{sub 3} subunit reduced nanoimprinting of the topography to the cell. Fibroblasts cultured on planar substrates also expressed some features sharing similarities with those observed in cells on the nanotopography, indicating an inherent cytoskeletal nanopatterning at high resolution.

  3. Latent TGF-[beta] structure and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Minlong; Zhu, Jianghai; Wang, Rui; Chen, Xing; Mi, Lizhi; Walz, Thomas; Springer, Timothy A.

    2011-09-16

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} is stored in the extracellular matrix as a latent complex with its prodomain. Activation of TGF-{beta}1 requires the binding of {alpha}v integrin to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-{beta} binding proteins. Crystals of dimeric porcine proTGF-{beta}1 reveal a ring-shaped complex, a novel fold for the prodomain, and show how the prodomain shields the growth factor from recognition by receptors and alters its conformation. Complex formation between {alpha}v{beta}6 integrin and the prodomain is insufficient for TGF-{beta}1 release. Force-dependent activation requires unfastening of a 'straitjacket' that encircles each growth-factor monomer at a position that can be locked by a disulphide bond. Sequences of all 33 TGF-{beta} family members indicate a similar prodomain fold. The structure provides insights into the regulation of a family of growth and differentiation factors of fundamental importance in morphogenesis and homeostasis.

  4. A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R., II; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

  5. Functional traits and root morphology of alpine plants

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Mandy; Stroude, Raphaël; Buttler, Alexandre; Rixen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Vegetation has long been recognized to protect the soil from erosion. Understanding species differences in root morphology and functional traits is an important step to assess which species and species mixtures may provide erosion control. Furthermore, extending classification of plant functional types towards root traits may be a useful procedure in understanding important root functions. Methods In this study, pioneer data on traits of alpine plant species, i.e. plant height and shoot biomass, root depth, horizontal root spreading, root length, diameter, tensile strength, plant age and root biomass, from a disturbed site in the Swiss Alps are presented. The applicability of three classifications of plant functional types (PFTs), i.e. life form, growth form and root type, was examined for above- and below-ground plant traits. Key Results Plant traits differed considerably among species even of the same life form, e.g. in the case of total root length by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the same root diameter, species differed significantly in tensile strength: some species (Geum reptans and Luzula spicata) had roots more than twice as strong as those of other species. Species of different life forms provided different root functions (e.g. root depth and horizontal root spreading) that may be important for soil physical processes. All classifications of PFTs were helpful to categorize plant traits; however, the PFTs according to root type explained total root length far better than the other PFTs. Conclusions The results of the study illustrate the remarkable differences between root traits of alpine plants, some of which cannot be assessed from simple morphological inspection, e.g. tensile strength. PFT classification based on root traits seems useful to categorize plant traits, even though some patterns are better explained at the individual species level. PMID:21795278

  6. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ying; Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 ; Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min; Sun, Gui-yuan; Liu, Rui-tian

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  7. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.

    2009-07-24

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  8. Phenotypic plasticity to light and nutrient availability alters functional trait ranking across eight perennial grassland species

    PubMed Central

    Siebenkäs, Alrun; Schumacher, Jens; Roscher, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Functional traits are often used as species-specific mean trait values in comparative plant ecology or trait-based predictions of ecosystem processes, assuming that interspecific differences are greater than intraspecific trait variation and that trait-based ranking of species is consistent across environments. Although this assumption is increasingly challenged, there is a lack of knowledge regarding to what degree the extent of intraspecific trait variation in response to varying environmental conditions depends on the considered traits and the characteristics of the studied species to evaluate the consequences for trait-based species ranking. We studied functional traits of eight perennial grassland species classified into different functional groups (forbs vs. grasses) and varying in their inherent growth stature (tall vs. small) in a common garden experiment with different environments crossing three levels of nutrient availability and three levels of light availability over 4 months of treatment applications. Grasses and forbs differed in almost all above- and belowground traits, while trait differences related to growth stature were generally small. The traits showing the strongest responses to resource availability were similarly for grasses and forbs those associated with allocation and resource uptake. The strength of trait variation in response to varying resource availability differed among functional groups (grasses > forbs) and species of varying growth stature (small-statured > tall-statured species) in many aboveground traits, but only to a lower extent in belowground traits. These differential responses altered trait-based species ranking in many aboveground traits, such as specific leaf area, tissue nitrogen and carbon concentrations and above-belowground allocation (leaf area ratio and root : shoot ratio) at varying resource supply, while trait-based species ranking was more consistent in belowground traits. Our study shows that species grouping according to functional traits is valid, but trait-based species ranking depends on environmental conditions, thus limiting the applicability of species-specific mean trait values in ecological studies. PMID:25818071

  9. Scintillating bolometers for Double Beta Decay search

    E-print Network

    Gironi, Luca

    2009-01-01

    In the field of Double Beta Decay (DBD) searches, the use of high resolution detectors in which background can be actively discriminated is very appealing. Scintillating bolometers containing a Double Beta Decay emitter can largely fulfill this very interesting possibility. In this paper we present the latest results obtained with CdWO4 and CaMoO4 crystals. Moreover we report, for the first time, a very interesting feature of CaMoO4 bolometers: the possibility to discriminate beta-gamma events from those induced by alpha particles thanks to different thermal pulse shape.

  10. Fabrication of thin layer beta alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennenhouse, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Beta alumina tubes having walls 700 microns, 300 microns, and 140 microns were processed by extrusion and sintering utilizing Ford proprietary binder and fabrication systems. Tubes prepared by this method have properties similar to tubes prepared by isostatic pressing and sintering, i.e. density greater than 98% of theoretical and a helium leak rate less than 3 x 10 to the -9th power cc/sq cm/sec. Ford ultrasonic bonding techniques were used for bonding beta alumina end caps to open ended beta -alumina tubes prior to sintering. After sintering, the bond was hermetic, and the integrity of the bonded area was comparable to the body of the tube.

  11. Diversity of sickle cell trait in Jharkhand state in India: Is it the zone of contact between two geographically and ethnically distinct populations in India?

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rachana; Raman, Rajiva

    2015-09-01

    Incidence of sickle cell trait in India is high in peninsular south, south-eastern, central and south-western India, while in north and north-eastern India, it is absent. Unicentric origin of SCD in the tribals of nilgiri hills in southern India has been proposed. The present study on the frequency of HbS trait and beta-globin gene haplotypes was conducted in the tribal-rich states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand to get an insight into the uneven distribution of HbS in India. Jharkhand borders with the HbS-high Odisha and Chhattisgarh, and HbS-low UP, Bihar and Bengal. Cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis was performed on the collected blood samples, to detect sickle haemoglobin (HbS) followed by DNA analysis. HbS associated beta-gene haplotype was constructed for the samples positive for HbS and all the tribals by PCR-RFLP. Out of 805 (Chhattisgarh - 261, Jharkhand - 544; greater than 36 percent tribals) samples analysed HbS frequency was 13 percent in Chhattisgarh and 3.3 percent in Jharkhand. Within Jharkhand, frequencies varied considerably from 10 percent in Tatanagar to nil in Sahibganj. The Arab-India (AI) haplotype of beta-globin cluster occurred in low frequency, confined mainly to Chhattisgarh. The most abundant haplotype in all the populations was the East Asian, + - - - - - +, rare in HbS, mainly in Sahibganj in east Jharkhand, which lacked AI. Our results indicate that besides the heterozygote advantage againstmalaria, the uneven regional distribution of HbS trait is because of restricted movement of two different populations, Dravidian from the south and Tibeto-Burman from the east into the Indianmainland which failed tomeet, we conjecture, due to severe climatic conditions (deserts and heat) prevailing through parts of central India. Apparently, Jharkhand became a zone of contact between them in recent times. PMID:26333400

  12. Genetic variants affecting meat and milk production traits appear to have effects on reproduction traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Collis, E; Fortes, M R S; Zhang, Y; Tier, B; Schutt, K; Barendse, W; Hawken, R

    2012-08-01

    Polymorphisms located in the genes ABCG2, DGAT1, LEP, PRLR, RORC, CAPN1 and CAST previously have been associated with milk or meat production traits. In this study, these polymorphisms were examined for significant effects on reproductive traits [age at puberty (AGECL), post-partum anoestrus interval (PPAI) and the ability ovulate prior to weaning (PW)] and on a panel of correlated traits such as weight, growth and serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor I. The effects of the polymorphisms were examined in two samples of tropically adapted beef cattle: Brahman (N = 932) and Tropical Composites (N = 1097). A polymorphism in the gene DGAT1 was associated with age at puberty in the combined sample (P = 0.042), and two polymorphisms in CAPN1 were associated with PPAI (P = 0.033) and with the ability ovulate PW (P = 0.017). The favourable allele for reproductive traits was not always the favourable allele associated with production traits. The effects of these polymorphisms on reproductive traits were small compared to their effects on the traits for which they were originally discovered. PMID:22497268

  13. Beta Pictoris planet finally imaged?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    A team of French astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have discovered an object located very close to the star Beta Pictoris, and which apparently lies inside its disc. With a projected distance from the star of only 8 times the Earth-Sun distance, this object is most likely the giant planet suspected from the peculiar shape of the disc and the previously observed infall of comets onto the star. It would then be the first image of a planet that is as close to its host star as Saturn is to the Sun. Sharpening Up Jupiter ESO PR Photo 42a/08 Beta Pictoris as seen in infrared light The hot star Beta Pictoris is one of the best-known examples of stars surrounded by a dusty 'debris' disc. Debris discs are composed of dust resulting from collisions among larger bodies like planetary embryos or asteroids. They are a bigger version of the zodiacal dust in our Solar System. Its disc was the first to be imaged -- as early as 1984 -- and remains the best-studied system. Earlier observations showed a warp of the disc, a secondary inclined disc and infalling comets onto the star. "These are indirect, but tell-tale signs that strongly suggest the presence of a massive planet lying between 5 and 10 times the mean Earth-Sun distance from its host star," says team leader Anne-Marie Lagrange. "However, probing the very inner region of the disc, so close to the glowing star, is a most challenging task." In 2003, the French team used the NAOS-CONICA instrument (or NACO [1]), mounted on one of the 8.2 m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), to benefit from both the high image quality provided by the Adaptive Optics system at infrared wavelengths and the good dynamics offered by the detector, in order to study the immediate surroundings of Beta Pictoris. Recently, a member of the team re-analysed the data in a different way to seek the trace of a companion to the star. Infrared wavelengths are indeed very well suited for such searches. "For this, the real challenge is to identify and subtract as accurately as possible the bright stellar halo," explains Lagrange. "We were able to achieve this after a precise and drastic selection of the best images recorded during our observations." The strategy proved very rewarding, as the astronomers were able to discern a feeble, point-like glow well inside the star's halo. To eliminate the possibility that this was an artefact and not a real object, a battery of tests was conducted and several members of the team, using three different methods, did the analysis independently, always with the same success. Moreover, the companion was also discovered in other data sets, further strengthening the team's conclusion: the companion is real. "Our observations point to the presence of a giant planet, about 8 times as massive as Jupiter and with a projected distance from its star of about 8 times the Earth-Sun distance, which is about the distance of Saturn in our Solar System [2]," says Lagrange. "We cannot yet rule out definitively, however, that the candidate companion could be a foreground or background object," cautions co-worker Gael Chauvin. "To eliminate this very small possibility, we will need to make new observations that confirm the nature of the discovery." The team also dug into the archives of the Hubble Space Telescope but couldn't see anything, "while most possible foreground or background objects would have been detected", remarks another team member, David Ehrenreich. The fact that the candidate companion lies in the plane of the disc also strongly implies that it is bound to the star and its proto-planetary disc. "Moreover, the candidate companion has exactly the mass and distance from its host star needed to explain all the disc's properties. This is clearly another nail in the coffin of the false alarm hypothesis," adds Lagrange. When confirmed, this candidate companion will be the closest planet from its star ever imaged. In particular, it will be located well inside the orbits of

  14. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    SciTech Connect

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K.

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly, there is little correlation between the affinity contributed by R1 side chains and their occurrence in {beta}-lactam inhibitors or {beta}-lactam substrates of serine {beta}-lactamases. Nevertheless, presented in acylglycineboronic acids, these side chains can lead to inhibitors with high affinities and specificities. The structures of their complexes with AmpC give a molecular context to their affinities and may guide the design of anti-resistance compounds in this series.

  15. Protein Beta-Sheets Predicted in 1951 by Pauling et Al. using standard bond length and

    E-print Network

    Guermeur, Yann

    -Sheets #12;Beta-Bulge #12;Beta-Helix PDB code 1QCX #12;Beta-Propeller PDB code 1HXN #12;Beta-Sandwich PDB to avoid aggregation: BetaBarrels: no edge strand! Parallel BetaHelix: ends are protected by loops. BetaPropellers Protein function #12;Beta-Sheet Annotation Some algorithms: DSSP (Kabsch, W. & Sander, C. (1983

  16. Verbal-autonomic response dissociations as traits?

    PubMed

    Schwerdtfeger, Andreas; Schmukle, Stefan C; Egloff, Boris

    2006-05-01

    Dissociations between subjective and physiological responses to stress are of central interest in coping research. However, little is known about their stability across situations and time. Two experimental sessions - separated by 1 year - were conducted to examine cross-situational consistency and longterm-stability of HR-derived and SCL-derived dissociation scores. In year 1, a speech stressor, the cold pressor and a video stressor (viewing of the speech video) were applied. In year 2, mental arithmetics, anagrams and a torture video were presented. Thirty-five students participated and HR, SCL and negative affect were recorded. For each stressor, standardized changes in negative affect were subtracted from changes in autonomic reactivity (HR and SCL, respectively). Dissociation scores were relatively consistent across the stressors with HR-derived scores exceeding SCL-derived scores. Longterm-stability proved acceptable (r=.61, P<.001 for HR-derived and r=.40, P<.05 for SCL-derived scores). In sum, verbal-autonomic response dissociations show considerable cross-situational and temporal stability and thus might be considered as traits. PMID:16359769

  17. Traits and types of health data repositories.

    PubMed

    Wade, Ted D

    2014-01-01

    We review traits of reusable clinical data and offer a typology of clinical repositories with a range of known examples. Sources of clinical data suitable for research can be classified into types reflecting the data's institutional origin, original purpose, level of integration and governance. Primary data nearly always come from research studies and electronic medical records. Registries collect data on focused populations primarily to track outcomes, often using observational research methods. Warehouses are institutional information utilities repackaging clinical care data. Collections organize data from more organizations than a data warehouse, and more original data sources than a registry. Therefore even if they are heavily curated, their level of internal integration, and thus ease of use, can be less than other types. Federations are like collections except that physical control over data is distributed among donor organizations. Federations sometimes federate, giving a second level of organization. While the size, in number of patients, varies widely within each type of data source, populations over 10 K are relatively numerous, and much larger populations can be seen in warehouses and federations. One imagined ideal structure for research progress has been called an "Information Commons". It would have longitudinal, multi-leveled (environmental through molecular) data on a large population of identified, consenting individuals. These are qualities whose achievement would require long term commitment on the part of many data donors, including a willingness to make their data public. PMID:25825668

  18. Rapid evolution of quantitative traits: theoretical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Michael; Matuszewski, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies demonstrate phenotypic and genetic changes in natural populations that are subject to climate change, and there is hope that some of these changes will contribute to avoiding species extinctions (‘evolutionary rescue’). Here, we review theoretical models of rapid evolution in quantitative traits that can shed light on the potential for adaptation to a changing climate. Our focus is on quantitative-genetic models with selection for a moving phenotypic optimum. We point out that there is no one-to-one relationship between the rate of adaptation and population survival, because the former depends on relative fitness and the latter on absolute fitness. Nevertheless, previous estimates that sustainable rates of genetically based change usually do not exceed 0.1 haldanes (i.e., phenotypic standard deviations per generation) are probably correct. Survival can be greatly facilitated by phenotypic plasticity, and heritable variation in plasticity can further speed up genetic evolution. Multivariate selection and genetic correlations are frequently assumed to constrain adaptation, but this is not necessarily the case and depends on the geometric relationship between the fitness landscape and the structure of genetic variation. Similar conclusions hold for adaptation to shifting spatial gradients. Recent models of adaptation in multispecies communities indicate that the potential for rapid evolution is strongly influenced by interspecific competition. PMID:24454555

  19. Mucins Suppress Virulence Traits of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, Nicole L.; Zhang, Angela Q.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans, causing a variety of diseases ranging from superficial mucosal infections to deep-seated systemic invasions. Mucus, the gel that coats all wet epithelial surfaces, accommodates C. albicans as part of the normal microbiota, where C. albicans resides asymptomatically in healthy humans. Through a series of in vitro experiments combined with gene expression analysis, we show that mucin biopolymers, the main gel-forming constituents of mucus, induce a new oval-shaped morphology in C. albicans in which a range of genes related to adhesion, filamentation, and biofilm formation are downregulated. We also show that corresponding traits are suppressed, rendering C. albicans impaired in forming biofilms on a range of different synthetic surfaces and human epithelial cells. Our data suggest that mucins can manipulate C. albicans physiology, and we hypothesize that they are key environmental signals for retaining C. albicans in the host-compatible, commensal state. PMID:25389175

  20. Flood adaptive traits and processes: an overview.

    PubMed

    Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Unanticipated flooding challenges plant growth and fitness in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Here we describe mechanisms of developmental plasticity and metabolic modulation that underpin adaptive traits and acclimation responses to waterlogging of root systems and submergence of aerial tissues. This includes insights into processes that enhance ventilation of submerged organs. At the intersection between metabolism and growth, submergence survival strategies have evolved involving an ethylene-driven and gibberellin-enhanced module that regulates growth of submerged organs. Opposing regulation of this pathway is facilitated by a subgroup of ethylene-response transcription factors (ERFs), which include members that require low O? or low nitric oxide (NO) conditions for their stabilization. These transcription factors control genes encoding enzymes required for anaerobic metabolism as well as proteins that fine-tune their function in transcription and turnover. Other mechanisms that control metabolism and growth at seed, seedling and mature stages under flooding conditions are reviewed, as well as findings demonstrating that true endurance of submergence includes an ability to restore growth following the deluge. Finally, we highlight molecular insights obtained from natural variation of domesticated and wild species that occupy different hydrological niches, emphasizing the value of understanding natural flooding survival strategies in efforts to stabilize crop yields in flood-prone environments. PMID:25580769

  1. Identification of family relationships by epigenetic traits.

    PubMed

    Slavec, Zvonka Zupanic

    2005-12-01

    In analyzing family burials, it is often necessary to establish the nature of the family relationship. This study examines 18 skulls from the 14th and 15th century, presumptively assigned to the family of the Counts of Celje from the territory of present-day Slovenia. Though DNA analysis is the identification method of choice, it is not always possible to apply it. In our case we were unable to isolate the genetic material and had to use classical identification methods. After determining sex and age, we established the kinship by comparison of X-ray images of paranasal cavities (frontal and maxillary sinuses, and also orbital and nasal cavities), the shape and size of which are autosomal dominant inherited characters. The comparison also extends to numerous other likewise inherited epigenetic trait similarities on the skulls. We identified all skulls, compared them with historical and genealogical data, grouped them into nuclear families--one of them is presented in this article-, and proved that they belong to the assigned family. This multidisciplinary work, based on latest epigenetic research, is highly relevant for modern non-genetic identification studies and verification of kinship by skulls collectively interred and can be applied in similar cases where isolation of DNA is no longer possible, even though the skeletal remains may not be old. PMID:16402590

  2. Genes, psychological traits and civic engagement.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Christopher T; Settle, Jaime E; Loewen, Peter John; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2015-12-01

    Civic engagement is a classic example of a collective action problem: while civic participation improves life in the community as a whole, it is individually costly and thus there is an incentive to free ride on the actions of others. Yet, we observe significant inter-individual variation in the degree to which people are in fact civically engaged. Early accounts reconciling the theoretical prediction with empirical reality focused either on variation in individuals' material resources or their attitudes, but recent work has turned to genetic differences between individuals. We show an underlying genetic contribution to an index of civic engagement (0.41), as well as for the individual acts of engagement of volunteering for community or public service activities (0.33), regularly contributing to charitable causes (0.28) and voting in elections (0.27). There are closer genetic relationships between donating and the other two activities; volunteering and voting are not genetically correlated. Further, we show that most of the correlation between civic engagement and both positive emotionality and verbal IQ can be attributed to genes that affect both traits. These results enrich our understanding of the way in which genetic variation may influence the wide range of collective action problems that individuals face in modern community life. PMID:26503688

  3. Phenomenology of neutrinoless double beta decay

    E-print Network

    J. J. Gómez-Cadenas; Justo Martín-Albo

    2015-02-25

    This paper reviews the current status and future outlook of neutrinoless double beta decay searches, which try to provide an answer to the fundamental question of whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Beta-ureidopropionase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... building blocks of DNA and its chemical cousin RNA. The beta-ureidopropionase enzyme is involved in the ... neurological ; optic nerve ; precursor ; prevalence ; protein ; pyrimidines ; recessive ; RNA You may find definitions for these and many ...

  5. Beta scaling of transport in microturbulence simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.

    2005-07-15

    A systematic study of the beta ({beta}) scaling and spatial structure of thermal and particle transport in gyrokinetic turbulence simulations is presented. Here, {beta} is the ratio of the plasma kinetic pressure to the magnetic pressure. Results show that the nonlinear self-consistent temperature profiles exhibit a (statistically) time-stationary flattening in the vicinity of rational surfaces with a concomitant drop in the electrostatic components of the thermal diffusivity. Simultaneously, the increased magnetic fluctuation amplitude at these surfaces enhances the steady-state electromagnetic (flutter) component of the electron thermal diffusivity. The electromagnetic components of the ion transport coefficients remain close to zero, as expected on theoretical grounds. Only a weak dependence of ion energy transport on {beta} is observed, consistent with recent tokamak experiments [C. C. Petty et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2514 (2004)].

  6. Genomic prediction of complex human traits: relatedness, trait architecture and predictive meta-models

    PubMed Central

    Spiliopoulou, Athina; Nagy, Reka; Bermingham, Mairead L.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Agakov, Felix; Navarro, Pau; Haley, Chris S.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the prediction of individuals' phenotypes for complex traits using genomic data. We compare several widely used prediction models, including Ridge Regression, LASSO and Elastic Nets estimated from cohort data, and polygenic risk scores constructed using published summary statistics from genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMA). We evaluate the interplay between relatedness, trait architecture and optimal marker density, by predicting height, body mass index (BMI) and high-density lipoprotein level (HDL) in two data cohorts, originating from Croatia and Scotland. We empirically demonstrate that dense models are better when all genetic effects are small (height and BMI) and target individuals are related to the training samples, while sparse models predict better in unrelated individuals and when some effects have moderate size (HDL). For HDL sparse models achieved good across-cohort prediction, performing similarly to the GWAMA risk score and to models trained within the same cohort, which indicates that, for predicting traits with moderately sized effects, large sample sizes and familial structure become less important, though still potentially useful. Finally, we propose a novel ensemble of whole-genome predictors with GWAMA risk scores and demonstrate that the resulting meta-model achieves higher prediction accuracy than either model on its own. We conclude that although current genomic predictors are not accurate enough for diagnostic purposes, performance can be improved without requiring access to large-scale individual-level data. Our methodologically simple meta-model is a means of performing predictive meta-analysis for optimizing genomic predictions and can be easily extended to incorporate multiple population-level summary statistics or other domain knowledge. PMID:25918167

  7. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Life History Traits in the Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Shook, D. R.; Brooks, A.; Johnson, T. E.

    1996-01-01

    We have identified chromosomal regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) specifying life history traits in recombinant-inbred strains of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This approach also allows us to examine epistatic interactions between loci and pleiotropic effects on different traits at specific loci. QTLs for mean life span were identified on chromosomes II (near stP101), IV (stP5) and the X (stP61), and QTLs for fertility were identified on II (maP1), III (stP19) and IV (stP51). The QTLs for mean life span accounted for 90% of the genetic component of variance. The loci for mean fertility accounted for 88% of the genetic component of variance. Additional QTLs for temperature-sensitive fertility [II (stP36) and V (stP6)] and internal hatching [IV (stP5)] were also mapped in these crosses. We found evidence for epistatic effects on mean life span between maP1 and bP1 (V), and for epistatic effects on mean fertility between stP36 and stP6, between stP98 (II) and stP192 (V), between maP1 and stP127 (III), between maP1 and stP103 (X), and between stP5 and stP6. Negatively correlated, pleiotropic effects on mean life span and internal hatching were found linked to stP5. PMID:8849889

  8. Microbiomes in light of traits: A phylogenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Martiny, Jennifer B H; Jones, Stuart E; Lennon, Jay T; Martiny, Adam C

    2015-11-01

    A focus on the phenotypic characteristics of microorganisms-their traits-offers a path for interpreting the growing amount of microbiome data. We review key aspects of microbial traits, as well as approaches used to assay their phylogenetic distribution. Recent studies reveal that microbial traits are differentially conserved across the tree of life and appear to be conserved in a hierarchical fashion, possibly linked to their biochemical complexity. These results suggest a predictive framework whereby the genetic (or taxonomic) resolution of microbiome variation among samples provides information about the traits under selection. The organizational parallels seen among human and free-living microbiomes seem to support this idea. Developments in this framework may offer predictions not only for how microbial composition responds to changing environmental conditions, but also for how these changes may alter the health or functioning in human, engineered, and environmental systems. PMID:26542581

  9. Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum): independent traits

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum): independent traits and basis,VT 05405, USA Plasmodium mexicanum, a malaria parasite of lizards, exhibits substantial variation among histories of microparasites, such as the malaria organisms (Plasmodium). Within its vertebrate host

  10. Splenic infarction associated with sickle cell trait at low altitude.

    PubMed

    Seegars, Mary Beth; Brett, Allan S

    2015-12-01

    Objective and importance Sickle cell trait is widely known to be associated with splenic infarction at high altitudes. Although textbooks and reviews imply that this complication does not occur at low altitudes, we encountered such a case and identified several previous cases in the literature. Clinical presentation An 18-year-old woman with sickle cell trait who resided near sea level presented with left upper quadrant abdominal pain and was found to have multiple splenic infarcts. She was otherwise well, with no comorbidities that would predispose to hypoxemia or vascular injury. A review of the literature revealed 12 previously published cases of low-altitude splenic infarction in patients with sickle trait; 7 of those patients had comorbidities that likely predisposed to splenic infarction. Intervention None. Conclusion Spontaneous splenic infarction can occur in patients with sickle trait who live at low altitudes. It is unclear whether this complication is rare, or whether it is relatively common but under-recognized. PMID:26133225

  11. Species identity influences belowground arthropod assemblages via functional traits

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Courtney E.; Read, Quentin D.; Van Nuland, Michael E.; Bryant, Jessica A. M.; Welch, Jessica N.; Altobelli, Joseph T.; Douglas, Morgan J.; Genung, Mark A.; Haag, Elliot N.; Jones, Devin N.; Long, Hannah E.; Wilburn, Adam D.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

    2013-01-01

    Plant species influence belowground communities in a variety of ways, ultimately impacting nutrient cycling. Functional plant traits provide a means whereby species identity can influence belowground community interactions, but little work has examined whether species identity influences belowground community processes when correcting for evolutionary history. Specifically, we hypothesized that closely related species would exhibit (i) more similar leaf and root functional traits than more distantly related species, and (ii) more similar associated soil arthropod communities. We found that after correcting for evolutionary history, tree species identity influenced belowground arthropod communities through plant functional traits. These data suggest that plant species structure may be an important predictor in shaping associated soil arthropod communities and further suggest the importance of better understanding the extended consequences of evolutionary history on ecological processes, as similarity in traits may not always reflect similar ecology.

  12. A dyadic-interactional perspective of implicit trait policies 

    E-print Network

    Benzer, Justin Kane

    2009-05-15

    of complementarity where behavior tends to be complementary on a dimension of dominance-submissiveness and supplementary on a dimension of warmth-coldness. Implicit trait policies are thought to influence judgments of behavioral effectiveness and be influenced...

  13. Toward knowledge support for analysis and interpretation of complex traits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The systematic description of complex traits, from the organism to the cellular level, is important for hypothesis generation about underlying disease mechanisms. We discuss how intelligent algorithms might provide support, leading to faster throughput. PMID:24079802

  14. Genetic studies of incubation behaviour and Mendelian traits in chickens 

    E-print Network

    Basheer, Atia

    2013-07-06

    Finding the genes that underlie variation in production and developmental traits has important economic applications. Incubation behaviour represents a loss of production in conventional breeds of chicken adapted to local ...

  15. Could an Obese Dad's Sperm Pass Traits to His Kids?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an Obese Dad's Sperm Pass Traits to His Kids? Study finds differences in gene activity based on ... explanation for why heavy dads often have heavy kids. "At a basic level, most people know that ...

  16. Prediction of carcass traits utilizing growth and feedlot performance 

    E-print Network

    Smith, John Berryman

    1997-01-01

    Brahman x Hereford F1 females of similar age and production were used to standardize environmental and management effects. The individual sires and dams within each breeding were selected to represent a diverse range of phenotypic traits. This data base...

  17. Trait-based approaches to marine microbial ecology

    E-print Network

    Barton, Andrew David

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to understand how the functional traits of species, biotic interactions, and the environment jointly regulate the community ecology of phytoplankton. In Chapter 2, I examined Continuous Plankton ...

  18. Threat and trait anxiety affect stability of gaze fixation.

    PubMed

    Laretzaki, Georgia; Plainis, Sotiris; Vrettos, Ioannis; Chrisoulakis, Anna; Pallikaris, Ioannis; Bitsios, Panos

    2011-03-01

    Threat accelerates early visual information processing, as shown by shorter P100 latencies of pattern Visual Evoked Potentials in subjects with low trait anxiety, but the opposite is true for high anxious subjects. We sought to determine if, and how, threat and trait anxiety interact to affect stability of gaze fixation. We used video oculography to record gaze position in the presence and in the absence of a fixational stimulus, in a safe and a verbal threat condition in subjects characterised for their trait anxiety. Trait anxiety significantly predicted fixational instability in the threat condition. An extreme tertile analysis revealed that fixation was less stable in the high anxiety group, especially under threat or in the absence of a stimulus. The effects of anxiety extend to perceptual and sensorimotor processes. These results have implications for the understanding of individual differences in occulomotor planning and visually guided behavior. PMID:21277935

  19. ESSENTIAL BIODIVERSITY VARIABLES (EBV) AND PLANT FUNCTIONAL TRAITS FROM EARTH

    E-print Network

    ESSENTIAL BIODIVERSITY VARIABLES (EBV) AND PLANT FUNCTIONAL TRAITS FROM EARTH OBSERVATION AND IMAGE BenefitBenefit Areas http://www.earthobservations.org/index.shtml 3 #12;ESSENTIAL BIODIVERSITY VARIABLES change Quantifiable Repeatable Transferable Biological Biodiversity dimensions Biodiversity

  20. Is cyberbullying related to trait or state anger?

    PubMed

    Lonigro, Antonia; Schneider, Barry H; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Pallini, Susanna; Brunner, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Anger is a powerful emotion shared by victims and bullies in both physical and electronic forms of bullying. However, little is known about the specific roles of trait anger and state anger in involvement in bullying episodes. The purpose of this study was to verify which component of anger, trait or state, is more strongly related to physical and cyberbullying and victimization. Students between the ages 11-19 (N = 716, 392 female, 324 male) completed the state trait anger expression inventory-2 child and adolescent and a measure of victimization and bullying. Results for cyberbullying suggested a major vulnerability among bullies and victims to experience anger as a personality trait as well some links between state anger, cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Moreover, the outward, explosive expression of anger appears to be common among cyber and physical bullies. Implications for intervention programs are discussed. PMID:25081097

  1. The Inheritance of Plant and Flower Traits in Rose 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Sarah E

    2013-02-05

    must be discovered through statistical genetic research. This genetic study focuses on valued traits including shrub growth type, flower color, flower form, flower diameter, the presence or absence of stem and petiole prickles, bloom habit...

  2. Trait selection in flowering plants: how does sexual selection contribute?

    PubMed

    Delph, Lynda F; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2006-08-01

    By highlighting and merging the frameworks of sexual selection envisioned by Arnold (1994) and Murphy (1998), we discuss how sexual selection can occur in plants even though individuals do not directly interact. We review studies on traits that influence pollen export and receipt in a variety of hermaphroditic and gynodioecious plants with the underlying premise that pollination dynamics influences mate acquisition. Most of the studies reviewed found that phenotypes that enhance pollen export are in harmony with those that enhance pollen receipt suggesting that in many cases pollinator visitation rates limit both male and female function. In contrast, fewer traits were under opposing selection; but when they were, the traits most often were associated with enhancing the specific aspects of a given sex function. Our review helps clarify and illustrate why sexual selection can be a component of trait evolution in hermaphrodite plants. PMID:21672758

  3. Exploring the Relationships between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Objective Socio-Emotional Outcomes in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K. V.; Sangareau, Yolanda; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Trait emotional intelligence ("trait EI" or "trait emotional self-efficacy") is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. This paper examines the validity of this construct, as operationalized by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form…

  4. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  5. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Gregory K.; Martz, Dowell E.

    1989-01-01

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinguishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts.

  6. N=1 supersymmetric {beta}-functions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D. R. T.

    1997-06-15

    Recent results on three-loop, four-loop and large-N{sub f}{beta}-functions in supersymmetric gauge theories are summarised. It is argued that the O(1/N{sub f})-corrected form of {beta}{sub g} in SQCD is consistent with the existence of the conformal window 3N{sub c}/2

  7. Method for treating beta-spodumene ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Day, J. Paul (Big Flats, NY); Hickman, David L. (Big Flats, NY)

    1994-09-27

    A vapor-phase method for treating a beta-spodumene ceramic article to achieve a substitution of exchangeable hydrogen ions for the lithium present in the beta-spodumene crystals, wherein a barrier between the ceramic article and the source of exchangeable hydrogen ions is maintained in order to prevent lithium contamination of the hydrogen ion source and to generate highly recoverable lithium salts, is provided.

  8. Exact relativistic {beta} decay endpoint spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Masood, S. S.; Nasri, S.; Schechter, J.; Tortola, M. A.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2007-10-15

    The exact relativistic form for the {beta} decay endpoint spectrum is derived and presented in a simple factorized form. We show that our exact formula can be well approximated to yield the endpoint form used in the fit method of the KATRIN Collaboration. We also discuss the three-neutrino case and how information from neutrino oscillation experiments may be useful in analyzing future {beta} decay endpoint experiments.

  9. Characterization of beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase of alkalotolerant intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, D H; Kang, H J; Park, S H; Kobashi, K

    1994-03-01

    The number of alkalotolerant intestinal bacteria was 1% of the total flora in humans and 0.8% of those in rats. The beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase activity of these intestinal bacteria was induced by elevating the pH of the medium, but the growth was not changed. The enzyme activity in a medium of pH 7 was 5- to 10-fold higher than that in a medium of pH 6. Isolated bacteria from human and rat feces were cultured in a pH 5 general anaerobic medium (GAM) broth to reach a stationary phase, then the pH of the media was changed from 5 to 8. Both beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase were increased 9.2-12.1-fold. The activity of these enzymes was also increased 2-16-fold by adding substrates (p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucuropyranoside or p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucuronide). beta-Glucuronidase(s) was inhibited by saccharic acid 1,4-lactone or D-glucuronic acid. However, when lactulose was added to the medium, and then intestinal microflora were inoculated in the medium, the productivity of these enzymes dramatically decreased. We thus contend that the induction of the beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase of intestinal bacteria by a high pH can cause colorectal cancer. PMID:8019510

  10. Generality of leaf trait relationships: A test across six biomes

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, P.B.; Ellsworth, D.S.; Walters, M.B.; Vose, J.M.; Gresham, C.; Volin, J.C.; Bowman, W.D. |

    1999-09-01

    Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here the authors address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity, net photosynthetic capacity (A{sub max}), leaf diffusive conductance (G{sub S}), specific leaf area (SLA), and nitrogen (N) status, for more than 100 species in six distinct biomes of the Americas. The six biomes were: alpine tundra-subalpine forest ecotone, cold temperate forest-prairie ecotone, montane cool temperate forest, desert shrubland, subtropical forest, and tropical rain forest. Despite large differences in climate and evolutionary history, in all biomes mass-based leaf N (N{sub mass}), SLA, G{sub S}, and A{sub max} were positively related to one another and decreased with increasing leaf life span. The relationships between pairs of leaf traits exhibited similar slopes among biomes, suggesting a predictable set of scaling relationships among key leaf morphological, chemical, and metabolic traits that are replicated globally among terrestrial ecosystems regardless of biome or vegetation type. However, the intercept (i.e., the overall elevation of regression lines) of relationships between pairs of leaf traits usually differed among biomes. With increasing aridity across sites, species had greater A{sub max} for a given level of G{sub S} and lower SLA for any given leaf life span. Using principal components analysis, most variation among species was explained by an axis related to mass-based leaf traits (A{sub max}, N, and SLA) while a second axis reflected climate, G{sub S}, and other area-based leaf traits.

  11. Consumer trait variation influences tritrophic interactions in salt marsh communities.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Anne Randall; Hanley, Torrance C; Orozco, Nohelia P; Zerebecki, Robyn A

    2015-07-01

    The importance of intraspecific variation has emerged as a key question in community ecology, helping to bridge the gap between ecology and evolution. Although much of this work has focused on plant species, recent syntheses have highlighted the prevalence and potential importance of morphological, behavioral, and life history variation within animals for ecological and evolutionary processes. Many small-bodied consumers live on the plant that they consume, often resulting in host plant-associated trait variation within and across consumer species. Given the central position of consumer species within tritrophic food webs, such consumer trait variation may play a particularly important role in mediating trophic dynamics, including trophic cascades. In this study, we used a series of field surveys and laboratory experiments to document intraspecific trait variation in a key consumer species, the marsh periwinkle Littoraria irrorata, based on its host plant species (Spartina alterniflora or Juncus roemerianus) in a mixed species assemblage. We then conducted a 12-week mesocosm experiment to examine the effects of Littoraria trait variation on plant community structure and dynamics in a tritrophic salt marsh food web. Littoraria from different host plant species varied across a suite of morphological and behavioral traits. These consumer trait differences interacted with plant community composition and predator presence to affect overall plant stem height, as well as differentially alter the density and biomass of the two key plant species in this system. Whether due to genetic differences or phenotypic plasticity, trait differences between consumer types had significant ecological consequences for the tritrophic marsh food web over seasonal time scales. By altering the cascading effects of the top predator on plant community structure and dynamics, consumer differences may generate a feedback over longer time scales, which in turn influences the degree of trait divergence in subsequent consumer populations. PMID:26257878

  12. Consumer trait variation influences tritrophic interactions in salt marsh communities

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Anne Randall; Hanley, Torrance C; Orozco, Nohelia P; Zerebecki, Robyn A

    2015-01-01

    The importance of intraspecific variation has emerged as a key question in community ecology, helping to bridge the gap between ecology and evolution. Although much of this work has focused on plant species, recent syntheses have highlighted the prevalence and potential importance of morphological, behavioral, and life history variation within animals for ecological and evolutionary processes. Many small-bodied consumers live on the plant that they consume, often resulting in host plant-associated trait variation within and across consumer species. Given the central position of consumer species within tritrophic food webs, such consumer trait variation may play a particularly important role in mediating trophic dynamics, including trophic cascades. In this study, we used a series of field surveys and laboratory experiments to document intraspecific trait variation in a key consumer species, the marsh periwinkle Littoraria irrorata, based on its host plant species (Spartina alterniflora or Juncus roemerianus) in a mixed species assemblage. We then conducted a 12-week mesocosm experiment to examine the effects of Littoraria trait variation on plant community structure and dynamics in a tritrophic salt marsh food web. Littoraria from different host plant species varied across a suite of morphological and behavioral traits. These consumer trait differences interacted with plant community composition and predator presence to affect overall plant stem height, as well as differentially alter the density and biomass of the two key plant species in this system. Whether due to genetic differences or phenotypic plasticity, trait differences between consumer types had significant ecological consequences for the tritrophic marsh food web over seasonal time scales. By altering the cascading effects of the top predator on plant community structure and dynamics, consumer differences may generate a feedback over longer time scales, which in turn influences the degree of trait divergence in subsequent consumer populations. PMID:26257878

  13. Neural Basis of Interpersonal Traits in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sollberger, Marc; Stanley, Christine M.; Wilson, Stephen M.; Gyurak, Anett; Beckman, Victoria; Growdon, Matthew; Jang, Jung; Weiner, Michael W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Rankin, Katherine P.

    2009-01-01

    Several functional and structural imaging studies have investigated the neural basis of personality in healthy adults, but human lesions studies are scarce. Personality changes are a common symptom in patients with neurodegenerative diseases like frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and semantic dementia (SD), allowing a unique window into the neural basis of personality. In this study, we used the Interpersonal Adjective Scales to investigate the structural basis of eight interpersonal traits (dominance, arrogance, coldness, introversion, submissiveness, ingenuousness, warmth, and extraversion) in 257 subjects: 214 patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as FTD, SD, progressive non-fluent aphasia, Alzheimer’s disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, corticobasal degeneration, and progressive supranuclear palsy and 43 healthy elderly people. Measures of interpersonal traits were correlated with regional atrophy pattern using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of structural MR images. Interpersonal traits mapped onto distinct brain regions depending on the degree to which they involved agency and affiliation. Interpersonal traits high in agency related to left dorsolateral prefrontal and left lateral frontopolar regions, whereas interpersonal traits high in affiliation related to right ventromedial prefrontal and right anteromedial temporal regions. Consistent with the existing literature on neural networks underlying social cognition, these results indicate that brain regions related to externally-focused, executive control-related processes underlie agentic interpersonal traits such as dominance, whereas brain regions related to internally-focused, emotion- and reward-related processes underlie affiliative interpersonal traits such as warmth. In addition, these findings indicate that interpersonal traits are subserved by complex neural networks rather than discrete anatomic areas. PMID:19540253

  14. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  15. Neoclassical transport in high {beta} tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high {beta} large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high {beta} large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low {beta} values by a factor ({var_epsilon}/q{sup 2}{beta}){sup {1/2}} II. This factor is the ratio of plasma volume in the boundary layer to the volume in the core. The fraction of trapped particles on a given flux surface (f{sub t}) is also reduced by this factor so that {approximately} {sub ({var_epsilon}}/q{sup 2}{beta}){sup {1/2}}. Special attention is given to the current equation, since this is thought to be relevant at low 3 and therefore may also be relevant at high {beta}. The bootstrap current term is found to exceed the actual current by a factor of the square root of the aspect ratio.

  16. The effect of physical therapy on beta-endorphin levels.

    PubMed

    Bender, Tamás; Nagy, György; Barna, István; Tefner, Ildikó; Kádas, Eva; Géher, Pál

    2007-07-01

    Beta-endorphin (betaE) is an important reliever of pain. Various stressors and certain modalities of physiotherapy are potent inducers of the release of endogenous betaE to the blood stream. Most forms of exercise also increase blood betaE level, especially when exercise intensity involves reaching the anaerobic threshold and is associated with the elevation of serum lactate level. Age, gender, and mental activity during exercise also may influence betaE levels. Publications on the potential stimulating effect of manual therapy and massage on betaE release are controversial. Sauna, mud bath, and thermal water increase betaE levels through conveying heat to the tissues. The majority of the techniques for electrical stimulation have a similar effect, which is exerted both centrally and--to a lesser extent--peripherally. However, the parameters of electrotherapy have not yet been standardised. The efficacy of analgesia and the improvement of general well-being do not necessarily correlate with betaE level. Although in addition to blood, increased brain and cerebrospinal fluid betaE levels are also associated with pain, the majority of studies have concerned blood betaE levels. In general, various modalities of physical therapy might influence endorphin levels in the serum or in the cerebrospinal fluid--this is usually manifested by elevation with potential mitigation of pain. However, a causal relationship between the elevation of blood, cerebrospinal fluid or brain betaE levels and the onset of the analgesic action cannot be demonstrated with certainty. PMID:17483960

  17. An in situ study of beta-glucosidase activity in normal and Gaucher fibroblasts with fluorogenic probes.

    PubMed

    Kohen, E; Kohen, C; Hirschberg, J G; Santus, R; Grabowski, G; Mangel, W; Gatt, S; Prince, J

    1993-09-01

    Beta-glucosidase activity was evaluated in situ by means of fluorogenic probes in normal human fibroblasts and fibroblasts from homozygous carriers of the Gaucher trait. Probe internalization, targeting to lysosomes and post-cleavage probe retention were the primary concerns. Internalization and targeting were attempted by in situ photosensitized labilization of lysosomal membranes, lysosomotropic detergents and the use of low density lipid (LDL) or the receptor ligand apolipoprotein E (ApoE). Post-cleavage increase of fluorescence with fluoresceinyl (bis) beta-glucopyranoside was appreciably above the rather large pre-cleavage emission. In cells incubated overnight with nonylumbelliferyl-beta-glucoside (UG9) in the presence of bovine serum albumin and in the absence of ApoE, the probe was dealt with as a cytotoxic agent, accumulating in a paranuclear cap, most likely comprising elements of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. Targeting of UG9 to lysosomes occurred within 1 to 3 h of preincubation in the presence of ApoE. There was some evidence of specificity, as Gaucher fibroblasts exhibited weaker cleavage of UG9 (by 50 per cent or more) compared to normal fibroblasts, but in the Gaucher cells there was some residual beta-glucosidase activity. Cleavage of UG9 was nearly totally suppressed in Gaucher cells treated with the beta-glucosidase inhibitor, conduritol B epoxide, for 24 h to 7 days. Suppression in the control fibroblasts was evident but to a lesser degree. The in situ method of fluorogenic assay established for beta-glucosidase deficiency, is in principle applicable to enzyme deficiencies in other lysosomal storage diseases, or to evaluate enhanced enzyme activity following gene therapy. PMID:8403230

  18. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-10-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Autism spectrum traits in normal individuals: a preliminary VBM analysis

    PubMed Central

    Focquaert, Farah; Vanneste, Sven

    2015-01-01

    In light of the new DSM-5 autism spectrum disorders diagnosis in which the autism spectrum reflects a group of neurodevelopmental disorders existing on a continuum from mild to severe expression of autistic traits, and recent empirical findings showing a continuous distribution of autistic traits in the general population, our voxel based morphometry study compares normal individuals with high autistic traits to normal individuals with low autistic traits. We hypothesize that normal individuals with high autistic traits in terms of empathizing and systemizing [high systemizing (HS)/low empathizing (LE)] share brain irregularities with individuals that fall within the clinical autism spectrum disorder. We find differences in several social brain network areas between our groups. Specifically, we find increased gray matter (GM) volume in the orbitofrontal cortex, the cuneus, the hippocampus and parahippocampus and reduced GM volume in the inferior temporal cortex, the insula, and the amygdala in our HS/LE individuals relative to our HE/LS (low autistic traits in terms of empathizing and systemizing) individuals. PMID:26029082

  20. Searching for adaptive traits in genetic resources - phenology based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Abdallah

    2015-04-01

    Searching for adaptive traits in genetic resources - phenology based approach Abdallah Bari, Kenneth Street, Eddy De Pauw, Jalal Eddin Omari, and Chandra M. Biradar International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Rabat Institutes, Rabat, Morocco Phenology is an important plant trait not only for assessing and forecasting food production but also for searching in genebanks for adaptive traits. Among the phenological parameters we have been considering to search for such adaptive and rare traits are the onset (sowing period) and the seasonality (growing period). Currently an application is being developed as part of the focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) approach to use climatic data in order to identify crop growing seasons and characterize them in terms of onset and duration. These approximations of growing period characteristics can then be used to estimate flowering and maturity dates for dryland crops, such as wheat, barley, faba bean, lentils and chickpea, and assess, among others, phenology-related traits such as days to heading [dhe] and grain filling period [gfp]. The approach followed here is based on first calculating long term average daily temperatures by fitting a curve to the monthly data over days from beginning of the year. Prior to the identification of these phenological stages the onset is extracted first from onset integer raster GIS layers developed based on a model of the growing period that considers both moisture and temperature limitations. The paper presents some examples of real applications of the approach to search for rare and adaptive traits.

  1. Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are decoupled in five species-rich tropical-subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; McCormack, M Luke; Ma, Chengen; Kong, Deliang; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyong; Zeng, Hui; Niinemets, Ülo; Guo, Dali

    2015-09-01

    Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are critical to leaf photosynthesis, yet it is debated whether these two sets of traits vary in a fully coordinated manner or there is room for independent variation. Here, we tested the relationship between leaf economics traits, including leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf dry mass per area, and leaf hydraulic traits including stomatal density and vein density in five tropical-subtropical forests. Surprisingly, these two suites of traits were statistically decoupled. This decoupling suggests that independent trait dimensions exist within a leaf, with leaf economics dimension corresponding to light capture and tissue longevity, and the hydraulic dimension to water-use and leaf temperature maintenance. Clearly, leaf economics and hydraulic traits can vary independently, thus allowing for more possible plant trait combinations. Compared with a single trait dimension, multiple trait dimensions may better enable species adaptations to multifarious niche dimensions, promote diverse plant strategies and facilitate species coexistence. PMID:26108338

  2. Linking Tropical Forest Function to Hydraulic Traits in a Size-Structured and Trait-Based Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, B. O.; Gloor, E. U.; Fauset, S.; Fyllas, N.; Galbraith, D.; Baker, T. R.; Rowland, L.; Fisher, R.; Binks, O.; Mencuccini, M.; Malhi, Y.; Stahl, C.; Wagner, F. H.; Bonal, D.; da Costa, A. C. L.; Ferreira, L.; Meir, P.

    2014-12-01

    A major weakness of forest ecosystem models applied to Amazonia is their inability to capture the diversity of responses to changes in water availability commonly observed within and across forest communities, severely hampering efforts to predict the fate of Amazon forests under climate change. Such models often prescribe moisture sensitivity using heuristic response functions which are uniform across all individuals and lack important knowledge about trade-offs in hydraulic traits. We address this weakness by implementing a process representation of plant hydraulics into an individual- and trait-based model (Trait Forest Simulator; TFS) intended for application at discrete sites across Amazonia. The model represents a trade-off in the safety and efficiency of water conduction in xylem tissue through hydraulic traits, which then lead to variation in plant water use and growth dynamics. The model accounts for the buffering effects of leaf and stem capacitance on leaf water potential at short time scales, and cavitation-induced reductions in whole-plant conductance over longer periods of water stress. We explore multiple possible links between this hydraulic trait spectrum and other whole-plant traits, such as maximum photosynthetic capacity and wood density. The model is shown to greatly improve the diversity of tree response to seasonal changes in water availability as well as response to drought, as determined by comparison with sap flux and stem dendrometry measurements. Importantly, this individual- and trait-based framework provides a testbed for identifying both critical processes and functional traits needed for inclusion in coarse-scale Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, which will lead to reduced uncertainty in the future state of Amazon tropical forests.

  3. Imidazoline compounds protect against interleukin 1beta-induced beta-cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, S V; Appelskog, I B; Kapelioukh, I L; Yang, S N; Köhler, M; Efendic, S; Berggren, P O

    2001-02-01

    Imidazoline compounds have been considered for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We have now investigated the effects of imidazolines on interleukin (IL)-1beta-induced beta-cell apoptosis and the signal transduction pathways involved. Inhibition of Ca2+ influx into beta-cells by D-600, a blocker of voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels, suppressed IL-1beta-induced apoptosis. Our data show that calcineurin, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2B, is responsible for the effect of Ca2+ on beta-cell apoptosis. We also demonstrate that IL-1beta-mediated apoptosis correlates with expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the increase in intracellular production of nitric oxide. An inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), KT5823, suppressed IL-1beta-induced apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of a PKG-dependent pathway in the apoptotic process. One of the major findings in this study is that imidazoline compounds RX871024 and efaroxan, suggested as prototypes of a new generation of drugs against type 2 diabetes, can protect against IL-1beta-induced apoptosis in pancreatic beta-cells, possibly by their inhibition of the expression of iNOS, a key element in the IL-1beta-induced apoptotic pathway in pancreatic beta-cells. These data suggest that imidazoline compounds should be explored as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:11272206

  4. Risk factors associated with lambing traits.

    PubMed

    McHugh, N; Berry, D P; Pabiou, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the risk factors associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality in the Irish sheep multibreed population. A total of 135 470 lambing events from 42 675 ewes in 839 Irish crossbred and purebred flocks were available. Risk factors associated with producer-scored ewe lambing difficulty score (scale of one (no difficulty) to four (severe difficulty)) were determined using linear mixed models. Risk factors associated with the logit of the probability of lamb mortality at birth (i.e. binary trait) were determined using generalised estimating equations. For each dependent variable, a series of simple regression models were developed as well as a multiple regression model. In the simple regression models, greater lambing difficulty was associated with quadruplet bearing, younger ewes, of terminal breed origin, lambing in February; for example, first parity ewes experienced greater (P7.0 kg) birth weights, quadruplet born lambs and lambs that experienced a more difficult lambing (predicted probability of death for lambs that required severe and veterinary assistance of 0.15 and 0.32, respectively); lambs from dual-purpose breeds and born to younger ewes were also at greater risk of mortality. In the multiple regression model, the association between ewe parity, age at first lambing, year of lambing and lamb mortality no longer persisted. The trend in solutions of the levels of each fixed effect that remained associated with lamb mortality in the multiple regression model, did not differ from the trends observed in the simple regression models although the differential in relative risk between the different lambing difficulty scores was greater in the multiple regression model. Results from this study show that many common flock- and animal-level factors are associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality and management of different risk category groups (e.g. scanned litter sizes, ewe age groups) can be used to appropriately manage the flock at lambing to reduce their incidence. PMID:26264450

  5. The catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH): first genome-wide search positions trait-determining variants acting additively in the proximal promoter

    PubMed Central

    Mustapic, Maja; Maihofer, Adam X.; Mahata, Manjula; Chen, Yuqing; Baker, Dewleen G.; O'Connor, Daniel T.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) is the biosynthetic enzyme catalyzing formation of norepinephrine. Changes in DBH expression or activity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric disorders. Genetic determination of DBH enzymatic activity and its secretion are only incompletely understood. We began with a genome-wide association search for loci contributing to DBH activity in human plasma. Initially, in a population sample of European ancestry, we identified the proximal DBH promoter as a region harboring three common trait-determining variants (top hit rs1611115, P = 7.2 × 10?51). We confirmed their effects on transcription and showed that the three variants each acted additively on gene expression. Results were replicated in a population sample of Native American descent (top hit rs1611115, P = 4.1 × 10?15). Jointly, DBH variants accounted for 57% of DBH trait variation. We further identified a genome-wide significant SNP at the LOC338797 locus on chromosome 12 as trans-quantitative trait locus (QTL) (rs4255618, P = 4.62 × 10?8). Conditional analyses on DBH identified a third genomic region contributing to DBH variation: a likely cis-QTL adjacent to DBH in SARDH (rs7040170, P = 1.31 × 10?14) on chromosome 9q. We conclude that three common SNPs in the DBH promoter act additively to control phenotypic variation in DBH levels, and that two additional novel loci (SARDH and LOC338797) may also contribute to the expression of this catecholamine biosynthetic trait. Identification of DBH variants with strong effects makes it possible to take advantage of Mendelian randomization approaches to test causal effects of this intermediate trait on disease. PMID:24986918

  6. Floral trait variation and integration as a function of sexual deception in Gorteria diffusa

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Allan G.; Brockington, Samuel F.; de Jager, Marinus L.; Mellers, Gregory; Walker, Rachel H.; Glover, Beverley J.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic integration, the coordinated covariance of suites of morphological traits, is critical for proper functioning of organisms. Angiosperm flowers are complex structures comprising suites of traits that function together to achieve effective pollen transfer. Floral integration could reflect shared genetic and developmental control of these traits, or could arise through pollinator-imposed stabilizing correlational selection on traits. We sought to expose mechanisms underlying floral trait integration in the sexually deceptive daisy, Gorteria diffusa, by testing the hypothesis that stabilizing selection imposed by male pollinators on floral traits involved in mimicry has resulted in tighter integration. To do this, we quantified patterns of floral trait variance and covariance in morphologically divergent G. diffusa floral forms representing a continuum in the levels of sexual deception. We show that integration of traits functioning in visual attraction of male pollinators increases with pollinator deception, and is stronger than integration of non-mimicry trait modules. Consistent patterns of within-population trait variance and covariance across floral forms suggest that integration has not been built by stabilizing correlational selection on genetically independent traits. Instead pollinator specialization has selected for tightened integration within modules of linked traits. Despite potentially strong constraint on morphological evolution imposed by developmental genetic linkages between traits, we demonstrate substantial divergence in traits across G. diffusa floral forms and show that divergence has often occurred without altering within-population patterns of trait correlations. PMID:25002705

  7. Floral trait variation and integration as a function of sexual deception in Gorteria diffusa.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Allan G; Brockington, Samuel F; de Jager, Marinus L; Mellers, Gregory; Walker, Rachel H; Glover, Beverley J

    2014-08-19

    Phenotypic integration, the coordinated covariance of suites of morphological traits, is critical for proper functioning of organisms. Angiosperm flowers are complex structures comprising suites of traits that function together to achieve effective pollen transfer. Floral integration could reflect shared genetic and developmental control of these traits, or could arise through pollinator-imposed stabilizing correlational selection on traits. We sought to expose mechanisms underlying floral trait integration in the sexually deceptive daisy, Gorteria diffusa, by testing the hypothesis that stabilizing selection imposed by male pollinators on floral traits involved in mimicry has resulted in tighter integration. To do this, we quantified patterns of floral trait variance and covariance in morphologically divergent G. diffusa floral forms representing a continuum in the levels of sexual deception. We show that integration of traits functioning in visual attraction of male pollinators increases with pollinator deception, and is stronger than integration of non-mimicry trait modules. Consistent patterns of within-population trait variance and covariance across floral forms suggest that integration has not been built by stabilizing correlational selection on genetically independent traits. Instead pollinator specialization has selected for tightened integration within modules of linked traits. Despite potentially strong constraint on morphological evolution imposed by developmental genetic linkages between traits, we demonstrate substantial divergence in traits across G. diffusa floral forms and show that divergence has often occurred without altering within-population patterns of trait correlations. PMID:25002705

  8. Oligomerization and toxicity of A{beta} fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Caine, Joanne M.; Bharadwaj, Prashant R.; Centre for Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease Research and Care, School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia ; Sankovich, Sonia E.; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; Streltsov, Victor A.; Varghese, Jose

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We expressed amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide as a soluble maltose binding protein fusion (MBP-A{beta}42 and MBP-A{beta}16). {yields} The full length A{beta} peptide fusion, MBP-A{beta}42, forms oligomeric species as determined by SDS-PAGE gels, gel filtration and DLS. {yields} The MBP-A{beta}42, but not MBP-A{beta}16 or MBP alone, is toxic to both yeast and mammalian cells as determined by toxicity assays. -- Abstract: This study has found that the Maltose binding protein A{beta}42 fusion protein (MBP-A{beta}42) forms soluble oligomers while the shorter MBP-A{beta}16 fusion and control MBP did not. MBP-A{beta}42, but neither MBP-A{beta}16 nor control MBP, was toxic in a dose-dependent manner in both yeast and primary cortical neuronal cells. This study demonstrates the potential utility of MBP-A{beta}42 as a reagent for drug screening assays in yeast and neuronal cell cultures and as a candidate for further A{beta}42 characterization.

  9. Associations between 2 paternal casein haplotypes and milk yield traits of Swiss Fleckvieh cattle.

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Martin H

    2008-01-01

    Associations between casein haplotypes and milk yield traits of offspring from 5 Swiss Fleckvieh AI test bulls were investigated. The analysis was performed by using a daughter design, where each daughter inherited either paternal haplotype B-A1-A-A or B-A2-A-A for alleles of alpha s1-, beta-, alpha s2- and kappa-casein genes. The substitution effects of paternal CSN2 A1 versus A2 on protein yield deviations (YDs) were significant (P < 0.05), whereas their effects on milk and fat YDs were not. The paternal substitution effects of the CSN2 A1 versus the A2 allele on protein YDs within the 5 sires did not reach the significance level. This is due to the contrary allele substitution effect of a sire compared to the other 4 sires. The effects of maternal haplotypes on milk, protein and fat YDs were not significant. However, it is noteworthy that the effects of haplotypes with a low frequency in the population deviate largely from the most frequent haplotype B-A2-A-A. The effects of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) genotypes were significant for protein YDs but not for milk and fat YDs. The association between the paternal CSN2 A1 and A2 alleles and milk protein YDs within sires but not milk and fat YDs indicate an interaction, which might be a consequence of CSN2 heterogeneity or a closely linked gene that is contributing to the estimated effects. PMID:18263971

  10. Expression of lymphotoxin-beta (LT-beta) in chronic inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    Agyekum, Sarah; Church, Alison; Sohail, Muhammed; Krausz, Thomas; Van Noorden, Susan; Polak, Julia; Cohen, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Functional studies in gene-knockout and transgenic mice systems have shown that lymphotoxin-alpha and lymphotoxin-beta (LT-alpha and LT-beta) are of fundamental importance in peripheral lymphoid organ development, but it remains unclear what role these cytokines have to play in the adult immune response and in the pathogenesis of disease. In this study, a polyclonal anti-serum to human LT-beta was used to investigate the distribution of LT-beta by immunohistochemistry in normal and diseased tissues. In the gut, lymph nodes, spleen, and tonsil, there was some LT-beta present on a variety of lymphoid cell types. In contrast, strong staining for LT-beta was observed on plasma cells and a subpopulation of CD4+ T cells in tissues affected by chronic inflammatory disease or infection, for example in inflammatory bowel disease, and in lymph nodes obtained from patients with sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. In tuberculous and sarcoid lymph nodes, LT-beta expression also occurred on some but not all epithelioid histiocytes within granulomas and on multi-nucleated giant cells. These findings support a role for LT-beta in human disease and suggest that it might represent a therapeutic target in a variety of common infective or inflammatory disorders. PMID:12474234

  11. The Majorana Project: Ge-76 0 Nu Beta Beta Decay Neutrino Mass Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E. ); Miley, Harry S. )

    2001-12-01

    The analysis of recent results from solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments suggest next generation double-beta decay experiments sensitive to effective electron neutrino masses on the order of 0.05 eV could result in the direct observation of Ov double beta decay.

  12. Development of beta-gamma spectroscopy for precise measurements of beta-decay branching ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagumo, Junya; Himac H312 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The ft values for superallowed beta decays yield the most precise value of Vud, the up-down element of CKM matrix. Recently, the ft values for the mirror decays with T = 1/2 can be used to extract precise weak interaction information. In these studies, the precise values of branching ratio as well as QEC and half -life are required. However, it is very challenging to determine the precise branching ratio for the beta-decay feeding to not only excited states but also the ground state. In this determination, the knowledge of a very precise absolute gamma-ray detection efficiency and the counting system of total number of beta decays are required. Therefore, we developed a new system for beta-gamma spectroscopy with high-energy secondary beam. The high-energy secondary beam including beta emitters was implanted in the center of a 6-mm-thick GSO scintillator. The beta rays were measured by the GSO scintillator, which ensured the high beta-ray detection efficiency of nearly 100%. The gamma rays were measured by four clover type germanium detectors installed around the GSO scintillator. The absolute gamma-ray detection efficiency was determined by using other superallowed beta emitters with known gamma-ray intensity in the same condition as the nucleus of interest.

  13. Interactions of vitamin D3 with bovine beta-lactoglobulin A and beta-casein.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Stephanie A; Yada, Rickey Y; Rousseau, Dérick

    2005-10-01

    It is of nutritional significance to fortify processed dairy products (e.g., cheese, yogurt, and ice cream) with vitamin D3; however, the inherent complexity of these foods may influence the stability and bioavailability of this nutrient. In the present study, the interactions of vitamin D3 with beta-lactoglobulin A and beta-casein were investigated under various environmental conditions (i.e., pH and ionic strength) using fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. The results indicated that vitamin D3 was bound to both beta-lactoglobulin A and beta-casein depending on the solution conditions. The apparent dissociation constants ranged from 0.02 to 0.29 microM for beta-lactoglobulin A, whereas the beta-casein apparent dissociation constants ranged from 0.06 to 0.26 microM. The apparent mole ratios were also comparable, i.e., 0.51-2.04 and 1.16-2.05 mol of vitamin D3 were bound per mole of beta-lactoglobulin A and beta-casein, respectively. It was concluded that these interactions may strongly influence vitamin D3 stability and, hence, bioavailability in processed dairy products. PMID:16190663

  14. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Bayón, Camila; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality questionnaires. Results: Positive correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and anti-social personality traits in both genders was observed (r = 0.336 and P < 0.018). Also, a positive correlation was observed between basal plasmatestosterone levels and criminal thinking traits (r = 0. 376, P < 0.05) and Millon compulsive (r = 0.386, P < 0.010) in both genders. In female participants, a positive correlation between basal plasmatestosterone levels and psychoticism (r = 0. 25, P < 0.019) and Cloninger AUTO TCI (r = 0.507, P < 0.004) was observed. In males participants positive correlation between baseline plasmatic Testosterone levels and Millon Antisocial trait (r = 0. 544, P < 0.19) and Millon Hypomania trait (r = 0. 485, P < 0.41) and Millon Drug Abuse trait (r = 0.632, P < 0.05) was reported. Conclusion: Our results suggest gender differences in clinical and personality variables related with basal plasma testosterone level. In men, high plasma testosterone levels were associated with clinical traits, substance abuse and hypomania. Women with higher basal testosterone levels showed higher scores on personality self-direction traits.

  15. Mapping quantitative trait loci for kernel composition in almond

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Almond breeding is increasingly taking into account kernel quality as a breeding objective. Information on the parameters to be considered in evaluating almond quality, such as protein and oil content, as well as oleic acid and tocopherol concentration, has been recently compiled. The genetic control of these traits has not yet been studied in almond, although this information would improve the efficiency of almond breeding programs. Results A map with 56 simple sequence repeat or microsatellite (SSR) markers was constructed for an almond population showing a wide range of variability for the chemical components of the almond kernel. A total of 12 putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling these chemical traits have been detected in this analysis, corresponding to seven genomic regions of the eight almond linkage groups (LG). Some QTL were clustered in the same region or shared the same molecular markers, according to the correlations already found between the chemical traits. The logarithm of the odds (LOD) values for any given trait ranged from 2.12 to 4.87, explaining from 11.0 to 33.1?% of the phenotypic variance of the trait. Conclusions The results produced in the study offer the opportunity to include the new genetic information in almond breeding programs. Increases in the positive traits of kernel quality may be looked for simultaneously whenever they are genetically independent, even if they are negatively correlated. We have provided the first genetic framework for the chemical components of the almond kernel, with twelve QTL in agreement with the large number of genes controlling their metabolism. PMID:22720975

  16. Using Plant Functional Traits to Explain Diversity–Productivity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Gubsch, Marlén; Lipowsky, Annett; Weigelt, Alexandra; Buchmann, Nina; Schmid, Bernhard; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Background The different hypotheses proposed to explain positive species richness–productivity relationships, i.e. selection effect and complementarity effect, imply that plant functional characteristics are at the core of a mechanistic understanding of biodiversity effects. Methodology/Principal Findings We used two community-wide measures of plant functional composition, (1) community-weighted means of trait values (CWM) and (2) functional trait diversity based on Rao’s quadratic diversity (FDQ) to predict biomass production and measures of biodiversity effects in experimental grasslands (Jena Experiment) with different species richness (2, 4, 8, 16 and 60) and different functional group number and composition (1 to 4; legumes, grasses, small herbs, tall herbs) four years after establishment. Functional trait composition had a larger predictive power for community biomass and measures of biodiversitity effects (40–82% of explained variation) than species richness per se (<1–13% of explained variation). CWM explained a larger amount of variation in community biomass (80%) and net biodiversity effects (70%) than FDQ (36 and 38% of explained variation respectively). FDQ explained similar proportions of variation in complementarity effects (24%, positive relationship) and selection effects (28%, negative relationship) as CWM (27% of explained variation for both complementarity and selection effects), but for all response variables the combination of CWM and FDQ led to significant model improvement compared to a separate consideration of different components of functional trait composition. Effects of FDQ were mainly attributable to diversity in nutrient acquisition and life-history strategies. The large spectrum of traits contributing to positive effects of CWM on biomass production and net biodiversity effects indicated that effects of dominant species were associated with different trait combinations. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that the identification of relevant traits and the relative impacts of functional identity of dominant species and functional diversity are essential for a mechanistic understanding of the role of plant diversity for ecosystem processes such as aboveground biomass production. PMID:22623961

  17. Fungal traits that drive ecosystem dynamics on land.

    PubMed

    Treseder, Kathleen K; Lennon, Jay T

    2015-06-01

    Fungi contribute extensively to a wide range of ecosystem processes, including decomposition of organic carbon, deposition of recalcitrant carbon, and transformations of nitrogen and phosphorus. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about physiological and morphological traits of fungi that directly influence these processes, and we describe the functional genes that encode these traits. In addition, we synthesize information from 157 whole fungal genomes in order to determine relationships among selected functional genes within fungal taxa. Ecosystem-related traits varied most at relatively coarse taxonomic levels. For example, we found that the maximum amount of variance for traits associated with carbon mineralization, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, and stress tolerance could be explained at the levels of order to phylum. Moreover, suites of traits tended to co-occur within taxa. Specifically, the genetic capacities for traits that improve stress tolerance-?-glucan synthesis, trehalose production, and cold-induced RNA helicases-were positively related to one another, and they were more evident in yeasts. Traits that regulate the decomposition of complex organic matter-lignin peroxidases, cellobiohydrolases, and crystalline cellulases-were also positively related, but they were more strongly associated with free-living filamentous fungi. Altogether, these relationships provide evidence for two functional groups: stress tolerators, which may contribute to soil carbon accumulation via the production of recalcitrant compounds; and decomposers, which may reduce soil carbon stocks. It is possible that ecosystem functions, such as soil carbon storage, may be mediated by shifts in the fungal community between stress tolerators and decomposers in response to environmental changes, such as drought and warming. PMID:25971588

  18. Measurements of the CKM Angle beta

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoldus, Rainer; /SLAC

    2005-12-14

    In this article I report on new and updated measurements of the CP-violating parameter {beta}({phi}{sub 1}), which is related to the phase of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark-mixing matrix of the electroweak interaction. Over the past few years, {beta} has become the most precisely known parameter of the CKM unitarity triangle that governs the B system. The results presented here were produced by the two B Factories, BABAR and Belle, based on their most recent datasets of over 600 million B{bar B} events combined. The new world average for sin2{beta}, measured in the theoretically and experimentally cleanest charmonium modes, such as B{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi}K{sub S}{sup 0}, is sin 2{beta} = 0.685 {+-} 0.032. In addition to these tree-level dominated decays, independent measurements of sin2{beta} are obtained from gluonic b {yields} s penguin decays, including B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}{sup 0}, B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}'K{sub S}{sup 0} and others. There are hints, albeit somewhat weaker than earlier this year, that these measurements tend to come out low compared to the charmonium average, giving rise to the tantalizing possibility that New Physics amplitudes could be contributing to the corresponding loop diagrams. Clearly, more data from both experiments are needed to elucidate these intriguing differences.

  19. Mutations in the NSDHL gene, encoding a 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, cause CHILD syndrome.

    PubMed

    König, A; Happle, R; Bornholdt, D; Engel, H; Grzeschik, K H

    2000-02-14

    We report for the first time that CHILD syndrome (MIM 308050), an X-linked dominant, male-lethal trait characterized by an inflammatory nevus with striking lateralization and strict midline demarcation, as well as ipsilateral hypoplasia of the body is caused by mutations in the gene NSDHL located at Xq28 (NAD(P)H steroid dehydrogenase-like protein) encoding a 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase functioning in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. SSCA and genomic sequence analysis of NSDHL identified in 6 patients with CHILD syndrome, including one boy as well as a mother and her daughter, mutations potentially impairing protein function. This phenotype is distinct from, but shares various clinical and biochemical findings with chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2, MIM 302960). CDPX2 is due to mutations affecting a delta8-delta7 sterol isomerase (EBP, emopamil binding protein, at Xp11.22-p11.23) that functions downstream of NSDHL in a later step of cholesterol biosynthesis. EBP was unaffected in the patients analyzed by us demonstrating that CHILD syndrome and CDPX2 are not caused by allelic mutations. Two mouse X-linked dominant male-lethal traits, bare patches (Bpa) and striated (Str) had previously been associated with mutations in Nsdhl. They provide animal models for the study of CHILD syndrome, a further human condition due to mutations in a gene of the cholesterol synthesis pathway. PMID:10710235

  20. A rare case of coinheritance of Hemoglobin H disease and sickle cell trait combined with severe iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Medinger, Michael; Saller, Elisabeth; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Lehmann, Thomas; Graf, Lukas; Rovo, Alicia; Buser, Andreas; Passweg, Jakob; Tichelli, André

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of a 40-year-old female from Turkey, who was referred to our outpatient clinic for an undetermined thalassemia and sickle cell trait. At first consultation hemoglobin was decreased (71 g/L) with microcytosis (MCV 55.1 fL), and hypochromia (MCHC 239 g/L). The patient had severe iron deficiency. Brilliant cresyl blue staining showed >50% of the erythrocytes with typical Hemoglobin H (HbH) inclusions. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed normal levels of HbA2 and Hemoglobin F (HbF), and additionally a hemoglobin S (19%). Molecular diagnostics revealed the mutations ?2 IVS-I donor site ?5nt and a -- MED II deletion in the alpha gene complex and confirmed the heterozygote mutation of the beta-gene at codon 6 (HBB:c.20A>T; HbS). In conclusion, we present an extremely rare combination of HbH disease and sickle cell trait. This combination may explain the mild form of the HbH disease, with moderate anemia, splenomegaly but iron deficiency, rather than iron overload, as usually observed in HbH disease. PMID:22593821

  1. Origin of Au L{beta}{sub 2} visible satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Oohashi, H.; Tochio, T.; Ito, Y.; Vlaicu, A. M.

    2003-09-01

    Measurements of L{beta} spectra of gold using a high-resolution single-crystal x-ray spectrometer are presented. Energy values and intensities of the L{beta}{sub 2} satellite lines are confirmed by fitting Voigt functions to the observed spectra. Relative intensity ratios of L{beta}{sub 2}, L{beta}{sub 3}, L{beta}{sub 15}, and L{beta}{sub 2} satellite lines are investigated at various excitation energies. The origin of the L{beta}{sub 2} satellite lines, L{beta}{sub 2}{sup '} and L{beta}{sub 2}{sup ''}, are confirmed to be mainly due to the L-LM Coster-Kronig transition, with intensities closely related to the photoionization cross section of the subshell L{sub 1}.

  2. Berry and phenology-related traits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): From Quantitative Trait Loci to underlying genes

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Laura; Battilana, Juri; Lamaj, Flutura; Fanizza, Girolamo; Grando, Maria Stella

    2008-01-01

    Background The timing of grape ripening initiation, length of maturation period, berry size and seed content are target traits in viticulture. The availability of early and late ripening varieties is desirable for staggering harvest along growing season, expanding production towards periods when the fruit gets a higher value in the market and ensuring an optimal plant adaptation to climatic and geographic conditions. Berry size determines grape productivity; seedlessness is especially demanded in the table grape market and is negatively correlated to fruit size. These traits result from complex developmental processes modified by genetic, physiological and environmental factors. In order to elucidate their genetic determinism we carried out a quantitative analysis in a 163 individuals-F1 segregating progeny obtained by crossing two table grape cultivars. Results Molecular linkage maps covering most of the genome (2n = 38 for Vitis vinifera) were generated for each parent. Eighteen pairs of homologous groups were integrated into a consensus map spanning over 1426 cM with 341 markers (mainly microsatellite, AFLP and EST-derived markers) and an average map distance between loci of 4.2 cM. Segregating traits were evaluated in three growing seasons by recording flowering, veraison and ripening dates and by measuring berry size, seed number and weight. QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) analysis was carried out based on single marker and interval mapping methods. QTLs were identified for all but one of the studied traits, a number of them steadily over more than one year. Clusters of QTLs for different characters were detected, suggesting linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci, as well as regions affecting specific traits. The most interesting QTLs were investigated at the gene level through a bioinformatic analysis of the underlying Pinot noir genomic sequence. Conclusion Our results revealed novel insights into the genetic control of relevant grapevine features. They provide a basis for performing marker-assisted selection and testing the role of specific genes in trait variation. PMID:18419811

  3. Linking Post-Translational Modifications and Variation of Phenotypic Traits*

    PubMed Central

    Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Bely, Marina; Aigle, Michel; Bourgais, Aurélie; Langella, Olivier; Balliau, Thierry; Chevret, Didier; Valot, Benoît; da Silva, Telma; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Sicard, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes can be post-translationally modified, leading to isoforms with different properties. The phenotypic consequences of the quantitative variability of isoforms have never been studied. We used quantitative proteomics to dissect the relationships between the abundances of the enzymes and isoforms of alcoholic fermentation, metabolic traits, and growth-related traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the enzymatic pool allocated to the fermentation proteome was constant over the culture media and the strains considered, there was variation in abundance of individual enzymes and sometimes much more of their isoforms, which suggests the existence of selective constraints on total protein abundance and trade-offs between isoforms. Variations in abundance of some isoforms were significantly associated to metabolic traits and growth-related traits. In particular, cell size and maximum population size were highly correlated to the degree of N-terminal acetylation of the alcohol dehydrogenase. The fermentation proteome was found to be shaped by human selection, through the differential targeting of a few isoforms for each food-processing origin of strains. These results highlight the importance of post-translational modifications in the diversity of metabolic and life-history traits. PMID:23271801

  4. Neural basis of emotional decision making in trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengfei; Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S; Wu, Runguo; Van Dam, Nicholas T; Jiang, Yang; Fan, Jin; Luo, Yue-jia

    2013-11-20

    Although trait anxiety has been associated with risk decision making, whether it is related to risk per se or to the feeling of the risk, as well as the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms, remains unclear. Using a decision-making task with a manipulation of frame (i.e., written description of options as a potential gain or loss) and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neurocognitive relationship between trait anxiety and decision making. The classic framing effect was observed: participants chose the safe option when it was described as a potential gain, but they avoided the same option when it was described as a potential loss. Most importantly, trait anxiety was positively correlated with this behavioral bias. Trait anxiety was also positively correlated with amygdala-based "emotional" system activation and its coupling with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) when decisions were consistent with the framing effect, but negatively correlated with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)-based "analytic" system activation and its connectivity to the vmPFC when decisions ran counter to the framing effect. Our findings suggest that trait anxiety is not associated with subjective risk preference but an evaluative bias of emotional information in decision making, underpinned by a hyperactive emotional system and a hypoactive analytic system in the brain. PMID:24259585

  5. Neural Basis of Emotional Decision Making in Trait Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengfei; Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S.; Wu, Runguo; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Jiang, Yang; Fan, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Although trait anxiety has been associated with risk decision making, whether it is related to risk per se or to the feeling of the risk, as well as the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms, remains unclear. Using a decision-making task with a manipulation of frame (i.e., written description of options as a potential gain or loss) and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neurocognitive relationship between trait anxiety and decision making. The classic framing effect was observed: participants chose the safe option when it was described as a potential gain, but they avoided the same option when it was described as a potential loss. Most importantly, trait anxiety was positively correlated with this behavioral bias. Trait anxiety was also positively correlated with amygdala-based “emotional” system activation and its coupling with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) when decisions were consistent with the framing effect, but negatively correlated with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)-based “analytic” system activation and its connectivity to the vmPFC when decisions ran counter to the framing effect. Our findings suggest that trait anxiety is not associated with subjective risk preference but an evaluative bias of emotional information in decision making, underpinned by a hyperactive emotional system and a hypoactive analytic system in the brain. PMID:24259585

  6. No globally consistent effect of ectomycorrhizal status on foliar traits.

    PubMed

    Koele, Nina; Dickie, Ian A; Oleksyn, Jacek; Richardson, Sarah J; Reich, Peter B

    2012-11-01

    The concept that ectomycorrhizal plants have a particular foliar trait suite characterized by low foliar nutrients and high leaf mass per unit area (LMA) is widely accepted, but whether this trait suite can be generalized to all ectomycorrhizal clades is unclear. We identified 19 evolutionary clades of ectomycorrhizal plants and used a global leaf traits dataset comprising 11,466 samples across c. 3000 species to test whether there were consistent shifts in leaf nutrients or LMA with the evolution of ectomycorrhiza. There were no consistent effects of ectomycorrhizal status on foliar nutrients or LMA in the 17 ectomycorrhizal/non-ectomycorrhizal pairs for which we had sufficient data, with some ectomycorrhizal groups having higher and other groups lower nutrient status than non-ectomycorrhizal contrasts. Controlling for the woodiness of host species did not alter the results. Our findings suggest that the concepts of ectomycorrhizal plant trait suites should be re-examined to ensure that they are broadly reflective of mycorrhizal status across all evolutionary clades, rather than reflecting the traits of a few commonly studied groups, such as the Pinaceae and Fagales. PMID:22966750

  7. Positive Traits Linked to Less Pain through Lower Pain Catastrophizing

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Anna; Pulvers, Kim; Carrillo, Janet; Merchant, Gina; Thomas, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the association between positive traits, pain catastrophizing, and pain perceptions. We hypothesized that pain catastrophizing would mediate the relationship between positive traits and pain. First, participants (n = 114) completed the Trait Hope Scale, the Life Orientation Test- Revised, and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Participants then completed the experimental pain stimulus, a cold pressor task, by submerging their hand in a circulating water bath (0º Celsius) for as long as tolerable. Immediately following the task, participants completed the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ-SF). Pearson correlation found associations between hope and pain catastrophizing (r = ?.41, p < .01) and MPQ-SF scores (r = ?.20, p < .05). Optimism was significantly associated with pain catastrophizing (r = ?.44, p < .01) and MPQ-SF scores (r = ?.19, p < .05). Bootstrapping, a non-parametric resampling procedure, tested for mediation and supported our hypothesis that pain catastrophizing mediated the relationship between positive traits and MPQ-SF pain report. To our knowledge, this investigation is the first to establish that the protective link between positive traits and experimental pain operates through lower pain catastrophizing. PMID:22199416

  8. Latent trait cortisol (LTC) levels: reliability, validity, and stability.

    PubMed

    Doane, Leah D; Chen, Frances R; Sladek, Michael R; Van Lenten, Scott A; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-05-01

    The regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis has received empirical attention as a mechanism contributing to individual differences in health and human development. A variety of sampling tactics and strategies index daily HPA axis functioning including the cortisol awakening response (CAR), the diurnal slope, and the area under the curve (AUGg). In an ethnically diverse sample (54% European-American, 23% Latino) of 82 adolescents (24% male, M age=18.05 years), we assessed salivary cortisol 45 times over the transition to college: 5 times per day, over 3 sequential days, across 3 waves (initially, 5, and 9 months later). Samples were collected at waking; 30 min, 3, and 8h post waking; and bedtime. Latent state-trait modeling indicated that the waking and 30 min post waking samples contributed to indices of within and across wave latent trait cortisol (LTC) levels. As such, a latent trait factor of cortisol was derived to reflect both within- and across-wave trait components of the variance in cortisol. LTC was distinct from the CAR, differentially predicted components of the diurnal profile across the day, and was highly stable across assessment waves (months). As preliminary evidence for convergent validity of LTC levels, childhood trauma was positively associated with LTC. Findings document the reliability, divergent and convergent validity, and stability of a latent trait factor of individual differences in HPA axis activity that may provide a cost efficient alternative to existing strategies and minimize participant burden. PMID:25705799

  9. Mechanisms by which Childhood Personality Traits Influence Adult Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Vogt, Thomas M.; Dubanoski, Joan P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To test a lifespan health-behavior model in which educational attainment and health behaviors (eating habits, smoking, and physical activity) were hypothesized as mechanisms to account for relations between teacher ratings of childhood personality traits and self-reported health status at midlife. Design The model was tested on 1,054 members of the Hawaii Personality and Health cohort, which is a population-based cohort participating in a longitudinal study of personality and health spanning 40 years from childhood to midlife. Outcome Self-reported health status as a latent construct indicated by general health, functional status, and body mass index. Results Childhood Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect/Imagination influenced adult health status indirectly through educational attainment, healthy eating habits, and smoking. Several direct effects of childhood traits on health behaviors and health status were also observed. Conclusion The model extends past associations found between personality traits and health behaviors or health status by identifying a life-course pathway based on the health-behavior model through which early childhood traits influence adult health status. The additional direct effects of personality traits indicate that health-behavior mechanisms may not provide a complete account of relations between personality and health. PMID:17209705

  10. [Trait-aggression and suicide of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    Pezenhoffer, Ibolya; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although in recent decades the literature has paid special attention to Vincent van Gogh's life, work and illness, there has still not been an examination of the connections between his trait aggression and his suicide. The present study traces, in the light of this trait aggression, the predictive factors that can be observed on the path leading to the artist's suicide. Biographical documents, case history data, as well as letters and the findings of earlier research have been used in the course of the analysis. Among the distal suicide risk factors we find a positive family anamnesis, childhood traumas (emotional deprivation, identity problems associated with the name Vincent), a vagrant, homeless way of life, failures in relationships with women, and psychotic episodes appearing in rushes. The proximal factors include the tragic friendship with Gauguin (frustrated love), his brother Theo's marriage (experienced as a loss), and a tendency to self-destruction. Both factor groups on the one hand determined the course of development of the trait aggression and on the other can also be regarded as a manifestation of that trait aggression. It can be said that the trait aggression played an important role in Van Gogh's suicide. PMID:26202623

  11. Anthropogenic fire drives the evolution of seed traits

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-González, Susana; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Bustos-Schindler, Carlos; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Fire is a major disturbance affecting ecosystems worldwide. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the evolution of seed persistence (fire resistance) is associated with fire frequency or severity. However, the existence of specific seed traits resulting from natural selection mediated by fire remains a key question in plant evolution. We evaluated the role of fire in the evolution of seed traits from a microevolutionary perspective, using as a study system a native forb from the Chilean matorral, where fire is a novel, anthropogenic disturbance. We show that anthropogenic fires are shaping the evolution of seed traits such as pubescence and shape. Among-population variation in seed pubescence, shape, and pericarp thickness was strongly associated with fire frequency, and within a population, fire selected those plants with more pubescent seeds, thicker pericarps, and less rounded seeds. Seed pubescence and shape were shown to be heritable traits. Our findings provide insights into the understanding of the evolution of seed traits in fire-prone environments and demonstrate that human-made fires can be driving evolutionary changes in plant species from ecosystems where fires do not occur naturally. PMID:22065739

  12. Functional traits, convergent evolution, and periodic tables of niches.

    PubMed

    Winemiller, Kirk O; Fitzgerald, Daniel B; Bower, Luke M; Pianka, Eric R

    2015-08-01

    Ecology is often said to lack general theories sufficiently predictive for applications. Here, we examine the concept of a periodic table of niches and feasibility of niche classification schemes from functional trait and performance data. Niche differences and their influence on ecological patterns and processes could be revealed effectively by first performing data reduction/ordination analyses separately on matrices of trait and performance data compiled according to logical associations with five basic niche 'dimensions', or aspects: habitat, life history, trophic, defence and metabolic. Resultant patterns then are integrated to produce interpretable niche gradients, ordinations and classifications. Degree of scheme periodicity would depend on degrees of niche conservatism and convergence causing species clustering across multiple niche dimensions. We analysed a sample data set containing trait and performance data to contrast two approaches for producing niche schemes: species ordination within niche gradient space, and niche categorisation according to trait-value thresholds. Creation of niche schemes useful for advancing ecological knowledge and its applications will depend on research that produces functional trait and performance datasets directly related to niche dimensions along with criteria for data standardisation and quality. As larger databases are compiled, opportunities will emerge to explore new methods for data reduction, ordination and classification. PMID:26096695

  13. [Molecular Genetic Markers of Economically Important Traits in Dairy Cattle].

    PubMed

    Yudin, N S; Voevoda, M I

    2015-05-01

    The selection efficiency of complex quantitative economically important traits in dairy cattle depends on the identification of candidate genes responsible for these traits, as well as the determination of causative DNA polymorphism in these genes. Here, we review examples of DNA polymorphisms in coding and noncoding parts of genes that are associated with milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, milk fat and protein percentages, the biochemical composition of milk, and other milk production traits. Together with data with of foreign authors, which were obtained predominantly for Holstein animals, much attention in the review is paid to domestic studies on Russian cattle breeds. Particular attention is dedicated to DNA polymorphisms in the genes encoding transcription factors, which can potentially affect a large number of traits. The results of association analyses are summarized in a table, and they present the progress of research in this area in recent years. Our analysis indicates that the majority of SNPs, which are associated with significant effects on milk production traits, are in fact in a linkage disequilibrium with yet unknown mutations. The identification of functionally significant DNA polymorphisms and other genetic factors (epimutations, VNTR) is necessary for effective marker-assisted selection and genomic selection of diary cattle breeds. PMID:26137639

  14. Are we underestimating the genetic variances of dimorphic traits?

    PubMed Central

    Wolak, Matthew E; Roff, Derek A; Fairbairn, Daphne J

    2015-01-01

    Populations often contain discrete classes or morphs (e.g., sexual dimorphisms, wing dimorphisms, trophic dimorphisms) characterized by distinct patterns of trait expression. In quantitative genetic analyses, the different morphs can be considered as different environments within which traits are expressed. Genetic variances and covariances can then be estimated independently for each morph or in a combined analysis. In the latter case, morphs can be considered as separate environments in a bivariate analysis or entered as fixed effects in a univariate analysis. Although a common approach, we demonstrate that the latter produces downwardly biased estimates of additive genetic variance and heritability unless the quantitative genetic architecture of the traits concerned is perfectly correlated between the morphs. This result is derived for four widely used quantitative genetic variance partitioning methods. Given that theory predicts the evolution of genotype-by-environment (morph) interactions as a consequence of selection favoring different trait combinations in each morph, we argue that perfect correlations between the genetic architectures of the different morphs are unlikely. A sampling of the recent literature indicates that the majority of researchers studying traits expressed in different morphs recognize this and do estimate morph-specific quantitative genetic architecture. However, ca. 16% of the studies in our sample utilized only univariate, fixed-effects models. We caution against this approach and recommend that it be used only if supported by evidence that the genetic architectures of the different morphs do not differ. PMID:25691983

  15. ARTS: automated randomization of multiple traits for study design

    PubMed Central

    Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Lei, Zhengdeng; Gardeux, Vincent; Abbasi, Taimur; Machado, Roberto F.; Gordeuk, Victor; Desai, Ankit A.; Saraf, Santosh; Bahroos, Neil; Lussier, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Collecting data from large studies on high-throughput platforms, such as microarray or next-generation sequencing, typically requires processing samples in batches. There are often systematic but unpredictable biases from batch-to-batch, so proper randomization of biologically relevant traits across batches is crucial for distinguishing true biological differences from experimental artifacts. When a large number of traits are biologically relevant, as is common for clinical studies of patients with varying sex, age, genotype and medical background, proper randomization can be extremely difficult to prepare by hand, especially because traits may affect biological inferences, such as differential expression, in a combinatorial manner. Here we present ARTS (automated randomization of multiple traits for study design), which aids researchers in study design by automatically optimizing batch assignment for any number of samples, any number of traits and any batch size. Availability and implementation: ARTS is implemented in Perl and is available at github.com/mmaiensc/ARTS. ARTS is also available in the Galaxy Tool Shed, and can be used at the Galaxy installation hosted by the UIC Center for Research Informatics (CRI) at galaxy.cri.uic.edu. Contact: mmaiensc@uic.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24493035

  16. Patterns in life history traits of deep-water chondrichthyans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, Cassandra; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.

    2015-05-01

    Life history traits are important indicators of the productivity of species, and their ability to tolerate fishing pressure. Using a variety of life history traits (maximum size, size and age at maturity, longevity, growth rate, litter and birth size) we demonstrated differences in chondrichthyan life histories between shelf, pelagic and deep-water habitats and within the deep habitat down the continental slope and across geographic regions. Deep-water species had lower growth rates, later age at maturity, and higher longevity than both shelf and pelagic species. In the deep habitat, with increasing depth, species matured later, lived longer, had smaller litters and bred less frequently; regional differences in traits were also apparent. Deep-water species also had a smaller body size and the invariants of relative size and age at maturity were higher in deep water. The visual interaction hypothesis offers a potential explanation for these findings and it is apparent habitat influences the trade-offs in allocation of energy for survival and reproduction. Body size is not appropriate as a predictor of vulnerability in deep-water chondrichthyans and regional trait differences are possibly due to a fishing pressure response. Deep-water chondrichthyans are more vulnerable to exploitation than shelf and pelagic species and this vulnerability markedly increases with increasing depth. The life history traits of deep-water chondrichthyans are unique and reflect adaptations driven by both mortality and resource limitations of their habitat.

  17. Causal trait theories: a new form of person knowledge that explains egocentric pattern projection.

    PubMed

    Critcher, Clayton R; Dunning, David; Rom, Sarah C

    2015-03-01

    Representations of the self and others include not only piecemeal traits but also causal trait theories-explanations for why a person's standing on 1 trait causes or is caused by standings on other traits (Studies 1a-1c). These causal theories help resolve the puzzle of egocentric pattern projection-the tendency for people to assume that traits correlate in the population in the same way they align in the self. Causal trait theories-created to explain trait co-occurrence in a single person-are exported to guide one's implicit personality theories about people in general (Study 2). Pattern projection was found to be largely egocentric (i.e., more strong guided by self- than by social perceptions) for 2 reasons. First, causal trait theories are more numerous for the self. When participants were prompted to generate causal trait theories about someone else, they pattern projected more from that person (Study 3). Second, causal trait theories about the self are more likely to draw on behavioral information from multiple contexts instead of merely seeking to explain why 2 traits co-occur in a single context. Causal trait theories based on trait-relevant behaviors from different contexts, instead of trait co-occurrence within a single context, produce more pattern projection (Study 4). Implications for self and social cognition are discussed. PMID:25643223

  18. Experimental Status of the CKM Angle {beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschauer, James F.

    2009-12-17

    We summarize measurements of the CKM angle {beta} at the B-factories emphasizing a comparison of {beta} measured in the B{sup 0}{yields}cc-barK{sup (*)0} decay channels and {beta}{sub eff} measured in b{yields}qq-bars decay channels, such as B{sup 0}{yields}{omega}K{sub S}{sup 0}, B{sup 0}{yields}{eta}'K{sup 0}, B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}, and B{sup 0}{yields}{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}.

  19. Atomic structure of Beta-tantalum nanocrystallites.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Karsten; Thust, Andreas; Gerber, Andreas; Weides, Martin P; Urban, Knut

    2005-12-01

    The structural properties of beta-phase tantalum nanocrystallites prepared by room temperature magnetron sputter deposition on amorphous carbon substrates are investigated at atomic resolution. For these purposes spherical aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is applied in tandem with the numerical retrieval of the exit-plane wavefunction as obtained from a through-focus series of experimental micrographs. We demonstrate that recent improvements in the resolving power of electron microscopes enable the imaging of the atomic structure of beta-tantalum with column spacings of solely 0.127 nm with directly interpretable contrast features. For the first time ever, we substantiate the existence of grain boundaries of 30 degrees tilt type in beta-Ta whose formation may be well explained by atomic agglomeration processes taking place during sputter deposition. PMID:17481332

  20. Influence of Relic Neutrinos on Beta Radioactivity

    E-print Network

    A. G. Parkhomov

    2010-10-08

    Results of calculations of distribution and motion of dark matter are presented. Considering neutrino as one of the components of dark matter and taking into account peculiar features of the interactions of slow neutrinos with matter, allow to make the conclusion that they may have tangible manifestations not only in the depths of the Universe but also on the Earth. Experimental results confirming predicted effects are described, including periodic variations of the beta radioactivity as well as count rate bursts for a beta radioactive source placed at the focal point of a parabolic mirror. Based on the data of astronomical observations, estimates of the mass of the particles influencing on beta radioactivity (about 20 eV) and their flux density (about 10^13 particles/cm^2 s) have been made. The discrepancy between our mass estimate and the 2 eV limit for the neutrino mass, established in the tritium experiments, is discussed.

  1. Method of producing .beta.-spodumene bodies

    DOEpatents

    Chyung, Kenneth (Painted Post, NY); Day, J. Paul (Big Flats, NY); Holleran, Louis M. (Big Flats, NY); Olszewski, Anthony R. (Bath, NY)

    1999-01-01

    Beta-spodumene bodies and method of preparing the bodies that involves providing a uniform plastic batch of inorganic raw materials, organic binder, and vehicle, wherein the inorganic raw materials are composed of, in percent by weight, about 75% to 95% minerals, and about 5% to 25% glass. The batch is formed into a green body that is fired to produce a body composed substantially of beta-spodumene, and having a thermal expansion coefficient of <10.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C.(0-800.degree. C.), and a strength of .gtoreq.4 Ksi.

  2. C0 low-{beta} optics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, J.A.

    2001-02-02

    A low-{beta} insertion has been designed for the BTeV experiment at C0. With {+-} 12 m for detector space, a {beta}* of 0.5 m can be achieved using 170 T/m magnets in the final focus triplets. A total half-crossing angle of 240 {micro}r is necessary to keep the beams separated by 5{sigma} at the 2nd parasitic crossing. There are 2 possible Tevatron collision scenarios: B0 and D0, but not C0, and; C0, but not B0 or D0.

  3. Jastrow functions in double-beta decay

    E-print Network

    J. Engel; J. Carlson; R. B. Wiringa

    2011-01-03

    We use simple analytic considerations and a Monte Carlo calculation of nucleons in a box to argue that the use of Jastrow functions as short-range correlators in the commonly employed two-body-cluster approximation causes significant errors in the matrix elements for double-beta decay. The Jastrow approach appears to agree with others, however, if many-body clusters are included. A careful treatment of the charge-changing analog of the nuclear pair density shows, in addition, that differences between Unitary Correlator Operator Method and Brueckner methods for treating short-range correlations in double-beta are less significant than suggested by previous work.

  4. Chemical stability of beta-alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Smaga, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Beta-alumina tubes can fracture under conditions which arise during the operation of Na/S cells. Several models, based on sodium ion focusing at the crack tip, have been proposed to explain the failure mode and are discussed in recent papers. In this study, two beta-alumina compositions that are used in developmental cells were immersed in molten sodium to differentiate the chemical effects of electrolyte degradation from the electrochemical ones. Tests were also conducted in sodium polysulfide melts because electrolyte deterioration on the sulfur side has also been reported.

  5. Double-Beta Decay at TUNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Mary

    2007-10-01

    Studying double-beta decay at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is perhaps one of the most promising ways to pinpoint the neutrino mass. What they do not mention is that to study double-beta decay, you probably have to become a certified miner, and if you have a fear of goats, you should stay away. In this talk, I will tell you some of my experiences as a TUNL graduate student, and how I am now nearly qualified for a job in the mining industry.

  6. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    2004-02-01

    Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version supports interactive selection and graphical display of data generated by the Sandia Cognitive Framework, which simulates the examination of security data by experts of various specialties. Insider Alert also encompasses the configuration and data files input to the Cognitive Framework for this application. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version is a computer program for analyzing data indicative of possible espionage or improper handling of data by employees at Sandia National Laboratories (or other facilities with comparable policies and procedures for managing sensitive information) It prioritizes and displays information for review by security analysts.

  7. The double-beta decay: Theoretical challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Horoi, Mihai

    2012-11-20

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a unique process that could reveal physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics namely, if observed, it would prove that neutrinos are Majorana particles. In addition, it could provide information regarding the neutrino masses and their hierarchy, provided that reliable nuclear matrix elements can be obtained. The two neutrino double beta decay is an associate process that is allowed by the Standard Model, and it was observed for about ten nuclei. The present contribution gives a brief review of the theoretical challenges associated with these two process, emphasizing the reliable calculation of the associated nuclear matrix elements.

  8. An analysis of the beta 2-adrenoceptor selectivity in three series of beta-adrenoceptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Johansson, L H; Eliasson, E L; Persson, H; Rosengren, E

    1990-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the beta 2-adrenoceptor selectivity earlier found in two series of catecholamines and one series of resorcinolamines (Johansson et al. 1986). The affinity of the compounds was assessed in binding studies in preparations from the guinea-pig left heart ventricle (beta 1-adrenoceptors) and the soleus muscle (beta 2-adrenoceptors) using 3H-CGP-12177 as radioligand. Further, the activation of the adenylate cyclase by the compounds was studied in the same preparations. Selectivity quotients were obtained from both functional effects and from affinity and adenylate cyclase activating studies. There was a good correlation between the selectivity quotients obtained in these two ways. Tertiary butyl substitution on the amino nitrogen gave the highest beta 2-adrenoceptor selectivity in both the catechol and resorcinol series. In comparison with their isopropyl substituted analogues the beta 2-adrenoceptor selectivity of these compounds (KWD 2026 and terbutaline) was mainly due to a change in affinity for the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors and, to a lesser degree, a change in intrinsic efficacy. PMID:1970632

  9. Mapping quantitative trait loci using the MCMC procedure in SAS.

    PubMed

    Xu, S; Hu, Z

    2011-02-01

    The MCMC procedure in SAS (called PROC MCMC) is particularly designed for Bayesian analysis using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. The program is sufficiently general to handle very complicated statistical models and arbitrary prior distributions. This study introduces the SAS/MCMC procedure and demonstrates the application of the program to quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. A real life QTL mapping experiment in wheat female fertility trait was used as an example for the demonstration. The fertility trait phenotypes were described under three different models: (1) the Poisson model, (2) the Bernoulli model and (3) the zero-truncated Poisson model. One QTL was identified on the second chromosome. This QTL appears to control the switch of seed-producing ability of female plants but does not affect the number of seeds produced once the switch is turned on. PMID:20551982

  10. Mapping quantitative trait loci using the MCMC procedure in SAS

    PubMed Central

    Xu, S; Hu, Z

    2011-01-01

    The MCMC procedure in SAS (called PROC MCMC) is particularly designed for Bayesian analysis using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. The program is sufficiently general to handle very complicated statistical models and arbitrary prior distributions. This study introduces the SAS/MCMC procedure and demonstrates the application of the program to quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. A real life QTL mapping experiment in wheat female fertility trait was used as an example for the demonstration. The fertility trait phenotypes were described under three different models: (1) the Poisson model, (2) the Bernoulli model and (3) the zero-truncated Poisson model. One QTL was identified on the second chromosome. This QTL appears to control the switch of seed-producing ability of female plants but does not affect the number of seeds produced once the switch is turned on. PMID:20551982

  11. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouin, Emeric; Calvez, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study propagation in a non-local reaction-diffusion-mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia (Phillips et al 2006 Nature 439 803). The population of toads is structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait and the space diffusivity depends on the trait. We use a Schauder topological degree argument for the construction of some travelling wave solutions of the model. The speed c* of the wave is obtained after solving a suitable spectral problem in the trait variable. An eigenvector arising from this eigenvalue problem gives the flavour of the profile at the edge of the front. The major difficulty is to obtain uniform L? bounds despite the combination of non-local terms and a heterogeneous diffusivity.

  12. Personality traits and pathology in older and younger incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Susan; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2002-04-01

    Personality disorders were examined in 157 incarcerated women, using the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1996) to assess 10 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) diagnostic categories and dimensions and 15 domains of trait/temperament relevant to disordered personality. Similar to both community samples and incarcerated men, older women had lower rates of personality disorders than younger women, and the difference was mostly accounted for by differences in the Cluster B disorders. In an exploratory analysis of trait and temperament scales, the older women also scored lower in Aggression, Disinhibition, Entitlement, Exhibitionism, Impulsivity, and Manipulativeness while younger women scored lower in Workaholism and Propriety. These findings suggest that remission of antisocial behavior in women may be associated with changes in lower order personality traits or temperament. PMID:11920697

  13. An atlas of genetic correlations across human diseases and traits.

    PubMed

    Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Finucane, Hilary K; Anttila, Verneri; Gusev, Alexander; Day, Felix R; Loh, Po-Ru; Duncan, Laramie; Perry, John R B; Patterson, Nick; Robinson, Elise B; Daly, Mark J; Price, Alkes L; Neale, Benjamin M

    2015-11-01

    Identifying genetic correlations between complex traits and diseases can provide useful etiological insights and help prioritize likely causal relationships. The major challenges preventing estimation of genetic correlation from genome-wide association study (GWAS) data with current methods are the lack of availability of individual-level genotype data and widespread sample overlap among meta-analyses. We circumvent these difficulties by introducing a technique-cross-trait LD Score regression-for estimating genetic correlation that requires only GWAS summary statistics and is not biased by sample overlap. We use this method to estimate 276 genetic correlations among 24 traits. The results include genetic correlations between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, anorexia and obesity, and educational attainment and several diseases. These results highlight the power of genome-wide analyses, as there currently are no significantly associated SNPs for anorexia nervosa and only three for educational attainment. PMID:26414676

  14. Modulating executive functioning: trait motivational reactivity and resting HRV.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rachel L; Potter, Robert F; Lang, Annie; Pisoni, David B

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed relationships among individual differences in trait motivational reactivity, executive functioning, and neurovisceral regulation of emotion and attention indexed via resting heart rate variability (rHRV). We derived predictions regarding these relationships according to neurovisceral neural network theory. Because lower rHRV has been suggested as an endophenotype of less adaptive behaviour, low rHRV individuals were predicted to have high aversive and low appetitive trait motivational reactivity, while high rHRV individuals were predicted to have high reactivity in both appetitive and aversive motivational systems. These predictions were supported. Motivational reactivity also was related to executive functioning deficits, although the pattern of results was not in the predicted direction. Results suggest that trait motivational reactivity scores are related to visceral responses proposed in the neurovisceral integration circuit as well as in the modulation of these responses by higher-order cognitive control systems related to executive function. PMID:24606341

  15. A robust multiple-locus method for quantitative trait locus analysis of non-normally distributed multiple traits.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Möttönen, J; Sillanpää, M J

    2015-12-01

    Linear regression-based quantitative trait loci/association mapping methods such as least squares commonly assume normality of residuals. In genetics studies of plants or animals, some quantitative traits may not follow normal distribution because the data include outlying observations or data that are collected from multiple sources, and in such cases the normal regression methods may lose some statistical power to detect quantitative trait loci. In this work, we propose a robust multiple-locus regression approach for analyzing multiple quantitative traits without normality assumption. In our method, the objective function is least absolute deviation (LAD), which corresponds to the assumption of multivariate Laplace distributed residual errors. This distribution has heavier tails than the normal distribution. In addition, we adopt a group LASSO penalty to produce shrinkage estimation of the marker effects and to describe the genetic correlation among phenotypes. Our LAD-LASSO approach is less sensitive to the outliers and is more appropriate for the analysis of data with skewedly distributed phenotypes. Another application of our robust approach is on missing phenotype problem in multiple-trait analysis, where the missing phenotype items can simply be filled with some extreme values, and be treated as outliers. The efficiency of the LAD-LASSO approach is illustrated on both simulated and real data sets. PMID:26174023

  16. Where are the strongest associations between autistic traits and traits of ADHD? evidence from a community-based twin study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J; Charman, Tony; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-09-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) regularly co-occur. Twin studies increasingly indicate that these conditions may have overlapping genetic causes. Less is known about the degree to which specific autistic traits relate to specific behaviours characteristic of ADHD. We hence tested, using the classical twin design, whether specific dimensional autistic traits, including social difficulties, communication atypicalities and repetitive behaviours, would display differential degrees of aetiological overlap with specific traits of ADHD, including hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. Parents of approximately 4,000 pairs of 12-year-old twins completed the Childhood Autism Spectrum Test and Conners' Parent Rating Scale. These measures were divided into subscales corresponding to different types of autistic and ADHD behaviours. Twin model fitting suggested that the degree of genetic overlap was particularly strong between communication difficulties and traits of ADHD (genetic correlations = .47-.51), while repetitive behaviours and social difficulties showed moderate (genetic correlations = .12-.33) and modest (.05-.11) genetic overlap respectively. Environmental overlap was low across all subscales (correlations = .01-.23). These patterns were also apparent at the extremes of the general population, with communication difficulties showing the highest genetic overlap with traits of ADHD. These findings indicate that molecular genetic studies seeking to uncover the shared genetic basis of ASC and ADHD would benefit from taking a symptom-specific approach. Furthermore, they could also help to explain why studies of the communication abilities of individuals with ASC and ADHD have produced overlapping findings. PMID:25600178

  17. QTL Mapping of Flowering and Fruiting Traits in Olive

    PubMed Central

    Sadok, Inès Ben; Celton, Jean-Marc; Essalouh, Laila; El Aabidine, Amal Zine; Garcia, Gilbert; Martinez, Sebastien; Grati-Kamoun, Naziha; Rebai, Ahmed; Costes, Evelyne; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenge fruit growers are facing is to balance between tree production and vegetative growth from year to year. To investigate the existence of genetic determinism for reproductive behaviour in olive tree, we studied an olive segregating population derived from a cross between ‘Olivière’ and ‘Arbequina’ cultivars. Our strategy was based on (i) an annual assessment of individual trees yield, and (ii) a decomposition of adult growth units at the crown periphery into quantitative variables related to both flowering and fruiting process in relation to their growth and branching. Genetic models, including the year, genotype effects and their interactions, were built with variance function and correlation structure of residuals when necessary. Among the progeny, trees were either ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’ for a given year and patterns of regular vs. irregular bearing were revealed. Genotype effect was significant on yield but not for flowering traits at growth unit (GU) scale, whereas the interaction between genotype and year was significant for both traits. A strong genetic effect was found for all fruiting traits without interaction with the year. Based on the new constructed genetic map, QTLs with small effects were detected, revealing multigenic control of the studied traits. Many were associated to alleles from ‘Arbequina’. Genetic correlations were found between Yield and Fruit set at GU scale suggesting a common genetic control, even though QTL co-localisations were in spe`cific years only. Most QTL were associated to flowering traits in specific years, even though reproductive traits at GU scale did not capture the bearing status of the trees in a given year. Results were also interpreted with respect to ontogenetic changes of growth and branching, and an alternative sampling strategy was proposed for capturing tree fruiting behaviour. Regular bearing progenies were identified and could constitute innovative material for selection programs. PMID:23690957

  18. Expanding Omics Resources for Improvement of Soybean Seed Composition Traits.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Juhi; Patil, Gunvant B; Sonah, Humira; Deshmukh, Rupesh K; Vuong, Tri D; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    Food resources of the modern world are strained due to the increasing population. There is an urgent need for innovative methods and approaches to augment food production. Legume seeds are major resources of human food and animal feed with their unique nutrient compositions including oil, protein, carbohydrates, and other beneficial nutrients. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) together with "omics" technologies have considerably strengthened soybean research. The availability of well annotated soybean genome sequence along with hundreds of identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with different seed traits can be used for gene discovery and molecular marker development for breeding applications. Despite the remarkable progress in these technologies, the analysis and mining of existing seed genomics data are still challenging due to the complexity of genetic inheritance, metabolic partitioning, and developmental regulations. Integration of "omics tools" is an effective strategy to discover key regulators of various seed traits. In this review, recent advances in "omics" approaches and their use in soybean seed trait investigations are presented along with the available databases and technological platforms and their applicability in the improvement of soybean. This article also highlights the use of modern breeding approaches, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), genomic selection (GS), and marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) for developing superior cultivars. A catalog of available important resources for major seed composition traits, such as seed oil, protein, carbohydrates, and yield traits are provided to improve the knowledge base and future utilization of this information in the soybean crop improvement programs. PMID:26635846

  19. Atypical trait inferences from facial cues in alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Rebecca; Collins, Fredrika; Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-09-01

    It is often difficult to distinguish a stranger's permanent facial shape from their transient facial expressions; for example, whether they are scowling or rapid character judgments we make about others. Someone with narrow eyes might be judged to be untrustworthy, because of strong associations between facial anger and threat. The emotion overgeneralization hypothesis suggests that judgments of character traits are based on subtle resemblance to emotional cues in others' neutral faces. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the trait judgments made by individuals with severe alexithymia, associated with impaired recognition of facial emotion. Participants viewed emotionally neutral faces and rated them according to how trustworthy, aggressive, attractive and intelligent they appeared. Participants then rated the same faces according to subtle expressions of six basic emotions. Consistent with the emotion overgeneralization hypothesis, alexithymic participants demonstrated reduced inter-rater consistency when judging trustworthiness, aggressiveness and intelligence of unfamiliar faces, and the presence of subtle emotions. Judgments of attractiveness were more consistent in the alexithymic than control group. Nevertheless, where alexithymics perceived, or misperceived, emotion cues, the character traits inferred thereafter were broadly typical. The finding that individuals with developmental deficits of emotion recognition exhibit atypical attribution of character traits, confirms the hypothesis that emotion recognition mechanisms play a causal role in character judgments. For attractiveness inferences, which may be more objectively made using non-emotional cues, such as symmetry and averageness, it seems that alexithymic individuals are able to use these cues more reliably, due to being influenced by emotional cues less. The fact that trait inferences were made in line with judgments of emotion in both groups suggests that all individuals base trait inferences on subtle emotional cues, regardless of their emotion recognition accuracy. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326895

  20. Expanding Omics Resources for Improvement of Soybean Seed Composition Traits

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Juhi; Patil, Gunvant B.; Sonah, Humira; Deshmukh, Rupesh K.; Vuong, Tri D.; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Food resources of the modern world are strained due to the increasing population. There is an urgent need for innovative methods and approaches to augment food production. Legume seeds are major resources of human food and animal feed with their unique nutrient compositions including oil, protein, carbohydrates, and other beneficial nutrients. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) together with “omics” technologies have considerably strengthened soybean research. The availability of well annotated soybean genome sequence along with hundreds of identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with different seed traits can be used for gene discovery and molecular marker development for breeding applications. Despite the remarkable progress in these technologies, the analysis and mining of existing seed genomics data are still challenging due to the complexity of genetic inheritance, metabolic partitioning, and developmental regulations. Integration of “omics tools” is an effective strategy to discover key regulators of various seed traits. In this review, recent advances in “omics” approaches and their use in soybean seed trait investigations are presented along with the available databases and technological platforms and their applicability in the improvement of soybean. This article also highlights the use of modern breeding approaches, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), genomic selection (GS), and marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) for developing superior cultivars. A catalog of available important resources for major seed composition traits, such as seed oil, protein, carbohydrates, and yield traits are provided to improve the knowledge base and future utilization of this information in the soybean crop improvement programs. PMID:26635846