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1

Effectiveness of one tube osmotic fragility screening in detecting beta-thalassaemia trait  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of the one tube method of osmotic fragility with three buffered solutions (0.32% saline, 0.36% saline, and tyrode) as a screening test for beta-thalassaemia trait was evaluated in several groups of subjects from Greece, Yugoslavia, and Thailand. The results clearly demonstrated that 0.36% saline is the most sensitive and effective solution since it could detect 96 to 100%

C Kattamis; G Efremov; S Pootrakul

1981-01-01

2

Beta-Thalassaemia types in southern Sardinia.  

PubMed Central

In this study the prevalence of the different beta-thalassaemia types in southern Sardinia was investigated by cellulose acetate and agar gel electrophoresis or globin chain synthesis analysis on column chromatography or both in (1) all the patients (347) presenting with thalassaemia major or intermedia at our haematology service from 1976 to 1979, and (2) a group of 82 patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major randomly chosen from 236 under our care. Apart from six subjects with delta(beta)0/beta+-thalassaemia genotype and eight with beta0/beta+ or less probably beta+/beta/-thalassaemia, all thalassaemia major and intermedia patients studied were beta0-thalassaemia homozygotes. Globin chain synthesis on peripheral blood cells from these patients, performed at different intervals from blood transfusion, showed no incorporation of radioactive leucine into beta-globin peak, the same as before the transfusion. No correlation between kappa/gamma ratios and clinical severity or hypersplenism was found. Globin chain synthesis analysis carried out at birth in three infants later found to have homozygous beta0-thalassaemia demonstrated imbalanced or borderline kappa/gamma ratios. Images PMID:7241542

Cao, A; Furbetta, M; Ximenes, A; Angius, A; Rosatelli, C; Tuveri, T; Scalas, M T; Falchi, A M; Maccioni, L; Melis, M A; Galanello, R

1981-01-01

3

?-thalassaemia  

PubMed Central

Alpha-thalassaemia is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by a microcytic hypochromic anaemia, and a clinical phenotype varying from almost asymptomatic to a lethal haemolytic anaemia. It is probably the most common monogenic gene disorder in the world and is especially frequent in Mediterranean countries, South-East Asia, Africa, the Middle East and in the Indian subcontinent. During the last few decades the incidence of alpha thalassaemia in North-European countries and Northern America has increased because of demographic changes. Compound heterozygotes and some homozygotes have a moderate to severe form of alpha thalassaemia called HbH disease. Hb Bart's hydrops foetalis is a lethal form in which no alpha-globin is synthesized. Alpha thalassaemia most frequently results from deletion of one or both alpha genes from the chromosome and can be classified according to its genotype/phenotype correlation. The normal complement of four functional alpha-globin genes may be decreased by 1, 2, 3 or all 4 copies of the genes, explaining the clinical variation and increasing severity of the disease. All affected individuals have a variable degree of anaemia (low Hb), reduced mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH/pg), reduced mean corpuscular volume (MCV/fl) and a normal/slightly reduced level of HbA2. Molecular analysis is usually required to confirm the haematological observations (especially in silent alpha-thalassaemia and alpha-thalassaemia trait). The predominant features in HbH disease are anaemia with variable amounts of HbH (0.8-40%). The type of mutation influences the clinical severity of HbH disease. The distinguishing features of the haemoglobin Bart's hydrops foetalis syndrome are the presence of Hb Bart's and the total absence of HbF. The mode of transmission of alpha thalassaemia is autosomal recessive. Genetic counselling is offered to couples at risk for HbH disease or haemoglobin Bart's Hydrops Foetalis Syndrome. Carriers of alpha+- or alpha0-thalassaemia alleles generally do not need treatment. HbH patients may require intermittent transfusion therapy especially during intercurrent illness. Most pregnancies in which the foetus is known to have the haemoglobin Bart's hydrops foetalis syndrome are terminated due to the increased risk of both maternal and foetal morbidity. PMID:20507641

2010-01-01

4

Evaluation of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pattern and prevalence of beta-thalassaemia trait among sickle cell disease patients in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common inherited disorder of haemoglobin worldwide. This study evaluated the chromatographic patterns and red blood cell indices of sickle cell patients to determine the co-inheritance of other haemoglobin(Hb) variants and ?-thalassaemia trait. Methods Red cell indices, blood film, sickle solubility test, Hb electrophoresis using alkaline cellulose acetate membrane, and chromatographic patterns using Bio Rad HPLC Variant II were evaluated for 180 subjects. Results Based on low MCV <76fL and MCH<25 pg, in the presence of elevated A2 >4.0% on HPLC and Hb variants eluting outside the S and C windows, at least four haemoglobin phenotypes (SS: 87.7%; SC: 1.1%; SD Punjab: 0.6%; S?-thalassemia: 10.6%) were identified. Mean Hb F% was 8.1±5.1 (median 7.65) for Hb SS and 6.03±5.2 (median 3.9) for Hb S?-thalassemia trait. Majority of Hb SS (69.1%) had Hb F% less than 10 while 27.6% had 10-19.9 and 3.2% had ? 20. Mean Hb F% was higher in female Hb SS (9.55±5.09; mean age 7.4±3.8 years) than the males (7.63±4.80; mean age 6.9±3.8 years) (P=0.02). A borderline significant negative correlation between age and Hb F levels among Hb SS subjects (r= -0.169 P=0.038) was also observed. Conclusion Our data suggests that ? and ?- thalassaemia traits, and other haemoglobin variants co-exist frequently with SCD in our population PMID:25400838

Adeyemo, Titilope; Ojewunmi, Oyesola; Oyetunji, Ajoke

2014-01-01

5

Filipino beta zero thalassaemia: a high Hb A2 beta zero thalassaemia resulting from a large deletion of the 5' beta globin gene region.  

PubMed Central

A large novel deletional beta zero thalassaemia mutation associated with unusually high levels of haemoglobin (Hb) A2 in heterozygotes is described in two unrelated subjects of Filipino background. The deletion was characterised by DNA mapping including pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Filipino beta zero thalassaemia extends for approximately 45 kb beginning approximately 1.5 kb 3' to the delta globin gene. It is the largest deletion to date which gives rise to the beta zero thalassaemia phenotype. This mutation, similar to previously described deletional beta zero thalassaemias associated with high Hb A2, removes sequences 5' to the beta globin gene promoter and emphasises the functional importance of the 5' beta globin region in eliciting the unusually high level of Hb A2. This example also suggests that it is the 3' sequences which are transposed rather than the actual deletion size which are significant in the raised fetal haemoglobin (Hb F) found with some of the thalassaemias. Images PMID:7682618

Motum, P I; Kearney, A; Hamilton, T J; Trent, R J

1993-01-01

6

Haemoglobin s interaction with Beta thalassaemia- a case report from assam, India.  

PubMed

Interaction of Hb S with beta thalassaemia is being reported here as this type of case is rare. Hb S (?6 glu?val) is a genetic disorder which occurs due to beta globin gene mutation of haemoglobin. In India, the Hb S is prevalent in the central part, in the eastern, western and southern tribal belt regions and among the tea tribe communities of Assam. The Hb S carriers (Sickle cell trait) leads a normal life but the Sickle cell disease patients show certain clinical manifestation like joint pain, anaemia and jaundice. The HPLC report of the patient showed Compound heterozygous for Hb S- ? thalassaemia. The complete blood count was measured in automated haematology analyser. Mutational pattern of the beta thalassaemia as well as the presence of Hb S gene was detected by PCR. The case showed severe clinical manifestations and transfusion was required due to inheritance of the IVS 1-5 G ?C ?- thalassaemia mutation with the Hb S gene. PMID:25386449

Pathak, Mauchumi Saikia; Borah, Monalisha Saikia; Kalita, Dulal

2014-09-01

7

Haemoglobin S Interaction with Beta Thalassaemia- A Case Report from Assam, India  

PubMed Central

Interaction of Hb S with beta thalassaemia is being reported here as this type of case is rare. Hb S (?6 glu?val) is a genetic disorder which occurs due to beta globin gene mutation of haemoglobin. In India, the Hb S is prevalent in the central part, in the eastern, western and southern tribal belt regions and among the tea tribe communities of Assam. The Hb S carriers (Sickle cell trait) leads a normal life but the Sickle cell disease patients show certain clinical manifestation like joint pain, anaemia and jaundice. The HPLC report of the patient showed Compound heterozygous for Hb S- ? thalassaemia. The complete blood count was measured in automated haematology analyser. Mutational pattern of the beta thalassaemia as well as the presence of Hb S gene was detected by PCR. The case showed severe clinical manifestations and transfusion was required due to inheritance of the IVS 1-5 G ?C ?- thalassaemia mutation with the Hb S gene. PMID:25386449

Borah, Monalisha Saikia; Kalita, Dulal

2014-01-01

8

Iron Overload in Beta Thalassaemia Major and Intermedia Patients  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: In beta thalassaemia major multiple blood transfusions, ineffective erythropoiesis and increased gastrointestinal iron absorption lead to iron overload in the body. Iron overload impairs the immune system, placing patients at greater risk of infection and illness. Iron overload can be determined by serum ferritin measurement. Objective: The aim of the present study is to assess the serum ferritin levels in multi-transfused Thalassaemia major and Thalassaemia intermedia patients. The study was also done to estimate the present situation of awareness of iron overload in them. Methods: Seventy two blood samples from clinically diagnosed thalassaemia major and intermedia patients were collected from different tertiary care hospitals in Bhopal, India for their serum ferritin estimation. Serum ferritin measurement was performed using indirect enzyme linked immune sorbent based serum ferritin assay kit. Data were analyzed to determine association between variables. The association between age, sex, and serum ferritin level were established. Results: 87.4% of the beta thalassaemia major patients showed very high ferritin levels. The mean serum ferritin level was found to be 2767.52 ng/ml. 44.4% patients had serum ferritin between 1000 to 2500 ng/ml, while 43.05% patients had values above 2500 ng/ml. These levels reflect inadequate chelation and vulnerability to develop iron overload related complications. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to rationalize the chelation therapy and to create awareness about the consequences of iron overload in the patients. The study showed high levels of serum ferritin beta thalassaemia major patients which give an overall bleak view. PMID:24790662

MISHRA, Amit Kumar; TIWARI, Archana

2013-01-01

9

Beta-thalassaemia: increased chromosomal anomalies in lymphocyte cultures.  

PubMed Central

Lymphocyte cultures from homozygotes for the beta-thalassaemia gene were found to contain chromosomal gaps, breaks, and rearrangements more often than those from controls. Culture time seemed to have a determinant effect on the results. The possible influence of folic acid deficiency is discussed. Images PMID:469887

Côté, G B; Papadakou-Lagoyanni, S

1979-01-01

10

Blood Transfusion Transmitted Infections in Multiple Blood Transfused Patients of Beta Thalassaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfusion Transmitted Infection (TTI) continue to be a problem in many parts of world and multi-transfused patients of beta\\u000a thalassaemia major are at a particularly increased risk of TTI. This study is aimed to estimate the prevalence of blood TTI\\u000a in multiple blood transfused patients of beta thalassaemia major. Cross-sectional study of 200 multi-transfused patients of\\u000a beta thalassaemia major, who

Prakash J. Vidja; J. H. Vachhani; S. S. Sheikh; P. M. Santwani

11

NEGATIVE EPISTASIS BETWEEN ?+ THALASSAEMIA AND SICKLE CELL TRAIT CAN EXPLAIN INTERPOPULATION VARIATION IN SOUTH ASIA  

PubMed Central

Recent studies in Kenya and Ghana have shown that individuals who inherit two malaria-protective genetic disorders of haemoglobin—?+ thalassaemia and sickle cell trait—experience a much lower level of malaria protection than those who inherit sickle cell trait alone. We have previously demonstrated that this can limit the frequency of ?+ thalassaemia in a population in which sickle cell is present, which may account for the frequency of ?+ thalassaemia in sub-Saharan Africa not exceeding 50%. Here we consider the relationship between ?+ thalassaemia and sickle cell in South Asian populations, and show that very high levels of ?+ thalassaemia combined with varying levels of malaria selection can explain why sickle cell has penetrated certain South Asian populations but not others. PMID:22133230

Penman, Bridget S; Habib, Saman; Kanchan, Kanika; Gupta, Sunetra; Read, A

2011-01-01

12

The spectrum of beta-thalassaemia mutations in the Lebanon.  

PubMed

We screened 110 DNA samples from carriers of beta-thalassaemia, using the ARMS-PCR technique with primers for common Mediterranean mutations. Unidentified samples were subjected to a heteroduplex analysis with Universal Heteroduplex Generators covering the beta-globin gene, followed by DNA sequencing. In total, 16 different mutations were detected, the most frequent being IVSI-110 (40%), followed by other common Mediterranean mutations (IVSI-1, IVSII-1, IVSI-6). Other mutations detected were of Lebanese, Turkish, Iranian, Kurdish, Bulgarian and Asian Indian origin. The most heterogeneous religious group seems to be the Sunni Muslims, with 13 mutations, while only 2 mutations were detected among the Christian Maronites. Results from this study are compared with those from other Mediterranean and neighbouring countries. PMID:9358011

Zahed, L; Talhouk, R; Saleh, M; Abou-Jaoudeh, R; Fisher, C; Old, J

1997-01-01

13

Thrombocytopenia and Iron Deficiency Anaemia in a Patient with ?1Thalassaemia Trait. Response to Iron Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency anaemia secondary to menorrhagia was observed in a woman of Greek Cypriot origin. Moderate thrombocytopenia was also present. Treatment with parenteral and oral iron produced a transient thrombocytosis, the platelet count then returning to normal. Subsequent analysis revealed that she also carried the ?1-thalassaemia trait. Previous reports of thrombocytopenia responsive to iron treatment are reviewed.Copyright © 1978 S.

M. E. J. Beard; S. A. N. Johnson

1978-01-01

14

THALASSAEMIA IS A TROPICAL DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Genes for thalassaemias, sickle cell disorders and Glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are known to be associated with prevalent malaria infection. The prevalence in the heterozygote state for sickle cell anaemia (SCA), G6PD and alpha thalassaemia is between 25-30% in Nigerians but the prevalence for the beta thalassaemia trait (BTT) is low. Under-diagnosis of BTT may arise from the similarity in its clinical manifestation to that of SCA which is of high prevalence in Nigeria and secondly because the hypochromia and microcytosis associated with it may be misdiagnosed as iron deficiency anaemia. There is therefore the need to review this disorder in the light of the wide use of automation in processing a full blood count which will include red cell indices, a good screening method for the thalassaemias. This expectedly will aid easy and early diagnosis of the disorder. PMID:25161407

Kotila, T.R.

2012-01-01

15

The Spectrum of Beta-Thalassaemia Mutations in the Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We screened 110 DNA samples from carriers of ?-thalassaemia, using the ARMS-PCR technique with primers for common Mediterranean mutations. Unidentified samples were subjected to a heteroduplex analysis with Universal Heteroduplex Generators covering the ?-globin gene, followed by DNA sequencing. In total, 16 different mutations were detected, the most frequent being IVSI-110 (40%), followed by other common Mediterranean mutations (IVSI-1, IVSII-1,

L. Zahed; R. Talhouk; M. Saleh; R. Abou-Jaoudeh; C. Fisher; J. Old

1997-01-01

16

beta-Thalassaemia and factors affecting the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins.  

PubMed

Total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, alpha-lipoprotein (LP) (HDL-LP), pre-beta-LP (VLDL-LP) and beta-lipoprotein (LDL-LP) were measured in the blood of 104 patients with major and intermedia form of beta-thalassaemia and 112 control subjects, mean age +/- SD 10.2 +/- 3.5 and 9.1 +/- 3.8 years, respectively. Cholesterol, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol were significantly decreased and TG was significantly increased in the patients compared to the control subjects. TG values in male patients were significantly higher than in male control subjects, but no differences were found in females. Patients with major and intermedia forms of beta-thalassaemia and chronic hepatitis C have significantly lower values of cholesterol and beta-LP and higher values of HDL-cholesterol than patients without hepatitis C. An increase of HDL-cholesterol and alpha-LP was found in patients with diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) compared to patients without IGT. In the thalassaemic patients there was an increase of TG and pre-beta-LP and a decrease of HDL-cholesterol and alpha-LP with increasing ferritin values. There was a positive correlation of the patients' age with TG and pre-beta-LP whereas no such correlation was found in the control subjects. It appears, therefore, that many factors as iron overload, liver injury, hormonal disturbances and aging affects lipids and LP pattern in patients with major and intermedia form of beta-thalassaemia. PMID:14653451

Papanastasiou, D A; Siorokou, T; Haliotis, F A

1996-01-01

17

A Java-based Electronic Healthcare Record Software for Beta-thalassaemia  

PubMed Central

Background Beta-thalassaemia is a hereditary disease, the prevalence of which is high in persons of Mediterranean, African, and Southeast Asian ancestry. In Greece it constitutes an important public health problem. Beta-thalassaemia necessitates continuous and complicated health care procedures such as daily chelation; biweekly transfusions; and periodic cardiology, endocrinology, and hepatology evaluations. Typically, different care items are offered in different, often-distant, health care units, which leads to increased patient mobility. This is especially true in rural areas. Medical records of patients suffering from beta-thalassaemia are inevitably complex and grow in size very fast. They are currently paper-based, scattered over all units involved in the care process. This hinders communication of information between health care professionals and makes processing of the medical records difficult, thus impeding medical research. Objective Our objective is to provide an electronic means for recording, communicating, and processing all data produced in the context of the care process of patients suffering from beta-thalassaemia. Methods We have developed - and we present in this paper - Java-based Electronic Healthcare Record (EHCR) software, called JAnaemia. JAnaemia is a general-purpose EHCR application, which can be customized for use in all medical specialties. Customization for beta-thalassaemia has been performed in collaboration with 4 Greek hospitals. To be capable of coping with patient record diversity, JAnaemia has been based on the EHCR architecture proposed in the ENV 13606:1999 standard, published by the CEN/TC251 committee. Compliance with the CEN architecture also ensures that several additional requirements are fulfilled in relation to clinical comprehensiveness; to record sharing and communication; and to ethical, medico-legal, and computational issues. Special care has been taken to provide a user-friendly, form-based interface for data entry and processing. Results The experience gained through the use of JAnaemia in 4 Greek hospitals reveals a significant contribution towards (1) improvement of the quality of the data being recorded, since data entry is guided by appropriate forms, (2) easier cooperation between physicians, who share a common information repository, and (3) increased processing capabilities, which facilitate medical research. Conclusions JAnaemia appears to be a useful tool, which can improve the quality of care offered to beta-thalassaemic patients in Greece. PMID:11772548

Lambrinoudakis, C; Andriopoulos, P; Farmakis, D; Aessopos, A

2001-01-01

18

A national register for surveillance of inherited disorders: beta thalassaemia in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the value of a national register for surveillance of services for an inherited disorder. METHODS: Data from the United Kingdom Thalassaemia Register and the United Kingdom Register of Prenatal Diagnosis for Haemoglobin Disorders were combined in a database; these registers include all fetuses known to have been diagnosed with beta thalassaemia major, beta thalassaemia intermedia, or haemoglobin E/beta thalassaemia in the United Kingdom. Data were extracted to show outcomes (selective abortion or live birth) of all fetuses and the status of those born with a disorder (alive, dead, successful bone marrow transplant, or lost to follow-up) by parents' region of residence and ethnicity. FINDINGS: At the end of 1999 the register included 1074 patients, 807 of whom were alive and residing in the United Kingdom. A successful bone marrow transplant has been performed for 117 out of 581 (20%) patients born since 1975. Residents of Pakistani origin are now the main group at risk in the United Kingdom, replacing residents of Cypriot origin. This has led to a marked shift in the need for services from the south-east of England to the Midlands and the north of England. Despite the acceptability of prenatal diagnosis, the proportion of affected births remains 50% higher than would be expected, reflecting a widespread failure to deliver timely screening and counselling to carriers. Even though effective treatment is available the annual number of deaths is rising, indicating that better tolerated treatments are needed. CONCLUSION: A national diagnosis register is a powerful instrument for monitoring the treatment and prevention of inherited disorders and for highlighting correctable shortcomings. In view of the increasing possibilities for genetic screening there is a strong case for central funding for such databases within modern health services. PMID:11731807

Modell, B.; Khan, M.; Darlison, M.; King, A.; Layton, M.; Old, J.; Petrou, M.; Varnavides, L.

2001-01-01

19

Indicators of Renal Glomerular and Tubular Functions in Patients with Beta-Thalassaemia Major  

PubMed Central

Objectives: There are limited data concerning the assessment of renal function in beta-thalassaemia major, with no study of such involvement in Omani patients. The objective of this study was to establish the pattern of renal glomerular and tubular function using traditional and specific laboratory tests in patients with beta-thalassaemia major. Methods: This cross-sectional study, from January–July 2008, included 30 patients of the Thalassaemia Clinic at the Royal Hospital, Oman, with transfusion-dependent homozygous beta-thalassaemia major. They included 15 males and 15 females, aged 16–32 years with mean ± standard deviation of 21.23 ± 3.42 years. The medical records were reviewed and renal function states assessed as follows: serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); urea; phosphate, fractional excretion of filtered sodium (FENa); urine albumin: creatinine index; urine ß2-microglobulin:creatinine index; tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP), and tubular maximum phosphate reabsorption (TmP)/GFR. Results: All patients had eGFR >90 ml/min/1.73m2; serum creatinine <90 ?mol/L; serum urea <6.0 mmol/L, and urine albumin:creatinine <2.5 mg/mmol. Only 2 (6.7%) patients had FENa >1% and 3 (10.0%) patients had urine ß2-microglobulin: creatinine >22 ?g/mmol. All patients had TRP >0.85, of whom seven (23.3%) patients had values within the range of 0.85–0.95 and 23 (76.7%) had values >0.95. Also, all patients had TmP/GFR >1.0 mmol/L, of whom only one (3.3%) patient had TmP/GFR of 1.0–1.5, and 29 (96.7%) patients had TmP/GFR >1.5 mmol/L. Finally, 24 (80%) patients had serum phosphate >1.4 mmol/L. Linear regression revealed a highly significant correlation between serum phosphate and TmP/GFR (r = 0.904, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Renal function, glomerular and tubular, appears to be well preserved in beta-thalassaemia major. Almost all renal function indicators were within the recommended ranges. Raised TmP/GFR and TRP were noted in the majority of patients, reflecting an up-trend in serum phosphate and therefore increasing renal phosphate reabsorption. PMID:21509211

Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S; Al-Hashmi, Huda S; Al-Muslahi, Muhanna N

2011-01-01

20

Beta-Thalassaemia Intermedia: Evaluation of Endocrine and Bone Complications  

PubMed Central

Objective. Data about endocrine and bone disease in nontransfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) is scanty. The aim of our study was to evaluate these complications in ?-TI adult patients. Methods. We studied retrospectively 70 ?-TI patients with mean followup of 20 years. Data recorded included age, gender, haemoglobin and ferritin levels, biochemical and endocrine tests, liver iron concentration (LIC) from T2*, transfusion regimen, iron chelation, hydroxyurea, splenectomy, and bone mineralization by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Thirty-seven (53%) males and 33 (47%) females were studied, with mean age 41 ± 12 years, mean haemoglobin 9.2 ± 1.5?g/dL, median ferritin 537 (range 14–4893), and mean LIC 7.6 ± 6.4?mg?Fe/g?dw. Thirty-three patients (47%) had been transfused, occasionally (24/33; 73%) or regularly (9/33; 27%); 37/70 (53%) had never been transfused; 34/70 patients had been splenectomized (49%); 39 (56%) were on chelation therapy; and 11 (16%) were on hydroxyurea. Endocrinopathies were found in 15 patients (21%): 10 hypothyroidism, 3 hypogonadism, 2 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and one diabetes. Bone disease was observed in 53/70 (76%) patients, osteoporosis in 26/53 (49%), and osteopenia in 27/53 (51%). Discussion and Conclusions. Bone disease was found in most patients in our study, while endocrinopathies were highly uncommon, especially hypogonadism. We speculate that low iron burden may protect against endocrinopathy development. PMID:25110660

Baldini, M.; Marcon, A.; Cassin, R.; Ulivieri, F. M.; Spinelli, D.; Cappellini, M. D.; Graziadei, G.

2014-01-01

21

Characterization of beta-thalassaemia mutations using direct genomic sequencing of amplified single copy DNA.  

PubMed

Direct sequencing of specific regions of genomic DNA became feasible with the invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which permits amplification of specific regions of DNA. Recently, human mitochondrial DNA was amplified and directly sequenced. Using a thermostable DNA polymerase of T. aquaticus (Saiki, R.K. et al., manuscript in preparation) in the PCR, we have applied a combination of PCR and direct sequence analysis of the amplified product to a human single-copy gene. We studied the genomic DNA of five patients with beta-thalassaemia whose mutant alleles were uncharacterized, and found two previously undescribed mutations, along with three known alleles. One new allele is a frameshift at codons 106-107 and the other is an A-C transversion at the cap site (+1) of the beta-globin gene. This latter is the first natural mutation observed at the cap site and it occurs in a gene which is poorly expressed. PMID:3683554

Wong, C; Dowling, C E; Saiki, R K; Higuchi, R G; Erlich, H A; Kazazian, H H

22

Red cell genetic abnormalities in Peninsular Arabs: sickle haemoglobin, G6PD deficiency, and alpha and beta thalassaemia.  

PubMed Central

The frequencies of four major red cell genetic defects, sickle haemoglobin (Hb S), glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), and alpha and beta thalassaemia, have been determined in nearly 5000 subjects from the three major Peninsular Arab States, namely Yemen (North and South), the United Arab Emirates, and Oman. All four defects are common with an overall pattern of alpha thalassaemia greater than G6PD deficiency greater than beta thalassaemia greater than Hb A/S. However, the frequencies of these within each state varies and they are, respectively, Oman: 0.389, 0.328, 0.024, and 0.038; the United Arab Emirates: 0.165, 0.087, 0.017, and 0.019; and Yemen: 0.065, 0.062, 0.0624, and 0.0095. Two, namely alpha thalassaemia and G6PD deficiency, are extremely common, but in spite of this there appears to be a lack of observed clinical disease. For example, Hb H disease and Barts hydrops fetalis were not seen and the oxidative haemolytic syndromes are rare. PMID:3723553

White, J M; Byrne, M; Richards, R; Buchanan, T; Katsoulis, E; Weerasingh, K

1986-01-01

23

Lack of transmission of hepatitis C in household contacts of children with homozygous beta-thalassaemia.  

PubMed

Forty-eight household contacts of 25 children with homozygous beta-thalassaemia and chronic hepatitis C (index cases) were evaluated for antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and increased transaminase values in the blood. The mean age +/- SD of the household contacts was 36.4 +/- 17.0 years (range 5-67) and 20 of them were males. All thalassaemic patients (age 14.3 +/- 3.0 years, range 8-19) were positive for anti-HCV antibodies by repeated determinations. HCV-RNA was detected in the blood of 22 of 23 patients tested by polymerase chain reaction. Liver biopsies were performed in 18 patients and showed chronic active hepatitis in 14 and chronic persistent hepatitis in 4. The mean duration of contact between the index cases and the household contacts while the index cases were anti-HCV positive was 45.3 +/- 10.2 months (range 17-57). None of the household contacts was found to be positive for anti-HCV antibodies nor did they have elevated transaminases in the two examinations performed within an interval of about 2 years. Among the HCV-negative household contacts are included 14 who mentioned needlestick injuries with needles used by the index cases. PMID:9066712

Papanastasiou, D A; Spiliopoulou, I; Katinakis, S; Karana-Ginopoulou, A; Repanti, M

1997-01-01

24

An evaluation of PGD in clinical genetic services through 3 years application for prevention of beta-thalassaemia major and sickle cell thalassaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

PGD represents an alternative within prenatal diagnosis services, which avoids terminating affected on-going pregnancies. In Greece, prevention programmes for haemoglobinopathies, including the option of prenatal diagnosis, are well established. Following optimization of a single-cell genotyping strategy (designed to be applicable for the majority of b-thalassaemia major or sickle thalassaemia genotype interactions) along with close collaboration with an IVF unit, we

Joanne Traeger-Synodinos; Christina Vrettou; Giles Palmer; Maria Tzetis; Minas Mastrominas; Stephen Davies; Emmanuel Kanavakis

2003-01-01

25

Alpha and beta cell evaluation in patients with thalassaemia intermedia and iron overload.  

PubMed Central

Insulin and glucagon secretion were studied during an oral glucose tolerance test and arginine infusion in 11 patients with thalassaemia intermedia, who showed laboratory evidence of iron overload. Mean blood glucose concentrations in patients with thalassaemia intermedia were significantly higher than normal and 3 of 11 patients had impaired glucose tolerance. The principal abnormality appears to be a deficiency in insulin and glucagon from the pancreas in response to oral glucose tolerance and arginine stimulation tests. Several factors, such as iron overload, chronic hypoxia, zinc deficiency and increased catecholamine production secondary to anaemia, might play a part in the pathogenesis of these abnormalities. Each of these factors affect individual cases to a varied degree. Our data emphasize the mildness of carbohydrate defect as compared to the degree of insulinopenia and indicate the necessity for prescribing measures which prevent excessive iron deposition and improve iron excretion in thalassaemic patients with iron overload. PMID:3906615

De Sanctis, V.; Gamberini, M. R.; Borgatti, L.; Atti, G.; Vullo, C.; Bagni, B.

1985-01-01

26

The Prevalence of the Beta Thalassemia Trait among the Pregnant Women who attended the ANC Clinic in a PHC, by using the NESTROF Test in Bangalore, Karnataka  

PubMed Central

Contaxt: Every year in India 6000 to 8000 children are born with thalassaemia major. The birth of such a child produces considerable physical and economic strain on the affected child, its family and the community at large. Thus, the emphasis must shift from the treatment to the prevention of such births in the future. Aims: To find out the prevalence of the Beta Thalassaemia trait among the pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinics in a Primary Health Centre, by using the NESTROF test; to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of the study subjects, to find out the pregnancies which were ‘at risk’ of delivering babies with Thalassaemia major and to find out the ‘awareness’ of the pregnant women regarding Thalassaemia. Material and Methods: This exploratory study was conducted in a PHC which was attached to the Department of Community Medicine of a medical college which was situated in Bangalore, India, for a period of 3 months. All the pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic and the husbands of the NESTROF positive women were included in the study. The details regarding the sociodemographic characteristics of the women were collected on a structured proforma and the NESTROF test was performed. Results: Out of the 210 pregnant women who were tested, 18 (8.5%) were thalassaemia carriers. 12 (66.6%) of them were between 20 – 25 years of age. 5 (27.7%) were born out of 2nd degree consanguineous marriages. 7 (38.8%) had a history of abortions, among which 6 (33.3%) were in the 1st trimesters of their pregnancies. Out of the 18 positive women, 9 (50%) had turned up with their husbands. All of the husbands were negative for the Thalassaemia carrier status. Thus, there was no pregnancy which was at a risk of delivering babies with thalassaemia major. None (100%) of the pregnant women were aware of the disease, thalassaemia. Conclusions: The prevalence of the Beta Thalassaemia trait among the pregnant women was 8.5%. PMID:23998078

Kulkarni, Praveen; Masthi, N R Ramesh; Niveditha, SR; Suvarna, R

2013-01-01

27

Evaluation of the validity of Hb A2 and mean corpuscular haemoglobin action values in antenatal screening for beta thalassaemia carriers in England.  

PubMed

National antenatal screening of all pregnant women in England is carried out using standards and guidelines produced by the National Health Service Sickle Cell and Thalassaemia Screening Programme. The algorithms for detection of beta thalassaemia carrier status rely on action criteria, which are set using the percentage Hb A2 and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) values. Three groups of samples: MCH <27 pg and Hb A2 3·5-3·9%, MCH ?27 pg and Hb A2 4-4·3% and MCH ?27 pg and Hb A2 3·5-3·9% were selected from a sample population of 59 500 to assess the validity and predictive value of the action criteria - 25 false positives (0·042% of total) and nine false negatives (0·015% of total) were detected. These findings support the continuation of the current action values. PMID:24754789

Daniel, Yvonne; Cartwright, Ronwyn; Rennie, Kristian; Streetly, Allison; Howard, Jo

2014-08-01

28

Thalassaemia major in Deutschland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Thalassaemia minor tritt sporadisch in der Bevölkerung Deutschlands auf. 1941 wurde auf Grund klinischer Befunde der erste Fall von Thalassaemia major bei einem deutschen Patienten beschrieben. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird über ein deutsches, aus dem Westerwald stammendes Kind berichtet, bei dem die Diagnose einer Thalassaemia major durch Hämoglobinelektrophorese und Bestimmung des alkali-resistenten Hämoglobins gesichert werden konnte.

G. Flatz; H. Hauke; E. Kleihauer

1964-01-01

29

Sickle cell haemoglobin, thalassaemia and G-6-PD enzyme deficiency genes in Garasiya tribe inhabited malaria endemic areas of Sirohi District, Rajasthan (India).  

PubMed

Venous blood samples of 368 apparently healthy and unrelated adult individuals (both male and female) belonging to a primitive tribe, Garasiya inhabitating malaria hyperendemic areas of Sirohi district, Rajasthan (India) were investigated by standard and recommended techniques for evidence of erythrocyte genetic disorders; sickle cell haemoglobin, beta-thalassaemia syndromes and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) enzyme deficiency (Gd). Sickle cell genes encountered in 23 (6.25%) Garasiya tribals. Of these, 22 (5.97%) showed heterozygous sickle cell gene(Hb-AS or trait) and one (0.27%) homozygous form (Hb-SS or sickle cell disease). beta-thalassaemia syndromes were observed in 30 (8.15%) subjects; 28 (7.60%) beta-thalassaemia traits (beta-thal.) and 2 (0.54%) HbS-thalassaemia (HbS-thal.). Gd was found in 56 (15.21%) subjects. Except these mutant genes no other erythrocyte abnormal genes were encountered in Garasiya tribe. A high incidence or prevalence of these red cell mutant genes in relation to malaria is discussed in the present communication. PMID:19886170

Choubisa, S L

2009-03-01

30

Alpha thalassaemia in tribal communities of coastal Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: In a routine community health survey conducted in adult Adivasis of the costal Maharashtra, microcytosis and hyprochromia were observed in more than 80 per cent of both males and females having normal haemoglobin levels suggesting the possibility of ?-thalassaemia in these communities. We conducted a study in Adivasi students in the same region to find out the magnitude of ?-thalessaemia. Methods: The participants (28 girls and 23 boys) were 14-17 yr old studying in a tribal school. Fasting venous blood samples (5 ml) were subjected to complete blood count (CBC), Hb-HPLC and DNA analysis using gap-PCR for deletion of – ?3.7 and – ?4.2, the two most common molecular lesions observed in ?-thalassaemia in India. Results: Microcytic hypochromic anaemia was observed 50 and 35 per cent girls and boys, respectively. Iron supplementation improved Hb levels but did not correct microcytois and hypochromia. More than 80 per cent non-anaemic students of both sexes showed microcytois and hypochromia. DNA analysis confirmed that the haematological alterations were due to ?-thalassaemia trait characterized by deletion of – ?3.7. Majority (> 60%) of the affected students had two deletions (-?3.7/-?3.7) genotype ?+ thalassaemia. Interpretation & conclusions: This is perhaps the first report on the occurrence of ?-thalassaemia in tribal communities of coastal Maharashtra. Very high (78.4%) haplotype frequency of -?3.7 suggests that the condition is almost genetically fixed. These preliminary observations should stimulate well planned large scale epidemiological studies on ?-thalassaemia in the region. PMID:25297356

Deo, Madhav G.; Pawar, Prakash V.

2014-01-01

31

Insulin dependent diabetes in thalassaemia.  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus was observed in 29 of 448 patients with thalassaemia major attending seven Italian centres. Twelve patients, at onset of clinical diabetes, presented with an asymptomatic glycosuria, 13 with ketosis, and four with ketoacidosis. All were diagnosed after 1979, at a mean age of 17 years. Mean age at diagnosis of diabetes was lower in patients born in the last two decades. In these patients transfusions were started at a younger age and pre-transfusion haemoglobin concentration, serum ferritin concentration, incidence of liver disease, and the presence of a family history of diabetes were higher than in patients born previously. Although 27 (93%) cases had iron chelating treatment the mean serum ferritin concentration was 5600 micrograms/l; 25 (92%) of these patients had signs of liver impairment. The determination of C peptide in 10 patients showed a wide variation in pancreatic beta cell function, and insulin requirements ranged between 0.15 and 1.72 U/kg body weight. Metabolic control was generally poor. The onset of diabetes mellitus was followed in most patients by the appearance of other endocrine or cardiac complications, or both. Fourteen patients died within three years of presenting with overt diabetes. Haemosiderosis, liver infections, and genetic factors seemed to be crucial in diabetes development. Thalassaemic patients developing clinical diabetes mellitus are at high risk for other complications and should be strictly monitored, especially for thyroid impairment. PMID:3348650

De Sanctis, V; Zurlo, M G; Senesi, E; Boffa, C; Cavallo, L; Di Gregorio, F

1988-01-01

32

Thalassaemia Carrier Testing in Pakistani Adults: Behaviour, Knowledge and Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To describe ?-thalassaemia (thalassaemia) carrier testing behaviour (whether tested or intentions of testing) amongst a sample of UK Pakistani adults; their level of knowledge about thalassaemia, and their attitudes toward thalassaemia carrier testing. Method: In a cross-sectional design semi-structured interviews, data were obtained from 59 Pakistani adults including 19 parents of children with thalassaemia; 20 of their relatives, and

Shenaz Ahmed; Hilary Bekker; Jenny Hewison; Sally Kinsey

2002-01-01

33

Screening for intermediate and severe forms of thalassaemia in discarded red blood cells: optimization and feasibility.  

PubMed

Detection and quantification of Hb subtypes of human blood is integral to presumptive identification of thalassaemias. It has been used in neonatal screening of thalassaemia and Hb variants. The use of discarded red blood cells following processing of the cord blood for stem cells provides readily available diagnostic material for thalassaemia screening. In this study, we determined the range of Hb subtypes in 195 consecutive cord blood samples collected for cord blood banking. The 'cord blood samples' analysed were those of the remaining red blood cells after the cord blood was processed for stem cell storage. Quantification of Hb subtypes by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was done on BioRad Variant II Hb testing system. Only 73 (36.5%) of the samples could be analyzed neat without dilution. With a 1:300 dilution with wash solution the acceptable area as recommended by the manufacturer for reading of a C-gram within the 1 to 3 million ranges were achieved in all. Eighteen (9%) 12 showed classical Hb Barts (y4) prerun peaks were confirmed by Sebia Hydrasys automated Hb gel electrophoresis and quantified by Sebia Capillarys 2 capillary electrophoresis. Only 1 (0.5%) was presumptively identified with HbH disease. Due to the limited number of samples no beta-thalassaemia major, Hb E beta-thalassaemia and Hb Barts hydrops fetalis were found. The HPLC assay was possible at a cost US$ 5 per sample and a turnover time of 10 samples per hour without technical difficulties. This study reports an effective and valuable protocol for thalassaemia screening in red blood cells which would otherwise be discarded during cord blood processing. Cord blood with severe and intermediate forms of thalassaemia can be preselected and not stored. PMID:22390095

George, Elizabeth; Lai, Mei I; Teh, Lai Kuan; Ramasamy, Rajesh; Goh, Ern Huei; Asokan, Kamalan; Tan, J A M A; Vasudevan, Maithili; Low, Sharon

2011-12-01

34

Right ventricular cardiomyopathy in ?-thalassaemia major  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To evaluate right ventricular function in patients with -thalassaemia major and congestive heart failure. Background In patients with -thalassaemia major a high incidence of cardiac involvement still exists despite improved prognosis with chelation therapy. Development of severe right heart failure is common and has been attributed to pulmonary hypertension secondary to lung haemochromatosis. However, the possibility of direct right

G. Hahalis; A. S. Manolis; D. Apostolopoulos; D. Alexopoulos; A. G. Vagenakis; N. C. Zoumbos

2002-01-01

35

Evaluation and Cost Analysis of National Health Policy of Thalassaemia Screening in West-Azerbaijan Province of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Thalassaemia is one of the most common Mendelian disorders in Mediterranean area. Iran has about 26,000 Thalassaemic patients, so it is one of the most affected countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the screening program and cost analysis of Thalassaemia prevention program in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Methods: This study evaluated the efficacy of Health system's Thalassaemia prevention program with a sensitivity analysis for its costs. The second five years of the program was evaluated. The economic burden of Thalassaemia is determined by the birth prevalence of the affected infants and the cost that is accrued to treat the infected individuals and was compared with the total cost of screening the couples for thalassemia trait. Results: The average incidence rate of major Thalassaemia was 19.8 per 100,000 live births and mean coverage rate of program was 74%. The rate of canceling the marriage among carrier couples was 53%. Cost analysis showed that the cost of screening and prenatal diagnosis program was much lower than the cost of treatment in potential thalassaemic patients. Conclusions: The prevention program of Thalassaemia including a premarital and pre-natal screening in west Azerbaijan province is demonstrated to be cost-effective. Taking some actions in order to increase the coverage of pre-marital screening, providing pre-natal diagnosis in private and public sector, complete insurance coverage for the high-risk couples to perform the investigations more easily, were recommended. PMID:23112894

Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Jahani, Farshid Fayyaz; Hatami, Sanaz; Kargar, Catauon; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

2012-01-01

36

Molecular Characterization of ?- and ?-Thalassaemia among Malay Patients  

PubMed Central

Both ?- and ?-thalassaemia syndromes are public health problems in the multi-ethnic population of Malaysia. To molecularly characterise the ?- and ?-thalassaemia deletions and mutations among Malays from Penang, Gap-PCR and multiplexed amplification refractory mutation systems were used to study 13 ?-thalassaemia determinants and 20 ?-thalassaemia mutations in 28 and 40 unrelated Malays, respectively. Four ?-thalassaemia deletions and mutations were demonstrated. ??SEA deletion and ?CS? accounted for more than 70% of the ?-thalassaemia alleles. Out of the 20 ?-thalassaemia alleles studied, nine different ?-thalassaemia mutations were identified of which ?E accounted for more than 40%. We concluded that the highest prevalence of (?- and ?-thalassaemia alleles in the Malays from Penang are ??SEA deletion and ?E mutation, respectively. PMID:24857915

Mohd Yatim, Nur Fatihah; Abd. Rahim, Masitah; Menon, Kavitha; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Ahmad, Rahimah; Manocha, Anita Bhajan; Saleem, Mohamed; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

2014-01-01

37

Effects of human ?-globin in murine ?-thalassaemia  

PubMed Central

Summary Murine models of ?-thalassaemia have been used to test therapeutic globin gene vectors. However, the level of ?-globin expression necessary to achieve full phenotypic correction in these models is unclear. In order to address this issue, we carried out breeding and transplantation studies in murine models of ?-thalassaemia intermedia (Hbbth–3/+) and severe ?-thalassaemia major (Hbbth–3/Hbbth–3) using transgenic lines expressing various levels of human ?-globin. Expression of ?-globin RNA at a modest 7–14% of total ?-globin RNA resulted in the selective survival of HbF(+) erythrocytes, a fivefold increase in total HbF, and a phenotypic improvement in the ?-thalassaemia intermedia model. Full normalisation of erythrocyte indices in this model required ?-globin RNA expression at 27% of ?-globin, resulting in an average 40% (6.8 g/dl) HbF. Studies using the homozygous Hbbth–3 model of lethal ?-thalassaemia major demonstrated that even this high level of ?-globin expression, for reasons related to the function of the hybrid globin tetramers, could only prolong, but not fully support, survival. Taken together, these results indicate that only the heterozygous Hbbth–3 model of ?-thalassaemia intermedia can be reliably used for the pre-clinical assessment of ?-globin gene therapy vectors, as well as other means of ?-globin gene induction. PMID:16803575

Nishino, Tamon; Cao, Hua; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Emery, David W.

2010-01-01

38

Public perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia: Influencing factors in a multi-racial population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Thalassaemia is a common public health problem in Malaysia and about 4.5 to 6% of the Malays and Chinese are carriers of this genetic disorder. The major forms of thalassaemia result in death in utero of affected foetuses (?-thalassaemia) or life-long blood transfusions for survival in ?-thalassaemia. This study, the first nationwide population based survey of thalassaemia in Malaysia,

Li Ping Wong; Elizabeth George; Jin-Ai Mary Anne Tan

2011-01-01

39

NESTROFT - A Valuable, Cost Effective Screening Test for Beta Thalassemia Trait in North Indian Punjabi Population  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Beta-thalassemia continues to be a cause of significant burden to the society, particularly in the poorer developing countries. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the validity of “NESTROFT” (Naked Eye Single Tube Red Cell Osmotic Fragility Test) as a useful screening tool in the diagnosis of beta thalassemia trait. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted on 150 subjects in the department of haematology in a tertiary health care center in north Indian state of Punjab. In group I, 111 cases diagnosed as microcytic hypochromic anaemia were selected. In group II, 39 individuals (the family members of known cases of beta thalassemia major) were selected. Complete haemogram, NESTROFT and HbA2 levels by electrophoresis were done and the results were tabulated and analyzed statistically. Results: Of the 111 cases in group I, 20 (18%) gave positive results with NESTROFT while 91 cases (82%) tested negative. In group II, out of 39 cases, 30 (76.92%) tested positive with NESTROFT while 9 gave a negative result. In group I, out of 20 NESTROFT positive cases, only 3 had HbA2 levels more than 3.5%. In group II, all the 30 NESTROFT positive cases had HbA2 levels more than 3.5%. The test showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 85.47%, a positive predictive value of 66% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Conclusion: Thus, NESTROFT is a valuable, cost-effective screening test for beta thalassemia trait and appears to be a valid test in rural setting with financial constraints. PMID:24551637

Piplani, Sanjay; Manan, Rahul; Lalit, Monika; Manjari, Mridu; Bhasin, Tajinder; Bawa, Jasmine

2013-01-01

40

Status of Ascorbic Acid in Iron Deficiency Anaemia and Thalassaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of ascorbic acid was studied at the levels of platelet and leucocyte in 32 cases of iron deficiency anaemia, 35 cases of thalassaemia and 18 normal subjects. It was found that in iron deficiency anaemia, platelet ascorbic acid was significantly higher than normal values indicating tissue excess and came down sharply after treatment with iron. In thalassaemia, associated

Bharati Chatterjea; Arati Maitra; D. K. Banerjee; A. K. Basu

1980-01-01

41

Prevalence and clinical features of cryoglobulinaemia in multitransfused ?-thalassaemia patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVEThe aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of cryoglobulinaemia and its clinical features among ?-thalassaemia patients.METHODSEighty eight multitransfused ?-thalassaemia patients were studied. They were physically examined and asked about the presence of cryoglobulinaemia related symptoms. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) serology, HCV-RNA, HCV subtypes, viraemia, serum ferritin, liver and kidney function tests, rheumatoid factor (RF), circulating immune complexes

R Perniola; C De Rinaldis; E Accogli; G Lobreglio

1999-01-01

42

Hematological Indices for Differential Diagnosis of Beta Thalassemia Trait and Iron Deficiency Anemia  

PubMed Central

Background. The two most frequent types of microcytic anemia are beta thalassemia trait (?-TT) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). We retrospectively evaluated the reliability of various indices for differential diagnosis of microcytosis and ?-TT in the same patient groups. Methods. A total of 290 carefully selected children aged 1.1–16 years were evaluated. We calculated 12 discrimination indices in all patients with hemoglobin (Hb) values of 8.7–11.4?g/dL. None of the subjects had a combined case of IDA and ?-TT. All children with IDA received oral iron for 16 weeks, and HbA2 screening was performed after iron therapy. The patient groups were evaluated according to red blood cell (RBC) count; red blood distribution width index; the Mentzer, Shine and Lal, England and Fraser, Srivastava and Bevington, Green and King, Ricerca, Sirdah, and Ehsani indices; mean density of hemoglobin/liter of blood; and mean cell density of hemoglobin. Results. The Mentzer index was the most reliable index, as it had the highest sensitivity (98.7%), specificity (82.3%), and Youden's index (81%) for detecting ?-TT; this was followed by the Ehsani index (94.8%, 73.5%, and 68.3%, resp.) and RBC count (94.8%, 70.5%, and 65.3%). Conclusion. The Mentzer index provided the highest reliabilities for differentiating ?-TT from IDA. PMID:24818016

Vehapoglu, Aysel; Ozgurhan, Gamze; Demir, Aysegul Dogan; Uzuner, Selcuk; Nursoy, Mustafa Atilla; Turkmen, Serdar; Kacan, Arzu

2014-01-01

43

Polymorphism of follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSH?) subunit gene and its association with litter traits in giant panda.  

PubMed

The different SSCP patterns of the follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSH?) gene amplified by three pairs of primers were sequenced. Comparisons among the three nucleotide sequences of three genotypes indicated that three base substitutions (A213T, A91G, and A89C) were detected in FSH? gene, which A213T substitution led to one amino acids mutation (Lys > Met), and the other two substitutions were synonymous mutations. The AA, AB and BB genotypes patterns obtained by FSH? primer1 had evident relation with the litter traits, but the SSCP genotypes patterns obtained by FSH? primer2 and primer3 had no evident relation with the litter traits in giant panda. The giant panda with AA and AB genotype had the largest litter size and multiparity rate compared with the BB genotypes (P < 0.05). We speculated that the giant pandas with the A allele have better litter traits than those with the B allele. PMID:24057246

Huang, Xiaoyu; Li, Desheng; Wang, Jiwen; Huang, Yan; Han, Chunchun; Zhang, Guiquan; Huang, Zhi; Wu, Honglin; Wei, Ming; Wang, Guosong; Hu, Haiping; Deng, Tao; He, Tao; Zhou, Yingming; Song, Shixian; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Heming

2013-11-01

44

Spinal epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis in ?-thalassaemia intermedia.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old man known to have ?-thalassaemia intermedia since childhood presented with bilateral lower limb weakness after spinal anaesthesia for an elective minor operation of his left leg. MRI and CT scans were performed to rule out acute epidural haematoma; coincidental imaging features of marrow hyperplasia and spinal epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis were found. This article will present and discuss the imaging features, differential diagnosis, management and literature review of the rare occurrence of extramedullary haematopoiesis in the spinal epidural space. PMID:24390965

Wong, Kin Hoi; Li, Allen; Lui, Tun Hing; Sit, Yan Kit

2014-01-01

45

Coexisting Iron Deficiency Anemia and Beta Thalassemia Trait: Effect of Iron Therapy on Red Cell Parameters and Hemoglobin Subtypes  

PubMed Central

Background. Coexistence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and beta thalassemia trait (BTT) has been the topic of few studies. However, no study from our country was found evaluating the effect of iron therapy in patients with concomitant IDA and BTT. Methods. Over a period of two years, 30 patients with concomitant IDA and BTT were included. All the patients had a complete blood count, serum iron studies, and thalassemia screening using BIORADTM hemoglobin testing system. The patients received oral iron therapy in appropriate dosages for a period of twenty weeks, after which all the investigations were repeated. Appropriate statistical methods were applied for comparison of pre- and posttherapy data. Results. All except two patients were adults with a marked female preponderance. Oral iron therapy led to statistically significant improvement in hemoglobin, red cell indices (P < 0.05), and marked change in serum iron, ferritin, and HbA2 levels (P < 0.001). There was a significant reduction in the total iron binding capacity levels. Conclusion. The present study shows the frequent occurrence of iron deficiency anemia in patients with beta thalassemia trait, which can potentially confound the diagnosis of the latter. Hence, iron deficiency should be identified and rectified in patients with suspicion of beta thalassemia trait. PMID:25006473

Verma, Sarika; Gupta, Ruchika; Kudesia, Madhur; Mathur, Alka; Krishan, Gopal; Singh, Sompal

2014-01-01

46

Hepatocellular carcinoma in thalassaemia: an update of the Italian Registry.  

PubMed

The risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with thalassaemia is increased by transfusion-transmitted infections and haemosiderosis. All Italian Thalassaemia Centres use an ad hoc form to report all diagnoses of HCC to the Italian Registry. Since our last report, in 2002, up to December 2012, 62 new cases were identified, 52% of whom were affected by thalassaemia major (TM) and 45% by thalassaemia intermedia (TI). Two had sickle-thalassaemia (ST). The incidence of the tumour is increasing, possibly because of the longer survival of patients and consequent longer exposure to the noxious effects of the hepatotropic viruses and iron. Three patients were hepatitis B surface antigen-positive, 36 patients showed evidence of past infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Fifty-four patients had antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV), 43 of whom were HCV RNA positive. Only 4 had no evidence of exposure either to HCV or HBV. The mean liver iron concentration was 8 mg/g dry weight. Therapy included chemoembolization, thermoablation with radiofrequency and surgical excision. Three patients underwent liver transplant, 21 received palliative therapy. As of December 2012, 41 patients had died. The average survival time from HCC detection to death was 11·5 months (1·4-107·2 months). Ultrasonography is recommended every 6 months to enable early diagnosis of HCC, which is crucial to decrease mortality. PMID:24992281

Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Garani, Maria Chiara; Forni, Gian Luca; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Cassinerio, Elena; Fidone, Carmelo; Spadola, Vincenzo; Maggio, Aurelio; Restivo Pantalone, Gaetano; Piga, Antonio; Longo, Filomena; Gamberini, Maria Rita; Ricchi, Paolo; Costantini, Silvia; D'Ascola, Domenico; Cianciulli, Paolo; Lai, Maria Eliana; Carta, Maria Paola; Ciancio, Angela; Cavalli, Paola; Putti, Maria Caterina; Barella, Susanna; Amendola, Giovanni; Campisi, Saveria; Capra, Marcello; Caruso, Vincenzo; Colletta, Grazia; Volpato, Stefano

2014-10-01

47

Nutritional support and growth in thalassaemia major  

PubMed Central

Accepted 30 January 1997? Twelve thalassaemic children under 3 years of age received intensive nutritional support for one month and were discharged on a prescribed diet of locally available foods. Anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis and dietary intake were longitudinally assessed. Mean energy intake was 20% greater than the recommended daily allowance during nutritional supplementation as compared with below the recommended daily allowance before and after the period of nutritional support. Weight, but not height, significantly increased during the support period and was due to increases in both fat free mass and fat mass. Body weight, fat free mass and fat mass declined in line with the reduced intake upon return home; however, height velocity accelerated and exceeded normal through the fourth month before resuming a below normal rate. It can be concluded that (1) nutritional stunting as the result of reduced nutrient intake is an important cause of growth failure in young children with thalassaemia and is responsive to nutritional support, (2) the deficit in height velocity was due to retarded truncal height growth, and (3) the bioelectrical impedance analysis method is suitable for body composition analysis of thalassaemic children.?? PMID:9245848

Fuchs, G; Tienboon, P; Khaled, M; Nimsakul, S; Linpisarn, S; Faruque, A; Yutrabootr, Y; Dewier, M; Suskind, R

1997-01-01

48

Public perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia: Influencing factors in a multi-racial population  

PubMed Central

Background Thalassaemia is a common public health problem in Malaysia and about 4.5 to 6% of the Malays and Chinese are carriers of this genetic disorder. The major forms of thalassaemia result in death in utero of affected foetuses (?-thalassaemia) or life-long blood transfusions for survival in ?-thalassaemia. This study, the first nationwide population based survey of thalassaemia in Malaysia, aimed to determine differences in public awareness, perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia in the multi-racial population in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey of a representative sample of multi-racial Malaysians aged 18 years and above was conducted between July and December 2009. Results Of a total of 3723 responding households, 2846 (76.4%) have heard of thalassaemia. Mean knowledge score was 11.85 (SD ± 4.03), out of a maximum of 21, with higher scores indicating better knowledge. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in total knowledge score by age groups, education attainment, employment status, and average household income were observed. Although the majority expressed very positive attitudes toward screening for thalassaemia, only 13.6% of married participants interviewed have been screened for thalassaemia. The majority (63.4%) were unsupportive of selective termination of foetuses diagnosed with thalassaemia major. Conclusion Study shows that carrier and premarital screening programs for thalassaemia may be more effective and culturally acceptable in the reduction of pregnancies with thalassaemia major. The findings provide insights into culturally congruent educational interventions to reach out diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities to increase knowledge and cultivate positive attitudes toward prevention of thalassaemia. PMID:21447191

2011-01-01

49

Resistance of Human Squamous Carcinoma Cells to Transforming Growth Factor beta1 is a Recessive Trait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because most human squamous carcinoma cell lines of the aerodigestive and genital tracts are refractory to the antiproliferative action of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFbeta 1) in vitro, we have begun to identify the causes for resistance of squamous carcinoma cell lines to TGFbeta 1 by using somatic cell genetics. Two stable hybrid cell lines (FaDu-HKc.1 and FaDu-HKc.2) were

Michael Reiss; Teresita Munoz-Antonia; Janet M. Cowan; Perry C. Wilkins; Zhao-Ling Zhou; Vincent F. Vellucci

1993-01-01

50

Beta event-related desynchronization as an index of individual differences in processing human facial expression: further investigations of autistic traits in typically developing adults.  

PubMed

The human mirror neuron system (hMNS) has been associated with various forms of social cognition and affective processing including vicarious experience. It has also been proposed that a faulty hMNS may underlie some of the deficits seen in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the present study we set out to investigate whether emotional facial expressions could modulate a putative EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) and if so, would this differ according to the individual level of autistic traits [high versus low Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score]. Participants were presented with 3 s films of actors opening and closing their hands (classic hMNS mu-suppression protocol) while simultaneously wearing happy, angry, or neutral expressions. Mu-suppression was measured in the alpha and low beta bands. The low AQ group displayed greater low beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) to both angry and neutral expressions. The high AQ group displayed greater low beta ERD to angry than to happy expressions. There was also significantly more low beta ERD to happy faces for the low than for the high AQ group. In conclusion, an interesting interaction between AQ group and emotional expression revealed that hMNS activation can be modulated by emotional facial expressions and that this is differentiated according to individual differences in the level of autistic traits. The EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) seems to be a sensitive measure of the variability in facial processing in typically developing individuals with high and low self-reported traits of autism. PMID:23630489

Cooper, Nicholas R; Simpson, Andrew; Till, Amy; Simmons, Kelly; Puzzo, Ignazio

2013-01-01

51

Choosing offspring: prenatal genetic testing for thalassaemia and the production of a ‘saviour sibling’ in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the pre-natal genetic testing and reproductive decision-making around thalassaemia in China. Findings are based on fieldwork conducted in hospitals and research institutions, interviews with families with thalassaemia-affected children, interviews with geneticists and genetic researchers and a literature review conducted between September and November 2007. The paper aims to provide insight into the ways in which those

Suli Sui; Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner

2010-01-01

52

Expenditure to Treat Thalassaemia: An Experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital in India  

PubMed Central

Background: The medical and economic problem of thalassaemia are considered to be a vast public health problem in the thalassaemia belt countries, emphasizing more on prenatal diagnosis as the solution of the problem. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the Institute of Haematology & Transfusion Medicine located in Medical College, Kolkata, India to assess the socio-demographic profile, clinical presentation, expenditure for treatment of thalassaemia patients and awareness about cause and prevention of the disease. Results: Thalassaemia patients attended the Govt. setting were mostly from lower socioeconomic status with low level of literacy. Annual expenditure for treatment of thalassaemia ranged from $ 108 to 432; depending on type of treatment with average cost per transfusion was $ 5.2±2.2. Average 18.5%±14.3 of the total annual income was spent on the treatment for thalassaemia. Average man days or school days lost for the patients was 29.87±18.5 and 19.07±12.7 for the accompanying persons. Conclusion: Blood transfusion and carrier screening facilities should be decentralized to decrease the expenditure for treatment and alleviate the harassment of the families. Folate and calcium tablets, hepatitis B vaccination can be made available at government setting free of cost. PMID:23112993

Mallik, S; Chatterjee, C; Mandal, Pankaj K; Sardar, Jadab C; Ghosh, P; Manna, N

2010-01-01

53

Expression of embryonic hemoglobin genes in mice heterozygous for. cap alpha. -thalassemia or. beta. -duplication traits and in mice heterozygous for both traits  

SciTech Connect

Hemoglobins of mouse embryos at 11.5 through 16.5 days of gestation were separated by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate and quantitated by a scanning densitometer to study the effects of two radiation-induced mutations on the expression of embryonic hemoglobin genes in mice. Normal mice produce three kinds of embryonic hemoglobins. In heterozygous ..cap alpha..-thalassemic embryos, expression of EI (x/sub 2/y/sub 2/) and EII (..cap alpha../sub 2/y/sub 2/) is deficient because the x- and ..cap alpha..-globin genes of one of the allelic pairs of Hba on chromosome 11 was deleted or otherwise inactivated by X irradiation. Simultaneous inactivation of the x- and ..cap alpha..-globin genes indicates that these genes must be closely linked. Reduced x- and ..cap alpha..-chain synthesis results in an excess of y chains that associate as homotetramers. This unique y/sub 4/ hemoglobin also appears in ..beta..-duplication embryos where excess y chains are produced by the presence of three rather than two functional alleles of y- and ..beta..-globin genes. In double heterozygotes, which have a single functional allele of x- and ..cap alpha..-globin genes and three functional alleles of y- and ..beta..-globin genes, synthesis of ..cap alpha.. and non-..cap alpha.. chains is severely imbalanced and half of the total hemoglobin is y/sub 4/. Mouse y/sub 4/ has a high affinity for oxygen, P/sub 50/ of less than 10 mm Hg, but it lacks cooperativity so is inefficient for oxygen transport. The death of double heterozygotes in late fetal or neonatal life may be in large part to oxygen deprivation to the tissues.

Popp, R.A.; Marsh, C.L.; Skow, L.C.

1981-01-01

54

A quantitative trait locus on chromosome 4 affects cycling of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells through regulation of TGF-beta 2 responsiveness.  

PubMed

The hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) compartment is subject to extensive quantitative genetic variation. We have previously shown that TGF-beta2 at low concentrations enhances flt3 ligand-induced growth of HSPCs, while it is potently antiproliferative at higher concentrations. This in vitro enhancing effect was subject to quantitative genetic variation, for which a quantitative trait locus (QTL) was tentatively mapped to chromosome 4 (chr.4). Tgfb2(+/-) mice have a smaller and more slowly cycling HSPC compartment, which has a decreased serial repopulation capacity, and are less susceptible to the lethal effect of high doses of 5-fluorouracil. To unequivocally demonstrate that these phenotypes can be attributed to the enhancing effect of TGF-beta2 on HSPC proliferation observed in vitro and are therefore subject to mouse strain-dependent variation as well, we generated congenic mice where the telomeric region of chr.4 was introgressed from DBA/2 into C57BL/6 mice. In these mice, the enhancing effect of TGF-beta2 on flt3 signaling, but not the generic antiproliferative effect of high concentrations of TGF-beta2, was abrogated, confirming the location of this QTL, which we named tb2r1, on chr.4. These mice shared a smaller and more slowly cycling HSPC compartment and increased 5-fluorouracil resistance but not a decreased serial repopulation capacity with Tgfb2(+/-) mice. The concordance of phenotypes between Tgfb2(+/-) and congenic mice indicates that HSPC frequency and cycling are regulated by tb2r1, while an additional QTL in the telomeric region of chr.4 may regulate the serial repopulation capacity of hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:18941179

Avagyan, Serine; Glouchkova, Ludmila; Choi, Juhyun; Snoeck, Hans-Willem

2008-11-01

55

A stopped flow system with hydrodynamic injection for red blood cells osmotic fragility test: possibility for automatic screening of beta-thalassemia trait.  

PubMed

Simple instrumentation and procedure with stopped flow system coupled to hydrodynamic injection and spectrophotometric detection were developed for automatic osmotic fragility test (OFT). OFT is a test for abnormal red blood cells based on the kinetics of their rupturing in a hypotonic saline solution. A portion of red cells was merged on-line with a hypotonic saline solution. They were mixed while flowing into the detector and were stopped for a short period for continuously monitoring the change of turbidity based on a transmission signal. In this work, a possible application of the system for screening of beta-thalassemia trait is demonstrated. Descriptions of instrumentation development and parameter optimization are presented. The system offers advantages over the conventional batch-wise OFT in terms of automation, precision, analysis time and sample volume. PMID:19531894

Khonyoung, Supada; Kradtap Hartwell, Supaporn; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Lapanantnoppakhun, Somchai; Sanguansermsri, Torpong; Grudpan, Kate

2009-06-01

56

Non-Invasive Haemoglobin Estimation in Patients with Thalassaemia Major  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to validate pulse CO-oximetry-based haemoglobin (Hb) estimation in children and adults with thalassaemia major (TM) and to determine the impact of different baseline variables on the accuracy of the estimation. Methods: This observational study was conducted over a five-week period from March to April 2012. A total of 108 patients with TM attending the daycare thalassaemia centre of a tertiary care hospital in Muscat, Oman, were enrolled. Spot (Sp) Hb measurements were estimated using a Pronto-7® pulse CO-oximetry device (Masimo Corp., Irvine, California, USA). These were compared to venous samples of Hb using the CELL-DYN Sapphire Hematology Analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA) to determine the reference (Ref) Hb levels. A multivariable linear regression model was used to assess the impact of baseline variables such as age, gender, weight, height, Ref Hb and blood pressure on the Hb estimations. Results: Of the 108 enrolled patients, there were 54 males and 54 females with a mean age of 21.6 years (standard deviation [SD] = 7.3 years; range: 2.5–38 years). The mean Ref Hb and Sp Hb were 9.4 g/dL (SD = 0.9 g/dL; range: 7.5–12.3 g/dL) and 11.1 g/dL (SD = 1.2 g/dL; range: 7.5–14.7 g/dL), respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2) was 21% with a mean difference of 1.7 g/dL (SD = 1.1 g/dL; range: ?0.9–4.3 g/dL). In the multivariable model, the Ref Hb level (P = 0.001) was the only statistically significant predictor. Conclusion: The Pronto-7® pulse CO-oximetry device was found to overestimate Hb levels in patients with TM and therefore cannot be recommended. Further larger studies are needed to confirm these results.

Al Khabori, Murtadha K.; Al-Riyami, Arwa Z.; Al-Farsi, Khalil; Al-Huneini, Mohammed; Al-Hashim, Abdulhakeem; Al-Kemyani, Nasser; Al-Qarshoubi, Issa; Khan, Hammad; Al-Amrani, Khalfan; Daar, Shahina

2014-01-01

57

Psychological Vulnerability and Resilience in Children and Adolescents with Thalassaemia Major  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Chronic childhood illness may be a risk factor for psychosocial or psychiatric disturbances. Yet, children with chronic illnesses may also show resilience and active coping with varying degrees of success or failure. The present study aims to outline the patterns of coping and adjustment of patients with thalassaemia major, and identify specific developmental issues associated with living with the

ASM FUNG; PWH LEE

2008-01-01

58

Molecular characteristic of alpha thalassaemia among patients diagnosed in UKM Medical Centre.  

PubMed

Alpha (?) thalassaemia is the most common inherited disorder in Malaysia. The clinical severity is dependant on the number of ? genes involved. Full blood count (FBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) analysis using either gel electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) are unable to detect definitively alpha thalassaemia carriers. Definitive diagnosis of ?-thalassaemias requires molecular analysis and methods of detecting both common deletional and non-deletional molecular abnormailities are easily performed in any laboratory involved in molecular diagnostics. We carried out a retrospective analysis of 1623 cases referred to our laboratory in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) for the diagnosis of ?-thalassaemia during the period October 2001 to December 2012. We examined the frequency of different types of alpha gene abnormalities and their haematologic features. Molecular diagnosis was made using a combination of multiplex polymerase reaction (PCR) and real time PCR to detect deletional and non-deletional alpha genes relevant to southeast Asian population. Genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of ?-thalassaemias in 736 cases. Majority of the cases were Chinese (53.1%) followed by Malays (44.2%), and Indians (2.7%). The most common gene abnormality was ??/--(SEA) (64.0%) followed by ??/-?(3.7) (19.8%), -?(3.7) /--(SEA) (6.9%), ??/??CS (3.0%), --(SEA)/--(SEA) (1.2%), -?(3.7)/-?(3.7) (1.1%), ??/-?(4.2) (0.7%), -?(4.2)/--(SEA (0.7%), -?(3.7)/-?(4.2) (0.5%), ??(CS)/-- SEA) (0.4%), ??(CS)/??(Cd59) (0.4%), ??(CS)/??(CS) (0.4%), -?(3.7)/??(Cd59) (0.3%), ??/??(Cd59) (0.1%), ??(Cd59)/ ??(IVS I-1) (0.1%), -?(3.7)/??(CS) (0.1%) and --(SEA) /??(Cd59) (0.1%). This data indicates that the molecular abnormalities of ?-thalassaemia in the Malaysian population is heterogenous. Although ?-gene deletion is the most common cause, non-deletional ?-gene abnormalities are not uncommon and at least 3 different mutations exist. Establishment of rapid and easy molecular techniques is important for definitive diagnosis of alpha thalassaemia, an important prerequisite for genetic counselling to prevent its deleterious complications. PMID:24763232

Azma, Raja Zahratul; Ainoon, Othman; Hafiza, Alauddin; Azlin, Ithnin; Noor Farisah, Abudul Razak; Nor Hidayati, Sardi; Noor Hamidah, Hussin

2014-04-01

59

A quantitative trait locus on chr.4 affects cycling of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells through regulation of transforming growth factor-beta 2 responsiveness  

PubMed Central

The hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) compartment is subject to extensive quantitative genetic variation. We have previously shown that transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-?2) at low concentrations enhances flt3 ligand induced growth of HSPCs, while it is potently antiproliferative at higher concentrations. This in vitro enhancing effect was subject to quantitative genetic variation, for which a quantitative trait locus (QTL) was tentatively mapped to chr.4. Tgfb2+/- mice have a smaller and more slowly cycling HSPC compartment, which has a decreased serial repopulation capacity, and are less susceptible to the lethal effect of high doses of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). To unequivocally demonstrate that these phenotypes can be attributed to the enhancing effect of TGF-?2 on HSPC proliferation observed in vitro and are therefore subject to mouse strain-dependent variation as well, we generated congenic mice where the telomeric region of chr.4 was introgressed from DBA/2 into C57BL/6 mice. In these mice, the enhancing effect of TGF-?2 on flt3 signaling, but not the generic antiproliferative effect of high concentrations of TGF-?2, was abrogated, confirming the location of this QTL, which we named tb2r1, on chr.4. These mice shared a smaller and more slowly cycling HSPC compartment, increased 5-FU resistance but not a decreased serial repopulation capacity with Tgfb2+/- mice. The concordance of phenotypes between Tgfb2+/- and congenic mice indicates that HSPC frequency and cycling are regulated by tb2r1, while an additional QTL in the telomeric region of chr.4 may regulate the serial repopulation capacity of HSCs. PMID:18941179

Avagyan, Serine; Glouchkova, Ludmila; Choi, Juhyun; Snoeck, Hans-Willem

2008-01-01

60

The Diagnosis of ?-Thalassaemia: A Case of Hemoglobin H -?3.7 Deletion  

PubMed Central

We report a case of hemolytic anemia that was subsequently identified to be a case of ?-thalassaemia harboring the common rightward 3.7 kb deletion/HbH. The diagnosis was based on sequential analyses using BioRad D10 HPLC, Alkaline gel electrophoresis, GPO ? THAL-IC strips and the identification of the specific genetic lesion using an ? Globin reverse dot blot hybridization assay. Supravital stain of RBCs helped in identifying classical HbH inclusions. In a background of a variable clinical presentation, lack of definitive hematological markers, and general under-diagnosis of ?-thalassaemias we have used this case to highlight the features and sequence of techniques involved in identifying and characterizing an ?-globin chain mutation, starting from a diffuse clinical history and presentation up to the identification of a specific genetic lesion involved. PMID:21966120

Dewan, Kalyan Kumar; Krishnaswamy, Patnam Rajagopalan

2010-01-01

61

Lack of Transmission of Hepatitis C in Household Contacts of Children with Homozygous ?-Thalassaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight household contacts of 25 children with homozygous ?-thalassaemia and chronic hepatitis C (index cases) were evaluated for antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and increased transaminase values in the blood. The mean age ± SD of the household contacts was 36.4 ± 17.0 years (range 5-67) and 20 of them were males. All thalassaemic patients (age 14.3 ± 3.0

Dimitris A. Papanastasiou; Iris Spiliopoulou; Stelios Katinakis; Aphrodite Karana-Ginopoulou; Maria Repanti

1997-01-01

62

First premarital screening of thalassaemia carriers in intermediate schools in Latium.  

PubMed Central

In the 1975 to 1976 school year, under the auspices of the Health Authorities of the Latium Region, the Rome Microcythaemia Centre carried out for the first time a partial screening survey of thalassaemia carriers among the students of the compulsory intermediate school in Latium. This work was the beginning of a new preventive school health service aimed at the prophylaxis of Cooley's disease. In 23 places investigated in Latium, 17724 students were examined, 13354 of whom were in Rome and 4370 elsewhere. The mean percentage of co-operation was 70% and the mean percentage of thalassaemia 2.42%. Thalassaemic students were invited to attend the centre for a check-up along with their families: about half had already come in by the end of June 1976. All students examined, whether normal or thalassaemic, have received written results of the tests. The screening survey aroused notable interest and obtained wide approval both at school and at home. The news of being thalassaemia carriers, even if not welcome, was never the cause of family tragedy. PMID:671484

Silvestroni, E; Bianco, I; Graziani, B; Carboni, C; D'Arca, S U

1978-01-01

63

Characterization of beta-thalassaemia mutations using direct genomic sequencing of amplified single copy DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct sequencing of specific regions of genomic DNA1 became feasible with the invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which permits amplification of specific regions of DNA2-5. Recently, human mitochondria! DNA was amplified and directly sequenced6. Using a thermostable DNA polymerase of T. aquaticus (Saiki, R. K. et al., manuscript in preparation) in the PCR, we have applied a combination

Corinne Wong; Carol E. Dowling; Randall K. Saiki; Russell G. Higuchi; Henry A. Erlich; Haig H. Kazazian

1987-01-01

64

Insulin sensitivity and ß-cell secretion in thalassaemia major with secondary haemochromatosis: assessment by oral glucose tolerance test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus in patients with thalassaemia major is caused by secondary haemochromatosis due to transfusional iron overload. The pathogenetic mechanisms leading from siderosis to diabetes are still poorly understood. This study aimed at assessing the influence of insulin resistance and insulin deficiency on that process. Glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) from 36 thalassaemic patients

Holger Cario; Reinhard W. Holl; Klaus-Michael M. Debatin; Elisabeth Kohne

2003-01-01

65

Antibodies reacting with Simian Virus 40 mimotopes in serum samples from patients with thalassaemia major  

PubMed Central

Background Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a small DNA tumour virus. Footprints of the virus have been detected in different humam lymphoproliferative disorders and in blood specimens of blood from healthy blood donors. This study was carried out to verify whether SV40 antibodies can be detected in serum samples from multiply transfused patients with thalassaemia major. Materials and methods An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed, using SV40 specific synthetic peptides mimicking the antigens of the viral capsid proteins 1-2-3, to test for the presence of antibodies to SV40 in serum samples taken from patients affected by transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major (n=190) and healthy blood donors (n=251). Results The prevalence of antibodies against SV40 was higher in patients than in controls (24% vs 17%). The prevalence increased and was significantly higher in the older age group of patients affected by thalassemia major than in controls (38% vs 20%, p<0.04). Discussion The higher prevalence of serum antibodies against simian virus 40 in older, multiply transfused patients with thalassamia major than in controls suggests that this virus, or a closely related yet unknown human polyomavirus, could have been transmitted in the past by transfusion with whole blood. At the same time, our data indicate no significant differences in prevalence of SV40 antibodies in patients and controls of younger age thus suggesting that current transfusion methods with leucodepletion and filtered red cells are safe. PMID:24887224

Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Mazzoni, Elisa; Felletti, Marcella; Turla, Giuliana; Malaventura, Cristina; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Cianciulli, Paolo; Forni, Gian Luca; Corallini, Alfredo; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

2014-01-01

66

Frequency and origin of haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster in individuals with trait and sickle cell anemia in the Atlantic and Pacific coastal regions of Colombia.  

PubMed

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease with high prevalence in people of African descent. There are five typical haplotypes associated with this disease and the haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster have been used to establish the origin of African-descendant people in America. In this work, we determined the frequency and the origin of haplotypes associated with hemoglobin S in a sample of individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) and sickle cell hemoglobin trait (HbAS) in coastal regions of Colombia. Blood samples from 71 HbAS and 79 HbSS individuals were obtained. Haplotypes were determined based on the presence of variable restriction sites within the ?-globin gene cluster. On the Pacific coast of Colombia the most frequent haplotype was Benin, while on the Atlantic coast Bantu was marginally higher than Benin. Eight atypical haplotypes were observed on both coasts, being more diverse in the Atlantic than in the Pacific region. These results suggest a differential settlement of the coasts, dependent on where slaves were brought from, either from the Gulf of Guinea or from Angola, where the haplotype distributions are similar. Atypical haplotypes probably originated from point mutations that lost or gained a restriction site and/or by recombination events. PMID:24385850

Fong, Cristian; Lizarralde-Iragorri, María Alejandra; Rojas-Gallardo, Diana; Barreto, Guillermo

2013-12-01

67

Trait--environment relationships remain strong despite 50 years of trait compositional change in temperate forests.  

PubMed

Temperate North American forest communities have changed considerably in response to logging, fragmentation, herbivory, and other global change factors. Significant changes in the structure and composition of seemingly undisturbed Wisconsin forest communities have occurred over the past 50 years, including widespread declines in alpha and beta species diversity. To investigate how shifts in species composition have affected distributions of plant functional traits, we first compiled extensive data on understory plant species traits. We then computed community-weighted trait means and functional diversity metrics for communities in both the 1950s and 2000s. We examined how trait values and diversity varied across environmental gradients and among Wisconsin's four main ecoregions. Trait means and diversity values reflect conspicuous gradients in species composition, soils, and climatic conditions. Over the past 50 years, values of most traits have changed as communities shifted toward species with higher leaf nutrient levels and specific leaf area, particularly in the southern ecoregions. Trait richness and diversity have declined, particularly in historically species- and trait-rich unglaciated southwestern Wisconsin. Reductions in within-site trait diversity may be diminishing the ability of these forest communities to resist or resiliently respond to shifts in environmental conditions. Despite changes in trait and community composition, trait-environment relationships measured directly via fourth-corner analysis remain strong for most plant traits. Nevertheless, accelerating ecological change (including climate change) could outstrip the ability of plant species and traits to match their environment, particularly in more fragmented landscapes. PMID:25163112

Amatangelo, Kathryn L; Johnson, Sarah E; Rogers, David A; Waller, Donald M

2014-07-01

68

Dominantly inherited ? thalassaemia intermedia caused by a new single nucleotide deletion in exon 2 of the ? globin gene: Hb morgantown (?91 CTG>CG)  

PubMed Central

Family members in multiple generations of an Irish–American family were investigated for moderate to severe microcytic anaemia, inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. A novel frameshift mutation of the ? globin gene was discovered. This study highlights the importance of considering dominantly inherited ? thalassemia in the investigation of anaemia, even in patients with ethnic backgrounds not usually associated with ? thalassaemia. PMID:16189162

Luo, H-Y; Tang, W; Eung, S H; Coad, J E; Canfield, P; Keller, F; Crowell, E H; Steinberg, M H; Chui, D H K

2005-01-01

69

HSP70 sequestration by free ?-globin promotes ineffective erythropoiesis in ?-thalassaemia.  

PubMed

?-Thalassaemia major (?-TM) is an inherited haemoglobinopathy caused by a quantitative defect in the synthesis of ?-globin chains of haemoglobin, leading to the accumulation of free ?-globin chains that form toxic aggregates. Despite extensive knowledge of the molecular defects causing ?-TM, little is known of the mechanisms responsible for the ineffective erythropoiesis observed in the condition, which is characterized by accelerated erythroid differentiation, maturation arrest and apoptosis at the polychromatophilic stage. We have previously demonstrated that normal human erythroid maturation requires a transient activation of caspase-3 at the later stages of maturation. Although erythroid transcription factor GATA-1, the master transcriptional factor of erythropoiesis, is a caspase-3 target, it is not cleaved during erythroid differentiation. We have shown that, in human erythroblasts, the chaperone heat shock protein70 (HSP70) is constitutively expressed and, at later stages of maturation, translocates into the nucleus and protects GATA-1 from caspase-3 cleavage. The primary role of this ubiquitous chaperone is to participate in the refolding of proteins denatured by cytoplasmic stress, thus preventing their aggregation. Here we show in vitro that during the maturation of human ?-TM erythroblasts, HSP70 interacts directly with free ?-globin chains. As a consequence, HSP70 is sequestrated in the cytoplasm and GATA-1 is no longer protected, resulting in end-stage maturation arrest and apoptosis. Transduction of a nuclear-targeted HSP70 mutant or a caspase-3-uncleavable GATA-1 mutant restores terminal maturation of ?-TM erythroblasts, which may provide a rationale for new targeted therapies of ?-TM. PMID:25156257

Arlet, Jean-Benoît; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Guillem, Flavia; Negre, Olivier; Hazoume, Adonis; Marcion, Guillaume; Beuzard, Yves; Dussiot, Michaël; Moura, Ivan Cruz; Demarest, Samuel; de Beauchêne, Isaure Chauvot; Belaid-Choucair, Zakia; Sevin, Margaux; Maciel, Thiago Trovati; Auclair, Christian; Leboulch, Philippe; Chretien, Stany; Tchertanov, Luba; Baudin-Creuza, Véronique; Seigneuric, Renaud; Fontenay, Michaela; Garrido, Carmen; Hermine, Olivier; Courtois, Geneviève

2014-10-01

70

Client views and attitudes to non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for sickle cell disease, thalassaemia and cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

In the near future the availability of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) for single gene disorders will change the prenatal diagnosis options available to couples who are carriers of conditions such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disorder and thalassaemia. Client opinions about NIPD are needed to inform the implementation of NIPD for single gene disorders. This qualitative study used two focus groups (n?=?12) and one-to-one interviews (n?=?16) with carriers and support group representatives of sickle cell disease, thalassaemia and cystic fibrosis. Discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Opinions about NIPD were very positive and participants valued the opportunity to have safe and early testing. Uptake of prenatal testing is likely to increase as women who had previously declined invasive testing expressed interest in having NIPD. Participant concerns about NIPD centred on the need for accuracy to be high to be used for subsequent decision making about termination of pregnancy. Participants also raised concerns that less thought may be given to having a blood test compared to an invasive test and that the perceived ease of a blood test may bring increased pressure to have testing. Participants thought NIPD should be offered through existing specialist services to ensure appropriate genetic counseling and support. Maintaining all testing options is important as some people may prefer invasive testing over NIPD if invasive testing was more accurate or if invasive testing could give information about other conditions such as Down syndrome. PMID:24788196

Hill, Melissa; Compton, Cecilia; Karunaratna, Madhavi; Lewis, Celine; Chitty, Lyn

2014-12-01

71

GH response to provocation and circulating IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 concentrations, the IGF-I generation test and clinical response to GH therapy in children with b-thalassaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes of growth retardation of children with thalassaemia major are multifactorial. We studied the GH response to provocation by clonidine and glucagon, measured the circulating concentrations of insulin, IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and ferritin, and evaluated IGF-I generation after a single dose of GH (0.1 mg\\/kg per dose) in 15 prepubertal patients with thalassaemia, 15 age-matched children with constitutional

Ashraf T Soliman; Nagwa El Banna; B M Ansari

72

Sickle Cell Trait  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease (SCD) National Center Homepage Share Compartir Sickle Cell Trait People who inherit one sickle cell gene ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

73

Haptoglobin HP2-2 genotype, ?-thalassaemia and acute seizures in children living in a malaria-endemic area  

PubMed Central

Summary Polymorphisms of the haptoglobin (HP) gene and deletions in ?-globin gene (?-thalassaemia) are common in malaria-endemic Africa. The same region also has high incidence rates for childhood acute seizures. The haptoglobin HP2-2 genotype has been associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies and altered iron metabolism in children with ?-thalassaemia can potentially interfere with neurotransmission and increase the risk of seizures. We investigated the hypothesis that the HP2-2 genotype and the common African ?-globin gene deletions are associated with the increased risk of seizures. 288 children aged 3–156 months admitted with acute seizures to Kilifi District Hospital (Kenya), were matched for ethnicity to an equal number of community controls. The proportion of cases (72/288 [25.0%]) and controls (80/288 [27.8%]) with HP2-2 genotype was similar, p = 0.499. The allele frequency of HP2 gene in cases (49.3%) and controls (48.6%) was also similar, p = 0.814. Similarly, we found no significant difference between the proportion of cases (177/267 [66.3%]) and controls (186/267 [69.7%]) with deletions in ?-globin gene (p = 0.403). Among cases, HP2-2 polymorphism and deletions in ?-globin gene were neither associated with changes in the type, number or duration of seizures nor did they affect outcome. We conclude that the HP2-2 polymorphism and deletions in ?-globin gene are not risk factors for acute seizures in children. Future studies should examine other susceptibility genes. PMID:18554871

Idro, Richard; Williams, Thomas N.; Gwer, Samson; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alex; Opi, Herbert; Atkinson, Sarah; Maitland, Kathryn; Kager, Piet A.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Neville, Brian G.R.; Newton, Charles R.J.C.

2008-01-01

74

Association for Women in Beta Beta Beta  

E-print Network

(Honor Society) MusicSymphonic BandUniversity SymphonyOrchestraWomen's ChorusMen's ChorusConcert ChoraleBiology Association for Women in Science (A.W.I.S.) Beta Beta Beta (National Honor Society) Sigma(Conversation Table)Sigma Delta Pi(National Honor Society) Theatre and FilmUT Film and VideoSocietyAlpha Psi Omega

Viola, Ronald

75

Family Traits and Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a matching game with their families to discover common inherited traits and traditions. Learners distinguish between inherited traits and learned traditions. This genetics activity is available in English and Spanish.

Utah, University O.

2006-01-01

76

Identification and key management of non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia patients: not a rare but potentially under-recognised condition.  

PubMed

Patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) have a genetic defect or combination of defects that affect haemoglobin synthesis, but which is not severe enough to require regular blood transfusions. The carrier frequency of NTDT is high (up to 80% in some parts of the world) but the prevalence of symptomatic patients varies with geography and is estimated to be from 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 100. NTDT has a variable presentation that may include mild to severe anaemia, enlarged spleen and/or liver, skeletal deformities, growth retardation, elevated serum ferritin and iron overload. The contributing factors to disease progression are ineffective erythropoiesis and increased haemolysis, which lead to chronic anaemia. The body's attempts to correct the anaemia result in constantly activated erythropoiesis, leading to marrow expansion and extramedullary haematopoiesis. Diagnosis of NTDT is largely clinical but can be confirmed by genetic sequencing. NTDT must be differentiated from other anaemias including sideroblastic anaemia, paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and iron-deficiency anaemia. Management of NTDT is based on managing symptoms, and includes blood transfusions, hydroxyurea treatment, iron chelation and sometimes splenectomy. Prognosis for well managed patients is good, with most patients living a normal life. Since NTDT is mainly prevalent in sub-tropical regions, patients who present in other parts of the world, in particular the Northern hemisphere, might not been correctly recognised and it can be considered a 'rare' condition. It is particularly important to identify and diagnose patients early, thereby preventing complications. PMID:25265971

Viprakasit, Vip; Tyan, Paul; Rodmai, Sarayuth; Taher, Ali T

2014-01-01

77

Scientists Studying Sickle Cell Trait  

MedlinePLUS

... trait, which can cause sudden death in young athletes. In people with sickle cell trait, intense physical ... found to have sickle cell trait. "More student-athletes with sickle cell trait have died than those ...

78

Beta experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

1982-01-01

79

Beta Beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultimate goal of neutrino oscillation physics is the search for leptonic CP violation, which will require neutrino beams that are much more intense and pure than those used in present experiments. Beta beams are an attractive innovative possibility in this direction. Neutrinos are generated by the beta decays of radioactive nuclei and are accelerated at very high energies. The resulting neutrino beam consists of only one easily predictable flavor of neutrinos (ve or [Formula: see text]). A realistic beta beam design, which has already been demonstrated by the Eurisol Design Study, is based on CERN's PS and SPS accelerators. The beta beam concept has also been extended in several other directions, including high energy, high Q, electron capture, and low energy. Both the accelerator complex and the physics potential of a neutrino experiment are reviewed here. We emphasize the beta beam design based on the CERN PS and SPS, but we also discuss other possibilities.

Lindroos, Mats; Mezzetto, Mauro

2010-11-01

80

Relative contribution of insulin sensitivity and [beta ]-cell function to plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations have been used in genetic studies as quantitative phenotypic traits and also as surrogates for insulin sensitivity and [beta ]-cell function. However, the significance of these traits in relation to insulin sensitivity and [beta ]-cell function was unknown. We examined how insulin sensitivity and [beta ]-cell function affected plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during the

Ken C. Chiu; Dorothy S. Martinez; Carol Yoon; Lee-Ming Chuang

2002-01-01

81

Generations of Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on activity students track and record the passage of colored pom-pom âtraitsâ through three generations of gingerbread people. Students observe that traits are passed from parents to offspring, and that siblings each receive a different combination of traits from their parents.

2006-01-01

82

Generalized Latent Trait Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

2000-01-01

83

Lutte biologique contre Polymyxa betae (Kes-kin) au moyen de Trichoderma sp. Rsultats  

E-print Network

NOTE Lutte biologique contre Polymyxa betae (Kes- kin) au moyen de Trichoderma sp. Résultats dans un sol naturelle- ment infesté par Polymyxa betae et traité par un inoculum de Trichoderma sp. 17 of Polymyxa betae (KeskinJ with Trichoderma sp.. Preliminary results in vivo. Seedlings of sugar, beet (cv

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

84

Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient  

PubMed Central

The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha (within local assemblages), beta (among assemblages), and gamma (regional pool) scales. We test these predictions by quantifying hypervolumes constructed from functional traits representing major axes of plant strategy variation (specific leaf area, plant height, and seed mass) in tree assemblages spanning the temperate and tropical New World. Alpha-scale trait volume decreases with absolute latitude and is often lower than sampling expectation, consistent with environmental filtering theory. Beta-scale overlap decays with geographic distance fastest in the temperate zone, again consistent with environmental filtering theory. In contrast, gamma-scale trait space shows a hump-shaped relationship with absolute latitude, consistent with no theory. Furthermore, the overall temperate trait hypervolume was larger than the overall tropical hypervolume, indicating that the temperate zone permits a wider range of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory. PMID:25225365

Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Sandel, Brody; Simova, Irena; Donoghue, John C.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; McGill, Brian J.; Boyle, Brad; Buzzard, Vanessa; Dolins, Steven; J?rgensen, Peter M.; Marcuse-Kubitza, Aaron; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K.; Piel, William H.; Regetz, James; Schildhauer, Mark; Spencer, Nick; Thiers, Barbara; Wiser, Susan K.; Enquist, Brian J.

2014-01-01

85

Mechanisms of plasma non-transferrin bound iron generation: insights from comparing transfused diamond blackfan anaemia with sickle cell and thalassaemia patients.  

PubMed

In transfusional iron overload, extra-hepatic iron distribution differs, depending on the underlying condition. Relative mechanisms of plasma non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) generation may account for these differences. Markers of iron metabolism (plasma NTBI, labile iron, hepcidin, transferrin, monocyte SLC40A1 [ferroportin]), erythropoiesis (growth differentiation factor 15, soluble transferrin receptor) and tissue hypoxia (erythropoietin) were compared in patients with Thalassaemia Major (TM), Sickle Cell Disease and Diamond-Blackfan Anaemia (DBA), with matched transfusion histories. The most striking differences between these conditions were relationships of NTBI to erythropoietic markers, leading us to propose three mechanisms of NTBI generation: iron overload (all), ineffective erythropoiesis (predominantly TM) and low transferrin-iron utilization (DBA). PMID:25209728

Porter, John B; Walter, Patrick B; Neumayr, Lynne D; Evans, Patricia; Bansal, Sukhvinder; Garbowski, Maciej; Weyhmiller, Marcela G; Harmatz, Paul R; Wood, John C; Miller, Jeffery L; Byrnes, Colleen; Weiss, Guenter; Seifert, Markus; Grosse, Regine; Grabowski, Dagmar; Schmidt, Angelica; Fischer, Roland; Nielsen, Peter; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Vichinsky, Elliott

2014-12-01

86

Origins of Metastatic Traits  

PubMed Central

How cancer cells acquire the competence to colonize distant organs remains a central question in cancer biology. Tumors can release large numbers of cancer cells into the circulation, but only a small proportion of these cells survive on infiltrating distant organs and even fewer form clinically meaningful metastases. During the past decade, many predictive gene signatures and specific mediators of metastasis have been identified, yet how cancer cells acquire these traits has remained obscure. Recent experimental work and high-resolution sequencing of human tissues have started to reveal the molecular and tumor evolutionary principles that underlie the emergence of metastatic traits. PMID:24135279

Vanharanta, Sakari; Massagué, Joan

2014-01-01

87

A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students create a "DNA recipe" for a dog to learn how variations in DNA lead to the inheritance of different traits. Strips of paper (representing DNA) are randomly selected and used to assemble a DNA molecule. Students read the DNA recipe to create a drawing of their pet and compare it with others in the class to note similarities and differences. Through this activity, students will learn that every organism requires a set of instructions for specifying its traits and heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.

2006-01-01

88

Trait emotional intelligence and the dark triad traits of personality.  

PubMed

This study presents the first behavioral genetic investigation of the relationships between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) and the Dark Triad traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. In line with trait EI theory, the construct correlated positively with narcissism, but negatively with the other two traits. Generally, the correlations were consistent across the 4 factors and 15 facets of the construct. Cholesky decomposition analysis revealed that the phenotypic associations were primarily due to correlated genetic factors and secondarily due to correlated nonshared environmental factors, with shared environmental factors being nonsignificant in all cases. Results are discussed from the perspective of trait EI theory with particular reference to the issue of adaptive value. PMID:21314254

Petrides, K V; Vernon, Philip A; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Veselka, Livia

2011-02-01

89

Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... beta globin When the gene that controls the production of either of these proteins is missing or ... thalassemia occurs when the gene that controls the production of beta globin is defective. Beta thalassemia can ...

90

A Tree of Genetic Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners mark their traits for tongue rolling, PTC tasting (a harmless, bitter chemical), and earlobe attachment on tree leaf cut-outs. They then place their leaves on a large tree with branches, in which each each branch represents a different combination of traits. When completed, the tree forms a visual representation of the frequency of trait combinations within the group. Included are handouts in English and Spanish. This resource also contains information about PTC safety.

Malone, Molly; Starr, Harmony; Mitchell, April

2006-01-01

91

Mediterranean types of beta-thalassemia in the German population.  

PubMed

Forty beta-thalassemia genes from unrelated German heterozygotes with no known foreign ancestry were examined using the oligonucleotide technique and DNA restriction analysis, with the aim of determining the contribution of Mediterranean beta-thalassemia mutations to the prevalence of this trait in the German population. Of the 40 beta-thalassemia genes, 26 were identified as Mediterranean types (20 beta 39 nonsense, 3 IVS2 nt 110, 2 IVS2 nt1, 1 IVS1 ntl G----A). The geographic distribution of the birthplaces of the probands' grandparents revealed no difference in the proportion of Mediterranean and unidentified beta-thalassemia genes in the west and the north of Germany. PMID:2162807

Laig, M; Pape, M; Hundrieser, J; Flatz, G

1990-06-01

92

Anxiety: States, Traits--Situations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the utility of situational assessments of trait anxiety in predicting state anxiety reactions. Results indicated that the STAI-A-Trait and the S-R GTA Evaluation measures correlated significantly higher with each other than either did with the S-R GTA Physical Danger measure. Both stresses produced significant increases in state…

Kendall, Philip C.

1978-01-01

93

Delay discounting: Trait variable?  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting refers to the tendency for outcomes that are remote in time to have less value than more immediate outcomes. Steep discounting of delayed outcomes is associated with a variety of social maladies. The degree of sensitivity to delayed outcomes may be a stable and pervasive individual characteristic. In analyses of archival data, the present study found positive correlations between the degree of delay discounting for one outcome (as measured by the Area Under the Curve), and the degree of discounting for other outcomes. Along with additional evidence reviewed, these data suggest that delay discounting may be considered a personality trait. Recent research in epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior suggests delay discounting may prove to be a beneficial target for therapeutic attempts to produce global reductions in impulsivity related to delay discounting. PMID:21385637

Odum, Amy L.

2012-01-01

94

Exploratorium: Traits of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed to complement the redesigned Traits of Life exhibit at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, this fine site allows visitors to view a photo gallery of the new exhibit, investigate some provocative online exhibits, and explore a host of links that are germane to the nature of biology. The exhibits constitute the core of the material available at the site, and are divided into four thematic areas, including "The Stuff of Life," "Life Needs Energy," "Making More Life," and "Change Over Time." "The Stuff of Life" is quite fascinating, as it profiles cells with a flair for the interactive. Users can learn about the workings of a cell through the "Cell Explorer" exhibit, read an interview with David Goodsell (a molecular biologist), and view a poster that describes how proteins make muscles work. The other three areas of online exhibits are similarly arranged and provide a host of educational materials that can be used as teaching aids or as compelling intellectual diversions.

95

Dog DNA---A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover how DNA will "code" for traits by performing a lab activity where segments of paper DNA (genes) are picked at random, a list of traits is made, and a dog is drawn featuring its genetic traits.

Perrault, Tanya

2012-02-20

96

Bayesian Shrinkage Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci for Dynamic Traits  

PubMed Central

Many quantitative traits are measured repeatedly during the life of an organism. Such traits are called dynamic traits. The pattern of the changes of a dynamic trait is called the growth trajectory. Studying the growth trajectory may enhance our understanding of the genetic architecture of the growth trajectory. Recently, we developed an interval-mapping procedure to map QTL for dynamic traits under the maximum-likelihood framework. We fit the growth trajectory by Legendre polynomials. The method intended to map one QTL at a time and the entire QTL analysis involved scanning the entire genome by fitting multiple single-QTL models. In this study, we propose a Bayesian shrinkage analysis for estimating and mapping multiple QTL in a single model. The method is a combination between the shrinkage mapping for individual quantitative traits and the Legendre polynomial analysis for dynamic traits. The multiple-QTL model is implemented in two ways: (1) a fixed-interval approach where a QTL is placed in each marker interval and (2) a moving-interval approach where the position of a QTL can be searched in a range that covers many marker intervals. Simulation study shows that the Bayesian shrinkage method generates much better signals for QTL than the interval-mapping approach. We propose several alternative methods to present the results of the Bayesian shrinkage analysis. In particular, we found that the Wald test-statistic profile can serve as a mechanism to test the significance of a putative QTL. PMID:17435239

Yang, Runqing; Xu, Shizhong

2007-01-01

97

Gamma, Beta, Erf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page includes the encyclopedia entries for gamma, beta and erf functions including factorials, binomials, gamma functions and inverses, differentiated gamma functions, beta functions and inverses, probability integrals and inverses, Frensnel integrals and exponential integrals.

98

Bayesian mapping of quantitative trait loci for complex binary traits.  

PubMed Central

A complex binary trait is a character that has a dichotomous expression but with a polygenic genetic background. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for such traits is difficult because of the discrete nature and the reduced variation in the phenotypic distribution. Bayesian statistics are proved to be a powerful tool for solving complicated genetic problems, such as multiple QTL with nonadditive effects, and have been successfully applied to QTL mapping for continuous traits. In this study, we show that Bayesian statistics are particularly useful for mapping QTL for complex binary traits. We model the binary trait under the classical threshold model of quantitative genetics. The Bayesian mapping statistics are developed on the basis of the idea of data augmentation. This treatment allows an easy way to generate the value of a hypothetical underlying variable (called the liability) and a threshold, which in turn allow the use of existing Bayesian statistics. The reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used to simulate the posterior samples of all unknowns, including the number of QTL, the locations and effects of identified QTL, genotypes of each individual at both the QTL and markers, and eventually the liability of each individual. The Bayesian mapping ends with an estimation of the joint posterior distribution of the number of QTL and the locations and effects of the identified QTL. Utilities of the method are demonstrated using a simulated outbred full-sib family. A computer program written in FORTRAN language is freely available on request. PMID:10880497

Yi, N; Xu, S

2000-01-01

99

Cognitive and affective mechanisms linking trait mindfulness to craving among individuals in addiction recovery.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to identify affective, cognitive, and conative mediators of the relation between trait mindfulness and craving in data culled from an urban sample of 165 persons (in abstinence verified by urinalysis) entering into residential treatment for substance use disorders between 2010 and 2012. Multivariate path analysis adjusting for age, gender, education level, employment status, and substance use frequency indicated that the association between the total trait mindfulness score on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and alcohol/drug craving was statistically mediated by negative affect (measured by the PANAS, beta = -.13) and cognitive reappraisal (measured by the CERQ, beta = -.08), but not by readiness to change (measured by the URICA, beta = -.001). Implications for mindfulness-oriented treatment of persons with substance use disorders are discussed. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:24611848

Garland, Eric L; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia; Kelley, Karen; Tronnier, Christine; Hanley, Adam

2014-04-01

100

Recurrence risks for Mendelian traits Autosomal Dominant  

E-print Network

Recurrence risks for Mendelian traits · Autosomal Dominant ­ Risk of next child being affected;· Definition ­ Multifactorial Trait · Trait determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors, which determine individual risk, age of onset, severity of disease and clinical symptoms #12;A trait is determined

Dellaire, Graham

101

Quantitative trait loci for biofortification traits in maize grain.  

PubMed

Detecting genes that influence biofortification traits in cereal grain could help increase the concentrations of bioavailable mineral elements in crops to solve the global mineral malnutrition problem. The aims of this study were to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in maize grain in a mapping population, as well as QTLs for bioavailable Fe, Zn, and Mg, by precalculating their respective ratios with P. Elemental analysis of grain samples was done by coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry in 294 F(4) lines of a biparental population taken from field trials of over 3 years. The population was mapped using sets of 121 polymorphic markers. QTL analysis revealed 32 significant QTLs detected for 7 traits, of which some were colocalized. The Additive-dominant model revealed highly significant additive effects, suggesting that biofortification traits in maize are generally controlled by numerous small-effect QTLs. Three QTLs for Fe/P, Zn/P, and Mg/P were colocalized on chromosome 3, coinciding with simple sequence repeats marker bnlg1456, which resides in close proximity to previously identified phytase genes (ZM phys1 and phys2). Thus, we recommend the ratios as bioavailability traits in biofortification research. PMID:22071312

Simi?, Domagoj; Mladenovi? Drini?, Snezana; Zduni?, Zvonimir; Jambrovi?, Antun; Ledencan, Tatjana; Brki?, Josip; Brki?, Andrija; Brki?, Ivan

2012-01-01

102

Personality traits, traitedness, and disorders: towards an enhanced understanding of trait-disorder relationships  

E-print Network

-behavior relationships. That is, if traits are differentially applicable to different individuals, then trait-behavior relationships may be moderated based on the strength with which an individual fits with a given trait model. This study used moderated multiple...

Warner, Megan Beth

2006-10-30

103

Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.  

PubMed

This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings. PMID:24576635

French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

2014-05-01

104

High Beta Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Perhaps the ideal tokamak would have high {beta} ({beta} {approx}> 1) and classical confinement. Such a tokamak has not been found, and we do not know if one does exist. We have searched for such a possibility, so far without success. In 1990, we obtained analytic equilibrium solutions for large aspect ratio tokamaks at {beta} {approx} {Omicron}(1) [1]. These solutions and the extension at high {beta} poloidal to finite aspect ratio [2] provided a basis for the study of high {beta} tokamaks. We have shown that these configurations can be stable to short scale MHD modes [3], and that they have reduced neoclassical transport [4]. Microinstabilities (such as the {del}T{sub i} mode) seem to be stabilized at high {beta} [5] - this is due to the large local shear [3] and the magnetic well. We have some concerns about modes associated with the compressional branch which may appear at high {beta}. Bill Dorland and Mike Kotschenreuther have studied this issue and our concerns may be unfounded. It is certainly tantalizing, especially given the lowered neoclassical transport values, that these configurations could have no microinstabilities and, one could assume, no anomalous transport. Unfortunately, while this work is encouraging, the key question for high {beta} tokamaks is the stability to large scale kink modes. The MHD {beta} limit (Troyon limit) for kink modes at large aspect ratio is problematically low. There is ample evidence from computations that the limit exists. However, it is not known if stable equilibria exist at much higher {beta}--none have been found. We have explored this question in the asymptotic high {beta} poloidal limit. Unfortunately, we are unable to find stable equilibrium and also unable to show that they don't exist. The results of these calculations will be published when a more definitive answer is found.

Cowley, S.

1998-11-14

105

Autism traits in the RASopathies  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/MAPK) pathway genes lead to a class of disorders known as RASopathies, including neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), Costello syndrome (CS), and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC). Previous work has suggested potential genetic and phenotypic overlap between dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although the literature offers conflicting evidence for association of NF1 and autism, there has been no systematic evaluation of autism traits in the RASopathies as a class to support a role for germline Ras/MAPK activation in ASDs. Methods We examined the association of autism traits with NF1, NS, CS and CFC, comparing affected probands with unaffected sibling controls and subjects with idiopathic ASDs using the qualitative Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the quantitative Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Results Each of the four major RASopathies showed evidence for increased qualitative and quantitative autism traits compared with sibling controls. Further, each RASopathy exhibited a distinct distribution of quantitative social impairment. Levels of social responsiveness show some evidence of correlation between sibling pairs, and autism-like impairment showed a male bias similar to idiopathic ASDs. Conclusions Higher prevalence and severity of autism traits in RASopathies compared to unaffected siblings suggests that dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling during development may be implicated in ASD risk. Evidence for sex bias and potential sibling correlation suggests that autism traits in the RASopathies share characteristics with autism traits in the general population and clinical ASD population and can shed light on idiopathic ASDs. PMID:24101678

Adviento, Brigid; Corbin, Iris L; Widjaja, Felicia; Desachy, Guillaume; Enrique, Nicole; Rosser, Tena; Risi, Susan; Marco, Elysa J; Hendren, Robert L; Bearden, Carrie E; Rauen, Katherine A; Weiss, Lauren A

2014-01-01

106

Quantitative trait loci analysis of swine meat quality traits.  

PubMed

A QTL study was performed in large half-sib families to characterize the genetic background of variation in pork quality traits as well as to examine the possibilities of including QTL in a marker-assisted selection scheme. The quality traits included ultimate pH in LM and the semimembranosus, drip loss, and the Minolta color measurements L*, a*, and b* representing meat lightness, redness, and yellowness, respectively. The families consist of 3,883 progenies of 12 Duroc boars that were evaluated to identify the QTL. The linkage map consists of 462 SNP markers on 18 porcine autosomes. Quantitative trait loci were mapped using a linear mixed model with fixed factors (sire, sex, herd, month, sow age) and random factors (polygenic effect, QTL effects, and litter). Chromosome-wide and genome-wide significance thresholds were determined by Peipho's approach, and 95% Bayes credibility intervals were estimated from a posterior distribution of the QTL position. In total, 31 QTL for the 6 meat quality traits were found to be significant at the 5% chromosome-wide level, among which 11 QTL were significant at the 5% genome-wide level and 5 of these were significant at the 0.1% genome-wide level. Segregation of the identified QTL in different families was also investigated. Most of the identified QTL segregated in 1 or 2 families. For the QTL affecting ultimate pH in LM and semimembranosus and L* and b* value on SSC6, the positions of the QTL and the shapes of the likelihood curves were almost the same. In addition, a strong correlation of the estimated effects of these QTL was found between the 4 traits, indicating that the same genes control these traits. A similar pattern was seen on SSC15 for the QTL affecting ultimate pH in the 2 muscles and drip loss. The results from this study will be helpful for fine mapping and identifying genes affecting meat quality traits, and tightly linked markers may be incorporated into marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:20495113

Li, H D; Lund, M S; Christensen, O F; Gregersen, V R; Henckel, P; Bendixen, C

2010-09-01

107

BETA GAUGE OPERATION MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual provides description and operating instructions for a redesigned Beta Gauge for measuring particles from vehicle exhaust. The improvements and a new control system including a control unit which is radically different from the prior unit, are described. Complete Beta ...

108

Applied beta dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The science or art of beta dosimetry is as old as the Nuclear Industry itself but still is poorly understood. Many practicing health physicists have thought the detection, measurement, and evaluation of beta dose and/or dose rates to be a solved problem, accepting reported field survey readings and personnel dose measurements at face value. However, beta doses (primarily a skin dose), if measured at all, are generally inaccurate at best. Field measurements of beta-gamma dose rates are equally difficult, and estimation of personnel dosimeter results from field surveys have proven to be suprising, frustrating, and risky. Beta calibration sources have not been available in the intensity and energy ranges needed and, in general, have not been adequately characterized for either intensity or energy spectra vs distance. The purposes of this report are to discuss the current industry capabilities, highlighting pitfalls for the applied health physics personnel, and briefly outlining preferred practices.

Rich, B.L.

1982-06-01

109

Beta-ensembles with covariance  

E-print Network

This thesis presents analytic samplers for the [beta]-Wishart and [beta]-MANOVA ensembles with diagonal covariance. These generalize the [beta]-ensembles of Dumitriu-Edelman, Lippert, Killip-Nenciu, Forrester-Rains, and ...

Dubbs, Alexander

2014-01-01

110

Fetal testosterone and autistic traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of amniotic testosterone in humans suggest that fetal testosterone (fT) is related to specific (but not all) sexually dimorphic aspects of cognition and behaviour. It has also been suggested that autism may be an extreme manifestation of some male-typical traits, both in terms of cognition and neuroanatomy. In this paper, we examine the possibility of a link between autistic

Bonnie Auyeung; Simon Baron-Cohen; Emma Ashwin; Rebecca Knickmeyer; Kevin Taylor; Gerald Hackett

2009-01-01

111

Stateful Traits Alexandre Bergel1  

E-print Network

, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, 2 Language and Software Evolution ­ LISTIC, Universit´e de Savoie, 3 to compose classes from reus- able components while avoiding problems of fragility brought by multiple inher as software components, are artificially incomplete, and classes that use such traits may con- tain

Ducasse, Stéphane

112

A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait

Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong

2013-01-01

113

Beta barium borate (BBO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper contains a review of crystallographic, optical and nonlinear optical properties of beta barium borate (ß-BaB2O4 or BBO) crystal and presents a description of its typical applications in nonlinear optics and quantum electronics.

D. N. Nikogosyan

1991-01-01

114

Neutrinoless double beta decay  

E-print Network

The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations are presented as well as the current status of experiments. Finally an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

K. Zuber

2012-01-23

115

Beta blockers overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... used to treat high blood pressure. Beta blocker overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more ... is common in children with this type of overdose, and it can lead to nervous system symptoms.

116

Beta Estimate Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates a random sample from a beta distribution, and computes standard point estimates of the left and right parameters. The bias and mean square error are also computed.

Siegrist, Kyle

117

Beta-thalassemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms

Renzo Galanello; Raffaella Origa

2010-01-01

118

ICQ 2000b Beta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest beta release of the universally popular instant messaging program ICQ ("I seek you") contains a number of new features, including ICQphone, which makes it possible for users to initiate and participate in PC-to-PC and PC-to-Phone calls, support for SMS technology, integration with Outlook, and email address import, among others. Users can download ICQ 2000b Beta for free at the ICQ site.

2001-01-01

119

Biological and ecological traits of Trichoptera: the influence of phylogeny on life history and behavioral traits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological and ecological traits of fauna have the potential to indicate changes in community structure that relate to function as an alternative to using traditional taxonomic descriptors. However, traits may be inherited, and consequently, not all species traits are independent of phylogeny. When used in analyses of community structure, results based on traits may be difficult to interpret; suites of traits may respond together even if only one trait is responding to changes in the habitat. To determine the relationship between traits and phylogeny, we examined life history and behavioral traits for the extant 45 families of Trichoptera. Traits such as larval size, respiratory strategies, case or net materials, locomotion, food and functional feeding group, voltanism, diapause, habitat, and reproduction were collected from published life histories. Traits were then coded and mapped onto the phylogeny of Trichoptera to determine the correlations between traits, as well as correlations directly influenced by the phylogeny. Traits such as functional feeding group, reproductive strategies, and building materials were correlated with phylogeny, while traits such as locomotion and habitat type were less influenced by phylogeny. Consideration of macroinvertebrate phylogenies when selecting biological and ecological traits may be essential for accurate interpretation of community function.

Mendez, P. K.; Resh, V. H.

2005-05-01

120

Fat-tailed sheep traits as affected by docking.  

PubMed

The literature mostly indicates that docking fat-tailed lambs initially reduces growth but that post-weaning growth and feed conversion efficiency then increase. The amount of fat deposited, the total separable lean meat to fat ratio and the meat quality all increase, while the percentage of bone in the carcase either decreases or does not change in the carcases of the docked lambs. Wool growth and characteristics are, in general, not affected and reproductive traits in ewes and lambs are improved by docking. The rectal temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate are decreased following docking. The concentrations of immunoreactive beta-endorphin and cortisol in the plasma and the incidence of foot stamping and restlessness, as indicators of stress, increase after docking. Other constituents of the blood are not significantly altered following docking or by the methods of docking. Docking of fat-tailed sheep using rubber rings at one day of age can be recommended. PMID:14509541

Marai, I F M; Bahgat, L B

2003-08-01

121

Iron metabolism in heterozygotes for hemoglobin E (HbE), alpha-thalassemia1, or beta-thalassemia and in compound heterozygotes for HbE\\/ beta-thalassemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite large populations carrying traits for thalassemia in countries implementing universal iron fortification, there are few data on the absorption and utilization of iron in these persons. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether iron absorption or utilization (or both) in women heterozygous for beta-thalassemia, alpha-thalassemia 1, or hemoglobin E (HbE) differed from that in control subjects and compound HbE\\/beta-thalassemia

M. B. Zimmermann; S. Fucharoen; P. Winichagoon; P. Sirankapracha; C. Zeder; S. Gowachirapant; K. Judprasong; T. Tanno; J. L. Miller; R. F. Hurrell

2008-01-01

122

Social personality trait and fitness  

PubMed Central

Several recent studies have explored various aspects of animal personality and their ecological consequences. However, the processes responsible for the maintenance of personality variability within a population are still largely unknown. We have recently demonstrated that social personality traits exist in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) and that the variation in sociability provides an explanation for variable dispersal responses within a given species. However, we need to know the fitness consequences of variation in sociability across environmental contexts in order to better understand the maintenance of such variation. In order to achieve this, we investigated the relationship between sociability and survival, body growth and fecundity, in one-year-old individuals in semi-natural populations with varying density. ‘Asocial’ and ‘social’ lizards displayed different fitness outcomes in populations of different densities. Asocial lizards survived better in low-density populations, while social females reproduced better. Spatiotemporal variation in environmental conditions might thus be the process underlying the maintenance of these personality traits within a population. Finally, we also discuss the position of sociability in a more general individual behavioural pattern including boldness, exploration and aggressiveness. PMID:18755678

Cote, J; Dreiss, A; Clobert, J

2008-01-01

123

Family studies of plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase thermal stability.  

PubMed Central

There are large individual variations in the thermal stability of human plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH). These variations are a characteristic of the DBH molecule itself. Individual subjects may be classified as those with thermolabile and those with thermostable plasma DBH. Of 362 randomly selected unrelated children, 8.01%, and of 238 randomly selected unrelated adult subjects, 5.46% had thermolabile plasma DBH. There was not a significant correlation of DBH thermolability with either sex or age on the basis of data from 230 adults and children in 53 randomly selected families. Subjects with thermolabile DBH had basal enzyme activity only about 55% of that in subjects with stable enzyme. There was not a direct relationship between DBH thermolability and the allele DBHL, the presence of which results in very low basal enzyme activity. There was a significant familial aggregation of the trait of DBH thermolability, but there was not a significant correlation of this trait among spouses. Although preliminary pedigree evaluation raised the possibility of monogenic inheritance of the trait of DBH thermolability by an autosomal recessive mechanism, three separate families in which both parents had thermolabile enzyme included offspring with thermostable DBH. All five of these offspring had very low basal plasma DBH and were presumed to be homozygous for the allele DBHL. These observations raised the possibility that the trait of plasma DBH thermolability may be inherited, and that there may be an interaction between the locus or loci responsible for thermal stability and the locus DBH. PMID:7081218

Dunnette, J; Weinshilboum, R

1982-01-01

124

Neutrinoless double beta decay  

E-print Network

The status of the search for neutrinoless double beta decay is reviewed. The effort to reach the sensitivity needed to cover the effective Majorana neutrino mass corresponding to the degenerate and inverted mass hierarchy is described. Various issues concerning the theory (and phenomenology) of the relation between the $0\

Petr Vogel

2006-11-17

125

Trait Emotions and Affective Modulation of the Startle Eyeblink: On the Unique Relationship of Trait Anger  

E-print Network

with a pattern of approach motivation in startle eyeblink responses to appetitive stimuli. Self-reported trait motivational response. No other trait emotions were associated with startle eyeblink responses to appetitive or aversive pictures. These results support the idea that trait anger, although experienced as a negative

126

Identification of Trait-Improving Quantitative Trait Loci Alleles From a Wild Rice Relative, Oryza rufipogon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild species are valued as a unique source of genetic variation, but they have rarely been used for the genetic improvement of quantitative traits. To identify trait-improving quantitative trait loci (QTL) alleles from exotic species, an accession of Oryza rufipogon, a relative of cultivated rice, was chosen on the basis of a genetic diversity study. An interspecific BC2 testcross population

Jinhua Xiao; Jiming Li; Silvana Grandillo; Sang Nag Ahn; Longping Yuan; Steven D. Tanksley; Susan R. McCouch

127

Pleiotropic Patterns of Quantitative Trait Loci for 70 Murine Skeletal Traits  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies of a skeletal trait or a few related skeletal components are becoming commonplace, but as yet there has been no investigation of pleiotropic patterns throughout the skeleton. We present a comprehensive survey of pleiotropic patterns affecting mouse skeletal morphology in an intercross of LG/J and SM/J inbred strains (N = 1040), using QTL analysis on 70 skeletal traits. We identify 798 single-trait QTL, coalescing to 105 loci that affect on average 7–8 traits each. The number of traits affected per locus ranges from only 1 trait to 30 traits. Individual traits average 11 QTL each, ranging from 4 to 20. Skeletal traits are affected by many, small-effect loci. Significant additive genotypic values average 0.23 standard deviation (SD) units. Fifty percent of loci show codominance with heterozygotes having intermediate phenotypic values. When dominance does occur, the LG/J allele tends to be dominant to the SM/J allele (30% vs. 8%). Over- and underdominance are relatively rare (12%). Approximately one-fifth of QTL are sex specific, including many for pelvic traits. Evaluating the pleiotropic relationships of skeletal traits is important in understanding the role of genetic variation in the growth and development of the skeleton. PMID:18430949

Kenney-Hunt, Jane P.; Wang, Bing; Norgard, Elizabeth A.; Fawcett, Gloria; Falk, Doug; Pletscher, L. Susan; Jarvis, Joseph P.; Roseman, Charles; Wolf, Jason; Cheverud, James M.

2008-01-01

128

Genetics Home Reference: Beta thalassemia  

MedlinePLUS

... cells (anemia), which can cause pale skin, weakness, fatigue, and more serious complications. People with beta thalassemia are at an increased risk of developing abnormal blood clots. Beta thalassemia is ...

129

A general probability model for the inheritance of binary traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the era of genomics, large scale trait mapping studies are conducted. These experiments involve hundreds of markers and increasingly frequently they focus on complex traits. Complex traits are interesting because of the inherent multigenic nature of the traits, and the possible interaction between genes on the phenotype. Binary traits, such as disease resistance, have a simple phenotype but may

Katy L. Simonsen

130

Influencing Agent Group Behavior by Adjusting Cultural Trait Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social reasoning and norms among individuals that share cultural traits are largely fashioned by those traits. We have explored predominant sociological and cultural traits. We offer a methodology for parametrically adjusting relevant traits. This exploratory study heralds a capability to deliberately tune cultural group traits in order to produce a desired group behavior. To validate our methodology, we implemented a

Gaurav Tuli; Henry Hexmoor

2010-01-01

131

Trait-Based Perspectives of Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trait-based perspective of leadership has a long but checkered history. Trait approaches dominated the initial decades of scientific leadership research. Later, they were disdained for their inability to offer clear distinctions between leaders and nonleaders and for their failure to account for situational variance in leadership behavior.…

Zaccaro, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

132

Sickle Cell Trait, Exercise, and Altitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sickle cell trait is generally benign and does not shorten life, but it may confer some small risk with extremes of exercise or altitude. Research concerning these risks is presented, and it is concluded sickle cell trait is no barrier to outstanding athletic performance. (Author/MT)

Eichner, Edward R.

1986-01-01

133

Traits: Tools and Methodology Andrew P. Black  

E-print Network

Traits: Tools and Methodology Andrew P. Black OGI School of Science & Engineering, Oregon Health]. By refactoring the Smalltalk collection classes, we have shown that a mature code base can benefit from traits: the refac- tored classes contained less code, and yet exhibited more uniform interfaces [2

Black, Andrew P.

134

Cultural traits as units of analysis  

PubMed Central

Cultural traits have long been used in anthropology as units of transmission that ostensibly reflect behavioural characteristics of the individuals or groups exhibiting the traits. After they are transmitted, cultural traits serve as units of replication in that they can be modified as part of an individual's cultural repertoire through processes such as recombination, loss or partial alteration within an individual's mind. Cultural traits are analogous to genes in that organisms replicate them, but they are also replicators in their own right. No one has ever seen a unit of transmission, either behavioural or genetic, although we can observe the effects of transmission. Fortunately, such units are manifest in artefacts, features and other components of the archaeological record, and they serve as proxies for studying the transmission (and modification) of cultural traits, provided there is analytical clarity over how to define and measure the units that underlie this inheritance process. PMID:21041205

O'Brien, Michael J.; Lyman, R. Lee; Mesoudi, Alex; VanPool, Todd L.

2010-01-01

135

Beta-thalassemia  

PubMed Central

Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta globin gene on chromosome 11, leading to reduced (beta+) or absent (beta0) synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin (Hb). Transmission is autosomal recessive; however, dominant mutations have also been reported. Diagnosis of thalassemia is based on hematologic and molecular genetic testing. Differential diagnosis is usually straightforward but may include genetic sideroblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and other conditions with high levels of HbF (such as juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and aplastic anemia). Genetic counseling is recommended and prenatal diagnosis may be offered. Treatment of thalassemia major includes regular RBC transfusions, iron chelation and management of secondary complications of iron overload. In some circumstances, spleen removal may be required. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only definitive cure currently available. Individuals with thalassemia intermedia may require splenectomy, folic acid supplementation, treatment of extramedullary erythropoietic masses and leg ulcers, prevention and therapy of thromboembolic events. Prognosis for individuals with beta-thalassemia has improved substantially in the last 20 years following recent medical advances in transfusion, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation therapy. However, cardiac disease remains the main cause of death in patients with iron overload. PMID:20492708

2010-01-01

136

Beta-thalassemia.  

PubMed

Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta globin gene on chromosome 11, leading to reduced (beta+) or absent (beta0) synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin (Hb). Transmission is autosomal recessive; however, dominant mutations have also been reported. Diagnosis of thalassemia is based on hematologic and molecular genetic testing. Differential diagnosis is usually straightforward but may include genetic sideroblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and other conditions with high levels of HbF (such as juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and aplastic anemia). Genetic counseling is recommended and prenatal diagnosis may be offered. Treatment of thalassemia major includes regular RBC transfusions, iron chelation and management of secondary complications of iron overload. In some circumstances, spleen removal may be required. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only definitive cure currently available. Individuals with thalassemia intermedia may require splenectomy, folic acid supplementation, treatment of extramedullary erythropoietic masses and leg ulcers, prevention and therapy of thromboembolic events. Prognosis for individuals with beta-thalassemia has improved substantially in the last 20 years following recent medical advances in transfusion, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation therapy. However, cardiac disease remains the main cause of death in patients with iron overload. PMID:20492708

Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

2010-01-01

137

Genetic analysis of low V beta 3 expression in humans  

PubMed Central

While studying the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of normal individuals, we found that more than 20% of adults have low levels of circulating V beta 3.1+ T cells in both CD4 and CD8 populations. A similar frequency was found in fetal cord blood samples, suggesting that in most cases, the V beta 3.1low phenotype is inherited. In support of this conclusion, children expressing low levels were only found in families where one of the parents expressed this phenotype. In two large families, genetic studies showed that low expression was a recessive trait and dependent on inheritance of particular TCR VB gene complexes. Family members with the low phenotype, however, expressed VB3.1 genes with normal sequences and expressed normal levels of receptor per cell. Results from these families suggest that up to 50% of normal individuals may carry a VB3.1 allele that is defective in its ability to rearrange effectively. In another large family, low expression in one individual was shown not to be determined by genes within the TCR VB gene or major histocompatibility complexes, suggesting a different mechanism for low V beta 3.1+ T cells. Overall, our results describe novel mechanisms that result in low levels of V beta 3.1+ T cells in a relatively large subset of the normal human population. PMID:8163947

1994-01-01

138

Selection and evolution of causally covarying traits.  

PubMed

When traits cause variation in fitness, the distribution of phenotype, weighted by fitness, necessarily changes. The degree to which traits cause fitness variation is therefore of central importance to evolutionary biology. Multivariate selection gradients are the main quantity used to describe components of trait-fitness covariation, but they quantify the direct effects of traits on (relative) fitness, which are not necessarily the total effects of traits on fitness. Despite considerable use in evolutionary ecology, path analytic characterizations of the total effects of traits on fitness have not been formally incorporated into quantitative genetic theory. By formally defining "extended" selection gradients, which are the total effects of traits on fitness, as opposed to the existing definition of selection gradients, a more intuitive scheme for characterizing selection is obtained. Extended selection gradients are distinct quantities, differing from the standard definition of selection gradients not only in the statistical means by which they may be assessed and the assumptions required for their estimation from observational data, but also in their fundamental biological meaning. Like direct selection gradients, extended selection gradients can be combined with genetic inference of multivariate phenotypic variation to provide quantitative prediction of microevolutionary trajectories. PMID:24611949

Morrissey, Michael B

2014-06-01

139

The contrasting roles of growth traits and architectural traits in diversity maintenance in clonal plant communities.  

PubMed

Plant communities often exhibit high diversity, even though pairwise experiments usually result in competitive hierarchies that should result in competitive exclusion. Such experiments, however, do not typically allow expression of spatial traits, despite theoretical studies showing the potential importance of spatial mechanisms of diversity maintenance. Here we ask whether, in a clonal plant model system, spatial trait variation is more likely than growth trait variation to maintain diversity. We used a field-calibrated, spatially explicit model to simulate communities comprising sets of four simulated species differing in only one of a suite of architectural or growth traits at a time, examining their dynamics and long-term diversity. To compare trait manipulation effects across traits measured in different units, we scaled traits to have identical effects on initial productivity. We found that in communities of species differing only in an architectural trait, all species usually persist, whereas communities of species differing only in a growth trait experienced rapid competitive exclusion. To examine the roles of equalizing and stabilizing mechanisms in maintaining diversity, we conducted reciprocal invasion experiments for species pairs differing only in single traits. The results suggest that stabilizing mechanisms cannot account for the observed long-term co-occurrence. Strong positive correlations between diversity and similarity both in monoculture carrying capacity and reciprocal invasion ability suggesting equalizing mechanisms may instead be responsible. PMID:23149395

Wildová, Radka; Goldberg, Deborah E; Herben, Tomáš

2012-12-01

140

Genetic parameters of ascites-related traits in broilers: correlations with feed efficiency and carcase traits.  

PubMed

(1) Pulmonary hypertension syndrome followed by ascites is a metabolic disorder in broilers that occurs more often in fast-growing birds and at cool temperatures. (2) Knowledge of the genetic relationships among ascites-related traits and performance traits like carcase traits or feed efficiency traits is required to design breeding programmes that aim to improve the degree of resistance to ascites syndrome as well as production traits. The objective of this study was to estimate these genetic correlations. (3) Three different experiments were set up to measure ascites-related traits (4202 birds), feed efficiency traits (2166 birds) and carcase traits (2036 birds). The birds in different experiments originated from the same group of parents, which enabled the estimation of genetic correlations among different traits. (4) The genetic correlation of body weight (BW) measured under normal conditions and in the carcase experiment with the ascites indicator trait of right ventricle to total ventricle ratio (RV:TV) measured under cold conditions was 0.30. The estimated genetic correlation indicated that single-trait selecting for BW leads to an increase in occurrence of the ascites syndrome but that there are realistic opportunities of multi-trait selection of birds for improved BW and resistance to ascites. (5) Weak but positive genetic relationships were found between feed efficiency and ascites-related traits suggesting that more efficient birds tend to be slightly more susceptible to ascites. (6) The relatively low genetic correlation between BW measured in the carcase or in the feed efficiency experiments and BW measured in the ascites experiment (0.49) showed considerable genotype by environment interaction. (7) These results indicate that birds with high genetic potential for growth rate under normal temperature conditions have lower growth rate under cold-stress conditions due to ascites. PMID:15835251

Pakdel, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Vereijken, A L J; Bovenhuis, H

2005-02-01

141

Neutron Induced Beta Radiography  

SciTech Connect

In the present paper we give a new methodology named, 'neutron induced beta radiography-NIBR' which makes use of neutron activated Dy or In foils as source of (3-radiation. Radiographs are obtained with an aluminium cassette containing image plate, a sample under inspection and the activated Dy or In foil kept in tight contact. The sensitivity of the technique to thickness was evaluated for different materials in the form of step wedges. Some radiographs are presented to demonstrate potential of method to inspect thin samples.

Shaikh, A. M.; Shylaja, D. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

2011-07-15

142

Endothelial cells contain beta adrenoceptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct identification of beta adrenoceptors in endothelial cell cultures has not been possible until the advent of a new beta-adrenergic radioligand, [125I]iodocyanopindolol ([125I]ICYP). Using [125I]ICYP, we report thes successful identification of a beta adrenoceptor in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. At 37°C, specific binding is saturable, stable and reversible. There is a single class of binding sites (21,500±2,900 sites\\/cell)

Susan F. Steinberg; Eric A. Jaffe; John P. Bilezikian

1984-01-01

143

The beta exponentiated Weibull distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Weibull distribution is one of the most important distributions in reliability. For the first time, we introduce the beta exponentiated Weibull distribution which extends recent models by Lee et al. [Beta-Weibull distribution: some properties and applications to censored data, J. Mod. Appl. Statist. Meth. 6 (2007), pp. 173–186] and Barreto-Souza et al. [The beta generalized exponential distribution, J. Statist.

Gauss M. Cordeiro; Antonio Eduardo Gomes; Cibele Queiroz da-Silva; Edwin M. M. Ortega

2011-01-01

144

Trait Values, Not Trait Plasticity, Best Explain Invasive Species' Performance in a Changing Environment  

PubMed Central

The question of why some introduced species become invasive and others do not is the central puzzle of invasion biology. Two of the principal explanations for this phenomenon concern functional traits: invasive species may have higher values of competitively advantageous traits than non-invasive species, or they may have greater phenotypic plasticity in traits that permits them to survive the colonization period and spread to a broad range of environments. Although there is a large body of evidence for superiority in particular traits among invasive plants, when compared to phylogenetically related non-invasive plants, it is less clear if invasive plants are more phenotypically plastic, and whether this plasticity confers a fitness advantage. In this study, I used a model group of 10 closely related Pinus species whose invader or non-invader status has been reliably characterized to test the relative contribution of high trait values and high trait plasticity to relative growth rate, a performance measure standing in as a proxy for fitness. When grown at higher nitrogen supply, invaders had a plastic RGR response, increasing their RGR to a much greater extent than non-invaders. However, invasive species did not exhibit significantly more phenotypic plasticity than non-invasive species for any of 17 functional traits, and trait plasticity indices were generally weakly correlated with RGR. Conversely, invasive species had higher values than non-invaders for 13 of the 17 traits, including higher leaf area ratio, photosynthetic capacity, photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency, and nutrient uptake rates, and these traits were also strongly correlated with performance. I conclude that, in responding to higher N supply, superior trait values coupled with a moderate degree of trait variation explain invasive species' superior performance better than plasticity per se. PMID:23119098

Matzek, Virginia

2012-01-01

145

Integrating microbial traits into ecosystem models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diverse bacterial and fungal communities control the decomposition of complex organic material, thereby driving important ecosystem functions such as CO2 production and nutrient regeneration. Predicting these functions is challenging because microbial communities and the chemical substrates they metabolize are complex. To address this challenge, I developed a theoretical model of microbial decomposition based on microbial traits involved in substrate degradation, uptake, and growth. The model represents a large number of microbial taxa, each of which possesses a set of trait values drawn at random from empirically-based distributions. The model also includes a large number of chemical substrates that can be degraded by microbial extracellular enzymes and taken up by membrane transporters. Microbes with different trait values for enzyme production and uptake capacity compete for chemical substrates and vary in abundance during model runs. I used the model to predict rates of plant litter decomposition and determine which traits were associated with high microbial abundance under different environmental conditions. The model predicted that optimal traits depend on the level of enzyme production in the whole community, which determines resource availability and decomposition rates. There is also evidence for facilitation and competition among microbial taxa that co-occur on decomposing litter, suggesting that microbial interactions may play a role in determining ecosystem function. These interactions vary with community investment in extracellular enzyme production and the magnitude of tradeoffs affecting biochemical traits such as enzyme kinetic parameters. The model accounted for 69% of the variation in decomposition rates and up to 26% of the variation in enzyme activities in an empirical dataset with 15 types of Hawaiian plant litter. By explicitly representing microbial diversity, trait-based models can predict ecosystem processes based on functional trait distributions in a community. Traits influencing microbial enzyme production are some of the key controls on litter decomposition rates, but other traits may control different ecosystem processes and microbial responses to environmental change. Identifying these traits and their inter-relationships is an essential step for improving ecosystem models.

Allison, S. D.

2012-12-01

146

Animal Models of Eating Disorder Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are psychiatric disorders that are likely determined by a complex\\u000a interaction between genetic variations, developmental processes, and certain life events. Cross-species analysis of traits\\u000a related to eating disorders may provide a way to functionally and systematically study neurobiological mechanisms underlying\\u000a these disorders. Interspecies trait genetics may offer opportunities to identify common neurobiological

Martien J. H. Kas; Roger A. H. Adan

147

Traits as dimensions or categories? Developmental change in the understanding of trait terms.  

PubMed

Recent research has suggested that young children have relatively well-developed trait concepts. However, this literature overlooks potential age-related differences in children's appreciation of the fundamentally dimensional nature of traits. In Study 1, we presented 4-, 5-, and 7-year-old children and adults with sets of characters and asked them to indicate the preferences of a target character who shared appearance attributes with one character (appearance match) and shared a common trait with the other character (trait match). Traits were presented in a way that emphasized either their categorical or their dimensional nature. When the dimensional nature of trait terms was emphasized, the youngest children made fewer trait-based inferences, and the use of traits increased with age. In Study 2, we gave 4-year-old children and adults the same task except that the extent to which appearance cues could serve as a meaningful basis of judgment was varied. Results were consistent with the findings of Study 1, although children were more likely to rely on dimensional presentations of traits in the absence of strong appearance cues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:20822224

Gonzalez, Celia M; Zosuls, Kristina M; Ruble, Diane N

2010-09-01

148

Generalized Admixture Mapping for Complex Traits  

PubMed Central

Admixture mapping is a popular tool to identify regions of the genome associated with traits in a recently admixed population. Existing methods have been developed primarily for identification of a single locus influencing a dichotomous trait within a case-control study design. We propose a generalized admixture mapping (GLEAM) approach, a flexible and powerful regression method for both quantitative and qualitative traits, which is able to test for association between the trait and local ancestries in multiple loci simultaneously and adjust for covariates. The new method is based on the generalized linear model and uses a quadratic normal moment prior to incorporate admixture prior information. Through simulation, we demonstrate that GLEAM achieves lower type I error rate and higher power than ANCESTRYMAP both for qualitative traits and more significantly for quantitative traits. We applied GLEAM to genome-wide SNP data from the Illumina African American panel derived from a cohort of black women participating in the Healthy Pregnancy, Healthy Baby study and identified a locus on chromosome 2 associated with the averaged maternal mean arterial pressure during 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. PMID:23665878

Zhu, Bin; Ashley-Koch, Allison E.; Dunson, David B.

2013-01-01

149

Measurement of anxious traits: a contemporary review and synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trait anxiety is a characteristic predisposition to appraise stimuli as threatening and respond with anxiety. Trait anxiety is proposed to serve as a vulnerability factor for greater frequency and intensity of anxiety experiences as well as the development of anxious pathology. Cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components of trait anxiety have been described. Common self-report measures of trait anxiety are reviewed

Lisa S. Elwood; Kate Wolitzky-Taylor; Bunmi O. Olatunji

2011-01-01

150

The longitudinal relationship of personality traits and disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality disorders are presumed to be stable because of underlying stable and maladaptive personality traits, but while previous research has demonstrated a link between personality traits and personality disorders cross-sectionally, personality disorders and personality traits have not been linked longitudinally. This study explores the extent to which relevant personality traits are stable in individuals diagnosed with 4 personality disorders (schizotypal,

Megan B. Warner; Leslie C. Morey; John F. Finch; John G. Gunderson; Andrew E. Skodol; Charles A. Sanislow; M. Tracie Shea; Thomas H. McGlashan; Carlos M. Grilo

2004-01-01

151

Brief Genetics Report Quantitative Trait Loci for Obesity-and  

E-print Network

Brief Genetics Report Quantitative Trait Loci for Obesity- and Diabetes-Related Traits led to increases in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The examination of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both obesity- and diabetes-related traits and their responses to a high-fat diet can be effectively

Cheverud, James M.

152

Trait Emotional Intelligence and Children's Peer Relations at School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trait emotional intelligence ("trait EI" or "trait emotional self-efficacy") is a constellation of emotion"related self"perceptions and dispositions comprising the affective aspects of personality. The present study investigated the role of trait EI in children's peer relations at school. One hundred and sixty pupils (83 girls; mean age = 10.8…

Petrides, K. V.; Sangareau, Yolanda; Furnham, Adrian; Frederickson, Norah

2006-01-01

153

Self as a default target in thinking about traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments provide evidence for the recruitment of self as a default target in thinking about traits. Results show that semantic processing of trait labels, when no specific target is named, facilitates subsequent trait judgments more for self than for other social exemplars, including exemplars of highly familiar others. The effect is not qualified by trait desirability. However, as predicted,

Jerzy J. Karylowski; Joseph F. Ranieri

2006-01-01

154

The role of HFE mutations on iron metabolism in beta-thalassemia carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an autosomal recessive disorder of iron metabolism characterized by increased iron absorption and progressive storage resulting in organ damage. HFE gene mutations C282Y and H63D are responsible for the majority of HH cases. A third HFE mutation, S65C, has been associated with the development of a mild form of hemochromatosis. The beta-thalassemia trait is characterized by

Rute Martins; Isabel Picanço; Aidil Fonseca; Lídia Ferreira; Odete Rodrigues; Marília Coelho; Teresa Seixas; Armandina Miranda; Baltazar Nunes; Luciana Costa; Luísa Romão; Paula Faustino

2004-01-01

155

Beta 2 microglobulin in CAPD.  

PubMed

The peritoneal clearance (Kp) and renal clearance (Kr) of beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2 m) were studied prospectively on 50 ESRD patients treated with CAPD, in order to determine the effect of the number of daily exchanges on Kp and to investigate the factors which influence the serum levels of beta 2m. Kr and Kp of beta 2m and creatinine (Cr) were calculated using standard formulae at the initiation of study and again at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months by collecting 24 hour urinary output and dialysate effluent. Kp of beta 2m of patients on 3 exchanges/day was .94 +/- .08 ml/min at the initiation of study and 1.1 +/- .08 at the end. For patients on 4 exchanges/day it was .99 +/- .14 ml/min and 1.1 +/- .12 respectively. There was no significant difference. Serum levels of beta 2m were lower on patients with significant residual renal function (RRF) (17 +/- .9 mg/L) than on patients without RRF (38 +/- 2 mg/L. p = .001). Serum levels of beta 2m correlated inversely with Kr of Cr and beta 2m at the initiation of study and at the end (r = .67 and .77 respectively, p = .0001). We conclude that serum levels of beta 2m correlate inversely with Kr of Cr and are expected to rise as RRF decreases. The combined peritoneal and renal excretion of beta 2m is less than its daily production. The number of dialysis exchanges does not influence Kp of beta 2m. PMID:1361825

Montenegro, J; Martínez, I; Saracho, R; González, R

1992-01-01

156

Invasive Plants and Enemy Release: Evolution of Trait Means and Trait Correlations in Ulex europaeus  

PubMed Central

Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability) hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species. PMID:22022588

Hornoy, Benjamin; Tarayre, Michele; Herve, Maxime; Gigord, Luc; Atlan, Anne

2011-01-01

157

Phenotypic and Genetic Structure of Traits Delineating Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The evidence suggests that personality traits are hierarchically organized with more specific or lower-order traits combining to form more generalized higher-order traits. Agreement exists across studies re- garding the lower-order traits that delineate personality disorder but not the higher-order traits. This study seeks to identify the higher-order structure of personality dis- order by examining the phenotypic and genetic struc-

W. John Livesley; Kerry L. Jang; Philip A. Vernon

1998-01-01

158

Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

2009-01-01

159

Edge Universality of Beta Ensembles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove the edge universality of the beta ensembles for any , provided that the limiting spectrum is supported on a single interval, and the external potential is and regular. We also prove that the edge universality holds for generalized Wigner matrices for all symmetry classes. Moreover, our results allow us to extend bulk universality for beta ensembles from analytic potentials to potentials in class.

Bourgade, Paul; Erdös, László; Yau, Horng-Tzer

2014-11-01

160

Trait stacking via targeted genome editing.  

PubMed

Modern agriculture demands crops carrying multiple traits. The current paradigm of randomly integrating and sorting independently segregating transgenes creates severe downstream breeding challenges. A versatile, generally applicable solution is hereby provided: the combination of high-efficiency targeted genome editing driven by engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) with modular 'trait landing pads' (TLPs) that allow 'mix-and-match', on-demand transgene integration and trait stacking in crop plants. We illustrate the utility of nuclease-driven TLP technology by applying it to the stacking of herbicide resistance traits. We first integrated into the maize genome an herbicide resistance gene, pat, flanked with a TLP (ZFN target sites and sequences homologous to incoming DNA) using WHISKERS™-mediated transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures. We established a method for targeted transgene integration based on microparticle bombardment of immature embryos and used it to deliver a second trait precisely into the TLP via cotransformation with a donor DNA containing a second herbicide resistance gene, aad1, flanked by sequences homologous to the integrated TLP along with a corresponding ZFN expression construct. Remarkably, up to 5% of the embryo-derived transgenic events integrated the aad1 transgene precisely at the TLP, that is, directly adjacent to the pat transgene. Importantly and consistent with the juxtaposition achieved via nuclease-driven TLP technology, both herbicide resistance traits cosegregated in subsequent generations, thereby demonstrating linkage of the two independently transformed transgenes. Because ZFN-mediated targeted transgene integration is becoming applicable across an increasing number of crop species, this work exemplifies a simple, facile and rapid approach to trait stacking. PMID:23953646

Ainley, William M; Sastry-Dent, Lakshmi; Welter, Mary E; Murray, Michael G; Zeitler, Bryan; Amora, Rainier; Corbin, David R; Miles, Rebecca R; Arnold, Nicole L; Strange, Tonya L; Simpson, Matthew A; Cao, Zehui; Carroll, Carley; Pawelczak, Katherine S; Blue, Ryan; West, Kim; Rowland, Lynn M; Perkins, Douglas; Samuel, Pon; Dewes, Cristie M; Shen, Liu; Sriram, Shreedharan; Evans, Steven L; Rebar, Edward J; Zhang, Lei; Gregory, Phillip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Webb, Steven R; Petolino, Joseph F

2013-12-01

161

-Negative correlations of traits afford substantial lower minimum-requirements than positive correlated traits.  

E-print Network

- Negative correlations of traits afford substantial lower minimum-requirements than positive AND CARCASS TRAITS IN PIGS R. SILER F. PLOCEK Research Institute of Animal Pvoduction, Prag Results of the progeny testing of i 8Czech Large White boars in 1978 were used to analyze the effectiveness of extreme

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Trait Version: Does It Really Measure Anxiety?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify what is actually measured by the trait version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1970), we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of various models and evaluated convergent and discriminant validity. The best fit was obtained with both a bifactor model, comprising 2 specific factors plus a general factor, and a 1-construct, 2-method model. The

Arturo Bados; Juana Gómez-Benito; Gemma Balaguer

2010-01-01

163

Quantitative Trait Loci for Root Architecture Traits Correlated with Phosphorus Acquisition in Common Bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low soil P availability is a primary constraint to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Latin America and Africa. Substantial genotypic variation in bean adaptation to low phosphorus (LP) availability has been linked with root traits that enhance the efficiency of soil foraging. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for P accumulation and

Stephen E. Beebe; Marcela Rojas-Pierce; Xiaolong Yan; Matthew W. Blair; Fabio Pedraza; Fernando Muñoz; Joe Tohme; Jonathan P. Lynch

2006-01-01

164

Sex as aSex as a Threshold TraitThreshold Trait  

E-print Network

1 Sex as aSex as a Threshold TraitThreshold Trait Overturning traditional paradigms on evolution and modes of sex determination in reptiles Arthur GeorgesArthur Georges Institute for Applied EcologyInstitute for Applied Ecology University of CanberraUniversity of Canberra We all agree that sex is a fundamental

Canberra, University of

165

The Vertebrate Trait Ontology: a controlled vocabulary for the annotation of trait data across species  

PubMed Central

Background The use of ontologies to standardize biological data and facilitate comparisons among datasets has steadily grown as the complexity and amount of available data have increased. Despite the numerous ontologies available, one area currently lacking a robust ontology is the description of vertebrate traits. A trait is defined as any measurable or observable characteristic pertaining to an organism or any of its substructures. While there are several ontologies to describe entities and processes in phenotypes, diseases, and clinical measurements, one has not been developed for vertebrate traits; the Vertebrate Trait Ontology (VT) was created to fill this void. Description Significant inconsistencies in trait nomenclature exist in the literature, and additional difficulties arise when trait data are compared across species. The VT is a unified trait vocabulary created to aid in the transfer of data within and between species and to facilitate investigation of the genetic basis of traits. Trait information provides a valuable link between the measurements that are used to assess the trait, the phenotypes related to the traits, and the diseases associated with one or more phenotypes. Because multiple clinical and morphological measurements are often used to assess a single trait, and a single measurement can be used to assess multiple physiological processes, providing investigators with standardized annotations for trait data will allow them to investigate connections among these data types. Conclusions The annotation of genomic data with ontology terms provides unique opportunities for data mining and analysis. Links between data in disparate databases can be identified and explored, a strategy that is particularly useful for cross-species comparisons or in situations involving inconsistent terminology. The VT provides a common basis for the description of traits in multiple vertebrate species. It is being used in the Rat Genome Database and Animal QTL Database for annotation of QTL data for rat, cattle, chicken, swine, sheep, and rainbow trout, and in the Mouse Phenome Database to annotate strain characterization data. In these databases, data are also cross-referenced to applicable terms from other ontologies, providing additional avenues for data mining and analysis. The ontology is available at http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/50138. PMID:23937709

2013-01-01

166

Multiple quantitative trait analysis using bayesian networks.  

PubMed

Models for genome-wide prediction and association studies usually target a single phenotypic trait. However, in animal and plant genetics it is common to record information on multiple phenotypes for each individual that will be genotyped. Modeling traits individually disregards the fact that they are most likely associated due to pleiotropy and shared biological basis, thus providing only a partial, confounded view of genetic effects and phenotypic interactions. In this article we use data from a Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) winter wheat population to explore Bayesian networks as a convenient and interpretable framework for the simultaneous modeling of multiple quantitative traits. We show that they are equivalent to multivariate genetic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and that they are competitive with single-trait elastic net and single-trait GBLUP in predictive performance. Finally, we discuss their relationship with other additive-effects models and their advantages in inference and interpretation. MAGIC populations provide an ideal setting for this kind of investigation because the very low population structure and large sample size result in predictive models with good power and limited confounding due to relatedness. PMID:25236454

Scutari, Marco; Howell, Phil; Balding, David J; Mackay, Ian

2014-09-01

167

Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

Horan, William P.; Blanchard, Jack J.; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F.

2008-01-01

168

Comparing the adaptive landscape across trait types: larger QTL effect size in traits under biotic selection  

PubMed Central

Background In a spatially and temporally variable adaptive landscape, mutations operating in opposite directions and mutations of large effect should be commonly fixed due to the shifting locations of phenotypic optima. Similarly, an adaptive landscape with multiple phenotypic optima and deep valleys of low fitness between peaks will favor mutations of large effect. Traits under biotic selection should experience a more spatially and temporally variable adaptive landscape with more phenotypic optima than that experienced by traits under abiotic selection. To test this hypothesis, we assemble information from QTL mapping studies conducted in plants, comparing effect directions and effect sizes of detected QTL controlling traits putatively under abiotic selection to those controlling traits putatively under biotic selection. Results We find no differences in the fraction of antagonistic QTL in traits under abiotic and biotic selection, suggesting similar consistency in selection pressure on these two types of traits. However, we find that QTL controlling traits under biotic selection have a larger effect size than those under abiotic selection, supporting our hypothesis that QTL of large effect are more commonly detected in traits under biotic selection than in traits under abiotic selection. For traits under both abiotic and biotic selection, we find a large number of QTL of large effect, with 10.7% of all QTLs detected controlling more than 20% of the variance in phenotype. Conclusion These results suggest that mutations of large effect are more common in adaptive landscapes strongly determined by biotic forces, but that these types of adaptive landscapes do not result in a higher fraction of mutations acting in opposite directions. The high number of QTL of large effect detected shows that QTL of large effect are more common than predicted by the infinitesimal model of genetic adaptation. PMID:21385379

2011-01-01

169

Multiple-interval mapping for quantitative trait loci controlling endosperm traits.  

PubMed Central

Endosperm traits are trisomic inheritant and are of great economic importance because they are usually directly related to grain quality. Mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying endosperm traits can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. As the traditional QTL mapping methods (diploid methods) are usually designed for traits under diploid control, they are not the ideal approaches to map endosperm traits because they ignore the triploid nature of endosperm. In this article, a statistical method considering the triploid nature of endosperm (triploid method) is developed on the basis of multiple-interval mapping (MIM) to map for the underlying QTL. The proposed triploid MIM method is derived to broadly use the marker information either from only the maternal plants or from both the maternal plants and their embryos in the backcross and F2 populations for mapping endosperm traits. Due to the use of multiple intervals simultaneously to take multiple QTL into account, the triploid MIM method can provide better detection power and estimation precision, and as shown in this article it is capable of analyzing and searching for epistatic QTL directly as compared to the traditional diploid methods and current triploid methods using only one (or two) interval(s). Several important issues in endosperm trait mapping, such as the relation and differences between the diploid and triploid methods, variance components of genetic variation, and the problems if effects are present and ignored, are also addressed. Simulations are performed to further explore these issues, to investigate the relative efficiency of different experimental designs, and to evaluate the performance of the proposed and current methods in mapping endosperm traits. The MIM-based triploid method can provide a powerful tool to estimate the genetic architecture of endosperm traits and to assist the marker-assisted selection for the improvement of grain quality in crop science. The triploid MIM FORTRAN program for mapping endosperm traits is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/). PMID:15342535

Kao, Chen-Hung

2004-01-01

170

Unusual occurrence of dentoalveolar manifestations in a case with beta thalassemia trait.  

PubMed

A case of thalassemia minor with dentoalveolar manifestations in a 22-year-old Iranian male is presented. On the basis of patient complaint of upper incisors mobility, radiographic examination was performed which revealed enlarged medullary space, thin lamina dura, prominent antegonial notch, spiky and short roots of upper incisors and a generalized root resorption. This is the second report of dentoalveolar changes in regard to a minor hemoglubinopathy disorder. In this case treatment was carried out with 1 mg per day oral folic acid for 2 months which relived patient complaint as well as some radiographic changes. PMID:24984659

Alireza, Farhad; Maryam, Allameh

2014-06-01

171

Nonlinear subcritical magnetohydrodynamic beta limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published gyrokinetic simulations have had difficulty operating beyond about half the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) critical beta limit with stationary and low transport levels in some well-established reference cases. Here it is demonstrated that this limitation is unlikely due to numerical instability, but rather appears to be a nonlinear subcritical MHD beta limit [R. E. Waltz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1098 (1985)] induced by the locally enhanced pressure gradients from the diamagnetic component of the nonlinearly driven (zero frequency) zonal flows. Strong evidence that the zonal flow corrugated pressure gradient profiles can act as a MHD-like beta limit unstable secondary equilibrium is provided. It is shown that the addition of sufficient E ×B shear or operation closer to drift wave instability threshold, thereby reducing the high-n drift wave turbulence nonlinear pumping of the zonal flows, can allow the normal high-n ideal MHD beta limit to be reached with low transport levels. Example gyrokinetic simulations of experimental discharges are provided: one near the high-n beta limit reasonably matches the low transport levels needed when the high experimental level of E ×B shear is applied; a second experimental example at moderately high beta appears to be limited by the subcritical beta.

Waltz, R. E.

2010-07-01

172

Nonlinear subcritical magnetohydrodynamic beta limit  

SciTech Connect

Published gyrokinetic simulations have had difficulty operating beyond about half the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) critical beta limit with stationary and low transport levels in some well-established reference cases. Here it is demonstrated that this limitation is unlikely due to numerical instability, but rather appears to be a nonlinear subcritical MHD beta limit[R. E. Waltz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1098 (1985)] induced by the locally enhanced pressure gradients from the diamagnetic component of the nonlinearly driven (zero frequency) zonal flows. Strong evidence that the zonal flow corrugated pressure gradient profiles can act as a MHD-like beta limit unstable secondary equilibrium is provided. It is shown that the addition of sufficient ExB shear or operation closer to drift wave instability threshold, thereby reducing the high-n drift wave turbulence nonlinear pumping of the zonal flows, can allow the normal high-n ideal MHD beta limit to be reached with low transport levels. Example gyrokinetic simulations of experimental discharges are provided: one near the high-n beta limit reasonably matches the low transport levels needed when the high experimental level of ExB shear is applied; a second experimental example at moderately high beta appears to be limited by the subcritical beta.

Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

2010-07-15

173

Mammalian mitochondrial beta-oxidation.  

PubMed Central

The enzymic stages of mammalian mitochondrial beta-oxidation were elucidated some 30-40 years ago. However, the discovery of a membrane-associated multifunctional enzyme of beta-oxidation, a membrane-associated acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and characterization of the carnitine palmitoyl transferase system at the protein and at the genetic level has demonstrated that the enzymes of the system itself are incompletely understood. Deficiencies of many of the enzymes have been recognized as important causes of disease. In addition, the study of these disorders has led to a greater understanding of the molecular mechanism of beta-oxidation and the import, processing and assembly of the beta-oxidation enzymes within the mitochondrion. The tissue-specific regulation, intramitochondrial control and supramolecular organization of the pathway is becoming better understood as sensitive analytical and molecular techniques are applied. This review aims to cover enzymological and organizational aspects of mitochondrial beta-oxidation together with the biochemical aspects of inherited disorders of beta-oxidation and the intrinsic control of beta-oxidation. PMID:8973539

Eaton, S; Bartlett, K; Pourfarzam, M

1996-01-01

174

Mapping the epigenetic basis of complex traits.  

PubMed

Quantifying the impact of heritable epigenetic variation on complex traits is an emerging challenge in population genetics. Here, we analyze a population of isogenic Arabidopsis lines that segregate experimentally induced DNA methylation changes at hundreds of regions across the genome. We demonstrate that several of these differentially methylated regions (DMRs) act as bona fide epigenetic quantitative trait loci (QTL(epi)), accounting for 60 to 90% of the heritability for two complex traits, flowering time and primary root length. These QTL(epi) are reproducible and can be subjected to artificial selection. Many of the experimentally induced DMRs are also variable in natural populations of this species and may thus provide an epigenetic basis for Darwinian evolution independently of DNA sequence changes. PMID:24505129

Cortijo, Sandra; Wardenaar, René; Colomé-Tatché, Maria; Gilly, Arthur; Etcheverry, Mathilde; Labadie, Karine; Caillieux, Erwann; Hospital, Fréderic; Aury, Jean-Marc; Wincker, Patrick; Roudier, François; Jansen, Ritsert C; Colot, Vincent; Johannes, Frank

2014-03-01

175

0{nu}{beta}{beta}: The experimental challenge  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the main experimental issues related to neutrinoless double beta decay searches. It discusses, although briefly, the past, present and future of this exciting, fundamental but extremely complex field of research.

Ferroni, Fernando [Sapienza Universita' and INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma I-00185 (Italy)

2010-11-24

176

Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Constraints  

E-print Network

A brief overview is given of theoretical analyses with neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. Theoretical bounds on the ``observable'', _betabeta, are presented. By using experimental bounds on _betabeta, allowed regions are obtained on the m_l-cos{2theta_12} plane, where m_l stands for the lightest neutrino mass. It is shown that Majorana neutrinos can be excluded by combining possible results of future neutrinoless double beta decay and {}^3H beta decay experiments. A possibility to constrain one of two Majorana phases is discussed also.

Hiroaki Sugiyama

2003-07-25

177

A quantitative trait locus on chr.4 regulates thymic involution.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying age-associated thymic involution are unknown. In mice, thymic involution shows mouse strain-dependent genetic variation. Identification of the underlying genes would provide mechanistic insight into this elusive process. We previously showed that responsiveness of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) to transforming growth factor-beta 2, a positive regulator of HSPC proliferation, is regulated by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chr. 4, Tb2r1. Interestingly, Tgfb2(+/-) mice have delayed thymic involution. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a QTL on chr. 4 might regulate thymic involution. Aged, but not young, B6.D2-chr.4 congenic mice, where the telomeric region of chr. 4 was introgressed from DBA/2 to C57BL/6 mice, had larger thymi, and better maintenance of early thymic precursors than C57BL/6 control mice. These observations unequivocally demonstrate that the telomeric region of chr. 4 contains a QTL, Ti1 (thymic involution 1) that regulates thymic involution, and suggest the possibility that Ti1 may be identical to Tb2r1. PMID:20371546

Kumar, Ritu; Avagyan, Serine; Snoeck, Hans-Willem

2010-06-01

178

A Quantitative Trait Locus on chr.4 Regulates Thymic Involution  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underlying age-associated thymic involution are unknown. In mice, thymic involution shows mouse strain–dependent genetic variation. Identification of the underlying genes would provide mechanistic insight into this elusive process. We previously showed that responsiveness of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) to transforming growth factor-beta 2, a positive regulator of HSPC proliferation, is regulated by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chr. 4, Tb2r1. Interestingly, Tgfb2+/? mice have delayed thymic involution. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a QTL on chr. 4 might regulate thymic involution. Aged, but not young, B6.D2-chr.4 congenic mice, where the telomeric region of chr. 4 was introgressed from DBA/2 to C57BL/6 mice, had larger thymi, and better maintenance of early thymic precursors than C57BL/6 control mice. These observations unequivocally demonstrate that the telomeric region of chr. 4 contains a QTL, Ti1 (thymic involution 1) that regulates thymic involution, and suggest the possibility that Ti1 may be identical to Tb2r1. PMID:20371546

Kumar, Ritu; Avagyan, Serine

2010-01-01

179

Mapping Splicing Quantitative Trait Loci in RNA-Seq  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND One of the major mechanisms of generating mRNA diversity is alternative splicing, a regulated process that allows for the flexibility of producing functionally different proteins from the same genomic sequences. This process is often altered in cancer cells to produce aberrant proteins that drive the progression of cancer. A better understanding of the misregulation of alternative splicing will shed light on the development of novel targets for pharmacological interventions of cancer. METHODS In this study, we evaluated three statistical methods, random effects meta-regression, beta regression, and generalized linear mixed effects model, for the analysis of splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL) using RNA-Seq data. All the three methods use exon-inclusion levels estimated by the PennSeq algorithm, a statistical method that utilizes paired-end reads and accounts for non-uniform sequencing coverage. RESULTS Using both simulated and real RNA-Seq datasets, we compared these three methods with GLiMMPS, a recently developed method for sQTL analysis. Our results indicate that the most reliable and powerful method was the random effects meta-regression approach, which identified sQTLs at low false discovery rates but higher power when compared to GLiMMPS. CONCLUSIONS We have evaluated three statistical methods for the analysis of sQTLs in RNA-Seq. Results from our study will be instructive for researchers in selecting the appropriate statistical methods for sQTL analysis.

Jia, Cheng; Hu, Yu; Liu, Yichuan; Li, Mingyao

2014-01-01

180

(-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid from Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation of the root extract of Valeriana officinalis afforded a new bicyclic sesquiterpene acid, (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid together with valerenic acid and hexadecanoic acid. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic data and confirmed by partial synthesis of its methyl ester from valerenic acid. Methyl (-)-3 alpha,4 alpha-epoxyvalerenate was obtained as a minor product from the above reaction. PMID:12143008

Dharmaratne, H Ranjith; Nanayakkara, N P; Khan, Ikhlas A

2002-07-01

181

Pleiotropy in complex traits: challenges and strategies  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies have identified many variants that each affects multiple traits, particularly across autoimmune diseases, cancers and neuropsychiatric disorders, suggesting that pleiotropic effects on human complex traits may be widespread. However, systematic detection of such effects is challenging and requires new methodologies and frameworks for interpreting cross-phenotype results. In this Review, we discuss the evidence for pleiotropy in contemporary genetic mapping studies, new and established analytical approaches to identifying pleiotropic effects, sources of spurious cross-phenotype effects and study design considerations. We also outline the molecular and clinical implications of such findings and discuss future directions of research. PMID:23752797

Solovieff, Nadia; Cotsapas, Chris; Lee, Phil H.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Smoller, Jordan W.

2014-01-01

182

Unraveling the Complex Trait of Crop Yield With Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica napus  

PubMed Central

Yield is the most important and complex trait for the genetic improvement of crops. Although much research into the genetic basis of yield and yield-associated traits has been reported, in each such experiment the genetic architecture and determinants of yield have remained ambiguous. One of the most intractable problems is the interaction between genes and the environment. We identified 85 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed yield along with 785 QTL for eight yield-associated traits, from 10 natural environments and two related populations of rapeseed. A trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed 401 consensus QTL, of which 82.5% were clustered and integrated into 111 pleiotropic unique QTL by meta-analysis, 47 of which were relevant for seed yield. The complexity of the genetic architecture of yield was demonstrated, illustrating the pleiotropy, synthesis, variability, and plasticity of yield QTL. The idea of estimating indicator QTL for yield QTL and identifying potential candidate genes for yield provides an advance in methodology for complex traits. PMID:19414564

Shi, Jiaqin; Li, Ruiyuan; Qiu, Dan; Jiang, Congcong; Long, Yan; Morgan, Colin; Bancroft, Ian; Zhao, Jianyi; Meng, Jinling

2009-01-01

183

Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits  

SciTech Connect

Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States))

1993-11-01

184

Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

1988-01-01

185

Trait procrastination among dental students in India and its influence on academic performance.  

PubMed

Trait procrastination is believed to be highly prevalent among college students and detrimental to their educational performance. As the scenario among dental students is virtually unknown, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of trait procrastination among dental students and to analyze its influence on their academic performance. A total of 174 fourth-year dental students from three dental colleges in India voluntarily completed the Lay's Procrastination Scale-student version (LPS). The mean percentage marks scored in the subsequent final university examinations were used as a measure of academic performance. The descriptive statistics were computed to evaluate the prevalence of significant procrastination (LPS score ?60). Mann-Whitney U test and multiple linear regressions were used to assess the influence of age and gender on procrastination severity, and the latter was again used to analyze the association between procrastination severity and academic performance. The results indicated that 27 percent (n=47) of the students exhibited a significant extent of trait procrastination; neither age nor gender affected its severity (p<0.05). Procrastination had a significant and negative impact on the academic performance of the student (beta=-0.150, p=0.039). These findings highlight the need for active measures to reduce the causes and consequences of procrastination in dental education. PMID:23066141

Madhan, Balasubramanian; Kumar, Cholleti Sudheer; Naik, Eslavath Seena; Panda, Sujit; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Barik, Ashish Kumar

2012-10-01

186

Beta Beams for Neutrino Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To use accelerated beta active radioactive ions to produce collimated high energy neutrino beams was proposed by P. Zuchelli in 2002. Since then, several ideas related to how to design Beta Beam facilities have been studied. Design studies of an accelerator complex, based on CERN accelerators, have been supported by research programs within the European Commisison FP6 and FP7 frameworks (EURISOL Design Study and EUROnu). In these studies 6He and 18Ne are used as beta emitters to produce antineutrinos and neutrinos respectively. Alternative isotopes for neutrino beam production, 8Li and 8B, are investigated in the now ongoing study, EUROnu. Due to the higher reaction Q-value of these ions, the resulting neutrino energies are higher. The isotopes we need for neutrino beams have to be produced in large quantities using non conventional methods. Latest research on production of isotopes that are presently considered for Beta Beams will be discussed. The work achieved gives a good ground to propose the Beta Beam, which is based on known technology, for neutrino production. In this status review we concentrate on technical issues related to a possible Beta Beam facility using the CERN infrastructure.

Wildner, E.

2012-08-01

187

Changes in the level of vitamin C, beta-carotene, thiamine, and riboflavin during preservation of immature grass pea ( Lathyrus sativus L .) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the work was to evaluate the content of vitamin C, beta-carotene, thiamine, and riboflavin in raw and preserved physiologically immature grass pea seeds. The seeds of the cultivar Krab, differing in their morphology, phytometric traits, and specific gravity were divided into four stages of maturity, which corresponded to the following levels of their dry matter content: I

Zofia Lisiewska; Anna Korus; Waldemar Kmiecik

2002-01-01

188

Epigenetics meets metabolomics: an epigenome-wide association study with blood serum metabolic traits  

PubMed Central

Previously, we reported strong influences of genetic variants on metabolic phenotypes, some of them with clinical relevance. Here, we hypothesize that DNA methylation may have an important and potentially independent effect on human metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we conducted what is to the best of our knowledge the first epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) between DNA methylation and metabolic traits (metabotypes) in human blood. We assess 649 blood metabolic traits from 1814 participants of the Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg (KORA) population study for association with methylation of 457 004 CpG sites, determined on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip platform. Using the EWAS approach, we identified two types of methylome–metabotype associations. One type is driven by an underlying genetic effect; the other type is independent of genetic variation and potentially driven by common environmental and life-style-dependent factors. We report eight CpG loci at genome-wide significance that have a genetic variant as confounder (P = 3.9 × 10?20 to 2.0 × 10?108, r2 = 0.036 to 0.221). Seven loci display CpG site-specific associations to metabotypes, but do not exhibit any underlying genetic signals (P = 9.2 × 10?14 to 2.7 × 10?27, r2 = 0.008 to 0.107). We further identify several groups of CpG loci that associate with a same metabotype, such as 4-vinylphenol sulfate and 4-androsten-3-beta,17-beta-diol disulfate. In these cases, the association between CpG-methylation and metabotype is likely the result of a common external environmental factor, including smoking. Our study shows that analysis of EWAS with large numbers of metabolic traits in large population cohorts are, in principle, feasible. Taken together, our data suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in regulating human metabolism. PMID:24014485

Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Zeilinger, Sonja; Kastenmuller, Gabi; Romisch-Margl, Werner; Brugger, Markus; Peters, Annette; Meisinger, Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Hengstenberg, Christian; Pagel, Philipp; Huber, Fritz; Mohney, Robert P.; Grallert, Harald; Illig, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Waldenberger, Melanie; Gieger, Christian; Suhre, Karsten

2014-01-01

189

Epigenetics meets metabolomics: an epigenome-wide association study with blood serum metabolic traits.  

PubMed

Previously, we reported strong influences of genetic variants on metabolic phenotypes, some of them with clinical relevance. Here, we hypothesize that DNA methylation may have an important and potentially independent effect on human metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we conducted what is to the best of our knowledge the first epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) between DNA methylation and metabolic traits (metabotypes) in human blood. We assess 649 blood metabolic traits from 1814 participants of the Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg (KORA) population study for association with methylation of 457 004 CpG sites, determined on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip platform. Using the EWAS approach, we identified two types of methylome-metabotype associations. One type is driven by an underlying genetic effect; the other type is independent of genetic variation and potentially driven by common environmental and life-style-dependent factors. We report eight CpG loci at genome-wide significance that have a genetic variant as confounder (P = 3.9 × 10(-20) to 2.0 × 10(-108), r(2) = 0.036 to 0.221). Seven loci display CpG site-specific associations to metabotypes, but do not exhibit any underlying genetic signals (P = 9.2 × 10(-14) to 2.7 × 10(-27), r(2) = 0.008 to 0.107). We further identify several groups of CpG loci that associate with a same metabotype, such as 4-vinylphenol sulfate and 4-androsten-3-beta,17-beta-diol disulfate. In these cases, the association between CpG-methylation and metabotype is likely the result of a common external environmental factor, including smoking. Our study shows that analysis of EWAS with large numbers of metabolic traits in large population cohorts are, in principle, feasible. Taken together, our data suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in regulating human metabolism. PMID:24014485

Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Zeilinger, Sonja; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Brugger, Markus; Peters, Annette; Meisinger, Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Hengstenberg, Christian; Pagel, Philipp; Huber, Fritz; Mohney, Robert P; Grallert, Harald; Illig, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Waldenberger, Melanie; Gieger, Christian; Suhre, Karsten

2014-01-15

190

The neural signatures of distinct psychopathic traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population. Furthermore, no studies have systematically and simultaneously assessed associations

Justin M. Carré; Luke W. Hyde; Craig S. Neumann; Essi Viding; Ahmad R. Hariri

2012-01-01

191

Dissociative experiences, trait anxiety and paranormal beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between dissociative experiences, trait-anxiety and paranormal beliefs among students was investigated. Significant gender differences were found; females scored higher than males on the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) by Bernstein and Putnam (The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 727–735, 1986) and some subscales of the revised Paranormal Belief Scale by Tobacyk (A Revised Paranormal Belief Scale, unpublished

Uwe Wolfradt

1997-01-01

192

Biodiversity: Predictive traits to the rescue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change poses new challenges to the conservation of species, which at present requires data-hungry models to meaningfully anticipate future threats. Now a study suggests that species traits may offer a simpler way to help predict future extinction risks.

Guisan, Antoine

2014-03-01

193

Leadership roles and the gender stereotype traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men generally occupy the role of leader and women the role of follower in marital relationships. This research tested the hypothesis that these implicit leader-follower roles determine the way in which the gender stereotype traits are typically assigned to women and men. In one condition, the man was described as the leader in the marriage, and in another condition, the

Gwendolyn L. Gerber

1988-01-01

194

AUTONOMY AND AUTHENTICITY OF ENHANCED PERSONALITY TRAITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTThere is concern that the use of neuroenhancements to alter character traits undermines consumer's authenticity. But the meaning, scope and value of authenticity remain vague. However, the majority of contemporary autonomy accounts ground individual autonomy on a notion of authenticity. So if neuroenhancements diminish an agent's authenticity, they may undermine his autonomy. This paper clarifies the relation between autonomy, authenticity

JAN CHRISTOPH BUBLITZ; REINHARD MERKEL

2009-01-01

195

Parallel Evolution and Inheritance of Quantitative Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel phenotypic evolution, the independent evolution of the same trait in closely related lineages, is interesting because it tells us about the contribution of natural selection to phenotypic evolution. Haldane and others have proposed that parallel evolution also results from a second process, the similarly biased production of genetic variation in close relatives, an idea that has received few tests.

Dolph Schluter; Maria Nemethy

2004-01-01

196

The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research. The paper…

Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

2008-01-01

197

From genes to traits and Yaniv Erlich  

E-print Network

, sanitation) totally transformed this trait. 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 1840 1890 1940 1990 Year of death / million bp! Intro. Human genetics Pooling Bacteria Experiment Human Experiment #12;Investigation ­ initial steps Check known ex-convicts 9 genes are known to cause Joubert. All of them where normal

Sabatini, David M.

198

Sickle Cell Trait and Scholastic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a preliminary study, no significant interaction effects were found between scholastic achievement and sickle cell trait in black children currently in eight and ninth grades, as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills over a consecutive period of four years, 1968 through 1971, grades four through seven. (EH)

Jackson, Yvonne; Ayrer, James

1974-01-01

199

Mapping the Epigenetic Basis of Complex Traits  

E-print Network

in Arabidopsis a population of so-called epige- netic recombinant inbred lines (epiRILs) that have almostMapping the Epigenetic Basis of Complex Traits Sandra Cortijo,1 * René Wardenaar,2 * Maria Colomé challenge in population genetics. Here, we analyze a population of isogenic Arabidopsis lines that segregate

Napp, Nils

200

Speed-mapping quantitative trait loci  

E-print Network

to polymorphic markers in a mapping population of recombinant inbred lines derived from the Oregon and 2bSpeed-mapping quantitative trait loci using microarrays Chao-Qiang Lai1, Jeff Leips2,5, Wei Zou3) mapping using microarrays for selective genotyping of pooled DNA samples. We generated 21,207 F2 flies

Mackay, Trudy F.C.

201

Personality Traits and College Student Reading Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is concerned with studies of the possible relationship between the college reader and his personality traits. The results of the three studies reported gave evidence that there was a relationship between personality types and college reading skills. Intuitive and introverted personality types were better readers. When students were…

Larsen, J.; And Others

202

An Examination of Quantitative Traits in Brassica  

E-print Network

+ + An Examination of Quantitative Traits in Brassica Brian S. Yandell Departments of Horticulture · Brassica study · linkage maps · classical vs. mapmaker QTL · testing with likelihood ratios · confidence interval for major QT gene · major and minor QT genes · stepwise location of QT loci + 2 #12;+ + Brassica

Yandell, Brian S.

203

Quantitative trait loci and metabolic pathways  

PubMed Central

The interpretation of quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies is limited by the lack of information on metabolic pathways leading to most economic traits. Inferences about the roles of the underlying genes with a pathway or the nature of their interaction with other loci are generally not possible. An exception is resistance to the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) in maize (Zea mays L.) because of maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone synthesized in silks via a branch of the well characterized flavonoid pathway. Our results using flavone synthesis as a model QTL system indicate: (i) the importance of regulatory loci as QTLs, (ii) the importance of interconnecting biochemical pathways on product levels, (iii) evidence for “channeling” of intermediates, allowing independent synthesis of related compounds, (iv) the utility of QTL analysis in clarifying the role of specific genes in a biochemical pathway, and (v) identification of a previously unknown locus on chromosome 9S affecting flavone level. A greater understanding of the genetic basis of maysin synthesis and associated corn earworm resistance should lead to improved breeding strategies. More broadly, the insights gained in relating a defined genetic and biochemical pathway affecting a quantitative trait should enhance interpretation of the biological basis of variation for other quantitative traits. PMID:9482823

McMullen, M. D.; Byrne, P. F.; Snook, M. E.; Wiseman, B. R.; Lee, E. A.; Widstrom, N. W.; Coe, E. H.

1998-01-01

204

Attitudinal Loyalty - Personality trait or brand specific?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of two main measurement approaches have been advocated in the marketing literature for the measurement of attitudinal loyalty; namely brand-specific measures and personality trait measures. This paper demonstrates that attitudinal loyalty should be measured using brand specific measures rather than measures which relate to an individual's propensity to be brand loyal, as brand-specific measures will better explain purchasing

Rebekah Bennett; Sharyn Rundle-Thiele

2000-01-01

205

Character Trait Vocabulary: A Schoolwide Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has documented the large differences in young children's vocabulary knowledge. In light of the strong relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension, this gap is particularly worrisome and points to the critical need for well-articulated vocabulary instruction across the grades. The author describes character trait

Manyak, Patrick

2007-01-01

206

CHAPTER NINE Progressive levels of trait divergence  

E-print Network

an environmental gradient of water clarity in Lake Victoria. I will subsequently refer to this as a `speciationCHAPTER NINE Progressive levels of trait divergence along a `speciation transect' in the Lake Victoria cichlid fish Pundamilia ole seehausen Introduction and outline Identifying mechanisms

207

State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions…

Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans

2007-01-01

208

Transmission-disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits.  

PubMed Central

The transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) of Spielman et al. is a family-based linkage-disequilibrium test that offers a powerful way to test for linkage between alleles and phenotypes that is either causal (i.e., the marker locus is the disease/trait allele) or due to linkage disequilibrium. The TDT is equivalent to a randomized experiment and, therefore, is resistant to confounding. When the marker is extremely close to the disease locus or is the disease locus itself, tests such as the TDT can be far more powerful than conventional linkage tests. To date, the TDT and most other family-based association tests have been applied only to dichotomous traits. This paper develops five TDT-type tests for use with quantitative traits. These tests accommodate either unselected sampling or sampling based on selection of phenotypically extreme offspring. Power calculations are provided and show that, when a candidate gene is available (1) these TDT-type tests are at least an order of magnitude more efficient than two common sib-pair tests of linkage; (2) extreme sampling results in substantial increases in power; and (3) if the most extreme 20% of the phenotypic distribution is selectively sampled, across a wide variety of plausible genetic models, quantitative-trait loci explaining as little as 5% of the phenotypic variation can be detected at the .0001 alpha level with <300 observations. PMID:9042929

Allison, D B

1997-01-01

209

Animal models of eating disorder traits.  

PubMed

Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are psychiatric disorders that are likely determined by a complex interaction between genetic variations, developmental processes, and certain life events. Cross-species analysis of traits related to eating disorders may provide a way to functionally and systematically study neurobiological mechanisms underlying these disorders. Interspecies trait genetics may offer opportunities to identify common neurobiological mechanisms underlying eating disorder characteristics relevant to the initiation, progression, and/or maintenance of the disease, such as cognitive rigidity, increased anxiety levels, and behavioral hyperactivity. These can subsequently be tested directly by studying allelic variation in mice and human subjects and by applying methods that can modify gene expression levels in rodent models. Increasing our knowledge about these traits and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms will be relevant to develop new therapies for patients within the heterogeneous eating disorder populations. Novel mouse genetic and phenotyping tools offer a way to study these neurobehavioral traits under controlled environmental and genetic background conditions. PMID:21243478

Kas, Martien J H; Adan, Roger A H

2011-01-01

210

Apollo applications of beta fiber glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical characteristics of Beta fiber glass are discussed. The application of Beta fiber glass for fireproofing the interior of spacecraft compartments is described. Tests to determine the flammability of Beta fiber glass are presented. The application of Beta fiber glass for commercial purposes is examined.

Naimer, J.

1971-01-01

211

Supporting Java Traits in Eclipse Philip J. Quitslund  

E-print Network

Supporting Java Traits in Eclipse Philip J. Quitslund Emerson R. Murphy-Hill Andrew P. Black Department of Computer Science Portland State University, USA {pq,emerson,black}@cs.pdx.edu Abstract Traits

Murphy-Hill, Emerson

212

Traits Contributing to the Autistic Spectrum  

PubMed Central

Background It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. Methods and Principal Findings Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC database. Using missing value imputation, data for 13,138 children were analysed. Factor analysis suggested the existence of 7 factors explaining 85% of the variance. The factors were labelled: verbal ability, language acquisition, social understanding, semantic-pragmatic skills, repetitive-stereotyped behaviour, articulation and social inhibition. Four factors (1, 3, 5 and 7) were specific to ASD being more strongly associated with this phenotype than other co-morbid conditions while other factors were more associated with learning difficulties and specific language impairment. Nevertheless, all 7 factors contributed independently to the explanation of ASD (p<0.001). Exploration of putative genetic causal factors such as variants in the CNTNAP2 gene showed a varying pattern of associations with these traits. An alternative predictive model of ASD was derived using four individual measures: the coherence subscale of the Children's Communication Checklist (9y), the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (91 m), repetitive behaviour (69 m) and the sociability subscale of the Emotionality Activity and Sociability measure (38 m). Although univarably these traits performed better than some factors, their combined explanations of ASD were similar (R2?=?0.48). Conclusions and Significance These results support the fractional nature of ASD with different aetiological origins for these components despite pleiotropic genetic effects being observed. These traits are likely to be useful in the exploration of ASD. PMID:20838614

Steer, Colin D.; Golding, Jean; Bolton, Patrick F.

2010-01-01

213

On the criterion and incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the criterion and incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy), which is defined as a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies (Petrides & Furnham, 2001). In Studies 1 and 2 (N=166 and 354, respectively) trait EI is shown to be

K. V. Petrides; Juan Carlos Pérez-González; Adrian Furnham

2007-01-01

214

Critical review of state-trait curiosity test development  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-trait research offers good prospects for new insights into human curiosity. It has already generated development of new scales, and several studies have been undertaken independently in Australia and the United States. This paper critically reviews the development of state [C-State] and trait [C-Trait] curiosity scales, pointing out methodological limitations in the existing state-trait curiosity studies. Specific recommendations are made

Gregory J. Boyle

1983-01-01

215

Quantitative trait loci analysis of stem strength and related traits in soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem strength is one of the major influencing factors of lodging in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] as well as other crops. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with stem strength and related traits\\u000a in soybean, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 165 lines derived from Zhongdou No. 29 × Zhongdou No.\\u000a 32 was used in 3 years. Significant

Haifeng Chen; Zhihui Shan; Aihua Sha; Baoduo Wu; Zhonglu Yang; Shuilian Chen; Rong Zhou; Xinan Zhou

2011-01-01

216

Fates beyond traits: ecological consequences of human-induced trait change  

PubMed Central

Human-induced trait change has been documented in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. These trait changes are driven by phenotypic plasticity and contemporary evolution. While efforts to manage human-induced trait change are beginning to receive some attention, managing its ecological consequences has received virtually none. Recent work suggests that contemporary trait change can have important effects on the dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Therefore, trait changes caused by human activity may be shaping ecological dynamics on a global scale. We present evidence for important ecological effects associated with human-induced trait change in a variety of study systems. These effects can occur over large spatial scales and impact system-wide processes such as trophic cascades. Importantly, the magnitude of these effects can be on par with those of traditional ecological drivers such as species presence. However, phenotypic change is not always an agent of ecological change; it can also buffer ecosystems against change. Determining the conditions under which phenotypic change may promote vs prevent ecological change should be a top research priority.

Palkovacs, Eric P; Kinnison, Michael T; Correa, Cristian; Dalton, Christopher M; Hendry, Andrew P

2012-01-01

217

Effects of Genetic and Environmental Factors on Trait Network Predictions From Quantitative Trait Locus Data  

PubMed Central

The use of high-throughput genomic techniques to map gene expression quantitative trait loci has spurred the development of path analysis approaches for predicting functional networks linking genes and natural trait variation. The goal of this study was to test whether potentially confounding factors, including effects of common environment and genes not included in path models, affect predictions of cause–effect relationships among traits generated by QTL path analyses. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test simple QTL-trait networks under different regulatory scenarios involving direct and indirect effects. SEM identified the correct models under simple scenarios, but when common-environment effects were simulated in conjunction with direct QTL effects on traits, they were poorly distinguished from indirect effects, leading to false support for indirect models. Application of SEM to loblolly pine QTL data provided support for biologically plausible a priori hypotheses of QTL mechanisms affecting height and diameter growth. However, some biologically implausible models were also well supported. The results emphasize the need to include any available functional information, including predictions for genetic and environmental correlations, to develop plausible models if biologically useful trait network predictions are to be made. PMID:19139147

Remington, David L.

2009-01-01

218

Responding to Suicidal Calls: Does Trait Anxiety Hinder or Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To see if trait anxiety and suicidality interfered with the ability to respond to suicidal crisis calls, 279 undergraduates completed measures of trait anxiety and suicidality in the past week, and the revised Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-2). Unexpectedly, trait anxiety (but not suicidality) correlated with better SIRI-2 scores.…

Brown, Marceline Moulin; Range, Lillian M.

2005-01-01

219

Heritability of reproductive fitness traits in a human population  

E-print Network

of Darwinian selection. Understanding the genetic basis of varia- tion in these traits and inheritanceHeritability of reproductive fitness traits in a human population Gülüm Kosovaa,b , Mark Abneyb (received for review July 6, 2009) The genetic basis of fitness traits has been studied widely in animals

Abney, Mark

220

Can personality traits predict increases in manic and depressive symptoms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There has been limited research investigating personality traits as predictors of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar individuals. The present study investigated the relation between personality traits and the course of bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to identify specific personality traits that predict the course of manic and depressive symptoms experienced by bipolar individuals. Methods: The

Brian E Lozano; Sheri L Johnson

2001-01-01

221

Generality of Leaf Trait Relationships: A Test across Six Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here we address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity,

Peter B. Reich; David S. Ellsworth; Michael B. Walters; James M. Vose; Charles Gresham; John C. Volin; William D. Bowman

1999-01-01

222

Effect of Garment Style on the Perception of Personal Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The personal traits formed by perceivers of a stranger clothed in two sets of polar garment styles, daring-conservative and dressy-casual, were investigated in this study. The relationship between clothing interest ratings of subject and personal trait ratings of each garment style was also explored. The cues conveyed by four garment styles on the judgment of 18 personal traits evaluated on

Soae L. Paek

1986-01-01

223

Phenotypic selection on leaf ecophysiological traits in Helianthus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitats that differ in soil resource availability are expected to differ for selection on resource-related plant traits. Here, we examined spatial and temporal variation in phenotypic selection on leaf ecophysiological traits for 10 Helianthus populations, including two species of hybrid origin, Helianthus anomalus and Helianthus deserticola, and artificial hybrids of their ancestral parents. Leaf traits assessed were leaf size, succulence,

L. A. Donovan; F. Ludwig; D. R. Rosenthal; L. H. Rieseberg; S. A. Dudley

2009-01-01

224

Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum): independent traits  

E-print Network

Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum): independent traits and basis infections in the life-history traits which de¢ne its blood-dwelling stages. Such variation in life histories¡ects producing the variation.We studied 11 life-history traits in 120 induced infections of P. mexicanum in its

Schall, Joseph J.

225

Maccoby's Head/Heart Traits: Marketing versus Accounting Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen head/heart traits derived from Maccoby's business ethics work were rated on importance to future careers by 148 marketing and 178 accounting students. Both groups rated head traits as most important. Marketing majors are not as "games" oriented as social stereotypes would indicate. The apparent imbalance between head and heart traits

Kochunny, C. M.; And Others

1992-01-01

226

An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Career Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personality traits related to career satisfaction for 5,932 individuals were measured for the group and in 14 occupations. Traits related to satisfaction across occupations were emotional resilience, optimism, and work drive. The Big Five traits of conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness were also correlated with career satisfaction.…

Lounsbury, John W.; Loveland, James M.; Sundstrom, Eric D.; Gibson, Lucy W.; Drost, Adam W.; Hamrick, Frances L.

2003-01-01

227

Genetic Analysis of Autoimmune and Metabolic Traits in Chickens  

E-print Network

of Publications 7 Abbreviations 8 Introduction 9 Background 13 Metabolic traits 13 Autoimmune diseases 13 SystemicGenetic Analysis of Autoimmune and Metabolic Traits in Chickens Weronica Ek Faculty of Veterinary Cover: Ronald Nelson, SLU #12;Genetic Analysis of Autoimmune and Metabolic Traits in Chickens Abstract

228

Molecular basis of two traits studied by Mendel Genes encoding two traits studied by Mendel have been cloned.  

E-print Network

Molecular basis of two traits studied by Mendel Genes encoding two traits studied by Mendel have-segregated to the R locus studied by Mendel. · An insertion in the mutant allele (r) caused the polymorphisms

Bhattacharyya, Madan Kumar

229

Prevalence and profile of obsessive-compulsive trait in patients with chronic migraine and medication overuse.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic migraine (CM) and medication overuse headache (MOH) have high frequency of psychiatric comorbidity or psychopathological traits, the presence of which can influence the clinical course. The presence of subclinical obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is underestimated in migraine patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and profile of obsessive-compulsive (OBS) trait in a sample of CM patients with MOH using the OBS questionnaire of Spectrum Collaborative Project. According to the new international classification of headache disorders (ICHD-III beta) criteria, 106 patients (15 M, 91 F, mean age 47.3 years) were selected in a consecutive clinical series. Our results showed that 36 % of patients with CM and MOH were positive at OBS-questionnaire. As far as the profile of OBS trait, we performed an evaluation of prevalence of items separating the first part of the questionnaire (childhood/adolescence and doubts in lifetime) from the other five domains: 21 % of the patients showed prevalence of items in childhood/adolescence domain; 79 % in doubts in lifetime domain; as for other five domains, 10.5 % of patients had prevalence of pathological answers among hypercontrol, 5.2 % in spending time, 23.7 % in perfectionism, 29 % in repetition and automation, and 31.5 % in specific themes (obsessive thoughts). The presence of subclinical OCD in migraine patients, and the link between progression to CM, particularly through MO, and OBS trait is still not well defined. The use of specific tools to assess this possible comorbidity should be encouraged in clinical and research settings. PMID:24867863

Curone, M; Tullo, V; Lovati, C; Proietti-Cecchini, A; D'Amico, D

2014-05-01

230

Try-A Global Database of Plant Traits  

SciTech Connect

Plant traits the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world s 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.

Thornton, Peter E [ORNL

2011-01-01

231

The key ingredients of personality traits: situations, behaviors, and explanations.  

PubMed

The trait and social cognitive perspectives are considered disparate approaches to understanding personality. We suggest an integrative view in which three elements derived from the social cognitive perspective (i.e., situations, behaviors, and explanations [SBEs]) form the basis of personality traits. Study 1 demonstrated strong associations between traits and SBEs across the Big Five dimensions. Studies 2 through 7 tested the discriminative validity, internal structure, and unique contributions of the individual components of SBEs. Studies 8 and 9 demonstrated that the strong associations between traits and SBEs generalize to different cultures. The present work suggests that SBEs may be a universal folk psychological mechanism underlying personality traits. PMID:24072753

Yang, Yu; Read, Stephen J; Denson, Thomas F; Xu, Yiyuan; Zhang, Jin; Pedersen, William C

2014-01-01

232

Inheritance of pod and seed traits in chickpea.  

PubMed

A 4 x 4 full-diallel cross was studied to estimate the gene effects and genetic parameters of pod and seed traits. According to Hayman's method, additive genetic variance was significant for pod length and seed length and width, also, both additive and dominance genetic variance were significant for pod thickness and width. As additive gene effects were significant for pod and seed traits, it is suggesting the selection of this traits early generations. Partial dominance was important for traits. The high narrow sense heritability of pod and seed traits was between 86 and 97%. PMID:21387919

Bicer, B Tuba; Sakar, Dogan

2010-09-01

233

Network-based Analysis of Genome Wide Association Data Provides Novel Candidate Genes for Lipid and Lipoprotein Traits*  

PubMed Central

Genome wide association studies (GWAS) identify susceptibility loci for complex traits, but do not identify particular genes of interest. Integration of functional and network information may help in overcoming this limitation and identifying new susceptibility loci. Using GWAS and comorbidity data, we present a network-based approach to predict candidate genes for lipid and lipoprotein traits. We apply a prediction pipeline incorporating interactome, co-expression, and comorbidity data to Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (GLGC) GWAS for four traits of interest, identifying phenotypically coherent modules. These modules provide insights regarding gene involvement in complex phenotypes with multiple susceptibility alleles and low effect sizes. To experimentally test our predictions, we selected four candidate genes and genotyped representative SNPs in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cardiovascular Cohort. We found significant associations with LDL-C and total-cholesterol levels for a synonymous SNP (rs234706) in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene (p = 1 × 10?5 and adjusted-p = 0.013, respectively). Further, liver samples taken from 206 patients revealed that patients with the minor allele of rs234706 had significant dysregulation of CBS (p = 0.04). Despite the known biological role of CBS in lipid metabolism, SNPs within the locus have not yet been identified in GWAS of lipoprotein traits. Thus, the GWAS-based Comorbidity Module (GCM) approach identifies candidate genes missed by GWAS studies, serving as a broadly applicable tool for the investigation of other complex disease phenotypes. PMID:23882023

Sharma, Amitabh; Gulbahce, Natali; Pevzner, Samuel J.; Menche, Jörg; Ladenvall, Claes; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Orho-Melander, Marju; Barabási, Albert-László

2013-01-01

234

Genetic structure of the LXS panel of recombinant inbred mouse strains: a powerful resource for complex trait analysis.  

PubMed

The set of LXS recombinant inbred (RI) strains is a new and exceptionally large mapping panel that is suitable for the analysis of complex traits with comparatively high power. This panel consists of 77 strains-more than twice the size of other RI sets--and will typically provide sufficient statistical power (beta = 0.8) to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that account for approximately 25% of genetic variance with a genomewide p < 0.05. To characterize the genetic architecture of this new set of RI strains, we genotyped 330 MIT microsatellite markers distributed on all autosomes and the X Chromosome and assembled error-checked meiotic recombination maps that have an average F2-adjusted marker spacing of approximately 4 cM. The LXS panel has a genetic structure consistent with random segregation and subsequent fixation of alleles, the expected 3-4 x map expansion, a low level of nonsyntenic association among loci, and complete independence among all 77 strains. Although the parental inbred strains-Inbred Long-Sleep (ILS) and Inbred Short-Sleep (ISS)--were derived originally by selection from an 8-way heterogeneous stock selected for differential sensitivity to sedative effects of ethanol, the LXS panel is also segregating for many other traits. Thus, the LXS panel provides a powerful new resource for mapping complex traits across many systems and disciplines and should prove to be of great utility in modeling the genetics of complex diseases in human populations. PMID:15457343

Williams, Robert W; Bennett, Beth; Lu, Lu; Gu, Jing; DeFries, John C; Carosone-Link, Phyllis J; Rikke, Brad A; Belknap, John K; Johnson, Thomas E

2004-08-01

235

Human Genetics and the Dominant Trait  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Innovation in Engineering and Science Education presents a series of activities dealing with human genetics and dominant traits. In this activity, students can make theories and then test those predictions concerning genetics and dominant inherited traits by using a very small sample - classroom peers - and then modeling their collected information on a worldwide project. By using a small sample, the worldwide survey and reading of information becomes real for the student, while providing the information of a larger sample to compare with the students' conclusions. The activity includes detailed instructions for the activity, course objectives, potential problem areas, and a guide to assessment of information collected. This website could be useful for teachers planning lessons or for students designing projects based on class work and class material.

Koen, Joshua

2007-10-31

236

Detecting epistasis in human complex traits.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have become the focus of the statistical analysis of complex traits in humans, successfully shedding light on several aspects of genetic architecture and biological aetiology. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are usually modelled as having additive, cumulative and independent effects on the phenotype. Although evidently a useful approach, it is often argued that this is not a realistic biological model and that epistasis (that is, the statistical interaction between SNPs) should be included. The purpose of this Review is to summarize recent directions in methodology for detecting epistasis and to discuss evidence of the role of epistasis in human complex trait variation. We also discuss the relevance of epistasis in the context of GWASs and potential hazards in the interpretation of statistical interaction terms. PMID:25200660

Wei, Wen-Hua; Hemani, Gibran; Haley, Chris S

2014-11-01

237

Temperamental traits associated with conversion disorder.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the temperamental traits associated with conversion disorder in children. Thirty children with conversion disorder attending a child guidance clinic were compared with an age and sex matched control group of normal children for life stresses and temperament dimensions. The temperament measurement schedule (TMS) and the life event scale for Indian children (LESIC) were used for evaluating the temperament dimensions and life stresses respectively. Children with conversion disorder experienced significantly more stressful life events compared to the children in the control group. The stress factors included scholastic difficulties, examination failures, punishment by teacher, conflict with peers, parental disharmony and family problems and sibling rivalry. The characteristic temperamental traits associated with conversion disorder were low emotionality and low threshold of responsiveness. PMID:17079833

Krishnakumar, P; Sumesh, P; Mathews, Lulu

2006-10-01

238

The neurobiology of psychopathic traits in youths.  

PubMed

Conduct disorder is a childhood behaviour disorder that is characterized by persistent aggressive or antisocial behaviour that disrupts the child's environment and impairs his or her functioning. A proportion of children with conduct disorder have psychopathic traits. Psychopathic traits consist of a callous-unemotional component and an impulsive-antisocial component, which are associated with two core impairments. The first is a reduced empathic response to the distress of other individuals, which primarily reflects reduced amygdala responsiveness to distress cues; the second is deficits in decision making and in reinforcement learning, which reflects dysfunction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatum. Genetic and prenatal factors contribute to the abnormal development of these neural systems, and social-environmental variables that affect motivation influence the probability that antisocial behaviour will be subsequently displayed. PMID:24105343

Blair, R James R

2013-11-01

239

Successful restrained eating and trait impulsiveness.  

PubMed

Restrained eaters with high scores on the Perceived Self-Regulatory Success in Dieting Scale (PSRS) are more successful than low scorers in regulating their food intake. According to the theory of temptation-elicited goal activation (Fishbach, Friedman, & Kruglanski, 2003), they have become successful because, due to earlier repeated instances of successful self-control, they formed an associative link between temptations and thoughts of dieting. It is unclear, however, why they should have been more successful in earlier attempts at self-control than their unsuccessful counterparts. We examined whether trait impulsiveness plays a role by investigating the associations between dietary restraint, trait impulsiveness, and PSRS. Results showed that the interaction between dietary restraint and impulsiveness predicted dieting success: A lower level of impulsiveness was associated with greater dieting success among restrained eaters. These results suggest that restrained eaters who are less impulsive are more likely to become successful restrained eaters as identified with the PSRS. PMID:23017465

van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Aarts, Henk

2013-01-01

240

Predicting Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay  

E-print Network

We give predictions for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in a simple variant of the A_4 family symmetry model. We show that there is a lower bound for the neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude even in the case of normal hierarchical neutrino masses, corresponding to an effective mass parameter |m_{ee}| >= 0.17 \\sqrt{\\Delta m^2_{ATM}}. This result holds both for the CP conserving and CP violating cases. In the latter case we show explicitly that the lower bound on |m_{ee}| is sensitive to the value of the Majorana phase. We conclude therefore that in our scheme, neutrinoless double beta decay may be accessible to the next generation of high sensitivity experiments.

M. Hirsch; Ernest Ma; J. W. F. Valle; A. Villanova del Moral

2005-07-12

241

Influencing agent group behavior by adjusting cultural trait values.  

PubMed

Social reasoning and norms among individuals that share cultural traits are largely fashioned by those traits. We have explored predominant sociological and cultural traits. We offer a methodology for parametrically adjusting relevant traits. This exploratory study heralds a capability to deliberately tune cultural group traits in order to produce a desired group behavior. To validate our methodology, we implemented a prototypical-agent-based simulated test bed for demonstrating an exemplar from intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance scenario. A group of simulated agents traverses a hostile territory while a user adjusts their cultural group trait settings. Group and individual utilities are dynamically observed against parametric values for the selected traits. Uncertainty avoidance index and individualism are the cultural traits we examined in depth. Upon the user's training of the correspondence between cultural values and system utilities, users deliberately produce the desired system utilities by issuing changes to trait. Specific cultural traits are without meaning outside of their context. Efficacy and timely application of traits in a given context do yield desirable results. This paper heralds a path for the control of large systems via parametric cultural adjustments. PMID:20064759

Tuli, Gaurav; Hexmoor, Henry

2010-10-01

242

Personality trait structure as a human universal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of covariation among personality traits in English-speaking populations can be summarized by the five-factor model (FFM). To assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the FFM, data from studies using 6 translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were compared with the American factor structure. German, Portuguese, He-brew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese samples

Robert R. McCrae

1997-01-01

243

Inheritance of acquired traits in plants  

PubMed Central

Since Lamarck proposed the idea of inheritance of acquired traits 200 years ago, much has been said for and against it, but the theory was finally declined after the 1930s. Despite of the negative opinions of the majority of geneticists, botanists and plant breeders have long recognized that altered properties during the growth were occasionally transmitted to the offspring. This was also the case with artificially altered properties such as dwarfism, flowering timing and plant stature, which were induced by a non-mutagenic chemical, 5-azacytidine and its derivatives. As these drugs are powerful inhibitors of DNA methylation in vivo, a close correlation between methylation and phenotypic expression was suggested. Subsequent studies showed that rice plants acquired disease resistance upon demethylation of the corresponding resistant gene, and that both resistant trait and hypomethylated status were inherited by the progeny up to nine generations. Whether or not the methylation pattern changes under natural condition was then questioned, and recent studies have indicated that it indeed naturally changes in response to environmental stresses. Whether or not the altered methylation pattern during the vegetative growth is heritable was also questioned, and studies on toadflax and rice affirmed the question, showing stable maintenance of hypermethylation in the former and hypomethylation in the latter for 250 and 10 years, respectively. The observation strongly suggested that acquired traits can be heritable as far as the acquired methylation pattern is stably transmitted. This concept is consistent with the Lamarck's theory of the inheritance of acquired traits, which therefore should be carefully reevaluated to reestablish his impaired reputation. PMID:20118668

2010-01-01

244

Personality Trait Structure as a Human Universal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of covariation among personality traits in English-speaking populations can be summarized by the five-factor model (FFM). To assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the FFM, data from studies using 6 translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were compared with the American factor structure. German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese samples

Robert R. McCrae; Paul T. Costa

1997-01-01

245

Molecular mapping of a gene conferring resistance to Aphanomyces root rot (black root) in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caused by Aphanomyces cochlioides Drechsler, Aphanomyces root rot is a serious disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), for which sources of resistance are scarce. To identify the segregation pattern of the rare resistance trait found in\\u000a Japanese sugar beet line ‘NK-310mm-O’, F1 and BC1F2 seedings, drawn from a cross between ‘NK-310mm-O’ and susceptible line ‘NK-184mm-O’, were inoculated with zoospores

Kazunori Taguchi; Kazuyuki Okazaki; Hiroyuki Takahashi; Tomohiko Kubo; Tetsuo Mikami

2010-01-01

246

Beta ray flux measuring device  

DOEpatents

A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

Impink, Jr., Albert J. (Murrysville, PA); Goldstein, Norman P. (Murrysville, PA)

1990-01-01

247

Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments  

E-print Network

The study of neutrinoless double beta decay is of outmost importance for neutrino physics. It is considered to be the gold plated channel to probe the fundamental character of neutrinos and to determine the neutrino mass. From the experimental point about nine different isotopes are explored for the search. After a general introduction follows a short discussion on nuclear matrix element calculations and supportive measurements. The current experimental status of double beta searches is presented followed by a short discussion of the ideas and proposals for large scale experiments.

K. Zuber

2006-10-04

248

TGF-betas and TGF-beta receptors in atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on diverse evidence in animals and humans, it has been hypothesized that atherosclerosis, and other injury-induced hyperplasias such as restenosis, may result from a failure in endogenous inhibitory systems that normally limit wound repair and induce regression of wound repair cells. A key defect in one of these inhibitory pathways, the TGF-beta system, has been identified and characterized in

T. A. McCaffrey

2000-01-01

249

Utilization of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for diagnosis of {beta}-thalassemia and ascertainment of new mutations  

SciTech Connect

During the past two years we have tested 2,300 Southeast Asians for alpha- and beta-thaleassemia mutations. We found the incidence of hemoglobin E ({beta}{sup 26}) to be 47% among Laotians and 38% among Cambodians. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait is 9% for Laotians and 6% for Cambodians. Thus, the risk for hemoglobin E/{beta}{sup 26} thalassemia, a transfusion-dependent disorder, is increased in these two population groups. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has proven to be useful in testing for beta-thalassemia carriers and identifying new mutations in the beta globin gene. DNA was extracted from venous blood obtained from patients with elevated Hgb A2 (>4%). Five DNA fragments, encompassing the beta globin gene cluster, were amplified by PCR and analyzed, along with known beta gene mutations as controls, by DGGE using different denaturing gradient concentrations. Different mutations at the same nucleotide position can be distinguished by migration pattern on the DGGE (e.g., in IVS-I-1, G{r_arrow}A and T). Compound heterozygotes for {beta}-thalassemia can be detected on the same gel (e.g., HbE/mutation codon 17). New mutations are identified by their migration pattern compared with controls and determined by subsequent sequencing. We have identified three new mutations: codon 82 CAA{r_arrow}AAA in one Cambodian patient; IVS-II-667, T{r_arrow}C and IVS-II-672, A{r_arrow}C in two Laotian patients. When the parent`s genotypes are known, prenatal diagnosis can be obtained within 24 hours. Thus, PCR/DGGE combination is a rapid and reliable diagnostic approach to clinically significant {beta}-thalassemia. The most important steps are carefully designed primers and predetermined gradient concentrations for DGGE.

Ngo, K.Y.; Liu, D.; Lee, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

250

Animal trait ontology: The importance and usefulness of a unified trait vocabulary for animal species  

PubMed Central

Ontologies help to identify and formally define the entities and relationships in specific domains of interest. Bio-ontologies, in particular, play a central role in the annotation, integration, analysis, and interpretation of biological data. Missing from the number of bio-ontologies is one that includes phenotypic trait information found in livestock species. As a result, the Animal Trait Ontology (ATO) project being carried out under the auspices of the USDA-National Animal Genome Research Program is aimed at the development of a standardized trait ontology for farm animals and software tools to assist the research community in collaborative creation, editing, maintenance, and use of such an ontology. The ATO is currently inclusive of cattle, pig, and chicken species, and will include other livestock species in the future. The ATO will eventually be linked to other species (e.g., human, rat, mouse) so that comparative analysis can be efficiently performed between species. PMID:18272850

Hughes, L. M.; Bao, J.; Hu, Z.-L.; Honavar, V.; Reecy, J. M.

2008-01-01

251

Beta decay of Ga-62  

E-print Network

We report a study of the beta decay of Ga-62, whose dominant branch is a superallowed 0(+)-->0(+) transition to the ground state of Zn-62. We find the total half-life to be 115.84+/-0.25 ms. This is the first time that the Ga-62 half-life has been...

Hyman, BC; Iacob, VE; Azhari, A.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Hardy, John C.; Mayes, VE; Neilson, RG; Sanchez-Vega, M.; Tang, X.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.

2003-01-01

252

Beta Diffusion Trees Creighton Heaukulani  

E-print Network

- clustered factor analysis model with the beta dif- fusion tree and how to perform inference over the random subsets of objects, known as a feature allocation. The generative process for the tree is defined in terms of particles (representing the objects) diffusing in some continuous space, analogously to the Dirichlet

Edinburgh, University of

253

Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay  

E-print Network

A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

L. Dorame; D. Meloni; S. Morisi; E. Peinado; J. W. F. Valle

2011-11-23

254

Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that act as ligands to stimulate receptor-mediated signal transduction pathways in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Activation of Wnt pathways can modulate cell proliferation, survival, cell behavior, and cell fate in both embryos and adults. The Wnt/&beta;-catenin pathway is the best understood Wnt signaling pathway, and its core components are highly conserved during evolution, although tissue-specific or species-specific modifiers of the pathway are likely. In the absence of a Wnt signal, cytoplasmic &beta;-catenin is phosphorylated and degraded in a complex of proteins. Wnt signaling through the Frizzled serpentine receptor and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 or -6 (LRP5 or 6) coreceptors activates the cytoplasmic phosphoprotein Dishevelled, which blocks the degradation of &beta;-catenin. As the amount of &beta;-catenin rises, it accumulates in the nucleus, where it interacts with specific transcription factors, leading to regulation of target genes. Inappropriate activation of the pathway in response to mutations is linked to a wide range of cancers, including colorectal cancer and melanoma. The pathway is linked to bone density syndromes and to neurodegenerative diseases, and the pathway may also be involved in the retinal disease familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

Randall T. Moon (University of Washington School of Medicine;HHMI and Center for Developmental Biology REV)

2005-02-15

255

Beta blockers in heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rationale for beta blockade in heart failure is now well established. Heart failure mortality, which is predicted by neurohormonal activation, remains high despite modern treatment, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, and additional neurohormonal blockade has further therapeutic potential. Previous clinical trial experience in heart failure, most of which has been in patients with idiopathic cardiomyopathy, indicates consistent improvement in

Norman Sharpe

1996-01-01

256

Association mapping for morphological and physiological traits in Populus simonii  

PubMed Central

Background To optimize marker-assisted selection programs, knowledge of the genetic architecture of phenotypic traits is very important for breeders. Generally, most phenotypes, e.g. morphological and physiological traits, are quantitatively inherited, and thus detection of the genes underlying variation for these traits is difficult. Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium has recently become a powerful approach to map genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) in plants. Results In this study, association analysis using 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was performed to detect the marker loci linked to 13 morphological traits and 10 physiological traits in a wild P. simonii population that consisted of 528 individuals sampled from 16 sites along the Yellow River in China. Based on a model controlling for both population structure (Q) and relative kinship (K), three SSR markers (GCPM_616-1 in 31.2 Mb on LG I, GCPM_4055-2 in 5.7 Mb on LG XV, and GCPM_3142 of unknown location) were identified for seven traits. GCPM_616-1 was associated with five morphological traits (R2 = 5.14-10.09%), whereas GCPM_3142 (15.03%) and GCPM_4055-2 (13.26%) were associated with one morphological trait and one physiological trait, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that this wild population is suitable for association mapping and the identified markers will be suitable for marker-assisted selection breeding or detection of target genes or QTL in the near future. PMID:25079290

2014-01-01

257

Nuclear matrix elements for double beta decay  

E-print Network

The present status of calculations of the nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay is reviewed. A proposal which allows in principle to measure the neutrinoless double beta decay Fermi matrix element is briefly described.

Vadim Rodin

2009-10-30

258

Neutron beta decay studies with Nab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precision measurements in neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allow for several stringent tests of the standard model. This paper discusses the design and the expected performance of the Nab spectrometer.

Baeßler, S.; Alarcon, R.; Alonzi, L. P.; Balascuta, S.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Bowman, J. D.; Bychkov, M. A.; Byrne, J.; Calarco, J. R.; Chupp, T.; Cianciolo, T. V.; Crawford, C.; Frlež, E.; Gericke, M. T.; Glück, F.; Greene, G. L.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Gudkov, V.; Harrison, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Ito, T.; Makela, M.; Martin, J.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGovern, S.; Page, S.; Penttilä, S. I.; Po?ani?, D.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Salas-Bacci, A.; Tompkins, Z.; Wagner, D.; Wilburn, W. S.; Young, A. R.

2013-10-01

259

Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought.  

PubMed

Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less "leaky" and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding. PMID:24204374

Comas, Louise H; Becker, Steven R; Cruz, Von Mark V; Byrne, Patrick F; Dierig, David A

2013-01-01

260

Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought  

PubMed Central

Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less “leaky” and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding. PMID:24204374

Comas, Louise H.; Becker, Steven R.; Cruz, Von Mark V.; Byrne, Patrick F.; Dierig, David A.

2013-01-01

261

Specific Nonopiate Receptors for beta Endorphin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodinated beta H-[2-D-alanine]endorphin exhibits specific binding to cultured human lymphocytes. The binding is inhibited by low concentrations of beta -endorphin and its D-alanine2 derivative, but is not affected by opiate agonists and antagonists, or by enkephalin analogs, beta -lipotropin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, or alpha -melanocyte-stimulating hormone; this suggests the existence of a specific, nonopiate binding site (receptor) for beta -endorphin. The

Eli Hazum; Kwen-Jen Chang; Pedro Cuatrecasas

1979-01-01

262

Molecular and genetic characterization of GABP beta  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report outlines three observations relating to GABP beta, a polypeptide constituent of the heterotetrameric transcription factor GABP. Evidence is presented showing that the mouse genome encodes two highly related GABP beta polypeptides, designated GABP beta 1-1 and GABP beta 2-1. Genomic and cDNA copies of the newly defined Gabpb2 gene were cloned and characterized, providing the conceptually translated amino

la Brousse de; E H Birkenmeier; D S King; L B Rowe; S L McKnight

1994-01-01

263

Neoclassical transport in high [beta] tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Neoclassical, transport in high [beta] large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high [beta] large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low [beta] values by a factor ([var epsilon]/q[sup 2][beta])[sup [1/2

Cowley, S.C.

1992-12-01

264

TGF-{beta} Flips the Myc Switch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although transforming growth factor-&beta; (TGF-&beta;) can affect cell cycle arrest, not much molecular detail is known about how TGF-&beta;-dependent arrest is mediated. Two recent papers shed some light on how this is accomplished. Orian and Eisenman discuss how Myc interacts with Miz-1 to block the expression of a cell cycle inhibitory protein, p15INK4b, and how TGF-&beta; is able to unblock Myc-dependent repression of Miz-1.

Amir Orian (University of Washington;Division of Basic Sciences at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center REV); Robert N. Eisenman (University of Washington;Division of Basic Sciences at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center REV)

2001-06-26

265

The Better-Than-Average Effect in Hong Kong and the United States: The Role of Personal Trait Importance and Cultural Trait Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

People tend to make self-aggrandizing social comparisons on traits that are important to the self. However, existing research on the better-than-average effect (BTAE) and trait importance does not distinguish between personal trait importance (participants’ ratings of the importance of certain traits to themselves) and cultural trait importance (participants’ perceptions of the importance of the traits to the cultural group to

Kim-Pong Tam; Angela K.-y. Leung; Young-Hoon Kim; Chi-Yue Chiu; Ivy Yee-Man Lau; Al K. C. Au

2012-01-01

266

Environmental behavior of beta titanium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stemming from their unique combination of elevated strength, low density, and good overall corrosion resistance, beta titanium alloys have become attractive candidate materials for critical, high-stress components in corrosive services. An overview of the comparative corrosion resistance of beta alloys to conventional alpha and alpha\\/beta titanium alloys in common industrial and aerospace service environments generally reveals attractive behavior depending on

Schutz

1994-01-01

267

Accuracy of multi-trait genomic selection using different methods  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic selection has become a very important tool in animal genetics and is rapidly emerging in plant genetics. It holds the promise to be particularly beneficial to select for traits that are difficult or expensive to measure, such as traits that are measured in one environment and selected for in another environment. The objective of this paper was to develop three models that would permit multi-trait genomic selection by combining scarcely recorded traits with genetically correlated indicator traits, and to compare their performance to single-trait models, using simulated datasets. Methods Three (SNP) Single Nucleotide Polymorphism based models were used. Model G and BC?0 assumed that contributed (co)variances of all SNP are equal. Model BSSVS sampled SNP effects from a distribution with large (or small) effects to model SNP that are (or not) associated with a quantitative trait locus. For reasons of comparison, model A including pedigree but not SNP information was fitted as well. Results In terms of accuracies for animals without phenotypes, the models generally ranked as follows: BSSVS > BC?0 > G > > A. Using multi-trait SNP-based models, the accuracy for juvenile animals without any phenotypes increased up to 0.10. For animals with phenotypes on an indicator trait only, accuracy increased up to 0.03 and 0.14, for genetic correlations with the evaluated trait of 0.25 and 0.75, respectively. Conclusions When the indicator trait had a genetic correlation lower than 0.5 with the trait of interest in our simulated data, the accuracy was higher if genotypes rather than phenotypes were obtained for the indicator trait. However, when genetic correlations were higher than 0.5, using an indicator trait led to higher accuracies for selection candidates. For different combinations of traits, the level of genetic correlation below which genotyping selection candidates is more effective than obtaining phenotypes for an indicator trait, needs to be derived considering at least the heritabilities and the numbers of animals recorded for the traits involved. PMID:21729282

2011-01-01

268

Interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) Processing Pathway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The innate immune system senses molecular patterns from invading microorganisms. Once activated, it orchestrates the inflammatory response by secreting proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1)–type cytokines, in particular IL-1&beta;. IL-1 mediates the expression of a vast array of genes involved in secondary inflammation. IL-1–responsive genes coordinate all aspects of local inflammation and also attract and activate cells of the adaptive immune system at sites of infection. Moreover, the innate immune system can also sense a wide range of nonmicrobial molecular patterns that represent danger or damage signals. These signals activate the NALP3-inflammasome pathway, which plays a central role in acute and chronic sterile inflammation. Here, we describe the essential components of the NALP3-inflammasome that control processing and release of IL-1&beta;.

Axel Weber (Justus-Liebig-University Giessen;Rudolf-Buchheim-Institute of Pharmacology REV); Peter Wasiliew (Justus-Liebig-University Giessen;Rudolf-Buchheim-Institute of Pharmacology REV); Michael Kracht (Justus-Liebig-University Giessen;Rudolf-Buchheim-Institute of Pharmacology REV)

2010-01-19

269

[Major domestication traits in Asian rice].  

PubMed

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding. PMID:23208135

Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

2012-11-01

270

First impressions: gait cues drive reliable trait judgements.  

PubMed

Personality trait attribution can underpin important social decisions and yet requires little effort; even a brief exposure to a photograph can generate lasting impressions. Body movement is a channel readily available to observers and allows judgements to be made when facial and body appearances are less visible; e.g., from great distances. Across three studies, we assessed the reliability of trait judgements of point-light walkers and identified motion-related visual cues driving observers' judgements. The findings confirm that observers make reliable, albeit inaccurate, trait judgements, and these were linked to a small number of motion components derived from a Principal Component Analysis of the motion data. Parametric manipulation of the motion components linearly affected trait ratings, providing strong evidence that the visual cues captured by these components drive observers' trait judgements. Subsequent analyses suggest that reliability of trait ratings was driven by impressions of emotion, attractiveness and masculinity. PMID:22717166

Thoresen, John C; Vuong, Quoc C; Atkinson, Anthony P

2012-09-01

271

A transforming growth factor. beta. (TGF-. beta. ) receptor from human placenta exhibits greater affinity for TGF-. beta. 2 than for TGF-. beta. 1  

SciTech Connect

Affinity-labeling techniques have been used to identify three types of high-affinity receptors for transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta}) on the surface of many cells in culture. Here the authors demonstrate that membrane preparations from tissue sources may also be used as an alternative system for studying the binding properties of TGF-{beta} receptors. Using a chemical cross-linking technique with {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}1 and {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}2 and bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS{sup 3}), they have identified and characterized two high-affinity binding components in membrane preparations derived from human term placenta. The larger species, which migrates as a diffuse band of molecular mass 250-350 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels, is characteristic of the TGF-{beta} receptor type III, a proteoglycan containing glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of chondroitin and heparan sulfate. The smaller species of molecular mass 140 kDa was identified as the core glycoprotein of this type III receptor by using the techniques of enzymatic deglycosylation and peptide mapping. Competition experiments, using {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}1 or {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}2 and varying amounts of competing unlabeled TGF-{beta}1 or TGF-{beta}2, revealed that both the placental type III proteoglycan and its core glycoprotein belong to a novel class of type III receptors that exhibit a greater affinity for TGF-{beta}2 than for TGF-{beta}1. This preferential binding of TGF-{beta}2 to placental type III receptors suggests differential roles for TGF-{beta}2 and TGF-{beta} 1 in placental function.

Mitchell, E.J.; O'Connor-McCourt, M.D. (Biotechnology Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1991-04-30

272

Status and the Gender Stereotyped Personality Traits: Toward an Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper integrates research findings on status and the gender stereotyped personality traits and examines the extent to\\u000a which women’s lower status than men can account for two components of gender stereotyping in the United States: the belief\\u000a that women and men have different personality traits and the differences in men’s and women’s perceptions of their own personality\\u000a traits. In

Gwendolyn L. Gerber

2009-01-01

273

Genetic architecture of novel traits in the hopi sunflower.  

PubMed

Following domestication, crop lineages typically undergo diversification either to adapt to disparate habitats or to fill novel agricultural roles. This process has produced the numerous varieties found in modern-day crop germplasm collections. Here, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying unique traits in the Hopi sunflower, a primitive, Native American domesticate. These traits included a variety of achene (i.e., single-seeded fruit) characters as well as the extremely late flowering time of the Hopi sunflower. Composite interval mapping identified 42 QTLs underlying the 12 traits of interest. Although these QTLs were found on 10 of the 17 sunflower linkage groups, strong genetic correlations were evidenced by the clustering of QTLs across traits in certain genomic regions. The number of QTLs per trait ranged from 2 to 6, and the average QTL explained 14.7% of the variance (range: 2.5-46.9%). The apparent contribution of epistasis was minor, as has previously been observed for domestication-related traits. Unlike typical domestication-related traits in sunflower, the traits under consideration here exhibited a relatively simple genetic basis, with 2 QTL clusters being largely responsible for the unique characteristics of the Hopi sunflower. Based on the rarity of these traits in domesticated sunflower, it would appear that they evolved within the Hopi lineage following domestication. The simple genetic architecture of these traits may be a by-product of genetic constraints imposed by the genetically complex nature of domestication-related traits in sunflower, with the large number of domestication-related QTLs limiting the fraction of the genome that is available for subsequent diversification. PMID:20696668

Wills, David M; Abdel-Haleem, Hussein; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

2010-01-01

274

Trait emotional intelligence influences on academic achievement and school behaviour.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) refers to individuals' emotion-related self-perceptions (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The children's trait EI sampling domain provides comprehensive coverage of their affective personality. Preliminary evidence shows that the construct has important implications for children's psychological and behavioural adjustment. AIMS. This study investigates the associations between trait EI and school outcomes, such as performance in reading, writing, and maths, peer-rated behaviour and social competence, and self-reported bullying behaviours in a sample of primary school children. It also examines whether trait EI scores differentiate between children with and without special educational needs (SEN). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 565 children (274 boys and 286 girls) between the ages of 7 and 12 (M((age)) = 9.12 years, SD= 1.27 years) attending three English state primary schools. METHOD. Pupils completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF), the Guess Who peer assessment, the Peer-Victimization Scale, and the Bullying Behaviour Scale. Additional data on achievement and SEN were collected from the school archives. RESULTS. As predicted by trait EI theory, associations between trait EI and academic achievement were modest and limited to Year 3 children. Higher trait EI scores were related to more nominations from peers for prosocial behaviours and fewer nominations for antisocial behaviour as well as lower scores on self-reported bulling behaviours. Furthermore, SEN students scored lower on trait EI compared to students without SEN. CONCLUSIONS. Trait EI holds important and multifaceted implications for the socialization of primary schoolchildren. PMID:21199490

Mavroveli, Stella; Sánchez-Ruiz, María José

2011-03-01

275

Bivariate and Multivariate Associations between Trait Listening Goals and Trait Communicator Preferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides validity evidence for a measure of listening goals by showing theoretically consistent relationships with an existing communication preference questionnaire. Participants (N = 257) were administered trait measures for listening goals and communicator preferences. The four listening goals--relational, task-oriented,…

Keaton, Shaughan A.; Keteyian, Robert V.; Bodie, Graham D.

2014-01-01

276

Running Header: Incorporating traits in aquatic biomonitoring Incorporating Traits in Aquatic Biomonitoring to Enhance  

E-print Network

a causal diagnosis. Traits-based information may have several advantages over taxonomic-based methods University, Fort Collins, USA #USEPA, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC, USA Environment composition among samples are then compared quantitatively using various multivariate and metric approaches

Armanini, David G

277

Quantitative trait loci for resistance to Heligmosomoides bakeri and associated immunological and pathological traits in  

E-print Network

Quantitative trait loci for resistance to Heligmosomoides bakeri and associated immunological to Heligmosomoides bakeri. Five QTL affecting average faecal egg counts and/or worm burdens in week 6 were detected (Hbnr15). Our data emphasize that the control of resistance to H. bakeri is multigenic, and regulated

Steve Kemp

278

Quantitative trait loci associated with seed and seedling traits in Lactuca.  

PubMed

Seed and seedling traits related to germination and stand establishment are important in the production of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Six seed and seedling traits segregating in a L. sativa cv. Salinas x L. serriola recombinant inbred line population consisting of 103 F8 families revealed a total of 17 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) resulting from three seed production environments. Significant QTL were identified for germination in darkness, germination at 25 and 35 degrees C, median maximum temperature of germination, hypocotyl length at 72 h post-imbibition, and plant (seedling) quality. Some QTL for germination and early seedling growth characteristics were co-located, suggestive of pleiotropic loci regulating these traits. A single QTL (Htg6.1) described 25 and 23% of the total phenotypic variation for high temperature germination in California- and Netherlands-grown populations, respectively, and was significant between 33 and 37 degrees C. Additionally, Htg6.1 showed significant epistatic interactions with other Htg QTL and a consistent effect across all the three seed production environments. L. serriola alleles increased germination at these QTL. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability (h2) of Htg6.1 was 0.84, indicating potential for L. serriola as a source of germination thermotolerance for lettuce introgression programs. PMID:16177902

Argyris, Jason; Truco, María José; Ochoa, Oswaldo; Knapp, Steven J; Still, David W; Lenssen, Ger M; Schut, Johan W; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

2005-11-01

279

On the fate of sexual traits under asexuality.  

PubMed

Environmental shifts and life-history changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. In the absence of pleiotropy and other constraints, such traits may decay as a consequence of neutral mutation accumulation or selective processes, highlighting the importance of natural selection for adaptations. A suite of traits are expected to lose their adaptive function in asexual organisms derived from sexual ancestors, and the many independent transitions to asexuality allow for comparative studies of parallel trait maintenance versus decay. In addition, because certain traits, notably male-specific traits, are usually not exposed to selection under asexuality, their decay would have to occur as a consequence of drift. Selective processes could drive the decay of traits associated with costs, which may be the case for the majority of sexual traits expressed in females. We review the fate of male and female sexual traits in 93 animal lineages characterized by asexual reproduction, covering a broad taxon range including molluscs, arachnids, diplopods, crustaceans and eleven different hexapod orders. Many asexual lineages are still able occasionally to produce males. These asexually produced males are often largely or even fully functional, revealing that major developmental pathways can remain quiescent and functional over extended time periods. By contrast, for asexual females, there is a parallel and rapid decay of sexual traits, especially of traits related to mate attraction and location, as expected given the considerable costs often associated with the expression of these traits. The level of decay of female sexual traits, in addition to asexual females being unable to fertilize their eggs, would severely impede reversals to sexual reproduction, even in recently derived asexual lineages. More generally, the parallel maintenance versus decay of different trait types across diverse asexual lineages suggests that neutral traits display little or no decay even after extended periods under relaxed selection, while extensive decay for selected traits occurs extremely quickly. These patterns also highlight that adaptations can fix rapidly in natural populations of asexual organisms, in spite of their mode of reproduction. PMID:24443922

van der Kooi, Casper J; Schwander, Tanja

2014-11-01

280

The evolution of genetic architectures underlying quantitative traits  

PubMed Central

In the classic view introduced by R. A. Fisher, a quantitative trait is encoded by many loci with small, additive effects. Recent advances in quantitative trait loci mapping have begun to elucidate the genetic architectures underlying vast numbers of phenotypes across diverse taxa, producing observations that sometimes contrast with Fisher's blueprint. Despite these considerable empirical efforts to map the genetic determinants of traits, it remains poorly understood how the genetic architecture of a trait should evolve, or how it depends on the selection pressures on the trait. Here, we develop a simple, population-genetic model for the evolution of genetic architectures. Our model predicts that traits under moderate selection should be encoded by many loci with highly variable effects, whereas traits under either weak or strong selection should be encoded by relatively few loci. We compare these theoretical predictions with qualitative trends in the genetics of human traits, and with systematic data on the genetics of gene expression levels in yeast. Our analysis provides an evolutionary explanation for broad empirical patterns in the genetic basis for traits, and it introduces a single framework that unifies the diversity of observed genetic architectures, ranging from Mendelian to Fisherian. PMID:23986107

Rajon, Etienne; Plotkin, Joshua B.

2013-01-01

281

Epistasis dominates the genetic architecture of Drosophila quantitative traits.  

PubMed

Epistasis-nonlinear genetic interactions between polymorphic loci-is the genetic basis of canalization and speciation, and epistatic interactions can be used to infer genetic networks affecting quantitative traits. However, the role that epistasis plays in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial. Here, we compared the genetic architecture of three Drosophila life history traits in the sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and a large outbred, advanced intercross population derived from 40 DGRP lines (Flyland). We assessed allele frequency changes between pools of individuals at the extremes of the distribution for each trait in the Flyland population by deep DNA sequencing. The genetic architecture of all traits was highly polygenic in both analyses. Surprisingly, none of the SNPs associated with the traits in Flyland replicated in the DGRP and vice versa. However, the majority of these SNPs participated in at least one epistatic interaction in the DGRP. Despite apparent additive effects at largely distinct loci in the two populations, the epistatic interactions perturbed common, biologically plausible, and highly connected genetic networks. Our analysis underscores the importance of epistasis as a principal factor that determines variation for quantitative traits and provides a means to uncover genetic networks affecting these traits. Knowledge of epistatic networks will contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis of evolutionarily and clinically important traits and enhance predictive ability at an individualized level in medicine and agriculture. PMID:22949659

Huang, Wen; Richards, Stephen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Zhu, Dianhui; Anholt, Robert R H; Ayroles, Julien F; Duncan, Laura; Jordan, Katherine W; Lawrence, Faye; Magwire, Michael M; Warner, Crystal B; Blankenburg, Kerstin; Han, Yi; Javaid, Mehwish; Jayaseelan, Joy; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna; Ongeri, Fiona; Perales, Lora; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Yiqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Stone, Eric A; Gibbs, Richard A; Mackay, Trudy F C

2012-09-25

282

Epistasis dominates the genetic architecture of Drosophila quantitative traits  

PubMed Central

Epistasis—nonlinear genetic interactions between polymorphic loci—is the genetic basis of canalization and speciation, and epistatic interactions can be used to infer genetic networks affecting quantitative traits. However, the role that epistasis plays in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial. Here, we compared the genetic architecture of three Drosophila life history traits in the sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and a large outbred, advanced intercross population derived from 40 DGRP lines (Flyland). We assessed allele frequency changes between pools of individuals at the extremes of the distribution for each trait in the Flyland population by deep DNA sequencing. The genetic architecture of all traits was highly polygenic in both analyses. Surprisingly, none of the SNPs associated with the traits in Flyland replicated in the DGRP and vice versa. However, the majority of these SNPs participated in at least one epistatic interaction in the DGRP. Despite apparent additive effects at largely distinct loci in the two populations, the epistatic interactions perturbed common, biologically plausible, and highly connected genetic networks. Our analysis underscores the importance of epistasis as a principal factor that determines variation for quantitative traits and provides a means to uncover genetic networks affecting these traits. Knowledge of epistatic networks will contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis of evolutionarily and clinically important traits and enhance predictive ability at an individualized level in medicine and agriculture. PMID:22949659

Huang, Wen; Richards, Stephen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Zhu, Dianhui; Anholt, Robert R. H.; Ayroles, Julien F.; Duncan, Laura; Jordan, Katherine W.; Lawrence, Faye; Magwire, Michael M.; Warner, Crystal B.; Blankenburg, Kerstin; Han, Yi; Javaid, Mehwish; Jayaseelan, Joy; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna; Ongeri, Fiona; Perales, Lora; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Yiqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Stone, Eric A.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

2012-01-01

283

Control of beta globin genes.  

PubMed

The developmental changes in expression of the beta like genes from embryonic to adult stages of human life are controlled at least partially at the level of the promoter sequences of these genes and their binding factors, and competition for promoter specific interactions with the locus control region (LCR). In recent years, the control of beta globin genes has also been investigated at the level of chromatin structure involving the chemical modification of histones and their remodelling by DNA dependent ATPases (SMARCA) containing protein complexes. The role of intergenic RNA is also being investigated with renewed interest. Although a wealth of information on the structure/function relationship of the LCR and globin promoters has been gathered over more than two decades, the fundamental nature of the control of these genes at the molecular level is still not completely understood. In the following pages, we intend to briefly describe the progress made in the field and discuss future directions. PMID:17910027

Mahajan, Milind C; Karmakar, Subhradip; Weissman, Sherman M

2007-11-01

284

Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments  

E-print Network

Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been performed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taking data and will provide new limits, should no signal be observed, in the next few years to come. The present contribution reviews the latest public results on double beta decay searches and gives an overview on the expected sensitivities of the experiments in construction which will be able to set stronger limits in the near future.

Alberto Garfagnini

2014-08-11

285

Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments  

E-print Network

Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been performed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taking data and will provide new limits, should no signal be observed, in the next few years to come. The present contribution reviews the latest public results on double beta decay searches and gives an overview on the expected sensitivities of the experiments in construction which will be able to set stronger limits in the near future.

Garfagnini, Alberto

2014-01-01

286

Beta Beams for Neutrino Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives an overview of the work done so far to produce sufficient neutrino fluxes for neutrino oscillation physics using beta beams. The design study on a beta beam scenario, the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility) Design Study, a project funded by the European Commission (EC), is now ready to be published. The study is based on the acceleration of 6He and 18Ne ions to produce the (anti-)neutrino beam using the existing CERN infrastructure for acceleration of the ions. We will here briefly describe the work with emphasis on how potential showstoppers, in particular radiation safety and equipment damage, have been dealt with. New results for the production of 6He show very encouraging results. We are now confident that this ion is a good choice to produce antineutrinos. However, the ion production needed for the physics experiments could not, up to now, be reasonably satisfied for 18Ne. Therefore, studies of alternative beta emitters, 8Li and 8B, with properties interesting for physics reach, have been proposed. The production of these ions is studied within the EC funded EUROnu project, "A High Intensity Neutrino Oscillation Facility for Europe." This project will end in 2012. A small storage ring, in which the beam traverses a target, creating the 8Li and 8B isotopes that will be collected and accelerated, is studied in this proposal. We present the latest developments for the production of these ions, including a production ring lattice. Extensive Geant4 simulations have been done with the aim of developing a model of the production target that can be used for simulations of the necessary cooling system. In this paper we present the status of the work performed and an overview of ongoing and planned activities to make the beta beam project a solid proposal for neutrino production within the EUROnu project.

Wildner, Elena

2010-03-01

287

Catalog of Galactic Beta Cephei Stars  

E-print Network

We present an extensive and up-to-date catalog of Galactic Beta Cephei stars. This catalog is intended to give a comprehensive overview of observational characteristics of all known Beta Cephei stars. 93 stars could be confirmed to be Beta Cephei stars. For some stars we re-analyzed published data or conducted our own analyses. 61 stars were rejected from the final Beta Cephei list, and 77 stars are suspected to be Beta Cephei stars. A list of critically selected pulsation frequencies for confirmed Beta Cephei stars is also presented. We analyze the Beta Cephei stars as a group, such as the distributions of their spectral types, projected rotational velocities, radial velocities, pulsation periods, and Galactic coordinates. We confirm that the majority of these stars are multiperiodic pulsators. We show that, besides two exceptions, the Beta Cephei stars with high pulsation amplitudes are slow rotators. We construct a theoretical HR diagram that suggests that almost all 93 Beta Cephei stars are MS objects. We discuss the observational boundaries of Beta Cephei pulsation and their physical parameters. We corroborate that the excited pulsation modes are near to the radial fundamental mode in frequency and we show that the mass distribution of the stars peaks at 12 solar masses. We point out that the theoretical instability strip of the Beta Cephei stars is filled neither at the cool nor at the hot end and attempt to explain this observation.

Anamarija Stankov; Gerald Handler

2005-06-21

288

Relationships between phyllosphere bacterial communities and plant functional traits in a neotropical forest  

PubMed Central

The phyllosphere—the aerial surfaces of plants, including leaves—is a ubiquitous global habitat that harbors diverse bacterial communities. Phyllosphere bacterial communities have the potential to influence plant biogeography and ecosystem function through their influence on the fitness and function of their hosts, but the host attributes that drive community assembly in the phyllosphere are poorly understood. In this study we used high-throughput sequencing to quantify bacterial community structure on the leaves of 57 tree species in a neotropical forest in Panama. We tested for relationships between bacterial communities on tree leaves and the functional traits, taxonomy, and phylogeny of their plant hosts. Bacterial communities on tropical tree leaves were diverse; leaves from individual trees were host to more than 400 bacterial taxa. Bacterial communities in the phyllosphere were dominated by a core microbiome of taxa including Actinobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. Host attributes including plant taxonomic identity, phylogeny, growth and mortality rates, wood density, leaf mass per area, and leaf nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations were correlated with bacterial community structure on leaves. The relative abundances of several bacterial taxa were correlated with suites of host plant traits related to major axes of plant trait variation, including the leaf economics spectrum and the wood density–growth/mortality tradeoff. These correlations between phyllosphere bacterial diversity and host growth, mortality, and function suggest that incorporating information on plant–microbe associations will improve our ability to understand plant functional biogeography and the drivers of variation in plant and ecosystem function. PMID:25225376

Kembel, Steven W.; O'Connor, Timothy K.; Arnold, Holly K.; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Wright, S. Joseph; Green, Jessica L.

2014-01-01

289

Relationships between phyllosphere bacterial communities and plant functional traits in a neotropical forest.  

PubMed

The phyllosphere--the aerial surfaces of plants, including leaves--is a ubiquitous global habitat that harbors diverse bacterial communities. Phyllosphere bacterial communities have the potential to influence plant biogeography and ecosystem function through their influence on the fitness and function of their hosts, but the host attributes that drive community assembly in the phyllosphere are poorly understood. In this study we used high-throughput sequencing to quantify bacterial community structure on the leaves of 57 tree species in a neotropical forest in Panama. We tested for relationships between bacterial communities on tree leaves and the functional traits, taxonomy, and phylogeny of their plant hosts. Bacterial communities on tropical tree leaves were diverse; leaves from individual trees were host to more than 400 bacterial taxa. Bacterial communities in the phyllosphere were dominated by a core microbiome of taxa including Actinobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. Host attributes including plant taxonomic identity, phylogeny, growth and mortality rates, wood density, leaf mass per area, and leaf nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations were correlated with bacterial community structure on leaves. The relative abundances of several bacterial taxa were correlated with suites of host plant traits related to major axes of plant trait variation, including the leaf economics spectrum and the wood density-growth/mortality tradeoff. These correlations between phyllosphere bacterial diversity and host growth, mortality, and function suggest that incorporating information on plant-microbe associations will improve our ability to understand plant functional biogeography and the drivers of variation in plant and ecosystem function. PMID:25225376

Kembel, Steven W; O'Connor, Timothy K; Arnold, Holly K; Hubbell, Stephen P; Wright, S Joseph; Green, Jessica L

2014-09-23

290

A new type of transforming growth factor-beta, TGF-beta 3.  

PubMed Central

A new type of TGF-beta, TGF-beta 3, has been identified by cDNA characterization. The amino acid sequence of mature TGF-beta 3 and its precursor has been derived from porcine and human cDNA sequences. The human TGF-beta 3 gene is spread over seven exons as in the case of the TGF-beta 1 gene. Comparison with TGF-beta 1 and -beta 2 indicates a strong conservation of the mature sequences, but a relaxed homology in the precursor segments. TGF-beta 3 mRNA is mainly expressed in cell lines from mesenchymal origin, suggesting a biological role different from the other TGFs-beta. Images PMID:3208746

Derynck, R; Lindquist, P B; Lee, A; Wen, D; Tamm, J; Graycar, J L; Rhee, L; Mason, A J; Miller, D A; Coffey, R J

1988-01-01

291

TGF-{beta} modulates {beta}-Catenin stability and signaling in mesenchymal proliferations  

SciTech Connect

Here for the first time we showed, despite the oncogenic mutations in {beta}-Catenin, that TGF-{beta} is a modulator of {beta}-Catenin levels in tumoral fibroblasts as well as non-tumoral fibroblasts. The results show that the TGF-{beta} pathway is active in desmoids cells and in in situ tumors. A dose dependent increase in {beta}-Catenin protein levels was observed after TGF-{beta} treatment in combination with an increased repression of GSK-3{beta} both in normal and tumoral fibroblasts. TGF-{beta} stimulation also led to an altered - up to 5 fold - transcriptional activity of {beta}-Catenin responsive promoters, such as IGFBP6 as well as increase of TOPflash activity. TGF-{beta} stimulation increased cell proliferation and BrdU incorporation 2.5 times. Taken together, we propose that TGF-{beta} is a modulator of {beta}-Catenin levels in tumoral fibroblasts and non-tumoral fibroblasts, despite the oncogenic mutations already present in this gene in tumoral fibroblasts of desmoid tumors. This modulation of {beta}-Catenin levels by TGF-{beta} may be involved in determining the tumoral phenotype of the cells.

Amini Nik, Saeid [Department of Human Genetics, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Ebrahim, Rasoul Pour [Department of Human Genetics, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Dam, Kim van [Department of Human Genetics, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Cassiman, Jean-Jacques [Department of Human Genetics, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Tejpar, Sabine [Department of Human Genetics, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium) and Department of Gastro-Enterology, University Hospital Leuven, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium)]. E-mail: sabine.tejpar@med.kuleuven.be

2007-08-01

292

Androgen receptor-beta mRNA levels in different tissues in breeding and post-breeding male and female sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus  

PubMed Central

Background Androgens induce male characters by activating androgen receptors (AR). Previous quantitative studies on AR in fishes have been limited to few tissues and/or a single season/reproductive state. The aim of this investigation was to study the possible role of AR-beta expression levels in the control of male traits in the three-spined stickleback. To that end, AR-beta expression levels in major tissues in breeding and post-breeding male and female sticklebacks were examined. Methods AR-beta mRNA levels were quantified in ten tissues; eye, liver, axial muscle, heart, brain, intestine, ovary, testis, kidney and pectoral muscle in six breeding and post-breeding males and females using reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Results Breeding in contrast to post-breeding males built nests and showed secondary sexual characters (e.g. kidney hypertrophy) and elevated androgen levels. Post-breeding females had lower ovarian weights and testosterone levels than breeding females. AR-beta was expressed in all studied tissues in both sexes and reproductive states with the highest expression in the gonads and in the kidneys. The kidney is an androgen target organ in sticklebacks, from which breeding males produce the protein spiggin, which is used in nest-building. There was also high AR-beta expression in the intestine, an organ that appears to take over hyperosmo-regulation in fresh water when the kidney hypertrophies in mature males and largely loses this function. The only tissue that showed effects of sex or reproductive state on AR-beta mRNA levels was the kidneys, where post-breeding males displayed higher AR-beta mRNA levels than breeding males. Conclusion The results indicate that changes in AR-beta mRNA levels play no or little role in changes in androgen dependent traits in the male stickleback. PMID:22455382

2012-01-01

293

A method for isolating beta-casein.  

PubMed

A new method was developed for obtaining pure beta-CN. Calcium caseinate (3%) was reconstituted, renneted to form a gel, cooled (4 degrees C) to allow beta-CN dissociation from the caseinate gel, and centrifuged. The supernatant was warmed to 30 degrees C, precipitating pure beta-CN from solution. Large quantities of beta-CN were recovered by scaling-up this procedure, but these beta-CN preparations were less pure than the beta-CN that was prepared on a smaller scale. Chromatography (FPLC) and urea-PAGE showed beta-CN to be the main component in the precipitate. Chymosin, used to form the caseinate gel, did not extensively hydrolyze beta-CN under the conditions of these experiments. Calcium concentration, cooling time, and caseinate concentration influenced the recovery of beta-CN. Maximum recovery of beta-CN, under the experimental conditions used, occurred at 10 mM calcium, 48 h of cooling, and 3% caseinate concentration. PMID:8880456

Ward, L S; Bastian, E D

1996-08-01

294

Aggressive behaviour in schizophrenia: role of state versus trait factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article was to elucidate the relative importance of state vs. trait factors in determining aggressive behaviour in schizophrenia. Thirty-one aggressive schizophrenia patients in rehabilitation wards were compared with 31 matched non-aggressive patients with respect to their psychopathology, phenomenologies of hallucinations and delusions, neuroleptic motor side effects, history of aggression and personality traits. Significant differences between the

Peter Cheung; Isaac Schweitzer; Kathleen Crowley; Virginia Tuckwell

1997-01-01

295

Psychopathic Traits, Victim Distress and Aggression in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression. As children high in psychopathic traits show a…

van Baardewijk, Yoast; Stegge, Hedy; Bushman, Brad J.; Vermeiren, Robert

2009-01-01

296

Effects of Role Dominance on Trait and Situation Attributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of role dominance (the proportion of encounters in which an actor is seen in a single role) on the fundamental attribution error were investigated. American college students made trait or situation attributions for self and four others in two studies. As hypothesized, Study 1 (N = 75) produced more trait attributions in a single-role than either a no-role or

Kenneth W. Kerber; Royce Singleton Jr

1984-01-01

297

A translog demand model for inherited traits in aquacultured catfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulation of physical traits of catfish body form has the potential to change the relative quantities of different final product forms. Some of these forms will have higher value to consumers, resulting in higher profits for producers. Advances in genetic research will allow more effective manipulation of physical traits of aquacultured catfish in orderto increase relative quantities of desirable product

Terrill Hanson; Diane Hite; Brian BosWorth

2001-01-01

298

A framework for modeling inheritance of social traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Page 1. [Page 1] A Framework for Modeling Inheritance of Social Traits † S. Lubkin ?1 , S.-F. Hsu Schmitz 2 and C. Castillo-Chavez 3 Abstract. Transmission ... It Page 3. A framework for modeling inheritance of social traits 3 was ...

S. Lubkin; S. F. H. Schmitz; C. Castillo-Chavez

1992-01-01

299

Assessing Students' Writing: A Six Traits Approach. Spotlight: Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes features of the Six Traits approach to assessing student writing in a Montessori elementary classroom: ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, and conventions. Includes sample assessments for informational and creative writing. Maintains that use of the Six Traits assessment in conjunction with student reflection…

Dunn, Sharon Elise

2000-01-01

300

Inheritance of several important agronomic traits in almond  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Four tree traits (flowering time, flowering density, productivity and ripening time) and 5 fruit traits (kernel weight, shell hardness, kernel percentage, double kernels and kernel bitterness) were studied in an almond (P. dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) progeny of 165 seedlings, for 3 years. This progeny comes from a cross between the French selection 'R1000' ('Tardy Nonpareil' x 'Tuono')

F. Dicenta; E. Ortega; R. Sánchez-Pérez; H. Duval; P. Martínez-Gómez

301

Recognizing Faces Based on Inferred Traits in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent findings indicate that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) could, surprisingly, infer traits from behavioural descriptions. Now we need to know whether or not individuals with ASD are able to use trait information to identify people by their faces. In this study participants with and without ASD were presented with pairs of…

Ramachandran, Rajani; Mitchell, Peter; Ropar, Danielle

2010-01-01

302

Trait Confirmation and Disconfirmation: The Development of Attribution Biases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used the confirmability model a method for assessing individuals' perceptions of other persons, to study developmental differences in the amount of information children and adults require to infer various traits. Found differences in the amount of information required to infer different traits and evidence of subjects' negativity and egocentric…

Aloise, Patricia A.

1993-01-01

303

Trait and State Anxiety in Israeli Student Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined trait anxiety in three groups of Israeli physical education students (N-251) competitors in individual sports, in team sports, and noncompetitors. The measure was the Spielberger, Gorsuch, and Lushene Trait Anxiety Scale (1970). Additionally, two groups of competitive athletes were compared on State Anxiety as measured by the Spielberger…

Tenenbaum, Gershon; Milgram, Roberta M.

1978-01-01

304

Effects of Marathon Group Therapy on Trait and State Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results were interpreted as supporting Spielberger's notion that trait anxiety reflects a dispositional tendency to respond with anxiety in ego-threat situations and as suggesting that personality trait measures may be more relevant outcome indicators than measures of transitory mood states in marathon therapy research. (Author)

Kilmann, Peter R.; Auerbach, Stephen M.

1974-01-01

305

Bayesian Statistics and Its Application to Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping  

E-print Network

mapping of multiple quantitative trait loci from incomplete inbred lineMapping quantitative trait loci with dominant and missing markers in various crosses from two inbred lines.mapping population contained 243 F 2 individuals derived from the cross of two inbred lines.

Che, Xiaohong

2011-01-01

306

The Relations of Motivational Traits with Workplace Deviance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors developed and tested new theoretical relations between approach and avoidance motivational traits and deviant work behaviors. Approach motivation was divided into 3 traits: personal mastery (i.e., desire to achieve), competitive excellence (i.e., desire to perform better than others), and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity…

Diefendorff, James M.; Mehta, Kajal

2007-01-01

307

Environmental heterogeneity and spatiotemporal variability in plant defense traits  

E-print Network

452 Environmental heterogeneity and spatiotemporal variability in plant defense traits Alyssa S of plant defenses. If environmental heterogeneity is an important mechanism influ- encing plant defense in our system. This study highlights the context dependence of plant defense trait levels, which may

Cronin, James T.

308

Reduced Eye Gaze Explains "Fear Blindness" in Childhood Psychopathic Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to test whether psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eye region of other people's faces is conducted. It is seen that attention to other people's eyes is reduced in young people with high psychopathic traits, which accounts for their problems with fear recognition.

Dadds, Mark R.; El Masry, Yasmeen; Wimalaweera, Subodha; Guastella, Adam J.

2008-01-01

309

Distinct evolutionary patterns of morphometric sperm traits in passerine birds  

PubMed Central

The striking diversity of sperm shape across the animal kingdom is still poorly understood. Postcopulatory sexual selection is an important factor driving the evolution of sperm size and shape. Interestingly, morphometric sperm traits, such as the length of the head, midpiece and flagellum, exhibit a strong positive phenotypic correlation across species. Here we used recently developed comparative methods to investigate how such phenotypic correlations between morphometric sperm traits may evolve. We compare allometric relationships and evolutionary trajectories of three morphometric sperm traits (length of head, midpiece and flagellum) in passerine birds. We show that these traits exhibit strong phenotypic correlations but that allometry varies across families. In addition, the evolutionary trajectories of the midpiece and flagellum are similar while the trajectory for head length differs. We discuss our findings in the light of three scenarios accounting for correlated trait evolution: (i) genetic correlation; (ii) concerted response to selection acting simultaneously on different traits; and (iii) phenotypic correlation between traits driven by mechanistic constraints owing to selection on sperm performance. Our results suggest that concerted response to selection is the most likely explanation for the phenotypic correlation between morphometric sperm traits. PMID:22896646

Immler, Simone; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Birkhead, Tim R.

2012-01-01

310

Quantitative Trait Loci for Locomotor Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locomotion is an integral component of most animal behaviors and many human diseases and disorders are associated with locomotor deficits, but little is known about the genetic basis of natural variation in locomotor behavior. Locomotion is a complex trait, with variation attributable to the joint segregation of multiple interacting quantitative trait loci (QTL), with effects that are sensitive to the

Katherine W. Jordan; Theodore J. Morgan; Trudy F. C. Mackay

2006-01-01

311

A Simplified Estimation of Latent State--Trait Parameters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latent state-trait (LST) theory is an extension of the classical test theory that allows one to decompose a test score into a true trait, a true state residual, and an error component. For practical applications, the variances of these latent variables may be estimated with standard methods of structural equation modeling (SEM). These…

Hagemann, Dirk; Meyerhoff, David

2008-01-01

312

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Bayesian latent trait modeling of migraine symptom data  

E-print Network

preferred. After transformation, phenotypic trait values derived from both models are highly correlatedORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Bayesian latent trait modeling of migraine symptom data Carla Chia Ming Chen using latent class analysis (LCA) and found that a four-class model was preferred. However, the classes

Nyholt, Dale R.

313

Trait Empathy and Criminal Versatility in Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between trait empathy and criminal versatility were examined in a sample of 88 incarcerated adult sexual offenders (29 extrafamilial child molesters, 26 intrafamilial child molesters, and 33 rapists). Considerable criminal versatility was observed, with 60% of the whole sample and 88% of recidivist offenders having previous convictions for nonsexual offenses. Regression analyses showed significant associations between trait empathy and

Stephen W. Smallbone; Julia Wheaton; Donna Hourigan

2003-01-01

314

MAPTRAITS'14 --Mapping Personality Traits Challenge and Workshop 2014  

E-print Network

-research.net - Association for the Ad... http://emotion-research.net/sigs/speech-sig/maptraits 2 of 3 17/06/2014 14:57 #12MAPTRAITS'14 -- Mapping Personality Traits Challenge and Workshop 2014 Organised in conjunction with ACM ICMI'14 , 12 Nov. 2014, Istanbul/Turkey The Mapping Personality Traits Challenge & Workshop

Gunes, Hatice

315

Blending Writing Traits and Brush Strokes for Successful Writers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to see if teaching the trait-based writing program in conjunction with image grammar would improve students' overall writing abilities and specifically word choice and revision skills. I taught the six writing traits including how to assess pieces of writing. I used mini focus lessons to teach ideas for improving word choice and learning revision

Vivian Dodson

316

An Examination of Personality Traits of Motorsports Management Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the motorsports industry, there is a strong desire to recruit individuals that have realistic expectations of the profession as well as exhibit the personality traits needed to be successful in the industry over time. The study sought to examine and compare personality traits of motorsports management students to those of practitioners…

Young, Joyce A.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Harder, Joseph T.; Peters, Randell

2013-01-01

317

Original article Wood density traits in Norway spruce understorey  

E-print Network

Original article Wood density traits in Norway spruce understorey: effects of growth rate and birch trees ha-1) on wood density traits in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) understorey were evaluated 84 % of the variation in wood density. (© Inra /Elsevier, Paris.) Norway spruce understorey

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

318

Trait anxiety and impoverished prefrontal control of attention  

E-print Network

Trait anxiety and impoverished prefrontal control of attention Sonia J Bishop1­3 Many neurocognitive models of anxiety emphasize the importance of a hyper-responsive threat-detection system centered to threat. Here we investigated whether trait anxiety is associated with a much broader dysregulation

Bishop, Sonia

319

Quantitative Trait Loci in Brassica rapa Brian S. Yandell  

E-print Network

Quantitative Trait Loci in Brassica rapa Brian S. Yandell Departments of Horticulture for a quantitative trait are examined for days to budding as measured on F2 plants from a Brassica rapa cross. The present study concerns the cross of two va- rieties of Brassica rapa, a Michihili Chinese cabbage (M

Yandell, Brian S.

320

Characterisation of the genetic effects of the ADFP gene and its association with production traits in dairy goats.  

PubMed

Adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP) is important for regulation of lipid metabolism and insulin secretion in beta-cells. In this study, we investigated polymorphisms within the caprine ADFP gene and determined its relationship with production traits. As there was no sequence information available for the caprine ADFP gene, we generated DNA sequence data and examined the genomic organisation. The caprine ADFP gene is organised into 7 exons and 6 introns that span approximately 8.7 kbp and is transcribed into mRNA containing 1,353 bp of sequence coding for a protein of 450 amino acids. The protein sequences showed substantial similarity (71-99%) to orthologues from cattle, human and mouse. We identified polymorphisms in the sequences using DNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP and forced PCR-RFLP methods. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified using samples from 4 different goat populations consisting of 1408 healthy and unrelated individuals. Six haplotypes involving the 7 SNPs from the caprine ADFP gene were identified and their effects on production traits were analysed. Haplotype 6 had the highest haplotype frequency and was highly significantly associated with chest circumference and milk yield in the analysed populations. The results of this study suggest that the ADFP gene is a strong candidate gene affecting production traits and may be used for marker-assisted selection and management in Chinese dairy goat breeding programmes. PMID:24487056

Li, Zhuan-Jian; Guo, Wen-Jiao; Tian, Ya-Dong; Han, Rui-Li; Sun, Yu-Jia; Xue, Jing; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong

2014-04-01

321

Executive personality traits and eating behavior.  

PubMed

Eating disorders, such as anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder, commonly involve a dysregulation of behavior (e.g., a lack or excess of inhibition and impulsive eating patterns) that is suggestive of prefrontal dysfunction. Functional neuro-imaging studies show that prefrontal-subcortical systems play a role in eating behavior and appetite in healthy individuals, and that people with eating disorders have altered activity in these systems. Eating behavior is often disturbed by illnesses and injuries that impinge upon prefrontal-subcortical systems. This study examined relationships between executive functioning and eating behavior in healthy individuals using validated behavioral rating scales (Frontal Systems Behavior Scale and Eating Inventory). Correlations demonstrated that increased dysexecutive traits were associated with disinhibited eating and greater food cravings. There was also a positive association with cognitive restraint of eating, suggesting that increased compensatory behaviors follow disinhibited eating. These psychometric findings reinforce those of other methodologies, supporting a role for prefrontal systems in eating. PMID:14660070

Spinella, Marcello; Lyke, Jennifer

2004-01-01

322

Influence analysis in quantitative trait loci detection.  

PubMed

This paper presents systematic methods for the detection of influential individuals that affect the log odds (LOD) score curve. We derive general formulas of influence functions for profile likelihoods and introduce them into two standard quantitative trait locus detection methods-the interval mapping method and single marker analysis. Besides influence analysis on specific LOD scores, we also develop influence analysis methods on the shape of the LOD score curves. A simulation-based method is proposed to assess the significance of the influence of the individuals. These methods are shown useful in the influence analysis of a real dataset of an experimental population from an F2 mouse cross. By receiver operating characteristic analysis, we confirm that the proposed methods show better performance than existing diagnostics. PMID:24740424

Dou, Xiaoling; Kuriki, Satoshi; Maeno, Akiteru; Takada, Toyoyuki; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

2014-07-01

323

Autonomy and authenticity of enhanced personality traits.  

PubMed

There is concern that the use of neuroenhancements to alter character traits undermines consumer's authenticity. But the meaning, scope and value of authenticity remain vague. However, the majority of contemporary autonomy accounts ground individual autonomy on a notion of authenticity. So if neuroenhancements diminish an agent's authenticity, they may undermine his autonomy. This paper clarifies the relation between autonomy, authenticity and possible threats by neuroenhancements. We present six neuroenhancement scenarios and analyse how autonomy accounts evaluate them. Some cases are considered differently by criminal courts; we demonstrate where academic autonomy theories and legal reasoning diverge and ascertain whether courts should reconsider their concept of autonomy. We argue that authenticity is not an appropriate condition for autonomy and that new enhancement technologies pose no unique threats to personal autonomy. PMID:19527264

Bublitz, Jan Christoph; Merkel, Reinhard

2009-07-01

324

Interspecies genetics of eating disorder traits.  

PubMed

Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative genetic approach to reveal novel biological substrates of eating disorder traits analogous in mouse and human. For example, comparable to behavioral hyperactivity that is observed in 40-80% of anorexia nervosa patients, inbred strains of mice with different genetic backgrounds are differentially susceptible to develop behavioral hyperactivity when food restricted. In addition, a list of characteristics that are relevant to eating disorders and approaches to their measurement in humans together with potential analogous rodent models has been generated. Interspecies genetics of neurobehavioral characteristics of eating disorders has the potential to open new roads to identify and functionally test genetic pathways that influence neurocircuits relevant for these heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. PMID:18646037

Kas, Martien J H; Kaye, Walter H; Foulds Mathes, Wendy; Bulik, Cynthia M

2009-04-01

325

Interspecies genetics of eating disorder traits  

PubMed Central

Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative genetic approach to reveal novel biological substrates of eating disorder traits analogous in mouse and human. For example, comparable to behavioral hyperactivity that is observed in 40-80% of anorexia nervosa patients, inbred strains of mice with different genetic backgrounds are differentially susceptible to develop behavioral hyperactivity when food restricted. In addition, a list of characteristics that are relevant to eating disorders and approaches to their measurement in humans together with potential analogous rodent models has been generated. Interspecies genetics of neurobehavioral characteristics of eating disorders has the potential to open new roads to identify and functionally test genetic pathways that influence neurocircuits relevant for these heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. PMID:18646037

Kas, Martien J. H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2008-01-01

326

Expression of embryonic hemoglobin genes in mice heterozygous for. cap alpha. -thalassemia or. beta. -duplication traits and in mice heterozygous for both traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemoglobins of mouse embryos at 11.5 through 16.5 days of gestation were separated by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate and quantitated by a scanning densitometer to study the effects of two radiation-induced mutations on the expression of embryonic hemoglobin genes in mice. Normal mice produce three kinds of embryonic hemoglobins. In heterozygous ..cap alpha..-thalassemic embryos, expression of EI (xâyâ) and EII

R. A. Popp; C. L. Marsh; L. C. Skow

1981-01-01

327

Personality Trait Development and Social Investment in Work.  

PubMed

A longitudinal study of employed individuals was used to test the relationship between social investment at work-the act of cognitively and emotionally committing to one's job-and longitudinal and cross-sectional personality trait development. Participants provided ratings of personality traits and social investment at work at two time-points, separated by approximately three years. Data were analyzed using latent change models. Cross-sectional results showed that extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and emotional stability were related to social investment at work. Additionally, a positive association was found between longitudinal change in social investment in work and change in personality traits-especially conscientiousness. Finally, the correlated changes in social investment and personality traits were invariant across age groups, suggesting that personality traits remain malleable across the lifespan. PMID:22822278

Hudson, Nathan W; Roberts, Brent W; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer

2012-06-01

328

Personality Trait Development and Social Investment in Work  

PubMed Central

A longitudinal study of employed individuals was used to test the relationship between social investment at work—the act of cognitively and emotionally committing to one’s job—and longitudinal and cross-sectional personality trait development. Participants provided ratings of personality traits and social investment at work at two time-points, separated by approximately three years. Data were analyzed using latent change models. Cross-sectional results showed that extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and emotional stability were related to social investment at work. Additionally, a positive association was found between longitudinal change in social investment in work and change in personality traits—especially conscientiousness. Finally, the correlated changes in social investment and personality traits were invariant across age groups, suggesting that personality traits remain malleable across the lifespan. PMID:22822278

Hudson, Nathan W.; Roberts, Brent W.; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer

2012-01-01

329

DSM-5 Personality Traits and DSM-IV Personality Disorders  

PubMed Central

Two issues pertinent to the DSM-5 proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the six proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders. PMID:22250660

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.

2014-01-01

330

Natural variation of root traits: from development to nutrient uptake.  

PubMed

The root system has a crucial role for plant growth and productivity. Due to the challenges of heterogeneous soil environments, diverse environmental signals are integrated into root developmental decisions. While root growth and growth responses are genetically determined, there is substantial natural variation for these traits. Studying the genetic basis of the natural variation of root growth traits can not only shed light on their evolution and ecological relevance but also can be used to map the genes and their alleles responsible for the regulation of these traits. Analysis of root phenotypes has revealed growth strategies and root growth responses to a variety of environmental stimuli, as well as the extent of natural variation of a variety of root traits including ion content, cellular properties, and root system architectures. Linkage and association mapping approaches have uncovered causal genes underlying the variation of these traits. PMID:25104725

Ristova, Daniela; Busch, Wolfgang

2014-10-01

331

Traits and metatraits: their reliability, stability, and shared genetic influence.  

PubMed

Metatraits measure individual differences in construct relevancy, whereas traits measure individual differences in construct extremity. Twenty-four traits and metatraits were examined in this study using 157 pairs of identical twins reared together, 95 pairs of identical twins reared apart, 211 pairs of fraternal twins reared together, and 228 pairs of fraternal twins reared apart obtained from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (see N. L. Pedersen et al., 1991). Reliability and stability analyses of the metatraits revealed generally lower reliability and stability across time compared to traits. Quantitative genetic analyses of the relationship between traits and metatraits indicated that approximately 69% of the metatrait's genetic variance is shared with the trait, with 31% of its genetic variance unique to the metatrait. These results suggest that metatraits provide a useful additional view of personality. PMID:7473025

Hershberger, S L; Plomin, R; Pedersen, N L

1995-10-01

332

A database of life-history traits of European amphibians  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the current context of climate change and landscape fragmentation, efficient conservation strategies require the explicit consideration of life history traits. This is particularly true for amphibians, which are highly threatened worldwide, composed by more than 7400 species, which is constitute one of the most species-rich vertebrate groups. The collection of information on life history traits is difficult due to the ecology of species and remoteness of their habitats. It is therefore not surprising that our knowledge is limited, and missing information on certain life history traits are common for in this species group. We compiled data on amphibian life history traits from literature in an extensive database with morphological and behavioral traits, habitat preferences and movement abilities for 86 European amphibian species (50 Anuran and 36 Urodela species). When it were available, we reported data for males, females, juveniles and tadpoles. Our database may serve as an important starting point for further analyses regarding amphibian conservation.

Moulherat, Sylvain; Calvez, Olivier; Stevens, Virginie M; Clobert, Jean; Schmeller, Dirk S

2014-01-01

333

Male reproductive traits and their relationship to reproductive traits in their female progeny: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The overall objective of one of the major research programs in the Co-operative Research Centre (CRC) for Beef Genetic Technologies is to 'Improve female reproductive performance' in tropical, northern Australian beef cattle herds. To address this overall objective, a quantitative genetics project focused on investigation of male reproductive traits was designed and linked to three female reproduction-focussed projects, (i) discovery of genes associated with post-partum re-conception and age at puberty; (ii) expression of genes associated with post-partum re-conception; and (iii) early predictors of lifetime female reproductive performance. During the initial planning of this male reproductive traits project, the CRC Scientific Review Committee recommended that the research team investigate and evaluate potentially new, early-life (i.e able to be measured before 2 years of age) predictors of both male and female reproductive performance. To address this recommendation, the following was carried out: (i) criteria for selection of traditional and candidate traits were established; (ii) methodology for tabulation of potential traits/phenotypes that define male and female reproductive function was developed; and (iii) a systematic scientific review of early-life predictors of male and female fertility was prepared. This review concluded that although factors that might be useful in predicting male reproductive performance have been studied for many years, there was relatively little useful information available to meet the objectives of this review. It was also concluded that the direction of future research should be guided not only by previous research which was scarce, but also by speculative hypotheses arising from an understanding of the physiological, endocrinological and genetic processes active in reproduction. A small number of new traits were recommended in addition to traditional sperm morphology, sexual behaviour, anatomical structure and growth traits. Potential additional traits include measurement of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone (GnRH-stimulated LH); inhibin; several seminal plasma proteins (osteopontin, spermadhesin and seminal plasma proteins BSP30 and phospholipase A(2) could be used in an index); 11?-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase; and leptin. In addition, the potential also exists to screen animals for a number of genetic markers associated with age of puberty, follicular recruitment and ovulation rate and genes associated with bovine seminal plasma protein and testosterone production. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) measurements are included because of their association with growth parameters, and an additional analysis demonstrated associations with male and female reproductive traits. Some of these factors have been previously evaluated in small numbers of animals of various species under intensive management conditions. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate these factors in much larger numbers of beef cattle grazing semi-extensive tropical production systems in northern Australia to determine their value in improving beef cattle enterprise profitability through improved herd fertility. PMID:21332828

Burns, B M; Gazzola, C; Holroyd, R G; Crisp, J; McGowan, M R

2011-06-01

334

Reorganization of axoplasmic organelles following beta, beta'- iminodipropionitrile administration  

PubMed Central

beta, beta'-Iminodipropionitrile (IDPN), a synthetic compound that selectively impairs slow axonal transport, produced a rearrangement of the axonal cytoskeleton, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. Immunoperoxidase staining using an antiserum to the 68,000-dalton neurofilament subunit demonstrated a displacement of neurofilaments toward the periphery of the axons of IDPN-treated rats. This change occurred simultaneously along the entire length of the sciatic nerve. Ultrastructural morphometry of the axonal organelles confirmed the peripheral relocation of neurofilaments and also showed a displacement of microtubules, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria to the center of the axons. The overall density of axonal mitochondria was increased, whereas those of other organelles were not significantly changed. Axons were reduced in size by 10--24%, the large axons being more affected than the small ones. The observed rearrangement of axonal organelles may be due to an effect of IDPN on microtubule-neurofilament interactions, which could in turn explain the impairment of the slow transport. Axons in IDPN intoxication are a useful model to study the organization of the axoplasm and the mechanism of axonal transport. PMID:7199048

1981-01-01

335

Fear-Conditioning Mechanisms Associated with Trait Vulnerability to Anxiety in Humans  

E-print Network

Neuron Article Fear-Conditioning Mechanisms Associated with Trait Vulnerability to Anxiety dimensions such as trait anxiety act through these mechanisms to confer vulnerability to anxiety disorders independent dimensions of neurocognitive function associated with trait vulnerability to anxiety. The first

Bishop, Sonia

336

Genetic correlations between growth and reproductive traits in Zandi sheep.  

PubMed

For the first time, the current study reports the genetic and phenotypic correlations between growth and reproductive traits in Zandi sheep. The data were comprised of 4,309 records of lamb growth traits from 1,378 dams and 273 sires plus 2,588 records of reproductive traits from 577 ewes. These data were extracted from available performance records at Khojir Breeding Station of Zandi sheep in Tehran, Iran, from 1993 to 2008. Correlations were estimated from two animal models in a bivariate analysis using restricted maximum likelihood procedure between lamb growth traits [birth weight (BW), weaning weight at 3 months of age (WW), as well as six-month weight (6 MW)] and ewe reproductive traits [litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), total litter weight at birth (TLWB), and total litter weight at weaning (TLWW)]. The genetic correlations between BW and reproductive traits varied from low to high ranges from 0.10 for BW-LSB to 0.86 for BW-TLWB. WW was moderately (0.37) to highly (0.96) correlated with all the reproductive traits. Moreover, the genetic correlations were observed between 6 MW and reproductive traits, varied from 0.19 to 0.95. Relationships between growth and reproductive traits ranged from 0.01 for BW-LSW to 0.28 for BW-TLWB in phenotypic effects. Results indicated that selection to improve WW would have high effect on genetic response in TLWW, and also, these results could be effective for all of the reproductive traits in Zandi sheep. PMID:24705699

Mohammadi, Kourosh; Beigi Nassiri, Mohammad Taghi; Rahmatnejad, Enayat; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, Rostam; Hossaini, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Hagh Nadar, Saman

2014-06-01

337

Genome-wide association studies for hematological traits in swine.  

PubMed

Improving immune capacity may increase the profitability of animal production if it enables animals to better cope with infections. Hematological traits play pivotal roles in animal immune capacity and disease resistance. Thus far, few studies have been conducted using a high-density swine SNP chip panel to unravel the genetic mechanism of the immune capability in domestic animals. In this study, using mixed model-based single-locus regression analyses, we carried out genome-wide association studies, using the Porcine SNP60 BeadChip, for immune responses in piglets for 18 hematological traits (seven leukocyte traits, seven erythrocyte traits, and four platelet traits) after being immunized with classical swine fever vaccine. After adjusting for multiple testing based on permutations, 10, 24, and 77 chromosome-wise significant SNPs were identified for the leukocyte traits, erythrocyte traits, and platelet traits respectively, of which 10 reached genome-wise significance level. Among the 53 SNPs for mean platelet volume, 29 are located in a linkage disequilibrium block between 32.77 and 40.59 Mb on SSC6. Four genes of interest are located within the block, providing genetic evidence that this genomic segment may be considered a candidate region relevant to the platelet traits. Other candidate genes of interest for red blood cell, hemoglobin, and red blood cell volume distribution width also have been found near the significant SNPs. Our genome-wide association study provides a list of significant SNPs and candidate genes that offer valuable information for future dissection of molecular mechanisms regulating hematological traits. PMID:22548415

Wang, J Y; Luo, Y R; Fu, W X; Lu, X; Zhou, J P; Ding, X D; Liu, J F; Zhang, Q

2013-02-01

338

Variability of Root Traits in Spring Wheat Germplasm  

PubMed Central

Root traits influence the amount of water and nutrient absorption, and are important for maintaining crop yield under drought conditions. The objectives of this research were to characterize variability of root traits among spring wheat genotypes and determine whether root traits are related to shoot traits (plant height, tiller number per plant, shoot dry weight, and coleoptile length), regions of origin, and market classes. Plants were grown in 150-cm columns for 61 days in a greenhouse under optimal growth conditions. Rooting depth, root dry weight, root: shoot ratio, and shoot traits were determined for 297 genotypes of the germplasm, Cultivated Wheat Collection (CWC). The remaining root traits such as total root length and surface area were measured for a subset of 30 genotypes selected based on rooting depth. Significant genetic variability was observed for root traits among spring wheat genotypes in CWC germplasm or its subset. Genotypes Sonora and Currawa were ranked high, and genotype Vandal was ranked low for most root traits. A positive relationship (R2?0.35) was found between root and shoot dry weights within the CWC germplasm and between total root surface area and tiller number; total root surface area and shoot dry weight; and total root length and coleoptile length within the subset. No correlations were found between plant height and most root traits within the CWC germplasm or its subset. Region of origin had significant impact on rooting depth in the CWC germplasm. Wheat genotypes collected from Australia, Mediterranean, and west Asia had greater rooting depth than those from south Asia, Latin America, Mexico, and Canada. Soft wheat had greater rooting depth than hard wheat in the CWC germplasm. The genetic variability identified in this research for root traits can be exploited to improve drought tolerance and/or resource capture in wheat. PMID:24945438

Narayanan, Sruthi; Mohan, Amita; Gill, Kulvinder S.; Prasad, P. V. Vara

2014-01-01

339

Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle  

PubMed Central

Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

2014-01-01

340

Experiment M408: Beta spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The beta spectrometer functioned as planned throughout the Gemini 10 mission. The cool temperatures that were recorded from the instrument during the mission were indicative that the evaporative cooler, coupled with apparently lower-than-expected spacecraft-adapter temperatures, maintained ideal operating conditions. The data facilitate a good analysis of the electron directional distribution. The omnidirectional flux that was calculated is apparently consistent with previous measurements. Representative electron spectra, measured during the Gemini 12 mission, established the apparent decay of the artificially injected electrons (from the Starfish high altitude nuclear test) to such low levels that natural trapped electrons were becoming detectable.

Marbach, J. R.

1971-01-01

341

Neutrino Factories and Beta Beams  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we briefly review the concepts of Neutrino Factories and Beta Beam facilities, and indicate the main challenges in terms of beam performance and technological developments. We also describe the worldwide organizations that have embarked on defining and carrying out the necessary R&D on component design, beam simulations of facility performance, and benchmarking of key subsystems via actual beam tests. Currently approved subsystem tests include the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and the Mercury Intense Target (MERIT) experiment, to be carried out at CERN. These experiments are briefly described, and their schedules are indicated.

Zisman, Michael S.

2006-06-21

342

Tau Beta Pi: Brain Ticklers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tau Beta Pi is a national honor society for engineering students, and its quarterly Brain Ticklers online feature is a true challenge aimed at motivated individuals. In each issue, five standard questions and two bonus questions are given, which are intended to exercise peoples' problem solving skills. The problems are generally straightforward and easy to understand, but they can be extremely perplexing to solve. People who attempt the problems are encouraged to submit their answers for possible recognition in the following issue. Answers to the previous issue's problems are included when new issues are published.

343

Detection of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes in Escherichia coli isolated from mastitic milk samples.  

PubMed

In this study, eight Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from milk samples of dairy cattle suffering from clinical/subclinical mastitis. Isolates were characterized for antimicrobial resistance traits and virulence genes. Results revealed that one isolate was harbouring New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase gene (blaNDM ). Cloning and sequencing of the PCR amplicon confirmed the identity of the gene (GenBank accession no. KC769583) having 100% homology with blaNDM-5 (GenBank accession no. JN104597.1), and this isolate was susceptible to colistin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline only. Moreover, another isolate carried extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) gene - blaCTX-M , and all isolates possessed blaTEM gene. Of the eight isolates, only one isolate was positive for shiga toxin gene (stx2), and none were harbouring stx1 gene. Occurrence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (blaNDM ) in one E. coli isolate and ESBL genes in other isolates poses a potential threat to human health following possible entry and spread through food chain. PMID:23870003

Ghatak, S; Singha, A; Sen, A; Guha, C; Ahuja, A; Bhattacharjee, U; Das, S; Pradhan, N R; Puro, K; Jana, C; Dey, T K; Prashantkumar, K L; Das, A; Shakuntala, I; Biswas, U; Jana, P S

2013-10-01

344

beta-Galactosidase enzyme fragment complementation for the measurement of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.  

PubMed

Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is an important regulator of cell polarity, proliferation, and stem cell maintenance during development and adulthood. Wnt proteins induce the nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, which regulates the expression of Wnt-responsive genes through association with TCF/LEF transcription factors. Aberrant Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been implicated in a plethora of pathologies and, most notably, underlies initiation and expansion of several cancers. Here, we apply enzyme fragment complementation to measure the nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin. beta-Catenin was tagged with a peptide fragment of beta-galactosidase and transfected into cells expressing a corresponding deletion mutant of the enzyme exclusively in the nucleus. Stimulation of the cells with recombinant Wnt-3a restored beta-galactosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner with nanomolar potency. Using the assay, we confirmed that Wnt-5a represses beta-catenin-driven reporter gene activity downstream of nuclear entry of beta-catenin. In addition, we tested a library of >2000 synthetic chemical compounds for their ability to induce beta-catenin nuclear accumulation. The immunosuppressive protein kinase C inhibitor sotrastaurin (AEB-071) was identified as an activator of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling at micromolar concentrations. It was confirmed that the compound stabilizes endogenous beta-catenin protein and can induce TCF/LEF-dependent gene transcription. Subsequent biochemical profiling of >200 kinases revealed both isoforms of glycogen synthase kinase 3, as previously unappreciated targets of sotrastaurin. We show that the beta-catenin nuclear accumulation assay contributes to our knowledge of molecular interactions within the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and can be used to find new therapeutics targeting Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.-Verkaar, F., Blankesteijn, W. M., Smits, J. F. M., Zaman, G. J. R. beta-Galactosidase enzyme fragment complementation for the measurement of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. PMID:19940259

Verkaar, Folkert; Blankesteijn, W Matthijs; Smits, Jos F M; Zaman, Guido J R

2010-04-01

345

The Effects of Spontaneous Mutation on Quantitative Traits. I. Variances and Covariances of Life History Traits  

PubMed Central

We have accumulated spontaneous mutations in the absence of natural selection in Drosophila melanogaster by backcrossing 200 heterozygous replicates of a single high fitness second chromosome to a balancer stock for 44 generations. At generations 33 and 44 of accumulation, we extracted samples of chromosomes and assayed their homozygous performance for female fecundity early and late in adult life, male and female longevity, male mating ability early and late in adult life, productivity (a measure of fecundity times viability) and body weight. The variance among lines increased significantly for all traits except male mating ability and weight. The rate of increase in variance was similar to that found in previous studies of egg-to-adult viability, when calculated relative to trait means. The mutational correlations among traits were all strongly positive. Many correlations were significantly different from 0, while none was significantly different from 1. These data suggest that the mutation-accumulation hypothesis is not a sufficient explanation for the evolution of senescence in D. melanogaster. Mutation-selection balance does seem adequate to explain a substantial proportion of the additive genetic variance for fecundity and longevity. PMID:7851773

Houle, D.; Hughes, K. A.; Hoffmaster, D. K.; Ihara, J.; Assimacopoulos, S.; Canada, D.; Charlesworth, B.

1994-01-01

346

Detection and characterization of quantitative trait loci for meat quality traits in pigs.  

PubMed

In an experimental cross between Meishan and Dutch Large White and Landrace lines, 785 F2 animals with carcass information and their parents were typed for molecular markers covering the entire porcine genome. Linkage was studied between these markers and eight meat quality traits. Quantitative trait locus analyses were performed using interval mapping by regression under two genetic models: 1) the line-cross approach, where the founder lines were assumed to be fixed for different QTL alleles and 2) a half-sib model where a unique allele substitution effect was fitted within each of the 38 half-sib families. The line-cross approach included tests for genomic imprinting and sex-specific QTL effects. In total, three genome-wide significant and 26 suggestive QTL were detected. The significant QTL on chromosomes 3, 4, and 13, affecting meat color, were only detected under the half-sib model. Failure of the line-cross approach to detect the meat color QTL suggests that the founder lines have similar allele frequencies for these QTL. This study provides information on new QTL affecting meat quality traits. It also shows the benefit of analyzing experimental data under different genetic and statistical models. PMID:11768109

de Koning, D J; Harlizius, B; Rattink, A P; Groenen, M A; Brascamp, E W; van Arendonk, J A

2001-11-01

347

Impacts of trait variation through observed trait-climate relationships on performance of an Earth system model: a conceptual analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many current dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), including those incorporated into Earth system models (ESMs), terrestrial vegetation is represented by a small number of plant functional types (PFTs), each with fixed properties irrespective of their predicted occurrence. This contrasts with natural vegetation, in which many plant traits vary systematically along geographic and environmental gradients. In the JSBACH DGVM, which is part of the MPI-ESM, we allowed three traits (specific leaf area (SLA), maximum carboxylation rate at 25 °C (Vcmax25) and maximum electron transport rate at 25 °C (Jmax25)) to vary within PFTs via trait-climate relationships based on a large trait database. The R2adjusted of these relationships were up to 0.83 and 0.71 for Vcmax25 and Jmax25, respectively. For SLA, more variance remained unexplained, with a maximum R2adjusted of 0.40. Compared to the default simulation, allowing trait variation within PFTs resulted in gross primary productivity differences of up to 50% in the tropics, in > 35% different dominant vegetation cover, and a closer match with a natural vegetation map. The discrepancy between default trait values and natural trait variation, combined with the substantial changes in simulated vegetation properties, together emphasize that incorporating climate-driven trait variation, calibrated on observational data and based on ecological concepts, allows more variation in vegetation responses in DGVMs and as such is likely to enable more reliable projections in unknown climates.

Verheijen, L. M.; Brovkin, V.; Aerts, R.; Bönisch, G.; Cornelissen, J. H. C.; Kattge, J.; Reich, P. B.; Wright, I. J.; van Bodegom, P. M.

2013-08-01

348

Method for preparing Pb-. beta. ''-alumina ceramic  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic from Na-..beta..''-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

Hellstrom, E.E.

1984-08-30

349

Molecular Structure of Beta-carotene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, carrots have been prized for their medicinal properties and beta-Carotene has been attributed as the source of these properties. Beta-carotene causes many plants to have pigment, and provides the color in carrots, cantaloupes and squash. Beta-carotenes have been seen to be of immense help in the maintenance of the human body: it is essential to proper vision, and to the functioning of the respiratory and digestive systems. Beta-carotene is a precursor in the biosynthesis of Vitamin A in the human body.

2002-08-13

350

An Explanation for Beta's Mean-reversion  

E-print Network

the hypothesis that it was random nor the hypothesis that it was auto-regressive. 4 Preliminary Data Table 1 Table 2 Table 1 and Table 2 show the beta value for Disney and Milipore Corp. respectively. It is clear that Disney’s average beta of 1....005219 is much closer to one than Milipore Corp.’s average beta of .7480548. This paper tests thirty large companies like Disney, thirty small companies like Milipore Corp. and thirty growing companies. I test these companies to show that the beta value of a...

Bodkin, Connor Matthew

2013-09-26

351

Beta cell device using icosahedral boride compounds  

DOEpatents

A beta cell for converting beta-particle energies into electrical energy having a semiconductor junction that incorporates an icosahedral boride compound selected from B.sub.12 As.sub.2, B.sub.12 P.sub.2, elemental boron having an .alpha.-rhombohedral structure, elemental boron having a .beta.-rhombohedral structure, and boron carbides of the chemical formula B.sub.12-x C.sub.3-x, where 0.15beta radiation source, and means for transmitting electrical energy to an outside load. The icosahedral boride compound self-heals, resisting degradation from radiation damage.

Aselage, Terrence L. (62 Avenida Del Sol, Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Emin, David (1502 Harvard Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106-3712)

2002-01-01

352

Of intent and action : implementing personality traits for storytelling through concept patterns  

E-print Network

Personality traits such as "kind," "aggressive," and "brave" are integral to storytelling because they impart succinct descriptors of character personalities. Authors apply traits to characters, readers infer characters' ...

Song, Susan S. (Susan Shuchen)

2012-01-01

353

Morphological and geographical traits of the british odonata.  

PubMed

Trait data are fundamental for many aspects of ecological research, particularly for modeling species response to environmental change. We synthesised information from the literature (mainly field guides) and direct measurements from museum specimens, providing a comprehensive dataset of 26 attributes, covering the 43 resident species of Odonata in Britain. Traits included in this database range from morphological traits (e.g. body length) to attributes based on the distribution of the species (e.g. climatic restriction). We measured 11 morphometric traits from five adult males and five adult females per species. Using digital callipers, these measurements were taken from dry museum specimens, all of which were wild caught individuals. Repeated measures were also taken to estimate measurement error. The trait data are stored in an online repository (https://github.com/BiologicalRecordsCentre/Odonata_traits), alongside R code designed to give an overview of the morphometric data, and to combine the morphometric data to the single value per trait per species data. PMID:24855438

Powney, Gary D; Brooks, Stephen J; Barwell, Louise J; Bowles, Phil; Fitt, Robert N L; Pavitt, Alyson; Spriggs, Rebecca A; Isaac, Nick J B

2014-01-01

354

Morphological and Geographical Traits of the British Odonata  

PubMed Central

Abstract Trait data are fundamental for many aspects of ecological research, particularly for modeling species response to environmental change. We synthesised information from the literature (mainly field guides) and direct measurements from museum specimens, providing a comprehensive dataset of 26 attributes, covering the 43 resident species of Odonata in Britain. Traits included in this database range from morphological traits (e.g. body length) to attributes based on the distribution of the species (e.g. climatic restriction). We measured 11 morphometric traits from five adult males and five adult females per species. Using digital callipers, these measurements were taken from dry museum specimens, all of which were wild caught individuals. Repeated measures were also taken to estimate measurement error. The trait data are stored in an online repository (https://github.com/BiologicalRecordsCentre/Odonata_traits), alongside R code designed to give an overview of the morphometric data, and to combine the morphometric data to the single value per trait per species data. PMID:24855438

2014-01-01

355

Affective traits link to reliable neural markers of incentive anticipation.  

PubMed

While theorists have speculated that different affective traits are linked to reliable brain activity during anticipation of gains and losses, few have directly tested this prediction. We examined these associations in a community sample of healthy human adults (n=52) as they played a Monetary Incentive Delay task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Factor analysis of personality measures revealed that subjects independently varied in trait Positive Arousal and trait Negative Arousal. In a subsample (n=14) retested over 2.5years later, left nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activity during anticipation of large gains (+$5.00) and right anterior insula activity during anticipation of large losses (-$5.00) showed significant test-retest reliability (intraclass correlations>0.50, p's<0.01). In the full sample (n=52), trait Positive Arousal correlated with individual differences in left NAcc activity during anticipation of large gains, while trait Negative Arousal correlated with individual differences in right anterior insula activity during anticipation of large losses. Associations of affective traits with neural activity were not attributable to the influence of other potential confounds (including sex, age, wealth, and motion). Together, these results demonstrate selective links between distinct affective traits and reliably-elicited activity in neural circuits associated with anticipation of gain versus loss. The findings thus reveal neural markers for affective dimensions of healthy personality, and potentially for related psychiatric symptoms. PMID:24001457

Wu, Charlene C; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Katovich, Kiefer; Knutson, Brian

2014-01-01

356

Functional traits explain variation in plant life history strategies  

PubMed Central

Ecologists seek general explanations for the dramatic variation in species abundances in space and time. An increasingly popular solution is to predict species distributions, dynamics, and responses to environmental change based on easily measured anatomical and morphological traits. Trait-based approaches assume that simple functional traits influence fitness and life history evolution, but rigorous tests of this assumption are lacking, because they require quantitative information about the full lifecycles of many species representing different life histories. Here, we link a global traits database with empirical matrix population models for 222 species and report strong relationships between functional traits and plant life histories. Species with large seeds, long-lived leaves, or dense wood have slow life histories, with mean fitness (i.e., population growth rates) more strongly influenced by survival than by growth or fecundity, compared with fast life history species with small seeds, short-lived leaves, or soft wood. In contrast to measures of demographic contributions to fitness based on whole lifecycles, analyses focused on raw demographic rates may underestimate the strength of association between traits and mean fitness. Our results help establish the physiological basis for plant life history evolution and show the potential for trait-based approaches in population dynamics. PMID:24379395

Adler, Peter B.; Salguero-Gomez, Roberto; Compagnoni, Aldo; Hsu, Joanna S.; Ray-Mukherjee, Jayanti; Mbeau-Ache, Cyril; Franco, Miguel

2014-01-01

357

Joint evolution of multiple social traits: a kin selection analysis  

PubMed Central

General models of the evolution of cooperation, altruism and other social behaviours have focused almost entirely on single traits, whereas it is clear that social traits commonly interact. We develop a general kin-selection framework for the evolution of social behaviours in multiple dimensions. We show that whenever there are interactions among social traits new behaviours can emerge that are not predicted by one-dimensional analyses. For example, a prohibitively costly cooperative trait can ultimately be favoured owing to initial evolution in other (cheaper) social traits that in turn change the cost–benefit ratio of the original trait. To understand these behaviours, we use a two-dimensional stability criterion that can be viewed as an extension of Hamilton's rule. Our principal example is the social dilemma posed by, first, the construction and, second, the exploitation of a shared public good. We find that, contrary to the separate one-dimensional analyses, evolutionary feedback between the two traits can cause an increase in the equilibrium level of selfish exploitation with increasing relatedness, while both social (production plus exploitation) and asocial (neither) strategies can be locally stable. Our results demonstrate the importance of emergent stability properties of multidimensional social dilemmas, as one-dimensional stability in all component dimensions can conceal multidimensional instability. PMID:19828549

Brown, Sam P.; Taylor, Peter D.

2010-01-01

358

A Thesaurus for Soil Invertebrate Trait-Based Approaches  

PubMed Central

Soil invertebrates are known to be much involved in soil behaviour and therefore in the provision of ecosystem services. Functional trait-based approaches are methodologies which can be used to understand soil invertebrates’ responses to their environment. They (i) improve the predictions and (ii) are less dependent on space and time. The way traits have been used recently has led to misunderstandings in the integration and interpretation of data. Trait semantics are especially concerned. The aim of this paper is to propose a thesaurus for soil invertebrate trait-based approaches. T-SITA, an Internet platform, is the first initiative to deal with the semantics of traits and ecological preferences for soil invertebrates. It reflects the agreement of a scientific expert community to fix semantic properties (e.g. definition) of approximately 100 traits and ecological preferences. In addition, T-SITA has been successfully linked with a fully operational database of soil invertebrate traits. Such a link enhances data integration and improves the scientific integrity of data. PMID:25310431

Nahmani, Johanne; Auclerc, Apolline; Capowiez, Yvan; Caro, Gaël; Cluzeau, Daniel; Cortet, Jérôme; Decaëns, Thibaud; Dubs, Florence; Joimel, Sophie; Guernion, Muriel; Briard, Charlène; Grumiaux, Fabien; Laporte, Baptiste; Pasquet, Alain; Pelosi, Céline; Pernin, Céline; Ponge, Jean-François; Salmon, Sandrine; Santorufo, Lucia; Hedde, Mickaël

2014-01-01

359

Sex differences in the etiology of psychopathic traits in youth.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the etiology of psychopathic traits in youth, and even fewer have tested whether the genetic and environmental influences underlying these traits differ for boys and girls. We tested for sex differences in the etiology of 3 trait dimensions-impulsivity, narcissism, and callous-unemotionality (CU)-previously found to underlie youth psychopathy in our sample. Using biometric modeling we tested whether constraining the genetic and environmental influences for each dimension across sex reduced model fit. We also tested for qualitative sex differences in the influences underlying these dimensions by allowing the genetic and environmental correlations between opposite sex dizygotic twins to be less than their respective values in same-sex dizygotic twins. Although the magnitudes of the genetic and environmental influences underlying the CU and narcissistic trait dimensions did not differ for boys and girls, nonshared environmental influences contributed significantly greater variance to impulsive traits in boys. No qualitative sex differences were found in the influences underlying any of the 3 trait dimensions, suggesting that the same genes and environments contribute to these psychopathic traits in males and females. PMID:24886014

Ficks, Courtney A; Dong, Lu; Waldman, Irwin D

2014-05-01

360

Alexithymic Trait and Voluntary Control in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. Recent studies have revealed that alexithymia is associated with less activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region shown to play a role in cognitive and emotional processing. However, few studies have directly investigated the cognitive domain in relation to alexithymia to examine whether alexithymic trait is related to less efficient voluntary control. Methodology/ Principal Findings We examined the relationship between alexithymic trait and voluntary control in a group of healthy volunteers. We used the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) to measure alexithymic trait. Additionally, we examined state and trait voluntary control using the revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ), respectively. Alexithymic trait was positively correlated with the overall reaction time of the ANT-R, and negatively correlated with the Effortful Control factor of the ATQ. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that alexithymic trait is associated with less efficient voluntary control. PMID:19002254

Gu, Xiaosi; Liu, Xun; Guise, Kevin G.; Fossella, John; Wang, Kai; Fan, Jin

2008-01-01

361

Predicting leaf traits of herbaceous species from their spectral characteristics  

PubMed Central

Trait predictions from leaf spectral properties are mainly applied to tree species, while herbaceous systems received little attention in this topic. Whether similar trait–spectrum relations can be derived for herbaceous plants that differ strongly in growing strategy and environmental constraints is therefore unknown. We used partial least squares regression to relate key traits to leaf spectra (reflectance, transmittance, and absorbance) for 35 herbaceous species, sampled from a wide range of environmental conditions. Specific Leaf Area and nutrient-related traits (N and P content) were poorly predicted from any spectrum, although N prediction improved when expressed on a per area basis (mg/m2 leaf surface) instead of mass basis (mg/g dry matter). Leaf dry matter content was moderately to good correlated with spectra. We explain our results by the range of environmental constraints encountered by herbaceous species; both N and P limitations as well as a range of light and water availabilities occurred. This weakened the relation between the measured response traits and the leaf constituents that are truly responsible for leaf spectral behavior. Indeed, N predictions improve considering solely upper or under canopy species. Therefore, trait predictions in herbaceous systems should focus on traits relating to dry matter content and the true, underlying drivers of spectral properties. PMID:24683454

Roelofsen, Hans D; van Bodegom, Peter M; Kooistra, Lammert; Witte, Jan-Philip M

2014-01-01

362

Mutation, selection and the heritability of complex traits.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that complex traits, like intelligence, have low heritabilities. This hypothesis stems from the idea that strong selection for higher intelligence has led to the fixation of genetic variation for this trait. The same hypothesis has been framed for complex sexual ornaments used in courtship display. These traits are also subject to directional selection, in this case caused by sexual selection. However, contrary to the hypothesis, comparative data shows that sexual ornaments have higher additive genetic variation than similar non-sexual traits. It appears that the number of variable genes and the effect per genetic locus have increased for sexual ornaments. Theory suggests this is due to selection for extreme phenotypes resulting in condition-dependent expression of sexual traits. Experimental work on the stalk-eyed fly, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni, confirms that the male sexual trait (exaggerated eyespan) is more sensitive to environmental conditions than other non-sexual traits (wing dimensions and female eyespan). This environmental sensitivity has a genetic basis and environmental stress enhances genetic differences. It is likely that genetic variation in intelligence is maintained in a similar fashion. PMID:11276905

Pomiankowski, A

2000-01-01

363

The Brain's Response to the Human Voice Depends on the Incidence of Autistic Traits in the General Population  

PubMed Central

Optimal brain sensitivity to the fundamental frequency (F0) contour changes in the human voice is important for understanding a speaker’s intonation, and consequently, the speaker’s attitude. However, whether sensitivity in the brain’s response to a human voice F0 contour change varies with an interaction between an individual’s traits (i.e., autistic traits) and a human voice element (i.e., presence or absence of communicative action such as calling) has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the neural processes involved in the perception of F0 contour changes in the Japanese monosyllables “ne” and “nu.” “Ne” is an interjection that means “hi” or “hey” in English; pronunciation of “ne” with a high falling F0 contour is used when the speaker wants to attract a listener’s attention (i.e., social intonation). Meanwhile, the Japanese concrete noun “nu” has no communicative meaning. We applied an adaptive spatial filtering method to the neuromagnetic time course recorded by whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) and estimated the spatiotemporal frequency dynamics of event-related cerebral oscillatory changes in beta band during the oddball paradigm. During the perception of the F0 contour change when “ne” was presented, there was event-related de-synchronization (ERD) in the right temporal lobe. In contrast, during the perception of the F0 contour change when “nu” was presented, ERD occurred in the left temporal lobe and in the bilateral occipital lobes. ERD that occurred during the social stimulus “ne” in the right hemisphere was significantly correlated with a greater number of autistic traits measured according to the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), suggesting that the differences in human voice processing are associated with higher autistic traits, even in non-clinical subjects. PMID:24278247

Yoshimura, Yuko; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Ueno, Sanae; Okumura, Eiichi; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Remijn, Gerard B.; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Munesue, Toshio; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

2013-01-01

364

A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R., II; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

2006-01-01

365

Functional traits and root morphology of alpine plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Vegetation has long been recognized to protect the soil from erosion. Understanding species differences in root morphology and functional traits is an important step to assess which species and species mixtures may provide erosion control. Furthermore, extending classification of plant functional types towards root traits may be a useful procedure in understanding important root functions. Methods In this study, pioneer data on traits of alpine plant species, i.e. plant height and shoot biomass, root depth, horizontal root spreading, root length, diameter, tensile strength, plant age and root biomass, from a disturbed site in the Swiss Alps are presented. The applicability of three classifications of plant functional types (PFTs), i.e. life form, growth form and root type, was examined for above- and below-ground plant traits. Key Results Plant traits differed considerably among species even of the same life form, e.g. in the case of total root length by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the same root diameter, species differed significantly in tensile strength: some species (Geum reptans and Luzula spicata) had roots more than twice as strong as those of other species. Species of different life forms provided different root functions (e.g. root depth and horizontal root spreading) that may be important for soil physical processes. All classifications of PFTs were helpful to categorize plant traits; however, the PFTs according to root type explained total root length far better than the other PFTs. Conclusions The results of the study illustrate the remarkable differences between root traits of alpine plants, some of which cannot be assessed from simple morphological inspection, e.g. tensile strength. PFT classification based on root traits seems useful to categorize plant traits, even though some patterns are better explained at the individual species level. PMID:21795278

Pohl, Mandy; Stroude, Raphael; Buttler, Alexandre; Rixen, Christian

2011-01-01

366

Rapid evolution of quantitative traits: theoretical perspectives  

PubMed Central

An increasing number of studies demonstrate phenotypic and genetic changes in natural populations that are subject to climate change, and there is hope that some of these changes will contribute to avoiding species extinctions (‘evolutionary rescue’). Here, we review theoretical models of rapid evolution in quantitative traits that can shed light on the potential for adaptation to a changing climate. Our focus is on quantitative-genetic models with selection for a moving phenotypic optimum. We point out that there is no one-to-one relationship between the rate of adaptation and population survival, because the former depends on relative fitness and the latter on absolute fitness. Nevertheless, previous estimates that sustainable rates of genetically based change usually do not exceed 0.1 haldanes (i.e., phenotypic standard deviations per generation) are probably correct. Survival can be greatly facilitated by phenotypic plasticity, and heritable variation in plasticity can further speed up genetic evolution. Multivariate selection and genetic correlations are frequently assumed to constrain adaptation, but this is not necessarily the case and depends on the geometric relationship between the fitness landscape and the structure of genetic variation. Similar conclusions hold for adaptation to shifting spatial gradients. Recent models of adaptation in multispecies communities indicate that the potential for rapid evolution is strongly influenced by interspecific competition. PMID:24454555

Kopp, Michael; Matuszewski, Sebastian

2014-01-01

367

Mucins Suppress Virulence Traits of Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans, causing a variety of diseases ranging from superficial mucosal infections to deep-seated systemic invasions. Mucus, the gel that coats all wet epithelial surfaces, accommodates C. albicans as part of the normal microbiota, where C. albicans resides asymptomatically in healthy humans. Through a series of in vitro experiments combined with gene expression analysis, we show that mucin biopolymers, the main gel-forming constituents of mucus, induce a new oval-shaped morphology in C. albicans in which a range of genes related to adhesion, filamentation, and biofilm formation are downregulated. We also show that corresponding traits are suppressed, rendering C. albicans impaired in forming biofilms on a range of different synthetic surfaces and human epithelial cells. Our data suggest that mucins can manipulate C. albicans physiology, and we hypothesize that they are key environmental signals for retaining C. albicans in the host-compatible, commensal state. PMID:25389175

Kavanaugh, Nicole L.; Zhang, Angela Q.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Johnson, Alexander D.

2014-01-01

368

Genetic Distances Based on Quantitative Traits  

PubMed Central

Morphological data showing continuous distributions, polygenically controlled, may be particularly useful in intergroup classification below the species level; an appropriate distance analysis based on these traits is an important tool in evolutionary biology and in plant and animal breeding.—The interpretation of morphological distances in genetic terms is not easy because simple phenotypic data may lead to biased estimates of genetic distances. Convenient estimates can be obtained whenever it is possible to breed populations according to a suitable crossing design and to derive information from genetic parameters.—A general method for determining genetic distances is proposed. The procedure of multivariate analysis of variance is extended to estimate appropriate genetic parameters (genetic effects). Not only are optimal statistical estimates of parameters obtained but also the procedure allows the measurement of genetic distances between populations as linear functions of the estimated parameters, providing an appropriate distance matrix that can be defined in terms of these parameters. The use of the T2 statistic, defined in terms of the vector of contrasts specifying the distance, permits the testing of the significance of any distance between any pair of populations that may be of interest from a genetic point of view.—A numerical example from maize diallel data is reported in order to illustrate the procedure. In particular, heterosis effects are used as the basis for estimates of genetic divergence between populations. PMID:4065546

Camussi, A.; Ottaviano, E.; Calinski, T.; Kaczmarek, Z.

1985-01-01

369

Beta decays with momentum space Majorana spinors  

E-print Network

We construct and apply to beta decays a truly neutral local quantum field that is entirely based upon momentum space Majorana spinors. We make the observation that theory with momentum space Majorana spinors of real C parities is equivalent to Dirac's theory. For imaginary C parities, the neutrino mass can drop from the single beta decay trace and reappear in 0\

M. Kirchbach; C. Compean; L. Noriega

2004-11-24

370

TGF-beta Signaling in Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The transforming growth factor–&beta; (TGF-&beta;) superfamily comprises nearly 30 growth and differentiation factors that include TGF-&beta;s, activins, inhibins, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Multiple members of the TGF-&beta; superfamily serve key roles in stem cell fate commitment. The various members of the family can exhibit disparate roles in regulating the biology of embryonic stem (ES) cells and tumor suppression. For example, TGF-&beta; inhibits proliferation of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors, promotes lineage commitment of neural precursors, and suppresses epithelial tumors. BMPs block neural differentiation of mouse and human ES cells, contribute to self-renewal of mouse ES cells, and also suppress tumorigenesis. ES cells and tumors may be exposed to multiple TGF-&beta; members, and it is likely that the combination of growth factors and cross-talk among the intracellular signaling pathways is what precisely defines stem cell fate commitment. This Connections Map Pathway in the Database of Cell Signaling integrates signaling not only from TGF-&beta; and BMP but also from the ligands nodal and activin, and describes the role of the signaling pathways activated by these ligands in mammalian development. Much of the evidence for the connections shown comes from studies on mouse and human ES cells or mouse knockouts. This pathway is important for understanding not only stem cell biology, but also the molecular effectors of TGF-&beta; and BMP signaling that may contribute to cancer suppression or progression and thus are potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

Krit Kitisin (Georgetown University;Department of Medicine and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center REV); Tapas Saha (Georgetown University;Department of Medicine and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center REV); Tiffany Blake (Georgetown University;Department of Medicine and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center REV); Nady Golestaneh (Georgetown University;Department of Medicine and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center REV); Merlyn Deng (Georgetown University;Department of Medicine and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center REV); Christine Kim (Georgetown University;Department of Medicine and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center REV)

2007-08-14

371

Neutrinoless double beta decay and neutrino physics  

E-print Network

The connection of neutrino physics with neutrinoless double beta decay is reviewed. After presenting the current status of the PMNS matrix and the theoretical background of neutrino mass and lepton mixing, we will summarize the various implications of neutrino physics for double beta decay. The influence of light sterile neutrinos and other exotic modifications of the three neutrino picture is also discussed.

Werner Rodejohann

2012-06-12

372

Nuclear physics aspects of double beta decay  

E-print Network

Comprehensive description of the phenomenology of the $\\beta\\beta$ decay is given, with emphasis on the nuclear physics aspects. After a brief review of the neutrino oscillation results and of motivation to test the lepton number conservation, the mechanism of the $0\

Petr Vogel

2008-07-15

373

The COBRA Double Beta Decay Search Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The COBRA experiment aims to use a large quantity of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The current status of the experiment is discussed, and new limits on several double beta modes are presented. Future plans for a large scale experiment are also described.

Stewart, D. Y. [University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2006-11-17

374

Generalized Beta Mixtures of Gaussians  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a rich variety of shrinkage priors have been proposed that have great promise in addressing massive regression problems. In general, these new priors can be expressed as scale mixtures of normals, but have more complex forms and better properties than traditional Cauchy and double exponential priors. We first propose a new class of normal scale mixtures through a novel generalized beta distribution that encompasses many interesting priors as special cases. This encompassing framework should prove useful in comparing competing priors, considering properties and revealing close connections. We then develop a class of variational Bayes approximations through the new hierarchy presented that will scale more efficiently to the types of truly massive data sets that are now encountered routinely.

Armagan, Artin; Dunson, David B.; Clyde, Merlise

2012-01-01

375

PBX: the Princeton beta experiment  

SciTech Connect

A rearrangement of the divertor coils in PDX will enable a test in 1984 of the MHD stability properties of deeply indented bean-shaped plasmas. The goal is a beta of 10%. Indentation is expected to counter the deterioration of MHD stability against pressure driven modes that is occasioned by the larger aspect ratios typical of anticipated reactor oriented devices. Indeed, as shown by M. Chance et al., indentation may offer direct access to the second region of stability for ballooning modes, and numerical analyses with PEST show the internal kink to be stabilized completely with even relatively modest indentation. The internal kink is implicated in the loss of beam ions in PDX. In this report the theoretical basis for the forthcoming experiment, and the design considerations underlying the modification from PDX to PBX, are described in detail. Additional theoretical material, including an analysis of particle orbits in an indented tokamak plasma, is appended.

Bol, K.; Chance, M.; Dewar, R.

1983-09-01

376

Specific and dual antagonists of alpha(4)beta(1) and alpha(4)beta(7) integrins.  

PubMed

N-(3,5-Dichlorophenylsulfonyl)-(R)-thioprolyl biarylalanine 10a has been identified as a potent and specific antagonist of the alpha(4)beta(1) integrin. Altering the configuration of thioproline from R to S led to a series of dual antagonists of alpha(4)beta(1) and alpha(4)beta(7), and the N-acetyl analogue 8b was found to be the most potent dual antagonist. A binding site model for alpha(4)beta(1) and alpha(4)beta(7) is proposed to explain the structure-activity relationship. PMID:11755338

Lin, Linus S; Lanza, Thomas; McCauley, Ermenegilda; Van Riper, Gail; Kidambi, Usha; Cao, Jin; Egger, Linda A; Mumford, Richard A; Schmidt, John A; MacCoss, Malcolm; Hagmann, William K

2002-01-21

377

Challenges in Double Beta Decay  

E-print Network

After nearly 80 years since the first guess on its existence, neutrino still escapes our insight: the mass and the true nature (Majorana or Dirac) of this particle is still unknown. In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have finally provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the Standard Model of electroweak interactions is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. None of these experimental efforts could however shade light on some of the basic features of neutrinos. Indeed, absolute scale and ordering of the masses of the three generations as well as charge conjugation and lepton number conservation properties are still unknown. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches: these experiments can probe lepton number conservation, investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem) with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background, to fully probe the inverted-hierarchy region. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. n this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

O. Cremonesi; M. Pavan

2013-10-17

378

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Life History Traits in the Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans  

PubMed Central

We have identified chromosomal regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) specifying life history traits in recombinant-inbred strains of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This approach also allows us to examine epistatic interactions between loci and pleiotropic effects on different traits at specific loci. QTLs for mean life span were identified on chromosomes II (near stP101), IV (stP5) and the X (stP61), and QTLs for fertility were identified on II (maP1), III (stP19) and IV (stP51). The QTLs for mean life span accounted for 90% of the genetic component of variance. The loci for mean fertility accounted for 88% of the genetic component of variance. Additional QTLs for temperature-sensitive fertility [II (stP36) and V (stP6)] and internal hatching [IV (stP5)] were also mapped in these crosses. We found evidence for epistatic effects on mean life span between maP1 and bP1 (V), and for epistatic effects on mean fertility between stP36 and stP6, between stP98 (II) and stP192 (V), between maP1 and stP127 (III), between maP1 and stP103 (X), and between stP5 and stP6. Negatively correlated, pleiotropic effects on mean life span and internal hatching were found linked to stP5. PMID:8849889

Shook, D. R.; Brooks, A.; Johnson, T. E.

1996-01-01

379

Gamma-ray blind beta particle probe  

DOEpatents

An intra-operative beta particle probe is provided by placing a suitable photomultiplier tube (PMT), micro channel plate (MCP) or other electron multiplier device within a vacuum housing equipped with: 1) an appropriate beta particle permeable window; and 2) electron detection circuitry. Beta particles emitted in the immediate vicinity of the probe window will be received by the electron multiplier device and amplified to produce a detectable signal. Such a device is useful as a gamma insensitive, intra-operative, beta particle probe in surgeries where the patient has been injected with a beta emitting radiopharmaceutical. The method of use of such a device is also described, as is a position sensitive such device.

Weisenberger, Andrew G. (Grafton, VA)

2001-01-01

380

A laboratory produced extremely large beta plasma  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses laboratory production of an extremely large-beta ({beta}{approx}10{sup 3}) plasma, termed ELB plasma, over an extended volume of 0.5 m{sup 3}. The plasma {beta} can be varied from <1 to values as large as 10{sup 3}, thereby allowing us to study physical processes through a large range of {beta}. Desired {beta} values are achieved by tailoring the ambient magnetic field by compensating fields over time scales far less than the plasma confinement time. We observe that during this compensation, the magnetic field penetration from the wall to the plasma occurs at Whistler speed. The Whistler mode is accompanied by excitation of electrostatic ion wave. We have shown that the diamagnetism of the ELB plasma is considerably modified essentially through the effect of finiteness of electron Larmor radius (r{sub Le}) in the force equilibrium. Application of these results to the space plasma is pointed out.

Banerjee, S. P.; Anitha, V. P.; Ravi, G.; Mattoo, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India)

2006-09-15

381

Process for reducing beta activity in uranium  

DOEpatents

This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed. 5 tabs.

Briggs, G.G.; Kato, T.R.; Schonegg, E.

1985-04-11

382

Singular points of protein beta-sheets.  

PubMed Central

Protein beta-sheets can be regarded as surfaces. Two surfaces can be connected along a common edge to form a larger surface, or two edges of a surface can coalesce to form a closed sheet such as a beta-barrel. Singular points are locations where these connections are not perfect. In protein beta-sheets, a singular point is characterized by a residue separating two beta-ladders. In this paper, we study the singular points of protein beta-sheets from the surface topologic viewpoint, summarize our search results from the protein structural data in the Protein Data Bank, and present examples where singular points are near the active sites and may contribute to forming the proper relative positions of catalytic residues. PMID:9827998

Liu, W. M.; Chou, K. C.

1998-01-01

383

Beta-glucuronidase in physiology and disease.  

PubMed

beta-glucoronidase (EC 3.2.1.31) is a lysosomal enzyme catylysing the decomposition of beta-D-glucoronides--compounds arising as a result of the combination of beta-D-glucoronic acid and a number of compounds both exo- and endogenous, containing hydroxylic, carboxylic, amine, imine or thiol groups. The most common test evaluating the activity of the enzyme is that using phenolphtalein glucoronide as a biosynthetic substrate. The freed aglycons are colorimetrically assayed. The activity of beta-glucoronidase increases in many pathological conditions: liver infammations, cirrhosis of the liver, inflammations of other organs, cholestatic jaundice, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis and also in neoplasms. Many authors point to beta-glucoronidase as a sensitive indicator signalling cell damage. PMID:15323223

Basi?ska, Agnieszka; Floria?czyk, Boles?aw

2003-01-01

384

Genotypic Variation for Drought Tolerance in Beta vulgaris  

PubMed Central

Insufficient soil moisture during summer months is now the major cause of sugar beet yield losses in the UK. However, selection for increased drought tolerance has not been a breeding priority until recently. Genetic variation for drought tolerance is an essential prerequisite for the development of more stress?tolerant varieties, but commercial sugar beet varieties seem to have similar yield responses to drought. The objective of this study was to assess the degree of genotypic variation for drought tolerance within a wide range of sugar beet germplasm and genebank accessions within Beta. Thirty sugar beet genotypes were screened under field drought conditions, and putative drought tolerant and sensitive lines (in terms of yield reduction in polythene?covered vs. irrigated plots) were identified. Significant genotype × water treatment interactions were found for dry matter yield and relative leaf expansion rate. Genotypic differences for drought susceptibility index were also significant. Differential sensitivity of seedling shoot growth to water deficit was examined by comparing 350 genebank accessions in a simple growth chamber screen. Methods of data management were devised to highlight lines for entry into subsequent field tests. The results of the field and seedling screens indicate that there is variation for tolerance to water deficits within sugar beet and related types, and that there are lines that show greater drought tolerance than selected commercial varieties. Divergent lines showing contrasting behaviour should aid in the identification of key morpho?physiological traits that confer drought tolerance. PMID:12102517

OBER, E. S.; LUTERBACHER, M. C.

2002-01-01

385

Impaired growth of pancreatic exocrine cells in transgenic mice expressing human activin {beta}E subunit  

SciTech Connect

Activins, TGF-{beta} superfamily members, have multiple functions in a variety of cells and tissues. Recently, additional activin {beta} subunit genes, {beta}C and {beta}E, have been identified. To explore the role of activin E, we created transgenic mice overexpressing human activin {beta}E subunit. There were pronounced differences in the pancreata of the transgenic animals as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pancreatic weight, expressed relative to total body weight, was significantly reduced. Histologically, adipose replacement of acini in the exocrine pancreas was observed. There was a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the acinar cells, indicating reduced proliferation in the exocrine pancreas of the transgenic mice. However, quantitative pancreatic morphometry showed that the total number and mass of the islets of the transgenic mice were comparable with those of the nontransgenic control mice. Our findings suggest a role for activin E in regulating the proliferation of pancreatic exocrine cells.

Hashimoto, Osamu [Laboratory of Experimental Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Towada, Aomori 034-8628 (Japan)]. E-mail: ohashim@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp; Ushiro, Yuuki [Laboratory of Experimental Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Towada, Aomori 034-8628 (Japan); Sekiyama, Kazunari [Laboratory of Experimental Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Towada, Aomori 034-8628 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Osamu [Laboratory of Experimental Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Towada, Aomori 034-8628 (Japan); Yoshioka, Kazuki [Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Towada, Aomori 034-8628 (Japan); Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro [Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Towada, Aomori 034-8628 (Japan); Hasegawa, Yoshihisa [Laboratory of Experimental Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Towada, Aomori 034-8628 (Japan)

2006-03-10

386

Painlev\\'e representation of Tracy-Widom$_\\beta$ distribution for $\\beta = 6$  

E-print Network

In \\cite{betaFP1}, we found explicit Lax pairs for the soft edge of beta ensembles with even integer values of $\\beta$. Using this general result, the case $\\beta=6$ is further considered here. This is the smallest even $\\beta$, when the corresponding Lax pair and its relation to Painlev\\'e II (PII) have not been known before, unlike cases $\\beta=2$ and $4$. It turns out that again everything can be expressed in terms of the Hastings-McLeod solution of PII. In particular, a second order nonlinear ODE for the logarithmic derivative of Tracy-Widom distribution for $\\beta=6$ involving the PII function in the coefficients, is found, which allows one to compute asymptotics for the distribution function. The ODE is a consequence of a linear system of three ODEs for which the local Painlev\\'e analysis yields series solutions with exponents in the set $4/3$, $1/3$ and $-2/3$.

Rumanov, Igor

2014-01-01

387

Beta-dosimetry studies at LLNL  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes three beta-dosimetry studies made recently at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first study was to determine the beta-gamma exposure rates at the Los Alamos Godiva IV Critical Assembly. The beta spectra from the assembly were evaluated using absorption curves and the beta-gamma dose-rate ratios were determined at various distances from the assembly. A comparison was made of the doses determined using two types of TLD personnel dosimeters and a film badge. The readings of an Eberline RO-7 instrument and the dose rates determined by TLDs were compared. Shielding provided by various metals, gloves, and clothing were measured. The second study was to determine the beta energy response of the Eberline RO-7 instrument based on measurements made with the PTB beta sources. This study required additional calibration points for the PTB sources which were made using extrapolation chamber measurements. The third study resulted in two techniques to determine the beta energy (E/sub max/) from the readings of this-window portable survey instruments. Both techniques are based on the readings obtained using aluminium filters. One technique is for field application, requires one filter, and provides a quick estimate of the beta energy in three energy groups: < 0.5 MeV, 0.5 MeV to 1.5 MeV and > 1.5 MeV. The second technique is more complex requiring measurements with two or three filters, but gives the beta energy and the approximate shape of the beta spectrum. 9 references, 6 figures.

Hankins, D.E.

1983-01-01

388

Genetics Home Reference: 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency On this page: ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed November 2008 What is 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency? 17-beta hydroxysteroid ...

389

21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.  

...2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section 886...Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to...

2014-04-01

390

21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section 886...Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to...

2012-04-01

391

21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section 886...Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to...

2013-04-01

392

21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section 886...Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to...

2010-04-01

393

21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section 886...Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to...

2011-04-01

394

Genetics Home Reference: Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... gov Research studies OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency On this page: Description Genetic ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed September 2008 What is dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency? Dopamine beta (?)-hydroxylase deficiency ...

395

Genetics Home Reference: 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency On this page: Description ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed February 2010 What is 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency? 3-beta (?)-hydroxysteroid ...

396

What constrains directional selection on complex traits in the wild?  

E-print Network

The fact that abundant genetic variation persists within populations despite strong directional selection on complex traits is one of the unresolved conundrums in evolutionary biology. In this dissertation, I employed a ...

Mojica, Julius Penalba

2011-08-31

397

A dyadic-interactional perspective of implicit trait policies  

E-print Network

The dyadic-interactional perspective of personality suggests that behavior is a function of both stable personality traits and the dynamic interpersonal environment. According to this theory, interpersonal behavior generally follows the principle...

Benzer, Justin Kane

2009-05-15

398

Genetic Architecture of Growth Traits Revealed by Global Epistatic Interactions  

PubMed Central

Epistasis has long been recognized as fundamentally important in understanding the structure, function, and evolutionary dynamics of biological systems. Yet, little is known about how it is distributed underlying specific traits. Based on a global map of epistatic interactions in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that epistasis is prevalent (?13% increase from random expectation) and displays modular architecture among genes that underlie the same growth traits. More interestingly, our results indicate that hub genes responsible for the same growth traits tend to link epistatically with each other more frequently than random expectation. Our results provide a genome-wide perspective on the genetic architecture of growth traits in a eukaryotic organism. PMID:21859803

Xu, Lin; Jiang, Huifeng; Chen, Hong; Gu, Zhenglong

2011-01-01

399

Familial meralgia paresthetica with an autosomal dominant trait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial occurrence of Meralgia paresthetica is uncommon. Only few familial case studies have been reported up to now. The author presents a family with Meralgia in four generations, suggesting a distinctly autosomal dominant trait.

J.-P. Malin

1979-01-01

400

Quantitative Genetic Mapping of Life History Traits in Drosophila melanogaster  

E-print Network

uses the elite model system Drosophila melanogaster to perform quantitative genetic mapping on two important life history traits: the morphology of the posterior lobe of the genital arch and the length of time flies resist death due to starvation stress...

McNeil, Casey Lee

2012-08-31

401

Species identity influences belowground arthropod assemblages via functional traits  

PubMed Central

Plant species influence belowground communities in a variety of ways, ultimately impacting nutrient cycling. Functional plant traits provide a means whereby species identity can influence belowground community interactions, but little work has examined whether species identity influences belowground community processes when correcting for evolutionary history. Specifically, we hypothesized that closely related species would exhibit (i) more similar leaf and root functional traits than more distantly related species, and (ii) more similar associated soil arthropod communities. We found that after correcting for evolutionary history, tree species identity influenced belowground arthropod communities through plant functional traits. These data suggest that plant species structure may be an important predictor in shaping associated soil arthropod communities and further suggest the importance of better understanding the extended consequences of evolutionary history on ecological processes, as similarity in traits may not always reflect similar ecology.

Gorman, Courtney E.; Read, Quentin D.; Van Nuland, Michael E.; Bryant, Jessica A. M.; Welch, Jessica N.; Altobelli, Joseph T.; Douglas, Morgan J.; Genung, Mark A.; Haag, Elliot N.; Jones, Devin N.; Long, Hannah E.; Wilburn, Adam D.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

2013-01-01

402

Influence des traits de personnalit sur les comportements intrinsques  

E-print Network

la physiologie : - Extraversion - Introversion - Stabilité - Instabilité Le modèle "Five Factor Model Vulnerability Openness Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Extraversion 6 facettes par trait FFM/NEO PIR

Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

403

ORIGINAL ARTICLE A major effect quantitative trait locus for whirling  

E-print Network

and freshwater ecosystems (Bartholomew and Reno, 2002). Whirling disease has negatively impacted survival ratesORIGINAL ARTICLE A major effect quantitative trait locus for whirling disease resistance identified disease, caused by the pathogen Myxobolus cerebralis, leads to skeletal deformation, neurological

May, Bernie

404

Trait-based approaches to marine microbial ecology  

E-print Network

The goal of this thesis is to understand how the functional traits of species, biotic interactions, and the environment jointly regulate the community ecology of phytoplankton. In Chapter 2, I examined Continuous Plankton ...

Barton, Andrew David

2011-01-01

405

A fast algorithm for functional mapping of complex traits.  

PubMed Central

By integrating the underlying developmental mechanisms for the phenotypic formation of traits into a mapping framework, functional mapping has emerged as an important statistical approach for mapping complex traits. In this note, we explore the feasibility of using the simplex algorithm as an alternative to solve the mixture-based likelihood for functional mapping of complex traits. The results from the simplex algorithm are consistent with those from the traditional EM algorithm, but the simplex algorithm has considerably reduced computational times. Moreover, because of its nonderivative nature and easy implementation with current software, the simplex algorithm enjoys an advantage over the EM algorithm in the dynamic modeling and analysis of complex traits. PMID:15342547

Zhao, Wei; Wu, Rongling; Ma, Chang-Xing; Casella, George

2004-01-01

406

Original article Heterogeneity of variance for type traits  

E-print Network

, homogeneity of variance-covariance components) are presented. These hypotheses were described via, the existence of heterogeneous variances for milk production and other traits of economic importance in cattle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

Selective Genotyping and Phenotyping Strategies in a Complex Trait Context  

PubMed Central

Selective genotyping and phenotyping strategies are used to lower the cost of quantitative trait locus studies. Their efficiency has been studied primarily in simplified contexts—when a single locus contributes to the phenotype, and when the residual error (phenotype conditional on the genotype) is normally distributed. It is unclear how these strategies will perform in the context of complex traits where multiple loci, possibly linked or epistatic, may contribute to the trait. We also do not know what genotyping strategies should be used for nonnormally distributed phenotypes. For time-to-event phenotypes there is the additional question of choosing follow-up time duration. We use an information perspective to examine these experimental design issues in the broader context of complex traits and make recommendations on their use. PMID:19153260

Sen, Saunak; Johannes, Frank; Broman, Karl W.

2009-01-01

408

The temporal relationship of personality traits to personality disorders  

E-print Network

traits are stable in individuals diagnosed with four personality disorders (schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder), and examined the assumption that these personality disorders are stable by virtue of stable...

Warner, Megan Beth

2012-06-07

409

Juvenile Psychopathic Personality Traits are Associated with Poor Reading Achievement  

PubMed Central

The current study sought to further the understanding of the linkage between maladaptive behavior and cognitive problems by examining the relations between psychopathic personality traits and reading comprehension performance. Data were derived from a study of 432 predominately African-American and Hispanic middle-school students. Dependent variables consisted of three measures of reading comprehension. Psychopathy measures included the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits (ICU—teacher rated) and the self-reported Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI). Findings from regression models indicated that self-report and teacher ratings of psychopathy were statistically significant inverse predictors of reading performance. Specifically, affective facets of psychopathy were potent predictors of reading comprehension over and above ADHD, IQ, and an impulsivity component of psychopathy. Study results extend the utility of psychopathy construct generally and affective traits specifically to reading achievement, which has broad implications. Findings are discussed with respect to future research and prevention. PMID:20957434

DeLisi, Matt; Beaver, Kevin M.; Wexler, Jade; Barth, Amy; Fletcher, Jack

2011-01-01

410

Invited Review Identifying the genes underlying quantitative traits  

E-print Network

this goal first gained steam in non-model systems with the widespread adoption of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in the late 1990s, the recent explosion of sequencing technologies is likely to only

Stinchcombe, John

411

Juvenile psychopathic personality traits are associated with poor reading achievement.  

PubMed

The current study sought to further the understanding of the linkage between maladaptive behavior and cognitive problems by examining the relations between psychopathic personality traits and reading comprehension performance. Data were derived from a study of 432 predominately African-American and Hispanic middle-school students. Dependent variables consisted of three measures of reading comprehension. Psychopathy measures included the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits (ICU-teacher rated) and the self-reported Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI). Findings from regression models indicated that self-report and teacher ratings of psychopathy were statistically significant inverse predictors of reading performance. Specifically, affective facets of psychopathy were potent predictors of reading comprehension over and above ADHD, IQ, and an impulsivity component of psychopathy. Study results extend the utility of psychopathy construct generally and affective traits specifically to reading achievement, which has broad implications. Findings are discussed with respect to future research and prevention. PMID:20957434

Vaughn, Michael G; DeLisi, Matt; Beaver, Kevin M; Wexler, Jade; Barth, Amy; Fletcher, Jack

2011-09-01

412

The complete sequences of trout (Salmo gairdneri) thymosin beta 11 and its homologue thymosin beta 12.  

PubMed

Two forms of beta-thymosins, designated thymosin beta 11 and thymosin beta 12, were isolated from trout (Salmo gairdneri) spleen. This suggests that the presence of two beta-thymosins, previously thought to be a property of mammalian tissues only, is a more general phenomenon in vertebrate species. Both trout beta-thymosins were found to be N-terminally blocked by a group identified as acetyl by m.s. Automated protein sequencing of tryptic, thermolytic and Staphylococcus aureus in 41-residue V8 proteinase fragments revealed that one of the two beta-thymosins corresponds to the previously reported 41-residue-long sequence of thymosin beta 11 with two substitutions at positions 5 and 7, i.e. Asn instead of Asp, and Glu instead of Gln, whereas the other beta-thymosin, designated thymosin beta 12, was found to be a 42-residue polypeptide closely similar in sequence to thymosin beta 11, with five substitutions (i.e. at positions 5, 7, 10, 11 and 41, with Asp, Ala, Ser, Asn and Thr instead of Asn, Glu, Ala, Ser and Ser respectively) and one addition at position 42 (Ala). Comparison of the known six sequences of beta-thymosins together with the sequences reported here showed that the sequence similarity of the two beta-thymosins in trout (86%) is greater than that of the two beta-thymosins in mammalian species (74%) and that residues at 28 positions are identical in all beta-thymosins, the longer conserved segments located at positions 16-26 and 31-38. PMID:1575682

Yialouris, P P; Coles, B; Tsitsiloni, O; Schmid, B; Howell, S; Aitken, A; Voelter, W; Haritos, A A

1992-04-15

413

It Skips a Generation: Traits, Genes, and Crosses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many of the early discoveries in genetics occured in plants. Plants have a few special characteristics that make them ideal for studying genetics. From one known cross, many genetically similar "siblings" are produced. Building from Gregor Mendel's crosses with peas, students review plant breeding populations and crosses. Emphasis is placed on recessive and dominant traits as well as Mendelian quantitative traits. Questions focus on genetics and evolution.

Rice, Elizabeth; Smith, Margaret E.; Krasny, Marianne

2006-01-01

414

Simple inheritance of key traits distinguishing maize and teosinte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The segregation of key traits distinguishing maize and teosinte was analyzed in three F2 and three backcross populations derived from crosses of the modern maize inbred T232 withZea mays ssp.parviglumis. These traits were (i) paired vs. single female spikelets; (ii) two-ranked vs. many-ranked ears; (iii) non-indurated vs. indurated glumes; (iv) inclination of the kernels toward the rachis, and (v) distichous

Véronique M. Szabó; Benjamin Burr

1996-01-01

415

Effects of Previous Calf Management on Feedlot and Carcass Traits  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF PREVIOUS CALF MANAGEMENT ON FEEDLOT AND CARCASS TRAITS A Thesis by BOBBY CLEAVE BINGHAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2011 Major Subject: Animal Science EFFECTS OF PREVIOUS CALF MANAGEMENT ON FEEDLOT AND CARCASS TRAITS A Thesis by BOBBY CLEAVE BINGHAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

Bingham, Bobby Cleave

2012-02-14

416

Generality of leaf trait relationships: A test across six biomes  

SciTech Connect

Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here the authors address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity, net photosynthetic capacity (A{sub max}), leaf diffusive conductance (G{sub S}), specific leaf area (SLA), and nitrogen (N) status, for more than 100 species in six distinct biomes of the Americas. The six biomes were: alpine tundra-subalpine forest ecotone, cold temperate forest-prairie ecotone, montane cool temperate forest, desert shrubland, subtropical forest, and tropical rain forest. Despite large differences in climate and evolutionary history, in all biomes mass-based leaf N (N{sub mass}), SLA, G{sub S}, and A{sub max} were positively related to one another and decreased with increasing leaf life span. The relationships between pairs of leaf traits exhibited similar slopes among biomes, suggesting a predictable set of scaling relationships among key leaf morphological, chemical, and metabolic traits that are replicated globally among terrestrial ecosystems regardless of biome or vegetation type. However, the intercept (i.e., the overall elevation of regression lines) of relationships between pairs of leaf traits usually differed among biomes. With increasing aridity across sites, species had greater A{sub max} for a given level of G{sub S} and lower SLA for any given leaf life span. Using principal components analysis, most variation among species was explained by an axis related to mass-based leaf traits (A{sub max}, N, and SLA) while a second axis reflected climate, G{sub S}, and other area-based leaf traits.

Reich, P.B. [Univ. of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources; Ellsworth, D.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Walters, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Vose, J.M. [Forest Service, Otto, NC (United States). Coweeta Hydrological Lab.; Gresham, C. [Clemson Univ., Georgetown, SC (United States). Baruch Forest Inst.; Volin, J.C. [Florida Atlantic Univ., Davie, FL (United States). Div. of Science; Bowman, W.D. [Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Mountain Research Station]|[Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Evolutionary, Population, and Organismic Biology

1999-09-01

417

LIKABLENESS RATINGS OF 555 PERSONALITY-TRAIT WORDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

100 COLLEGE STUDENTS RATED 555 PERSONALITY-TRAIT WORDS. LIKABLENESS RATINGS OF 555 PERSONALITY-TRAIT WORDS ON LIKABLENESS AS PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS. THE MEAN RATINGS AND THEIR VARIANCES ARE TABULATED, TOGETHER WITH AUXILIARY RATINGS ON MEANINGFULNESS. CORRELATIONS OF THE NORMATIVE LIKABLENESS VALUES WITH SIMILAR DATA FROM 3 OTHER UNIVERSITIES RANGED FROM .96-.99. BETWEEN-S VARIABILITY WAS ASSESSED, AND ITS RELEVANCE TO EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN IS DISCUSSED.

NORMAN H. ANDERSON

1968-01-01

418

Sex-Trait Stereotypes in India and Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex-trait stereotypes are defined as the psychological characteristics differentially ascribed to women and to men. These stereotypes were studied among five- and eight-year-old children and among university students in India and Pakistan. Results were generally congruent with the findings from similar studies in Western countries; for example, in both countries, traits associated with men were stronger and more active than

John E. Williamsa; Deborah L. Best; Abdul Haque; Janak Pandey; Ravi Kumar Verma

1982-01-01

419

Reduce, reuse, and recycle: Developmental evolution of trait diversification  

E-print Network

and development, and the reuse of particular genes in the parallel evolution of ecologically important traits. Key words: CRABS CLAW ; CYCLOIDEA ; evo-devo; FRUITFULL ; independent recruitment; KNOX1; parallelism; trait evolution. 1 Manuscript received... and differentiation. AP1 (green) is expressed alongside its close paralog CAULIFLOWER ( CAL ) in fl oral meristems, where both genes specify fl oral meristem identity and later in sepals and petals to promote fl oral organ identity. 399March 2011] Preston et al...

Preston, Jill C.; Hileman, Lena C.; Cubas, Pilar

2011-01-01

420

Automatic prediction of facial trait judgments: appearance vs. structural models.  

PubMed

Evaluating other individuals with respect to personality characteristics plays a crucial role in human relations and it is the focus of attention for research in diverse fields such as psychology and interactive computer systems. In psychology, face perception has been recognized as a key component of this evaluation system. Multiple studies suggest that observers use face information to infer personality characteristics. Interactive computer systems are trying to take advantage of these findings and apply them to increase the natural aspect of interaction and to improve the performance of interactive computer systems. Here, we experimentally test whether the automatic prediction of facial trait judgments (e.g. dominance) can be made by using the full appearance information of the face and whether a reduced representation of its structure is sufficient. We evaluate two separate approaches: a holistic representation model using the facial appearance information and a structural model constructed from the relations among facial salient points. State of the art machine learning methods are applied to a) derive a facial trait judgment model from training data and b) predict a facial trait value for any face. Furthermore, we address the issue of whether there are specific structural relations among facial points that predict perception of facial traits. Experimental results over a set of labeled data (9 different trait evaluations) and classification rules (4 rules) suggest that a) prediction of perception of facial traits is learnable by both holistic and structural approaches; b) the most reliable prediction of facial trait judgments is obtained by certain type of holistic descriptions of the face appearance; and c) for some traits such as attractiveness and extroversion, there are relationships between specific structural features and social perceptions. PMID:21858069

Rojas, Mario; Masip, David; Todorov, Alexander; Vitria, Jordi

2011-01-01

421

Trait Anger, Appraisal, and Coping Differences Among Adolescent Tennis Players  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-trait-anger adolescent athletes appraise and cope with anger-provoking events differently than lower-trait-anger athletes. A second purpose was to assess gender differences in anger appraisal and coping. A sample of 103 competitive adolescent tennis players completed the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale (Burney, 2001), the coping function questionnaire (Kowalski & Crocker, 2001), and

Melinda R. Bolgar; Christopher Janelle; Peter R. Giacobbi Jr

2008-01-01

422

The modulation of somatosensory resonance by psychopathic traits and empathy  

PubMed Central

A large number of neuroimaging studies have shown neural overlaps between first-hand experiences of pain and the perception of pain in others. This shared neural representation of vicarious pain is thought to involve both affective and sensorimotor systems. A number of individual factors are thought to modulate the cerebral response to other's pain. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of psychopathic traits on the relation between sensorimotor resonance to other's pain and self-reported empathy. Our group has previously shown that a steady-state response to non-painful stimulation is modulated by the observation of other people's bodily pain. This change in somatosensory response was interpreted as a form of somatosensory gating (SG). Here, using the same technique, SG was compared between two groups of 15 young adult males: one scoring very high on a self-reported measure of psychopathic traits [60.8 ± 4.98; Levenson's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP)] and one scoring very low (42.7 ± 2.94). The results showed a significantly greater reduction of SG to pain observation for the high psychopathic traits group compared to the low psychopathic traits group. SG to pain observation was positively correlated with affective and interpersonal facet of psychopathy in the whole sample. The high psychopathic traits group also reported lower empathic concern (EC) scores than the low psychopathic traits group. Importantly, primary psychopathy, as assessed by the LSRP, mediated the relation between EC and SG to pain observation. Together, these results suggest that increase somatosensory resonance to other's pain is not exclusively explained by trait empathy and may be linked to other personality dimensions, such as psychopathic traits. PMID:23801950

Marcoux, Louis-Alexandre; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Voisin, Julien I. A.; Lemelin, Sophie; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Jackson, Philip L.

2013-01-01

423

Internet Addiction: Personality Traits Associated with Its Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated personality traits of those considered dependent users of the Internet utilizing the 16PF. Results showed that 259 cases of Dependents were classified based upon modified DSM-IV criteria for Pathological Gambling. Dependents ranked high in terms of self- reliance, emotional sensitivity and reactivity, vigilance, low self-disclosure, and non-conformist characteristics. This preliminary analysis discusses how such traits may act

Kimberly S. Young; Robert C. Rodgers

424

Personality traits and developmental experiences as antecedents of childbearing motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childbearing motivation may be conceptualized as based upon psychological traits and shaped by experiences during childhood,\\u000a adolescence, and early adult life. This paper explores what those traits and developmental experiences are. Two measures of\\u000a childbearing motivation, one positive and the other negative, are described. Using a sample of 362 married men and 354 married\\u000a women, the paper systematically examines the

Warren B. Miller

1992-01-01

425

Relationship between Conformation Traits and Lifetime Production Efficiency of Cows  

PubMed Central

Analysis was made of the relationship between conformation traits and lifetime production efficiency of the cows that first calved in 2000 and represented the active population in the Pomorze and Kujawy regions of Poland. The CORR Pearson procedures of SAS package were used in the statistical calculations. It was found that there is a statistically significant relationship, weak or low on the Guilford scale, between conformation traits and lifetime production efficiency of the cows, which is slightly higher for milk yield than for longevity. The type and conformation traits appear to be more suitable than the detailed traits for predicting the lifetime production efficiency of cows. Lifetime performance was most strongly related to the overall score and udder score (r = 0.22), followed by the scores for type and conformation and legs and feet (r = 0.13), and detailed traits such as udder width and dairy character (r = 0.14). The highest positive effect on longevity was exerted by udder score and legs and feet (r = 0.11) and among detailed traits by udder placement (r = 0.14) and fore udder attachment (r = 0.10). PMID:23878743

Sawa, A.; Bogucki, M.; Kr??el-Czopek, S.; Neja, W.

2013-01-01

426

Do girls with anorexia nervosa have elevated autistic traits?  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with anorexia may have elevated autistic traits. In this study, we tested test whether patients with anorexia nervosa (anorexia) have an elevated score on a dimensional measure of autistic traits, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), as well as on trait measures relevant to the autism spectrum: the Empathy Quotient (EQ), and the Systemizing Quotient (SQ). Methods Two groups were tested: (1) female adolescents with anorexia: n?=?66, aged 12 to 18 years; and (2) female adolescents without anorexia: n =1,609, aged 12 to 18 years. Both groups were tested using the AQ, EQ, and SQ, via the parent-report adolescent versions for patients aged 12 to 15 years old, and the self-report adult versions for patients aged over 16 years. Results As predicted, the patients with anorexia had a higher AQ and SQ. Their EQ score was reduced, but only for the parent-report version in the younger age group. Using EQ-SQ scores to calculate ‘cognitive types’, patients with anorexia were more likely to show the Type S profile (systemizing (S) better than empathy (E)), compared with typical females. Conclusions Females with anorexia have elevated autistic traits. Clinicians should consider if a focus on autistic traits might be helpful in the assessment and treatment of anorexia. Future research needs to establish if these results reflect traits or states associated with anorexia. PMID:23915495

2013-01-01

427

A Bayesian Nonparametric Approach for Mapping Dynamic Quantitative Traits  

PubMed Central

In biology, many quantitative traits are dynamic in nature. They can often be described by some smooth functions or curves. A joint analysis of all the repeated measurements of the dynamic traits by functional quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping methods has the benefits to (1) understand the genetic control of the whole dynamic process of the quantitative traits and (2) improve the statistical power to detect QTL. One crucial issue in functional QTL mapping is how to correctly describe the smoothness of trajectories of functional valued traits. We develop an efficient Bayesian nonparametric multiple-loci procedure for mapping dynamic traits. The method uses the Bayesian P-splines with (nonparametric) B-spline bases to specify the functional form of a QTL trajectory and a random walk prior to automatically determine its degree of smoothness. An efficient deterministic variational Bayes algorithm is used to implement both (1) the search of an optimal subset of QTL among large marker panels and (2) estimation of the genetic effects of the selected QTL changing over time. Our method can be fast even on some large-scale data sets. The advantages of our method are illustrated on both simulated and real data sets. PMID:23770698

Li, Zitong; Sillanpaa, Mikko J.

2013-01-01

428

Selection in a cycling population: differential response among skeletal traits.  

PubMed

Population density cycles influence phenotypic evolution through both density-dependent selection during periods of high density and through enhanced genetic drift during periods of low density. We investigated the response of different phenotypic traits to the same density cycles in a population of the yellow-necked mouse, Apodemus flavicollis, from Bia?owieza National Park in Poland. We examined nonmetric skull traits, skull and mandible size, skull and mandible shape, and transferrin allele frequencies. We found that all of the traits changed significantly over the seven-year study period. The greatest changes in nonmetric traits and mandible size occurred during periods of increasing density, and the magnitude of changes in skull and mandible shape was correlated with the magnitude of density changes. Frequencies of transferrin alleles changed the most when population density was in decline. Changes among the five phenotypic traits were generally uncorrelated with one another, except for skull and mandible shape. Nonmetric traits were selectively neutral when assessed with Q(ST)/F(ST) analysis, whereas mandible size, mandible shape, and skull shape showed evidence of fairly strong selection. Selection on skull size was weak or nonexistent. We discuss how different assumptions about the genetic components of variance affect Q(ST) estimates when phenotypic variances are substituted for genetic ones. We also found that change in mandible size, mandible shape, skull size, and skull shape were greater than expected under a neutral model given reasonable assumptions about heritability and effective population size. PMID:17089976

Wójcik, Anna M; Polly, P David; Sikorski, Micha? D; Wójcik, Jan M

2006-09-01

429

Association Between Floral Traits and Rewards in Erysimum mediohispanicum (Brassicaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Floral rewards may be associated with certain morphological floral traits and thus act as underlying factors promoting selection on these traits. This study investigates whether some traits that are under pollinator-mediated selection (flower number, stalk height, corolla diameter, corolla tube length and corolla tube width) in the Mediterranean herb E. mediohispanicum (Brassicaceae) are associated with rewards (pollen and nectar). Methods During 2005 the phenotypic traits and the visitation rate of the main pollinator functional groups were quantified in 720 plants belonging to eight populations in south-east Spain, and during 2006 the same phenotypic traits and the reward production were quantified in 400 additional plants from the same populations. Key Results A significant correlation was found between nectar production rate and corolla tube length, and between pollen production and corolla diameter. Visitation rates of large bees and butterflies were significantly higher in plants exhibiting larger flowers with longer corolla tubes. Conclusions The association between reward production and floral traits may be a factor underlying the pattern of visitation rate displayed by some pollinators. PMID:18424472

Gómez, José M.; Bosch, Jordi; Perfectti, Francisco; Fernández, J. D.; Abdelaziz, Mohamed; Camacho, J. P. M.

2008-01-01

430

The nature and structure of correlations among Big Five ratings: the halo-alpha-beta model.  

PubMed

In light of consistently observed correlations among Big Five ratings, the authors developed and tested a model that combined E. L. Thorndike's (1920) general evaluative bias (halo) model and J. M. Digman's (1997) higher order personality factors (alpha and beta) model. With 4 multitrait-multimethod analyses, Study 1 revealed moderate convergent validity for alpha and beta across raters, whereas halo was mainly a unique factor for each rater. In Study 2, the authors showed that the halo factor was highly correlated with a validated measure of evaluative biases in self-ratings. Study 3 showed that halo is more strongly correlated with self-ratings of self-esteem than self-ratings of the Big Five, which suggests that halo is not a mere rating bias but actually reflects overly positive self-evaluations. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated that the halo bias in Big Five ratings is stable over short retest intervals. Taken together, the results suggest that the halo-alpha-beta model integrates the main findings in structural analyses of Big Five correlations. Accordingly, halo bias in self-ratings is a reliable and stable bias in individuals' perceptions of their own attributes. Implications of the present findings for the assessment of Big Five personality traits in monomethod studies are discussed. PMID:19968424

Anusic, Ivana; Schimmack, Ulrich; Pinkus, Rebecca T; Lockwood, Penelope

2009-12-01

431

Applying the coalitionary-traits metric: sociality without cooperation in male yellow-bellied marmots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian sociality varies both within and between species. We developed a trait-based method to quantify sociality in a continuous way to study the adaptive utility and evolution of male social behavior. The metric is based on 3 key traits--mutual tolerance, collaboration, and partner preference; males with no traits are not social, whereas those with all 3 traits are described as

Lucretia E. Olson; Daniel T. Blumstein

2010-01-01

432

Combining ability and patterns of inheritance for plant and fruit traits in Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic variation and pattern ofinheritance was investigated for plant andfruit traits in Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica, Maloideae). Japanesequince is a minor fruit crop in Latvia andLithuania, and is presently being developedfor production of juice, aroma and fruitfibre in Sweden and Finland. General andspecific combining ability was estimatedfor five plant vegetative traits, eightfruit yield and morphology traits, and fivefruit biochemistry traits

K. Rumpunen; D. Kviklys

2003-01-01

433

Functional traits of graminoids in semi-arid steppes: a test of grazing histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Understanding variability in ecosystem response to grazing is essential for improving management. Recent efforts have focused on the role of plant functional traits but do not iden- tify factors influencing trait development. As traits are legacies of historical selective pressures, they may indicate the importance of a plant community's evolutionary history of grazing. 2. We compared grazing-resistance traits

PETER B. ADLER; DANIEL G. MILCHUNAS; WILLIAM K. LAUENROTH; OSVALDO E. SALA; INGRID C. BURKE

2004-01-01

434

HYBRID DYSGENESIS IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER: A SYNDROME OF ABERRANT TRAITS INCLUDING MUTATION, STERILITY AND MALE RECOMBINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A syndrome of associated aberrant traits is described in Drosophila mel- anogaster. Six of these traits, mutation, sterility, male recombination, trans- mission ratio distortion, chromosomal aberrations and local increases in female recombination, have previously been reported. A seventh trait, nondisjunc- tion, is described for the first time. All of the traits we have examined are found nonreciprocally in F, hybrids.

MARGARET G. KIDWELL; JAMES F. KIDWELL; JOHN A. SVED

435

Exploring the Relationships between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Objective Socio-Emotional Outcomes in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Trait emotional intelligence ("trait EI" or "trait emotional self-efficacy") is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. This paper examines the validity of this construct, as operationalized by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form…

Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K. V.; Sangareau, Yolanda; Furnham, Adrian

2009-01-01

436

Electrophysiological time course and brain areas of spontaneous and intentional trait inferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study measured event-related potentials during spontaneous and intentional trait inferences. Participants read sentences describing the behavior of a target person from which a strong moral trait could be inferred. The last word of each sentence determined the consistency with the trait induced during an introductory paragraph. In comparison with behaviors that were consistent with the implied trait, a P300

Marijke Van Duynslaeger; Frank Van Overwalle; Edwin Verstraeten

2007-01-01

437

Trait Emotional Intelligence, Psychological Well-Being and Peer-Rated Social Competence in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) framework provides comprehensive coverage of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between trait EI and four distinct socioemotional criteria on a sample of Dutch adolescents (N = 282; 136 girls, 146 boys; mean…

Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K. V.; Rieffe, Carolien; Bakker, Femke

2007-01-01

438

Moderating Role of Trait Aggressiveness in the Effects of Violent Media on Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that high trait aggressive individuals are more affected by violent media than are low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 1, participants read film descriptions and then chose a film to watch. High trait aggressive individuals were more likely to choose a violent film to watch than were low trait aggressive individuals. In

Brad J. Bushman

1995-01-01

439

Spontaneous trait inference and construal level theory: Psychological distance increases nonconscious trait thinking  

PubMed Central

Can psychological distance affect how much perceivers form spontaneous trait inferences (STI) from others’ behaviors? On the basis of construal level theory (CLT) which posits that distant (vs. near) entities are represented more in terms of their abstract, global, and decontextualized features, we predicted that perceived distance would increase the tendency for perceivers to draw spontaneous trait inferences from behavioral information about actors. In two experiments, participants learned about people who were perceived as being distant or proximal to the self, and STI formation was subsequently assessed. We found that perceivers were more likely to form STIs about distant vs. near actors from the same behavioral information. These findings generalized across two distance dimensions: space and time. In addition, we found that priming individuals to adopt a high-level (vs. low-level) construal mindset also resulted in increased STI (Experiment 3). In sum, psychological distance facilitates STI formation, and this occurs via high-level construal of actors and their behaviors. PMID:21822331

Rim, SoYon; Uleman, James S.; Trope, Yaacov

2011-01-01

440

Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting some carcass and meat traits in duck (Anas platyrhynchos).  

PubMed

Contrary to chicken and livestock mammals, duck genome has not been explored much. Nowadays a relatively small number of reports on molecular variability and mapping of loci in Peking ducks has been published. Therefore, the objective of this study was to detect single loci affecting body weight, carcass and meat traits in Peking ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The study was based on an F2 cross between two parental lines A-55 and GL-30. Phenotypes of 387 birds from generation F2 including carcass and meat quality traits were collected. Linkage map, of the linkage group CAU1, consisting of 29 microsatellite markers was constructed. One highly significant (p?

Mucha, Sebastian; Grajewski, Bartosz; Gornowicz, Ewa; Lisowski, Miros?aw; Radziszewska, Jolanta; Szwaczkowski, Tomasz

2014-11-01