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1

Beta-thalassaemia unlinked to the beta-globin gene interacts with sickle-cell trait in a Portuguese family.  

PubMed

An autosomally transmitted hypochromic microcytic mild anaemia with elevated haemoglobin (Hb) A2 and globin chain imbalance has been observed in a three-generation family of Portuguese origin. Extensive DNA analysis of the beta-globin gene cluster, including the complete sequencing of the beta-globin gene and flanking regions, failed to reveal any genetic alteration. The co-segregation of sickle-cell trait in this family enabled us to postulate a defective erythroid trans-acting factor was playing a role in the down-regulation of both beta A- and beta S-globin genes. Among the transcription factors that could possibly have caused the reported phenotype, NF-E2 is unlikely to be implicated, whereas Nrf1 and Nrf2 cannot be ruled out. Thus, this family carries a novel beta-thalassaemia autosomal determinant unlinked to the beta-globin gene. This observation reinforces the notion of the haemoglobinopathies as single gene disorders under polygenic regulation. PMID:7577658

Pacheco, P; Peres, M J; Faustino, P; Pischedda, C; Gonçalves, J; Carvajales-Ramos, M; Seixas, T; Martins, M C; Moi, P; Lavinha, J

1995-09-01

2

Hb E/beta-thalassaemia: a common & clinically diverse disorder.  

PubMed

Haemoglobin E-beta thalassaemia (Hb E/?-thalassaemia) is the genotype responsible for approximately one-half of all severe beta-thalassaemia worldwide. The disorder is characterized by marked clinical variability, ranging from a mild and asymptomatic anaemia to a life-threatening disorder requiring transfusions from infancy. The phenotypic variability of Hb E/?-thalassaemia and the paucity of long-term clinical data, present challenges in providing definitive recommendations for the optimal management of patients. Genetic factors influencing the severity of this disorder include the type of beta-thalassaemia mutation, the co-inheritance of alpha-thalassaemia, and polymorphisms associated with increased production of foetal haemoglobin. Other factors, including a variable increase in serum erythropoietin in response to anaemia, previous or ongoing infection with malaria, previous splenectomy and other environmental influences, may be involved. The remarkable variation, and the instability, of the clinical phenotype of Hb E beta-thalassaemia suggests that careful tailoring of treatment is required for each patient, and that therapeutic approaches should be re-assessed over-time. PMID:22089616

Olivieri, Nancy F; Pakbaz, Zahra; Vichinsky, Elliott

2011-10-01

3

Epistasis and the sensitivity of phenotypic screens for beta thalassaemia.  

PubMed

Genetic disorders of haemoglobin, particularly the sickle cell diseases and the alpha and beta thalassaemias, are the commonest inherited disorders worldwide. The majority of affected births occur in low-income and lower-middle income countries. Screening programmes are a vital tool to counter these haemoglobinopathies by: (i) identifying individual carriers and allowing them to make informed reproductive choices, and (ii) generating population level gene-frequency estimates, to help ensure the optimal allocation of public health resources. For both of these functions it is vital that the screen performed is suitably sensitive. One popular first-stage screening option to detect carriers of beta thalassaemia in low-income countries is the One Tube Osmotic Fragility Test (OTOFT). Here we introduce a population genetic framework within which to quantify the likely sensitivity and specificity of the OTOFT in different epidemiological contexts. We demonstrate that interactions between the carrier states for beta thalassaemia and alpha thalassaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis have the potential to reduce the sensitivity of OTOFTs for beta thalassaemia heterozygosity to below 70%. Our results therefore caution against the widespread application of OTOFTs in regions where these erythrocyte variants co-occur. PMID:25521998

Penman, Bridget S; Gupta, Sunetra; Weatherall, David J

2015-04-01

4

Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Homozygous Beta Thalassaemia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Pregnancy in women with homozygous beta thalassaemia (HBT) carries a high risk to both the mother and fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate pregnancy outcomes among this group at a single tertiary centre. Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted between January 2006 and December 2012 on all women with HBT who received prenatal care and subsequently delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Women who delivered elsewhere and women with the beta thalassaemia trait were excluded. Results: Ten women with HBT were studied with a total of 15 pregnancies and 14 live births. The mean maternal age ± standard deviation (SD) was 27.9 ± 3.7 years, with a range of 24–35 years. There were 14 spontaneous pregnancies and one pregnancy following hormone treatment. Eight women had been on chelation therapy before pregnancy, one of whom needed chelation during late pregnancy. Of the pregnancies, 93% had a successful outcome with a mean ± SD gestational age at delivery of 38.6 ± 0.9 weeks, with a range of 37–40 weeks. Eight babies (57%) were delivered by Caesarean section. The mean ± SD birth weight was 2.6 ± 0.2 kg, with a range of 1.9–3.0 kg. Three babies (21%) were born with low birth weights. Conclusion: Pregnancy is safe and usually has a favourable outcome in patients with HBT, provided that a multidisciplinary team is available. This is the first study of Omani patients with HBT whose pregnancies have resulted in a successful outcome. PMID:25097768

Al-Riyami, Nihal; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Daar, Shahina

2014-01-01

5

Haemoglobin S Interaction with Beta Thalassaemia- A Case Report from Assam, India  

PubMed Central

Interaction of Hb S with beta thalassaemia is being reported here as this type of case is rare. Hb S (?6 glu?val) is a genetic disorder which occurs due to beta globin gene mutation of haemoglobin. In India, the Hb S is prevalent in the central part, in the eastern, western and southern tribal belt regions and among the tea tribe communities of Assam. The Hb S carriers (Sickle cell trait) leads a normal life but the Sickle cell disease patients show certain clinical manifestation like joint pain, anaemia and jaundice. The HPLC report of the patient showed Compound heterozygous for Hb S- ? thalassaemia. The complete blood count was measured in automated haematology analyser. Mutational pattern of the beta thalassaemia as well as the presence of Hb S gene was detected by PCR. The case showed severe clinical manifestations and transfusion was required due to inheritance of the IVS 1-5 G ?C ?- thalassaemia mutation with the Hb S gene. PMID:25386449

Borah, Monalisha Saikia; Kalita, Dulal

2014-01-01

6

Haemoglobin s interaction with Beta thalassaemia- a case report from assam, India.  

PubMed

Interaction of Hb S with beta thalassaemia is being reported here as this type of case is rare. Hb S (?6 glu?val) is a genetic disorder which occurs due to beta globin gene mutation of haemoglobin. In India, the Hb S is prevalent in the central part, in the eastern, western and southern tribal belt regions and among the tea tribe communities of Assam. The Hb S carriers (Sickle cell trait) leads a normal life but the Sickle cell disease patients show certain clinical manifestation like joint pain, anaemia and jaundice. The HPLC report of the patient showed Compound heterozygous for Hb S- ? thalassaemia. The complete blood count was measured in automated haematology analyser. Mutational pattern of the beta thalassaemia as well as the presence of Hb S gene was detected by PCR. The case showed severe clinical manifestations and transfusion was required due to inheritance of the IVS 1-5 G ?C ?- thalassaemia mutation with the Hb S gene. PMID:25386449

Pathak, Mauchumi Saikia; Borah, Monalisha Saikia; Kalita, Dulal

2014-09-01

7

Negative epistasis between ?+ thalassaemia and sickle cell trait can explain interpopulation variation in South Asia.  

PubMed

Recent studies in Kenya and Ghana have shown that individuals who inherit two malaria-protective genetic disorders of haemoglobin-?(+) thalassaemia and sickle cell trait-experience a much lower level of malaria protection than those who inherit sickle cell trait alone. We have previously demonstrated that this can limit the frequency of ?(+) thalassaemia in a population in which sickle cell is present, which may account for the frequency of ?(+) thalassaemia in sub-Saharan Africa not exceeding 50%. Here we consider the relationship between ?(+) thalassaemia and sickle cell in South Asian populations, and show that very high levels of ?(+) thalassaemia combined with varying levels of malaria selection can explain why sickle cell has penetrated certain South Asian populations but not others. PMID:22133230

Penman, Bridget S; Habib, Saman; Kanchan, Kanika; Gupta, Sunetra

2011-12-01

8

Psychosocial functioning in adults with beta-thalassaemia major: Evidence for resilience.  

PubMed

Our aims were to compare the psychosocial functioning of a sample of adults with beta-thalassaemia major to that of a control sample and to examine the protective role of quality of relationship with parents during adolescence and perceived quality of care. A total of 85 Italian beta-thalassaemia major participants and 73 controls completed an ad hoc questionnaire. Compared with controls, beta-thalassaemia major participants did not differ on relationships with significant others and coping strategies. Beta-thalassaemia major participants reported higher scores on job satisfaction, self-esteem and self-description. The relationship with parents during adolescence and the perceived quality of care significantly predicted higher well-being and psychosocial functioning. PMID:24058126

Zani, Bruna; Prati, Gabriele

2015-04-01

9

Co-inheritance of alpha- and beta-thalassaemia in mice ameliorates thalassaemic phenotype.  

PubMed

Beta-thalassaemia is an inherited disease caused by defective synthesis of the beta-globin chain of haemoglobin, leading to an imbalance in globin chains. Excess alpha-globin chains precipitate in erythroid progenitor cells resulting in cell death, ineffective erythropoiesis and severe anaemia. Decreased alpha-globin synthesis leads to milder symptoms, exemplified by individuals who co-inherit alpha-thalassaemia and beta-thalassaemia. In this study, we set out to investigate whether co-inheritance of alpha- and beta-thalassaemia in mice leads to reduced anaemia. Heterozygous murine beta-globin knockout (KO) mice (beta+/-) which display severe anaemia were mated with heterozygous alpha-globin KO mice (alpha++/--). The resulting progeny were genotyped and classed as wild-type WT (alpha++/++;beta+/+), heterozygous alpha-KO (alpha++/--;beta+/+), heterozygous beta-KO (alpha++/++;beta+/-) or double heterozygous (DH) alpha-KO/beta-KO (alpha++/--;beta+/-). Mice were bled and full blood examinations (FBE) performed. FBE results for heterozygous beta-KO mice (beta+/-) showed marked reductions in haemoglobin and haematocrit levels and significant increases in red cell distribution widths and reticulocyte counts compared to WT mice. In contrast, FBE results for DH alpha-KO/beta-KO mice showed near normal red blood cell indices. These results indicate that reduction of alpha-globin expression leads to correction of the globin chain imbalance in beta-thalassaemic mice and therefore an improved phenotype. The analysis of DH alpha-KO/beta-KO mice leads to the following conclusions: (1) co-inheritance of alpha- and beta-thalassaemia in mice improves the thalassaemic phenotype, identical to the situation in humans; (2) the heterozygous murine beta-globin KO mouse model is a suitable in vivo model to test for therapeutic knockdown of alpha-globin. PMID:17493845

Voon, Hsiao Phin Joanna; Wardan, Hady; Vadolas, Jim

2007-01-01

10

Co-inheritance of ?+thalassaemia and sickle trait results in specific effects on haematological parameters  

PubMed Central

Both the sickle cell trait (HbAS) and ?+thalassaemia are common in many tropical areas. While individually their haematological effects have been well described previously, few studies describe their effects when inherited together. We present data from the coast of Kenya, which suggest that HbAS and ?+thalassaemia may interact to result in specific effects on haematological parameters. Overall, the difference in Hb concentrations between nonthalassaemics (??/??) and ?+thalassaemia homozygotes (??/??) was greater in non-HbAS (HbAA) (0.63g/dl) than in HbAS children (0.25 g/dl). In addition, HbAS ameliorated both the reduced MCV and reduced MCH normally associated with the ??/?? genotype. Potential mechanisms and implications are discussed. PMID:16611313

Wambua, Sammy; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alexander; Williams, Thomas N

2015-01-01

11

Thalassaemia is a tropical disease.  

PubMed

Genes for thalassaemias, sickle cell disorders and Glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are known to be associated with prevalent malaria infection. The prevalence in the heterozygote state for sickle cell anaemia (SCA), G6PD and alpha thalassaemia is between 25-30% in Nigerians but the prevalence for the beta thalassaemia trait (BTT) is low. Under-diagnosis of BTT may arise from the similarity in its clinical manifestation to that of SCA which is of high prevalence in Nigeria and secondly because the hypochromia and microcytosis associated with it may be misdiagnosed as iron deficiency anaemia. There is therefore the need to review this disorder in the light of the wide use of automation in processing a full blood count which will include red cell indices, a good screening method for the thalassaemias. This expectedly will aid easy and early diagnosis of the disorder. PMID:25161407

Kotila, T R

2012-12-01

12

Neutrophil chemotaxis in sickle cell anaemia, sickle cell beta zero thalassaemia, and after splenectomy.  

PubMed Central

Neutrophil chemotaxis was evaluated in 28 patients with sickle cell anaemia, 10 patient with sickle cell beta zero thalassaemia, 25 patients who had undergone splenectomy, and 38 controls. The mean distance migrated by patients' neutrophils was not significantly different from that of neutrophils from controls. Although several immunological variables have been reported to be changed after loss of splenic function, we were unable to show a defect in neutrophil chemotaxis that could account for the increased susceptibility to infection. PMID:3611395

Donadi, E A; Falcão, R P

1987-01-01

13

Osteomyelitis, discitis, epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica in a man with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed ?-thalassaemia trait.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 65-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and ?-thalassaemia trait. Investigations for relapsing and remitting fever found vertebral osteomyelitis, discitis and epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica. PMID:25608980

Farrar, Helen; Abbey, Aoife; Patel, Vinod; Nair, Rajiv

2015-01-01

14

Obstructive uropathy due to extramedullary haematopoiesis in beta thalassaemia/haemoglobin E.  

PubMed Central

An 18 year old woman with beta thalassaemia/haemoglobin E developed a large pelvic tumour resulting in bilateral obstructive uropathy. Technetium-99m sulphur colloid marrow image, computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and needle biopsy of the mass confirmed the diagnosis of extramedullary haematopoiesis. Although radiation is the treatment of choice for decompression, the mass in this patient did not respond satisfactorily due to its multiple area of tumour autoinfarction. Obstructive uropathy due to extramedullary erythropoiesis has not to our knowledge been previously described. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8446561

Intragumtornchai, T.; Arjhansiri, K.; Posayachinda, M.; Kasantikul, V.

1993-01-01

15

Pituitary-testicular axis in men with beta-thalassaemia major.  

PubMed

Delayed puberty and hypogonadism are frequently observed in patients with homozygous beta-thalassaemia. We evaluated the pituitary-testicular axis in 30 thalassaemic men, aged from 17 to 35 years who were regularly transfused and underwent chelation therapy, while emphasis was given to pituitary reserves of gonadotrophins and the correlation of hormones with serum ferritin (SF). The investigation included endocrinological examination, evaluation of serum basal levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), free testosterone and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test and also spermiograms. According to the results, patients were divided into three groups: group A, which included 18 eugonadal patients with moderately elevated SF, group B which included six patients who had hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and excessive elevation of SF, and group C, which included six patients characterized as intermediate, with regard to sexual maturation and SF levels. In conclusion, beta-thalassaemia major leads to variable pituitary iron overload and thus hypophyseal damage. This endocrine disturbance is becoming less frequent nowadays with early and intensive chelation therapy. PMID:8921062

Papadimas, J; Mandala, E; Pados, G; Kokkas, B; Georgiadis, G; Tarlatzis, B; Bontis, J; Sinakos, Z; Mantalenakis, S

1996-09-01

16

Distribution of serum lipids and lipoproteins in patients with beta thalassaemia major; an epidemiological study in young adults from Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Beta-thalassaemia major (b-TM) has been defined as a combination of chronic hemolytic anemia, iron storage disease and myocarditis, and it has been associated with premature death especially due to heart failure. To the best of our knowledge the status of blood lipids in these patients has rarely been investigated. Thus, we assessed the levels of lipids and lipoproteins in

Christina Chrysohoou; Demosthenes B Panagiotakos; Christos Pitsavos; Konstantina Kosma; John Barbetseas; Markisia Karagiorga; Ioannis Ladis; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2004-01-01

17

MRI for the determination of pituitary iron overload in children and young adults with beta-thalassaemia major.  

PubMed

Hypogonadism, resulting from iron-induced pituitary dysfunction, is the most frequently reported complication in patients with beta-thalassaemia major. The aim of this study was to evaluate pituitary Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) signal intensity reduction, on T2*-weighted images, as a marker of pituitary iron overload. Thirty patients (13 females and 17 males, mean age: 16.6+/-4.1) with beta-thalassaemia major on conventional treatment and 13 healthy volunteers (7 females and 6 males, mean age: 11+/-4.51 years) were studied with T2*-weighted images of the anterior pituitary using a 1.5T unit. Four thalassaemic patients (2 females and 2 males) had clinical hypogonadism and required hormonal replacement treatment. Results revealed a statistically significant reduction of pituitary signal intensity in the thalassaemia group compared to controls (p<0.001). Moreover, hypogonadal patients had significantly decreased MRI values compared to thalassaemic patients without hypogonadism (p=0.017). Relatively decreased adeno-hypophyseal MRI signal intensity was recorded in pubertal thalassaemic patients. A significant negative correlation was observed between pituitary MRI values and age (r=-0.67, r(2)=0.443, p=0.001), whereas ferritin levels and pituitary MRI values were moderately correlated (r=-0.56, r(2)=0.32, p=0.08) in adult thalassaemic patients. In conclusion, pituitary MRI indices as measured on T2*-weighted images seem to reflect pituitary iron overload and could, therefore, be used for a preclinical detection of patients who are in greater danger of developing hypogonadism. PMID:17161570

Christoforidis, Athanasios; Haritandi, Afroditi; Perifanis, Vassilios; Tsatra, Ioanna; Athanassiou-Metaxa, Miranda; Dimitriadis, Athanasios S

2007-04-01

18

Effect of ascorbic acid deficiency on serum ferritin concentration in patients with beta-thalassaemia major and iron overload.  

PubMed Central

The incidence of ascorbic acid (AA) deficiency and its effect on serum ferritin concentration relative to body iron stores was studied in 61 unchelated patients with beta-thalassaemia major. Thirty-nine (64%) of patients had subnormal leucocyte ascorbate concentrations without clinical evidence of scurvy. The lowest leucocyte ascorbate concentrations tended to occur in the most transfused patients. No correlation was found between the units transfused and serum ferritin concentration in the AA-deficient patients but a close correlation (r = +0.82; p less than 0.005) existed for the AA-replete group. Similarly a close correlation (r = +0.77; p less than 0.005) was obtained between liver iron concentration and serum ferritin in AA-replete patients but only a weak correlation (r = +0.385; p less than 0.025) existed for the AA-deficient group. When AA-deficient patients were treated with ascorbic acid, serum iron and percentage saturation of iron binding capacity rose significantly; serum ferritin rose in 13 of 21 patients despite the simultaneous commencement of desferrioxamine therapy. In contrast all three measurements tended to fall in AA-replete patients with ascorbic acid and desferrioxamine therapy. Thus, AA deficiency is commonly present in beta-thalassaemia patients with iron overload and may give rise to inappropriate serum ferritin concentrations in relation to body iron stores. PMID:7085892

Chapman, R W; Hussain, M A; Gorman, A; Laulicht, M; Politis, D; Flynn, D M; Sherlock, S; Hoffbrand, A V

1982-01-01

19

Quality of life of Iranian beta-thalassaemia major patients living on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea.  

PubMed

In the present study, the aim was to explore the quality of life of thalassaemia major (TM) patients according to age, sex, school performance, severity and complications of the disease. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Quality of life was evaluated by 4 questionnaires; demographic characteristics, the short form 36 health survey (SF-36), Persian version of symptoms checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and life satisfaction index (LSI). 687 (41.08%) of the eligible patients with TM completed the questionnaires. With the SF-36 questionnaire, 329 (47.9%) participants had an excellent level of physical functioning. With the SCL-90-R questionnaire, 446 (64.9%) participants had a global severity index of > 0.7, considered psychiatric patients, 141 (20.5%) patients had GSI between 0.4 and 0.7, considered suspected psychiatric patients and 100 (14.6%) participants had GSI of < 0.4, considered non-psychiatric patients. The mean score of LSI questionnaire was 20.50 (SD 5.95), range 2-37. Beta-TM patients are at risk of psychiatric symptoms and need appropriate psychiatric counselling. PMID:22764445

Khani, H; Majdi, M R; Marzabadi, E Azad; Montazeri, A; Ghorbani, A; Ramezani, M

2012-05-01

20

Counselling for prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell disease and beta thalassaemia major: a four year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-directive programme of prenatal counselling was used during a four year period. Forty-three couples at risk for having a baby with a haemoglobinopathy were identified. Prenatal diagnosis was offered in 19 pregnancies to 14 couples at risk of having a baby with sickle cell anaemia and in two pregnancies in two couples at risk of a baby with beta

E N Anionwu; N Patel; G Kanji; H Renges; M Brozovi?

1988-01-01

21

Endocrine involvement in children with beta-thalassaemia major. Transverse and longitudinal studies. I. Pituitary-thyroidal axis function and its correlation with serum ferritin levels.  

PubMed

Thyroid function was investigated by a TRH test in 24 clinically prepubertal children, 3-15 years old with beta-thalassaemia major; in 7 of them the test was repeated once and in 2 twice at intervals of at least 12 months. Basal T4, T3, TBG and TSH levels and the TSH levels during a TRH test were determined and correlated with age and serum ferritin levels. Basal serum T4, T3 and TBG levels were lower and serum TSH levels were higher during the test and in the basal state in thalassaemia major children than in control children. These results show a compensated sub-clinical primary hypothyroidism. The transversal study did not show any significant correlation between the hormonal parameters studied and chronological age or serum ferritin levels. In contrast, the longitudinal study showed a significant correlation between pituitary-thyroidal axis function and siderosis (positive correlations between the variations of TSH levels as delta, peak, 30 and 45 min values and the variations of serum ferritin levels). The thyroid impairment seems not to be correlated with serum ferritin levels in the transversal study because of the presence of an individual different sensitivity of the gland to the iron overload. The ferritin dependence of this impairment is shown only by longitudinal studies where individual differences in sensitivity of the gland are absent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6435370

Cavallo, L; Licci, D; Acquafredda, A; Marranzini, M; Beccasio, R; Scardino, M L; Altomare, M; Mastro, F; Sisto, L; Schettini, F

1984-09-01

22

Thyroid function in thalassaemia major.  

PubMed

Serum concentrations of T4, T3, rT3, and TSH were measured by radioimmunoassay in 45 patients suffering from beta-thalassaemia. A TRH stimulation test was performed and the binding capacity of TBG and TBPA for T3 and T4 measured by reverse flow zone electrophoresis in a group of these patients. Mean T4 serum concentration was lower in thalassaemic patients than controls; T3, rT3, TSH levels, and the pituitary response to TRH were normal. TBPA binding capacity for thyroxine was greatly decreased, probably due to iron overload impairing the liver function. The decreased circulating total thyroxine might be explained by the reduced TBPA capacity, serum free thyroid hormone concentration total thyroxine might be explained by the reduced TBPA capacity, serum free thyroid hormone concentration values being normal. It is concluded that thalassaemic children are euthyroid, despite often having low-normal or subnormal thyroxine levels. PMID:6776904

de Luca, F; Melluso, R; Sobbrio, G; Canfora, G; Trimarchi, F

1980-05-01

23

Infections and thalassaemia.  

PubMed

Infections are major complications and constitute the second most common cause of mortality and a main cause of morbidity in patients with thalassaemia, a group of genetic disorders of haemoglobin synthesis characterised by a disturbance of globin chain production. Thalassaemias are among the most common genetic disorders in the world. Predisposing factors for infections in thalassaemic patients include severe anaemia, iron overload, splenectomy, and a range of immune abnormalities. Major causative organisms of bacterial infections in thalassaemic patients are Klebsiella spp in Asia and Yersinia enterocolitica in western countries. Transfusion-associated viral infections (especially hepatitis C) can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A unique and challenging infection detected in Asian patients is pythiosis, caused by a fungus-like organism, the mortality rate of which is very high. Because the prognosis for thalassaemia has much improved, with many patients surviving to the fifth decade of life in developed countries, it is mandatory to reduce mortality by recognising and presumptively treating infections in these patients as quickly as possible. PMID:16554247

Vento, Sandro; Cainelli, Francesca; Cesario, Francesco

2006-04-01

24

Hemoglobin E-thalassaemia in a Sikh child: a case report.  

PubMed

Hemoglobin E is a beta chain variant that has its most clinically significant interaction with thalassaemia. The compound heterozygous state, thus produced, can result in a thalassaemia intermedia/major phenotype with affected individuals being transfusion dependent. Hemoglobin E is very common in north-east India with relatively fewer reportsfrom rest of the country. Reports of hemoglobin E in the Punjabi population are even rarer. A case of hemoglobin E-thalassaemia in a Sikh child is being presented because of its highly uncommon occurrence in natives of Punjab. PMID:16761772

Kakkar, Naveen

2005-07-01

25

Alpha thalassaemia in tribal communities of coastal Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: In a routine community health survey conducted in adult Adivasis of the costal Maharashtra, microcytosis and hyprochromia were observed in more than 80 per cent of both males and females having normal haemoglobin levels suggesting the possibility of ?-thalassaemia in these communities. We conducted a study in Adivasi students in the same region to find out the magnitude of ?-thalessaemia. Methods: The participants (28 girls and 23 boys) were 14-17 yr old studying in a tribal school. Fasting venous blood samples (5 ml) were subjected to complete blood count (CBC), Hb-HPLC and DNA analysis using gap-PCR for deletion of – ?3.7 and – ?4.2, the two most common molecular lesions observed in ?-thalassaemia in India. Results: Microcytic hypochromic anaemia was observed 50 and 35 per cent girls and boys, respectively. Iron supplementation improved Hb levels but did not correct microcytois and hypochromia. More than 80 per cent non-anaemic students of both sexes showed microcytois and hypochromia. DNA analysis confirmed that the haematological alterations were due to ?-thalassaemia trait characterized by deletion of – ?3.7. Majority (> 60%) of the affected students had two deletions (-?3.7/-?3.7) genotype ?+ thalassaemia. Interpretation & conclusions: This is perhaps the first report on the occurrence of ?-thalassaemia in tribal communities of coastal Maharashtra. Very high (78.4%) haplotype frequency of -?3.7 suggests that the condition is almost genetically fixed. These preliminary observations should stimulate well planned large scale epidemiological studies on ?-thalassaemia in the region. PMID:25297356

Deo, Madhav G.; Pawar, Prakash V.

2014-01-01

26

Study of Mutations in ?-Thalassemia Trait among Blood Donors in Eastern Uttar Pradesh  

PubMed Central

Background: Knowledge on distribution of different mutations of thalassaemia, which are prevalent in a particular area, is a prerequisite for prenatal diagnosis. Objectives: Studying mutations in ? – thalassaemia trait among blood donors in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Material and Methods: One thousand non – remunerated voluntary blood donors who were between 18 – 40 years of age, were included in the study. Both replacement and voluntary healthy blood donors were included. 4ml of venous blood was collected and it was stored at 4°C. Complete Blood Count (CBC), Haemoglobinopathy Screening and Molecular Analysis by ARMS – PCR (Amplification Refractory Mutation System – PCR) were done. Screening for ? thalassaemia was done in a blood bank by using D – 10, Bio Rad, which was based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results: Twenty Eight subjects with ?– thalassaemia trait were found among 1000 voluntary blood donors. IVS 1-5 (G-C) mutation was most common type (50%), followed by FS 8/9 (+G) 25% which was the second most common type. In our study, a rare mutation of CD 16 (-C) was also found. Out of 14 subjects who had IVS 1-5 (G-C) mutation (most common), six were from Varanasi (6/261) and five of them were Sindhis. It was seen that FS 41/42 (TCTT) mutation was distributed among all groups of populations which had higher prevalences of ?-thalassaemia trait. Conclusion: A comprehensive knowledge on beta thalassaemia mutations is necessary for determining a prenatal diagnosis. The occurrence of mutations may vary according to geographic region. Therefore, this study dealt with current problem of unknown mutations, in order to avoid complications. PMID:23998073

Meena, L P; Kumar, K; Singh, V K; Bharti, Anju; Rahman, S K H; Tripathi, K

2013-01-01

27

Distribution of Alpha Thalassaemia Gene Variants in Diverse Ethnic Populations in Malaysia: Data from the Institute for Medical Research  

PubMed Central

Alpha thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the plural society of Malaysia and is a public health problem. Haematological and molecular data from 5016 unrelated patients referred from various hospitals to the Institute for Medical Research for ? thalassaemia screening from 2007 to 2010 were retrieved. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to describe the distribution of various alpha thalassaemia alleles in different ethnic groups, along with their genotypic interactions, and to illustrate the haematological changes associated with each phenotype. Amongst the patients, 51.2% (n = 2567) were diagnosed with ? thalassaemia. Of the 13 ? thalassaemia determinants screened, eight different deletions and mutations were demonstrated: three double gene deletions, – – SEA, – – THAI, ––FIL; two single-gene deletions, ?–3.7 and – ?4.2; and three non-deletion mutations, Cd59G > A (haemoglobin [Hb] Adana), Cd125T > C (Hb Quong Sze) and Cd142 (Hb Constant Spring). A high incidence of ?–3.7 deletion was observed in Malays, Indians, Sabahans, Sarawakians and Orang Asli people. However, the – – SEA deletion was the most common cause of alpha thalassaemia in Chinese, followed by the ?–3.7 deletion. As many as 27 genotypic interactions showed 1023 ? thalassaemia silent carriers, 196 homozygous ?+ thalassaemia traits, 973 heterozygous ?0 thalassaemia carriers and 375 patients with Hb H disease. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the distribution of ? thalassaemia determinants amongst the various ethnic groups. Hence, the heterogeneous distribution of common determinants indicated that the introduction of an ethnicity-targeted hierarchical ? thalassaemia screening approach in this multi-ethnic Malaysian population would be effective. PMID:24025420

Ahmad, Rahimah; Saleem, Mohamed; Aloysious, Nisha Sabrina; Yelumalai, Punithawathy; Mohamed, Nurul; Hassan, Syahzuwan

2013-01-01

28

Informing carriers of beta-thalassemia: giving the good news.  

PubMed

This study explored the value of informing beta-thalassaemia carriers of the advantages, as well as the disadvantages of carrier status. Twenty-eight carriers of beta-thalassaemia were interviewed immediately after counselling, and again 2 weeks later. Both interviews included administration of a psychological scale (previously used for cystic fibrosis). Immediately after the first interview the intervention group (n = 18) were informed of the protective effect of the beta-thalassaemia trait against malaria and coronary heart disease. The control group (n = 10) was given the same information after the second interview. The effect of giving the positive information was assessed by comparing participants' scores at the first and second interview. Knowledge of carrier status aroused several negative feelings, including shock, sadness, and anger, but little feeling of stigmatization. Two weeks later, negative feelings were unchanged in the control group, but they were reduced in all members of the intervention group. All members of the intervention group considered it important to inform carriers of the positive aspects as well as the risks associated with carrier status. Carriers of recessive disorders with a known heterozygote advantage should be informed of the advantage. This information has now been incorporated into the comprehensive information system for hemoglobin disorders available at http://www.chime.ucl.ac.uk/ApoGI/. PMID:15345106

Karetti, Maria; Yardumian, Anne; Karetti, Despina; Modell, Bernadette

2004-01-01

29

"He didn't say that thalassaemia might come up" - ?-thalassaemia carriers' experiences and attitudes.  

PubMed

Tests for haemoglobinopathy carrier status are the commonest genetic screening tests undertaken internationally. Carrier screening for ?-thalassaemia is not coordinated in Victoria, Australia, and is instead incorporated into routine practice where most women are screened antenatally, through a full blood examination (FBE). Little is known about how women are screened for ?-thalassaemia in Australia as well as their attitudes towards the screening process. This study was conducted to explore carriers' and carrier couples' experiences of and attitudes towards ?-thalassaemia screening in Australia. Semi-structured interviews with 26 recently pregnant female carriers and ten carrier couples of ?-thalassaemia were carried out. Interviews were analysed using inductive content analysis. Unexpectedly, more than half of the women had been made aware of their carrier status prior to pregnancy, with FBEs carried out for numerous reasons other than thalassaemia screening. Most women did not recall being told about thalassaemia before notification of their carrier status and therefore did not make a decision about being screened. They were generally accepting for doctors to decide about testing; however, would have preferred to have been made aware of the screening test. Women also reported receiving insufficient information after being notified of their carrier status, leading to misconceptions and confusion. This genetic screening process, incorporated into routine care whereby informed decisions were not being made by patients, was apparently acceptable overall. Based on the results of this study, we make the following recommendations: (1) individuals should be made aware that they are being tested for thalassaemia at least before a specific thalassaemia diagnostic test is performed; (2) current understanding by known carriers of thalassaemia should be assessed and any misconceptions corrected; (3) written information should be provided to carriers; (4) referral of carrier couples to specialists in thalassaemia and genetics is strongly recommended; (5) the term 'carrier of ?-thalassaemia' should be used rather than 'thalassaemia minor'. PMID:23315178

Cousens, Nicole E; Gaff, Clara L; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Delatycki, Martin B

2013-04-01

30

Live birth following double-factor pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for both reciprocal translocation and alpha-thalassaemia.  

PubMed

We report a live birth from a couple with two genetic diseases, namely: reciprocal translocation carrier and alpha-thalassaemia trait, following pre-implantation genetic diagnostic tests. This is the first case in Hong Kong in which the technique of using one blastomere biopsy for two diseases was established, using array comparative genomic hybridisation and polymerase chain reaction. PMID:24914077

Lee, Vivian C Y; Chow, Judy F C; Lau, Estella Y L; Yeung, William S B; Ng, Ernest H Y

2014-06-01

31

Coinheritance of ?- and ?-thalassaemia in mice ameliorates thalassaemic phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Thalassaemia is an inherited disease caused by defective synthesis of the ?-globin chain of haemoglobin, leading to an imbalance in globin chains. Excess ?-globin chains precipitate in erythroid progenitor cells resulting in cell death, ineffective erythropoiesis and severe anaemia. Decreased ?-globin synthesis leads to milder symptoms, exemplified by individuals who co-inherit ?-thalassaemia and ?-thalassaemia. In this study, we set out

Hsiao Phin Joanna Voon; Hady Wardan; Jim Vadolas

2007-01-01

32

Alpha thalassaemia and response to hydroxyurea in sickle cell anaemia  

PubMed Central

Background Hydroxyurea (HU) reduces vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) and other complications of sickle cell anaemia (SCA). Alpha thalassaemia is a known modifier of SCA. Studies on the efficacy of HU in SCA patients with ?-thalassaemia have yielded varying results. Objective To determine the effect of ?-thalassaemia on response to HU therapy in the Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea (MSH) cohort. Methods We compared the laboratory parameters and VOC incidence in the MSH cohort stratified by the presence or absence of ?-thalassaemia. Results HU showed significant (p = 0.001 for all baseline vs. follow-up comparisons) treatment effect on red cell indices irrespective of ?-globin gene deletion. The magnitude of the HU-related changes was similar for MCV (no ?-thalassaemia 13 fl, ?-thalassaemia 13 fl), and MCH (no ?-thalassaemia 4 pg, ?-thalassaemia 4 pg) in both groups. Foetal haemoglobin (HbF) and F cells also increased significantly with HU treatment in both groups. Total hemoglobin increased after HU treatment in both groups but the increase was smaller and not statistically significant in ?-thalassaemia patients. In contrast, HU-related reduction of VOCs was more pronounced in patients with ?-thalassaemia (VOC incidence rate ratio HU/placebo: 0.63 for ?-thalassaemia vs. 0.54 for no ?-thalassaemia (p for interaction 0.003). Conclusion HU decreases VOCs in SCA patients with and without ?-thalassaemia and the degree of VOC reduction was more pronounced in the patients with alpha thalassaemia. Despite lower baseline values, changes in standard laboratory parameters such as MCV, and HbF percent remain useful in monitoring HU therapy in presence of ?-thalassaemia. PMID:24330217

Nouraie, Mehdi; Taylor, James G; Brugnara, Carlo; Castro, Oswaldo; Ballas, Samir K.

2014-01-01

33

Alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation, X linked  

PubMed Central

X-linked alpha thalassaemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome in males is associated with profound developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, genital abnormalities and alpha thalassaemia. Female carriers are usually physically and intellectually normal. So far, 168 patients have been reported. Language is usually very limited. Seizures occur in about one third of the cases. While many patients are affectionate with their caregivers, some exhibit autistic-like behaviour. Patients present with facial hypotonia and a characteristic mouth. Genital abnormalities are observed in 80% of children and range from undescended testes to ambiguous genitalia. Alpha-thalassaemia is not always present. This syndrome is X-linked recessive and results from mutations in the ATRX gene. This gene encodes the widely expressed ATRX protein. ATRX mutations cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation at heterochromatic loci but it is not yet known whether this is responsible for the clinical phenotype. The diagnosis can be established by detection of alpha thalassaemia, identification of ATRX gene mutations, ATRX protein studies and X-inactivation studies. Genetic counselling can be offered to families. Management is multidisciplinary: young children must be carefully monitored for gastro-oesophageal reflux as it may cause death. A number of individuals with ATR-X are fit and well in their 30s and 40s. PMID:16722615

Gibbons, Richard

2006-01-01

34

NESTROFT - A Valuable, Cost Effective Screening Test for Beta Thalassemia Trait in North Indian Punjabi Population  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Beta-thalassemia continues to be a cause of significant burden to the society, particularly in the poorer developing countries. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the validity of “NESTROFT” (Naked Eye Single Tube Red Cell Osmotic Fragility Test) as a useful screening tool in the diagnosis of beta thalassemia trait. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted on 150 subjects in the department of haematology in a tertiary health care center in north Indian state of Punjab. In group I, 111 cases diagnosed as microcytic hypochromic anaemia were selected. In group II, 39 individuals (the family members of known cases of beta thalassemia major) were selected. Complete haemogram, NESTROFT and HbA2 levels by electrophoresis were done and the results were tabulated and analyzed statistically. Results: Of the 111 cases in group I, 20 (18%) gave positive results with NESTROFT while 91 cases (82%) tested negative. In group II, out of 39 cases, 30 (76.92%) tested positive with NESTROFT while 9 gave a negative result. In group I, out of 20 NESTROFT positive cases, only 3 had HbA2 levels more than 3.5%. In group II, all the 30 NESTROFT positive cases had HbA2 levels more than 3.5%. The test showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 85.47%, a positive predictive value of 66% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Conclusion: Thus, NESTROFT is a valuable, cost-effective screening test for beta thalassemia trait and appears to be a valid test in rural setting with financial constraints. PMID:24551637

Piplani, Sanjay; Manan, Rahul; Lalit, Monika; Manjari, Mridu; Bhasin, Tajinder; Bawa, Jasmine

2013-01-01

35

Successful pregnancy after bone marrow transplantation for thalassaemia.  

PubMed

Bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling can cure thalassaemia. The risk of chemotherapy-induced sterility, however, represents a deterrent for many patients already at risk of gonadal insufficiency and reduced fertility because of the effects of transfusional iron overload. We report here the first patient transplanted for thalassaemia, after ablative therapy with busulfan and cyclophosphamide, who, despite late pubertal maturation, became pregnant and delivered a full-term, normal infant. PMID:8832025

Borgna-Pignatti, C; Marradi, P; Rugolotto, S; Marcolongo, A

1996-07-01

36

Hematological indices for differential diagnosis of Beta thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia.  

PubMed

Background. The two most frequent types of microcytic anemia are beta thalassemia trait ( ? -TT) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). We retrospectively evaluated the reliability of various indices for differential diagnosis of microcytosis and ? -TT in the same patient groups. Methods. A total of 290 carefully selected children aged 1.1-16 years were evaluated. We calculated 12 discrimination indices in all patients with hemoglobin (Hb) values of 8.7-11.4?g/dL. None of the subjects had a combined case of IDA and ? -TT. All children with IDA received oral iron for 16 weeks, and HbA2 screening was performed after iron therapy. The patient groups were evaluated according to red blood cell (RBC) count; red blood distribution width index; the Mentzer, Shine and Lal, England and Fraser, Srivastava and Bevington, Green and King, Ricerca, Sirdah, and Ehsani indices; mean density of hemoglobin/liter of blood; and mean cell density of hemoglobin. Results. The Mentzer index was the most reliable index, as it had the highest sensitivity (98.7%), specificity (82.3%), and Youden's index (81%) for detecting ? -TT; this was followed by the Ehsani index (94.8%, 73.5%, and 68.3%, resp.) and RBC count (94.8%, 70.5%, and 65.3%). Conclusion. The Mentzer index provided the highest reliabilities for differentiating ? -TT from IDA. PMID:24818016

Vehapoglu, Aysel; Ozgurhan, Gamze; Demir, Ay?egul Dogan; Uzuner, Selcuk; Nursoy, Mustafa Atilla; Turkmen, Serdar; Kacan, Arzu

2014-01-01

37

Hematological Indices for Differential Diagnosis of Beta Thalassemia Trait and Iron Deficiency Anemia  

PubMed Central

Background. The two most frequent types of microcytic anemia are beta thalassemia trait (?-TT) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). We retrospectively evaluated the reliability of various indices for differential diagnosis of microcytosis and ?-TT in the same patient groups. Methods. A total of 290 carefully selected children aged 1.1–16 years were evaluated. We calculated 12 discrimination indices in all patients with hemoglobin (Hb) values of 8.7–11.4?g/dL. None of the subjects had a combined case of IDA and ?-TT. All children with IDA received oral iron for 16 weeks, and HbA2 screening was performed after iron therapy. The patient groups were evaluated according to red blood cell (RBC) count; red blood distribution width index; the Mentzer, Shine and Lal, England and Fraser, Srivastava and Bevington, Green and King, Ricerca, Sirdah, and Ehsani indices; mean density of hemoglobin/liter of blood; and mean cell density of hemoglobin. Results. The Mentzer index was the most reliable index, as it had the highest sensitivity (98.7%), specificity (82.3%), and Youden's index (81%) for detecting ?-TT; this was followed by the Ehsani index (94.8%, 73.5%, and 68.3%, resp.) and RBC count (94.8%, 70.5%, and 65.3%). Conclusion. The Mentzer index provided the highest reliabilities for differentiating ?-TT from IDA. PMID:24818016

Vehapoglu, Aysel; Ozgurhan, Gamze; Demir, Ay?egul Dogan; Uzuner, Selcuk; Nursoy, Mustafa Atilla; Turkmen, Serdar; Kacan, Arzu

2014-01-01

38

Polymorphism of follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSH?) subunit gene and its association with litter traits in giant panda.  

PubMed

The different SSCP patterns of the follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSH?) gene amplified by three pairs of primers were sequenced. Comparisons among the three nucleotide sequences of three genotypes indicated that three base substitutions (A213T, A91G, and A89C) were detected in FSH? gene, which A213T substitution led to one amino acids mutation (Lys > Met), and the other two substitutions were synonymous mutations. The AA, AB and BB genotypes patterns obtained by FSH? primer1 had evident relation with the litter traits, but the SSCP genotypes patterns obtained by FSH? primer2 and primer3 had no evident relation with the litter traits in giant panda. The giant panda with AA and AB genotype had the largest litter size and multiparity rate compared with the BB genotypes (P < 0.05). We speculated that the giant pandas with the A allele have better litter traits than those with the B allele. PMID:24057246

Huang, Xiaoyu; Li, Desheng; Wang, Jiwen; Huang, Yan; Han, Chunchun; Zhang, Guiquan; Huang, Zhi; Wu, Honglin; Wei, Ming; Wang, Guosong; Hu, Haiping; Deng, Tao; He, Tao; Zhou, Yingming; Song, Shixian; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Heming

2013-11-01

39

Coexisting Iron Deficiency Anemia and Beta Thalassemia Trait: Effect of Iron Therapy on Red Cell Parameters and Hemoglobin Subtypes  

PubMed Central

Background. Coexistence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and beta thalassemia trait (BTT) has been the topic of few studies. However, no study from our country was found evaluating the effect of iron therapy in patients with concomitant IDA and BTT. Methods. Over a period of two years, 30 patients with concomitant IDA and BTT were included. All the patients had a complete blood count, serum iron studies, and thalassemia screening using BIORADTM hemoglobin testing system. The patients received oral iron therapy in appropriate dosages for a period of twenty weeks, after which all the investigations were repeated. Appropriate statistical methods were applied for comparison of pre- and posttherapy data. Results. All except two patients were adults with a marked female preponderance. Oral iron therapy led to statistically significant improvement in hemoglobin, red cell indices (P < 0.05), and marked change in serum iron, ferritin, and HbA2 levels (P < 0.001). There was a significant reduction in the total iron binding capacity levels. Conclusion. The present study shows the frequent occurrence of iron deficiency anemia in patients with beta thalassemia trait, which can potentially confound the diagnosis of the latter. Hence, iron deficiency should be identified and rectified in patients with suspicion of beta thalassemia trait. PMID:25006473

Verma, Sarika; Gupta, Ruchika; Kudesia, Madhur; Mathur, Alka; Krishan, Gopal; Singh, Sompal

2014-01-01

40

Thalassaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in sickle-cell disorder patients in Taiz, Yemen.  

PubMed

A pilot study was conducted to determine the prevalence and haematological characteristics of the interaction between thalassaemia or/and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in patients with sickle-cell disorder (SCD) in Taiz city, Yemen, where the prevalence of sickle-cell trait (HbAS) is 8.2%. Blood samples were collected from 31 SCD patients. Complete blood count and haemoglobin electrophoresis, G6PD activity and serum ferritin were determined. Thalassaemia was found in 6 patients (19.4%) and G6PD deficiency (6 mild and 1 severe) was detected in 7 patients (22.6%). The frequency ofthalassaemia and/or G6PD deficiency with SCD was high and this may have an effect on the severity of the clinical course of SCD in Taiz. The study should be repeated with DNA analysis to define the nature of the globin gene defect and to clarify its role in the severity of SCD PMID:21796953

Al-Nood, H A

2011-05-01

41

Prevalence of thalassaemia, iron-deficiency anaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Arab migrating nomad children, southern Islamic Republic of Iran.  

PubMed

This study investigated the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and ?-thalassaemia trait among Arab migrating nomad children in southern Islamic Republic of Iran. Blood samples were analysed from 134 schoolchildren aged < 18 years (51 males, 83 females). Low serum ferritin (< 12 ng/dL) was present in 17.9% of children (21.7% in females and 11.8% in males). Low haemoglobin (Hb) correlated significantly with a low serum ferritin. Only 1 child had G6PD deficiency. A total of 9.7% of children had HbA2 ? 3.5 g/dL, indicating ?-thalassaemia trait (10.8% in females and 7.8% in males). Mean serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity were similar in males and females. Serum ferritin index was as accurate as Hb index in the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anaemia. A high prevalence of ?-thalassaemia trait was the major potential risk factor in this population. PMID:25601811

Pasalar, M; Mehrabani, D; Afrasiabi, A; Mehravar, Z; Reyhani, I; Hamidi, R; Karimi, M

2014-11-01

42

Reliability of red blood cell indices and formulas to discriminate between beta thalassemia trait and iron deficiency in children.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency (ID) and beta thalassemia trait (betaTT) are the most common causes of hypochromia and microcytosis. This study evaluates the reliability of some of the red blood cell (RBC) indices and the formulas used in the differentiation between betaTT and ID in a cohort of 458 children aged between 1.8 and 7.5 years (mean age 5.6+/-1.7 years) with mild hypochromic microcytic anemia. Within this group, 243 were confirmed with ID and 215 with betaTT. Red cell indices derived from automated red cell analyzers were used to evaluate the following discriminant indices and formulas: Mentzer Index (MI), Green and King Index (G&K), England and Fraser Index (E&F), RBC Distribution Width Index (RDWI), RBC distribution width (RDW) and RBC count. Sensitivity (SENS), specificity (SPEC), positive and negative prognostic value, efficiency (EFF) and Youden's Index (YI) were evaluated. For each index or formula Gauss curves were constructed. The highest SENS was obtained with RDWI (78.9%), while the highest SPEC and YI with E&F (99.1 and 64.2% respectively), the highest EFF (80.2%) with G&K. Gauss curves obtained from betaTT and ID children showed a different degree of overlap for each formula or index. In conclusion, none of RBC indices or formulas appears reliable to discriminate between betaTT and ID subjects. PMID:20423571

Ferrara, M; Capozzi, L; Russo, R; Bertocco, F; Ferrara, D

2010-04-01

43

Health related quality of life in Malaysian children with thalassaemia  

PubMed Central

Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) studies on children with chronic illness such as thalassaemia are limited. We conducted the first study to investigate if children with thalassaemia have a lower quality of life in the four dimensions as measured using the PedsQL 4.0 generic Scale Score: physical, emotional, social and role (school) functioning compared to the healthy controls allowing for age, gender, ethnicity and household income. Methods The PedsQL 4.0 was administered to children receiving blood transfusions and treatments at Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia using PedsQL 4.0 generic Scale Score. Accordingly, the questionnaire was also administered to a control group of healthy school children. Socio-demographic data were also collected from patients and controls using an interview schedule designed for the study. Results Of the 96 thalassaemia patients approached, 78 gave consent to be interviewed giving a response rate of 81.3%. Out of 235 healthy controls approached, all agreed to participate giving a response rate of 100%. The mean age for the patients and schoolchildren is 11.9 and 13.2 years respectively. The age range for the patients and the schoolchildren is between 5 to 18 years and 7 to 18 years respectively. After controlling for age and demographic background, the thalassaemia patients reported having significantly lower quality of life than the healthy controls. Conclusion Thalassaemia has a negative impact on perceived physical, emotional, social and school functioning in thalassaemia patients which was also found to be worse than the children's healthy counterparts. Continuing support of free desferal from the Ministry of Health should be given to these patients. More understanding and support especially from health authorities, school authorities and the society is essential to enhance their quality of life. PMID:16813662

Ismail, Adriana; Campbell, Michael J; Ibrahim, Hishamshah Mohd; Jones, Georgina L

2006-01-01

44

Osteoporosis Syndrome in Thalassaemia Major: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis in thalassaemia major (TM) represents a prominent cause of morbidity. The mechanism of pathogenesis of bone disease (BD) in TM is multifactorial and complicated. Peak bone mass is achieved shortly after completion of puberty and normally remains stable until the third decade of life when age-related bone mass begins. Growth hormone (GH) and sex steroids play a crucial role in bone remodeling and in the maintenance of skeletal architecture during adult life. GH and insulin growth factors (IGFs) have anabolic effect in bone formation. Sex steroids act probably by increasing the expression of RANKL by osteoblastic cells and alterations in the RANK/RANKL/OPG system in favor of osteoclasts. Impaired GH secretion and lack of sex steroids in thalassemic patients due to pituitary damage, contribute to failure of achieving optimal peak bone mass. Other endocrine complications such as hypoparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency have also a detrimental role on bones in TM. It is still questionable whether the international criteria for defining osteopenia and osteoporosis are relevant to patients with TM; also a question arises for the diagnostic methods such as DEXA scan and management of osteoporosis with known treatment protocols, in the thalassaemic patient. PMID:20976089

Toumba, Meropi; Skordis, Nicos

2010-01-01

45

A descriptive profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thalassaemia is a common and debilitating autosomal recessive disorder affecting many populations in South Asia. To date,\\u000a efforts to create a regional profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations have largely concentrated on the populations of India. The\\u000a present study updates and expands an earlier profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations in India, and incorporates comparable data\\u000a from Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Despite limited data

M. L. Black; S. Sinha; S. Agarwal; R. Colah; R. Das; M. Bellgard; A. H. Bittles

2010-01-01

46

Growth and puberty and its management in thalassaemia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to report the personal experience on growth and pubertal development in a large number of thalassaemic and ex-thalassaemic patients followed at the Pediatric and Adolescent Unit of Ferrara. Secondary amenorrhoea (SA), hypogonadism and short stature are the commonest endocrine and auxological complications. The anterior pituitary gland is particularly sensitive to free radical oxidative stresses and exposure to this. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows that even a modest amount of iron deposition within the anterior pituitary can interfere with its function. Other possible cause of hypogonadism in beta-thalassaemia major include liver disorders, chronic hypoxia, diabetes mellitus and zinc deficiency. The treatment of pubertal disorders consists of hormone replacement therapy with sex steroids. Successful induction of spermatogenesis and ovulation has been reported after hormonal stimulation with gonadotrophins. Height above the 10th centile was achieved in 50% of males and 64% of females. Eight prepubertal thalassaemic patients, 6 males and 2 females, ranging in age from 8.6 to 11.7 years, were treated with GH. After the first 12 months of GH treatment a significant increase of growth velocity was observed in 6 patients who doubled growth velocity before basal value (4 cm or more above the basal value), 2 patients had a partial response (2-4 cm above the basal value). In the following 3 years all thalassaemic patients had a partial response to the treatment with GH. These data indicate that despite somewhat reduced sensitivity to GH, compared to GH deficiency children, there is evidence indicating that thalassaemic patients may benefit from GH treatment. Sixty-eight thalassaemic patients (30 males and 38 females) who had successfully undergone bone marrow transplantation (BMT) during childhood were studied. Following BMT growth rate decelerated when compared to Tanner and Whitehouse standards. Twenty-nine ex-thalassaemics reached final height. The patterns of growth during puberty was variable in ex-thalassaemic males, while in all but 3 ex-thalassaemic females we observed an improvement in the percentile of standing height. A gonadal dysfunction was found in 68% of ex-thalassaemic patients. Since the quality of life of these patients is an important aim, it is vital to monitor carefully the growth and pubertal development in order to detect abnormalities and to initiate appropriate and early treatment. PMID:12373018

De Sanctis, V

2002-01-01

47

Thalassaemia and aberrations of growth and puberty.  

PubMed

Endocrine dysfunction in Thalassaemia major (TM) is a common and disturbing complication, which requires prompt recognition and treatment. The contribution of the underlying molecular defect in TM to the development of endocrinopathies is significant because the patients with the more severe genetic defects have a greater rate of iron loading through higher red cell consumption. TM patients frequently present delay of growth and puberty with reduction of final height. The pathogenesis of growth failure is multifactorial and is mainly due to chronic anemia and hypoxia, chronic liver disease, zinc and folic acid deficiency, iron overload, intensive use of chelating agents, emotional factors, and endocrinopathies (hypogonadism, delayed puberty, hypothyroidism) and GH-IGF-1 axis dysregulation. Although appropriate iron chelation therapy can improve growth and development, TM children and adolescents treated intensively with desferrioxamine remain short as well, showing body disproportion between the upper and lower body segment. Body disproportion is independent of pubertal or prepubertal period of greater height gain. Treatment with recombinant GH (rhGH) is recommended when GH deficiency is established, and even so, the therapeutic response is often non satisfactory. Growth acceleration is mostly promoted with sex steroids in children with associated pubertal delay. Sexual complications in TM, which include Delayed Puberty, Arrested Puberty and Hypogonadism, present the commonest endocrine complication. Iron deposition on gonadotroph cells of the pituitary leads to disruption of gonadotrophin production which is proven by the poor response of FSH and LH to GnRH stimulation. In the majority of patients gonadal function is normal as most women with Amenorrhea are capable of achieving pregnancy with hormonal treatment and similarly men with azoospermia become fathers. Secondary Hypogonadism appears later in life, and is manifested in women as Secondary Amenorrhea and in men as decline in sexual drive and azzoospermia. The damage to the hypothalamus and pituitary is progressive, even when intensive chelating therapy is given and the appearance of Hypogonadism in both sexes is often unavoidable. Close follow up and proper management is crucial for every patient with TM. Early recognition of growth disturbance and prevention of hypogonadism by early and judicious chelation therapy is mandatory for the improvement of their quality of life. Patients with TM can now live a better life due to modern advances in their medical care and our better understanding in the pathogenesis, manifestation and prevention of endocrine complications. PMID:21415985

Kyriakou, Andreas; Skordis, Nicos

2009-01-01

48

Effect of casein genes - beta-LGB, DGAT1, GH, and LHR - on milk production and milk composition traits in crossbred Holsteins.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a single gene and composite genotype of the casein gene family, including the beta-lactoglobulin gene (beta-LGB), acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene (DGAT1), growth hormone gene (GH), and luteinizing hormone receptor gene (LHR) on milk yield, milk composition, the percentage of fat, protein, solids-not-fat, and total solid in crossbred Holsteins. A total of 231 crossbred Holstein cows were examined for the study. The genotype of the beta-casein gene was analyzed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, while the alpha-S1, alpha-S2, kappa-casein, DGAT1, beta-LGB, and GH genes were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The association between genes and milk yield and milk composition was analyzed. Three pairs of genes, for which significant associations were detected, were beta + kappa-casein, DGAT1 + beta-casein, and GH + beta-LGB. In the single-gene model, most loci are significantly associated with traits. A significant association between the composite genotype and the traits was detected in all composite genotypes. GH + beta-LGB appears to be the most suitable variants for improving milk production and percentage of milk protein. Overall, the effects of the composite genotype and single gene were different. A physical or functional relationship between genes is necessary for investigating gene markers. PMID:25867403

Molee, A; Poompramun, C; Mernkrathoke, P

2015-01-01

49

Absence of the ?-thalassaemia syndromes in Egyptian Arabs  

PubMed Central

An investigation was undertaken to find the incidence of ?-thalassaemia in Egypt. Blood was collected from the umbilical cords of 550 newborns and from 630 adults from central hospitals in Cairo that drain patients from all over Egypt. Starch gel electrophoreses at both pH 8·6 and 7·0, and brilliant cresyl blue incubation revealed the absence of haemoglobins Barts and H in the blood specimens examined. PMID:4443982

Selim, O.; Kamel, K.; Sabry, F.; Ibrahim, A.; Weatherall, D. J.

1974-01-01

50

Beta event-related desynchronization as an index of individual differences in processing human facial expression: further investigations of autistic traits in typically developing adults  

PubMed Central

The human mirror neuron system (hMNS) has been associated with various forms of social cognition and affective processing including vicarious experience. It has also been proposed that a faulty hMNS may underlie some of the deficits seen in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the present study we set out to investigate whether emotional facial expressions could modulate a putative EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) and if so, would this differ according to the individual level of autistic traits [high versus low Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score]. Participants were presented with 3 s films of actors opening and closing their hands (classic hMNS mu-suppression protocol) while simultaneously wearing happy, angry, or neutral expressions. Mu-suppression was measured in the alpha and low beta bands. The low AQ group displayed greater low beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) to both angry and neutral expressions. The high AQ group displayed greater low beta ERD to angry than to happy expressions. There was also significantly more low beta ERD to happy faces for the low than for the high AQ group. In conclusion, an interesting interaction between AQ group and emotional expression revealed that hMNS activation can be modulated by emotional facial expressions and that this is differentiated according to individual differences in the level of autistic traits. The EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) seems to be a sensitive measure of the variability in facial processing in typically developing individuals with high and low self-reported traits of autism. PMID:23630489

Cooper, Nicholas R.; Simpson, Andrew; Till, Amy; Simmons, Kelly; Puzzo, Ignazio

2013-01-01

51

Beta event-related desynchronization as an index of individual differences in processing human facial expression: further investigations of autistic traits in typically developing adults.  

PubMed

The human mirror neuron system (hMNS) has been associated with various forms of social cognition and affective processing including vicarious experience. It has also been proposed that a faulty hMNS may underlie some of the deficits seen in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the present study we set out to investigate whether emotional facial expressions could modulate a putative EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) and if so, would this differ according to the individual level of autistic traits [high versus low Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score]. Participants were presented with 3 s films of actors opening and closing their hands (classic hMNS mu-suppression protocol) while simultaneously wearing happy, angry, or neutral expressions. Mu-suppression was measured in the alpha and low beta bands. The low AQ group displayed greater low beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) to both angry and neutral expressions. The high AQ group displayed greater low beta ERD to angry than to happy expressions. There was also significantly more low beta ERD to happy faces for the low than for the high AQ group. In conclusion, an interesting interaction between AQ group and emotional expression revealed that hMNS activation can be modulated by emotional facial expressions and that this is differentiated according to individual differences in the level of autistic traits. The EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) seems to be a sensitive measure of the variability in facial processing in typically developing individuals with high and low self-reported traits of autism. PMID:23630489

Cooper, Nicholas R; Simpson, Andrew; Till, Amy; Simmons, Kelly; Puzzo, Ignazio

2013-01-01

52

A descriptive profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Thalassaemia is a common and debilitating autosomal recessive disorder affecting many populations in South Asia. To date, efforts to create a regional profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations have largely concentrated on the populations of India. The present study updates and expands an earlier profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations in India, and incorporates comparable data from Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Despite limited data availability, clear patterns of historical and cultural population movements were observed relating to major ?-thalassaemia mutations. The current regional mutation profiles of ?-thalassaemia have been influenced by historical migrations into and from the Indian sub-continent, by the development and effects of Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim and Sikh religious traditions, and by the major mid-twentieth century population translocations that followed the Partition of India in 1947. Given the resultant genetic complexity revealed by the populations of India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, to ensure optimum diagnostic efficiency and the delivery of appropriate care, it is important that screening and counselling programmes for ?-thalassaemia mutations recognise the underlying patterns of population sub-division throughout the region. PMID:22460247

Black, M L; Sinha, S; Agarwal, S; Colah, R; Das, R; Bellgard, M; Bittles, A H

2010-09-01

53

Non-Invasive Haemoglobin Estimation in Patients with Thalassaemia Major  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to validate pulse CO-oximetry-based haemoglobin (Hb) estimation in children and adults with thalassaemia major (TM) and to determine the impact of different baseline variables on the accuracy of the estimation. Methods: This observational study was conducted over a five-week period from March to April 2012. A total of 108 patients with TM attending the daycare thalassaemia centre of a tertiary care hospital in Muscat, Oman, were enrolled. Spot (Sp) Hb measurements were estimated using a Pronto-7® pulse CO-oximetry device (Masimo Corp., Irvine, California, USA). These were compared to venous samples of Hb using the CELL-DYN Sapphire Hematology Analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA) to determine the reference (Ref) Hb levels. A multivariable linear regression model was used to assess the impact of baseline variables such as age, gender, weight, height, Ref Hb and blood pressure on the Hb estimations. Results: Of the 108 enrolled patients, there were 54 males and 54 females with a mean age of 21.6 years (standard deviation [SD] = 7.3 years; range: 2.5–38 years). The mean Ref Hb and Sp Hb were 9.4 g/dL (SD = 0.9 g/dL; range: 7.5–12.3 g/dL) and 11.1 g/dL (SD = 1.2 g/dL; range: 7.5–14.7 g/dL), respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2) was 21% with a mean difference of 1.7 g/dL (SD = 1.1 g/dL; range: ?0.9–4.3 g/dL). In the multivariable model, the Ref Hb level (P = 0.001) was the only statistically significant predictor. Conclusion: The Pronto-7® pulse CO-oximetry device was found to overestimate Hb levels in patients with TM and therefore cannot be recommended. Further larger studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25364548

Al Khabori, Murtadha K.; Al-Riyami, Arwa Z.; Al-Farsi, Khalil; Al-Huneini, Mohammed; Al-Hashim, Abdulhakeem; Al-Kemyani, Nasser; Al-Qarshoubi, Issa; Khan, Hammad; Al-Amrani, Khalfan; Daar, Shahina

2014-01-01

54

Choosing offspring: prenatal genetic testing for thalassaemia and the production of a 'saviour sibling' in China.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the pre-natal genetic testing and reproductive decision-making around thalassaemia in China. Findings are based on fieldwork conducted in hospitals and research institutions, interviews with families with thalassaemia-affected children, interviews with geneticists and genetic researchers and a literature review conducted between September and November 2007. The paper aims to provide insight into the ways in which those who carry thalassaemia decide to have a test for the condition and the choices available to prospective parents. The paper also analyses factors affecting reproductive choices and the decision to produce a 'saviour sibling', including financial implications, state family planning policy, images and information conveyed through the media and propaganda, advice and counselling from doctors, psychological pressure from the community and social discrimination. The paper concludes with a discussion on the issues involved in the creation of saviour siblings, some of which are particular to China. PMID:19499399

Sui, Suli; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

2010-02-01

55

Gonadal function after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for thalassaemia.  

PubMed

Thirty prepubertal patients with thalassaemia major (15 boys and 15 girls) aged from 9.3 to 17.2 years (mean 12.9) who had successfully undergone allogenic bone marrow transplantation were studied. Before the transplant all patients were given short courses of high doses of busulphan (total dose 14 mg/kg) followed by cyclophosphamide (total dose 200 mg/kg). Pituitary gonadal function was assessed between 0.7 and 5.1 years (mean 2.3) after bone marrow transplantation. Increased gonadotrophin concentrations indicating gonadal damage were found in 80% of the girls, probably as a result of the chemotherapy. In all the prepubertal boys the basal follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone concentrations were normal. Most of the boys had reduced gonadotrophin and testosterone responses after gonadotrophin releasing hormone and human chorionic gonadotrophin tests. This could have been the result of iron overload but the effect of cytotoxic agents cannot be excluded. These findings emphasise the need for vigilant long term follow up of thalassaemic patients treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy for bone marrow transplantation so that those requiring hormone replacement can be identified and treated. PMID:1903244

De Sanctis, V; Galimberti, M; Lucarelli, G; Polchi, P; Ruggiero, L; Vullo, C

1991-04-01

56

Beta Thalassemia  

MedlinePLUS

... globin gene, the condition is almost identical to sickle cell disease. When some beta globin is produced by the ... trait (the abnormal hemoglobin found in people with sickle cell disease) ß ß S ? ß S 25% sickle-beta thalassemia normal ...

57

Transfusion independence and HMGA2 activation after gene therapy of human ?-thalassaemia  

PubMed Central

The ?-haemoglobinopathies are the most prevalent inherited disorders worldwide. Gene therapy of ?-thalassaemia is particularly challenging given the requirement for massive haemoglobin production in a lineage-specific manner and the lack of selective advantage for corrected haematopoietic stem cells. Compound ?E/?0-thalassaemia is the most common form of severe thalassaemia in southeast Asian countries and their diasporas1,2. The ?E-globin allele bears a point mutation that causes alternative splicing. The abnormally spliced form is non-coding, whereas the correctly spliced messenger RNA expresses a mutated ?E-globin with partial instability1,2. When this is compounded with a non-functional ?0 allele, a profound decrease in ?-globin synthesis results, and approximately half of ?E/?0-thalassaemia patients are transfusion-dependent1,2. The only available curative therapy is allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, although most patients do not have a human-leukocyte-antigen-matched, geno-identical donor, and those who do still risk rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Here we show that, 33 months after lentiviral ?-globin gene transfer, an adult patient with severe ?E/?0-thalassaemia dependent on monthly transfusions since early childhood has become trans-fusion independent for the past 21 months. Blood haemoglobin is maintained between 9 and 10 g dl–1, of which one-third contains vector-encoded ?-globin. Most of the therapeutic benefit results from a dominant, myeloid-biased cell clone, in which the integrated vector causes transcriptional activation of HMGA2 in erythroid cells with further increased expression of a truncated HMGA2 mRNA insensitive to degradation by let-7 microRNAs. The clonal dominance that accompanies therapeutic efficacy may be coincidental and stochasticor resultfrom a hithertobenign cellexpansion caused by dysregulation of the HMGA2 gene in stem/progenitor cells. PMID:20844535

Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Payen, Emmanuel; Negre, Olivier; Wang, Gary; Hehir, Kathleen; Fusil, Floriane; Down, Julian; Denaro, Maria; Brady, Troy; Westerman, Karen; Cavallesco, Resy; Gillet-Legrand, Beatrix; Caccavelli, Laure; Sgarra, Riccardo; Maouche-Chrétien, Leila; Bernaudin, Françoise; Girot, Robert; Dorazio, Ronald; Mulder, Geert-Jan; Polack, Axel; Bank, Arthur; Soulier, Jean; Larghero, Jérôme; Kabbara, Nabil; Dalle, Bruno; Gourmel, Bernard; Socie, Gérard; Chrétien, Stany; Cartier, Nathalie; Aubourg, Patrick; Fischer, Alain; Cornetta, Kenneth; Galacteros, Frédéric; Beuzard, Yves; Gluckman, Eliane; Bushman, Frederick; Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima; Leboulch, Philippe

2012-01-01

58

Evaluation of serum tumour markers concentrations in patients with homozygous ?-thalassaemia in relation to demographical, clinical and biochemical parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased life expectancy in patients with homozygous ?-thalassaemia consequently increases the risk for neoplastic diseases.\\u000a This study was conducted to assess the levels of five common tumour markers in thalassaemic patients and to investigate possible\\u000a correlations to demographical, clinical and laboratory data. Eighty-five patients (44 female and 41 male) with homozygous\\u000a ?-thalassaemia (mean age?=?27.92?±?12.5), on regular blood transfusions and adequate

Athanasios Christoforidis; Eleftheria Lefkou; Efthimia Vlachaki; Vassilios Perifanis; Ioanna Tsatra; Fani Dogramatzi; Miranda Athanassiou-Metaxa

2007-01-01

59

Correction of ? 654 -thalassaemia mice using direct intravenous injection of siRNA and antisense RNA vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the therapeutic efficacy of ?654-thalassaemia treatment using a combination of RNAi and antisense RNA to balance the synthesis of ?- and ?-globin chains has\\u000a been demonstrated previously, and the safety of lentiviral delivery remains unclear. Herein, we used the same ?654-thalassaemia mouse model to develop a therapy involving direct delivery of siRNA and antisense RNA plasmids via intravenous\\u000a injection

Shu-Yang XieWei; Wei Li; Zhao-Rui Ren; Shu-Zhen Huang; Fanyi Zeng; Yi-Tao Zeng

2011-01-01

60

Treosulfan-based conditioning regimen for allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with thalassaemia major.  

PubMed

The safety and efficacy of a preparation with treosulfan/thiotepa/fludarabine were explored in 20 thalassaemia patients given allogeneic marrow transplantation. Seventeen patients were transplanted from unrelated donors after receiving anti-thymocyte globulin. The regimen was well tolerated. Two patients experienced secondary graft failure; one died of acute graft-versus-host disease. Cumulative incidence (95% confidence interval, CI) of transplantation-related mortality and graft failure was 5% (95% CI, 0-34%) and 11% (95% CI, 3-43%), respectively. Two-year probability of survival and thalassaemia-free survival was 95% (95% CI, 85-100%) and 85% (95% CI, 66-100%), respectively. This regimen might find elective application in patients at high risk of developing life-threatening complications. PMID:18986389

Bernardo, Maria Ester; Zecca, Marco; Piras, Eugenia; Vacca, Adriana; Giorgiani, Giovanna; Cugno, Chiara; Caocci, Giovanni; Comoli, Patrizia; Mastronuzzi, Angela; Merli, Pietro; La Nasa, Giorgio; Locatelli, Franco

2008-11-01

61

Insulin sensitivity and ß-cell secretion in thalassaemia major with secondary haemochromatosis: assessment by oral glucose tolerance test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus in patients with thalassaemia major is caused by secondary haemochromatosis due to transfusional iron overload. The pathogenetic mechanisms leading from siderosis to diabetes are still poorly understood. This study aimed at assessing the influence of insulin resistance and insulin deficiency on that process. Glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) from 36 thalassaemic patients

Holger Cario; Reinhard W. Holl; Klaus-Michael M. Debatin; Elisabeth Kohne

2003-01-01

62

Long-term Chelation Therapy in Thalassaemia Major: Effect on Liver Iron Concentration, Liver Histology, and Clinical Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective trial of continuous chelation therapy in children with homozygous thalassaemia on a high transfusion regimen was started in April 1966. The effect of treatment on iron concentration in the liver and on hepatic histology was examined in 49 biopsy specimens obtained from nine chelator-treated patients and nine control patients between April 1966 and April 1973.Chelation therapy was associated

Michael Barry; David M. Flynn; Elizabeth A. Letsky; R. A. Risdon

1974-01-01

63

Antibodies reacting with Simian Virus 40 mimotopes in serum samples from patients with thalassaemia major  

PubMed Central

Background Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a small DNA tumour virus. Footprints of the virus have been detected in different humam lymphoproliferative disorders and in blood specimens of blood from healthy blood donors. This study was carried out to verify whether SV40 antibodies can be detected in serum samples from multiply transfused patients with thalassaemia major. Materials and methods An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed, using SV40 specific synthetic peptides mimicking the antigens of the viral capsid proteins 1-2-3, to test for the presence of antibodies to SV40 in serum samples taken from patients affected by transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major (n=190) and healthy blood donors (n=251). Results The prevalence of antibodies against SV40 was higher in patients than in controls (24% vs 17%). The prevalence increased and was significantly higher in the older age group of patients affected by thalassemia major than in controls (38% vs 20%, p<0.04). Discussion The higher prevalence of serum antibodies against simian virus 40 in older, multiply transfused patients with thalassamia major than in controls suggests that this virus, or a closely related yet unknown human polyomavirus, could have been transmitted in the past by transfusion with whole blood. At the same time, our data indicate no significant differences in prevalence of SV40 antibodies in patients and controls of younger age thus suggesting that current transfusion methods with leucodepletion and filtered red cells are safe. PMID:24887224

Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Mazzoni, Elisa; Felletti, Marcella; Turlà, Giuliana; Malaventura, Cristina; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Cianciulli, Paolo; Forni, Gian Luca; Corallini, Alfredo; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

2014-01-01

64

Iron overload in thalassaemic patients in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Body iron status, as measured by serum ferritin, was studied in 101 adult Chinese thalassaemic patients, 46 males and 55 females. Thirty of them had mild disease (beta thalassaemia trait), 56 disease of intermediate severity (haemoglobin H disease) and 15 severe disease (homozygous beta thalassaemia, Hb E-beta thalassaemia and delta beta-beta thalassaemia). The extent of iron overload correlated with the severity of disease. In severe thalassaemia, iron overload occurred early in life and was independent of multiple transfusions. While significant impairment of left ventricular function was present in only one of six patients studied, evidence of decreased pituitary (especially gonadotrophic) function was observed in six out of seven. Hypocalcaemia, probably due to hypoparathyroidism, was seen in one. PMID:6517514

Tso, S C; Loh, T T; Chen, W W; Wang, C C; Todd, D

1984-07-01

65

Cardiac complications and diabetes in thalassaemia major: a large historical multicentre study.  

PubMed

The relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiac complications has never been systematically studied in thalassaemia major (TM). We evaluated a large retrospective historical cohort of TM to determine whether DM is associated with a higher risk of heart complications. We compared 86 TM patients affected by DM with 709 TM patients without DM consecutively included in the Myocardial Iron Overload in Thalassaemia database where clinical/instrumental data are recorded from birth to the first cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) exam. All of the cardiac events considered were developed after the DM diagnosis. In DM patients versus non-DM patients we found a significantly higher frequency of cardiac complications (46.5% vs. 16.9%, P < 0.0001), heart failure (HF) (30.2% vs. 11.7%, P < 0.0001), hyperkinetic arrhythmias (18.6% vs. 5.5%, P < 0.0001) and myocardial fibrosis assessed by late gadolinium enhancement (29.9% vs. 18.4%, P = 0.008). TM patients with DM had a significantly higher risk of cardiac complications [odds ratio (OR) 2.84, P < 0.0001], HF (OR 2.32, P = 0.003), hyperkinetic arrhythmias (OR 2.21, P = 0.023) and myocardial fibrosis (OR 1.91, P = 0.021), also adjusting for the absence of myocardial iron overload assessed by T2* CMR and for the covariates (age and/or endocrine co-morbidity). In conclusion, DM significantly increases the risk for cardiac complications, HF, hyperkinetic arrhythmias and myocardial fibrosis in TM patients. PMID:24111905

Pepe, Alessia; Meloni, Antonella; Rossi, Giuseppe; Caruso, Vincenzo; Cuccia, Liana; Spasiano, Anna; Gerardi, Calogera; Zuccarelli, Angelo; D'Ascola, Domenico G; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Santodirocco, Michele; Campisi, Saveria; Lai, Maria E; Piraino, Basilia; Chiodi, Elisabetta; Ascioti, Claudio; Gulino, Letizia; Positano, Vincenzo; Lombardi, Massimo; Gamberini, Maria R

2013-11-01

66

Profiling ?-thalassaemia mutations in India at state and regional levels: implications for genetic education, screening and counselling programmes  

PubMed Central

Thalassaemia and sickle cell disease have been recognized by the World Health Organization as important inherited disorders principally impacting on the populations of low income countries. To create a national and regional profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations in the population of India, a meta-analysis was conducted on 17 selected studies comprising 8,505 alleles and offering near-national coverage for the disease. At the national level 52 mutations accounted for 97.5% of all ?-thalassaemia alleles, with IVSI-5(G>C) the most common disease allele (54.7%). Population stratification was apparent in the mutation profiles at regional level with, for example, the prevalence of IVSI-5(G>C) varying from 44.8% in the North to 71.4% in the East. A number of major mutations, such as Poly A(T>C), were apparently restricted to a particular region of the country, although these findings may in part reflect the variant test protocols adopted by different centres. Given the size and genetic complexity of the Indian population, and with specific mutations for ?-thalassaemia known to be strongly associated with individual communities, comprehensive disease registries need to be compiled at state, district and community levels to ensure the efficacy of genetic education, screening and counselling programmes. At the same, time appropriately designed community-based studies are required as a health priority to correct earlier sampling inequities which resulted in the under-representation of many communities, in particular rural and socioeconomically under-privileged groups. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11568-010-9132-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21119755

Sinha, S.; Black, M. L.; Agarwal, S.; Colah, R.; Das, R.; Ryan, K.; Bellgard, M.

2010-01-01

67

Type I allergic hypersensitivity reactions due to ethylene oxide sterilised leucocyte filters in patients with thalassaemia: report of four cases.  

PubMed

Ethylene oxide (EO) is a highly reactive gas used in sterilisation of heat sensitive medical devices, such as infusion sets, cannulae, intubation materials, ventriculoperitoneal shunts, dialysis catheters and stents. Allergic reactions due to EO have been reported in haemodialysis patients, patients undergoing extracorporeal photopheresis and donors of plasmapheresis. Clinical manifestations vary considerably and generally do not allow differentiation between IgE-mediated anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions. We report four patients with thalassaemia who experienced anaphylaxis during transfusion due to ethylene oxide sterilised leucocyte filters. The aim of this report is to highlight the fact that frequently transfused patients can have allergic reactions due to EO particles left in leucocyte filters. PMID:25725028

Belen, Burcu; Polat, Meltem

2015-01-01

68

Transition of Thalassaemia and Friedreich ataxia from fatal to chronic diseases  

PubMed Central

Thalassaemia major (TM) and Friedreich’s ataxia (FA) are autosomal recessive inherited diseases related to the proteins haemoglobin and frataxin respectively. In both diseases abnormalities in iron metabolism is the main cause of iron toxicity leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Major efforts are directed towards the prevention of these diseases and also in their treatment using iron chelation therapy. Both TM and FA are endemic in Cyprus, where the frequency per total population of asymptomatic heterozygote carriers and patients is the highest worldwide. Cyprus has been a pioneering nation in preventing and nearly eliminating the birth of TM and FA patients by introducing an organized health structure, including prenatal and antenatal diagnosis. Effective iron chelation therapy, improved diagnostic methods and transfusion techniques as well as supportive therapy from other clinical specializations have improved the survival and quality of life of TM patients. Despite the tiresome clinical management regimes many TM patients are successful in their professional lives, have families with children and some are now living well into their fifties. The introduction of deferiprone led to the elimination of cardiac failure induced by iron overload toxicity, which was the major cause of mortality in TM. Effective combinations of deferiprone with deferoxamine in TM patients caused the fall of body iron to normal physiological ranges. In FA different mechanisms of iron metabolism and toxicity apply to that of TM, which can be targeted with specific iron chelation protocols. Preliminary findings from the introduction of deferiprone in FA patients have increased the hopes for improved and effective therapy in this untreatable condition. New and personalised treatments are proposed in TM and FA. Overall, advances in treatments and in particular of chelation therapy using deferiprone are transforming TM and FA from fatal to chronic conditions. The paradigm of Cyprus in the prevention and treatment of TM can be used for application worldwide. PMID:25541601

Kolnagou, Annita; Kontoghiorghe, Christina N; Kontoghiorghes, George J

2014-01-01

69

HSP70 sequestration by free ?-globin promotes ineffective erythropoiesis in ?-thalassaemia.  

PubMed

?-Thalassaemia major (?-TM) is an inherited haemoglobinopathy caused by a quantitative defect in the synthesis of ?-globin chains of haemoglobin, leading to the accumulation of free ?-globin chains that form toxic aggregates. Despite extensive knowledge of the molecular defects causing ?-TM, little is known of the mechanisms responsible for the ineffective erythropoiesis observed in the condition, which is characterized by accelerated erythroid differentiation, maturation arrest and apoptosis at the polychromatophilic stage. We have previously demonstrated that normal human erythroid maturation requires a transient activation of caspase-3 at the later stages of maturation. Although erythroid transcription factor GATA-1, the master transcriptional factor of erythropoiesis, is a caspase-3 target, it is not cleaved during erythroid differentiation. We have shown that, in human erythroblasts, the chaperone heat shock protein70 (HSP70) is constitutively expressed and, at later stages of maturation, translocates into the nucleus and protects GATA-1 from caspase-3 cleavage. The primary role of this ubiquitous chaperone is to participate in the refolding of proteins denatured by cytoplasmic stress, thus preventing their aggregation. Here we show in vitro that during the maturation of human ?-TM erythroblasts, HSP70 interacts directly with free ?-globin chains. As a consequence, HSP70 is sequestrated in the cytoplasm and GATA-1 is no longer protected, resulting in end-stage maturation arrest and apoptosis. Transduction of a nuclear-targeted HSP70 mutant or a caspase-3-uncleavable GATA-1 mutant restores terminal maturation of ?-TM erythroblasts, which may provide a rationale for new targeted therapies of ?-TM. PMID:25156257

Arlet, Jean-Benoît; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Guillem, Flavia; Negre, Olivier; Hazoume, Adonis; Marcion, Guillaume; Beuzard, Yves; Dussiot, Michaël; Moura, Ivan Cruz; Demarest, Samuel; de Beauchêne, Isaure Chauvot; Belaid-Choucair, Zakia; Sevin, Margaux; Maciel, Thiago Trovati; Auclair, Christian; Leboulch, Philippe; Chretien, Stany; Tchertanov, Luba; Baudin-Creuza, Véronique; Seigneuric, Renaud; Fontenay, Michaela; Garrido, Carmen; Hermine, Olivier; Courtois, Geneviève

2014-10-01

70

Transition of Thalassaemia and Friedreich ataxia from fatal to chronic diseases.  

PubMed

Thalassaemia major (TM) and Friedreich's ataxia (FA) are autosomal recessive inherited diseases related to the proteins haemoglobin and frataxin respectively. In both diseases abnormalities in iron metabolism is the main cause of iron toxicity leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Major efforts are directed towards the prevention of these diseases and also in their treatment using iron chelation therapy. Both TM and FA are endemic in Cyprus, where the frequency per total population of asymptomatic heterozygote carriers and patients is the highest worldwide. Cyprus has been a pioneering nation in preventing and nearly eliminating the birth of TM and FA patients by introducing an organized health structure, including prenatal and antenatal diagnosis. Effective iron chelation therapy, improved diagnostic methods and transfusion techniques as well as supportive therapy from other clinical specializations have improved the survival and quality of life of TM patients. Despite the tiresome clinical management regimes many TM patients are successful in their professional lives, have families with children and some are now living well into their fifties. The introduction of deferiprone led to the elimination of cardiac failure induced by iron overload toxicity, which was the major cause of mortality in TM. Effective combinations of deferiprone with deferoxamine in TM patients caused the fall of body iron to normal physiological ranges. In FA different mechanisms of iron metabolism and toxicity apply to that of TM, which can be targeted with specific iron chelation protocols. Preliminary findings from the introduction of deferiprone in FA patients have increased the hopes for improved and effective therapy in this untreatable condition. New and personalised treatments are proposed in TM and FA. Overall, advances in treatments and in particular of chelation therapy using deferiprone are transforming TM and FA from fatal to chronic conditions. The paradigm of Cyprus in the prevention and treatment of TM can be used for application worldwide. PMID:25541601

Kolnagou, Annita; Kontoghiorghe, Christina N; Kontoghiorghes, George J

2014-12-26

71

Endocrinopathies in adolescents with thalassaemia major receiving oral iron chelation therapy.  

PubMed

Background: Endocrinopathies are common in patients with thalassaemia major (TM) despite parenteral iron chelation therapy with deferoxamine. There are only a few studies on the efficacy of oral deferiprone in preventing endocrine dysfunction. Aim: To determine the growth and endocrine complications in children with TM receiving oral iron chelation with deferiprone. Methods: All adolescents with TM receiving regular blood transfusion and deferiprone were evaluated prospectively for growth and pubertal status over a 1-year period. Tests for endocrine function included oral glucose tolerance test, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone and thyroid profile and, in those with delayed/arrested puberty, sex steroids and gonadotropins. Clonidine-stimulated growth hormone (GH) was measured in patients with height ?-3 SD. Results: 89 patients [51 males, 38 females, mean (SD) age 13·6 (2·5) years] were evaluated. Mean (SD) pre-transfusion haemoglobin was 9·2 (1·1) g/dl and the mean (SD) age of starting deferiprone was 5·1 (2·4) years. Mean (SD) ferritin was 9159 (3312) pmol/L (normal <2247). 49 (55%) subjects were of short stature and 25 (27%) had a height Z-score ? -3. GH testing was performed in 19 patients, of whom 17 had peak GH values <10 ?g/L. Delayed puberty and/or hypogonadism was present in 54·1% patients at or beyond the age of normal puberty. Impaired glucose tolerance/diabetes mellitus, hypoparathyroidism and primary hypothyroidism (subclinical) were present in 13·0%, 10·1% and 8·9%, respectively. Overall, 44 (49·4%) adolescents had at least one endocrinopathy. Conclusion: Adolescents with TM on oral iron chelation therapy with deferiprone experienced a high prevalence of growth faltering and endocrinopathies which was comparable to that previously reported with deferoxamine. A combination of deferoxamine and deferiprone may be necessary to prevent growth and endocrine problems. PMID:25311879

Sharma, Rajni; Seth, Anju; Chandra, Jagdish; Gohain, Suraj; Kapoor, Seema; Singh, Pratiksha; Pemde, Harish

2014-10-13

72

Decision-Making and Ante-Natal Screening for Sickle Cell and Thalassaemia DisordersTo What Extent do Faith and Religious Identity Mediate Choice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When making decisions about prenatal diagnosis, couples not only draw on their understanding of the condition but also broader aspects of their cultural identity. This article looks at how faith and religion mediate attitudes towards screening, prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy for sickle cell and thalassaemia disorders. The article specifically reports on a qualitative study, which used focus groups

Karl Atkin; Shenaz Ahmed; Jenny Hewison; Josephine M. Green

2008-01-01

73

Trait--environment relationships remain strong despite 50 years of trait compositional change in temperate forests.  

PubMed

Temperate North American forest communities have changed considerably in response to logging, fragmentation, herbivory, and other global change factors. Significant changes in the structure and composition of seemingly undisturbed Wisconsin forest communities have occurred over the past 50 years, including widespread declines in alpha and beta species diversity. To investigate how shifts in species composition have affected distributions of plant functional traits, we first compiled extensive data on understory plant species traits. We then computed community-weighted trait means and functional diversity metrics for communities in both the 1950s and 2000s. We examined how trait values and diversity varied across environmental gradients and among Wisconsin's four main ecoregions. Trait means and diversity values reflect conspicuous gradients in species composition, soils, and climatic conditions. Over the past 50 years, values of most traits have changed as communities shifted toward species with higher leaf nutrient levels and specific leaf area, particularly in the southern ecoregions. Trait richness and diversity have declined, particularly in historically species- and trait-rich unglaciated southwestern Wisconsin. Reductions in within-site trait diversity may be diminishing the ability of these forest communities to resist or resiliently respond to shifts in environmental conditions. Despite changes in trait and community composition, trait-environment relationships measured directly via fourth-corner analysis remain strong for most plant traits. Nevertheless, accelerating ecological change (including climate change) could outstrip the ability of plant species and traits to match their environment, particularly in more fragmented landscapes. PMID:25163112

Amatangelo, Kathryn L; Johnson, Sarah E; Rogers, David A; Waller, Donald M

2014-07-01

74

Sickle Cell Trait  

MedlinePLUS

... Cell Disease (SCD) National Center Homepage Share Compartir Sickle Cell Trait New: Sickle Cell Trait Toolkit People ... pass the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have ...

75

A case of selective mutism in an 8-year-old girl with thalassaemia major after bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

Selective mutism is rare with a prevalence below 1% in the general population, but a higher prevalence in populations at risk (children with speech retardation, migration). Evidence for treatment strategies is hardly available. This case report provides information on the treatment of selective mutism in an 8-year-old girl with preexisting thalassaemia major. As medications she received penicillin prophylaxis (500000 IE/d) and deferasirox (Exjade; 20-25mg/kg/d), an iron chelator. The preexisting somatic disease and treatment complicated the treatment, as there are no data about pharmacological combination therapy. Psychotherapy in day treatment, supported by the use of the SSRI fluoxetine (10?mg), led to a decrease in the selective mutism score from 33 to 12 points, GAF improved by 21 points. Mean levels of fluoxetine plus norfluoxetine were 287.8?ng/ml without significant level fluctuations. PMID:21989599

Plener, P L; Gatz, S A; Schuetz, C; Ludolph, A G; Kölch, M

2012-01-01

76

cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status.  

E-print Network

countries. sickle cell trait is not a disease. Sickle cell trait is the inheritance of one gene for sickle hemoglobin and one for normal hemoglobin. Sickle cell trait will not turn into the disease. Sickle cell traitWhat is sickle cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status. Engage in a slow and gradual

Devoto, Stephen H.

77

Generations of Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on activity students track and record the passage of colored pom-pom “traits” through three generations of gingerbread people. Students observe that traits are passed from parents to offspring, and that siblings each receive a different combination of traits from their parents.

2012-05-31

78

Beta experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

1982-01-01

79

Relative contribution of insulin sensitivity and [beta ]-cell function to plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations have been used in genetic studies as quantitative phenotypic traits and also as surrogates for insulin sensitivity and [beta ]-cell function. However, the significance of these traits in relation to insulin sensitivity and [beta ]-cell function was unknown. We examined how insulin sensitivity and [beta ]-cell function affected plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during the

Ken C. Chiu; Dorothy S. Martinez; Carol Yoon; Lee-Ming Chuang

2002-01-01

80

Mechanisms of plasma non-transferrin bound iron generation: insights from comparing transfused diamond blackfan anaemia with sickle cell and thalassaemia patients.  

PubMed

In transfusional iron overload, extra-hepatic iron distribution differs, depending on the underlying condition. Relative mechanisms of plasma non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) generation may account for these differences. Markers of iron metabolism (plasma NTBI, labile iron, hepcidin, transferrin, monocyte SLC40A1 [ferroportin]), erythropoiesis (growth differentiation factor 15, soluble transferrin receptor) and tissue hypoxia (erythropoietin) were compared in patients with Thalassaemia Major (TM), Sickle Cell Disease and Diamond-Blackfan Anaemia (DBA), with matched transfusion histories. The most striking differences between these conditions were relationships of NTBI to erythropoietic markers, leading us to propose three mechanisms of NTBI generation: iron overload (all), ineffective erythropoiesis (predominantly TM) and low transferrin-iron utilization (DBA). PMID:25209728

Porter, John B; Walter, Patrick B; Neumayr, Lynne D; Evans, Patricia; Bansal, Sukhvinder; Garbowski, Maciej; Weyhmiller, Marcela G; Harmatz, Paul R; Wood, John C; Miller, Jeffery L; Byrnes, Colleen; Weiss, Guenter; Seifert, Markus; Grosse, Regine; Grabowski, Dagmar; Schmidt, Angelica; Fischer, Roland; Nielsen, Peter; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Vichinsky, Elliott

2014-12-01

81

Laboratory diagnosis of a compound heterozygosity for Hb Hekinan [alpha27(B8) Glu-Asp] and a deletional alpha-thalassaemia 2 in Thailand.  

PubMed

We report the haematological and molecular characterization of a previously undescribed condition of compound heterozygosity for haemoglobin (Hb) Hekinan [alpha27(B8) Glu-Asp] and a deletional alpha-thalassaemia 2 detected in a Thai individual. Hb analysis demonstrated that although this Hb variant co-migrates with Hb A on cellulose acetate electrophoresis and cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the HPLC procedure using a weak cation-exchange material with polyaspartic acid could clearly differentiate the two Hb. The variant could then be confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the amplified alpha1-globin gene. PMID:15485467

Chunpanich, S; Ayukarn, K; Sanchaisuriya, K; Fucharoen, G; Fucharoen, S

2004-10-01

82

Lutte biologique contre Polymyxa betae (Kes-kin) au moyen de Trichoderma sp. Rsultats  

E-print Network

NOTE Lutte biologique contre Polymyxa betae (Kes- kin) au moyen de Trichoderma sp. Résultats dans un sol naturelle- ment infesté par Polymyxa betae et traité par un inoculum de Trichoderma sp. 17 of Polymyxa betae (KeskinJ with Trichoderma sp.. Preliminary results in vivo. Seedlings of sugar, beet (cv

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

83

Generalized Latent Trait Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

2000-01-01

84

Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient.  

PubMed

The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha (within local assemblages), beta (among assemblages), and gamma (regional pool) scales. We test these predictions by quantifying hypervolumes constructed from functional traits representing major axes of plant strategy variation (specific leaf area, plant height, and seed mass) in tree assemblages spanning the temperate and tropical New World. Alpha-scale trait volume decreases with absolute latitude and is often lower than sampling expectation, consistent with environmental filtering theory. Beta-scale overlap decays with geographic distance fastest in the temperate zone, again consistent with environmental filtering theory. In contrast, gamma-scale trait space shows a hump-shaped relationship with absolute latitude, consistent with no theory. Furthermore, the overall temperate trait hypervolume was larger than the overall tropical hypervolume, indicating that the temperate zone permits a wider range of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory. PMID:25225365

Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille; Kraft, Nathan J B; Sandel, Brody; Šímová, Irena; Donoghue, John C; Svenning, Jens-Christian; McGill, Brian J; Boyle, Brad; Buzzard, Vanessa; Dolins, Steven; Jørgensen, Peter M; Marcuse-Kubitza, Aaron; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K; Piel, William H; Regetz, James; Schildhauer, Mark; Spencer, Nick; Thiers, Barbara; Wiser, Susan K; Enquist, Brian J

2014-09-23

85

Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient  

PubMed Central

The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha (within local assemblages), beta (among assemblages), and gamma (regional pool) scales. We test these predictions by quantifying hypervolumes constructed from functional traits representing major axes of plant strategy variation (specific leaf area, plant height, and seed mass) in tree assemblages spanning the temperate and tropical New World. Alpha-scale trait volume decreases with absolute latitude and is often lower than sampling expectation, consistent with environmental filtering theory. Beta-scale overlap decays with geographic distance fastest in the temperate zone, again consistent with environmental filtering theory. In contrast, gamma-scale trait space shows a hump-shaped relationship with absolute latitude, consistent with no theory. Furthermore, the overall temperate trait hypervolume was larger than the overall tropical hypervolume, indicating that the temperate zone permits a wider range of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory. PMID:25225365

Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Sandel, Brody; Šímová, Irena; Donoghue, John C.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; McGill, Brian J.; Boyle, Brad; Buzzard, Vanessa; Dolins, Steven; Jørgensen, Peter M.; Marcuse-Kubitza, Aaron; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K.; Piel, William H.; Regetz, James; Schildhauer, Mark; Spencer, Nick; Thiers, Barbara; Wiser, Susan K.; Enquist, Brian J.

2014-01-01

86

Beta measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The second year's results of the BETA project research are presented. The program is divided into two areas, aerosol modification and climatology in the trade wind region and the climatology of BETA (CO2) on remote mountain top locations. Limited data is available on the aerosol climatology of the marine free troposphere (MFT) in the trade wind region. In order to study the effects of cumulus convection on the MFT values of BETA, a cloud model was developed to simulate the evolution of a typical Pacific trade wind cumulus cloud. The stages involved in this development are outlined. The assembly of the major optical components of the lidar was made. Tests were run of the spectral bandwidth of the Synrad laser when a portion of the beam is mixed with a component which has traveled 450 meters corresponding to a delay of 1.5 microsecs. The bandwidth of the beat signal was measured to be 3 KHz. The data processing system based on a parallel processing filter bank analyzer using true time squaring detectors at each filter was completed.

Schotland, R. M.; Warren, A. J.; Funariu, O. M.

1991-01-01

87

Beta Blockers  

PubMed Central

Infantile hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors seen in 4.5 percent of neonates and infants. While most infantile hemangiomas can be managed with active nonintervention, a subset of patients will require more aggressive management. Here the authors review the use of beta-blockers in the treatment of infantile hemangiomas, including oral, topical, and multimodal treatment options. They discuss the latest data on propranolol, including criteria for patient selection, dosing recommendations, and appropriate monitoring for side effects and efficacy. Lastly, they review indications for topical timolol treatment and the potential benefits of concomitant laser therapy. PMID:25053982

Admani, Shehla; Feldstein, Stephanie; Gonzalez, Ernesto M.

2014-01-01

88

Traits of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traits of Life, a new collection of exhibits and demonstrations at San Francisco's Exploratorium, offers a fascinating look at the "fundamental elements common to all living things." Culminating from 3 years of research and development, the Traits of Life collection follows four themes: cells and DNA; reproduction; evolution; and energy consumption. This companion Web site offers cool interactive features for each theme, as well as articles, movies, interviews with experts, and more. Overall, this well-designed site offers a engaging way to "see past the diversity of living things to the underlying unity connecting us all."

89

A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students create a "DNA recipe" for a dog to learn how variations in DNA lead to the inheritance of different traits. Strips of paper (representing DNA) are randomly selected and used to assemble a DNA molecule. Students read the DNA recipe to create a drawing of their pet and compare it with others in the class to note similarities and differences. Through this activity, students will learn that every organism requires a set of instructions for specifying its traits and heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.

2006-01-01

90

Neutrinoless. beta beta. -decay in gauge theories  

SciTech Connect

The lepton violating neutrinoless ..beta beta..-decay is investigated in the context of fashionable gauge theories. Various mechanisms are examined e.g. light or heavy neutrinos, with or without right-handed currents, intermediate doubly charged Higgs Particles, majoron emission etc. Numerical results have been obtained for the transitions /sup 48/Ca ..-->.. /sup 8/Ti(..beta../sup -/..beta../sup -/) and /sup 58/Ni ..-->.. /sup 58/Fe (..beta../sup +/..beta../sup +/, electron capture, double electron capture) employing realistic nuclear models.

Vergados, J.D.

1983-01-01

91

Linkage disequilibrium between the beta frequency of the human EEG and a GABAA receptor gene locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human brain oscillations represent important features of information processing and are highly heritable. A common feature of beta oscillations (13-28 Hz) is the critical involvement of networks of inhibitory interneurons as pacemakers, gated by -aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) action. Advances in molecular and statistical genetics permit examination of quantitative traits such as the beta frequency of the human electroencephalogram

Bernice Porjesz; Laura Almasy; Howard J. Edenberg; Kongming Wang; David B. Chorlian; Tatiana Foroud; Alison Goate; John P. Rice; Sean J. O'Connor; John Rohrbaugh; Samuel Kuperman; Lance O. Bauer; Raymond R. Crowe; Marc A. Schuckit; Victor Hesselbrock; P. Michael Conneally; Jay A. Tischfield; Ting-Kai Li; Theodore Reich; Henri Begleiter

2002-01-01

92

Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality  

PubMed Central

This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally.

Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

2015-01-01

93

Premarital Screening of Beta Thalassemia Minor in north-east of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Beta thalassemia is a preventable disease. Iran has about 20,000Patients who are homozygote for ?-thalassaemia and 3,750,000 carriers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of beta thalassemia minor among men who underwent premarital screening in Quchana city in Khorasan Razavi region of Iran Materials and Methods This research is a descriptive cross-sectional study. From 2010 to 2011, all participants (1000) under marriage coming to health center of Quchan underwent routine mandatory tests. Participants were considered to have beta-thalassemia minor on the condition that hey had a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) <80fl and a mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) <27 pg and a hemoglobin A2 level >3.5%. Venous blood was taken into an EDTA tube and the complete blood count and red blood cell indices were measured with a Coulter automated cell counter. Electrophoresis was performed on cellulose acetate. Results Mean and SD of hemoglobin, MCV and MCH were 16±2.9, 91±4 and 28.4±2, respectively. Hemoglobin A2 Higher than 3.5 percent was reported as 3.5%.The prevalence of beta-thassemia minor with high hemoglobin A2 and microcytic hypochromic anemia was 3.5% (P-value). Conclusion In countries with high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies, a premarital screening program is helpful for identification and prevention of high-risk marriages. Detecting carrier couples with premarital screening program is an effective way of controlling thalassemia major. PMID:24575266

Hashemizadeh, H; Noori, R

2013-01-01

94

Cereal beta-glucans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cereal beta-glucans occur predominantly in oats and barley, but can be found in other cereals. Beta-glucan structure is a mixture of single beta-1,3-linkages and consecutive beta-1,4-linkages, and cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units typically make up 90-95% of entire molecule. Lichenase can hydr...

95

Interval Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Employing Correlated Trait Complexes  

PubMed Central

An approach to increase the resolution power of interval mapping of quantitative trait (QT) loci is proposed, based on analysis of correlated trait complexes. For a given set of QTs, the broad sense heritability attributed to a QT locus (QTL) (say, A/ a) is an increasing function of the number of traits. Thus, for some traits x and y, H(xy)(2) (A/ a) >/= H(x)(2) (A/ a). The last inequality holds even if y does not depend on A/ a at all, but x and y are correlated within the groups AA, Aa and aa due to nongenetic factors and segregation of genes from other chromosomes. A simple relationship connects H(2) (both in single trait and two-trait analysis) with the expected LOD value, ELOD = -1/2N log(1 - H(2)). Thus, situations could exist that from the inequality H(xy)(2) (A/ a) >/= H(x)(2) (A/ a) a higher resolution is provided by the two-trait analysis as compared to the single-trait analysis, in spite of the increased number of parameters. Employing LOD-score procedure to simulated backcross data, we showed that the resolution power of the QTL mapping model can be elevated if correlation between QTs is taken into account. The method allows us to test numerous biologically important hypotheses concerning manifold effects of genomic segments on the defined trait complex (means, variances and correlations). PMID:7672584

Korol, A. B.; Ronin, Y. I.; Kirzhner, V. M.

1995-01-01

96

Interval mapping of quantitative trait loci employing correlated trait complexes  

SciTech Connect

An approach to increase the resolution power of interval mapping of quantitative trait (QT) loci is proposed, based on analysis of correlated trait complexes. For a given set of QTs, the broad sense heritablity attributed to a QT locus (QTL) (say, A/a) is an increasing function of the number of traits. Thus, for some traits x and y are correlated within the groups AA, Aa and aa due to nongenetic factors and segregation of genes from other chromosomes. A simple relationship connects H{sup 2} (both in single trait and two-trait analysis) with the expected LOD value, ELOD = -1/2Nlog(1-H{sup 2}). Thus, situations could exist that from the inequality H{sup 2}{sub xy}(A/a) {ge} H{sup 2}{sub x} (A/a) a higher resolution is provided by the two-trait analysis, in spite of the increased number of parameters. Employing LOD-score procedure to simulated backcross data, we showed that the resolution power of the QTL mapping model can be elevated if correlation between QTs is taken into account. The method allows us to test numerous biologically important hypotheses concerning manifold effects of genomic segments on the defined trait complex (means, variances and correlations). 33 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Korol, A.B.; Ronin, Y,I.; Kirzhner, V.M. [Univ. of Haifa (Israel)

1995-07-01

97

FERTILITY TRAIT ECONOMICS AND CORRELATIONS WITH OTHER TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Correlations of fertility traits (heifer fertility, interval from calving to first insemination, cow nonreturn rate, and calving interval) with yield traits (milk, fat, and protein), longevity, and somatic cell score (SCS) were compared for 11 countries. Correlations were consistent and small but al...

98

Dog DNA---A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover how DNA will "code" for traits by performing a lab activity where segments of paper DNA (genes) are picked at random, a list of traits is made, and a dog is drawn featuring its genetic traits.

Tanya Perrault

2012-02-20

99

Beta-carotene  

MedlinePLUS

... carotene is one of a group of red, orange, and yellow pigments called carotenoids. Beta-carotene and ... of beta-carotene can turn skin yellow or orange. There is growing concern that taking high doses ...

100

Gamma, Beta, Erf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page includes the encyclopedia entries for gamma, beta and erf functions including factorials, binomials, gamma functions and inverses, differentiated gamma functions, beta functions and inverses, probability integrals and inverses, Frensnel integrals and exponential integrals.

101

Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that affect the way the body makes hemoglobin, a ... results in that type of thalassemia. About Beta Thalassemia Beta thalassemia occurs when the gene that controls ...

102

Proton-conducting beta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton Conducting beta-alumina via Microwave Assisted Synthesis. The microwave assisted synthesis of proton conducting Mg- and Li-stabilized NH4+\\/H3O+ beta-alumina from a solution based gel precursor is reported. beta-alumina is a ceramic fast ion conductor containing two-dimensional sheets of mobile cations. Na +-beta-alumina is the most stable at the sintering temperatures (1740°C) reached in a modified microwave oven, and can be

Brent William Kirby

2008-01-01

103

Quantitative trait loci for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle  

PubMed Central

A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate were used as phenotypic data. In a granddaughter design, 171 markers were typed on all 29 bovine autosomes. Associations between markers and traits were analysed by multiple marker regression. Multi-trait analyses were carried out with a variance component based approach for the chromosomes and trait combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments. PMID:18298935

Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S; Viitala, Sirja M; Vilkki, Johanna H

2008-01-01

104

Quantitative trait loci underlying milk production traits in sheep.  

PubMed

Improvement of milk production traits in dairy sheep is required to increase the competitiveness of the industry and to maintain the production of high quality cheese in regions of Mediterranean countries with less favourable conditions. Additional improvement over classical selection could be reached if genes with significant effects on the relevant traits were specifically targeted by selection. However, so far, few studies have been undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) in dairy sheep. In this study, we present a complete genome scan performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to identify chromosomal regions associated with phenotypic variation observed in milk production traits. Eleven half-sib families, including a total of 1213 ewes, were analysed following a daughter design. Genome-wise multi-marker regression analysis revealed a genome-wise significant QTL for milk protein percentage on chromosome 3. Eight other regions, localized on chromosomes 1, 2, 20, 23 and 25, showed suggestive significant linkage associations with some of the analysed traits. To our knowledge, this study represents the first complete genome scan for milk production traits reported in dairy sheep. The experiment described here shows that analysis of commercial dairy sheep populations has the potential to increase our understanding of the genetic determinants of complex production-related traits. PMID:19397522

Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J-J

2009-08-01

105

Effect of L-type calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) on myocardial iron deposition in patients with thalassaemia with moderate-to-severe myocardial iron deposition: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sideroblastic cardiomyopathy secondary to repeated blood transfusions is a feared complication in thalassaemia. Control of myocardial iron is thus becoming the cornerstone of thalassaemia management. Recent evidence suggests a role for L-type Ca2+ channels in mediating iron uptake by the heart. Blocking the cellular iron uptake through these channels may add to the benefit of therapy to standard chelation in reducing myocardial iron. We aim to determine the efficacy of amlodipine (a calcium channel blocker) as an adjunct to standard aggressive chelation in retarding myocardial iron deposition in thalassaemics with or without cardiomyopathy. Outcomes The primary outcome is to compare the efficacy of amlodipine+chelation (intervention) versus standard chelation (control) in retarding myocardial iron deposition. Secondary outcomes include the effect of amlodipine therapy on systolic and diastolic function, strain and strain rate and liver iron content. Methods and analysis This is a single-centre, parallel-group, prospective randomised control trial. Twenty patients will be randomised in a 1:1 allocation ratio into the intervention and control arms. In addition to conventional echocardiography, MRI T2* values for assessment of cardiac and liver iron load will be obtained at baseline and at 6 and 12?months. Cardiac T2* will be reported as the geometric mean and per cent coefficient of variation, and an increase in cardiac T2* values from baseline will be used as an end point to compare the efficacy of therapy. A p Value of <0.05 will be considered significant. Study setting Department of Pediatric and Child Health, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Ethics Review Committee and Clinical Trials Unit at The Aga Khan University with respect to scientific content and compliance with applicable research and human subjects regulations. Findings will be reported through scientific publications and research conferences and project summary papers for participants. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.Gov. Registration no: NCT02065492. PMID:25492271

Shakoor, Amarah; Zahoor, Maaman; Sadaf, Alina; Alvi, Najveen; Fadoo, Zehra; Rizvi, Arjumand; Quadri, Farheen; Tipoo, Fateh Ali; Khurshid, Mohammad; Sajjad, Zaffar; Colan, Steven; Hasan, Babar S

2014-01-01

106

The splenic syndrome in individuals with sickle cell trait.  

PubMed

The medical records of 25 individuals with sickle cell trait and altitude-associated splenic infarct, reported to two Colorado physicians, were reviewed. Electrospray mass spectroscopy was performed on blood samples from a cohort of 10 of the individuals to rapidly confirm beta hemoglobin phenotype. Only males were identified with a 1.4:1 ratio of non-African Americans to African Americans, and 44% of African Americans and 85% of non-African Americans were unaware they had sickle cell trait. Left upper quadrant pain and an elevated bilirubin were nearly uniformly present. Either abdominal CT or ultrasound was confirmatory. Conservative treatment at a lower altitude generally resulted in a favorable outcome. PMID:25361178

Goodman, Jessica; Hassell, Kathryn; Irwin, David; Witkowski, Ewa H; Nuss, Rachelle

2014-12-01

107

Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Several Internal Organ Traits and Teat Number Trait in a Pig Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected for 8 internal organ traits, 3 carcass length traits, and teat number trait in 214 pigs in a resource population that included 180 F2 individuals. A total of 39 microsatellite markers were examined on SSC4, SSC6, SSC7, SSC8, and SSC13. The genetic traits included heart weight (HW), lung weight (LW), liver and gallbladder weight

Jinghu Zhang; Yuanzhu Xiong; Bo Zuo; Minggang Lei; Siwen Jiang; Feng'e Li; Rong Zheng; Jialian Li; Dequan Xu

2007-01-01

108

Nkx6.1 is essential for maintaining the functional state of pancreatic beta cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Recently, loss of beta cell-specific traits has been proposed as an early cause of beta cell failure in diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this loss of beta cell features remain unclear. Here, we identify an Nkx6.1-controlled gene regulatory network as essential for maintaining the functional and molecular traits of mature beta cells. Conditional Nkx6.1 inactivation in adult mice caused rapid-onset diabetes and hypoinsulinemia. Genome-wide analysis of Nkx6.1-regulated genes and functional assays further revealed a critical role for Nkx6.1 in the control of insulin biosynthesis, insulin secretion and beta cell proliferation. Over time, Nkx6.1-deficient beta cells acquired molecular characteristics of delta cells, revealing a molecular link between impaired beta cell functional properties and loss of cell identity. Given that Nkx6.1 levels are reduced in human type 2-diabetic beta cells, our study lends support to the concept that loss of beta cell features could contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24035389

Taylor, Brandon L.; Liu, Fen-Fen; Sander, Maike

2013-01-01

109

A cybernetic model of global personality traits.  

PubMed

Neurobehavioral studies of human and animal temperament have shed light on how individual personality traits influence human actions. This approach, however, leaves open questions about how the entire system of traits and temperaments function together to exercise control. To address this key issue, I describe a cybernetic model of control and then apply it to the Big Five (B5) personality traits. Employing evidence from descriptive trait terms, temperamental behavioral processes associated with traits, and empirical correlates of traits, I relate distinct cybernetic processes of self-regulation to the B5 traits. The B5 traits broadly parallel basic cybernetic self-regulation processes. For example, the core behavior activation property of the B5 Extraversion trait can be mapped onto the device output function of automated cybernetic control systems. Implications and limitations of interpreting personality traits in self-regulation terms are discussed. PMID:19351887

Van Egeren, Lawrence F

2009-05-01

110

Imperfect World of $\\beta\\beta$-decay Nuclear Data Sets  

E-print Network

The precision of double-beta ($\\beta\\beta$) decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for $\\beta\\beta$-decay T$_{1/2}^{2\

Pritychenko, B

2015-01-01

111

Functional significance of repressor element 1 silencing transcription factor (REST) target genes in pancreatic beta cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The expression of several neuronal genes in pancreatic beta cells is due to the absence of the transcription factor repressor\\u000a element 1 (RE-1) silencing transcription factor (REST). The identification of these traits and their functional significance\\u000a in beta cells has only been partly elucidated. Herein, we investigated the biological consequences of a repression of REST\\u000a target genes by expressing REST

D. Martin; F. Allagnat; G. Chaffard; D. Caille; M. Fukuda; R. Regazzi; A. Abderrahmani; G. Waeber; P. Meda; P. Maechler; J.-A. Haefliger

2008-01-01

112

Root traits for infertile soils  

PubMed Central

Crop production is often restricted by the availability of essential mineral elements. For example, the availability of N, P, K, and S limits low-input agriculture, the phytoavailability of Fe, Zn, and Cu limits crop production on alkaline and calcareous soils, and P, Mo, Mg, Ca, and K deficiencies, together with proton, Al and Mn toxicities, limit crop production on acid soils. Since essential mineral elements are acquired by the root system, the development of crop genotypes with root traits increasing their acquisition should increase yields on infertile soils. This paper examines root traits likely to improve the acquisition of these elements and observes that, although the efficient acquisition of a particular element requires a specific set of root traits, suites of traits can be identified that benefit the acquisition of a group of mineral elements. Elements can be divided into three Groups based on common trait requirements. Group 1 comprises N, S, K, B, and P. Group 2 comprises Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni. Group 3 contains mineral elements that rarely affect crop production. It is argued that breeding for a limited number of distinct root ideotypes, addressing particular combinations of mineral imbalances, should be pursued. PMID:23781228

White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; Karley, Alison J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Wiesel, Lea; Wishart, Jane

2013-01-01

113

Beta Coin Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet illustrates Bayesian estimation of the probability of heads for a coin. The prior beta distribution, true probability of heads, and the sample size can be specified. The applet shows the posterior beta distribution.

Kyle Siegrist

114

Beta-Carotene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beta-carotene is a pigment that occurs naturally in many photosynthetic plants and organisms and one of the most abundant carotenoids found in human blood. The richest dietary sources of beta-carotene are yellow, orange, and leafy green fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes...

115

BETA GAUGE OPERATION MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual provides description and operating instructions for a redesigned Beta Gauge for measuring particles from vehicle exhaust. The improvements and a new control system including a control unit which is radically different from the prior unit, are described. Complete Beta ...

116

MOON for neutrino-less {beta}{beta} decays and {beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements  

SciTech Connect

The MOON project aims at spectroscopic 0v{beta}{beta} studies with the v-mass sensitivity of 100-30 meV by measuring two beta rays from {sup 100}Mo and/or {sup 82}Se. The detector is a compact super-module of multi-layer PL scintillator plates. R and D works made by the pro to-type MOON-1 and the small PL plate show the possible energy resolution of around {sigma}{approx}2.2%, as required for the mass sensitivity. Nuclear matrix elements M{sup 2v} for 2v{beta}{beta} are shown to be given by the sum {sigma}{sub L}M{sub k} of the 2v{beta}{beta} matrix elements M{sub k} through intermediate quasi-particle states in the Fermi-surface, where Mi is obtained experimentally by using the GT(J{sup {pi}} = 1{sup +}) matrix elements of M{sub i}(k) and M{sub f}(k) for the successive single-{beta} transitions through the k-th intermediate state.

Ejiri, H. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

2009-11-09

117

Genetics Home Reference: Beta thalassemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Beta thalassemia On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... Glossary definitions Reviewed July 2009 What is beta thalassemia? Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces ...

118

Software for quantitative trait analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper provides a brief overview of software currently available for the genetic analysis of quantitative traits in humans. Programs that implement variance components, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Haseman-Elston (H-E) and penetrance model-based linkage analyses are discussed, as are programs for measured genotype association analyses and quantitative trait transmission disequilibrium tests. The software compared includes LINKAGE, FASTLINK, PAP, SOLAR, SEGPATH, ACT, Mx, MERLIN, GENEHUNTER, Loki, Mendel, SAGE, QTDT and FBAT. Where possible, the paper provides URLs for acquiring these programs through the internet, details of the platforms for which the software is available and the types of analyses performed. PMID:16197737

2005-01-01

119

Adaptive Traits, 1 Running Head: ADAPTIVE TRAITS ASSOCIATED WITH PSYCHOPATHY  

E-print Network

associated with ASPD; this limited focus has, to a certain extent, come at the expense of the personality traits. Despite significant overlap, psychopathy and ASPD are two distinct disorders. Part of the reason for this blurring between ASPD and psychopathy and the consequent intuitive association between psychopathy

Scholl, Brian

120

Genetics of reproductive traits: Antagonisms with production traits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science, because artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. The addition of genetic techn...

121

Quantitative trait loci for male reproductive traits in beef cattle.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male reproductive traits in a half-sib family from a Bos indicus (Brahman) x Bos taurus (Hereford) sire. The sire was mated with MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows. Testicular traits were measured from 126 male offspring born in 1996 and castrated at 8.5 months. Traits analysed were concentration of follicle stimulating hormone in peripheral blood at castration (FSH), paired testicular weight (PTW) and paired testicular volume (PTV) adjusted for age of dam, calculated age at puberty (AGE), and body weight at castration (BYW). A putative QTL was observed for FSH on chromosome 5. The maximum F-statistic was detected at 70 cM from the beginning of the linkage group. Animals inheriting the Hereford allele had a 2.47-ng/ml higher concentration of FSH than those inheriting the Brahman allele. Evidence also suggests the existence of a putative QTL on chromosome 29 for PTW, PTV, AGE and BYW. The maximum F-statistic was detected at cM 44 from the beginning of the linkage group for PTW, PTV and AGE, and at cM 52 for BYW. Animals that inherited the Brahman allele at this chromosomal region had a 45-g heavier PTW, a 42-cm(3) greater PTV, a 39-day younger AGE and a 22.8-kg heavier BYW, compared with those inheriting the Hereford allele. This is the first report of QTL for male reproductive traits in cattle. PMID:15566467

Casas, E; Lunstra, D D; Stone, R T

2004-12-01

122

Genetic Analyses of Age at Onset Traits   

E-print Network

The identification of factors underlying complex trait variation is a major goal in the field of genetics. For normally distributed, fully observed trait data there are many well established statistical methods for ...

Anderson, Carl

2007-01-01

123

Validity in Personal Trait Attribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of this study provide strong evidence for the position that social aggressiveness can accurately be considered as a personality trait; that is, peer ratings of aggressiveness describe a recognizable component of a person's behavior which is consistent across situations. (Author)

Gormly, John; Edelberg, Walter

1974-01-01

124

Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Milk Production, Health, and Reproductive Traits in Holstein Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report putative quantitative trait loci affecting female fertility and milk production traits using the merged data from two research groups that conducted independent genome scans in Dairy Bull DNA Reposi- tory grandsire families to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting economically important traits. Six families used by both groups had been genotyped for 367 microsatellite markers covering 2713.5 cM

M. S. Ashwell; D. W. Heyen; T. S. Sonstegard; C. P. Van Tassell; Y. Da; P. M. VanRaden; M. Ron; J. I. Weller; H. A. Lewin

2004-01-01

125

Heritability of drought resistance traits and correlation of drought resistance and agronomic traits in peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Inheritance of traits is important for developing effective breeding schemes for improving desired traits. The aims of this study were to estimate the heritabilities (h2) of drought resistance traits and the genotypic (rG) and phenotypic (rP) correlations between drought resistance traits under str...

126

DETECTION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING MILK PRODUCTION, HEALTH, AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report putative quantitative trait loci affecting female fertility and milk production traits using the merged data from groups that conducted independent genome scans in Dairy Bull DNA Repository grandsire families to identify quantitative trait loci affecting economically important traits. Six ...

127

Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

128

A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait

Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong

2013-01-01

129

Human nature and culture: A trait perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation of the individual to society has always been a central concern of personality psychologists. Building on recent empirical and conceptual advances in trait psychology, I propose a new approach to personality and culture. The fact that trait structure, age and gender differences, and cross-observer agreement are all universal supports the view that traits are biologically based characteristics of

Robert R. McCrae

2004-01-01

130

QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS ANALYSIS AND METABOLIC PATHWAYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of molecular markers for crop plants has enabled research on the genetic basis of quantitative traits. However, despite more than a decade of these studies, called quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, the molecular basis for variation in most agronomic traits is still largely unk...

131

Neutrinoless double beta decay  

E-print Network

The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations are presented as well as the current status of experiments. Finally an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

K. Zuber

2012-01-23

132

Beta Estimate Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates a random sample from a beta distribution, and computes standard point estimates of the left and right parameters. The bias and mean square error are also computed.

Kyle Siegrist

133

ICQ 2000b Beta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest beta release of the universally popular instant messaging program ICQ ("I seek you") contains a number of new features, including ICQphone, which makes it possible for users to initiate and participate in PC-to-PC and PC-to-Phone calls, support for SMS technology, integration with Outlook, and email address import, among others. Users can download ICQ 2000b Beta for free at the ICQ site.

134

Beta-thalassemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms

Renzo Galanello; Raffaella Origa

2010-01-01

135

Beta-Lactamasen und Beta-Lactamase- Inhibitoren  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Bildung von Beta-Lactamasen ist der häufigste Resistenzmechanismus gegenüber Beta-Lactam-Antibiotika. Die Enzyme hydrolysieren mit unterschiedlicher Effizienz die Substanzen dieser Gruppe.Als Antwort auf den hohen Selektionsdruck führte folglich die vermehrte Anwendung der Beta-Lactam-Antibiotika im Krankenhaus zu einer entspre- chenden Vielfalt an unterschiedlichen Enzymen. Trotz neuer Beta-Lactam-Antibiotika mit verbesserter Lactamase-Stabilität ist das Reservoir an möglichen bakteriellen Gegen- strategien unerschöpflich. Beta-Lactamasen, die durch

Ursula Theuretzbacher

136

TRY – a global database of plant traits  

PubMed Central

Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.

Kattge, J; Díaz, S; Lavorel, S; Prentice, I C; Leadley, P; Bönisch, G; Garnier, E; Westoby, M; Reich, P B; Wright, I J; Cornelissen, J H C; Violle, C; Harrison, S P; Van Bodegom, P M; Reichstein, M; Enquist, B J; Soudzilovskaia, N A; Ackerly, D D; Anand, M; Atkin, O; Bahn, M; Baker, T R; Baldocchi, D; Bekker, R; Blanco, C C; Blonder, B; Bond, W J; Bradstock, R; Bunker, D E; Casanoves, F; Cavender-Bares, J; Chambers, J Q; Chapin, F S; Chave, J; Coomes, D; Cornwell, W K; Craine, J M; Dobrin, B H; Duarte, L; Durka, W; Elser, J; Esser, G; Estiarte, M; Fagan, W F; Fang, J; Fernández-Méndez, F; Fidelis, A; Finegan, B; Flores, O; Ford, H; Frank, D; Freschet, G T; Fyllas, N M; Gallagher, R V; Green, W A; Gutierrez, A G; Hickler, T; Higgins, S I; Hodgson, J G; Jalili, A; Jansen, S; Joly, C A; Kerkhoff, A J; Kirkup, D; Kitajima, K; Kleyer, M; Klotz, S; Knops, J M H; Kramer, K; Kühn, I; Kurokawa, H; Laughlin, D; Lee, T D; Leishman, M; Lens, F; Lenz, T; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Llusià, J; Louault, F; Ma, S; Mahecha, M D; Manning, P; Massad, T; Medlyn, B E; Messier, J; Moles, A T; Müller, S C; Nadrowski, K; Naeem, S; Niinemets, Ü; Nöllert, S; Nüske, A; Ogaya, R; Oleksyn, J; Onipchenko, V G; Onoda, Y; Ordoñez, J; Overbeck, G; Ozinga, W A; Patiño, S; Paula, S; Pausas, J G; Peñuelas, J; Phillips, O L; Pillar, V; Poorter, H; Poorter, L; Poschlod, P; Prinzing, A; Proulx, R; Rammig, A; Reinsch, S; Reu, B; Sack, L; Salgado-Negret, B; Sardans, J; Shiodera, S; Shipley, B; Siefert, A; Sosinski, E; Soussana, J-F; Swaine, E; Swenson, N; Thompson, K; Thornton, P; Waldram, M; Weiher, E; White, M; White, S; Wright, S J; Yguel, B; Zaehle, S; Zanne, A E; Wirth, C

2011-01-01

137

Stereotypes and the confirmability of trait concepts.  

PubMed

Two studies tested the hypothesis that rules of trait inference may differ depending on trait stereotypicality and the social group membership of the target being judged. Specifically, traits that are stereotypic of a group were expected to instantiate lower evidentiary standards (require fewer behaviors to confirm), but only in members of that group. Study 1 focused on race and found that across 180 traits, trait stereotypicality was associated with fewer behaviors required to confirm and more to disconfirm in outgroup targets (in Black actors for White judges and in White actors for Black judges). Study 2 focused on gender and again found that stereotypic traits were tied to low evidentiary standards only when judging outgroup targets. The findings are discussed with reference to the literatures on trait inference, stereotyping, and shifting judgment standards. PMID:15743983

Biernat, Monica; Ma, Jennifer E

2005-04-01

138

Boosted Beta Regression  

PubMed Central

Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1). Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures. PMID:23626706

Schmid, Matthias; Wickler, Florian; Maloney, Kelly O.; Mitchell, Richard; Fenske, Nora; Mayr, Andreas

2013-01-01

139

The stay-green trait.  

PubMed

Stay-green (sometimes staygreen) refers to the heritable delayed foliar senescence character in model and crop plant species. In a cosmetic stay-green, a lesion interferes with an early step in chlorophyll catabolism. The possible contribution of synthesis to chlorophyll turnover in cosmetic stay-greens is considered. In functional stay-greens, the transition from the carbon capture period to the nitrogen mobilization (senescence) phase of canopy development is delayed, and/or the senescence syndrome proceeds slowly. Yield and composition in high-carbon (C) crops such as cereals, and in high-nitrogen (N) species such as legumes, reflect the source-sink relationship with canopy C capture and N remobilization. Quantitative trait loci studies show that functional stay-green is a valuable trait for improving crop stress tolerance, and is associated with the domestication syndrome in cereals. Stay-green variants reveal how autumnal senescence and dormancy are coordinated in trees. The stay-green phenotype can be the result of alterations in hormone metabolism and signalling, particularly affecting networks involving cytokinins and ethylene. Members of the WRKY and NAC families, and an ever-expanding cast of additional senescence-associated transcription factors, are identifiable by mutations that result in stay-green. Empirical selection for functional stay-green has contributed to increasing crop yields, particularly where it is part of a strategy that also targets other traits such as sink capacity and environmental sensitivity and is associated with appropriate crop management methodology. The onset and progress of senescence are phenological metrics that show climate change sensitivity, indicating that understanding stay-green can contribute to the design of appropriate crop types for future environments. PMID:24600017

Thomas, Howard; Ougham, Helen

2014-07-01

140

Neutrinoless double beta decay  

E-print Network

The status of the search for neutrinoless double beta decay is reviewed. The effort to reach the sensitivity needed to cover the effective Majorana neutrino mass corresponding to the degenerate and inverted mass hierarchy is described. Various issues concerning the theory (and phenomenology) of the relation between the $0\

Petr Vogel

2006-11-17

141

Applied Beta Dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

Rich, B.L.

1986-01-01

142

Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

2006-01-03

143

GROSS BETA PHOTON CALCULATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The program facilitates fast & easy calculation of total annual dose from beta and photon emitters in water from pCi/l or Bq/cubic meter measurements. GBPcalc compares the total dose per year to the 4 mrem established as an MCL in the Radionuclides section of the Safe Drinking W...

144

Nuclear beta decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

New formulae for nuclear beta decay are derived by using a modified expansion of the electron radial wave functions. This expansion is obtained by means of the integral equations which correspond to the Dirac radial differential equations. As a consequence new types of form factor coefficients or nuclear matrix elements occur which depend on the shape of the nuclear charge

H. Behrens; W. Bühring

1971-01-01

145

Double Beta-Disintegration  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the Fermi theory of beta-disintegration the probability of simultaneous emission of two electrons (and two neutrinos) has been calculated. The result is that this process occurs sufficiently rarely to allow a half-life of over 1017 years for a nucleus, even if its isobar of atomic number different by 2 were more stable by 20 times the electron mass.

M. Goeppert-Mayer

1935-01-01

146

ChemTeacher: Beta Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Beta Decay page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery and applications of beta decay.

2011-01-01

147

Pleiotropic Patterns of Quantitative Trait Loci for 70 Murine Skeletal Traits  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies of a skeletal trait or a few related skeletal components are becoming commonplace, but as yet there has been no investigation of pleiotropic patterns throughout the skeleton. We present a comprehensive survey of pleiotropic patterns affecting mouse skeletal morphology in an intercross of LG/J and SM/J inbred strains (N = 1040), using QTL analysis on 70 skeletal traits. We identify 798 single-trait QTL, coalescing to 105 loci that affect on average 7–8 traits each. The number of traits affected per locus ranges from only 1 trait to 30 traits. Individual traits average 11 QTL each, ranging from 4 to 20. Skeletal traits are affected by many, small-effect loci. Significant additive genotypic values average 0.23 standard deviation (SD) units. Fifty percent of loci show codominance with heterozygotes having intermediate phenotypic values. When dominance does occur, the LG/J allele tends to be dominant to the SM/J allele (30% vs. 8%). Over- and underdominance are relatively rare (12%). Approximately one-fifth of QTL are sex specific, including many for pelvic traits. Evaluating the pleiotropic relationships of skeletal traits is important in understanding the role of genetic variation in the growth and development of the skeleton. PMID:18430949

Kenney-Hunt, Jane P.; Wang, Bing; Norgard, Elizabeth A.; Fawcett, Gloria; Falk, Doug; Pletscher, L. Susan; Jarvis, Joseph P.; Roseman, Charles; Wolf, Jason; Cheverud, James M.

2008-01-01

148

ACCOUNTING FOR HETEROGENEOUS VARIANCES IN MULTI-TRAIT EVALUATION OF JERSEY TYPE TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The multi-trait genetic evaluation system for type traits was modified to estimate adjustments for heterogeneous variance (HV) simultaneously with estimated breeding values (EBV) for final score and 14 linear traits. Each within herd-year parity variance was regressed toward a predicted variance whi...

149

Quantitative Trait Loci and Epistasis for Oat Winter Hardiness Component Traits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Winter hardiness is a complex trait and poor winter hardiness limits commercial production of winter oat. The objective of this study was to identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for the winter hardiness component traits: winter field survival, crown freeze tolerance, heading date, plant height an...

150

Quantitative Trait Loci and Epistasis for Oat Winter Hardiness Component Traits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Winter hardiness is a complex trait and poor winter hardiness limits commercial production of winter oat (Avena species). The objective of this study was to identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for five winter hardiness component traits in a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross ...

151

Life Cycles and Inherited Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young children are fascinated as they watch lizards, frogs, butterflies and other small animals develop through life stages, from being born to adult to death. Some of them experience pets at home, while others visit zoos and learn through online resources. Gardening offers an opportunity to observe stages of growth in plants and presents another view of the diversity of life. Characteristics of living organisms, their stages of life and the diversity around us are major concepts developed within this guide. Elementary students learn about growth and development and characteristics of organisms by observing plants and animals that are part of their immediate environment. Through these observations and experiences they begin to notice and develop an understanding that offspring resemble their parents; that characteristics (traits that are observed) are diverse even within same species; and that patterns and variations occur at every level of life. This foundation provides the basic building blocks that are instrumental to the further understanding of genes, traits, heredity and reproductions that they will study in later grades. All resources within this guide correspond to the National Science Education Standards and have been reviewed and evaluated by a team of experienced science teachers, taking into account the needs and concerns of elementary school teachers and students.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

152

Developmental trait evolution in trilobites.  

PubMed

We performed a tree-based analysis of trilobite postembryonic development in a sample of 60 species for which quantitative data on segmentation and growth increments between putative successive instars are available, and that spans much of the temporal, phylogenetic, and habitat range of the group. Three developmental traits were investigated: the developmental mode of trunk segmentation, the average per-molt growth rate, and the conformity to a constant per-molt growth rate (Dyar's rule), for which an original metric was devised. Growth rates are within the normal range with respect to other arthropods and show overall conformity to Dyar's rule. Randomization tests indicate statistically significant phylogenetic signal for growth in early juveniles but not in later stages. Among five evolutionary models fit via maximum likelihood, one in which growth rates vary independently among species, analogous to Brownian motion on a star phylogeny, is the best supported in all ontogenetic stages, although a model with a single, stationary peak to which growth rates are attracted also garners nontrivial support. These results are not consistent with unbounded, Brownian-motion-like evolutionary dynamics, but instead suggest the influence of an adaptive zone. Our results suggest that developmental traits in trilobites were relatively labile during evolutionary history. PMID:22276531

Fusco, Giuseppe; Garland, Theodore; Hunt, Gene; Hughes, Nigel C

2012-02-01

153

Character traits of malodor patients.  

PubMed

Many patients visit oral malodor clinics because of malodors which are brought to their attention by friends and family, or because they note the behavior of people around them, they suspect a problem and develop a fear of having an oral malodor. However, only around 30% of such patients actually have levels of malodor high enough to bother other people. Many patients exhibit halitophobia symptoms, which present as self-perception of malodor, and thus have a strong obsession about their smell which results in distress. Here, we carried out a study on 300 outpatients who visited the Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital Odor Clinic. We used the Tokyo University Egogram (TEG) to elucidate character traits of affected outpatients and compared the occurrence of TEG types in these patients with those of normal individuals. We discovered that 10.4% of patients were A-dominant type, which was 10.6% lower than the 21.0% of normal individuals. On the other hand, 18.4% of patients were N-type (NP high, FC low), which was 9.9% higher than the 8.5% of normal individuals. Results revealed that very few of the malodor outpatients exhibited the trait that shows intelligence, calm judgment, and self-affirmation, and as a result enjoy their life. Instead, many of these patients tended to show high levels of kindness and appeared to be holding themselves back and exercising patience. PMID:21986393

Sugiyama, Toshiko; Kameyama, Atsushi; Yamakura, Daiki; Morinaga, Kazuki; Tsunoda, Masatake

2011-01-01

154

A functional trait perspective on plant invasion  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Global environmental change will affect non-native plant invasions, with profound potential impacts on native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, particularly those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness) and impacts, as well as the integration of these traits across multiple ecological scales, and as a basis for restoration and management. Scope We review the concepts and terminology surrounding functional traits and how functional traits influence processes at the individual level. We explore how phenotypic plasticity may lead to rapid evolution of novel traits facilitating invasiveness in changing environments and then ‘scale up’ to evaluate the relative importance of demographic traits and their links to invasion rates. We then suggest a functional trait framework for assessing per capita effects and, ultimately, impacts of invasive plants on plant communities and ecosystems. Lastly, we focus on the role of functional trait-based approaches in invasive species management and restoration in the context of rapid, global environmental change. Conclusions To understand how the abundance and impacts of invasive plants will respond to rapid environmental changes it is essential to link trait-based responses of invaders to changes in community and ecosystem properties. To do so requires a comprehensive effort that considers dynamic environmental controls and a targeted approach to understand key functional traits driving both invader abundance and impacts. If we are to predict future invasions, manage those at hand and use restoration technology to mitigate invasive species impacts, future research must focus on functional traits that promote invasiveness and invader impacts under changing conditions, and integrate major factors driving invasions from individual to ecosystem levels. PMID:22589328

Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Grewell, Brenda J.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Funk, Jennifer L.; James, Jeremy J.; Molinari, Nicole; Parker, Ingrid M.; Richards, Christina L.

2012-01-01

155

DIFFERENTIAL STRESS-INDUCTION OF GLYOXYLATE ENZYMES AS A MARKER OF SEEDLING VIGOUR IN SUGAR BEET (BETA VULGARIS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Significant differences in seedling vigour exist among sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) hybrids. The seedling vigour trait likely is complex but efficient mobilization of seed storage reserves during germination and early seedling growth and in diverse environments must be considered. The involvement of...

156

FACIAL EXPRESSIONS OF EMOTION INTERPERSONAL TRAIT INFERENCES  

E-print Network

, as in the caseof trait infer- ence. The hypothesis that facial expressions of emotion (e.g., anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness)affect subjects' interpersonal trait inferences (e.g., domi- nance and affiliation with either static or apparently mov- ing expressions. They inferred high dominance and affiliation from happy

Knutson, Brian

157

Beneficial trait stability in entomopathogenic nematodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of beneficial traits such as virulence, reproductive potential, and environmental tolerance are key factors in determining an organism’s ability to produce high levels of efficacy in biological control. Deterioration or loss of beneficial traits during laboratory or industrial culture prod...

158

Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits in Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic architecture refers to the numbers and genome locations of genes affecting a trait, the magnitude of their effects, and the relative contributions of additive, dominant, and epistatic gene effects. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping techniques are commonly used to investigate genetic ar...

159

GENDER TRAITS AND NORMATIVE\\/HUMANISTIC BEHAVIOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study I tried to discover if there is a relationship between conservative \\/humanistic behavior and gender identity traits. I also looked at the differences between male and female characteristics involving interpretation of gender based vocabulary and ideologies. To determine behavior and gender traits I used the Tomkins polarity scale and the Bem Sex Role Inventory respectively. I also

Alex Rice

2006-01-01

160

Recurrence risks for Mendelian traits Autosomal Dominant  

E-print Network

) X 2 #12;#12;· Adoption Studies ­ Twins raised apart · Shared genetics but different environments;· Definition ­ Multifactorial Trait · Trait determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors, which by genetic and environmental factors #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;HIV Environmental exposure Mutated CCR5 receptor

Dellaire, Graham

161

Genetic Dissection of Bioenergy Traits in Sorghum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sorghum is a very attractive biomass crop for ethanol production because of its low water and fertilizer requirements, tolerance to heat and drought, high biomass yield, and great genetic diversity. Two traits are of particular interest: The sweet sorghum trait, which results in the accumulation of ...

162

Sickle Cell Trait, Exercise, and Altitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sickle cell trait is generally benign and does not shorten life, but it may confer some small risk with extremes of exercise or altitude. Research concerning these risks is presented, and it is concluded sickle cell trait is no barrier to outstanding athletic performance. (Author/MT)

Eichner, Edward R.

1986-01-01

163

Trait-Based Perspectives of Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trait-based perspective of leadership has a long but checkered history. Trait approaches dominated the initial decades of scientific leadership research. Later, they were disdained for their inability to offer clear distinctions between leaders and nonleaders and for their failure to account for situational variance in leadership behavior.…

Zaccaro, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

164

Trait-Specific Dependence in Romantic Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informed by three theoretical frameworks — trait psychology, evolutionary psychology, and interdependence theory — we report four investigations designed to develop and test the reliability and validity of a new construct and accompanying multiscale inventory, the Trait-Specific Dependence Inventory (TSDI). The TSDI assesses comparisons between present and alternative romantic partners on major dimensions of mate value. In Study 1, principal

Bruce J. Ellis

165

Speed-mapping quantitative trait loci  

E-print Network

from two inbred Drosophila melanogaster strains with known QTLs affecting lifespan, and hybridized DNA for traits important for human health, agriculture and adaptive evolution is typically genetically complex and the environment1,2. Determining the genetic architecture of complex traits is challenging. High- resolution QTL

Mackay, Trudy F.C.

166

2006 BRAHMAN SIRE SUMMARY FOR CARCASS TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carcass and beef palatability data was collected from 1,719 calves of 230 Brahman sires. Single trait mixed models were used to predict breeding values, and subsequent Expected Progeny Differences (EPD) for six traits: 12th rib fat thickness, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, marbling score, perce...

167

Beta-thalassemia.  

PubMed

Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta globin gene on chromosome 11, leading to reduced (beta+) or absent (beta0) synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin (Hb). Transmission is autosomal recessive; however, dominant mutations have also been reported. Diagnosis of thalassemia is based on hematologic and molecular genetic testing. Differential diagnosis is usually straightforward but may include genetic sideroblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and other conditions with high levels of HbF (such as juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and aplastic anemia). Genetic counseling is recommended and prenatal diagnosis may be offered. Treatment of thalassemia major includes regular RBC transfusions, iron chelation and management of secondary complications of iron overload. In some circumstances, spleen removal may be required. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only definitive cure currently available. Individuals with thalassemia intermedia may require splenectomy, folic acid supplementation, treatment of extramedullary erythropoietic masses and leg ulcers, prevention and therapy of thromboembolic events. Prognosis for individuals with beta-thalassemia has improved substantially in the last 20 years following recent medical advances in transfusion, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation therapy. However, cardiac disease remains the main cause of death in patients with iron overload. PMID:20492708

Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

2010-01-01

168

Speed-Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Using Microarrays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Determining the genetic architecture of complex traits is important for human health, agriculture, and understanding adaptive evolution, but is challenging because high resolution quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping requires evaluation of thousands of recombinant individuals for the trait and clo...

169

EEG activation differences in the pre-motor cortex and supplementary motor area between normal individuals with high and low traits of autism.  

PubMed

The human mirror neuron system (hMNS) is believed to provide a basic mechanism for social cognition. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) in alpha (8-12Hz) and low beta band (12-20Hz) over sensori-motor cortex has been suggested to index mirror neurons' activity. We tested whether autistic traits revealed by high and low scores on the Autistic Quotient (AQ) in the normal population are linked to variations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) over motor, pre-motor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) during action observation. Results revealed that in the low AQ group, the pre-motor cortex and SMA were more active during hand action than static hand observation whereas in the high AQ group the same areas were active both during static and hand action observation. In fact participants with high traits of autism showed greater low beta ERD while observing the static hand than those with low traits and this low beta ERD was not significantly different when they watched hand actions. Over primary motor cortex, the classical alpha and low beta ERD during hand actions relative to static hand observation was found across all participants. These findings suggest that the observation-execution matching system works differently according to the degree of autism traits in the normal population and that this is differentiated in terms of the EEG according to scalp site and bandwidth. PMID:20435023

Puzzo, Ignazio; Cooper, Nicholas R; Vetter, Petra; Russo, Riccardo

2010-06-25

170

Thermophilic Beta-Glycosidase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes identification of thermophilic Beta-glycosidase enzyme from isolate of Sulfolobus solfataricus, sulfur-metabolizing archaebacteria growing aerobically and heterotrophically to relatively high cell yields. Enzyme useful in enzymatic conversion of cellulose to D-glucose and important in recycling of biomass. Used for removal of lactose from milk products. Offers promise as model substance for elucidation of basic principles of structural stabilization of proteins.

Grogan, Dennis W.

1992-01-01

171

Magic Baseline Beta Beam  

SciTech Connect

We study the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called ''magic'' baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and {theta}{sub 13}.

Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Choubey, Sandhya; Raychaudhuri, Amitava [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad--211019 (India)

2007-10-03

172

Cultural traits as units of analysis  

PubMed Central

Cultural traits have long been used in anthropology as units of transmission that ostensibly reflect behavioural characteristics of the individuals or groups exhibiting the traits. After they are transmitted, cultural traits serve as units of replication in that they can be modified as part of an individual's cultural repertoire through processes such as recombination, loss or partial alteration within an individual's mind. Cultural traits are analogous to genes in that organisms replicate them, but they are also replicators in their own right. No one has ever seen a unit of transmission, either behavioural or genetic, although we can observe the effects of transmission. Fortunately, such units are manifest in artefacts, features and other components of the archaeological record, and they serve as proxies for studying the transmission (and modification) of cultural traits, provided there is analytical clarity over how to define and measure the units that underlie this inheritance process. PMID:21041205

O'Brien, Michael J.; Lyman, R. Lee; Mesoudi, Alex; VanPool, Todd L.

2010-01-01

173

Complex trait architecture: the pleiotropic model revisited  

PubMed Central

There is currently much debate about how much the genetic heritability of complex traits is due to very rare alleles. This issue is important because it determines sampling strategies for genetic association studies. Several recent theoretical papers based on a pleiotropic model for trait evolution suggest that it is possible that a large proportion of the genetic variance could be explained by rare alleles. This model assumes that mutations with a large effect on fitness also tend to have large positive or negative effects on phenotypic traits. We show that conclusions based on standard diffusion results are generally applicable to simulations of whole genomes with overlapping generations in a finite population, although the variance contribution of rare alleles is somewhat smaller than theoretical predictions. We show that under many scenarios the pleiotropic model predicts trait distributions that are unrealistically leptokurtic. We argue that this imposes a limit on the relationship between fitness and trait effects. PMID:25792462

North, T.-L.; Beaumont, M. A.

2015-01-01

174

Complex trait architecture: the pleiotropic model revisited.  

PubMed

There is currently much debate about how much the genetic heritability of complex traits is due to very rare alleles. This issue is important because it determines sampling strategies for genetic association studies. Several recent theoretical papers based on a pleiotropic model for trait evolution suggest that it is possible that a large proportion of the genetic variance could be explained by rare alleles. This model assumes that mutations with a large effect on fitness also tend to have large positive or negative effects on phenotypic traits. We show that conclusions based on standard diffusion results are generally applicable to simulations of whole genomes with overlapping generations in a finite population, although the variance contribution of rare alleles is somewhat smaller than theoretical predictions. We show that under many scenarios the pleiotropic model predicts trait distributions that are unrealistically leptokurtic. We argue that this imposes a limit on the relationship between fitness and trait effects. PMID:25792462

North, T-L; Beaumont, M A

2015-01-01

175

Perceptual inference and autistic traits.  

PubMed

Autistic people are better at perceiving details. Major theories explain this in terms of bottom-up sensory mechanisms or in terms of top-down cognitive biases. Recently, it has become possible to link these theories within a common framework. This framework assumes that perception is implicit neural inference, combining sensory evidence with prior perceptual knowledge. Within this framework, perceptual differences may occur because of enhanced precision in how sensory evidence is represented or because sensory evidence is weighted much higher than prior perceptual knowledge. In this preliminary study, we compared these models using groups with high and low autistic trait scores (Autism-Spectrum Quotient). We found evidence supporting the cognitive bias model and no evidence for the enhanced sensory precision model. PMID:24523412

Skewes, Joshua C; Jegindø, Else-Marie; Gebauer, Line

2015-04-01

176

Statistical Power of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci for Mapping of Complex Trait Loci in Natural Populations  

PubMed Central

A number of recent genomewide surveys have found numerous QTL for gene expression, often with intermediate to high heritability values. As a result, there is currently a great deal of interest in genetical genomics—that is, the combination of genomewide expression data and molecular marker data to elucidate the genetics of complex traits. To date, most genetical genomics studies have focused on generating candidate genes for previously known trait loci or have otherwise leveraged existing knowledge about trait-related genes. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential for genetical genomics approaches in the context of genomewide scans for complex trait loci. I explore the expected strength of association between expression-level traits and a clinical trait, as a function of the underlying genetic model in natural populations. I give calculations of statistical power for detecting differential expression between affected and unaffected individuals. I model both reactive and causative expression-level traits with both additive and multiplicative multilocus models for the relationship between phenotype and genotype and explore a variety of assumptions about dominance, number of segregating loci, and other parameters. There are two key results. If a transcript is causative for the disease (in the sense that disease risk depends directly on transcript level), then the power to detect association between transcript and disease is quite good. Sample sizes on the order of 100 are sufficient for 80% power. On the other hand, if the transcript is reactive to a disease locus, then the correlation between expression-level traits and disease is low unless the expression-level trait shares several causative loci with the disease—that is, the expression-level trait itself is a complex trait. Thus, there is a trade-off between the power to show association between a reactive expression-level trait and the clinical trait of interest and the power to map expression-level QTL (eQTL) for that expression-level trait. Gene expression-level traits that are most strongly correlated with the clinical trait will themselves be complex traits and therefore often hard to map. Likewise, the expression-level traits that are easiest to map will tend to have a low correlation with the clinical trait. These results show some fundamental principles for understanding power in eQTL-based mapping studies. PMID:18245851

Schliekelman, Paul

2008-01-01

177

Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC  

SciTech Connect

During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points ({beta}*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of {beta}* value and {beta}-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for {beta}-waist location control.

Ptitsyn,V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

2009-05-04

178

Recent theoretical progress on the. beta beta. decay  

SciTech Connect

The general feature of the ..beta beta.. decay is reviewed and the recent theoretical progress is discussed. The theoretical framework is in better shape now. The only problem left is the accuracy of the closure approximation. Aside from that, the evaluation of the nuclear matrix element is problematic. If the geochemical data is correct, the theory should be drastically modified for the medium-heavy nuclei. In any event, the direct measurement of the (..beta beta..)/sub 2nu/ mode gives the definite answer and corrects the nuclear matrix element. The background evaluation to the (..beta beta..)/sub 2nu/ mode such as from the Majoron is important. The method to discriminate the background is under consideration.

Takasugi, E.

1983-01-01

179

A non-human primate system for large-scale genetic studies of complex traits.  

PubMed

Non-human primates provide genetic model systems biologically intermediate between humans and other mammalian model organisms. Populations of Caribbean vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) are genetically homogeneous and large enough to permit well-powered genetic mapping studies of quantitative traits relevant to human health, including expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). Previous transcriptome-wide investigation in an extended vervet pedigree identified 29 heritable transcripts for which levels of expression in peripheral blood correlate strongly with expression levels in the brain. Quantitative trait linkage analysis using 261 microsatellite markers identified significant (n = 8) and suggestive (n = 4) linkages for 12 of these transcripts, including both cis- and trans-eQTL. Seven transcripts, located on different chromosomes, showed maximum linkage to markers in a single region of vervet chromosome 9; this observation suggests the possibility of a master trans-regulator locus in this region. For one cis-eQTL (at B3GALTL, beta-1,3-glucosyltransferase), we conducted follow-up single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and fine-scale association analysis in a sample of unrelated Caribbean vervets, localizing this eQTL to a region of <200 kb. These results suggest the value of pedigree and population samples of the Caribbean vervet for linkage and association mapping studies of quantitative traits. The imminent whole genome sequencing of many of these vervet samples will enhance the power of such investigations by providing a comprehensive catalog of genetic variation. PMID:22556363

Jasinska, Anna J; Lin, Michelle K; Service, Susan; Choi, Oi-Wa; DeYoung, Joseph; Grujic, Olivera; Kong, Sit-Yee; Jung, Yoon; Jorgensen, Mathew J; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Turner, Trudy; Cantor, Rita M; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Weinstock, George; Jentsch, J David; Freimer, Nelson B

2012-08-01

180

Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy  

DOEpatents

A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

Farsoni, Abdollah T. (Corvallis, OR); Hamby, David M. (Corvallis, OR)

2010-03-23

181

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Quantitative trait loci determining autogeny  

E-print Network

, and this trait may be facultative or obligatory, depending on the species. Autogeny was first identified in Culex pipiens and has been reported to occur at low frequencies among many mosquito species, mainly among

Severson, David

182

Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues  

PubMed Central

Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i) a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness), and (ii) attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically. PMID:25009524

Moore, Sarah R.; Fu, Yu; Depue, Richard A.

2014-01-01

183

Using IRT Trait Estimates versus Summated Scores in Predicting Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been argued that item response theory trait estimates should be used in analyses rather than number right (NR) or summated scale (SS) scores. Thissen and Orlando postulated that IRT scaling tends to produce trait estimates that are linearly related to the underlying trait being measured. Therefore, IRT trait estimates can be more useful…

Xu, Ting; Stone, Clement A.

2012-01-01

184

Predictable patterns of trait mismatches between interacting plants and insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There are few predictions about the directionality or extent of morphological trait (mis)matches between interacting organisms. We review and analyse studies on morphological trait complementarity (e.g. floral tube length versus insect mouthpart length) at the population and species level. RESULTS: Plants have consistently more exaggerated morphological traits than insects at high trait magnitudes and in some cases less exaggerated

Bruce Anderson; John S Terblanche; Allan G Ellis

2010-01-01

185

Brief Genetics Report Quantitative Trait Loci for Obesity-and  

E-print Network

Brief Genetics Report Quantitative Trait Loci for Obesity- and Diabetes-Related Traits led to increases in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The examination of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both obesity- and diabetes-related traits and their responses to a high-fat diet can be effectively

Cheverud, James M.

186

Multi-trait, multi-breed conception rate evaluations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heifer and cow conception rates (HCR and CCR) were evaluated with multi-trait, multi-breed models including crossbred cows instead of the previous single-trait, single-breed models. Fertility traits benefit from multi-trait processing because of high genetic correlations and many missing observation...

187

Emergent group traits, reproduction, and levels of selection.  

PubMed

All group traits, "emergent" or otherwise, are ultimately dependent on the traits and behaviours of the individuals that constitute the group. Unless a process of "group reproduction" is envisaged, this means that the evolution of group traits can in principle be studied in an individualistic way, by studying the dynamics of the underlying individual traits on which they depend. PMID:24970415

Okasha, Samir

2014-06-01

188

Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, popula- tion-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review fo- cuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based disposi- tions

William P. Horan; Jack J. Blanchard; L. A. Clark; M. F. Green

2008-01-01

189

Generalized Admixture Mapping for Complex Traits  

PubMed Central

Admixture mapping is a popular tool to identify regions of the genome associated with traits in a recently admixed population. Existing methods have been developed primarily for identification of a single locus influencing a dichotomous trait within a case-control study design. We propose a generalized admixture mapping (GLEAM) approach, a flexible and powerful regression method for both quantitative and qualitative traits, which is able to test for association between the trait and local ancestries in multiple loci simultaneously and adjust for covariates. The new method is based on the generalized linear model and uses a quadratic normal moment prior to incorporate admixture prior information. Through simulation, we demonstrate that GLEAM achieves lower type I error rate and higher power than ANCESTRYMAP both for qualitative traits and more significantly for quantitative traits. We applied GLEAM to genome-wide SNP data from the Illumina African American panel derived from a cohort of black women participating in the Healthy Pregnancy, Healthy Baby study and identified a locus on chromosome 2 associated with the averaged maternal mean arterial pressure during 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. PMID:23665878

Zhu, Bin; Ashley-Koch, Allison E.; Dunson, David B.

2013-01-01

190

Fish Traits: A Database of Ecological and Life-history Traits of Freshwater Fishes of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on

Emmanual A. Frimpong; Paul L. Angermeier

2009-01-01

191

Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

2009-01-01

192

DEPLOYMENT OF BETA GENETIC RESOURCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Germplasm resources for the improvement of sugar beet and other Beta spp. cultivated crops are held in germplasm collections and gene banks worldwide. Characterization and deployment of these resources into crop types is an enormous task considering the thousands of Beta accessions available. Mole...

193

Future double. beta. decay experiments  

SciTech Connect

Double ..beta.. decay laboratory experiments in progress or planned are surveyed. Particularly searches for neutrinoless double ..beta.. decay are emphasized and present limits on lifetimes and corresponding neutrino masses given. Especially discussed is a UCSB-LBL /sup 76/Ge experiment which may reach limits approx. 10/sup 24/ years or approx. 1 eV for m/sub nu/.

Caldwell, D.O.

1983-01-01

194

BETA GLUCAN IN PROBIOTIC FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As the probiotic foods are gaining popularity, consumption of yogurt is on the rise. Yogurt is rich in vitamins and minerals but is a poor source of fiber. Beta glucan hydrocolloids from oat bran (C-trim30) contain 32% beta-glucan, and 14% protein. Milk solids in the fluid were adjusted with the...

195

Beta systems error analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atmospheric backscatter coefficient, beta, measured with an airborne CO Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system operating in a continuous wave, focussed model is discussed. The Single Particle Mode (SPM) algorithm, was developed from concept through analysis of an extensive amount of data obtained with the system on board a NASA aircraft. The SPM algorithm is intended to be employed in situations where one particle at a time appears in the sensitive volume of the LDV. In addition to giving the backscatter coefficient, the SPM algorithm also produces as intermediate results the aerosol density and the aerosol backscatter cross section distribution. A second method, which measures only the atmospheric backscatter coefficient, is called the Volume Mode (VM) and was simultaneously employed. The results of these two methods differed by slightly less than an order of magnitude. The measurement uncertainties or other errors in the results of the two methods are examined.

1984-01-01

196

In vitro Evolution of Beta-glucuronidase into a Beta-galactosidase Proceeds Through  

E-print Network

In vitro Evolution of Beta-glucuronidase into a Beta-galactosidase Proceeds Through Non Academic Press Keywords: beta-glucuronidase; beta-galactosidase; substrate speci®city; in vitro evolution consequences of adaptive molecular evolution. The Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (lacZ) and beta

Matsumura, Ichiro

197

Invasive Plants and Enemy Release: Evolution of Trait Means and Trait Correlations in Ulex europaeus  

PubMed Central

Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability) hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species. PMID:22022588

Hornoy, Benjamin; Tarayre, Michèle; Hervé, Maxime; Gigord, Luc; Atlan, Anne

2011-01-01

198

Neurological soft signs in adolescents with borderline personality traits.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. This study investigated the prevalence and severity of neurological soft signs (NSS), and their relationships with borderline personality (BP) traits in adolescents. Methods. Eighty-nine adolescents with BP traits (BP-trait group), and 89 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group), were recruited in China. BP traits were diagnosed by the BPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+). The soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory were administered to all participants. The group differences in prevalence of soft signs and in NSS scores were analyzed, as well as the associations between the NSS scale and borderline personality traits. Results. Five soft signs were significantly more frequent in adolescents with BP traits. A total of 59.6% of adolescents with BP traits exhibited at least 1 NSS, whereas only 34.8% of adolescents without BP traits did (p < 0.01). A total of 42.7% of adolescents in the BP-trait group exhibited at least 2 NSS, while only 16.9% of adolescents without BP traits did (p < 0.001). Moreover, adolescents with BP traits showed more sensory integration, disinhibition, total neurological soft signs, left-side soft signs, and right-side soft signs, than adolescents without BP traits. Sensory integration and disinhibition were positively associated with BP traits. Conclusion. These findings suggest that adolescents with BP traits may have a nonfocal abnormality of the central nervous system. PMID:25363197

Zhang, Jinqiang; Cai, Lin; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yi, Jinyao; Yao, Shuqiao; Hu, Muli; Bai, Mei; Li, Lingyan; Wang, Yuping

2015-03-01

199

Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling adaptive traits in coastal Douglas fir. III. Quantitative trait loci-by-environment interactions.  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped in the woody perennial Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) for complex traits controlling the timing of growth initiation and growth cessation. QTL were estimated under controlled environmental conditions to identify QTL interactions with photoperiod, moisture stress, winter chilling, and spring temperatures. A three-generation mapping population of 460 cloned progeny was used for genetic mapping and phenotypic evaluations. An all-marker interval mapping method was used for scanning the genome for the presence of QTL and single-factor ANOVA was used for estimating QTL-by-environment interactions. A modest number of QTL were detected per trait, with individual QTL explaining up to 9.5% of the phenotypic variation. Two QTL-by-treatment interactions were found for growth initiation, whereas several QTL-by-treatment interactions were detected among growth cessation traits. This is the first report of QTL interactions with specific environmental signals in forest trees and will assist in the identification of candidate genes controlling these important adaptive traits in perennial plants. PMID:14668397

Jermstad, Kathleen D; Bassoni, Daniel L; Jech, Keith S; Ritchie, Gary A; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Neale, David B

2003-01-01

200

Trait stacking via targeted genome editing.  

PubMed

Modern agriculture demands crops carrying multiple traits. The current paradigm of randomly integrating and sorting independently segregating transgenes creates severe downstream breeding challenges. A versatile, generally applicable solution is hereby provided: the combination of high-efficiency targeted genome editing driven by engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) with modular 'trait landing pads' (TLPs) that allow 'mix-and-match', on-demand transgene integration and trait stacking in crop plants. We illustrate the utility of nuclease-driven TLP technology by applying it to the stacking of herbicide resistance traits. We first integrated into the maize genome an herbicide resistance gene, pat, flanked with a TLP (ZFN target sites and sequences homologous to incoming DNA) using WHISKERS™-mediated transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures. We established a method for targeted transgene integration based on microparticle bombardment of immature embryos and used it to deliver a second trait precisely into the TLP via cotransformation with a donor DNA containing a second herbicide resistance gene, aad1, flanked by sequences homologous to the integrated TLP along with a corresponding ZFN expression construct. Remarkably, up to 5% of the embryo-derived transgenic events integrated the aad1 transgene precisely at the TLP, that is, directly adjacent to the pat transgene. Importantly and consistent with the juxtaposition achieved via nuclease-driven TLP technology, both herbicide resistance traits cosegregated in subsequent generations, thereby demonstrating linkage of the two independently transformed transgenes. Because ZFN-mediated targeted transgene integration is becoming applicable across an increasing number of crop species, this work exemplifies a simple, facile and rapid approach to trait stacking. PMID:23953646

Ainley, William M; Sastry-Dent, Lakshmi; Welter, Mary E; Murray, Michael G; Zeitler, Bryan; Amora, Rainier; Corbin, David R; Miles, Rebecca R; Arnold, Nicole L; Strange, Tonya L; Simpson, Matthew A; Cao, Zehui; Carroll, Carley; Pawelczak, Katherine S; Blue, Ryan; West, Kim; Rowland, Lynn M; Perkins, Douglas; Samuel, Pon; Dewes, Cristie M; Shen, Liu; Sriram, Shreedharan; Evans, Steven L; Rebar, Edward J; Zhang, Lei; Gregory, Phillip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Webb, Steven R; Petolino, Joseph F

2013-12-01

201

Multiple interval mapping for quantitative trait loci.  

PubMed Central

A new statistical method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL), called multiple interval mapping (MIM), is presented. It uses multiple marker intervals simultaneously to fit multiple putative QTL directly in the model for mapping QTL. The MIM model is based on Cockerham's model for interpreting genetic parameters and the method of maximum likelihood for estimating genetic parameters. With the MIM approach, the precision and power of QTL mapping could be improved. Also, epistasis between QTL, genotypic values of individuals, and heritabilities of quantitative traits can be readily estimated and analyzed. Using the MIM model, a stepwise selection procedure with likelihood ratio test statistic as a criterion is proposed to identify QTL. This MIM method was applied to a mapping data set of radiata pine on three traits: brown cone number, tree diameter, and branch quality scores. Based on the MIM result, seven, six, and five QTL were detected for the three traits, respectively. The detected QTL individually contributed from approximately 1 to 27% of the total genetic variation. Significant epistasis between four pairs of QTL in two traits was detected, and the four pairs of QTL contributed approximately 10.38 and 14.14% of the total genetic variation. The asymptotic variances of QTL positions and effects were also provided to construct the confidence intervals. The estimated heritabilities were 0.5606, 0.5226, and 0. 3630 for the three traits, respectively. With the estimated QTL effects and positions, the best strategy of marker-assisted selection for trait improvement for a specific purpose and requirement can be explored. The MIM FORTRAN program is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/). PMID:10388834

Kao, C H; Zeng, Z B; Teasdale, R D

1999-01-01

202

Identifying quantitative end-use quality traits through marker-trait associations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

End-use quality traits (grain, milling and baking) are generally expensive and difficult to measure. We are in the process of estimating phenotypic trait values for a wide range of Pacific Northwest wheat genotypes, including soft white spring, winter and club, hard red winter and spring, and hard ...

203

Sex as aSex as a Threshold TraitThreshold Trait  

E-print Network

1 Sex as aSex as a Threshold TraitThreshold Trait Overturning traditional paradigms on evolution and modes of sex determination in reptiles Arthur GeorgesArthur Georges Institute for Applied EcologyInstitute for Applied Ecology University of CanberraUniversity of Canberra We all agree that sex is a fundamental

Canberra, University of

204

Traits as Dimensions or Categories? Developmental Change in the Understanding of Trait Terms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has suggested that young children have relatively well-developed trait concepts. However, this literature overlooks potential age-related differences in children's appreciation of the fundamentally dimensional nature of traits. In Study 1, we presented 4-, 5-, and 7-year-old children and adults with sets of characters and asked…

Gonzalez, Celia M.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

2010-01-01

205

Invasive Plants and Enemy Release: Evolution of Trait Means and Trait Correlations in Ulex europaeus  

E-print Network

exist. * E-mail: anne.atlan@univ-rennes1.fr Introduction Biological invasions are a major threat, such as a high level of disturbance or low species diversity [1,2], no general biological properties of invasiveInvasive Plants and Enemy Release: Evolution of Trait Means and Trait Correlations in Ulex

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

206

Towards a reference plant trait ontology for modeling knowledge of plant traits and phenotypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant tr...

207

Quantitative Trait Loci for Root Architecture Traits Correlated with Phosphorus Acquisition in Common Bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low soil P availability is a primary constraint to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Latin America and Africa. Substantial genotypic variation in bean adaptation to low phosphorus (LP) availability has been linked with root traits that enhance the efficiency of soil foraging. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for P accumulation and

Stephen E. Beebe; Marcela Rojas-Pierce; Xiaolong Yan; Matthew W. Blair; Fabio Pedraza; Fernando Muñoz; Joe Tohme; Jonathan P. Lynch

2006-01-01

208

"Autistic" Traits in Non-Autistic Japanese Populations: Relationships with Personality Traits and Cognitive Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored the relationships between "autistic" traits as measured by the AQ (Autism-Spectrum Quotient; Baron-Cohen et al., J. Autism Develop. Disord. (2001b) 31 5) and various personality traits or cognitive ability, which usually coincide with autistic symptoms, for general populations. Results showed the AQ was associated with tendencies…

Kunihira, Yura; Senju, Atsushi; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Akio; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

2006-01-01

209

Prevalence of sickle cell trait and HbC-trait in Blacks from low socioeconomic conditions.  

PubMed Central

In the present investigation we did not observe age or sex differentials in the prevalence of sickle cell or HbC-traits in Black males or females of low socioeconomic status. When our data were compared to those of others, we found no evidence for a socioeconomic differential in the prevalence of these traits. PMID:717622

Hicks, E J; Miller, G D; Horton, R

1978-01-01

210

High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

1996-01-01

211

Sub-threshold autism traits: The role of trait emotional intelligence and cognitive flexibility  

PubMed Central

Theory and research suggests that features of autism are not restricted to individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and that autism-like traits vary throughout the general population at lower severities. The present research first investigated the relationship of autism traits with trait emotional intelligence and empathy in a sample of 163 adults aged between 18 and 51 years (44% male). It then examined performance on a set of tasks assessing social cognition and cognitive flexibility in 69 participants with either high or low scores on ASD traits. Results confirm that there is pronounced variation within the general population relating to ASD traits, which reflect similar (though less severe) social-cognitive and emotional features to those observed in ASDs. PMID:24754807

Gökçen, Elif; Petrides, Konstantinos V; Hudry, Kristelle; Frederickson, Norah; Smillie, Luke D

2014-01-01

212

Sub-threshold autism traits: the role of trait emotional intelligence and cognitive flexibility.  

PubMed

Theory and research suggests that features of autism are not restricted to individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and that autism-like traits vary throughout the general population at lower severities. The present research first investigated the relationship of autism traits with trait emotional intelligence and empathy in a sample of 163 adults aged between 18 and 51 years (44% male). It then examined performance on a set of tasks assessing social cognition and cognitive flexibility in 69 participants with either high or low scores on ASD traits. Results confirm that there is pronounced variation within the general population relating to ASD traits, which reflect similar (though less severe) social-cognitive and emotional features to those observed in ASDs. PMID:24754807

Gökçen, Elif; Petrides, Konstantinos V; Hudry, Kristelle; Frederickson, Norah; Smillie, Luke D

2014-05-01

213

Comparing the adaptive landscape across trait types: larger QTL effect size in traits under biotic selection  

PubMed Central

Background In a spatially and temporally variable adaptive landscape, mutations operating in opposite directions and mutations of large effect should be commonly fixed due to the shifting locations of phenotypic optima. Similarly, an adaptive landscape with multiple phenotypic optima and deep valleys of low fitness between peaks will favor mutations of large effect. Traits under biotic selection should experience a more spatially and temporally variable adaptive landscape with more phenotypic optima than that experienced by traits under abiotic selection. To test this hypothesis, we assemble information from QTL mapping studies conducted in plants, comparing effect directions and effect sizes of detected QTL controlling traits putatively under abiotic selection to those controlling traits putatively under biotic selection. Results We find no differences in the fraction of antagonistic QTL in traits under abiotic and biotic selection, suggesting similar consistency in selection pressure on these two types of traits. However, we find that QTL controlling traits under biotic selection have a larger effect size than those under abiotic selection, supporting our hypothesis that QTL of large effect are more commonly detected in traits under biotic selection than in traits under abiotic selection. For traits under both abiotic and biotic selection, we find a large number of QTL of large effect, with 10.7% of all QTLs detected controlling more than 20% of the variance in phenotype. Conclusion These results suggest that mutations of large effect are more common in adaptive landscapes strongly determined by biotic forces, but that these types of adaptive landscapes do not result in a higher fraction of mutations acting in opposite directions. The high number of QTL of large effect detected shows that QTL of large effect are more common than predicted by the infinitesimal model of genetic adaptation. PMID:21385379

2011-01-01

214

The trait emotional intelligence of ballet dancers and musicians.  

PubMed

Trait emotional intelligence ('trait EI' or 'trait emotional self-efficacy') is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions comprising the affective aspects of normal adult personality. The two studies in this paper investigate the construct validity of trait EI, as operationalized by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). In Study 1 (34 ballet students; 5 ballet teachers), we found moderate to high levels of convergence between self and other ratings of trait EI and a positive relationship between trait EI scores and ballet dancing ability ratings. In Study 2 (37 music students), we found a positive relationship between trait EI scores and length of musical training. Overall, the results support our conceptualization of trait EI as a construct of general emotionality and the validity of the TEIQue as the construct's measurement vehicle. PMID:17295965

Petrides, K V; Niven, Lisa; Mouskounti, Thalia

2006-01-01

215

Affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy.  

PubMed

This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

Horan, William P; Blanchard, Jack J; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F

2008-09-01

216

Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

Horan, William P.; Blanchard, Jack J.; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F.

2008-01-01

217

Epistasis for quantitative traits in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The role of gene-gene interactions in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial, despite the biological plausibility of nonlinear molecular interactions underpinning variation in quantitative traits. In strictly outbreeding populations, genetic architecture is inferred indirectly by estimating variance components; however, failure to detect epistatic variance does not mean lack of epistatic gene action and is even consistent with pervasive epistasis. In Drosophila, more focused approaches to detecting epistatic gene action are possible, based on the ability to create de novo mutations and perform crosses among them; to construct inbred lines, artificial selection lines, and chromosome substitution lines; to map quantitative trait loci affecting complex traits by linkage and association; and to evaluate effects of induced mutations on multiple wild-derived backgrounds. Here, I review evidence for epistasis in Drosophila from the application of these methods, and conclude that additivity is an emergent property of underlying epistatic gene action for Drosophila quantitative traits. Such studies can be used to infer novel, highly interconnected genetic networks that are enriched for gene ontology categories and metabolic and cellular pathways. The consequence of epistasis is that the main effects of each of the interacting loci depend on allele frequency, which negatively impacts the predictive ability of additive models. Finally, epistasis results in hidden quantitative genetic variation in natural populations (genetic canalization) and the potential for rapid evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities (speciation). PMID:25403527

Mackay, Trudy F C

2015-01-01

218

Trait mindfulness and autobiographical memory specificity.  

PubMed

Training in mindfulness skills has been shown to increase autobiographical memory specificity. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is also an association between individual differences in trait mindfulness and memory specificity using a non-clinical student sample (N = 70). Also examined were the relationships between other memory characteristics and trait mindfulness, self-reported depression and rumination. Participants wrote about 12 autobiographical memories, which were recalled in response to emotion word cues in a minimal instruction version of the Autobiographical Memory Test, rated each memory for seven characteristics, and completed the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, and the Ruminative Responses Scale. Higher rumination scores were associated with more reliving and more intense emotion during recall. Depression scores were not associated with any memory variables. Higher trait mindfulness was associated with lower memory specificity and with more intense and more positive emotion during recall. Thus, trait mindfulness is associated with memory specificity, but the association is opposite to that found in mindfulness training studies. It is suggested that this difference may be due to an influence of trait mindfulness on memory encoding as well as retrieval processes and an influence on the mode of self-awareness that leads to a greater focus on momentary rather than narrative self-reference. PMID:25120213

Crawley, Rosalind

2015-02-01

219

Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biometrics is rapidly gaining acceptance as the technology that can meet the ever increasing need for security in critical applications. Biometric systems automatically recognize individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics. Hence, the fundamental requirement of any biometric recognition system is a human trait having several desirable properties like universality, distinctiveness, permanence, collectability, acceptability, and resistance to circumvention. However, a human characteristic that possesses all these properties has not yet been identified. As a result, none of the existing biometric systems provide perfect recognition and there is a scope for improving the performance of these systems. Although characteristics like gender, ethnicity, age, height, weight and eye color are not unique and reliable, they provide some information about the user. We refer to these characteristics as "soft" biometric traits and argue that these traits can complement the identity information provided by the primary biometric identifiers like fingerprint and face. This paper presents the motivation for utilizing soft biometric information and analyzes how the soft biometric traits can be automatically extracted and incorporated in the decision making process of the primary biometric system. Preliminary experiments were conducted on a fingerprint database of 160 users by synthetically generating soft biometric traits like gender, ethnicity, and height based on known statistics. The results show that the use of additional soft biometric user information significantly improves (approximately 6%) the recognition performance of the fingerprint biometric system.

Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.; Nandakumar, Karthik

2004-08-01

220

0{nu}{beta}{beta}: The experimental challenge  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the main experimental issues related to neutrinoless double beta decay searches. It discusses, although briefly, the past, present and future of this exciting, fundamental but extremely complex field of research.

Ferroni, Fernando [Sapienza Universita' and INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma I-00185 (Italy)

2010-11-24

221

Variants of beta-glucosidases  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

Fidantsef, Ana (Davis, CA); Lamsa, Michael (Davis, CA); Clancy, Brian Gorre (Elk Grove, CA)

2008-08-19

222

Variants of beta-glucosidase  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

Fidantsef, Ana (Davis, CA); Lamsa, Michael (Davis, CA); Gorre-Clancy, Brian (Elk Grove, CA)

2009-12-29

223

Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Constraints  

E-print Network

A brief overview is given of theoretical analyses with neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. Theoretical bounds on the ``observable'', _betabeta, are presented. By using experimental bounds on _betabeta, allowed regions are obtained on the m_l-cos{2theta_12} plane, where m_l stands for the lightest neutrino mass. It is shown that Majorana neutrinos can be excluded by combining possible results of future neutrinoless double beta decay and {}^3H beta decay experiments. A possibility to constrain one of two Majorana phases is discussed also.

Hiroaki Sugiyama

2003-07-25

224

Variants of beta-glucosidases  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

2014-10-07

225

EEG theta/beta ratio as a potential biomarker for attentional control and resilience against deleterious effects of stress on attention.  

PubMed

Anxious stress compromises cognitive executive performance. This occurs, for instance, in cognitive performance anxiety (CPA), in which anxiety about one's cognitive performance causes that performance to actually deteriorate (e.g., test anxiety). This is thought to result from a prefrontal cortically (PFC) mediated failure of top-down attentional control over stress-induced automatic processing of threat-related information. In addition, stress-induced increased catecholamine influx into the PFC may directly compromise attentional function. Previous research has suggested that the ratio between resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) low- and high-frequency power (the theta/beta ratio) is related to trait attentional control, which might moderate these effects of stress on attentional function. The goals of the present study were to test the novel prediction that theta/beta ratio moderates the deleterious effects of CPA-like anxious stress on state attentional control and to replicate a previous finding that the theta/beta ratio is related to self-reported trait attentional control. After recording of baseline frontal EEG signals, 77 participants performed a stress induction or a control procedure. Trait attentional control was assessed with the Attentional Control Scale, whereas stress-induced changes in attentional control and anxiety were measured with self-report visual analogue scales. The hypothesized moderating influence of theta/beta ratio on the effects of stress on state attentional control was confirmed. Theta/beta ratio explained 28% of the variance in stress-induced deterioration of self-reported attentional control. The negative relationship between theta/beta ratio and trait attentional control was replicated (r = -.33). The theta/beta ratio reflects, likely prefrontally mediated, attentional control, and should be a useful biomarker for the study of CPA and other anxiety-cognition interactions. PMID:24379166

Putman, Peter; Verkuil, Bart; Arias-Garcia, Elsa; Pantazi, Ioanna; van Schie, Charlotte

2014-06-01

226

The role of HFE mutations on iron metabolism in beta-thalassemia carriers.  

PubMed

Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an autosomal recessive disorder of iron metabolism characterized by increased iron absorption and progressive storage resulting in organ damage. HFE gene mutations C282Y and H63D are responsible for the majority of HH cases. A third HFE mutation, S65C, has been associated with the development of a mild form of hemochromatosis. The beta-thalassemia trait is characterized by mild, ineffective erythropoiesis that can induce excess iron absorption and ultimately lead to iron overload. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of genetic markers (HFE mutations C282Y, H63D, and S65C) on the iron status of beta-thalassemia carriers. A total of 101 individuals heterozygous for beta-thalassemia and 101 normal control individuals were studied. The allelic frequencies of C282Y (1.5 versus 3.5%), H63D (15.3 versus 18.3%), and S65C (1.0 versus 1.5%) did not differ significantly between beta-thalassemia carriers and normal controls. Serum iron (P=0.029) and transferrin saturation (P=0.009) were increased in beta-thalassemia carriers heterozygous for H63D mutation. The number of subjects carrying C282Y or S65C mutations was too low to conclude their effect on the iron status. These results suggest that the beta-thalassemia trait tends to be aggravated with the coinheritance of H63D mutation, even when present in heterozygosity. PMID:15538648

Martins, Rute; Picanço, Isabel; Fonseca, Aidil; Ferreira, Lídia; Rodrigues, Odete; Coelho, Marília; Seixas, Teresa; Miranda, Armandina; Nunes, Baltazar; Costa, Luciana; Romão, Luísa; Faustino, Paula

2004-01-01

227

Prediction of liveweight of cows from type traits and its relationship with production and fitness traits.  

PubMed

Liveweight (LWT) data for Australian Holstein cows was predicted from different type traits based on actual LWT and type data of 932 cows collected from 20 different herds over a 3-yr period. In addition to LWT measured using scales, visual estimates of LWT were also available on 90% of the cows with LWT data. The future predictive ability of different models was assessed using 10-fold cross-validation. The relationships between LWT and selected type traits, including body condition score (BCS), were also calculated to assess the usefulness of various traits to predict LWT genetically. The relationships of predicted LWT measures with production and fitness traits were also estimated in an attempt to assess the consequence of continuous selection on an economic index that includes predicted LWT with a negative economic value. The heritability of LWT was 0.4. Among type traits, stature, chest width, bone quality, BCS, udder depth, central ligament, and muzzle width were correlated with LWT both genetically and phenotypically and were used to predict LWT of cows. Predicted LWT measures, using several sets of traits and visually estimated LWT were genetically highly correlated with each other (>0.73). Phenotypically, visually estimated LWT of cows was slightly more correlated with actual LWT than that predicted from type traits, but genetically both approaches gave the same accuracy. The predicted estimates of LWT were also positively genetically correlated with energy-corrected milk yield and had near zero correlation with survival. The correlations of different measures of LWT with fertility traits were unfavorable or near zero, suggesting that selection for reduced LWT may not cause deterioration in fertility traits. However, it may be useful to consider broadening the breeding objective to include traits that are associated with energy balance, particularly if traits such as BCS and bone quality are included in the set of traits used to predict LWT. Based on the results from this study, the inclusion of predicted LWT with negative economic values into the breeding objective would have no negative effect on fitness traits. PMID:24630649

Haile-Mariam, M; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Pryce, J E

2014-05-01

228

Influence of beta-agonists (ractopamine HCI and zilpaterol HCI) on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of two beta-agonists [ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx**R) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (Zilmax**R)], recently approved for use in feedlot cattle to improve performance traits and carcass leanness, were examined on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle. Fecal samples (...

229

Response Inhibition and ADHD Traits: Correlates and Heritability in a Community Sample  

E-print Network

ADHD traits even after controlling for age, gender, socioeconomicADHD traits while controlling for family, age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomiclow ADHD traits. Neither ethnicity nor socioeconomic status

2013-01-01

230

Relationship between personality traits and vocational choice.  

PubMed

Summary.-The relationship between occupational preferences and personality traits was examined. A randomly chosen sample of 735 students (age range = 17 to 23 years; 50.5% male) in their last year of high school participated in this study. Participants completed Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor-5 Questionnaire (16PF-5 Questionnaire) and the Kuder-C Professional Tendencies Questionnaire. Initial hierarchical cluster analysis categorized the participants into two groups by Kuder-C vocational factors: one showed a predilection for scientific or technological careers and the other a bias toward the humanities and social sciences. Based on these groupings, differences in 16PF-5 personality traits were analyzed and differences associated with three first-order personality traits (warmth, dominance, and sensitivity), three second-order factors (extraversion, control, and independence), and some areas of professional interest (mechanical, arithmetical artistic, persuasive, and welfare) were identified. The data indicated that there was congruency between personality profiles and vocational interests. PMID:19928625

Garcia-Sedeño, Manuel; Navarro, Jose I; Menacho, Inmaculada

2009-10-01

231

Systems genetics approaches to understand complex traits  

PubMed Central

Systems genetics is an approach to understand the flow of biological information that underlies complex traits. It uses a range of experimental and statistical methods to quantitate and integrate intermediate phenotypes, such as transcript, protein or metabolite levels, in populations that vary for traits of interest. Systems genetics studies have provided the first global view of the molecular architecture of complex traits and are useful for the identification of genes, pathways and networks that underlie common human diseases. Given the urgent need to understand how the thousands of loci that have been identified in genome-wide association studies contribute to disease susceptibility, systems genetics is likely to become an increasingly important approach to understanding both biology and disease. PMID:24296534

Civelek, Mete; Lusis, Aldons J.

2014-01-01

232

Mapping the epigenetic basis of complex traits.  

PubMed

Quantifying the impact of heritable epigenetic variation on complex traits is an emerging challenge in population genetics. Here, we analyze a population of isogenic Arabidopsis lines that segregate experimentally induced DNA methylation changes at hundreds of regions across the genome. We demonstrate that several of these differentially methylated regions (DMRs) act as bona fide epigenetic quantitative trait loci (QTL(epi)), accounting for 60 to 90% of the heritability for two complex traits, flowering time and primary root length. These QTL(epi) are reproducible and can be subjected to artificial selection. Many of the experimentally induced DMRs are also variable in natural populations of this species and may thus provide an epigenetic basis for Darwinian evolution independently of DNA sequence changes. PMID:24505129

Cortijo, Sandra; Wardenaar, René; Colomé-Tatché, Maria; Gilly, Arthur; Etcheverry, Mathilde; Labadie, Karine; Caillieux, Erwann; Hospital, Fréderic; Aury, Jean-Marc; Wincker, Patrick; Roudier, François; Jansen, Ritsert C; Colot, Vincent; Johannes, Frank

2014-03-01

233

Multivariable conditional analysis for complex trait and its components.  

PubMed

Methods of multivariable conditional analysis were proposed for analyzing contribution of component traits to complex target trait based on mixed linear model approaches. The contribution ratio and the contributed genetic effect were defined. The contribution ratio could measure the proportion of genetic variation of the given component trait on the target trait. The contributed genetic effect could quantify genetic effect of the given component traits contributed to the target trait. A worked example from the cotton data is given to illustrate the application of the new methods for analyzing the contribution of three yield components to lint yield. PMID:15931790

Wen, Yong-Xian; Zhu, Jun

2005-03-01

234

Mapping Splicing Quantitative Trait Loci in RNA-Seq  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND One of the major mechanisms of generating mRNA diversity is alternative splicing, a regulated process that allows for the flexibility of producing functionally different proteins from the same genomic sequences. This process is often altered in cancer cells to produce aberrant proteins that drive the progression of cancer. A better understanding of the misregulation of alternative splicing will shed light on the development of novel targets for pharmacological interventions of cancer. METHODS In this study, we evaluated three statistical methods, random effects meta-regression, beta regression, and generalized linear mixed effects model, for the analysis of splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL) using RNA-Seq data. All the three methods use exon-inclusion levels estimated by the PennSeq algorithm, a statistical method that utilizes paired-end reads and accounts for non-uniform sequencing coverage. RESULTS Using both simulated and real RNA-Seq datasets, we compared these three methods with GLiMMPS, a recently developed method for sQTL analysis. Our results indicate that the most reliable and powerful method was the random effects meta-regression approach, which identified sQTLs at low false discovery rates but higher power when compared to GLiMMPS. CONCLUSIONS We have evaluated three statistical methods for the analysis of sQTLs in RNA-Seq. Results from our study will be instructive for researchers in selecting the appropriate statistical methods for sQTL analysis. PMID:25733796

Jia, Cheng; Hu, Yu; Liu, Yichuan; Li, Mingyao

2015-01-01

235

Genome Informed Trait-Based Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trait-based approaches are powerful tools for representing microbial communities across both spatial and temporal scales within ecosystem models. Trait-based models (TBMs) represent the diversity of microbial taxa as stochastic assemblages with a distribution of traits constrained by trade-offs between these traits. Such representation with its built-in stochasticity allows the elucidation of the interactions between the microbes and their environment by reducing the complexity of microbial community diversity into a limited number of functional ';guilds' and letting them emerge across spatio-temporal scales. From the biogeochemical/ecosystem modeling perspective, the emergent properties of the microbial community could be directly translated into predictions of biogeochemical reaction rates and microbial biomass. The accuracy of TBMs depends on the identification of key traits of the microbial community members and on the parameterization of these traits. Current approaches to inform TBM parameterization are empirical (i.e., based on literature surveys). Advances in omic technologies (such as genomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics) pave the way to better-initialize models that can be constrained in a generic or site-specific fashion. Here we describe the coupling of metagenomic data to the development of a TBM representing the dynamics of metabolic guilds from an organic carbon stimulated groundwater microbial community. Illumina paired-end metagenomic data were collected from the community as it transitioned successively through electron-accepting conditions (nitrate-, sulfate-, and Fe(III)-reducing), and used to inform estimates of growth rates and the distribution of metabolic pathways (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic oxidation, fermentation) across a spatially resolved TBM. We use this model to evaluate the emergence of different metabolisms and predict rates of biogeochemical processes over time. We compare our results to observational outputs.

Karaoz, U.; Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Tang, J.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E.; Riley, W. J.

2013-12-01

236

Beta particle monitor for surfaces  

DOEpatents

A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

237

Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... each time you inject your medication. Do not reuse or share syringes or pens. Throw away used ... peginterferon beta-1a. You should drink plenty of water during your treatment to help prevent or control ...

238

Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

1988-01-01

239

Beta particle monitor for surfaces  

DOEpatents

A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means. 2 figs.

MacArthur, D.W.

1997-10-21

240

Unraveling the complex trait of crop yield with quantitative trait loci mapping in Brassica napus.  

PubMed

Yield is the most important and complex trait for the genetic improvement of crops. Although much research into the genetic basis of yield and yield-associated traits has been reported, in each such experiment the genetic architecture and determinants of yield have remained ambiguous. One of the most intractable problems is the interaction between genes and the environment. We identified 85 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed yield along with 785 QTL for eight yield-associated traits, from 10 natural environments and two related populations of rapeseed. A trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed 401 consensus QTL, of which 82.5% were clustered and integrated into 111 pleiotropic unique QTL by meta-analysis, 47 of which were relevant for seed yield. The complexity of the genetic architecture of yield was demonstrated, illustrating the pleiotropy, synthesis, variability, and plasticity of yield QTL. The idea of estimating indicator QTL for yield QTL and identifying potential candidate genes for yield provides an advance in methodology for complex traits. PMID:19414564

Shi, Jiaqin; Li, Ruiyuan; Qiu, Dan; Jiang, Congcong; Long, Yan; Morgan, Colin; Bancroft, Ian; Zhao, Jianyi; Meng, Jinling

2009-07-01

241

Magic trait electric organ discharge (EOD)  

PubMed Central

A unique evolutionary specialization of African weakly electric fish (Mormyridae) is their ability to produce and perceive electric signals. Mormyrids use their electric organs discharge (EOD) for electrolocation and electrocommunication. Here we discuss the adaptive significance of the EOD in foraging (electric prey detection) in light of recent results demonstrating that mormyrid fish mate assortatively according to EOD waveform characteristics (electric mate choice). Therefore the EOD as a single trait pleiotropically combines natural divergent selection and reproductive isolation. Consequently we postulate the EOD as a “magic trait” promoting the diversification of African weakly electric fish. PMID:19721881

Plath, Martin; Engelmann, Jacob; Kirschbaum, Frank; Tiedemann, Ralph

2009-01-01

242

Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.  

PubMed

The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. PMID:25466078

Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

2015-04-15

243

Predicting Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give predictions for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in a simple\\u000avariant of the A_4 family symmetry model. We show that there is a lower bound\\u000afor the neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude even in the case of normal\\u000ahierarchical neutrino masses, corresponding to an effective mass parameter\\u000a|m_{ee}| >= 0.17 \\\\sqrt{\\\\Delta m^2_{ATM}}. This result holds both for

M. Hirsch; Ernest Ma; J. W. F. Valle; A. Villanova del Moral

2005-01-01

244

Physics with Beta-Beam  

SciTech Connect

A Beta-beam would be a high intensity source of pure {nu}{sub e} and/or {nu}-bar{sub e} flux with known spectrum, ideal for precision measurements. Myriad of possible set-ups with suitable choices of baselines, detectors and the beta-beam neutrino source with desired energies have been put forth in the literature. In this talk we present a comparitive discussion of the physics reach of a few such experimental set-ups.

Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Choubey, Sandhya; Raychaudhuri, Amitava [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad-211019 (India)

2008-02-21

245

Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits  

SciTech Connect

Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States))

1993-11-01

246

Epigenetics meets metabolomics: an epigenome-wide association study with blood serum metabolic traits  

PubMed Central

Previously, we reported strong influences of genetic variants on metabolic phenotypes, some of them with clinical relevance. Here, we hypothesize that DNA methylation may have an important and potentially independent effect on human metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we conducted what is to the best of our knowledge the first epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) between DNA methylation and metabolic traits (metabotypes) in human blood. We assess 649 blood metabolic traits from 1814 participants of the Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg (KORA) population study for association with methylation of 457 004 CpG sites, determined on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip platform. Using the EWAS approach, we identified two types of methylome–metabotype associations. One type is driven by an underlying genetic effect; the other type is independent of genetic variation and potentially driven by common environmental and life-style-dependent factors. We report eight CpG loci at genome-wide significance that have a genetic variant as confounder (P = 3.9 × 10?20 to 2.0 × 10?108, r2 = 0.036 to 0.221). Seven loci display CpG site-specific associations to metabotypes, but do not exhibit any underlying genetic signals (P = 9.2 × 10?14 to 2.7 × 10?27, r2 = 0.008 to 0.107). We further identify several groups of CpG loci that associate with a same metabotype, such as 4-vinylphenol sulfate and 4-androsten-3-beta,17-beta-diol disulfate. In these cases, the association between CpG-methylation and metabotype is likely the result of a common external environmental factor, including smoking. Our study shows that analysis of EWAS with large numbers of metabolic traits in large population cohorts are, in principle, feasible. Taken together, our data suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in regulating human metabolism. PMID:24014485

Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Zeilinger, Sonja; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Brugger, Markus; Peters, Annette; Meisinger, Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Hengstenberg, Christian; Pagel, Philipp; Huber, Fritz; Mohney, Robert P.; Grallert, Harald; Illig, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Waldenberger, Melanie; Gieger, Christian; Suhre, Karsten

2014-01-01

247

The temporal relationship of personality traits to personality disorders  

E-print Network

Personality disorders are presumed to be stable because of underlying stable and maladaptive personality traits. It has been argued that it is the stability of these traits that makes personality disorders difficult to treat. Previous research has...

Warner, Megan Beth

2002-01-01

248

INVESTIGATION Next-Generation Mapping of Complex Traits  

E-print Network

methods using next- generation sequencing (NGS) technology have successfully captured single lociINVESTIGATION Next-Generation Mapping of Complex Traits with Phenotype-Based Selection underlying complex traits is difficult. We show that new sequencing technology combined with traditional

Nachman, Michael

249

What causes internalising traits and autistic traits to co-occur in adolescence? A community-based twin study.  

PubMed

Autism shows a high degree of comorbidity with anxiety disorders. Adolescence is a time of increased stress and vulnerability to internalising problems. This study addresses for the first time the degree of genetic and environmental overlap between autistic traits (total measure and subscales) and internalising traits in a community-based adolescent twin sample. Parents of 12-14-year-old twins (N?=?3,232 pairs; 3,460 males, 3,004 females) reported on the twins' internalising and autistic traits. Autistic trait subscales were created using principal component analysis. Bivariate twin model-fitting was conducted. Autistic and internalising traits correlated moderately (r?=?0.30). Genetic influences on individual traits were substantial but genetic overlap between traits was moderate (genetic correlation: males?=?0.30, females?=?0.12). Shared environmental influences were low for internalising traits and moderate for autistic traits, and showed considerable overlap (shared environmental correlation: males?=?0.53, females?=?1). Nonshared environmental influences were moderate for internalising traits and low for autistic traits and showed low overlap. A multiple component solution was found for autistic traits and of the derived subscales, autistic-like 'Social Unease' showed the most phenotypic and genetic overlap with internalising traits. PMID:23975079

Scherff, Aline; Taylor, Mark; Eley, Thalia C; Happé, Francesca; Charman, Tony; Ronald, Angelica

2014-05-01

250

Spatial and temporal patterns of immunoreactive transforming growth factor beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3 during excisional wound repair.  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) regulates cellular growth and differentiation and stimulates the synthesis and secretion of protein constituents of the extracellular matrix. Three isoforms of TGF-beta have been found in mammals. Although the biological activities of TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, and TGF-beta 3 are similar at the level of cell culture, distinct in vivo functions for these molecules are emerging. To gain insight into the role of each isoform in wound repair, antibodies specific for each isoform of TGF-beta were used to examine excisional wound repair. Marked differences in the temporal and spatial relationships for immunoreactive TGF-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 were noted throughout the repair process. TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3 were prevalent by 24 hours after excisional wounding, and strong immunoreactivity was observed in the migrating epidermis. Subtle changes in immunoreactivity occurred for TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3 in cells of the epidermal appendages, mesenchymal derivatives, granulation tissue, and the underlying dermis throughout wound repair. In contrast, TGF-beta 1 was not associated with any undifferentiated cells and was not present in the dermis and most dermal structures in both nonwounded skin or wounds until day 5 after wounding, when re-epithelialization was complete. Following re-epithelialization, TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3 were present in all four layers of stratum corneum of the differentiating epidermis. All three TGF-beta isoforms were present in mesenchymal cells and basal lamina, suggesting their role in the modulation of dermal-epidermal interaction during wound repair. Our observations support individual in vivo function for TGF-beta isoforms in cutaneous wound repair. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8342593

Levine, J. H.; Moses, H. L.; Gold, L. I.; Nanney, L. B.

1993-01-01

251

State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions…

Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans

2007-01-01

252

An Examination of Quantitative Traits in Brassica  

E-print Network

+ + An Examination of Quantitative Traits in Brassica Brian S. Yandell Departments of Horticulture · Brassica study · linkage maps · classical vs. mapmaker QTL · testing with likelihood ratios · confidence interval for major QT gene · major and minor QT genes · stepwise location of QT loci + 2 #12;+ + Brassica

Yandell, Brian S.

253

Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

254

Sickle Cell Trait and Scholastic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a preliminary study, no significant interaction effects were found between scholastic achievement and sickle cell trait in black children currently in eight and ninth grades, as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills over a consecutive period of four years, 1968 through 1971, grades four through seven. (EH)

Jackson, Yvonne; Ayrer, James

1974-01-01

255

From genes to traits and Yaniv Erlich  

E-print Network

;Predating carrier screens Genetic Disorder Carrier rate Tay-Sachs 1:25 Cystic Fibrosis 1:30 Familial Disease/Trait Heritability Alzheimer 70% Asthma 30% Depression 50% Heart disease 45% Hypertension 30 with Hadassah Medical Center and Dor Yeshorim) #12;What is Joubert Syndrome? ·The disease affects the entire

Sabatini, David M.

256

Trait Ratings for Automated Essay Grading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used Project Essay Grade (PEG) to evaluate essays both holistically and with the rating of traits (content, organization, style, mechanics, and creativity) for Web-based student essays that serve as placement tests at a large Midwestern university. In addition, the use of a TopicScore, or measure of topic content for each assignment,…

Shermis, Mark D.; Koch, Chantal Mees; Page, Ellis B.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Harrington, Susanmarie

257

Biodiversity: Predictive traits to the rescue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change poses new challenges to the conservation of species, which at present requires data-hungry models to meaningfully anticipate future threats. Now a study suggests that species traits may offer a simpler way to help predict future extinction risks.

Guisan, Antoine

2014-03-01

258

Quantitative Trait Linkage Analysis Using Gaussian Copulas  

PubMed Central

Mapping and identifying variants that influence quantitative traits is an important problem for genetic studies. Traditional QTL mapping relies on a variance-components (VC) approach with the key assumption that the trait values in a family follow a multivariate normal distribution. Violation of this assumption can lead to inflated type I error, reduced power, and biased parameter estimates. To accommodate nonnormally distributed data, we developed and implemented a modified VC method, which we call the “copula VC method,” that directly models the nonnormal distribution using Gaussian copulas. The copula VC method allows the analysis of continuous, discrete, and censored trait data, and the standard VC method is a special case when the data are distributed as multivariate normal. Through the use of link functions, the copula VC method can easily incorporate covariates. We use computer simulations to show that the proposed method yields unbiased parameter estimates, correct type I error rates, and improved power for testing linkage with a variety of nonnormal traits as compared with the standard VC and the regression-based methods. PMID:16751671

Li, Mingyao; Boehnke, Michael; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Song, Peter X.-K.

2006-01-01

259

Contributions to an animal trait ontology.  

PubMed

Improved understanding of the biology of traits of livestock species necessitates the use and combination of information that is stored in a variety of different sources such as databases and literature. The ability to effectively combine information from different sources, however, depends on a high level of standardization within and between various resources, at least with respect to the used terminology. Ontologies represent a set of concepts that facilitate standardization of terminology within specific domains of interest. The biological mechanisms underlying quantitative traits of farm animal species related to reproduction and host pathogen interactions are complex and not well understood. This knowledge could be improved through the availability of domain-specific ontologies that provide enhanced possibilities for data annotation, data retrieval, data integration, data exchange, data analysis, and ontology-based searches. Here we describe a framework for domain-specific ontologies and the development of 2 first-generation ontologies: Reproductive Trait and Phenotype Ontology (REPO) and Host Pathogen Interactions Ontology . In these first-generation ontologies, we focused on "female fertility in cattle" and "interactions between pigs and Salmonella". Through this, we contribute to the global initiative toward the development of an Animal Trait Ontology for livestock species. To demonstrate its usefulness, we show how REPO can be used to select candidate genes for fertility. PMID:22228038

Hulsegge, B; Smits, M A; te Pas, M F W; Woelders, H

2012-06-01

260

Phylogenetics Exercise Using Inherited Human Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A bioinformatics laboratory exercise based on inherited human morphological traits is presented. It teaches how morphological characters can be used to study the evolutionary history of humans using parsimony. The exercise can easily be used in a pen-and-paper laboratory, but if computers are available, a more versatile analysis can be carried…

Tuimala, Jarno

2006-01-01

261

QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR INFECTIOUS BOVINE KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an economically important disease in cattle. The objective of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in offspring from a Brahman x Hereford sire. The sire was mated to H...

262

Sexual colouration and sperm traits in guppies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among the area, hue, saturation and brightness of orange colouration and sperm traits in the guppy Poecilia reticulata were investigated. Males with greater areas of orange colouration had significantly larger sperm loads, more motile sperm and longer sperm relative to males with relatively little orange colouration. Males with greater areas of orange colouration did not possess more viable

T. E. Pitcher; F. H. Rodd; L. Rowe

2007-01-01

263

Genetics of complex traits in psychiatry.  

PubMed

Virtually all psychiatric traits are genetically complex. This article discusses the genetics of complex traits in psychiatry. The complexity is accounted for by numerous factors, including multiple risk alleles, epistasis, and epigenetic effects such as methylation. Risk alleles can individually be common or rare, and can include, for example, single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variants that are transmitted or are new mutations, and other kinds of variation. Many different kinds of variation can be important for trait risk, either together in various proportions or as different factors in different subjects. Until more recently, approaches to complex traits were limited, and consequently only a few variants, usually of individually minor effect, were identified. At the present time, a much richer armamentarium exists that includes the routine application of genome-wide association studies and next-generation high-throughput sequencing and the combination of this information with other biologically relevant information, such as expression data. We have also seen the emergence of large meta-analysis and mega-analysis consortia. These developments are extremely important for psychiatric genetics, have advanced the field substantially, and promise formidable gains in the years to come as they are applied more widely. PMID:25444161

Gelernter, Joel

2015-01-01

264

CHAPTER NINE Progressive levels of trait divergence  

E-print Network

an environmental gradient of water clarity in Lake Victoria. I will subsequently refer to this as a `speciationCHAPTER NINE Progressive levels of trait divergence along a `speciation transect' in the Lake Victoria cichlid fish Pundamilia ole seehausen Introduction and outline Identifying mechanisms

265

Precision mapping of quantitative trait loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate separation of effects of possible multiple linked quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on mapping QTLs is the key to increasing the precision of QTL mapping. A new method of QTL mapping is proposed and analyzed in this paper by combining interval mapping with multiple regression. The basis of the proposed method is an interval test in which the test statistic

Zhao-Bang Zeng

1994-01-01

266

Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of genes that control quantitative characters is a problem of great interest to the genetic mapping community. Methods for locating these quantitative trait loci (QTL) relative to maps of genetic markers are now widely used. This paper addresses an issue common to all QTL mapping methods, that of determining an appropriate threshold value for declaring significant QTL effects.

G. A. Churchill; R. W. Doerge

1994-01-01

267

The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research. The paper…

Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

2008-01-01

268

Biotechnological interventions to improve plant developmental traits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Developmental traits are coordinated at various levels in a plant and involve organ to organ communications via long distance signaling processes that integrate transcription, hormonal action and environmental cues. Thus, plant architecture, root-soil-microbe interactions, flowering, fruit (and seed...

269

Transmission-disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits.  

PubMed Central

The transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) of Spielman et al. is a family-based linkage-disequilibrium test that offers a powerful way to test for linkage between alleles and phenotypes that is either causal (i.e., the marker locus is the disease/trait allele) or due to linkage disequilibrium. The TDT is equivalent to a randomized experiment and, therefore, is resistant to confounding. When the marker is extremely close to the disease locus or is the disease locus itself, tests such as the TDT can be far more powerful than conventional linkage tests. To date, the TDT and most other family-based association tests have been applied only to dichotomous traits. This paper develops five TDT-type tests for use with quantitative traits. These tests accommodate either unselected sampling or sampling based on selection of phenotypically extreme offspring. Power calculations are provided and show that, when a candidate gene is available (1) these TDT-type tests are at least an order of magnitude more efficient than two common sib-pair tests of linkage; (2) extreme sampling results in substantial increases in power; and (3) if the most extreme 20% of the phenotypic distribution is selectively sampled, across a wide variety of plausible genetic models, quantitative-trait loci explaining as little as 5% of the phenotypic variation can be detected at the .0001 alpha level with <300 observations. PMID:9042929

Allison, D B

1997-01-01

270

FERTILITY IS NOW A SELECTION TRAIT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Milk production has nearly doubled over the past 40 years, while days open has increased by about 40 days. Although cow fertility has been selected for indirectly via genetic evaluations for productive life, direct selection has been hampered by low heritability of fertility traits (about 4%) and la...

271

Dissociative experiences, trait anxiety and paranormal beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between dissociative experiences, trait-anxiety and paranormal beliefs among students was investigated. Significant gender differences were found; females scored higher than males on the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) by Bernstein and Putnam (The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 727–735, 1986) and some subscales of the revised Paranormal Belief Scale by Tobacyk (A Revised Paranormal Belief Scale, unpublished

Uwe Wolfradt

1997-01-01

272

Color Traits Transfer to Grayscale Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we are presenting some novel techniques for squirting colors in grayscale images. The problem of coloring grayscale images has no exact solution. Here we are attempting to minimize the human efforts needed in manually coloring the grayscale images. We need human interaction only to find a reference color image, then the job of transferring color traits from reference color

H. B. Kekre; Sudeep D. Thepade

2008-01-01

273

Critical review of state-trait curiosity test development  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-trait research offers good prospects for new insights into human curiosity. It has already generated development of new scales, and several studies have been undertaken independently in Australia and the United States. This paper critically reviews the development of state [C-State] and trait [C-Trait] curiosity scales, pointing out methodological limitations in the existing state-trait curiosity studies. Specific recommendations are made

Gregory J. Boyle

1983-01-01

274

Personality Traits, Television Viewing, and the Cultivation Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the impact of 3 personality traits—trait anxiety, sensation seeking, and psychoticism—on cultivation effects regarding perceptions of violence. A survey measuring violence prevalence estimates, personality traits, television consumption, and genre preferences was completed by 427 undergraduates. Results indicate that low trait–anxious individuals, and to a lesser extent high sensation seekers, are more susceptible to cultivation regarding personal vulnerability

Robin L. Nabi; Karyn Riddle

2008-01-01

275

Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits  

PubMed Central

The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad

2015-01-01

276

Sickle cell trait and military service.  

PubMed

In the community great efforts have been made to educate those with sickle cell trait that their condition is not a handicap and that they are fit to lead a normal life. It would be seen as a retrograde step for the Armed Forces to imply that they are in some way unfit for normal duties. The evidence presented demonstrates that with the exception of a small excess risk of sudden unexplained death during training there is no objection to recruiting those with sickle cell trait into the Royal Navy. At present those with sickle cell disorders are barred from service in the Royal Marine Commandos and from diving, submarine and aircrew service. On the basis of the evidence presented in this review a case can be made for allowing those with sickle cell trait to enter as aircrew in helicopters but not as pilots. In view of the requirements for military divers to operate in cold water under stressful conditions the exclusion of those with sickle cell trait is entirely justified. The overriding requirement must be the safety of both the affected individual and of others and the current regulations reflect this. Screening of all recruits and officer entrants in appropriate racial groups is not performed at present but would allow counselling and advice to be given to those affected by sickle cell trait at an early stage of their careers and the reasons for their exclusion from certain branches fully explained either by establishment Medical Officers or by the haematologist.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2197408

James, C M

1990-01-01

277

Skills Diagnosis Using IRT-Based Continuous Latent Trait Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes the continuous latent trait IRT approach to skills diagnosis as particularized by a representative variety of continuous latent trait models using item response functions (IRFs). First, several basic IRT-based continuous latent trait approaches are presented in some detail. Then a brief summary of estimation, model…

Stout, William

2007-01-01

278

Generality of Leaf Trait Relationships: A Test across Six Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here we address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity,

Peter B. Reich; David S. Ellsworth; Michael B. Walters; James M. Vose; Charles Gresham; John C. Volin; William D. Bowman

1999-01-01

279

Estimates of genetic correlations among growth traits including competition effects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to estimate genetic parameters of direct and competition effects for traits measured at the end of a growth test utilizing multi-trait analyses. A total of 9,720 boars were tested with 15 boars per pen from about 71 to 161 d of age and weight from 31 to 120 kg. Traits analyzed wi...

280

Help! How Can I Do the Six Traits, Too?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Six Traits of Writing and how school librarians can use storytime to teach the Six Traits, use picture books that demonstrate them, develop active participation strategies for listening comprehension, and teach group and individual composition highlighting each trait. (LRW)

Weissman, Annie

2003-01-01

281

An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Career Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personality traits related to career satisfaction for 5,932 individuals were measured for the group and in 14 occupations. Traits related to satisfaction across occupations were emotional resilience, optimism, and work drive. The Big Five traits of conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness were also correlated with career satisfaction.…

Lounsbury, John W.; Loveland, James M.; Sundstrom, Eric D.; Gibson, Lucy W.; Drost, Adam W.; Hamrick, Frances L.

2003-01-01

282

An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Career Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined personality traits in relation to career satisfaction and job satisfaction for 5,932 individuals in career transition. Personality traits were related to career satisfaction and job satisfaction in the total sample and 14 separate occupational groups. Regression analyses revealed three personality traits consistently related to career satisfaction: emotional resilience, optimism, and work drive in initial and holdout samples as

John W. Lounsbury; James M. Loveland; Eric D. Sundstrom; Lucy W. Gibson; Adam W. Drost; Frances L. Hamrick

2003-01-01

283

Epistasis and balanced polymorphism influencing complex trait variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex traits such as human disease, growth rate, or crop yield are polygenic, or determined by the contributions from numerous genes in a quantitative manner. Although progress has been made in identifying major quantitative trait loci (QTL), experimental constraints have limited our knowledge of small-effect QTL, which may be responsible for a large proportion of trait variation. Here, we identified

Juergen Kroymann; Thomas Mitchell-Olds

2005-01-01

284

Epistasis: too often neglected in complex trait studies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions among loci or between genes and environmental factors make a substantial contribution to variation in complex traits such as disease susceptibility. Nonetheless, many studies that attempt to identify the genetic basis of complex traits ignore the possibility that loci interact. We argue that epistasis should be accounted for in complex trait studies; we critically assess current study designs for

Chris S. Haley; Örjan Carlborg

2004-01-01

285

Research article Measuring natural selection on proportional traits  

E-print Network

Research article Measuring natural selection on proportional traits: comparisons of three types: I. Olivieri Abstract. To compare the strength of natural selection on different traits a useful tool for studying natural selection on proportional traits, because by definition they measure how

Stinchcombe, John

286

Robust Trait Composition for Javascript$ Tom Van Cutsema  

E-print Network

Robust Trait Composition for Javascript$ Tom Van Cutsema , Mark S. Millerb aSoftware Languages Lab trait composition library for Javascript. Traits are a more robust alternative to multiple inheritance in using and extending Javascript's recently added meta-level object description format. By reusing

Tomkins, Andrew

287

Do Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders Infer Traits from Behavior?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Traits and mental states are considered to be inter-related parts of theory of mind. Attribution research demonstrates the influential role played by traits in social cognition. However, there has been little investigation into how individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) understand traits. Method: The ability of individuals…

Ramachandran, Rajani; Mitchell, Peter; Ropar, Danielle

2009-01-01

288

A twin study of self-reported psychopathic personality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous twin studies attempting to assess the origins of psychopathic personality traits have mainly focused on an overt behavioral conceptualization of the syndrome as defined by a history of chronic antisocial behaviors. This investigation instead focused on a personality-based approach which emphasizes maladaptive personality traits as central to the syndrome. Psychopathic traits were indexed by the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI),

Daniel M. Blonigen; Scott R. Carlson; Robert F. Krueger; Christopher J. Patrick

2003-01-01

289

Leaf traits within communities: context may affect the mapping of traits to function.  

PubMed

The leaf economics spectrum (LES) has revolutionized the way many ecologists think about quantifying plant ecological trade-offs. In particular, the LES has connected a clear functional trade-off (long-lived leaves with slow carbon capture vs. short-lived leaves with fast carbon capture) to a handful of easily measured leaf traits. Building on this work, community ecologists are now able to quickly assess species carbon-capture strategies, which may have implications for community-level patterns such as competition or succession. However, there are a number of steps in this logic that require careful examination, and a potential danger arises when interpreting leaf-trait variation among species within communities where trait relationships are weak. Using data from 22 diverse communities, we show that relationships among three common functional traits (photosynthetic rate, leaf nitrogen concentration per mass, leaf mass per area) are weak in communities with low variation in leaf life span (LLS), especially communities dominated by herbaceous or deciduous woody species. However, globally there are few LLS data sets for communities dominated by herbaceous or deciduous species, and more data are needed to confirm this pattern. The context-dependent nature of trait relationships at the community level suggests that leaf-trait variation within communities, especially those dominated by herbaceous and deciduous woody species, should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24279259

Funk, Jennifer L; Cornwell, William K

2013-09-01

290

Joint linkage and segregation analysis under multiallelic trait inheritance: Simplifying interpretations for complex traits  

PubMed Central

Identification of the genetic basis of common traits may be hindered by underlying complex genetic architectures that are inadequately captured by existing models, including both multiallelic and multilocus modes of inheritance (MOI). One useful approach for localizing genes underlying continuous complex traits is the joint oligogenic linkage and segregation analysis implemented in the package Loki. The method uses reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo to eliminate the need to prespecify the number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in the trait model, thus providing posterior distributions for the number of QTLs in a Bayesian framework. The current implementation assumes QTLs are diallelic, and therefore can overestimate the number of linked QTLs in the presence of a multiallelic QTL. To address the possibility of multiple alleles, we extended the QTL model to allow for a variable number of additive alleles at each locus. Application to simulated data shows that, under a diallelic MOI, the multiallelic and diallelic analysis models give similar results. Under a multiallelic MOI, the multiallelic analysis model provides better mixing and improved convergence, and leads to a more accurate estimate of the underlying trait MOI and model parameter values, than does the diallelic model. Application to real data shows the multiallelic model results in fewer estimated linked QTLs and that the predominant QTL model is similar to one of two predominant models estimated from the diallelic analysis. Our results indicate that use of a multiallelic analysis model can lead to better understanding of the genetic architecture underlying complex traits. PMID:20091797

Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Wijsman, Ellen M.

2010-01-01

291

Changes in stomatal traits and the covariation with other leaf traits along an altitude transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stomatal traits and their responses to the external environment have been intensively studied for individual plant species. However, little is known about general stomatal patterns along environmental gradients in a broad, interspecific context or about the relationship between stomatal traits and other leaf traits. Here, we measured the stomatal and leaf traits, including stomatal density (SD), stomatal length (SL), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf area (LA), leaf thickness (LT) and nitrogen concentration (mass- and area- base, Nmass and Narea) of 158 plant species along an altitudinal gradient on Changbai Mountain, China. Our results revealed that SD decreased and SL increased significantly with altitude for tree species, although no clear elevational trends were observed in SD and SL across species (including tree, shrub, and herbaceous plants). Plant growth forms (PGFs) were the most important driver of variation in SD and SL, and the contributions of the mean annual temperature, precipitation and soil water content were weak. In addition, a covarying relationship between stomatal and other leaf traits was observed, although this relationship changed with elevation. These findings reflect that the adaptive strategies of plant ecophysiological traits may be complex for alpine environmental gradients, combining the short-term plasticity to environmental changes and long-term convergent evolution.

Wang, Ruili; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Ge, Jianping; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Zhiwei

2014-05-01

292

Fates beyond traits: ecological consequences of human-induced trait change.  

PubMed

Human-induced trait change has been documented in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. These trait changes are driven by phenotypic plasticity and contemporary evolution. While efforts to manage human-induced trait change are beginning to receive some attention, managing its ecological consequences has received virtually none. Recent work suggests that contemporary trait change can have important effects on the dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Therefore, trait changes caused by human activity may be shaping ecological dynamics on a global scale. We present evidence for important ecological effects associated with human-induced trait change in a variety of study systems. These effects can occur over large spatial scales and impact system-wide processes such as trophic cascades. Importantly, the magnitude of these effects can be on par with those of traditional ecological drivers such as species presence. However, phenotypic change is not always an agent of ecological change; it can also buffer ecosystems against change. Determining the conditions under which phenotypic change may promote vs prevent ecological change should be a top research priority. PMID:25568040

Palkovacs, Eric P; Kinnison, Michael T; Correa, Cristian; Dalton, Christopher M; Hendry, Andrew P

2012-02-01

293

On the Social Malleability of Traits: Variability and Consistency in Big 5 Trait Expression Across Three Interpersonal Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated the effects of social context on Big 5 trait expression, and the moderating influence of social context on gender differences in personality. A short Big 5 instrument assessed trait expression in three contexts: with parents, with friends, and with work colleagues. Findings indicated significant cross-context variation in all five traits, while also showing cross-context within-trait correlations.

Oliver C. Robinson

2009-01-01

294

Cardiac glycoside-like structure and function of 5 beta,14 beta-pregnanes  

SciTech Connect

5 beta-Reduction and 14 beta-substitution convert the planar progesterone molecule to the cardiac glycoside configuration--A and D rings of the steroid moiety are bent toward the alpha-face relative to the B and C rings. Potency of the 5 beta,14 beta-derivative in a ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding assay or its ability to inhibit the sodium pump in red blood cells is enhanced by 3 beta-hydroxylation, 20 beta-hydroxylation, and 3 beta-glycosidation. Synthesis of 14,20 beta-dihydroxy-3 beta-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)- 5 beta,14 beta-pregnane from digitoxin is described. The glucoside is 1/20 as potent as ouabain and elicits prominent, sustained, positive inotropy in isolated cardiac muscle.

Templeton, J.F.; Kumar, V.P.; Bose, D.; LaBella, F.S.

1989-08-01

295

Fundamental processes in the interacting boson model: 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay  

SciTech Connect

A program to calculate nuclear matrix elements for fundamental processes in the interacting boson model has been initiated. Results for the nuclear matrix elements in neutrinoless double beta decay 0{nu}{beta}{beta} are presented.

Iachello, F. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Barea, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

2011-05-06

296

Utilization of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for diagnosis of {beta}-thalassemia and ascertainment of new mutations  

SciTech Connect

During the past two years we have tested 2,300 Southeast Asians for alpha- and beta-thaleassemia mutations. We found the incidence of hemoglobin E ({beta}{sup 26}) to be 47% among Laotians and 38% among Cambodians. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait is 9% for Laotians and 6% for Cambodians. Thus, the risk for hemoglobin E/{beta}{sup 26} thalassemia, a transfusion-dependent disorder, is increased in these two population groups. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has proven to be useful in testing for beta-thalassemia carriers and identifying new mutations in the beta globin gene. DNA was extracted from venous blood obtained from patients with elevated Hgb A2 (>4%). Five DNA fragments, encompassing the beta globin gene cluster, were amplified by PCR and analyzed, along with known beta gene mutations as controls, by DGGE using different denaturing gradient concentrations. Different mutations at the same nucleotide position can be distinguished by migration pattern on the DGGE (e.g., in IVS-I-1, G{r_arrow}A and T). Compound heterozygotes for {beta}-thalassemia can be detected on the same gel (e.g., HbE/mutation codon 17). New mutations are identified by their migration pattern compared with controls and determined by subsequent sequencing. We have identified three new mutations: codon 82 CAA{r_arrow}AAA in one Cambodian patient; IVS-II-667, T{r_arrow}C and IVS-II-672, A{r_arrow}C in two Laotian patients. When the parent`s genotypes are known, prenatal diagnosis can be obtained within 24 hours. Thus, PCR/DGGE combination is a rapid and reliable diagnostic approach to clinically significant {beta}-thalassemia. The most important steps are carefully designed primers and predetermined gradient concentrations for DGGE.

Ngo, K.Y.; Liu, D.; Lee, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

297

Predicting Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay  

E-print Network

We give predictions for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in a simple variant of the A_4 family symmetry model. We show that there is a lower bound for the neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude even in the case of normal hierarchical neutrino masses, corresponding to an effective mass parameter |m_{ee}| >= 0.17 \\sqrt{\\Delta m^2_{ATM}}. This result holds both for the CP conserving and CP violating cases. In the latter case we show explicitly that the lower bound on |m_{ee}| is sensitive to the value of the Majorana phase. We conclude therefore that in our scheme, neutrinoless double beta decay may be accessible to the next generation of high sensitivity experiments.

M. Hirsch; Ernest Ma; J. W. F. Valle; A. Villanova del Moral

2005-07-12

298

Geochemical Double. beta. Decay experiments  

SciTech Connect

Double ..beta.. Decay provides a very sensitive test of lepton-quark symmetry. Unfortunately, however, decay rates are so small that it has not yet been possible to unequivocally detect a Double ..beta.. Decay event directly; so much the more important is the data obtained by the geochemical method where one detects the Double ..beta.. Decay products which have accumulated in natural minerals during long geological time periods. Discussed are: the principles of the geochemical method, its strength and its limitations; the available data; new results on the /sup 128/Te-/sup 130/Te system; and theoretical implications of the data concerning the electron neutrino rest mass and lepton-number conservation. A limit of m/sub nu/less than or equal to5.6 eV (95% confidence) has been obtained from recent /sup 128/Te-/sup 130/Te-measurements.

Kirsten, T.

1983-01-01

299

Mechanism of inactivation of alanine racemase by beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine  

SciTech Connect

The alanine racemases are a group of PLP-dependent bacterial enzymes that catalyze the racemization of alanine, providing D-alanine for cell wall synthesis. Inactivation of the alanine racemases from the Gram-negative organism Salmonella typhimurium and Gram-positive organism Bacillus stearothermophilus with beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine has been studied. The inactivation occurs with the same rate constant as that for formation of a broad 460-490-nm chromophore. Loss of two fluoride ions per mole of inactivated enzyme and retention of (1-/sup 14/C)trifluoroalanine label accompany inhibition, suggesting a monofluoro enzyme adduct. Partial denaturation (1 M guanidine) leads to rapid return of the initial 420-nm chromophore, followed by a slower (t1/2 approximately 30 min-1 h) loss of the fluoride ion and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ release. At this point, reduction by NaB/sub 3/H/sub 4/ and tryptic digestion yield a single radiolabeled peptide. Purification and sequencing of the peptide reveals that lysine-38 is covalently attached to the PLP cofactor. A mechanism for enzyme inactivation by trifluoroalanine is proposed and contrasted with earlier results on monohaloalanines, in which nucleophilic attack of released aminoacrylate on the PLP aldimine leads to enzyme inactivation. For trifluoroalanine inactivation, nucleophilic attack of lysine-38 on the electrophilic beta-difluoro-alpha, beta-unsaturated imine provides an alternative mode of inhibition for these enzymes.

Faraci, W.S.; Walsh, C.T.

1989-01-24

300

Introduction to Double Beta Decay  

SciTech Connect

While the neutrino oscillation experiments have measured non-zero square mass differences between neutrino flavors, the double beta decay is the most sensitive process to the absolute mass of the neutrinos and the only that can distinguish whether neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. These are a few but not the only reasons that many efforts, both theoretically and experimentally, are dedicated to the study of this process. In this lecture I'll give a short introduction to the double beta decay process. Different decay modes and mechanisms, a short history, decay rates and extraction of the neutrino mass parameter are presented.

Stoica, Sabin [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Horia Hulubei Foundation, 407, Atomistilor street, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

2010-11-24

301

Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments  

E-print Network

The study of neutrinoless double beta decay is of outmost importance for neutrino physics. It is considered to be the gold plated channel to probe the fundamental character of neutrinos and to determine the neutrino mass. From the experimental point about nine different isotopes are explored for the search. After a general introduction follows a short discussion on nuclear matrix element calculations and supportive measurements. The current experimental status of double beta searches is presented followed by a short discussion of the ideas and proposals for large scale experiments.

K. Zuber

2006-10-04

302

Beta ray flux measuring device  

DOEpatents

A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

Impink, Jr., Albert J. (Murrysville, PA); Goldstein, Norman P. (Murrysville, PA)

1990-01-01

303

Circulating integrins: alpha 5 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 4 and Mac-1, but not alpha 3 beta 1, alpha 4 beta 1 or LFA-1.  

PubMed Central

The alpha 5 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 4 and Mac-1 integrins all participate in the endocytotic cycle. By contrast, alpha 3 beta 1, alpha 4 beta 1 and LFA-1 do so much more slowly, or not at all, in the cell lines examined. This indicates that the alpha-chains appear to determine whether an integrin cycles or not, and that alpha 5 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 4 and Mac-1 can be brought to the leading edge of a moving cell by endocytosis and recycling. Images PMID:1531629

Bretscher, M S

1992-01-01

304

Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting lameness and leg conformation traits in Danish Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Lameness is an important factor for culling animals. Strong legs and feet improve herd life of dairy cows. Therefore, many countries include leg and feet conformation traits in their breeding programs, often as early predictors of longevity. However, few countries directly measure lameness related traits to include these in a breeding program. Lameness indices in 3 different lactations and 5 leg conformation traits (rear legs side view, rear legs rear view, hock quality, bone quality, and foot angle) were measured on granddaughters of 19 Danish Holstein grandsires with 33 to 105 sons. A genome scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the 29 autosomes using microsatellite markers. Data were analyzed across and within families for QTL affecting lameness and leg conformation traits. A regression method and a variance component method were used for QTL detection. Two QTL each for lameness in the first [Bos taurus autosome (BTA); BTA5, BTA26] and second (BTA19, BTA22) lactations were detected. For the 5 different leg conformation traits, 7 chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected across families for rear legs side view, 5 for rear legs rear view, 4 for hock quality, 4 for bone quality, and 1 for foot angle. For those chromosomes where a QTL associated with 2 different traits was detected (BTA1, BTA11, BTA15, BTA26, and BTA27), a multitrait-1-QTL model and a multitrait-2-QTL model were performed to characterize these QTL as single QTL with pleiotropic effects or distinct QTL. PMID:17183116

Buitenhuis, A J; Lund, M S; Thomasen, J R; Thomsen, B; Nielsen, V Hunnicke; Bendixen, C; Guldbrandtsen, B

2007-01-01

305

Linking traits based on their shared molecular mechanisms.  

PubMed

There is growing recognition that co-morbidity and co-occurrence of disease traits are often determined by shared genetic and molecular mechanisms. In most cases, however, the specific mechanisms that lead to such trait-trait relationships are yet unknown. Here we present an analysis of a broad spectrum of behavioral and physiological traits together with gene-expression measurements across genetically diverse mouse strains. We develop an unbiased methodology that constructs potentially overlapping groups of traits and resolves their underlying combination of genetic loci and molecular mechanisms. For example, our method predicts that genetic variation in the Klf7 gene may influence gene transcripts in bone marrow-derived myeloid cells, which in turn affect 17 behavioral traits following morphine injection; this predicted effect of Klf7 is consistent with an in vitro perturbation of Klf7 in bone marrow cells. Our analysis demonstrates the utility of studying hidden causative mechanisms that lead to relationships between complex traits. PMID:25781485

Oren, Yael; Nachshon, Aharon; Frishberg, Amit; Wilentzik, Roni; Gat-Viks, Irit

2015-01-01

306

Production of poly-(beta-hydroxybutyric-co-beta-hydroxyvaleric) acids.  

PubMed

Alcaligenes latus, Alcaligenes eutrophus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas pseudoflava, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Micrococcus halodenitrificans were found to accumulate poly-(beta-hydroxybutyric-co-beta-hydroxyvaleric) acid [P(HB-co-HV)] copolymer when supplied with glucose (or sucrose in the case of A. latus) and propionic acid under nitrogen-limited conditions. A fed-batch culture of A. eutrophus produced 24 g of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) liter-1 under ammonium limitation conditions. When the glucose feed was replaced with glucose and propionic acid during the polymer accumulation phase, 17 g of P(HB-co-HV) liter-1 was produced. The P(HB-co-HV) contained 5.0 mol% beta-hydroxyvaleric acid (HV). Varying the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio at a dilution rate of 0.15 h-1 in a chemostat culture of A. eutrophus resulted in a maximum value of 33% (wt/wt) PHB in the biomass. In comparison, A. latus accumulated about 40% (wt/wt) PHB in chemostat culture under nitrogen-limited conditions at the same dilution rate. When propionic acid was added to the first stage of a two-stage chemostat, A. latus produced 43% (wt/wt) P(HB-co-HV) containing 18.5 mol% HV. In the second stage, the P(HB-co-HV) increased to 58% (wt/wt) with an HV content of 11 mol% without further addition of carbon substrate. The HV composition in P(HB-co-HV) was controlled by regulating the concentration of propionic acid in the feed. Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates containing a higher percentage of HV were produced when pentanoic acid replaced propionic acid. PMID:2117877

Ramsay, B A; Lomaliza, K; Chavarie, C; Dubé, B; Bataille, P; Ramsay, J A

1990-07-01

307

Personality traits of British hospice volunteers.  

PubMed

In total, 120 British female hospice volunteers completed the NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) of Costa Jr and McCrae. The NEO-FFI measures the so-called big 5 personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Compared to both American NEO-FFI norms for adult females and emerging British NEO-FFI norms for adult females, the hospice volunteers scored significantly lower, on average, in neuroticism and significantly higher, on average, in agreeableness and conscientiousness. No significant differences were found on any of the 5 traits between the British female hospice volunteers' scores and the NEO-FFI scores previously collected from a sample of Canadian female hospice palliative care volunteers. Implications for the recruitment of British hospice volunteers are discussed. PMID:23081997

Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen; Claxton-Oldfield, Jane; Paulovic, Stefan

2013-11-01

308

The neurobiology of psychopathic traits in youths.  

PubMed

Conduct disorder is a childhood behaviour disorder that is characterized by persistent aggressive or antisocial behaviour that disrupts the child's environment and impairs his or her functioning. A proportion of children with conduct disorder have psychopathic traits. Psychopathic traits consist of a callous-unemotional component and an impulsive-antisocial component, which are associated with two core impairments. The first is a reduced empathic response to the distress of other individuals, which primarily reflects reduced amygdala responsiveness to distress cues; the second is deficits in decision making and in reinforcement learning, which reflects dysfunction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatum. Genetic and prenatal factors contribute to the abnormal development of these neural systems, and social-environmental variables that affect motivation influence the probability that antisocial behaviour will be subsequently displayed. PMID:24105343

Blair, R James R

2013-11-01

309

Detecting epistasis in human complex traits.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have become the focus of the statistical analysis of complex traits in humans, successfully shedding light on several aspects of genetic architecture and biological aetiology. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are usually modelled as having additive, cumulative and independent effects on the phenotype. Although evidently a useful approach, it is often argued that this is not a realistic biological model and that epistasis (that is, the statistical interaction between SNPs) should be included. The purpose of this Review is to summarize recent directions in methodology for detecting epistasis and to discuss evidence of the role of epistasis in human complex trait variation. We also discuss the relevance of epistasis in the context of GWASs and potential hazards in the interpretation of statistical interaction terms. PMID:25200660

Wei, Wen-Hua; Hemani, Gibran; Haley, Chris S

2014-11-01

310

Multiple-trait multiple-country genetic evaluation of Holstein bulls for female fertility and milk production traits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of including milk yield data in the international genetic evaluation of female fertility traits to reduce or eliminate a possible bias because of across-country selection for milk yield. Data included two female fertility traits from Great Britain, Italy and the Netherlands, together with milk yield data from the same countries and from the United States, because the genetic trends in other countries may be influenced by selection decisions on bulls in the United States. Potentially, female fertility data had been corrected nationally for within-country selection and management biases for milk yield. Using a multiple-trait multiple across-country evaluation (MT-MACE) for the analysis of female fertility traits with milk yield, across-country selection patterns both for female fertility and milk yield can be considered simultaneously. Four analyses were performed; one single-trait multiple across-country evaluation analysis including only milk yield data, one MT-MACE analysis including only female fertility traits, and one MT-MACE analysis including both female fertility and milk yield traits. An additional MT-MACE analysis was performed including both female fertility and milk yield traits, but excluding the United States. By including milk yield traits to the analysis, female fertility reliabilities increased, but not for all bulls in all the countries by trait combinations. The presence of milk yield traits in the analysis did not considerably change the genetic correlations, genetic trends or bull rankings of female fertility traits. Even though the predicted genetic merits of female fertility traits hardly changed by including milk yield traits to the analysis, the change was not equally distributed to the whole data. The number of bulls in common between the two sets of Top 100 bulls for each trait in the two analyses of female fertility traits, with and without the four milk yield traits and their rank correlations were low, not necessarily because of the absence of the US milk yield data. The joint international genetic evaluation of female fertility traits with milk yield is recommended to make use of information on several female fertility traits from different countries simultaneously, to consider selection decisions for milk yield in the genetic evaluation of female fertility traits for obtaining more accurate estimating breeding values (EBV) and to acquire female fertility EBV for bulls evaluated for milk yield, but not for female fertility. PMID:24840559

Nilforooshan, M A; Jakobsen, J H; Fikse, W F; Berglund, B; Jorjani, H

2014-06-01

311

Linkage mapping of beta 2 EEG waves via non-parametric regression.  

PubMed

Parametric linkage methods for analyzing quantitative trait loci are sensitive to violations in trait distributional assumptions. Non-parametric methods are relatively more robust. In this article, we modify the non-parametric regression procedure proposed by Ghosh and Majumder [2000: Am J Hum Genet 66:1046-1061] to map Beta 2 EEG waves using genome-wide data generated in the COGA project. Significant linkage findings are obtained on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, and 15 with findings at multiple regions on chromosomes 4 and 15. We analyze the data both with and without incorporating alcoholism as a covariate. We also test for epistatic interactions between regions of the genome exhibiting significant linkage with the EEG phenotypes and find evidence of epistatic interactions between a region each on chromosome 1 and chromosome 4 with one region on chromosome 15. While regressing out the effect of alcoholism does not affect the linkage findings, the epistatic interactions become statistically insignificant. PMID:12627469

Ghosh, Saurabh; Begleiter, Henri; Porjesz, Bernice; Chorlian, David B; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana; Goate, Alison; Reich, Theodore

2003-04-01

312

Haplotype analysis of beta-actin gene for its association with sperm quality and boar fertility.  

PubMed

beta-actin (ACTB) was examined as a direct functional candidate gene for the possible association with sperm concentration, motility (MOT), semen volume per ejaculate, plasma droplet rate, abnormal sperm rate (ASR) and the fertility traits, non-return rate and number of piglets born alive (NBA). Three polymorphisms in intron 3 (T>C) and one polymorphism in exon 4 (T>C) of porcine ACTB gene were identified by comparative sequencing of animals of the breeds Pietrain and Hampshire. Association analysis revealed that haplotypes affected the variation of the traits MOT, ASR and NBA. The beneficial haplotypes may provide considerable improvement of sperm quality and fertility in the tested commercial boar population. PMID:17177693

Lin, C-L; Jennen, D G J; Ponsuksili, S; Tholen, E; Tesfaye, D; Schellander, K; Wimmers, K

2006-12-01

313

Multi-ethnic studies in complex traits.  

PubMed

The successes of genome-wide association (GWA) studies have mainly come from studies performed in populations of European descent. Since complex traits are characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity, the findings so far may provide an incomplete picture of the genetic architecture of complex traits. However, the recent GWA studies performed on East Asian populations now allow us to globally assess the heterogeneity of association signals between populations of European ancestry and East Asians, and the possible obstacles for multi-ethnic GWA studies. We focused on four different traits that represent a broad range of complex phenotypes, which have been studied in both Europeans and East Asians: type 2 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, ulcerative colitis and height. For each trait, we observed that most of the risk loci identified in East Asians were shared with Europeans. However, we also observed that a significant part of the association signals at these shared loci seems to be independent between populations. This suggests that disease aetiology is common between populations, but that risk variants are often population specific. These variants could be truly population specific and result from natural selection, genetic drift and recent mutations, or they could be spurious, caused by the limitations of the method of analysis employed in the GWA studies. We therefore propose a three-stage framework for multi-ethnic GWA analyses, starting with the commonly used single-nucleotide polymorphism-based analysis, and followed by a gene-based approach and a pathway-based analysis, which will take into account the heterogeneity of association between populations at different levels. PMID:21890495

Fu, Jingyuan; Festen, Eleonora A M; Wijmenga, Cisca

2011-10-15

314

Reproduction traits in the Boer goat doe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review is to give insight into the reproduction potential of the Boer goat doe. Assessment of the reproduction traits in the Boer goat doe demonstrates a mean body weight at puberty of between 30.6 and 27.5kg, depending on the dietary energy level. Kids weaned during the natural breeding season (April\\/May) exhibit oestrus or puberty earlier than

J. P. C Greyling

2000-01-01

315

Plasticity in Life-History Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the impact of recent life-history plasticity theory on insect stud- ies, particularly on the interface between genetics and plasticity. We focus on the three-dimensional relationship between three key life-history traits: adult size (or mass), development time and growth rate, and the connections to life cycle regula- tion, host plant choice, and sexual selection in seasonal environments. The review

S. Nylin; K. Gotthard

1998-01-01

316

The Effects of Sertraline on Psychopathic Traits  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate whether antidepressants alter expression of psychopathic personality traits in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Data were collected from a double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week trial evaluating the efficacy of sertraline (50-200 mg/d) combined with either tri-iodothyronine (T3) or matching placebo in adult outpatients with MDD. Administration of sertraline was open-label; T3/placebo was double-blind. At the baseline and week 8 visits, patients completed the short form of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), a well-validated self-report measure assessing two major factors of psychopathy: Fearless Dominance (PPI-1) and Self-centered Impulsivity (PPI-2). Change in PPI scores were assessed using paired t-tests for all subjects who completed a baseline and post-randomization PPI. Results Ninety patients (84 completers and 6 who terminated the trial early) were eligible for the analysis. Both PPI factors changed significantly from baseline to endpoint, but in opposing directions. The mean score on PPI-1 increased significantly during treatment; this change was weakly correlated with change in depression scores. In contrast, the mean score on PPI-2 decreased significantly, but these changes were not correlated with changes in depression scores. Conclusion Independent of their effects on depression, antidepressants increase adaptive traits traditionally observed in psychopathic individuals, such as social charm and interpersonal and physical boldness. Antidepressants reduce other, more maladaptive, traits associated with psychopathy, including dysregulated impulsivity and externalization. PMID:21909028

Dunlop, Boadie W.; DeFife, Jared A.; Marx, Lauren; Garlow, Steven J.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

2011-01-01

317

Modelling the ecological niche from functional traits  

PubMed Central

The niche concept is central to ecology but is often depicted descriptively through observing associations between organisms and habitats. Here, we argue for the importance of mechanistically modelling niches based on functional traits of organisms and explore the possibilities for achieving this through the integration of three theoretical frameworks: biophysical ecology (BE), the geometric framework for nutrition (GF) and dynamic energy budget (DEB) models. These three frameworks are fundamentally based on the conservation laws of thermodynamics, describing energy and mass balance at the level of the individual and capturing the prodigious predictive power of the concepts of ‘homeostasis’ and ‘evolutionary fitness’. BE and the GF provide mechanistic multi-dimensional depictions of climatic and nutritional niches, respectively, providing a foundation for linking organismal traits (morphology, physiology, behaviour) with habitat characteristics. In turn, they provide driving inputs and cost functions for mass/energy allocation within the individual as determined by DEB models. We show how integration of the three frameworks permits calculation of activity constraints, vital rates (survival, development, growth, reproduction) and ultimately population growth rates and species distributions. When integrated with contemporary niche theory, functional trait niche models hold great promise for tackling major questions in ecology and evolutionary biology. PMID:20921046

Kearney, Michael; Simpson, Stephen J.; Raubenheimer, David; Helmuth, Brian

2010-01-01

318

Flaujeac trait. Deficiency of human plasma kininogen.  

PubMed Central

Flaujeac trait plasma resembled Hageman trait or Fletcher trait, in that the intrinsic coagulation pathway, plasma fibinolytic pathway, kinin-forming system, permeability factor of dilution (PF/dil) phenomenon were abnormal. The defect in each assay was reconstituted by afactor separable from Hageman factor or Fletcher factor. This substance was an alpha-globulin with an approximate mol wt of 170,000. Flaujeac plasma did not release a kinin upon incubation with kallikrein and was deficient in total kininogen antigen. Antiserum to kininogen inhibited the activity of the factor in solution. Flaufeac factor was identified as a kininogen of high molecular weight (HMW-kininogen). The mean total kininogen antigen in four children of the proposita was 51% (range 34-62%) of normal. A functional coagulation assay of HMW-kininogen in the children was 34% (range 23-55%). The results were consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. The plasma pathways of intrinsic coagulation, fibrinolysis, kinin formation, and PF/dil generation are dependent upon HMW-kininogen. We believe this is the first demonstration of biological function for a kininogen apart from its role as a substrate for kallikreins. Images PMID:127805

Wuepper, K D; Miller, D R; Lacombe, M J

1975-01-01

319

Genomic distribution of quantitative trait loci for yield and yield-related traits in common wheat.  

PubMed

A major objective of quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies is to find genes/markers that can be used in breeding programs via marker assisted selection (MAS). We surveyed the QTLs for yield and yield-related traits and their genomic distributions in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the available published reports. We then carried out a meta-QTL (MQTL) analysis to identify the major and consistent QTLs for these traits. In total, 55 MQTLs were identified, of which 12 significant MQTLs were located on wheat chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 2D, 3B, 4A, 4B, 4D and 5A. Our study showed that the genetic control of yield and its components in common wheat involved the important genes such as Rht and Vrn. Furthermore, several significant MQTLs were found in the chromosomal regions corresponding to several rice genomic locations containing important QTLs for yield related traits. Our results demonstrate that meta-QTL analysis is a powerful tool for confirming the major and stable QTLs and refining their chromosomal positions in common wheat, which may be useful for improving the MAS efficiency of yield related traits. PMID:20977657

Zhang, Li-Yi; Liu, Dong-Cheng; Guo, Xiao-Li; Yang, Wen-Long; Sun, Jia-Zhu; Wang, Dao-Wen; Zhang, Aimin

2010-11-01

320

Portable beta spectrometer/dosimeter  

SciTech Connect

As part of an ongoing program to upgrade health and safety radiation survey instruments, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a portable, battery-operated, computerized beta spectrometer/dosimeter. The instrument will support many different detectors, but the one chosen here is a combination plastic scintillator and NaI crystal. The instrument includes pulse conditioning circuits, 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display, and a microcomputer system which calculates dose and dose rate from betas incident on the detector. Instrument operating life is about 8 hours between charges. The instrument will, at the user's option, display a beta spectrum or the accumulated dose in millirad, as well as give the user beta dose rates in millirad per hour. Data accumulated in the instrument can be read out through an RS-232 serial port on the instrument. The entire unit weighs 8 pounds, including internal batteries, and is packaged in a small case 25-cm long, 15-cm wide, and 15-cm high.

Erkkila, B.H.; Waechter, D.A.; Brake, R.J.

1983-01-01

321

Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay  

E-print Network

A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

L. Dorame; D. Meloni; S. Morisi; E. Peinado; J. W. F. Valle

2011-11-23

322

Beta decay of Ga-62  

E-print Network

We report a study of the beta decay of Ga-62, whose dominant branch is a superallowed 0(+)-->0(+) transition to the ground state of Zn-62. We find the total half-life to be 115.84+/-0.25 ms. This is the first time that the Ga-62 half-life has been...

Hyman, BC; Iacob, VE; Azhari, A.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Hardy, John C.; Mayes, VE; Neilson, RG; Sanchez-Vega, M.; Tang, X.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.

2003-01-01

323

Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances  

PubMed Central

Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

2015-01-01

324

Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances.  

PubMed

Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

2015-01-01

325

Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought  

PubMed Central

Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less “leaky” and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding. PMID:24204374

Comas, Louise H.; Becker, Steven R.; Cruz, Von Mark V.; Byrne, Patrick F.; Dierig, David A.

2013-01-01

326

Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

Morant, Marc Dominique

2014-04-29

327

Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

Morant, Marc Dominique

2014-05-06

328

Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

Morant, Marc Dominique

2014-05-06

329

Beta measurements at Department of Energy facilities  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a two-step process to characterize the current beta measurement practices at DOE facilities. PNL issued a survey questionnaire on beta measurement practices to DOE facilities and reported the results. PNL measured beta doses and spectra at seven selected DOE facilities and compared selected measurement techniques in the facility environment. This report documents the results of the radiation field measurements and the comparison of measurement techniques at the seven facilities. Data collected included beta dose and spectral measurements at seven DOE facilities that had high beta-to-gamma ratios (using a silicon surface barrier spectrometer, a plastic scintillator spectrometer, and a multielement beta dosimeter). Other dosimeters and survey meters representative of those used at DOE facilities or under development were also used for comparison. Field spectra were obtained under two distinct conditions. Silicon- and scintillation-based spectrometer systems were used under laboratory conditions where high beta-to-gamma dose ratios made the beta spectra easier to observe and analyze. In the second case, beta spectrometers were taken into actual production and maintenance areas of DOE facilities. Analyses of beta and gamma spectra showed that /sup 234/Th- /sup 234m/Pa, /sup 231/Th, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y were the major nuclides contributing to beta doses at the facilities visited. Beta doses from other fission products and /sup 60/Co were also measured, but the potential for exposure was less significant. 21 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs.

Rathbun, L.A.; Swinth, K.L.; Haggard, D.L.

1987-08-01

330

Range Creek Calibrated Dates Beta-202190  

E-print Network

hearth and perhaps subfloor pits. A sample of structural material for tree- ring and radiocarbon dating was collected. Dating results have been returned from the radiocarbon sample but not from the tree- ring sampleRange Creek Calibrated Dates 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Beta-202190 Beta-175753 Beta-175755

Provancher, William

331

Operator analysis of neutrinoless double beta decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effective operators of the standard model fields which would yield an observable rate of neutrinoless double beta decay. We particularly focus on the possibility that neutrinoless double beta decay is dominantly induced by lepton-number-violating higher dimensional operators other than the Majorana neutrino mass. Our analysis can be applied to models in which neutrinoless double beta decay is

Kiwoon Choi; Kwang Sik Jeong; Wan Young Song

2002-01-01

332

Optimum scintillator thickness for beta dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beta particle counting by plastic scintillation counter is a convenient method of determining the beta dose rate from the natural radioactivity in soils, as required for example in the process of luminescence dating of sediments or sherds. Data is presented to establish the optimum thickness of plastic scintillator for such beta dosimetry, found to be about 6 mm.

R. B. Galloway

1994-01-01

333

Concluding remarks on double. beta. decay  

SciTech Connect

Discussions of double ..beta.. decay are summarized. Neutrinoless double ..beta.. decay has important consequences in particle physics relating to the nature of the neutrino. There is a need to attempt to observe double ..beta.. decay experimentally and, if it exists, to determine the mechanism by which it occurs.

Rosen, S.P.

1983-01-01

334

New mathematical formula for differentiating thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia in thalassemia prevalent area: a study in healthy school-age children.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and thalassemias are common diseases especially in the Mediterranean, Middle East and Asian regions. Both conditions show the same clinical findings of hypochromic and microcytic red blood cells. Although previous studies have devised mathematical formulae to differentiate between these two conditions, the prevalence of alpha- and beta-thalassemias among the affected populations may undermine the accuracy of these formulae. This study generated a new formula that was able to differentiate IDA and thalassemia traits and to determine the incidence rates of IDA and thalassemia traits. A total of 345 healthy Thai children with a mean age (+/- SD) of 11.3 (+/- 1.7) years were enrolled. Complete blood count, iron status, hemoglobin typing and DNA for alpha-1 thalassemia identification were investigated. Discriminant analysis was used to create a new mathematical formula containing significant variables to differentiate between IDA and thalassemia traits. The new formula of (1.5 Hb-0.05 MCV >14) had a receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.92 in differentiating thalassemia traits from IDA, with sensitivity and specificity of 84.6 and 87.5%, respectively. The incidence of IDA and thalassemia traits in the study group was 12% and 32%, respectively. This formula should be useful as a screening tool to differentiate between these two conditions. PMID:24964667

Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Iamsirirak, Pornchanok; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Kadegasem, Praguywan; Wongwerawattanakoon, Pakawan; Sasanakul, Werasak; Chansatitporn, Natkamol; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan

2014-01-01

335

Gene encoding the human. beta. -hexosaminidase. beta. chain: Extensive homology of intron placement in the. alpha. - and. beta. -chain genes  

SciTech Connect

Lysosomal {beta}-hexosaminidase is composed of two structurally similar chains, {alpha} and {beta}, that are the products of different genes. Mutations in either gene causing {beta}-hexosaminidase deficiency result in the lysosomal storage disease GM2-gangliosidosis. To enable the investigation of the molecular lesions in this disorder and to study the evolutionary relationship between the {alpha} and {beta} chains, the {beta}-chain gene was isolated, and its organization was characterized. The {beta}-chain coding region is divided into 14 exons distributed over {approx}40 kilobases of DNA. Comparison with the {alpha}-chain gene revealed that 12 of the 13 introns interrupt the coding regions at homologous positions. This extensive sharing of intron placement demonstrates that the {alpha} and {beta} chains evolved by way of the duplication of a common ancestor.

Proia, R.L. (National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1988-03-01

336

Urn Models and Beta-splines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some insight into the properties of beta-splines is gained by applying the techniques of urn models. Urn models are used to construct beta-spline basis functions and to derive the basic properties of these blending functions and the corresponding beta-spline curves. Only the simple notion of linear geometric continuity and with the most elementary beta parameter are outlined. Non-linear geometric continuity leads to additional beta parameters and to more complicated basis functions. Whether urn models can give us any insight into these higher order concepts still remains to be investigated.

Goldman, R. N.

1985-01-01

337

Bioavailability of beta-carotene (betaC) from purple carrots is the same as typical orange carrots while high-betaC carrots increase betaC stores in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Biofortifying existing sources of beta-carotene (betaC) and increasing dietary betaC could help combat the issue. Two studies were performed to investigate the relative betaC bioavailability of a betaC supplement to purple, high-betaC o...

338

Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments  

E-print Network

Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been performed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taking data and will provide new limits, should no signal be observed, in the next few years to come. The present contribution reviews the latest public results on double beta decay searches and gives an overview on the expected sensitivities of the experiments in construction which will be able to set stronger limits in the near future.

Alberto Garfagnini

2014-08-11

339

Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments  

E-print Network

Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been performed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taking data and will provide new limits, should no signal be observed, in the next few years to come. The present contribution reviews the latest public results on double beta decay searches and gives an overview on the expected sensitivities of the experiments in construction which will be able to set stronger limits in the near future.

Garfagnini, Alberto

2014-01-01

340

[Major domestication traits in Asian rice].  

PubMed

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding. PMID:23208135

Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

2012-11-01

341

Catalog of Galactic Beta Cephei Stars  

E-print Network

We present an extensive and up-to-date catalog of Galactic Beta Cephei stars. This catalog is intended to give a comprehensive overview of observational characteristics of all known Beta Cephei stars. 93 stars could be confirmed to be Beta Cephei stars. For some stars we re-analyzed published data or conducted our own analyses. 61 stars were rejected from the final Beta Cephei list, and 77 stars are suspected to be Beta Cephei stars. A list of critically selected pulsation frequencies for confirmed Beta Cephei stars is also presented. We analyze the Beta Cephei stars as a group, such as the distributions of their spectral types, projected rotational velocities, radial velocities, pulsation periods, and Galactic coordinates. We confirm that the majority of these stars are multiperiodic pulsators. We show that, besides two exceptions, the Beta Cephei stars with high pulsation amplitudes are slow rotators. We construct a theoretical HR diagram that suggests that almost all 93 Beta Cephei stars are MS objects. We discuss the observational boundaries of Beta Cephei pulsation and their physical parameters. We corroborate that the excited pulsation modes are near to the radial fundamental mode in frequency and we show that the mass distribution of the stars peaks at 12 solar masses. We point out that the theoretical instability strip of the Beta Cephei stars is filled neither at the cool nor at the hot end and attempt to explain this observation.

Anamarija Stankov; Gerald Handler

2005-06-21

342

NEXT: double beta decay experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of neutrino oscillation has reactivated the search of the elusive neutrino-less double beta decays (betabeta0nu). The goal of the next generation of experiments is to cover values of effective neutrino mas down to 20meV, the so-called inverse hierarchy region. Several experiments are looking for this disintegration using different techniques. The challenges of these experiments are an excellent energy

F. Sànchez; NEXT Collaborationa

2009-01-01

343

Beta Beams for Neutrino Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives an overview of the work done so far to produce sufficient neutrino fluxes for neutrino oscillation physics using beta beams. The design study on a beta beam scenario, the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility) Design Study, a project funded by the European Commission (EC), is now ready to be published. The study is based on the acceleration of 6He and 18Ne ions to produce the (anti-)neutrino beam using the existing CERN infrastructure for acceleration of the ions. We will here briefly describe the work with emphasis on how potential showstoppers, in particular radiation safety and equipment damage, have been dealt with. New results for the production of 6He show very encouraging results. We are now confident that this ion is a good choice to produce antineutrinos. However, the ion production needed for the physics experiments could not, up to now, be reasonably satisfied for 18Ne. Therefore, studies of alternative beta emitters, 8Li and 8B, with properties interesting for physics reach, have been proposed. The production of these ions is studied within the EC funded EUROnu project, "A High Intensity Neutrino Oscillation Facility for Europe." This project will end in 2012. A small storage ring, in which the beam traverses a target, creating the 8Li and 8B isotopes that will be collected and accelerated, is studied in this proposal. We present the latest developments for the production of these ions, including a production ring lattice. Extensive Geant4 simulations have been done with the aim of developing a model of the production target that can be used for simulations of the necessary cooling system. In this paper we present the status of the work performed and an overview of ongoing and planned activities to make the beta beam project a solid proposal for neutrino production within the EUROnu project.

Wildner, Elena

2010-03-01

344

State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this\\u000a study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions under\\u000a two conditions (free association and stress condition). Finally, delinquent participants completed a

Belinda Plattner; Niranjan Karnik; Booil Jo; Rebecca E. Hall; Astrid Schallauer; Victor Carrion; Martha Feucht; Hans Steiner

2007-01-01

345

The evolution of genetic architectures underlying quantitative traits  

PubMed Central

In the classic view introduced by R. A. Fisher, a quantitative trait is encoded by many loci with small, additive effects. Recent advances in quantitative trait loci mapping have begun to elucidate the genetic architectures underlying vast numbers of phenotypes across diverse taxa, producing observations that sometimes contrast with Fisher's blueprint. Despite these considerable empirical efforts to map the genetic determinants of traits, it remains poorly understood how the genetic architecture of a trait should evolve, or how it depends on the selection pressures on the trait. Here, we develop a simple, population-genetic model for the evolution of genetic architectures. Our model predicts that traits under moderate selection should be encoded by many loci with highly variable effects, whereas traits under either weak or strong selection should be encoded by relatively few loci. We compare these theoretical predictions with qualitative trends in the genetics of human traits, and with systematic data on the genetics of gene expression levels in yeast. Our analysis provides an evolutionary explanation for broad empirical patterns in the genetic basis for traits, and it introduces a single framework that unifies the diversity of observed genetic architectures, ranging from Mendelian to Fisherian. PMID:23986107

Rajon, Etienne; Plotkin, Joshua B.

2013-01-01

346

On the fate of sexual traits under asexuality.  

PubMed

Environmental shifts and life-history changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. In the absence of pleiotropy and other constraints, such traits may decay as a consequence of neutral mutation accumulation or selective processes, highlighting the importance of natural selection for adaptations. A suite of traits are expected to lose their adaptive function in asexual organisms derived from sexual ancestors, and the many independent transitions to asexuality allow for comparative studies of parallel trait maintenance versus decay. In addition, because certain traits, notably male-specific traits, are usually not exposed to selection under asexuality, their decay would have to occur as a consequence of drift. Selective processes could drive the decay of traits associated with costs, which may be the case for the majority of sexual traits expressed in females. We review the fate of male and female sexual traits in 93 animal lineages characterized by asexual reproduction, covering a broad taxon range including molluscs, arachnids, diplopods, crustaceans and eleven different hexapod orders. Many asexual lineages are still able occasionally to produce males. These asexually produced males are often largely or even fully functional, revealing that major developmental pathways can remain quiescent and functional over extended time periods. By contrast, for asexual females, there is a parallel and rapid decay of sexual traits, especially of traits related to mate attraction and location, as expected given the considerable costs often associated with the expression of these traits. The level of decay of female sexual traits, in addition to asexual females being unable to fertilize their eggs, would severely impede reversals to sexual reproduction, even in recently derived asexual lineages. More generally, the parallel maintenance versus decay of different trait types across diverse asexual lineages suggests that neutral traits display little or no decay even after extended periods under relaxed selection, while extensive decay for selected traits occurs extremely quickly. These patterns also highlight that adaptations can fix rapidly in natural populations of asexual organisms, in spite of their mode of reproduction. PMID:24443922

van der Kooi, Casper J; Schwander, Tanja

2014-11-01

347

Alpine climate alters the relationships between leaf and root morphological traits but not chemical traits.  

PubMed

Leaves and fine roots are among the most important and dynamic components of terrestrial ecosystems. To what extent plants synchronize their resource capture strategies above- and belowground remains uncertain. Existing results of trait relationships between leaf and root showed great inconsistency, which may be partly due to the differences in abiotic environmental conditions such as climate and soil. Moreover, there is currently little evidence on whether and how the stringent environments of high-altitude alpine ecosystems alter the coordination between above- and belowground. Here we measured six sets of analogous traits for both leaves and fine roots of 139 species collected from Tibetan alpine grassland and Mongolian temperate grassland. N, P and N:P ratio of leaves and fine roots were positively correlated, independent of biogeographic regions, phylogenetic affiliation or climate. In contrast, leaves and fine roots seem to regulate morphological traits more independently. The specific leaf area (SLA)-specific root length (SRL) correlation shifted from negative at sites under low temperature to positive at warmer sites. The cold climate of alpine regions may impose different constraints on shoots and roots, selecting simultaneously for high SLA leaves for rapid C assimilation during the short growing season, but low SRL roots with high physical robustness to withstand soil freezing. In addition, there might be more community heterogeneity in cold soils, resulting in multidirectional strategies of root in resource acquisition. Thus our results demonstrated that alpine climate alters the relationships between leaf and root morphological but not chemical traits. PMID:24633995

Geng, Yan; Wang, Liang; Jin, Dongmei; Liu, Huiying; He, Jin-Sheng

2014-06-01

348

IDENTIFICATION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING PARASITE INDICATOR TRAITS IN A DOUBLE BACKCROSS POPULATION OF SHEEP.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The natural genetic variability of the ruminant immune system provides a feasible means to control gastro-intestinal (GI) parasite infection. To initiate explanation of important allelic differences, a genome-wide analysis for quantitative trait loci (QTL) was initiated in a double backcross populat...

349

LINKING ROOT TRAITS TO SHOOT TRAITS AND LIFE HISTORY IN 25 TEMPERATE FOREST SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite their important role in plant carbon budgets and carbon cycling, there is little information available on fine root characteristics of woody species. Comparative approaches were used to examine the roots of 25 diverse species collected from mature forests. Nine root traits were examined that...

350

Quantitative trait loci associated with seed and seedling traits in Lactuca.  

PubMed

Seed and seedling traits related to germination and stand establishment are important in the production of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Six seed and seedling traits segregating in a L. sativa cv. Salinas x L. serriola recombinant inbred line population consisting of 103 F8 families revealed a total of 17 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) resulting from three seed production environments. Significant QTL were identified for germination in darkness, germination at 25 and 35 degrees C, median maximum temperature of germination, hypocotyl length at 72 h post-imbibition, and plant (seedling) quality. Some QTL for germination and early seedling growth characteristics were co-located, suggestive of pleiotropic loci regulating these traits. A single QTL (Htg6.1) described 25 and 23% of the total phenotypic variation for high temperature germination in California- and Netherlands-grown populations, respectively, and was significant between 33 and 37 degrees C. Additionally, Htg6.1 showed significant epistatic interactions with other Htg QTL and a consistent effect across all the three seed production environments. L. serriola alleles increased germination at these QTL. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability (h2) of Htg6.1 was 0.84, indicating potential for L. serriola as a source of germination thermotolerance for lettuce introgression programs. PMID:16177902

Argyris, Jason; Truco, María José; Ochoa, Oswaldo; Knapp, Steven J; Still, David W; Lenssen, Ger M; Schut, Johan W; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

2005-11-01

351

Bivariate and Multivariate Associations between Trait Listening Goals and Trait Communicator Preferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides validity evidence for a measure of listening goals by showing theoretically consistent relationships with an existing communication preference questionnaire. Participants (N = 257) were administered trait measures for listening goals and communicator preferences. The four listening goals--relational, task-oriented,…

Keaton, Shaughan A.; Keteyian, Robert V.; Bodie, Graham D.

2014-01-01

352

Genetics of Soybean Agronomic Traits: II. Interactions between Yield Quantitative Trait Loci in Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

allele of this surrogate marker extensive field testing can be avoided during the backcrossing required to in- In order to breed efficiently, it is necessary to identify individual troduce the desired QTL allele. For this process to be quantitative trait loci (QTLs) as well as interactions between these loci and to determine which QTLs produce phenotypes that are envi- effective,

J. H. Orf; K. Chase; F. R. Adler; L. M. Mansur; K. G. Lark

353

Evaluation of two Indian native chicken breeds for reproduction traits and heritability of juvenile growth traits.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to evaluate two Indian native chicken breeds, namely, Aseel and Kadaknath for fertility, hatchability, genetic parameters of juvenile growth traits, and semen quality traits at the onset of sexual maturity. The fertility was similar in Aseel (86.96%) and Kadaknath (85.15%); however, a relatively higher hatchability was observed in Kadaknath (77.94%) than Aseel (70.74%). Heritability estimates of body weights at 4 weeks of age were almost similar in Aseel (0.37) and Kadaknath (0.39), while the estimate of body weight at 6 weeks of age was higher in Aseel (0.42) than Kadaknath (0.31). The heritability estimate of shank length at 6 weeks of age was lower in Aseel (0.16) compared to Kadaknath (0.35). The age at first egg in the flock was comparable in Aseel (148 days) and Kadaknath (150 days). Aseel breed with significantly (P ? 0.001) higher body weight, absolute and relative testes weights had significantly higher semen volume (P ? 0.05) and sperm motility (P ? 0.01) but had lower seminal plasma cholesterol level (P ? 0.05) as compared to Kadaknath. It can be concluded that there is a scope for genetic improvement of these two native breeds for juvenile growth traits since heritability estimates of these traits were relatively high. PMID:22068634

Haunshi, Santosh; Shanmugam, Murugesan; Padhi, Mahendra Kumar; Niranjan, Matam; Rajkumar, Ullengala; Reddy, Maddula Ramakoti; Panda, Arun Kumar

2012-06-01

354

Mammalian. beta. /sub 1/- and. beta. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptors: immunological and structural comparison  

SciTech Connect

..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors, pharmacologically distinct proteins, have been reported to be structurally dissimilar. In the present study three techniques were employed to compare the nature of mammalian ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. Antibodies against each of the receptor subtypes were raised separately. Polyclonal antisera against ..beta../sub 1/-receptors of rat fat cells were raised in mice, and antisera against ..beta../sub 2/-receptors of guinea pig lung were raised in rabbits. Receptors purified from rat fat cells (..beta../sub 1/-), S49 mouse lymphoma cells (..beta../sub 2/-), and rat liver (..beta../sub 2/-) were probed with these antisera. Each anti-receptor antisera demonstrated the ability to immunoprecipitate purified receptors of both ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-subtypes. The mobility of ..beta..-receptors subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was probed using antireceptor antibodies and nitrocellulose blots of the gels. Fat cell ..beta../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors display M/sub r/ = 67,000 under reducing conditions and M/sub r/ = 54,000 under nonreducing conditions, as previously reported. Both ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-receptors displayed this same shift in electrophoretic mobility observed in the presence as compared to the absence of disulfide bridge-reducing agents, as detected both by autoradiography of the radiolabeled receptors and by immunoblotting of native receptors. Finally, isoelectric focusing of purified radioiodinated ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors revealed identical isoelectric points. These data are the first to provide analyses of immunological, structural, and biochemical features of ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-subtypes in tandem and underscore the structural similarities that exist between these pharmacologically distinct receptors.

Moxham, C.P.; George, S.T.; Graziano, M.P.; Brandwein, H.J.; Malbon, C.C.

1986-11-05

355

Androgen receptor-beta mRNA levels in different tissues in breeding and post-breeding male and female sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus  

PubMed Central

Background Androgens induce male characters by activating androgen receptors (AR). Previous quantitative studies on AR in fishes have been limited to few tissues and/or a single season/reproductive state. The aim of this investigation was to study the possible role of AR-beta expression levels in the control of male traits in the three-spined stickleback. To that end, AR-beta expression levels in major tissues in breeding and post-breeding male and female sticklebacks were examined. Methods AR-beta mRNA levels were quantified in ten tissues; eye, liver, axial muscle, heart, brain, intestine, ovary, testis, kidney and pectoral muscle in six breeding and post-breeding males and females using reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Results Breeding in contrast to post-breeding males built nests and showed secondary sexual characters (e.g. kidney hypertrophy) and elevated androgen levels. Post-breeding females had lower ovarian weights and testosterone levels than breeding females. AR-beta was expressed in all studied tissues in both sexes and reproductive states with the highest expression in the gonads and in the kidneys. The kidney is an androgen target organ in sticklebacks, from which breeding males produce the protein spiggin, which is used in nest-building. There was also high AR-beta expression in the intestine, an organ that appears to take over hyperosmo-regulation in fresh water when the kidney hypertrophies in mature males and largely loses this function. The only tissue that showed effects of sex or reproductive state on AR-beta mRNA levels was the kidneys, where post-breeding males displayed higher AR-beta mRNA levels than breeding males. Conclusion The results indicate that changes in AR-beta mRNA levels play no or little role in changes in androgen dependent traits in the male stickleback. PMID:22455382

2012-01-01

356

Relationship of various incoming cattle traits with feedlot performance and carcass traits.  

PubMed

Steers (n = 15,631) and heifers (n = 5,897) fed at 18 feedlots (total confinement, partial confinement, or open lots) in southwest Iowa between 2002 and 2006 as part of the Tri-County Steer Carcass Futurity sponsored by Iowa State University were used to correlate various phenotypic traits with feedlot performance and carcass traits. Dependent variables [ADG, respiratory morbidity, HCW, fat thickness, calculated yield grade, marbling score, presence or absence of lung damage, loin muscle area (LMA), and LMA x 100/HCW] were evaluated on the basis of various phenotypic traits [initial BW, disposition score (1 = calm, 6 = extremely excitable), muscle score, frame score, BCS, number of treatments for respiratory disease, presence of lung lesions, breed makeup, and percentage Angus genetics]. Subjectively evaluated phenotypic traits were evaluated by Iowa State University or USDA personnel. Cattle with greater disposition score (more excitable) had decreased initial BW, final BW, ADG, HCW, yield grade, quality grade, marbling score, and mortality (P < 0.01). Respiratory morbidity was negatively correlated with initial BW, ADG, yield grade, HCW, and marbling score (P < 0.01). As initial BW increased, final BW and HCW increased and respiratory morbidity decreased (P < 0.01). Cattle with greater BCS on arrival had greater initial BW but were lighter at slaughter (P < 0.01). Increased number of treatments for respiratory disease was associated with decreased ADG, greater mortality rate, and greater incidence of lung lesions (P < 0.01). Body weight gain was similar between English- and Continental-breed cattle (P > 0.05), although final BW and HCW were greater and yield grade and yield grade-adjusted marbling score were less for Continental-breed cattle (P < 0.01). Cattle with a poorer muscling score had reduced HCW and LMA and greater yield grade, marbling score, and quality grade (P < 0.01). Animal disposition, health, breed type, and frame score have dramatic effects on live feedlot performance and carcass traits. PMID:19465501

Reinhardt, C D; Busby, W D; Corah, L R

2009-09-01

357

Modeling the genealogy of a cultural trait.  

PubMed

The mathematical study of genealogies has yielded important insights in population biology, such as the ability to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of a sample of genetic sequences or of a group of individuals. Here we introduce a model of cultural genealogies that is a step toward answering similar questions for cultural traits. In our model individuals can inherit from a variable, potentially large number of ancestors, rather than from a fixed, small number of ancestors (one or two) as is typical of genetic evolution. We first show that, given a sample of individuals, a cultural common ancestor does not necessarily exist. We then introduce a related concept: the most recent unique ancestor (MRUA), i.e., the most recent single individual who is the earliest cultural ancestor of the sample. We show that, under neutral evolution, the time to the MRUA can be staggeringly larger than the time to MRCA in a single ancestor model, except when the average number of learning opportunities per individuals is small. Our results point out that the properties of cultural genealogies may be very different from those of genetic genealogies, with potential implications for reconstructing the histories of cultural traits. PMID:25575942

Aguilar, Elliot; Ghirlanda, Stefano

2015-05-01

358

Determination of beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes and prevalence of alpha-thalassemia in sickle cell anemia patients in Venezuela.  

PubMed

Sickle cell anemia and alpha-thalassemia have a heterogeneous distribution in Venezuela with a high frequency in the coastal area (sea level) and few cases in the mountains. Most of our population is an ethnic admixture of Europeans (Spaniards colonists), Africans (slaves), and Amerindians. The purpose of our study was to determine the origin of the beta(s) globin haplotype, age and survival dependency, and the admixture among the different African groups in our population. The alpha(3.7) globin gene deletion status was also studied and found in a very high frequency. DNA from peripheral blood of 191 non-related patients (81 with HbS homozygous and 15 patients compound heterozygous for HbS, HbC, HbD with beta-thalassemia, and 95 with sickle cell trait) were studied. The beta(s) chromosome was linked 51% to the Benin Haplotype, 29.5% with the CAR, 12.5% to the Senegal, and 2.5% to the Cameroon. We did not find any significant difference between the haplotype distribution among adults and children and among sickle cell patients and traits. Only 8.6% of the patients have homozygosity for the Benin haplotype. These results show a very high frequency of admixture in our African origin population. PMID:10814985

Arends, A; Alvarez, M; Velázquez, D; Bravo, M; Salazar, R; Guevara, J M; Castillo, O

2000-06-01

359

Evidence of inhibin\\/activin subunit betaC and betaE synthesis in normal human endometrial tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Inhibins are important regulators of the female reproductive system. Recently, two new inhibin subunits betaC and betaE have been described, although it is unclear if they are synthesized in normal human endometrium. METHODS: Samples of human endometrium were obtained from 82 premenopausal, non-pregnant patients undergoing gynecological surgery for benign diseases. Endometrium samples were classified according to anamnestic and histological

Ioannis Mylonas; Ansgar Brüning; Naim Shabani; Susanne Kunze; Markus S Kupka

2010-01-01

360

Bovine haemoglobin beta A Zebu, beta A43(CD3)Ser----Thr: an intermediate globin type between the beta A and beta D Zambia is present in Indian zebu cattle.  

PubMed

Two bovine haemoglobin beta chains, electrophoretically identical with the beta A chain of Herefords, were obtained from Ongole and Banteng, Bos javanicus, cattle. The amino acid residue differences of the two beta chains were compared by electrophoresis, cation-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography, amino acid analyses, and Edman degradation in comparison with beta A chain. The results showed that two beta chains differed from the beta A chain of the Hereford breed by the substitution of serine with threonine at the beta 43 position. No other difference was found between the two chains and beta A. This new beta chain type was termed beta A Zebu, which forms a possible evolutionarily transitional type between the beta A and the rare variant beta D Zambia found previously in African zebu cattle. The beta A Zebu differentiates from the previous beta B by at least four amino acid substitutions involving five codon-base changes. PMID:3662113

Namikawa, T; Nagai, A; Takenaka, O; Takenaka, A

1987-01-01

361

Beta  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter covers the use of wild beets in sugar beet improvement, including the basic botany of the species, its distribution; geographical locations of genetic diversity; morphology; cytology and karyotype; genome size; taxonomic position; agricultural status (model plant/weeds/invasive species/...

362

Effects of Previous Calf Management on Feedlot and Carcass Traits  

E-print Network

on several traits, but from this project emphasis was placed on preweaning (PreVac) and postweaning (PosVac) vaccinations and the potential influence on growth and carcass traits. Independent variables used in the analyses were location of the feedyard (LOC...

Bingham, Bobby Cleave

2012-02-14

363

The Relations of Motivational Traits with Workplace Deviance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors developed and tested new theoretical relations between approach and avoidance motivational traits and deviant work behaviors. Approach motivation was divided into 3 traits: personal mastery (i.e., desire to achieve), competitive excellence (i.e., desire to perform better than others), and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity…

Diefendorff, James M.; Mehta, Kajal

2007-01-01

364

Identifying User Traits by Mining Smart Phone Accelerometer Data  

E-print Network

and advertising, since most soft traits, like sex, height, weight, hair color, physical activity level, and foot that prior work to identify user traits such as sex, height, and weight, by building predictive models from of purposes, such as marketing or making an application more intelligent (e.g., a fitness app could consider

Weiss, Gary

365

Statistics Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Learning Behavior, and Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…

Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai

2012-01-01

366

Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…

Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

2009-01-01

367

Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of the Early Domestication of Sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analyses of the domestication syndrome have revealed that domestication-related traits typically have a very similar genetic architecture across most crops, being conditioned by a small number of quantitative trait loci (QTL), each with a relatively large effect on the phenotype. To date, the domes- tication of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) stands as the only counterexample to this pattern. In

David M. Wills; John M. Burke

2007-01-01

368

Cannabis use correlates with schizotypal personality traits in healthy students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature suggests that cannabis use and schizotypal traits both constitute risk factors for the later development of schizophrenia. However, their interrelationships remain to be evaluated. The present study examined the association between cannabis use and schizotypal traits in 232 healthy students who ranged in age from 18 to 25 years. All the students had completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire

Patrick Dumas; Mohamed Saoud; Sébastien Bouafia; Christel Gutknecht; René Ecochard; Jean Daléry; Thierry Rochet; Thierry d'Amato

2002-01-01

369

Invasive Species Traits Jay, Josia, Rebecca, Alexandra, Vincent  

E-print Network

Introduction? McGregor et al, Diversity & Distributions 2012 #12;Pinus contorta #12;Species Statu s Fire engelmanii 0 2 28 3.5 45 13 Pinus lambertiana 0 2 40 4 216 49 Pinus banksiana 1 0 3 3.5 3 2 Pinus contorta 1Invasive Species Traits of Pinus. Jay, Josia, Rebecca, Alexandra, Vincent #12;. Traits thats

Schweik, Charles M.

370

Recognizing Faces Based on Inferred Traits in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent findings indicate that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) could, surprisingly, infer traits from behavioural descriptions. Now we need to know whether or not individuals with ASD are able to use trait information to identify people by their faces. In this study participants with and without ASD were presented with pairs of…

Ramachandran, Rajani; Mitchell, Peter; Ropar, Danielle

2010-01-01

371

Distinct neural correlates of social categories and personality traits.  

PubMed

Does the processing of social category-related versus trait-related information generate a different pattern of brain activation? In this fMRI study, we compared the processing of behaviors performed by a member of a social category versus an individual, both possessing similar personality traits. Based on previous behavioral studies we predicted that the processing of social category-related information would recruit more activation in brain areas related to mentalizing than individual trait-related information. Participants read sentences describing behaviors performed by a member of a social category (of which the stereotype involves a given trait) or by an individual possessing the same trait. These behavioral sentences varied on both valence (positive versus negative) and consistency (consistent versus inconsistent) with regard to the social category or trait. The results revealed that social category-related behavioral information showed more activation in mentalizing areas (medial prefrontal cortex, anterior temporal lobe, bilateral temporo-parietal junction, posterior cingulate cortex) than trait-related information. This increased activation is interpreted in terms of the impact of autobiographical memories, greater variance among members of social categories than individual traits, a higher construal level (i.e., abstractness), and larger perceived group size. Additionally, inconsistent as opposed to consistent information showed more activation in the right temporo-parietal junction and left lingual gyrus. PMID:25241083

Van der Cruyssen, Laurens; Heleven, Elien; Ma, Ning; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Van Overwalle, Frank

2015-01-01

372

Quantitative Trait Loci for Aggressive Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behavior is observed across animal taxa and is likely to be evolutionarily conserved. Although potentially advantageous, aggression can have social and health consequences in humans, and is a component of a number of psychiatric disorders. As a complex genetic trait, it is modulated by numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) with allelic effects that can vary in direction and magnitude

Alexis C. Edwards; Trudy F. C. Mackay

2009-01-01

373

Towards identifying genes underlying ecologically relevant traits in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge in evolutionary biology and plant breeding is to identify the genetic basis of complex quantitative traits, including those that contribute to adaptive variation. Here we review the development of new methods and resources to fine-map intraspecific genetic variation that underlies natural phenotypic variation in plants. In particular, the analysis of 107 quantitative traits reported in the first

Fabrice Roux; Joy Bergelson

2010-01-01

374

Predictable patterns of trait mismatches between interacting plants and insects  

PubMed Central

Background There are few predictions about the directionality or extent of morphological trait (mis)matches between interacting organisms. We review and analyse studies on morphological trait complementarity (e.g. floral tube length versus insect mouthpart length) at the population and species level. Results Plants have consistently more exaggerated morphological traits than insects at high trait magnitudes and in some cases less exaggerated traits than insects at smaller trait magnitudes. This result held at the population level, as well as for phylogenetically adjusted analyses at the species-level and for both pollination and host-parasite interactions, perhaps suggesting a general pattern. Across communities, the degree of trait mismatch between one specialist plant and its more generalized pollinator was related to the level of pollinator specialization at each site; the observed pattern supports the "life-dinner principle" of selection acting more strongly on species with more at stake in the interaction. Similarly, plant mating system also affected the degree of trait correspondence because selfing reduces the reliance on pollinators and is analogous to pollination generalization. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that there are predictable "winners" and "losers" of evolutionary arms races and the results of this study highlight the fact that breeding system and the degree of specialization can influence the outcome. PMID:20604973

2010-01-01

375

Trait and State Anxiety in Israeli Student Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined trait anxiety in three groups of Israeli physical education students (N-251) competitors in individual sports, in team sports, and noncompetitors. The measure was the Spielberger, Gorsuch, and Lushene Trait Anxiety Scale (1970). Additionally, two groups of competitive athletes were compared on State Anxiety as measured by the Spielberger…

Tenenbaum, Gershon; Milgram, Roberta M.

1978-01-01

376

Review article Intraspecific variation of growth and adaptive traits  

E-print Network

Review article Intraspecific variation of growth and adaptive traits in North American oak species and western parts of the species range. Traits varying geographically include growth rate, drought resistance Mississippi and western South Carolina. In 3 partial-range Quercus pagoda Raf tests, local or regional sources

Boyer, Edmond

377

Effects of Marathon Group Therapy on Trait and State Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results were interpreted as supporting Spielberger's notion that trait anxiety reflects a dispositional tendency to respond with anxiety in ego-threat situations and as suggesting that personality trait measures may be more relevant outcome indicators than measures of transitory mood states in marathon therapy research. (Author)

Kilmann, Peter R.; Auerbach, Stephen M.

1974-01-01

378

Finding the molecular basis of quatitative traits: successes and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the molecular basis of quantitative genetic variation is a principal goal for biomedicine. Although the complex genetic architecture of quantitative traits has so far largely frustrated attempts to identify genes in humans by standard linkage methodologies, quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped in plants, insects and rodents. However, identifying the molecular bases of QTL remains a challenge. Here,

Jonathan Flint; Richard Mott

2001-01-01

379

Personal Traits and "Success" in Schooling and Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group peer rating technique was employed to develop reliable measures of sixteen personality traits for adult workers and high school seniors. Several of these traits were found to have high predictive validity for pay differentials, supervisor's ratings, and school grades. (Author/JKS)

Edwards, Richard C.

1977-01-01

380

Measurement of anxious traits: a contemporary review and synthesis.  

PubMed

Trait anxiety is a characteristic predisposition to appraise stimuli as threatening and respond with anxiety. Trait anxiety is proposed to serve as a vulnerability factor for greater frequency and intensity of anxiety experiences as well as the development of anxious pathology. Cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components of trait anxiety have been described. Common self-report measures of trait anxiety are reviewed with an emphasis on: components assessed, factor structure, internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity. Measures were selected if instructions ask individuals to endorse items based on their characteristic, rather than a time sensitive, response. Selection criteria resulted in a focus on the following measures: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Anxiety Inventory-Trait (BAIT), Cognitive Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ), Endler Multidimensional Anxiety Scales-Trait (EMAS-T), Four Systems Anxiety Questionnaire (FSAQ), State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (STICSA), and the Three Systems Anxiety Questionnaire (TSAQ). While the STAI has the advantage of normative data and frequent use in prior research, newer measures, such as the BAIT and the STICSA, demonstrate greater discriminant validity. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the reviewed measures are highlighted. Recommendations for measure selection and future research are provided. PMID:21644113

Elwood, Lisa S; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Olatunji, Bunmi O

2012-11-01

381

The Genetic Correlation Between Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have demonstrated associations between sensation seeking traits and measures of impulsivity. This study examined genetic contributions to the observed correlations between imupulsivity and sensation seeking traits. Fifty-seven pairs of identical and 49 pairs of fraternal twins who were reared apart and 90 individuals who also participated in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart completed the

Yoon-Mi Hur; Thomas J. Bouchard

1997-01-01

382

THE NUMBER OF GENES INVOLVED IN THE SMR TRAIT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

8. Harbo, J.R.(h) & Harris, J.W.(h)– THE NUMBER OF GENES INVOLVED IN THE SMR TRAIT – The SMR (suppressed mite reproduction) trait is explained by the hygienic removal of reproductive mites (Varroa destructor), see abstracts #9 and #10). This report describes what a breeder may expect when out-crossi...

383

A Simplified Estimation of Latent State--Trait Parameters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latent state-trait (LST) theory is an extension of the classical test theory that allows one to decompose a test score into a true trait, a true state residual, and an error component. For practical applications, the variances of these latent variables may be estimated with standard methods of structural equation modeling (SEM). These…

Hagemann, Dirk; Meyerhoff, David

2008-01-01

384

Quantitative Trait Loci in Brassica rapa Brian S. Yandell  

E-print Network

Quantitative Trait Loci in Brassica rapa Brian S. Yandell Departments of Horticulture for a quantitative trait are examined for days to budding as measured on F2 plants from a Brassica rapa cross. The present study concerns the cross of two va- rieties of Brassica rapa, a Michihili Chinese cabbage (M

Yandell, Brian S.

385

Uncovering the Genetic Landscape for Multiple Sleep-Wake Traits  

E-print Network

opposite effects on the trait during the light vs. dark. Analysis of a dataset for multiple sleep of wake bouts in both light and dark periods that implies a mechanism whereby overall sleep need, mediatedUncovering the Genetic Landscape for Multiple Sleep- Wake Traits Christopher J. Winrow1. , Deanna L

Turek, Fred

386

GENETIC MAPPING OF AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN SUGAR BEET  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genetics of agronomic traits in sugar beet are not well defined but a comprehensive understanding of these traits is crucial for effective breeding of improved cultivars in the 21st century. Although current breeding approaches have been successful in selecting for improved agronomic performance...

387

An Examination of Personality Traits of Motorsports Management Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the motorsports industry, there is a strong desire to recruit individuals that have realistic expectations of the profession as well as exhibit the personality traits needed to be successful in the industry over time. The study sought to examine and compare personality traits of motorsports management students to those of practitioners…

Young, Joyce A.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Harder, Joseph T.; Peters, Randell

2013-01-01

388

The Hierarchical Structure of DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits  

PubMed Central

A multidimensional trait system has been proposed for representing personality disorder (PD) features in DSM-5 to address problematic classification issues such as comorbidity. In this model, which may also assist in providing scaffolding for the underlying structure of major forms of psychopathology more generally, 25 primary traits are organized by 5 higher order dimensions: Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. We examined a) the generalizability of the structure proposed for DSM-5 PD traits and b) the potential for an integrative hierarchy based upon DSM-5 PD traits to represent the dimensions scaffolding psychopathology more generally. A large sample of student participants (N=2,461) completed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, which operationalizes the DSM-5 traits. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the initially reported five-factor structure as indicated by high factor congruencies. The two-, three-, and four- factor solutions estimated in the hierarchy of the DSM-5 traits bear close resemblance to existing models of common mental disorders, temperament, and personality pathology. Thus, beyond the description of individual differences in personality disorder, the trait dimensions might provide a framework for the metastructure of psychopathology in the DSM-5 and the integration of a number of ostensibly competing models of personality trait covariation. PMID:22448740

Wright, Aidan G.C.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Markon, Kristian E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Krueger, Robert F.

2012-01-01

389

Psychopathic Traits, Victim Distress and Aggression in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression. As children high in psychopathic traits show a…

van Baardewijk, Yoast; Stegge, Hedy; Bushman, Brad J.; Vermeiren, Robert

2009-01-01

390

Quantitative trait transcripts for nicotine resistance in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most genetic association studies are performed with the intention of detecting nucleotide polymorphisms that are correlated with a complex trait, transcript abundance should also be expected to associate with diseases or phenotypes. We performed a scan for such quantitative trait transcripts in adult female heads of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) that might explain variation for nicotine resistance. The

Gisele Passador-Gurgel; Wen-Ping Hsieh; Priscilla Hunt; Nigel Deighton; Greg Gibson

2007-01-01

391

Association analysis of candidate SNPs on reproductive traits in swine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Being able to identify young females with superior reproduction traits would have a large financial impact on commercial swine producers. Previous studies have discovered SNPs associated with economically important traits such as litter size, growth rate, fat deposition, and feed intake. The objecti...

392

Using Cognitive Traits for Improving the Detection of Learning Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

While providing online courses that fit students' learning styles has high potential to make learning easier for students, it requires knowing students' learning styles first. This paper demonstrates how the consideration of cognitive traits such as working memory capacity (WMC) can help in detecting learning styles. Previous studies have identified a relationship between learning styles and cognitive traits. In this

Sabine Graf; K. Kinshuk

2010-01-01

393

Gene Mapping for Correlated Traits Brian S. Yandell  

E-print Network

Gene Mapping for Correlated Traits Brian S. Yandell University of Wisconsin · study geneKc architecture of quanKtaKve traits ­ in model systems, and ulKple environments · detailed map of geneKc variants associated with ­ each organismal

Yandell, Brian S.

394

Original Article Autistic-like and schizotypal traits in a life history perspective  

E-print Network

Original Article Autistic-like and schizotypal traits in a life history perspective: diametrical-like traits Diametrical model Impulsivity Life history strategy Schizotypal traits Sexual selection associated with individual differences in life history strategies. In this view, schizotypy

Maestripieri, Dario

395

Bioinformatics tools for the genetic dissection of complex traits in chickens   

E-print Network

This thesis explores the genetic characterization of the mechanisms underlying complex traits in chicken through the use and development of bioinformatics tools. The characterization of quantitative trait loci controlling complex traits has proven...

Cabrera Cárdenas, Claudia Paola

2009-01-01

396

Developing a web accessible integrated database and visualization tool for bovine quantitative trait loci  

E-print Network

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is the location of a gene that affects a trait that is measured on a quantitative (linear) scale. Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat in cattle...

Polineni, Pavana

2005-08-29

397

Tau Beta Pi: Brain Ticklers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tau Beta Pi is a national honor society for engineering students, and its quarterly Brain Ticklers online feature is a true challenge aimed at motivated individuals. In each issue, five standard questions and two bonus questions are given, which are intended to exercise peoples' problem solving skills. The problems are generally straightforward and easy to understand, but they can be extremely perplexing to solve. People who attempt the problems are encouraged to submit their answers for possible recognition in the following issue. Answers to the previous issue's problems are included when new issues are published.

398

Neutrino Factories and Beta Beams  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we briefly review the concepts of Neutrino Factories and Beta Beam facilities, and indicate the main challenges in terms of beam performance and technological developments. We also describe the worldwide organizations that have embarked on defining and carrying out the necessary R&D on component design, beam simulations of facility performance, and benchmarking of key subsystems via actual beam tests. Currently approved subsystem tests include the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and the Mercury Intense Target (MERIT) experiment, to be carried out at CERN. These experiments are briefly described, and their schedules are indicated.

Zisman, Michael S.

2006-06-21

399

A database of life-history traits of European amphibians  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the current context of climate change and landscape fragmentation, efficient conservation strategies require the explicit consideration of life history traits. This is particularly true for amphibians, which are highly threatened worldwide, composed by more than 7400 species, which is constitute one of the most species-rich vertebrate groups. The collection of information on life history traits is difficult due to the ecology of species and remoteness of their habitats. It is therefore not surprising that our knowledge is limited, and missing information on certain life history traits are common for in this species group. We compiled data on amphibian life history traits from literature in an extensive database with morphological and behavioral traits, habitat preferences and movement abilities for 86 European amphibian species (50 Anuran and 36 Urodela species). When it were available, we reported data for males, females, juveniles and tadpoles. Our database may serve as an important starting point for further analyses regarding amphibian conservation. PMID:25425939

Moulherat, Sylvain; Calvez, Olivier; Stevens, Virginie M; Clobert, Jean; Schmeller, Dirk S

2014-01-01

400

SEPARATE PERSONALITY TRAITS FROM STATES TO PREDICT DEPRESSION  

PubMed Central

Results have been inconsistent regarding the ability of personality measures to predict future depression severity levels, leading some researchers to question the validity of personality assessment, especially when patients are acutely depressed. Using a combination of regression and factor analytic techniques, we separated the variance of personality measures into stable trait and variable state-affect components. Findings supported the hypotheses that depression severity measured at different time points would correlate with both stable trait and concurrent state-affect components in personality measures, whereas change in depression severity would correlate with state changes but not with stable trait scores. Thus, personality assessments tap both state affect and trait variance, with the state-affect variance masking the trait variance when patients are depressed. PMID:12755328

Vittengl, Jeffrey; Kraft, Dolores

2005-01-01

401

Relations between big five traits and fundamental motives.  

PubMed

Relations were examined between configurations of Big Five Traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience) and 16 fundamental motives (Social Contact, Curiosity, Honor, Power, Order, Idealism, Independence, Status, Vengeance, Romance, Family, Activity, Saving, Acceptance, Eating, Tranquility) in 138 university students (93 women, 45 men; M age= 20.3 yr., SD=4.5). Big Five traits were measured with the NEO-PI-R and motives were measured with the Reiss Profile of Fundamental Goals and Motivation Sensitivities. The traits were significantly related with all the motives (adjusted R2=.06 to .43) except Physical Activity. Four motives were related with only one trait and nine configurations of two or more traits were correlated with the remaining 11 motives. Total motive scores across all participants, an index of the strength of overall motivation, were positively correlated with Extraversion and Neuroticism and negatively with Agreeableness. PMID:15666909

Olson, Kenneth R; Weber, Dale A

2004-12-01

402

An Interpersonal Analysis of Pathological Personality Traits in DSM-5  

PubMed Central

The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the DSM-5 places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic variation on the expression of personality disorder. In this study, we subject the proposed DSM-5 traits to interpersonal analysis using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems – Circumplex scales via the structural summary method for circumplex data. DSM-5 traits were consistently associated with generalized interpersonal dysfunction suggesting that they are maladaptive in nature, the majority of traits demonstrated discriminant validity with prototypical and differentiated interpersonal problem profiles, and conformed well to a priori hypothesized associations. These results are discussed in the context of the DSM-5 proposal and contemporary interpersonal theory, with a particular focus on potential areas for expansion of the DSM-5 trait model. PMID:22589411

Wright, Aidan G.C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

2012-01-01

403

DSM-5 Personality Traits and DSM-IV Personality Disorders  

PubMed Central

Two issues pertinent to the DSM-5 proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the six proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders. PMID:22250660

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.

2014-01-01

404

Natural variation of root traits: from development to nutrient uptake.  

PubMed

The root system has a crucial role for plant growth and productivity. Due to the challenges of heterogeneous soil environments, diverse environmental signals are integrated into root developmental decisions. While root growth and growth responses are genetically determined, there is substantial natural variation for these traits. Studying the genetic basis of the natural variation of root growth traits can not only shed light on their evolution and ecological relevance but also can be used to map the genes and their alleles responsible for the regulation of these traits. Analysis of root phenotypes has revealed growth strategies and root growth responses to a variety of environmental stimuli, as well as the extent of natural variation of a variety of root traits including ion content, cellular properties, and root system architectures. Linkage and association mapping approaches have uncovered causal genes underlying the variation of these traits. PMID:25104725

Ristova, Daniela; Busch, Wolfgang

2014-10-01

405

Do personality traits predict work outcomes of certified nursing assistants?  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to describe personality traits of certified nursing assistants (CNAs) employed at nursing homes and explore relationships between personality traits, job satisfaction, and job performance. The sample included 177 CNAs providing direct care to residents in three nursing homes. CNAs with high and low job performance skills were distinguished by the cluster of traits associated with teamwork skills. Overall, 21.3% of the variance in job satisfaction was explained by the personality traits of Adjustment, Prudence, Likeability, Excitable, and Dutiful, F(8, 145) = 4.899, p < 0.001. The links found between personality, job satisfaction, and job performance provide important information about the personality traits of nursing staff who are most likely to enjoy and perform well in the nursing home setting. Knowledge of these links may be useful for hiring the appropriate person for direct care nursing home positions. PMID:20438048

Kovach, Christine R; Simpson, Michelle R; Reitmaier, Amy B; Johnson, Addie; Kelber, Sheryl T

2010-10-01

406

Statistical classification methods for estimating ancestry using morphoscopic traits.  

PubMed

Ancestry assessments using cranial morphoscopic traits currently rely on subjective trait lists and observer experience rather than empirical support. The trait list approach, which is untested, unverified, and in many respects unrefined, is relied upon because of tradition and subjective experience. Our objective was to examine the utility of frequently cited morphoscopic traits and to explore eleven appropriate and novel methods for classifying an unknown cranium into one of several reference groups. Based on these results, artificial neural networks (aNNs), OSSA, support vector machines, and random forest models showed mean classification accuracies of at least 85%. The aNNs had the highest overall classification rate (87.8%), and random forests show the smallest difference between the highest (90.4%) and lowest (76.5%) classification accuracies. The results of this research demonstrate that morphoscopic traits can be successfully used to assess ancestry without relying only on the experience of the observer. PMID:24646108

Hefner, Joseph T; Ousley, Stephen D

2014-07-01

407

First forbidden beta decay in light nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Beta decay matrix elements for the operators sigma dot del and sigma dot r are calculated for eight J/sup +/ ..-->.. J/sup -/ or J/sup -/ ..-->.. J/sup +/ beta transitions. Results using harmonic oscillator wave functions differ markedly from those using more realistic Woods-Saxon wave functions. A substantial contribution to the sigma dot del matrix elements from pion exchange currents is required to reproduce the experimental beta decay rates. 15 references.

Millener, D.J.; Warburton, E.K.

1984-01-01

408

Method for preparing Pb-. beta. ''-alumina ceramic  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic from Na-..beta..''-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

Hellstrom, E.E.

1984-08-30

409

Operator analysis of neutrinoless double beta decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effective operators of the standard model fields which would\\u000ayield an observable rate of neutrinoless double beta decay. We particularly\\u000afocus on the possibility that neutrinoless double beta decay is dominantly\\u000ainduced by lepton-number-violating higher dimensional operators other than the\\u000aMajorana neutrino mass. Our analysis can be applied to models in which\\u000aneutrinoless double beta decay is

Kiwoon Choi; Kwang Sik Jeong; Wan Young Song

2002-01-01

410

beta-Adrenoreceptor antagonists in essential tremor.  

PubMed Central

Three different beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists--propranolol, sotalol, and atenolol--were compared in a double-blind study with placebo in nine patients with essential tremor. All three drugs produced an equal reduction in standing pulse rate but atenolol was less effective in reducing tremor than propranolol and sotalol. These results suggest that the reduction in tremor produced by beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists is mediated by an effect on peripheral beta 2-adrenoreceptors. PMID:512665

Jefferson, D; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D

1979-01-01

411

Systematic study of nuclear beta decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

beta-decay properties of nuclei are studied in the framework of proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation with a schematic Gamow-Teller residual interaction. Particle-hole and particle-particle terms of the separable Gamow-Teller force are consistently included for both beta+ and beta- directions, and their strengths are fixed as smooth functions of mass number A of nuclei in such a way that the calculation reproduces

H. Homma; E. Bender; M. Hirsch; K. Muto; H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus; T. Oda

1996-01-01

412

Variability of Root Traits in Spring Wheat Germplasm  

PubMed Central

Root traits influence the amount of water and nutrient absorption, and are important for maintaining crop yield under drought conditions. The objectives of this research were to characterize variability of root traits among spring wheat genotypes and determine whether root traits are related to shoot traits (plant height, tiller number per plant, shoot dry weight, and coleoptile length), regions of origin, and market classes. Plants were grown in 150-cm columns for 61 days in a greenhouse under optimal growth conditions. Rooting depth, root dry weight, root: shoot ratio, and shoot traits were determined for 297 genotypes of the germplasm, Cultivated Wheat Collection (CWC). The remaining root traits such as total root length and surface area were measured for a subset of 30 genotypes selected based on rooting depth. Significant genetic variability was observed for root traits among spring wheat genotypes in CWC germplasm or its subset. Genotypes Sonora and Currawa were ranked high, and genotype Vandal was ranked low for most root traits. A positive relationship (R2?0.35) was found between root and shoot dry weights within the CWC germplasm and between total root surface area and tiller number; total root surface area and shoot dry weight; and total root length and coleoptile length within the subset. No correlations were found between plant height and most root traits within the CWC germplasm or its subset. Region of origin had significant impact on rooting depth in the CWC germplasm. Wheat genotypes collected from Australia, Mediterranean, and west Asia had greater rooting depth than those from south Asia, Latin America, Mexico, and Canada. Soft wheat had greater rooting depth than hard wheat in the CWC germplasm. The genetic variability identified in this research for root traits can be exploited to improve drought tolerance and/or resource capture in wheat. PMID:24945438

Narayanan, Sruthi; Mohan, Amita; Gill, Kulvinder S.; Prasad, P. V. Vara

2014-01-01

413

Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle  

PubMed Central

Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

2014-01-01

414

Genetic Control of Meat Quality Traits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meat was originally produced from non-specialized animals that were used for a variety of purposes, in addition to being a source of food. However, selective breeding has resulted in “improved” breeds of cattle that are now used to produce either milk or beef, and specialized chicken lines that produce eggs or meat. These improved breeds are very productive under appropriate management systems. The selection methods used to create these specialized breeds were based on easily measured phenotypic variations, such as growth rate or physical size. Improvement in the desired trait was achieved by breeding directly from animals displaying the desired phenotype. However, more recently sophisticated genetic models have been developed using statistical approaches that consider phenotypic information collected, not only from individual animals but also from their parents, sibs, and progeny.

Williams, John L.

415

Influence analysis in quantitative trait loci detection  

PubMed Central

This paper presents systematic methods for the detection of influential individuals that affect the log odds (LOD) score curve. We derive general formulas of influence functions for profile likelihoods and introduce them into two standard quantitative trait locus detection methods—the interval mapping method and single marker analysis. Besides influence analysis on specific LOD scores, we also develop influence analysis methods on the shape of the LOD score curves. A simulation-based method is proposed to assess the significance of the influence of the individuals. These methods are shown useful in the influence analysis of a real dataset of an experimental population from an F2 mouse cross. By receiver operating characteristic analysis, we confirm that the proposed methods show better performance than existing diagnostics. PMID:24740424

Dou, Xiaoling; Kuriki, Satoshi; Maeno, Akiteru; Takada, Toyoyuki; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

2014-01-01

416

Personality profiles of cultures: aggregate personality traits.  

PubMed

Personality profiles of cultures can be operationalized as the mean trait levels of culture members. College students from 51 cultures rated an individual from their country whom they knew well (N=12,156). Aggregate scores on Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) scales generalized across age and sex groups, approximated the individual-level 5-factor model, and correlated with aggregate self-report personality scores and other culture-level variables. Results were not attributable to national differences in economic development or to acquiescence. Geographical differences in scale variances and mean levels were replicated, with Europeans and Americans generally scoring higher in Extraversion than Asians and Africans. Findings support the rough scalar equivalence of NEO-PI-R factors and facets across cultures and suggest that aggregate personality profiles provide insight into cultural differences. PMID:16248722

McCrae, Robert R; Terracciano, Antonio

2005-09-01

417

Personality traits in patients with oral malodor.  

PubMed

Many patients presenting at oral malodor clinics have psychological halitosis, which is characterized as being obsessive about having oral malodor or being distressed from a keen awareness of oral odor. We used the Tokyo University Egogram (TEG) to evaluate personality traits in patients presenting at the oral malodor clinic of this institute. The incidence of each TEG personality type was compared between a total of 600 patients presenting at the clinic and a cohort of healthy individuals. Differences were found between the malodor patient and healthy groups. Nurturing Parent (NP)-dominant, Adult (A)-dominant, inverse N (NP low, Free Child high), showed a significant decrease of 6.7, 11.3, and 3.6%, respectively; whereas N (A low) and N (NP high, Free Child low) showed a significant increase of 3.3 and 6.4%, respectively (p < 0.01). PMID:25477041

Sugiyama, Toshiko; Yamakura, Daiki; Tomita, Sachiyo; Kameyama, Atsushi; Morinaga, Kazuki; Tsunoda, Masatake

2014-01-01

418

Male reproductive traits and their relationship to reproductive traits in their female progeny: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The overall objective of one of the major research programs in the Co-operative Research Centre (CRC) for Beef Genetic Technologies is to 'Improve female reproductive performance' in tropical, northern Australian beef cattle herds. To address this overall objective, a quantitative genetics project focused on investigation of male reproductive traits was designed and linked to three female reproduction-focussed projects, (i) discovery of genes associated with post-partum re-conception and age at puberty; (ii) expression of genes associated with post-partum re-conception; and (iii) early predictors of lifetime female reproductive performance. During the initial planning of this male reproductive traits project, the CRC Scientific Review Committee recommended that the research team investigate and evaluate potentially new, early-life (i.e able to be measured before 2 years of age) predictors of both male and female reproductive performance. To address this recommendation, the following was carried out: (i) criteria for selection of traditional and candidate traits were established; (ii) methodology for tabulation of potential traits/phenotypes that define male and female reproductive function was developed; and (iii) a systematic scientific review of early-life predictors of male and female fertility was prepared. This review concluded that although factors that might be useful in predicting male reproductive performance have been studied for many years, there was relatively little useful information available to meet the objectives of this review. It was also concluded that the direction of future research should be guided not only by previous research which was scarce, but also by speculative hypotheses arising from an understanding of the physiological, endocrinological and genetic processes active in reproduction. A small number of new traits were recommended in addition to traditional sperm morphology, sexual behaviour, anatomical structure and growth traits. Potential additional traits include measurement of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone (GnRH-stimulated LH); inhibin; several seminal plasma proteins (osteopontin, spermadhesin and seminal plasma proteins BSP30 and phospholipase A(2) could be used in an index); 11?-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase; and leptin. In addition, the potential also exists to screen animals for a number of genetic markers associated with age of puberty, follicular recruitment and ovulation rate and genes associated with bovine seminal plasma protein and testosterone production. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) measurements are included because of their association with growth parameters, and an additional analysis demonstrated associations with male and female reproductive traits. Some of these factors have been previously evaluated in small numbers of animals of various species under intensive management conditions. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate these factors in much larger numbers of beef cattle grazing semi-extensive tropical production systems in northern Australia to determine their value in improving beef cattle enterprise profitability through improved herd fertility. PMID:21332828

Burns, B M; Gazzola, C; Holroyd, R G; Crisp, J; McGowan, M R

2011-06-01

419

Nuclear emulsion with molybdenum filling for observation of $\\beta\\beta$ decay  

E-print Network

The usage of nuclear emulsion with molybdenum filling for observation of $\\beta\\beta$ decay are shown to be possible. Estimates for 1 kg of $^{100}$Mo with zero background give the sensitivity for the $0\

Ashitkov, V D; Barabash, A S; Bradnova, V Ya; Chernyavsky, M M; Konovalov, S I; Okat'eva, N M; Orlova, G I; Polukhina, N G; Pozharova, E A; Smirnitsky, V A; Starkov, N I; Vladimirov, M S; Umatov, V I

2010-01-01

420

Molecular Structure of Beta-carotene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, carrots have been prized for their medicinal properties and beta-Carotene has been attributed as the source of these properties. Beta-carotene causes many plants to have pigment, and provides the color in carrots, cantaloupes and squash. Beta-carotenes have been seen to be of immense help in the maintenance of the human body: it is essential to proper vision, and to the functioning of the respiratory and digestive systems. Beta-carotene is a precursor in the biosynthesis of Vitamin A in the human body.

2002-08-13

421

Erythroblastic inclusions in dominantly inherited beta thalassemias.  

PubMed

While the precipitation of unstable variant beta-globin chains has been implicated as a major pathogenic mechanism in dominantly inherited beta thalassemia, their instability and presence in intra-erythroblastic inclusions have not been conclusively shown. We report the investigation of two cases of dominantly inherited beta thalassemia due to heterozygosity for the beta-codon 121 G-T mutation. In one case, we were able to demonstrate the presence of an abnormal beta-globin chain in both peripheral blood reticulocytes and bone marrow erythroblasts, and to assess its stability in relation to the substantial amounts of mutant beta mRNA transcript. The serum transferrin receptor (TfR) level was markedly increased, an indication of increased erythropoietic activity. In both cases, we could show by immunoelectron microscopy that the intra-erythroblastic inclusion bodies, a prominent feature of diseases in this category, contained not only precipitated alpha-globin chains, but also beta chains. The data confirm previous suggestions that the cellular pathology underlying this group of beta thalassemias is related to the synthesis of highly unstable beta-globin chain variants, which fail to form functional tetramers and precipitate intracellularly with the concomitant excess alpha chains, leading to increased ineffective erythropoiesis. PMID:8978308

Ho, P J; Wickramasinghe, S N; Rees, D C; Lee, M J; Eden, A; Thein, S L

1997-01-01

422

Double beta decays of {sup 106}Cd  

SciTech Connect

The two-neutrino (2{nu}2{beta}) and neutrinoless (0{nu}2{beta}) double beta decays of {sup 106}Cd are studied for the transitions to the ground state 0{sub gs}{sup +} and 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} excited states in {sup 106}Pd by using realistic many-body wave functions calculated in the framework of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation. Effective, G-matrix-derived nuclear forces are used in realistic single-particle model spaces. All the possible channels, {beta}{sup +}{beta}{sup +}, {beta}{sup +}EC, and ECEC, are discussed for both the 2{nu}2{beta} and 0{nu}2{beta} decays. The associated half-lives are computed and particular attention is devoted to the study of the detectability of the resonant neutrinoless double electron capture (R0{nu}ECEC) process in {sup 106}Cd. The calculations of the present article constitute the thus far most complete and up-to-date investigation of the double-beta-decay properties of {sup 106}Cd.

Suhonen, Jouni [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

2011-12-16

423

Beta blockers: A new role in chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Beta-blockers are a class of drugs widely used to treat cardiac, respiratory and other ailments. They act by blocking beta-adrenergic receptor–mediated signalling. Studies in various cancers have shown that patients taking a beta-blocker have higher survival and lower recurrence and metastasis rates. This is supported by several preclinical and in vitro studies showing that adrenergic activation modulates apoptosis, promotes angiogenesis and other cancer hallmarks, and these effects can be abrogated by beta-blockers. These studies provide a rationale for the use of beta-blockers as adjuvants with cancer chemotherapy. However, all published studies so far are retrospective, and most do not take into account the specific beta-blocker used or address which is most likely to benefit cancer patients. The published epidemiological studies are correlative and have not examined the adrenergic receptor status of the tumours. Knowledge of the beta-adrenergic receptor status of tumour cells is essential in choosing the best beta-blocker for adjuvant therapy. A comprehensive, prospective study is necessary to prove definitively the utility of using beta-blockers with chemotherapy and to identify the specific betablocker most likely to benefit patients with cancer. PMID:23919278

Nagaraja, Archana S; Sadaoui, Nouara C.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Sood, Anil K.

2014-01-01

424

$\\beta$-decay study of $^{77}$Cu  

E-print Network

A beta-decay study of Cu-77 has been performed at the ISOLDE mass separator with the aim to deduce its beta-decay properties and to obtain spectroscopic information on Zn-77. Neutron-rich copper isotopes were produced by means of proton- or neutron-induced fission reactions on U-238. After the production, Cu-77 was selectively laser ionized, mass separated and sent to different detection systems where beta-gamma and beta-n coincidence data were collected. We report on the deduced half-live, decay scheme, and possible spin assignment of 77Cu.

Patronis, N; Górska, M; Huyse, M; Kruglov, K; Pauwels, D; Van de Vel, K; Van Duppen, P; Van Roosbroeck, J; Thomas, J-C; Franchoo, S; Cederkäll, J; Fedosseev, V; Fynbo, H; Georg, U; Jonsson, O; Köster, U; Materna, T; Mathieu, L; Serot, O; Weissman, L; Müller, W F; Mishin, V I; Fedorov, D

2009-01-01

425

beta-decay study of Cu-77  

E-print Network

A beta-decay study of Cu-77 has been performed at the ISOLDE mass separator with the aim to deduce its beta-decay properties and to obtain spectroscopic information on Zn-77. Neutron-rich copper isotopes were produced by means of proton- or neutron-induced fission reactions on U-238. After the production, Cu-77 was selectively laser ionized, mass separated and sent to different detection systems where beta-gamma and beta-n coincidence data were collected. We report on the deduced half-live, decay scheme, and possible spin assignment of 77Cu.

N. Patronis; H. De Witte; M. Gorska; M. Huyse; K. Kruglov; D. Pauwels; K. Van de Vel; P. Van Duppen; J. Van Roosbroeck; J. -C. Thomas; S. Franchoo; J. Cederkall; V. N. Fedoseyev; H. Fynbo; U. Georg; O. Jonsson; U. Köster; T. Materna; L. Mathieu; O. Serot; L. Weissman; W. F. Mueller; V. I. Mishin; D. Fedorov

2009-09-01

426

Beta cell device using icosahedral boride compounds  

DOEpatents

A beta cell for converting beta-particle energies into electrical energy having a semiconductor junction that incorporates an icosahedral boride compound selected from B.sub.12 As.sub.2, B.sub.12 P.sub.2, elemental boron having an .alpha.-rhombohedral structure, elemental boron having a .beta.-rhombohedral structure, and boron carbides of the chemical formula B.sub.12-x C.sub.3-x, where 0.15beta radiation source, and means for transmitting electrical energy to an outside load. The icosahedral boride compound self-heals, resisting degradation from radiation damage.

Aselage, Terrence L. (62 Avenida Del Sol, Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Emin, David (1502 Harvard Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106-3712)

2002-01-01

427

Quantitative trait loci linked to plant production traits in rice (Oryza sativa) under drought stress in a target  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought stress is the major constraint to rice (Oryza sativa) production and yield stability in rainfed ecosystems. Identifying genomic regions contributing to drought resistance will help to develop rice cultivars suitable for rainfed regions through molecular marker-assisted breeding. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to plant production traits under drought stress were mapped by evaluating 155 F7 recombinant inbred (RI) lines

Alagarswamy Senthila; Ranganathan Chandra Babud

428

Of intent and action : implementing personality traits for storytelling through concept patterns  

E-print Network

Personality traits such as "kind," "aggressive," and "brave" are integral to storytelling because they impart succinct descriptors of character personalities. Authors apply traits to characters, readers infer characters' ...

Song, Susan S. (Susan Shuchen)

2012-01-01

429

Study of. beta. - and. beta. ''-aluminas by means of potential-energy calculations  

SciTech Connect

Potential energy calculations using Coulomb, short-range repulsive, and polarization energy terms have been made to study the conduction mechanism, the mixed-ion effects and charge compensation mechanisms in ..beta..-aluminas, and the conduction mechanism and non-Arrhenian behavior in ..beta..''-aluminas. It is concluded that the interstitialcy cation pairs are important to properties of ..beta..-aluminas, while the interacting nearly-free cation vacancies are important to properties of ..beta..''-aluminas.

Wang, J.C.; Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Engstrom, H.

1981-01-01

430

Human beta Adrenoceptors: Relation of Myocardial and Lymphocyte beta Adrenoceptor Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

In human right atria obtained from 21 patients during open-heart surgery, beta -adrenoceptor density [assessed by iodine-125--labeled (-)-cyanopindolol binding] and responsiveness (positive inotropic responses to isoprenaline) were linearly related to the beta -adrenoceptor density in the corresponding circulating lymphocytes. This direct relation of human myocardial and lymphocyte beta -adrenoceptor alterations, therefore, makes it possible to monitor drug- or disease-induced beta

Otto-Erich Brodde; Roland Kretsch; Katsumi Ikezono; Hans-Reinhard Zerkowski; Jurgen Christoph Reidemeister

1986-01-01

431

Neutrinoless double beta decay and nuclear matrix elements  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental importance of searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay) is widely recognized. Observation of the decay would tell us that the total lepton number is not conserved and that, consequently, neutrinos are massive Majorana fermions. The 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay is discussed in context of neutrino oscillation data. The perspectives of the experimental 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay searches are analyzed. The importance of reliable determination of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay nuclear matrix elements is pointed out.

Simkovic, Fedor [BLTP, JINR Dubna, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Comenius University, Mlynska dolina, Bratislava (Slovakia)

2011-11-23

432

Spectroscopic Studies of Double Beta Decays and MOON  

SciTech Connect

This is a brief review of future spectroscopic experiments of neutrino-less double beta decays (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) and the MOON (Mo Observatory Of Neutrinos) project. Spectroscopic 0{nu}{beta}{beta} experiments of MOON, SuperNEMO and DCBA are planned to study Majorana masses in the quasi-degenerate (QD) and inverted mass hierarchy (IH) regions. MOON aims at 0{nu}{beta}{beta} studies with the {nu}-mass sensitivities of 100-30 meV by means of a super ensemble of multi-layer modules, each being consist of a scintillator plate, two tracking detector planes and a thin {beta}{beta} source film.

Ejiri, H. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Brehova, Prague, Czech Republic, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

2007-10-12

433

Plant and algal interference in bacterial beta-D-galactosidase and beta-D-glucuronidase assays.  

PubMed Central

Several commonly occurring freshwater and marine plants and algae were screened for beta-D-galactosidase and beta-D-glucuronidase activities by using a 60-min enzyme assay based on the hydrolysis by these enzymes of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside and 4-methylumbelliferyl- beta-glucuronide, respectively. All freshwater plant extracts tested showed beta-D-galactosidase activity several at relatively high levels, and a number also showed beta-D-glucuronidase activity. A number of the macroalgae showed no activity of either enzyme, but those showing beta-D-galactosidase activity also showed beta-D-glucuronidase activity. The majority of microalgae showed some beta-D-galactosidase activity, but few showed beta-D-glucuronidase activity. Further studies, using the commercial Colilert test and the marine water formulation of Colilert, revealed that 2 of 11 of the microalgal species and several of the plant extracts tested caused positive reactions. It was concluded that several plant extracts and algae could significantly interfere with the detection of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli with the use of rapid assays, on the basis of their production of beta-D-galactosidase and beta-D-glucuronidase, respectively. The significance of the plant and algal interferences in tests such as Colilert is dependent on the levels of enzymes released under natural conditions, the dilution which they may undergo, and the numbers of algal cells present. This also applies to interferences in rapid enzyme assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7993085

Davies, C M; Apte, S C; Peterson, S M; Stauber, J L

1994-01-01

434

A new method for measuring beta spectra and doses in mixed beta-photon fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method to discriminate betas from photons in a wide range of mixed beta-photon fields by using special phoswich plastic scintillators is described. The phoswich detectors are able to measure beta spectra and doses at selected tissue depths and also measure separately skin and penetrating doses. The method is simple and can be implemented in a portable instrument by

Y. Eisen; B. H. Erkkila; R. J. Brake; W. P. Unruh; F. Hajnal

1985-01-01

435

Contrasting Effects of Intraspecific Trait Variation on Trait-Based Niches and Performance of Legumes in Plant Mixtures  

PubMed Central

Niche differentiation, assumed to be a key mechanism of species coexistence, requires that species differ in their functional traits. So far it remains unclear to which extent trait plasticity leads to niche shifts of species at higher plant diversity, thereby increasing or decreasing niche overlap between species. To analyse this question it is convenient to measure niches indirectly via the variation in resource-uptake traits rather than directly via the resources used. We provisionally call these indirectly measured niches trait-based niches. We studied shoot- and leaf-morphological characteristics in seven legume species in monoculture and multi-species mixture in experimental grassland. Legume species varied in the extent of trait variation in response to plant diversity. Trait plasticity led to significant shifts in species niches in multiple dimensions. Single-species niches in several traits associated with height growth and filling of canopy space were expanded, while other niche dimensions were compressed or did not change with plant diversity. Niche separation among legumes decreased in dimensions related to height growth and space filling, but increased in dimensions related to leaf size and morphology. The total extent of occupied niche space was larger in mixture than in the combined monocultures for dimensions related to leaf morphology and smaller for dimensions related to whole-plant architecture. Taller growth, greater space filling and greater plasticity in shoot height were positively, while larger values and greater plasticity in specific leaf area were negatively related with increased performance of species in mixture. Our study shows that trait variation in response to plant diversity shifts species niches along trait axes. Plastically increased niche differentiation is restricted to niche dimensions that are apparently not related to size-dependent differences between species, but functional equivalence (convergence in height growth) rather than complementarity (divergence in traits associated with light acquisition) explains increased performance of legumes in mixture. PMID:25781938

Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Schmid, Bernhard; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

2015-01-01

436

Genetic analysis of root morphological traits in wheat.  

PubMed

Traits related to root architecture are of great importance for yield performance of crop species, although they remain poorly understood. The present study is aimed at identifying the genomic regions involved in the control of root morphological traits in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). A set of 123 recombinant inbred lines derived from the durum wheat cross of cvs. 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' were grown hydroponically to two growth stages, and were phenotypically evaluated for a number of root traits. In addition, meta-(M)QTL analysis was performed that considered the results of other root traits studies in wheat, to compare with the 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' cross and to increase the QTL detection power. Eight quantitative trait loci (QTL) for traits related to root morphology were identified on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 3A, 6A and 6B in the 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' segregating population. Twenty-two MQTL that comprised from two to six individual QTL that had widely varying confidence intervals were found on 14 chromosomes. The data from the present study provide a detailed analysis of the genetic basis of morphological root traits in wheat. This study of the 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' durum-wheat population has revealed some QTL that had not been previously identified. PMID:25416422

Petrarulo, Maria; Marone, Daniela; Ferragonio, Pina; Cattivelli, Luigi; Rubiales, Diego; De Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

2014-11-22

437

Predicting leaf traits of herbaceous species from their spectral characteristics  

PubMed Central

Trait predictions from leaf spectral properties are mainly applied to tree species, while herbaceous systems received little attention in this topic. Whether similar trait–spectrum relations can be derived for herbaceous plants that differ strongly in growing strategy and environmental constraints is therefore unknown. We used partial least squares regression to relate key traits to leaf spectra (reflectance, transmittance, and absorbance) for 35 herbaceous species, sampled from a wide range of environmental conditions. Specific Leaf Area and nutrient-related traits (N and P content) were poorly predicted from any spectrum, although N prediction improved when expressed on a per area basis (mg/m2 leaf surface) instead of mass basis (mg/g dry matter). Leaf dry matter content was moderately to good correlated with spectra. We explain our results by the range of environmental constraints encountered by herbaceous species; both N and P limitations as well as a range of light and water availabilities occurred. This weakened the relation between the measured response traits and the leaf constituents that are truly responsible for leaf spectral behavior. Indeed, N predictions improve considering solely upper or under canopy species. Therefore, trait predictions in herbaceous systems should focus on traits relating to dry matter content and the true, underlying drivers of spectral properties. PMID:24683454

Roelofsen, Hans D; van Bodegom, Peter M; Kooistra, Lammert; Witte, Jan-Philip M

2014-01-01

438

Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes.  

PubMed

The study of ecosystem functioning - the role which organisms play in an ecosystem - is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (http://polytraits.lifewatchgreece.eu), a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida). At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources. PMID:24855436

Faulwetter, Sarah; Markantonatou, Vasiliki; Pavloudi, Christina; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Keklikoglou, Kleoniki; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Pafilis, Evangelos; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Vasileiadou, Katerina; Dailianis, Thanos; Fanini, Lucia; Koulouri, Panayota; Arvanitidis, Christos

2014-01-01

439

Genetic mechanisms of floral trait correlations in a natural population.  

PubMed

Genetic correlations among traits are important in evolution, as they can constrain evolutionary change or reflect past selection for combinations of traits. Constraints and integration depend on whether the correlations are caused by pleiotropy or linkage disequilibrium, but these genetic mechanisms underlying correlations remain largely unknown in natural populations. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping studies do not adequately address the mechanisms of within-population genetic correlations because they rely on crosses between distinct species, inbred lines or selected lines (see ref. 5), and they cannot distinguish moderate linkage disequilibrium from pleiotropy because they commonly rely on only one or two episodes of recombination. Here I report that after nine generations of enforced random mating (nine episodes of recombination), correlations between six floral traits in wild radish plants are unchanged, showing that pleiotropy generates the correlations. There is no evidence for linkage disequilibrium despite previous correlational selection acting on one functionally integrated pair of traits. This study provides direct evidence of the genetic mechanisms underlying correlations between quantitative traits in a natural population and suggests that there may be constraints on the independent evolution of pairs of highly correlated traits. PMID:12459781

Conner, Jeffrey K

2002-11-28

440

Morphological and Geographical Traits of the British Odonata  

PubMed Central

Abstract Trait data are fundamental for many aspects of ecological research, particularly for modeling species response to environmental change. We synthesised information from the literature (mainly field guides) and direct measurements from museum specimens, providing a comprehensive dataset of 26 attributes, covering the 43 resident species of Odonata in Britain. Traits included in this database range from morphological traits (e.g. body length) to attributes based on the distribution of the species (e.g. climatic restriction). We measured 11 morphometric traits from five adult males and five adult females per species. Using digital callipers, these measurements were taken from dry museum specimens, all of which were wild caught individuals. Repeated measures were also taken to estimate measurement error. The trait data are stored in an online repository (https://github.com/BiologicalRecordsCentre/Odonata_traits), alongside R code designed to give an overview of the morphometric data, and to combine the morphometric data to the single value per trait per species data. PMID:24855438

2014-01-01

441

A Thesaurus for Soil Invertebrate Trait-Based Approaches  

PubMed Central

Soil invertebrates are known to be much involved in soil behaviour and therefore in the provision of ecosystem services. Functional trait-based approaches are methodologies which can be used to understand soil invertebrates’ responses to their environment. They (i) improve the predictions and (ii) are less dependent on space and time. The way traits have been used recently has led to misunderstandings in the integration and interpretation of data. Trait semantics are especially concerned. The aim of this paper is to propose a thesaurus for soil invertebrate trait-based approaches. T-SITA, an Internet platform, is the first initiative to deal with the semantics of traits and ecological preferences for soil invertebrates. It reflects the agreement of a scientific expert community to fix semantic properties (e.g. definition) of approximately 100 traits and ecological preferences. In addition, T-SITA has been successfully linked with a fully operational database of soil invertebrate traits. Such a link enhances data integration and improves the scientific integrity of data. PMID:25310431

Nahmani, Johanne; Auclerc, Apolline; Capowiez, Yvan; Caro, Gaël; Cluzeau, Daniel; Cortet, Jérôme; Decaëns, Thibaud; Dubs, Florence; Joimel, Sophie; Guernion, Muriel; Briard, Charlène; Grumiaux, Fabien; Laporte, Baptiste; Pasquet, Alain; Pelosi, Céline; Pernin, Céline; Ponge, Jean-François; Salmon, Sandrine; Santorufo, Lucia; Hedde, Mickaël

2014-01-01

442

Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits.  

PubMed

Many studies have shown plant species' dispersal distances to be strongly related to life-history traits, but how well different traits can predict dispersal distances is not yet known. We used cross-validation techniques and a global data set (576 plant species) to measure the predictive power of simple plant traits to estimate species' maximum dispersal distances. Including dispersal syndrome (wind, animal, ant, ballistic, and no special syndrome), growth form (tree, shrub, herb), seed mass, seed release height, and terminal velocity in different combinations as explanatory variables we constructed models to explain variation in measured maximum dispersal distances and evaluated their power to predict maximum dispersal distances. Predictions are more accurate, but also limited to a particular set of species, if data on more specific traits, such as terminal velocity, are available. The best model (R2 = 0.60) included dispersal syndrome, growth form, and terminal velocity as fixed effects. Reasonable predictions of maximum dispersal distance (R2 = 0.53) are also possible when using only the simplest and most commonly measured traits; dispersal syndrome and growth form together with species taxonomy data. We provide a function (dispeRsal) to be run in the software package R. This enables researchers to estimate maximum dispersal distances with confidence intervals for plant species using measured traits as predictors. Easily obtainable trait data, such as dispersal syndrome (inferred from seed morphology) and growth form, enable predictions to be made for a large number of species. PMID:24669743

Tamme, Riin; Götzenberger, Lars; Zobel, Martin; Bullock, James M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Kaasik, Ants; Pärtel, Meelis

2014-02-01

443

Sex differences in the etiology of psychopathic traits in youth.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the etiology of psychopathic traits in youth, and even fewer have tested whether the genetic and environmental influences underlying these traits differ for boys and girls. We tested for sex differences in the etiology of 3 trait dimensions-impulsivity, narcissism, and callous-unemotionality (CU)-previously found to underlie youth psychopathy in our sample. Using biometric modeling we tested whether constraining the genetic and environmental influences for each dimension across sex reduced model fit. We also tested for qualitative sex differences in the influences underlying these dimensions by allowing the genetic and environmental correlations between opposite sex dizygotic twins to be less than their respective values in same-sex dizygotic twins. Although the magnitudes of the genetic and environmental influences underlying the CU and narcissistic trait dimensions did not differ for boys and girls, nonshared environmental influences contributed significantly greater variance to impulsive traits in boys. No qualitative sex differences were found in the influences underlying any of the 3 trait dimensions, suggesting that the same genes and environments contribute to these psychopathic traits in males and females. PMID:24886014

Ficks, Courtney A; Dong, Lu; Waldman, Irwin D

2014-05-01

444

Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes  

PubMed Central

Abstract The study of ecosystem functioning – the role which organisms play in an ecosystem – is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (http://polytraits.lifewatchgreece.eu), a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida). At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources. PMID:24855436

2014-01-01

445

Latitudinal trait variation and responses to drought in Arabidopsis lyrata.  

PubMed

Species may respond in three ways to environmental change: adapt, migrate, or go extinct. Studies of latitudinal clines can provide information on whether species have adapted to abiotic stress such as temperature and drought in the past and what the traits underlying adaptation are. We investigated latitudinal trait variation and response to drought in North American populations of Arabidopsis lyrata. Plants from nine populations collected over 13° latitude were grown under well-watered and dry conditions. A total of 1,620 seedlings were raised and 12 phenological, physiological, morphological, and life history traits were measured. Two traits, asymptotic rosette size and the propensity to flower, were significantly associated with latitude: plants from northern locations grew to a larger size and were more likely to flower in the first season. Most traits displayed a plastic response to drought, but plasticity was never related linearly with latitude nor was it enhanced in populations from extreme latitudes with reduced water availability. Populations responded to drought by adopting mixed strategies of resistance, tolerance, and escape. The study shows that latitudinal adaptation in A. lyrata involves the classic life history traits, size at and timing of reproduction. Contrary to recent theoretical predictions, adaptation to margins is based on fixed trait differences and not on phenotypic plasticity, at least with respect to drought. PMID:24705694

Paccard, Antoine; Fruleux, Alexandre; Willi, Yvonne

2014-06-01

446

Brain structure links trait creativity to openness to experience.  

PubMed

Creativity is crucial to the progression of human civilization and has led to important scientific discoveries. Especially, individuals are more likely to have scientific discoveries if they possess certain personality traits of creativity (trait creativity), including imagination, curiosity, challenge and risk-taking. This study used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in trait creativity, as measured by the Williams creativity aptitude test, in a large sample (n = 246). We found that creative individuals had higher gray matter volume in the right posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which might be related to semantic processing during novelty seeking (e.g. novel association, conceptual integration and metaphor understanding). More importantly, although basic personality factors such as openness to experience, extroversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness (as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory) all contributed to trait creativity, only openness to experience mediated the association between the right pMTG volume and trait creativity. Taken together, our results suggest that the basic personality trait of openness might play an important role in shaping an individual's trait creativity. PMID:24603022

Li, Wenfu; Li, Xueting; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiangzhen; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Jingguang; Cheng, Hongsheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Jia

2015-02-01

447

Affective traits link to reliable neural markers of incentive anticipation.  

PubMed

While theorists have speculated that different affective traits are linked to reliable brain activity during anticipation of gains and losses, few have directly tested this prediction. We examined these associations in a community sample of healthy human adults (n=52) as they played a Monetary Incentive Delay task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Factor analysis of personality measures revealed that subjects independently varied in trait Positive Arousal and trait Negative Arousal. In a subsample (n=14) retested over 2.5years later, left nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activity during anticipation of large gains (+$5.00) and right anterior insula activity during anticipation of large losses (-$5.00) showed significant test-retest reliability (intraclass correlations>0.50, p's<0.01). In the full sample (n=52), trait Positive Arousal correlated with individual differences in left NAcc activity during anticipation of large gains, while trait Negative Arousal correlated with individual differences in right anterior insula activity during anticipation of large losses. Associations of affective traits with neural activity were not attributable to the influence of other potential confounds (including sex, age, wealth, and motion). Together, these results demonstrate selective links between distinct affective traits and reliably-elicited activity in neural circuits associated with anticipation of gain versus loss. The findings thus reveal neural markers for affective dimensions of healthy personality, and potentially for related psychiatric symptoms. PMID:24001457

Wu, Charlene C; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Katovich, Kiefer; Knutson, Brian

2014-01-01

448

Linking traits based on their shared molecular mechanisms  

PubMed Central

There is growing recognition that co-morbidity and co-occurrence of disease traits are often determined by shared genetic and molecular mechanisms. In most cases, however, the specific mechanisms that lead to such trait–trait relationships are yet unknown. Here we present an analysis of a broad spectrum of behavioral and physiological traits together with gene-expression measurements across genetically diverse mouse strains. We develop an unbiased methodology that constructs potentially overlapping groups of traits and resolves their underlying combination of genetic loci and molecular mechanisms. For example, our method predicts that genetic variation in the Klf7 gene may influence gene transcripts in bone marrow-derived myeloid cells, which in turn affect 17 behavioral traits following morphine injection; this predicted effect of Klf7 is consistent with an in vitro perturbation of Klf7 in bone marrow cells. Our analysis demonstrates the utility of studying hidden causative mechanisms that lead to relationships between complex traits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04346.001 PMID:25781485

Oren, Yael; Nachshon, Aharon; Frishberg, Amit; Wilentzik, Roni; Gat-Viks, Irit

2015-01-01

449

Functional traits and root morphology of alpine plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Vegetation has long been recognized to protect the soil from erosion. Understanding species differences in root morphology and functional traits is an important step to assess which species and species mixtures may provide erosion control. Furthermore, extending classification of plant functional types towards root traits may be a useful procedure in understanding important root functions. Methods In this study, pioneer data on traits of alpine plant species, i.e. plant height and shoot biomass, root depth, horizontal root spreading, root length, diameter, tensile strength, plant age and root biomass, from a disturbed site in the Swiss Alps are presented. The applicability of three classifications of plant functional types (PFTs), i.e. life form, growth form and root type, was examined for above- and below-ground plant traits. Key Results Plant traits differed considerably among species even of the same life form, e.g. in the case of total root length by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the same root diameter, species differed significantly in tensile strength: some species (Geum reptans and Luzula spicata) had roots more than twice as strong as those of other species. Species of different life forms provided different root functions (e.g. root depth and horizontal root spreading) that may be important for soil physical processes. All classifications of PFTs were helpful to categorize plant traits; however, the PFTs according to root type explained total root length far better than the other PFTs. Conclusions The results of the study illustrate the remarkable differences between root traits of alpine plants, some of which cannot be assessed from simple morphological inspection, e.g. tensile strength. PFT classification based on root traits seems useful to categorize plant traits, even though some patterns are better explained at the individual species level. PMID:21795278

Pohl, Mandy; Stroude, Raphaël; Buttler, Alexandre; Rixen, Christian

2011-01-01

450

A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R., II; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

2006-01-01

451

Beta maritima: the Origin of Beets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Along the undisturbed shores, especially of the Mediterranean Sea and the European North Atlantic Ocean, is a widespread plant called Beta maritima (Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima) by the botanists, or more commonly sea beet. Nothing for the inexperienced observer's eye distinguishes it from surr...

452

BETA GENETIC RESOURCES: NORTH AMERICA ACTIVITIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Report on a Working Group on Beta (IPGRI) This report gives a short history of the National Plant Germplasm System's (NPGS) Beta Collection at the USDA-ARS Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS), where the active collection has been housed since the early 1990's. There is a backlog of...

453

Gilbert syndrome associated with beta-thalassemia.  

PubMed

The authors investigated whether the considerable variability in serum bilirubin levels (STB) found in transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia, beta-thal intermedia, and heterozygous beta-thalassemia individuals could be related to the coexistence of Gilbert syndrome (GS). The promoter region [A(TA)nTAA] of the bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase gene (UGT1A1) was analyzed in a total of 128 beta-thalassemia individuals (108 transfusion-dependent beta-thal patients, 20 very mild beta-thal intermedia) and in 33 beta-thal heterozygotes. The control group consisted of 70 healthy children with no history of anemia. The frequency of GS genotype (TA)7/(TA)7 did not differ significantly between the groups studied. A significant difference was observed between serum bilirubin levels (STB) and GS genotypes (TA)7/(TA)7 and (TA)6/(TA)7 and also between (TA)7/(TA)7 and (TA)6/(TA)6 for all groups examined. These results confirm that the (TA)7/(TA)7 GS genotype is one of the factors accounting for the hyperbilirubinemia observed in beta-thalassemia major, intermedia, and heterozygous individuals. PMID:11764096

Tzetis, M; Kanavakis, E; Tsezou, A; Ladis, V; Pateraki, E; Georgakopoulou, T; Kavazarakis, E; Maragoudaki, E; Karpathios, T; Kitsiou-Tzeli, S

2001-12-01

454

Nuclear physics aspects of double beta decay  

E-print Network

Comprehensive description of the phenomenology of the $\\beta\\beta$ decay is given, with emphasis on the nuclear physics aspects. After a brief review of the neutrino oscillation results and of motivation to test the lepton number conservation, the mechanism of the $0\

Petr Vogel

2008-07-15

455

Beta-Arrestins: Multifunctional Cellular Mediators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Initially thought to play a role only in G-protein-coupled receptor desensitization, Beta-arrestins are ascribed with new roles such as scaffolding and signaling proteins by their own right. This review explores the many functions of Beta-arrestins, with an emphasis on their recently identified role as regulators of receptor signaling.

Liza Barki-Harrington (University of Haifa)

2008-02-01

456

The Beta Israel and the impossible return  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article to is explore the origins of the Beta Israel people; analyse the conditions of their existence in mainland Israel; and critique the notions of displacement and diaspora as applied to their historical experience in Ethiopia. Scholars of the Beta Israel in Ethiopia and Israel tend to project them as a marooned community, one without roots

Abebe Zegeye

2008-01-01

457

Neutrinoless double beta decay and neutrino physics  

E-print Network

The connection of neutrino physics with neutrinoless double beta decay is reviewed. After presenting the current status of the PMNS matrix and the theoretical background of neutrino mass and lepton mixing, we will summarize the various implications of neutrino physics for double beta decay. The influence of light sterile neutrinos and other exotic modifications of the three neutrino picture is also discussed.

Werner Rodejohann

2012-08-20

458

Neutrinoless double beta decay with scalar bilinears  

Microsoft Academic Search

One possible probe to physics beyond the standard model is to look for scalar bilinears, which couple to two fermions of the standard model. We point out that the scalar bilinears allow new diagrams contributing to the neutrinoless double beta decay. The neutrinoless double beta decay lifetime would then give new constraints on the ratio of the masses of these

H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus; Utpal Sarkar

2003-01-01

459

beta-Glucosylation of chitooligomers by galactosyltransferase.  

PubMed

Galactosyltransferase from bovine milk was found to be able to utilise UDP-Glc to transfer Glc onto GlcNAc and chitooligomers[-beta-GlcNAc-(1-->4)-]n, n = 2-4. beta-Glucosylated products were used in binding studies with NKR-P1A protein cloned from rat natural killer cells. PMID:9648269

Kren, V; Dvoráková, J; Gambert, U; Sedmera, P; Havlícek, V; Thiem, J; Bezouska, K

1997-12-01

460

The beta test of an electronic supermarket  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents findings of a beta test of an electronic supermarket. It first reports qualitative information elicited during interviews and focus groups conducted with the beta test user group. A total of 57 users who had tested the system participated in the qualitative component of the study. Interviews and focus groups addressed what the users considered the best and

Ron Henderson; Debra Rickwood; Peter Roberts

1998-01-01

461

NEXT: double beta decay experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of neutrino oscillation has reactivated the search of the elusive neutrino-less double beta decays ( ??0 ?). The goal of the next generation of experiments is to cover values of effective neutrino mas down to 20meV, the so-called inverse hierarchy region. Several experiments are looking for this disintegration using different techniques. The challenges of these experiments are an excellent energy resolution and large background rejection factor. The Xenon is naturally enriched with ??0 ? candidate emitter, 136Xe, and shows excellent energy resolution when used as a calorimeter. In gaseous phase, the electrons can be tracked reducing considerable external backgrounds. The NEXT collaboration is designing a pressurized gaseous enriched Xenon detector of about 100 kg to be operated at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in Huesca (Spain).

Sànchez, F.; NEXT Collaboration

2009-03-01

462

Sickle cell trait and sudden death--bringing it home.  

PubMed

Sickle cell trait continues to be the leading cause of sudden death for young African Americans in military basic training and civilian organized sports. The syndrome may have caused the death of up to 10 college football players since 1974 and, as recently as 2000, was suspected as the cause of death of three U.S. Army recruits. The penal military-style boot camps in the United States and the recent death of two teenagers with sickle cell trait merits renewed vigor in the education of athletic instructors, the military and the public about conditions associated with sudden death in individuals with sickle cell trait. PMID:17393956

Mitchell, Bruce L

2007-03-01

463

beta-Hydrogen Kinetic Effect.  

PubMed

A combined kinetic and DFT study of the uncatalyzed isomerization of cationic solvent complexes of the type cis-[Pt(R')(S)(PR3)2]+ (R' = linear and branched alkyls or aryls and S = solvents) to their trans isomers has shown that the reaction goes through the rate-determining dissociative loss of the weakly bonded molecule of the solvent and the interconversion of two geometrically distinct T-shaped 14-electron three-coordinate intermediates. The Pt-S dissociation energy is strongly dependent on the coordinating properties of S and independent of the nature of R'. The energy barrier for the fluxional motion of [Pt(R')(PR3)2]+ is comparatively much lower ( approximately 8-21 kJ mol-1). The presence of beta-hydrogens on the alkyl chain (R' = Et, Prn, and Bun) produces a great acceleration of the reaction rate. This accelerating effect has been defined as the beta-hydrogen kinetic effect, and it is a consequence of the stabilization of the transition state and of the cis-like three-coordinate [Pt(R')(PR3)2]+ intermediate through an incipient agostic interaction. The DFT optimizat