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Sample records for beta thalassaemia trait

  1. Delta beta (F)-thalassaemia in Sardinia.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, A; Melis, M A; Galanello, R; Angius, A; Furbetta, M; Giordano, P; Bernini, L F

    1982-01-01

    A population survey carried out in southern sardinia on more than 5000 people has shown that delta beta (F)-thalassaemia, with a gene frequency of 0-00088, is a rare trait in this population. We examined the members of three families segregating for both delta beta- and beta(0)-thalassemia and a number of delta beta carriers identified during the screening. The doubly heterozygous children suffer from a mild form of Cooley's disease with non-alpha/alpha biosynthetic ratios within the range of values observed in beta (0)-thalassaemia homozygotes. Three of them have been transfusion dependent for some time. The delta beta carriers, although in many respects showing the usual picture of delta beta-thalassaemia, such as abnormal red cell indices, normal Hb A2, Hb F heterogeneously distributed in the erythrocytes, and low beta/alpha synthetic ratios, have unusually high levels of Hb F (range 10 to 20%) and particularly low glycine content (range 0.02 to 0.14 residues) in the isolated gamma CB3 peptide. These results have led us to the conclusion that the delta beta-thalassaemia found in Sardinia is different from the similar kind of delta beta defect found in Negroes and in other Mediterranean populations, including continental Italians. PMID:6180167

  2. Incidence of β-Thalassaemia Trait among Cypriots in London

    PubMed Central

    Modell, C. B.; Benson, A.; Wright, C. R. Payling

    1972-01-01

    The incidence of β-thalassaemia trait among Cypriots in London is about 14%, and the birth rate of children with thalassaemia major is 0·6%. The high incidence of the β-thalassaemia gene among Cypriots suggests the desirability of screening Cypriot school-leavers for thalassaemia trait and following up any incidentally discovered cases with family studies and genetic counselling. PMID:5077914

  3. Effect of Iron Deficiency on the Phenotype of β-Thalassaemia Trait.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Maham; Ahmed, Suhaib; Ali, Nadir

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of iron deficiency on Hb-A2 level in β-thalassaemia trait and to determine the frequency of individuals with β-thalassaemia trait who could be missed due to concomitant iron deficiency. Atotal of 120 patients were studied, out of which 23 were iron deficient (serum ferritin < 20 ng/ml). Mean Hb-A2 in the iron deficient individuals was 4.1 ±0.47% as compared to 5.1 ±0.58% in the remaining 97 individuals without iron deficiency (p < 0.001). In the 120 individuals with β-thalassaemia trait, mean Hb-A2was 5.8% with range 3 - 6.8% and confidence interval was 95%. In 2 individuals with β-thalassaemia trait, Iron deficiency was observed and showed Hb-A2 less than 3.5%. These could have been missed while screening by Hb-A2estimation alone. Co-existence of Iron deficiency and β-thalassaemia trait may mask the diagnosis of beta thalassaemia trait and such individuals can be missed during screening by Hb-A2estimation alone. PMID:26975960

  4. Diabetes mellitus in children suffering from beta-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    el-Hazmi, M A; al-Swailem, A; al-Fawaz, I; Warsey, A S; al-Swailem, A

    1994-10-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a frequent complication in patients with beta-thalassaemia major. It is believed to be a consequence of the damage inflicted by iron overload to the pancreatic beta-cell. Liver disorders and genetic influences seem to be additional predisposing factors to diabetes mellitus in patients with beta-thalassaemia. Ethnic variations are frequently reported on prevalence and complications of diabetes mellitus in the beta-thalassaemia patients. We investigated 50 Saudi children (< 15 years) with beta-thalassaemia major and 50 beta-thalassaemia minor, and age- and sex-matched controls for the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and its relation to hitherto claimed predisposing factors. Fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin level, liver function tests, plasma ferritin, iron, and transferrin were assessed in each patient and glucose tolerance was evaluated. Results in patients with beta-thalassaemia major were compared with those obtained for beta-thalassaemia minor and the controls. The results showed moderate elevation of ferritin level in the majority of the beta-thalassaemia major despite desferroxamine therapy. Either hyperinsulinaemia or hypoinsulinaemia was encountered in the majority of these patients. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 6 per cent compared to 2 per cent in the beta-thalassaemia minor and normal children. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) occurred at a significantly higher (24 per cent) frequency in the beta-thalassaemia major compared to 2 and 0 per cent in the beta-thalassaemia minor patients and normal controls, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was significantly lower in the Saudi thalassaemic patients compared to the results obtained from patients of other ethnic groups reported in literature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7807619

  5. Characterisation of beta-globin gene mutations in Malaysian children: a strategy for the control of beta-thalassaemia in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Thong, Meow-Keong; Tan, J A M A; Tan, K L; Yap, S F

    2005-12-01

    beta-thalassaemia major, an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy, is one of the most common single gene disorders in multi-racial Malaysia. The control of beta-thalassaemia major requires a multi-disciplinary approach that includes population screening, genetic counselling, prenatal diagnosis and the option of termination of affected pregnancies. To achieve this objective, the molecular characterisation of the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in each of the affected ethnic groups is required. We studied 88 consecutive unrelated individuals and their respective families with beta-thalassaemia (74 beta-thalassaemia major, 12 HbE-beta-thalassaemia, 2 with HbE homozygotes) and four individuals with beta-thalassaemia trait that contributed a total 180 alleles for study. Using a 2-step molecular diagnostic strategy consisting of amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) to identify the 8 most common mutations followed by other DNA-based diagnostic techniques, a total of 177 (98.3 per cent) of the 180 beta-thalassaemia alleles were characterised. One out of 91 (1 per cent) of the Chinese alleles, one out of 46 (2.2 per cent) Malay alleles and one out of two Indian alleles remained unknown. A 100 per cent success rate was achieved in studying the Kadazandusun community in this study. A strategy to identify beta-globin gene mutations in Malaysians with beta-thalassaemia is proposed based on this outcome. PMID:15967770

  6. Epistasis and the sensitivity of phenotypic screens for beta thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Penman, Bridget S; Gupta, Sunetra; Weatherall, David J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic disorders of haemoglobin, particularly the sickle cell diseases and the alpha and beta thalassaemias, are the commonest inherited disorders worldwide. The majority of affected births occur in low-income and lower-middle income countries. Screening programmes are a vital tool to counter these haemoglobinopathies by: (i) identifying individual carriers and allowing them to make informed reproductive choices, and (ii) generating population level gene-frequency estimates, to help ensure the optimal allocation of public health resources. For both of these functions it is vital that the screen performed is suitably sensitive. One popular first-stage screening option to detect carriers of beta thalassaemia in low-income countries is the One Tube Osmotic Fragility Test (OTOFT). Here we introduce a population genetic framework within which to quantify the likely sensitivity and specificity of the OTOFT in different epidemiological contexts. We demonstrate that interactions between the carrier states for beta thalassaemia and alpha thalassaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis have the potential to reduce the sensitivity of OTOFTs for beta thalassaemia heterozygosity to below 70%. Our results therefore caution against the widespread application of OTOFTs in regions where these erythrocyte variants co-occur. PMID:25521998

  7. Epistasis and the sensitivity of phenotypic screens for beta thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Penman, Bridget S; Gupta, Sunetra; Weatherall, David J

    2015-04-01

    Genetic disorders of haemoglobin, particularly the sickle cell diseases and the alpha and beta thalassaemias, are the commonest inherited disorders worldwide. The majority of affected births occur in low-income and lower-middle income countries. Screening programmes are a vital tool to counter these haemoglobinopathies by: (i) identifying individual carriers and allowing them to make informed reproductive choices, and (ii) generating population level gene-frequency estimates, to help ensure the optimal allocation of public health resources. For both of these functions it is vital that the screen performed is suitably sensitive. One popular first-stage screening option to detect carriers of beta thalassaemia in low-income countries is the One Tube Osmotic Fragility Test (OTOFT). Here we introduce a population genetic framework within which to quantify the likely sensitivity and specificity of the OTOFT in different epidemiological contexts. We demonstrate that interactions between the carrier states for beta thalassaemia and alpha thalassaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis have the potential to reduce the sensitivity of OTOFTs for beta thalassaemia heterozygosity to below 70%. Our results therefore caution against the widespread application of OTOFTs in regions where these erythrocyte variants co-occur. PMID:25521998

  8. Thalassaemia types and their incidence in Sardinia.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, A; Galanello, R; Furbetta, M; Muroni, P P; Garbato, L; Rosatelli, C; Scalas, M T; Addis, M; Ruggeri, R; Maccioni, L; Melis, M A

    1978-01-01

    The frequency of thalassaemia syndromes in Sardinia was examined by a population survey. The data indicate that about 12.6% of the Sardinian subjects are carriers of beta-thalassaemia, while 6.9% of the population carries an alpha-thalassaemia gene, with a slight difference between the various provinces. These are among the highest frequencies of thalassaemia genes found in a Caucasian population today. A survey of hospital inpatients and outpatients showed a newborn incidence of homozygous beta-thalassaemia of 1 in 300. The reasons for the difference between the expected and observed incidence figures are discussed. Moreover, 3 subjects with deltabeta0-thalassaemia trait, 6 carriers of heterocellular persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH), 1 sickle cell trait, and 3 subjects with Hb J Sardegna were found. Genetic heterogeneity of beta-thalassaemia syndromes in this population may generally result from interaction of alpha- and beta-thalassaemia genes. PMID:745215

  9. Heterozygous beta-thalassaemia with normal haemoglobin pattern. Haematologic, haemoglobin and biosynthesis study of 4 families.

    PubMed

    Silvestroni, E; Bianco, I; Graziani, B; Carboni, C

    1978-01-01

    Thalassaemia with normal levels of Hb A2 and Hb F and with an alpha/beta ratio higher than 1 is described in 4 families. 3 of these families show direct or indirect signs of the presence of the delta-thalassaemia gene along with the beta-thalassaemia gene. The fourth family leaves the question as to whether there is a single mutation of the deltabeta tract or a beta + delta-thalassaemia in coupling unanswered. The necessity of knowing of the existence of this thalassaemia which conceals the presence of a beta-thalassaemia gene, is stressed, above all in view of the danger that mating between a carrier of this thalassaemia and a carrier of classical beta-thalassaemia could result in the birth of children with Cooley's disease. PMID:97891

  10. delta beta-Thalassaemia in Sicily: report of a case of double heterozygosity for A gamma delta beta-thalassaemia and A gamma G gamma delta beta-thalassaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, S; Romeo, M A; Pizzarelli, G; Schilirò, G; Russo, G

    1983-01-01

    A case of double heterozygosity for A gamma delta beta-thalassaemia and A gamma G gamma delta beta-thalassaemia was found during a screening programme in Sicily. The proband, a 4-year-old girl, showed a clinical picture of thalassaemia intermedia. Hb F (85.12% by the Singer method) was G gamma A gamma type. The parents and the brother were delta beta-thalassaemia carriers. Structural analysis of Hb F showed both G gamma and A gamma chains in the father, but only A gamma chains in the mother. Images PMID:6188831

  11. [Clinical management of beta-thalassaemia].

    PubMed

    Thuret, Isabelle

    2014-10-01

    Beta-thalassemia syndromes are autosomal recessive disorders related to the inability to produce beta-globin chains. Thalassemia major is by definition a transfusion dependent anemia and iron overload is the leading cause of death and morbidity. Beta-thalassemia is rarely encountered in France where patients mainly originated from Mediterranean countries and South East Asia. Recently, two major advances have substantially improved the disease management: oral iron chelation therapy and the introduction of cardiac MRI for monitoring cardiac iron. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains, in clinical practice, the only curative approach and is proposed to children having an HLA-identical sibling. Diagnosis of thalassemia trait is important in order to propose genetic counseling to couples at risk. Thalassemia intermedia is a clinical entity where anemia is mild or moderate, requiring no or occasional transfusion. Clinical severity increases with age with a more severe anemia, thrombotic complications and extra-medullary hematopoiesis. Iron overload, optimally monitored with liver MRI, occurs in adult patients and is related to increased iron hyper-absorption. PMID:25510144

  12. Sperm concentrations and quality in beta-thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Jensen, C E; Abdel-Gadir, A; Cox, C; Tuck, S M; Wonke, B

    1996-12-01

    We report semen analyses in eight patients with beta-thalassaemia major, with poor results in all but the youngest. The causation is multi-factorial, with iron deposition in the pituitary gland resulting from life-long dependence on blood transfusions being a major factor. We speculate on other contributing causes, but further research is required to elucidate these. Improving haematological care means that these men are increasingly surviving to adult life. Relevant techniques to enable them to achieve their desire for fatherhood are considered. PMID:9051422

  13. Psychosocial functioning in adults with beta-thalassaemia major: evidence for resilience.

    PubMed

    Zani, Bruna; Prati, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    Our aims were to compare the psychosocial functioning of a sample of adults with beta-thalassaemia major to that of a control sample and to examine the protective role of quality of relationship with parents during adolescence and perceived quality of care. A total of 85 Italian beta-thalassaemia major participants and 73 controls completed an ad hoc questionnaire. Compared with controls, beta-thalassaemia major participants did not differ on relationships with significant others and coping strategies. Beta-thalassaemia major participants reported higher scores on job satisfaction, self-esteem and self-description. The relationship with parents during adolescence and the perceived quality of care significantly predicted higher well-being and psychosocial functioning. PMID:24058126

  14. Psychosocial burden of beta-thalassaemia major in Antalya, south Turkey.

    PubMed

    Canatan, Duran; Ratip, Siret; Kaptan, Saniye; Cosan, Rüya

    2003-02-01

    beta-thalassaemia is a recessively inherited blood disorder characterised by chronic anaemia. It requires monthly blood transfusions and regular iron chelation. Thousands of affected children are born annually and the magnitude of the problem is most severe in developing countries. Ninety-nine children and 32 adults with thalassaemia major, and 112 parents of patients were interviewed in Antalya, south Turkey, using specifically designed questionnaires to evaluate psychosocial burden. The education of most of the thalassaemic children of school age (60%) was affected, mainly due to having to attend hospital for investigation and transfusions. A high level of parental anxiety (82%) was reported. Nearly half of the families (47%) had employment and financial problems as a result of thalassaemia, yet there was a low level of marital breakdown (1.8%). A substantial majority (93%) of the parental couples would have chosen to terminate an affected pregnancy if they had known that the foetus had thalassaemia major. The results reflect the need for a national policy for public education and screening of thalassaemia in Turkey in order to offer prenatal diagnosis for all families at risk of homozygous thalassaemia. PMID:12560014

  15. Effect of heterozygous ?-thalassaemia trait on coronary atherosclerosis via coronary artery disease risk factors: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, M; Shirzadi, E; Talaei, Z; Moghadas, L; Shaygannia, I; Yavari, M; Amiri, N; Taheri, H; Montazeri, H; Shamsolkottabi, H

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background Thalassaemia is considered the most common genetic disorder worldwide. An association between the heterozygous ?-thalassaemia trait and myocardial infarction has previously been observed. However, the relationship between heterozygous ?-thalassaemia and atherosclerosis, considering other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors, has remained unclear. Methods A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the hypothesis that thalassaemia minor affects the likelihood of atherosclerotic plaque formation. Blood counts and blood chemistry data as well as traditional risk factors from 1 363 patients referred to heart centres for coronary angiography were recorded. Heterozygous ?-thalassaemia was diagnosed by the presence of hypochoromic-microcytic anaemia, ferritin levels > 12 ng/ml and haemoglobin-A2 levels > 3.5. Results Chi-squared analysis showed that the prevalence of heterozygous ?-thalassaemia was not significantly different between patients with and without CAD (p > 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis using CAD as the dependent variable and traditional risk factors, haematocrit, ferritin levels and heterozygous ?-thalassaemia as independent variables, did not show any significant difference either. Independent two-tailed students t-tests showed that haematocrit levels were statistically different (p = 0.000) between CAD+ and CAD? groups, but low-density lipids (LDL), high-density lipids (HDL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol and serum ferritin levels were not statistically different (p > 0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of heterozygous ?-thalassaemia in the case group was not significantly different from the control group. This case-control study did not support the hypothesis that thalassaemia minor affects the likelihood of atherosclerotic plaque formation. PMID:17612748

  16. Neutrophil chemotaxis in sickle cell anaemia, sickle cell beta zero thalassaemia, and after splenectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Donadi, E A; Falcão, R P

    1987-01-01

    Neutrophil chemotaxis was evaluated in 28 patients with sickle cell anaemia, 10 patient with sickle cell beta zero thalassaemia, 25 patients who had undergone splenectomy, and 38 controls. The mean distance migrated by patients' neutrophils was not significantly different from that of neutrophils from controls. Although several immunological variables have been reported to be changed after loss of splenic function, we were unable to show a defect in neutrophil chemotaxis that could account for the increased susceptibility to infection. PMID:3611395

  17. A national register for surveillance of inherited disorders: beta thalassaemia in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Modell, B.; Khan, M.; Darlison, M.; King, A.; Layton, M.; Old, J.; Petrou, M.; Varnavides, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the value of a national register for surveillance of services for an inherited disorder. METHODS: Data from the United Kingdom Thalassaemia Register and the United Kingdom Register of Prenatal Diagnosis for Haemoglobin Disorders were combined in a database; these registers include all fetuses known to have been diagnosed with beta thalassaemia major, beta thalassaemia intermedia, or haemoglobin E/beta thalassaemia in the United Kingdom. Data were extracted to show outcomes (selective abortion or live birth) of all fetuses and the status of those born with a disorder (alive, dead, successful bone marrow transplant, or lost to follow-up) by parents' region of residence and ethnicity. FINDINGS: At the end of 1999 the register included 1074 patients, 807 of whom were alive and residing in the United Kingdom. A successful bone marrow transplant has been performed for 117 out of 581 (20%) patients born since 1975. Residents of Pakistani origin are now the main group at risk in the United Kingdom, replacing residents of Cypriot origin. This has led to a marked shift in the need for services from the south-east of England to the Midlands and the north of England. Despite the acceptability of prenatal diagnosis, the proportion of affected births remains 50% higher than would be expected, reflecting a widespread failure to deliver timely screening and counselling to carriers. Even though effective treatment is available the annual number of deaths is rising, indicating that better tolerated treatments are needed. CONCLUSION: A national diagnosis register is a powerful instrument for monitoring the treatment and prevention of inherited disorders and for highlighting correctable shortcomings. In view of the increasing possibilities for genetic screening there is a strong case for central funding for such databases within modern health services. PMID:11731807

  18. The spectrum of beta thalassaemia mutations in the UAE national population.

    PubMed Central

    Quaife, R; al-Gazali, L; Abbes, S; Fitzgerald, P; Fitches, A; Valler, D; Old, J M

    1994-01-01

    The beta thalassaemia alleles in 50 beta thalassaemia heterozygotes originating from many parts of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have been characterised using the allele specific priming technique of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The IVSI-5 (G-->C) mutation was found to be present in 66%, while six other alleles occurred at the much lower frequencies of 2% to 8%. These were codon 8/9 (+G), IVSI-1, 3' end (-25 bp), codon 5 (-CT), IVSII-1 (G-->A), codon 30 (G-->C), and codon 15 (G-->A). The mutation types and percentages are compared with other Mediterranean Arab countries and neighbouring areas. It is proposed that IVSI-5 and other Asian Indian mutations were introduced into the UAE by population migration from the region previously known as Baluchistan. These findings should be useful for genetic counselling and the development of a first trimester prenatal diagnosis programme based on direct detection of mutations in the UAE. Images PMID:8151640

  19. The spectrum of beta thalassaemia mutations in the UAE national population.

    PubMed

    Quaife, R; al-Gazali, L; Abbes, S; Fitzgerald, P; Fitches, A; Valler, D; Old, J M

    1994-01-01

    The beta thalassaemia alleles in 50 beta thalassaemia heterozygotes originating from many parts of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have been characterised using the allele specific priming technique of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The IVSI-5 (G-->C) mutation was found to be present in 66%, while six other alleles occurred at the much lower frequencies of 2% to 8%. These were codon 8/9 (+G), IVSI-1, 3' end (-25 bp), codon 5 (-CT), IVSII-1 (G-->A), codon 30 (G-->C), and codon 15 (G-->A). The mutation types and percentages are compared with other Mediterranean Arab countries and neighbouring areas. It is proposed that IVSI-5 and other Asian Indian mutations were introduced into the UAE by population migration from the region previously known as Baluchistan. These findings should be useful for genetic counselling and the development of a first trimester prenatal diagnosis programme based on direct detection of mutations in the UAE. PMID:8151640

  20. Increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities in beta 0-thalassaemia/haemoglobin E and in haemoglobin H diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Yenchitsomanus, P; Wasi, P

    1983-01-01

    Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were measured in 45 subjects, 15 each of beta 0-thalassaemia/haemoglobin (Hb) E disease, Hb H disease, and normal. The erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher in the patients with beta 0-thalassaemia/Hb E and Hb H diseases than in the normal subjects. The increase of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities is most likely due to abnormalities specific to thalassaemic red cells rather than an increased number of younger red cells for reticulocytes and nucleated red blood cells did not affect the enzyme activity. Patients with beta 0-thalassaemia/Hb E disease with lower haemoglobin concentration had significantly higher superoxide dismutase activities. In all 45 subjects haemoglobin concentrations and superoxide dismutase activities were inversely correlated (r = -0.60 (p less than 0.001)). This indicates that the amounts of superoxide generated in the red cells may, at least partly, determine severity of red cell damage and thus severity of disease; the increased superoxide dismutase activity in thalassaemia is a response to superoxide generated in greater amounts because of accumulation of excessive globin chains and iron in the red cells. The superoxide dismutase activities in Hb H disease, an alpha-thalassaemic disease, were found to be strikingly increased, higher than in beta 0-thalassaemic disease or other conditions. PMID:6826781

  1. Membrane-bound iron contributes to oxidative damage of beta-thalassaemia intermedia erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tavazzi, D; Duca, L; Graziadei, G; Comino, A; Fiorelli, G; Cappellini, M D

    2001-01-01

    Iron-dependent oxidative reactions in beta-thalassaemic erythrocyte membranes are involved in premature cell removal and anaemia. We studied 22 beta-thalassaemia intermedia patients (i) to assess if membrane iron accumulation influences the oxidative damage to thalassaemic cells, and (ii) to see whether the mechanisms of haemoglobin destabilization described in vitro have indicators in circulating erythrocytes. Serum non-transferrin-bound iron as potentially toxic iron for erythrocytes was also evaluated. Membrane-bound free iron significantly correlated to bound haemichromes, suggesting a causal relation, but was poorly related to serum non-transferrin iron, which seems to contribute little to damage from outside the cells. The spleen played an important role in the removal of cells with more membrane iron. PMID:11167782

  2. Alteration of T Cell Subtypes in Beta-Thalassaemia Major: Impact of Ferritin Level

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Leila; Beshkar, Pezhman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative damage and regular antigenic stimulation are main factors in accelerating immunosenescence. The present study was conducted to investigate new concepts of early immunosenescence in thalassaemia patients. Materials and Methods Twenty seven beta-thalassaemia major patients and a group of matched healthy volunteers aged 10-30 years in Shahrekord, Iran were recruited into the study. Ferritin level was determined and CD4 or CD8 T cells were analysed versus phenotyping markers, CD27, CD28, CD57 and CCR7, by flowcytometry. Data were analysed by Mann-Whitney and Spearman’s correlation coefficient test in SPSS 11.5. Results Absolute lymphocytosis and partial decrease in T cells were observed in the patients. CD4+CD57+ and CD4+CCR7- T cells were significantly higher, whereas CD8+CD27+ and CD8+CCR7+ T cells were partially higher in patients. A negative correlation was observed between ferritin level and number of CD8+CD27+ and CD8+CCR7+ T cells, whereas the correlation was positive between ferritin level and number of CD57+ T cells. Conclusion Moderate alteration of T cell repertoire and increase in CCR27-, CCR7-, and CD57+ T cells could reflect antigenic stimulation, decline in naïve T cells, and being closer to terminally differentiated cells. Effect of iron overload is potentially explained by positive correlation of blood transfusion and ferritin level with frequency of CD3+CD27- and that of ferritin with frequency of CD57+ T cells. PMID:27042462

  3. Complete recovery from paraparesis in spinal cord compression due to extramedullary haemopoiesis in beta-thalassaemia by emergency radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Ruo Redda, M G; Allis, S; Reali, A; Bartoncini, S; Roggero, S; Anglesio, S M; Piga, A

    2014-04-01

    Extramedullary haemopoiesis (EMH) is a complication commonly associated with beta-thalassaemia intermedia; it is frequently asymptomatic but can sometimes lead to symptomatic tumour-like masses. No guidelines or common consensus are available in literature regarding the different treatment strategies and only single cases have been reported. We describe a case of spinal cord compression due to intrathoracic EMH masses treated with combined radiotherapy and hydroxyurea. PMID:24754690

  4. Severe Hb S-beta zero-thalassaemia with a T----C substitution in the donor splice site of the first intron of the beta-globin gene.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Redondo, J M; Stoming, T A; Kutlar, F; Kutlar, A; McKie, V C; McKie, K M; Huisman, T H

    1989-01-01

    Through direct sequencing and dot-blot analyses with synthetic oligonucleotide probes of amplified DNA, a new nucleotide substitution was discovered in a Black teenager with severe Hb S-beta zero-thalassaemia. The substitution involved a T----C replacement at the second position of the donor splice site of the first intervening sequence of the beta-globin gene. The clinical and haematological observations made in Black subjects with Hb S-beta zero-thalassaemia, with different types of thalassaemia, suggest severe disease resembling sickle cell anaemia. Only an occasional patient had a milder clinical course, perhaps because of a greatly increased production of fetal haemoglobin. PMID:2917118

  5. alpha-Thalassaemia in Apulia: biosynthetic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Guanti, G; Lonoce, A; Pietrapertosa, A; Polimeno, G; Tannoia, N

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of haemoglobin chain synthesis was performed in 15 Apulian patients with Hb H disease and in their patients and offspring. The Apulian carriers of Hb H disease show a marked imbalance of alpha and beta chain synthesis (0.39 +/- 0.1) with variable clinical and haematological manifestations. However, we are dealing with an intermediate form similar to that described in Italians from other regions. A significant difference was found between the mean alpha/beta ratio values (0.81 +/- 0.13) of parents and offspring of Hb H patients and those of the normal controls (1.05 +/- 0.09); however, extensive overlapping between these two groups exists. These results have led us to the conclusion that the forms of alpha-thalassaemia found in Apulia are similar to the alpha defects observed in Sicily; in both cases, in fact, haemoglobin chain synthesis was an unreliable test for discriminating between alpha-thalassaemia-1 trait and alpha-thalassaemia-2 trait. PMID:6876112

  6. Secondary diabetes in children with thalassaemia major (homozygous thalassaemia).

    PubMed

    Karahanyan, E; Stoyanova, A; Moumdzhiev, I; Ivanov, I

    1994-01-01

    Life expectancy of patients suffering from homozygous beta-thalassaemia has been improved due to the modern treatment of this disease. This has allowed development of late hemosiderosis-related complications and disturbances of the endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas. Carbohydrate metabolism of 16 patients with thalassaemia major was studied. Three of them presented with a pronounced clinical picture and biochemical constellations of a severe diabetes mellitus. The remainder had no clinical symptoms of carbohydrate metabolism disorders. The pancreatic beta-cell function of the patients was assessed by measuring the serum concentrations of immunoreactive insulin and by a glucose tolerance test. Most patients showed very low basal insulin levels while glucose tolerance was reduced in only one of them. In this patient we also established delayed insulin response after an intravenous glucose load. We concluded that the disturbed insulin secretion found in the children studied is most likely the earliest manifestation of the pancreatic beta-cell insufficiency which precedes the changes in the glucose tolerance. PMID:7867989

  7. Taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait Beta diversity in South American hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Ben G; Tinoco, Boris; Parra, Juan Luis; Brown, Leone M; McGuire, Jimmy A; Stiles, F Gary; Graham, Catherine H

    2014-08-01

    Comparison of the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait dimensions of beta diversity may uncover the mechanisms that generate and maintain biodiversity, such as geographic isolation, environmental filtering, and convergent adaptation. We developed an approach to predict the relationship between environmental and geographic distance and the dimensions of beta diversity. We tested these predictions using hummingbird assemblages in the northern Andes. We expected taxonomic beta diversity to result from recent geographic barriers limiting dispersal, and we found that cost distance, which includes barriers, was a better predictor than Euclidean distance. We expected phylogenetic beta diversity to result from historical connectivity and found that differences in elevation were the best predictors of phylogenetic beta diversity. We expected high trait beta diversity to result from local adaptation to differing environments and found that differences in elevation were correlated with trait beta diversity. When combining beta diversity dimensions, we observe that high beta diversity in all dimensions results from adaption to different environments between isolated assemblages. Comparisons with high taxonomic, low phylogenetic, and low trait beta diversity occurred among lowland assemblages separated by the Andes, suggesting that geographic barriers have recently isolated lineages in similar environments. We provide insight into mechanisms governing hummingbird biodiversity patterns and provide a framework that is broadly applicable to other taxonomic groups. PMID:25058281

  8. Incidental Identification of Possible Delta-Beta Thalassemia Trait in a Family: A Rare Cause of Elevated Hb F.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B Vinodh; Choccalingam, Chidambharam; Samuel, Premila

    2016-03-01

    Delta-Beta thalassaemia is an unusual variant of thalassaemia with elevated level of foetal haemoglobin (HbF). The clinical presentation of delta-beta thalassaemia is mild in both heterozygote and homozygote cases. We hereby describe a rare cause of elevated Hb F in a father and his two daughters. A 52-year-old diabetic male patient, on evaluation of chromatogram of cation exchange HPLC for HbA1c, we incidentally identified elevated Hb F of approximately 20%. Haematological investigation of the patient revealed decreased haemoglobin, normal RBC, leucocyte and platelet count, decreased MCV and MCH. Red cell morphology showed predominantly normocytic normochromic cells with mild anisopoikilocytosis, few microcytes and hypochromic cells seen. His liver function test was normal. Haemoglobin variant analysis revealed decreased Hb A (79.4%), normal Hb A2 (2%) and increased Hb F (19.75%). A possible diagnosis of heterozygous δ β-thalassaemia was considered. Since most laboratories perform HbA1c by cation exchange HPLC method, a careful evaluation of the chromatogram yields useful information. In our case, the elevated Hb F in a father and further careful evaluation of clinical and haematological parameters in the family members made us to possibly think of rare disorders like heterozygous Delta-Beta thalassaemia in the family and provide valuable genetic counseling. PMID:27134860

  9. Incidental Identification of Possible Delta-Beta Thalassemia Trait in a Family: A Rare Cause of Elevated Hb F.

    PubMed Central

    Choccalingam, Chidambharam; Samuel, Premila

    2016-01-01

    Delta-Beta thalassaemia is an unusual variant of thalassaemia with elevated level of foetal haemoglobin (HbF). The clinical presentation of delta-beta thalassaemia is mild in both heterozygote and homozygote cases. We hereby describe a rare cause of elevated Hb F in a father and his two daughters. A 52-year-old diabetic male patient, on evaluation of chromatogram of cation exchange HPLC for HbA1c, we incidentally identified elevated Hb F of approximately 20%. Haematological investigation of the patient revealed decreased haemoglobin, normal RBC, leucocyte and platelet count, decreased MCV and MCH. Red cell morphology showed predominantly normocytic normochromic cells with mild anisopoikilocytosis, few microcytes and hypochromic cells seen. His liver function test was normal. Haemoglobin variant analysis revealed decreased Hb A (79.4%), normal Hb A2 (2%) and increased Hb F (19.75%). A possible diagnosis of heterozygous δ β-thalassaemia was considered. Since most laboratories perform HbA1c by cation exchange HPLC method, a careful evaluation of the chromatogram yields useful information. In our case, the elevated Hb F in a father and further careful evaluation of clinical and haematological parameters in the family members made us to possibly think of rare disorders like heterozygous Delta-Beta thalassaemia in the family and provide valuable genetic counseling. PMID:27134860

  10. Running up the scale: From plant traits to beta diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landscape ecologists often consider a hierarchy of scales, from individual species to communities to landscapes. Beta diversity can anchor a conceptual framework linking major concepts in ecology, building from plant physiological and structural traits that determine the fundamental niche, through c...

  11. Alpha thalassaemia in British people.

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, D R; Ayyub, H; Clegg, J B; Hill, A V; Nicholls, R D; Teal, H; Wainscoat, J S; Weatherall, D J

    1985-01-01

    Although alpha thalassaemia is rare in north Europeans, it has been identified in British people with no known foreign ancestry. Twelve such patients were studied, of whom eight shared a distinctive molecular defect, which was clearly different from defects seen in subjects of Mediterranean or South East Asian origin. A rare but specific form of alpha thalassaemia is therefore present in the British population. In addition, two patients from families of mixed racial origin were encountered who had a moderately severe form of thalassaemia (HbH disease) due to the inheritance of one form of alpha thalassaemia from the British parent and another type from the foreign parent. This shows the importance of careful genetic counselling of British patients with haematological findings of thalassaemia. Images FIG 3 PMID:2986751

  12. A two-layered classifier based on the radial basis function for the screening of thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Masala, G L; Golosio, B; Cutzu, R; Pola, R

    2013-11-01

    The thalassaemias are blood disorders with hereditary transmission. Their distribution is global, with particular incidence in areas affected by malaria. Their diagnosis is mainly based on haematologic and genetic analyses. The aim of this study was to differentiate between persons with the thalassaemia trait and normal subjects by inspecting characteristics of haemochromocytometric data. The paper proposes an original method that is useful in screening activity for thalassaemia classification. A complete working system with a friendly graphical user interface is presented. A unique feature of the presented work is the adoption of a two-layered classification system based on Radial basis function, which improves the performance of the system. PMID:24209918

  13. Distribution of Alpha Thalassaemia Gene Variants in Diverse Ethnic Populations in Malaysia: Data from the Institute for Medical Research

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Rahimah; Saleem, Mohamed; Aloysious, Nisha Sabrina; Yelumalai, Punithawathy; Mohamed, Nurul; Hassan, Syahzuwan

    2013-01-01

    Alpha thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the plural society of Malaysia and is a public health problem. Haematological and molecular data from 5016 unrelated patients referred from various hospitals to the Institute for Medical Research for α thalassaemia screening from 2007 to 2010 were retrieved. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to describe the distribution of various alpha thalassaemia alleles in different ethnic groups, along with their genotypic interactions, and to illustrate the haematological changes associated with each phenotype. Amongst the patients, 51.2% (n = 2567) were diagnosed with α thalassaemia. Of the 13 α thalassaemia determinants screened, eight different deletions and mutations were demonstrated: three double gene deletions, – – SEA, – – THAI, ––FIL; two single-gene deletions, α–3.7 and – α4.2; and three non-deletion mutations, Cd59G > A (haemoglobin [Hb] Adana), Cd125T > C (Hb Quong Sze) and Cd142 (Hb Constant Spring). A high incidence of α–3.7 deletion was observed in Malays, Indians, Sabahans, Sarawakians and Orang Asli people. However, the – – SEA deletion was the most common cause of alpha thalassaemia in Chinese, followed by the α–3.7 deletion. As many as 27 genotypic interactions showed 1023 α thalassaemia silent carriers, 196 homozygous α+ thalassaemia traits, 973 heterozygous α0 thalassaemia carriers and 375 patients with Hb H disease. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the distribution of α thalassaemia determinants amongst the various ethnic groups. Hence, the heterogeneous distribution of common determinants indicated that the introduction of an ethnicity-targeted hierarchical α thalassaemia screening approach in this multi-ethnic Malaysian population would be effective. PMID:24025420

  14. Beta Thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... chromosomes 11 ß_ A person with beta thalassemia trait has one abnormal beta globin gene To understand ... one abnormal beta globin gene have beta thalassemia trait (also known as beta thalassemia minor). BETA THALASSEMIA ...

  15. Molecular characterization of ?- and ?-thalassaemia among Malay patients.

    PubMed

    Yatim, Nur Fatihah Mohd; Rahim, Masitah Abd; Menon, Kavitha; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Ahmad, Rahimah; Manocha, Anita Bhajan; Saleem, Mohamed; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Both ?- and ?-thalassaemia syndromes are public health problems in the multi-ethnic population of Malaysia. To molecularly characterise the ?- and ?-thalassaemia deletions and mutations among Malays from Penang, Gap-PCR and multiplexed amplification refractory mutation systems were used to study 13 ?-thalassaemia determinants and 20 ?-thalassaemia mutations in 28 and 40 unrelated Malays, respectively. Four ?-thalassaemia deletions and mutations were demonstrated. --SEA deletion and ?CS? accounted for more than 70% of the ?-thalassaemia alleles. Out of the 20 ?-thalassaemia alleles studied, nine different ?-thalassaemia mutations were identified of which ?E accounted for more than 40%. We concluded that the highest prevalence of (?- and ?-thalassaemia alleles in the Malays from Penang are --SEA deletion and ?E mutation, respectively. PMID:24857915

  16. Observations on the high foetal haemoglobin gene and its interaction with the thalassaemia gene

    PubMed Central

    Barkhan, P.; Adinolfi, M.

    1962-01-01

    A family of mixed Indian-Portuguese ancestry is reported in which there is a hereditary persistence of foetal haemoglobin and β-chain thalassaemia. The propositus, a 17-year-old boy, was found to have a mild haemolytic anaemia characterized by slight splenomegaly, microcytosis, numerous target cells, decreased osmotic fragility, a very high level of foetal haemoglobin (75%), and normal haemoglobin A2 level. Examination of 12 other members of the family showed the following: Three individuals (father, sister, and nephew) had high levels of foetal haemoglobin (25%) but without other clinical or haematological abnormalities. Two individuals (mother and sister) had the features of thalassaemia trait with increased haemoglobin A2 and normal levels of foetal haemoglobin. The condition in the propositus appears to be the result of heterozygosity for a gene which is responsible for the hereditary persistence of foetal haemoglobin (high F gene) combined with heterozygosity for a β-thalassaemia gene and provides further evidence for allelism of these genes. The possible genetic basis for the high F state and β-chain thalassaemia is discussed. Images PMID:13865031

  17. Evaluation of nucleated red blood cell count by Sysmex XE-2100 in patients with thalassaemia or sickle cell anaemia and in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Buoro, Sabrina; Vavassori, Mauro; Pipitone, Silvia; Benegiamo, Anna; Lochis, Eleonora; Fumagalli, Sabina; Falanga, Anna; Marchetti, Marina; Crippa, Alberto; Ottomano, Cosimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Current haematology analysers have variable sensitivity and accuracy for counting nucleated red blood cells in samples with low values and in all those conditions characterised by altered sensitivity of red blood cells to the lysing process, such as in beta-thalassaemia or sickle-cell diseases and in neonates. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of the automated analyser XE-2100 at counting nucleated red blood cells in the above-mentioned three categories of subjects with potentially altered red blood cell lysis sensitivity and yet a need for accurate nucleated red blood cell counts. Materials and methods We measured nucleated red blood cell count by XE-2100 in peripheral blood samples of 187 subjects comprising 55 patients with beta-thalassaemia (40 major and 15 traits), 26 sickle-cell patients, 56 neonates and 50 normal subject. Results were compared with those obtained by optical microscopy. Agreement between average values of the two methods was estimated by means of Pearson’s correlation and bias analysis, whereas diagnostic accuracy was estimated by analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves. Results The comparison between the two methods showed a Pearson’s correlation of 0.99 (95% CI; 0.98–0.99; p<0.001) and bias of −0.61 (95% CI, −1.5–0.3). The area under the curve of the nucleated red blood cell count in all samples was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96–1.00; p<0.001). Sub-analysis revealed an area under curve of 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98–1.00; p<0.001) for patients with thalassaemia, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.85–1.00; p<0.001) for patients with sickle cell anaemia, and 1.00 (95% CI, 1.0–1.0) for neonates. Discussion XE-2100 has excellent performance for nucleated red blood cell counting, especially in critical populations such as patients with haemoglobinopathies and neonates. PMID:25761322

  18. Molecular Characterization of α- and β-Thalassaemia among Malay Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Yatim, Nur Fatihah; Abd. Rahim, Masitah; Menon, Kavitha; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Ahmad, Rahimah; Manocha, Anita Bhajan; Saleem, Mohamed; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Both α- and β-thalassaemia syndromes are public health problems in the multi-ethnic population of Malaysia. To molecularly characterise the α- and β-thalassaemia deletions and mutations among Malays from Penang, Gap-PCR and multiplexed amplification refractory mutation systems were used to study 13 α-thalassaemia determinants and 20 β-thalassaemia mutations in 28 and 40 unrelated Malays, respectively. Four α-thalassaemia deletions and mutations were demonstrated. −−SEA deletion and αCSα accounted for more than 70% of the α-thalassaemia alleles. Out of the 20 β-thalassaemia alleles studied, nine different β-thalassaemia mutations were identified of which βE accounted for more than 40%. We concluded that the highest prevalence of (α- and β-thalassaemia alleles in the Malays from Penang are −−SEA deletion and βE mutation, respectively. PMID:24857915

  19. The genetic basis of asymptomatic codon 8 frame-shift (HBB:c25_26delAA) β(0) -thalassaemia homozygotes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhihua; Luo, Hong-Yuan; Huang, Shengwen; Farrell, John J; Davis, Lance; Théberge, Roger; Benson, Katherine A; Riolueang, Suchada; Viprakasit, Vip; Al-Allawi, Nasir A S; Ünal, Sule; Gümrük, Fatma; Akar, Nejat; Başak, A Nazli; Osorio, Leonor; Badens, Catherine; Pissard, Serge; Joly, Philippe; Campbell, Andrew D; Gallagher, Patrick G; Steinberg, Martin H; Forget, Bernard G; Chui, David H K

    2016-03-01

    Two 21-year old dizygotic twin men of Iraqi descent were homozygous for HBB codon 8, deletion of two nucleotides (-AA) frame-shift β(0) -thalassaemia mutation (FSC8; HBB:c25_26delAA). Both were clinically well, had splenomegaly, and were never transfused. They had mild microcytic anaemia (Hb 120-130 g/l) and 98% of their haemoglobin was fetal haemoglobin (HbF). Both were carriers of Hph α-thalassaemia mutation. On the three major HbF quantitative trait loci (QTL), the twins were homozygous for G>A HBG2 Xmn1 site at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7482144, homozygous for 3-bp deletion HBS1L-MYB intergenic polymorphism (HMIP) at rs66650371, and heterozygous for the A>C BCL11A intron 2 polymorphism at rs766432. These findings were compared with those found in 22 other FSC8 homozygote patients: four presented with thalassaemia intermedia phenotype, and 18 were transfusion dependent. The inheritance of homozygosity for HMIP 3-bp deletion at rs66650371 and heterozygosity for Hph α-thalassaemia mutation was found in the twins and not found in any of the other 22 patients. Further studies are needed to uncover likely additional genetic variants that could contribute to the exceptionally high HbF levels and mild phenotype in these twins. PMID:26771086

  20. A highly cost effective method of mass screening for thalassaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Silvestroni, E; Bianco, I

    1983-01-01

    A simple, fast, and reliable two step procedure for the detection of non-alpha-thalassaemias in mass screening programmes is presented. Step 1 consists of a study of red cell morphology and a one tube red cell osmotic fragility tests. This step eliminates the non-thalassaemic samples; the rest are processed through step 2, consisting of determination of red cell indices and haemoglobin studies. Over the past seven years this procedure has been used at this centre in mass screening secondary school students in Latium. Blood samples from 289 763 students were examined, and 6838 cases of thalassaemia detected. It is estimated that 0.35 +/- 0.25% of subjects with thalassaemia escaped detection by this procedure. PMID:6403170

  1. A highly cost effective method of mass screening for thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Silvestroni, E; Bianco, I

    1983-03-26

    A simple, fast, and reliable two step procedure for the detection of non-alpha-thalassaemias in mass screening programmes is presented. Step 1 consists of a study of red cell morphology and a one tube red cell osmotic fragility tests. This step eliminates the non-thalassaemic samples; the rest are processed through step 2, consisting of determination of red cell indices and haemoglobin studies. Over the past seven years this procedure has been used at this centre in mass screening secondary school students in Latium. Blood samples from 289 763 students were examined, and 6838 cases of thalassaemia detected. It is estimated that 0.35 +/- 0.25% of subjects with thalassaemia escaped detection by this procedure. PMID:6403170

  2. Health related quality of life in Malaysian children with thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Adriana; Campbell, Michael J; Ibrahim, Hishamshah Mohd; Jones, Georgina L

    2006-01-01

    Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) studies on children with chronic illness such as thalassaemia are limited. We conducted the first study to investigate if children with thalassaemia have a lower quality of life in the four dimensions as measured using the PedsQL 4.0 generic Scale Score: physical, emotional, social and role (school) functioning compared to the healthy controls allowing for age, gender, ethnicity and household income. Methods The PedsQL 4.0 was administered to children receiving blood transfusions and treatments at Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia using PedsQL 4.0 generic Scale Score. Accordingly, the questionnaire was also administered to a control group of healthy school children. Socio-demographic data were also collected from patients and controls using an interview schedule designed for the study. Results Of the 96 thalassaemia patients approached, 78 gave consent to be interviewed giving a response rate of 81.3%. Out of 235 healthy controls approached, all agreed to participate giving a response rate of 100%. The mean age for the patients and schoolchildren is 11.9 and 13.2 years respectively. The age range for the patients and the schoolchildren is between 5 to 18 years and 7 to 18 years respectively. After controlling for age and demographic background, the thalassaemia patients reported having significantly lower quality of life than the healthy controls. Conclusion Thalassaemia has a negative impact on perceived physical, emotional, social and school functioning in thalassaemia patients which was also found to be worse than the children's healthy counterparts. Continuing support of free desferal from the Ministry of Health should be given to these patients. More understanding and support especially from health authorities, school authorities and the society is essential to enhance their quality of life. PMID:16813662

  3. Dysregulated arginine metabolism and cardiopulmonary dysfunction in patients with thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Claudia R; Kim, Hae-Young; Klings, Elizabeth S; Wood, John; Porter, John B; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Sweeters, Nancy; Olivieri, Nancy F; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Virzi, Lisa; Hassell, Kathryn; Taher, Ali; Neufeld, Ellis J; Thompson, Alexis A; Larkin, Sandra; Suh, Jung H; Vichinsky, Elliott P; Kuypers, Frans A

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) commonly develops in thalassaemia syndromes, but is poorly characterized. The goal of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the cardiopulmonary and biological profile of patients with thalassaemia at risk for PH. A case-control study of thalassaemia patients at high versus low PH-risk was performed. A single cross-sectional measurement for variables reflecting cardiopulmonary status and biological pathophysiology were obtained, including Doppler-echocardiography, 6-min-walk-test, Borg Dyspnoea Score, New York Heart Association functional class, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), chest-computerized tomography, pulmonary function testing and laboratory analyses targeting mechanisms of coagulation, inflammation, haemolysis, adhesion and the arginine-nitric oxide pathway. Twenty-seven thalassaemia patients were evaluated, 14 with an elevated tricuspid-regurgitant-jet-velocity (TRV) ≥ 2·5 m/s. Patients with increased TRV had a higher frequency of splenectomy, and significantly larger right atrial size, left atrial volume and left septal-wall thickness on echocardiography and/or MRI, with elevated biomarkers of abnormal coagulation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and arginase concentration, and lower arginine-bioavailability compared to low-risk patients. Arginase concentration correlated significantly to several echocardiography/MRI parameters of cardiovascular function in addition to global-arginine-bioavailability and biomarkers of haemolytic rate, including LDH, haemoglobin and bilirubin. Thalassaemia patients with a TRV ≥ 2·5 m/s have additional echocardiography and cardiac-MRI parameters suggestive of right and left-sided cardiac dysfunction. In addition, low arginine bioavailability may contribute to cardiopulmonary dysfunction in β-thalassaemia. PMID:25907665

  4. Public perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia: Influencing factors in a multi-racial population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Thalassaemia is a common public health problem in Malaysia and about 4.5 to 6% of the Malays and Chinese are carriers of this genetic disorder. The major forms of thalassaemia result in death in utero of affected foetuses (α-thalassaemia) or life-long blood transfusions for survival in β-thalassaemia. This study, the first nationwide population based survey of thalassaemia in Malaysia, aimed to determine differences in public awareness, perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia in the multi-racial population in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey of a representative sample of multi-racial Malaysians aged 18 years and above was conducted between July and December 2009. Results Of a total of 3723 responding households, 2846 (76.4%) have heard of thalassaemia. Mean knowledge score was 11.85 (SD ± 4.03), out of a maximum of 21, with higher scores indicating better knowledge. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in total knowledge score by age groups, education attainment, employment status, and average household income were observed. Although the majority expressed very positive attitudes toward screening for thalassaemia, only 13.6% of married participants interviewed have been screened for thalassaemia. The majority (63.4%) were unsupportive of selective termination of foetuses diagnosed with thalassaemia major. Conclusion Study shows that carrier and premarital screening programs for thalassaemia may be more effective and culturally acceptable in the reduction of pregnancies with thalassaemia major. The findings provide insights into culturally congruent educational interventions to reach out diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities to increase knowledge and cultivate positive attitudes toward prevention of thalassaemia. PMID:21447191

  5. Mineral Levels in Thalassaemia Major Patients Using Different Iron Chelators.

    PubMed

    Genc, Gizem Esra; Ozturk, Zeynep; Gumuslu, Saadet; Kupesiz, Alphan

    2016-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the levels of minerals in chronically transfused thalassaemic patients living in Antalya, Turkey and to determine mineral levels in groups using different iron chelators. Three iron chelators deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox have been used to remove iron from patients' tissues. There were contradictory results in the literature about minerals including selenium, zinc, copper, and magnesium in thalassaemia major patients. Blood samples from the 60 thalassaemia major patients (the deferoxamine group, n = 19; the deferiprone group, n = 20 and the deferasirox group, n = 21) and the controls (n = 20) were collected. Levels of selenium, zinc, copper, magnesium, and iron were measured, and all of them except iron showed no significant difference between the controls and the patients regardless of chelator type. Serum copper levels in the deferasirox group were lower than those in the control and deferoxamine groups, and serum magnesium levels in the deferasirox group were higher than those in the control, deferoxamine and deferiprone groups. Iron levels in the patient groups were higher than those in the control group, and iron levels showed a significant correlation with selenium and magnesium levels. Different values of minerals in thalassaemia major patients may be the result of different dietary intake, chelator type, or regional differences in where patients live. That is why minerals may be measured in thalassaemia major patients at intervals, and deficient minerals should be replaced. Being careful about levels of copper and magnesium in thalassaemia major patients using deferasirox seems to be beneficial. PMID:26179086

  6. Co-inheritance of compound heterozygous Hb Constant Spring and a single -alpha(3.7) gene deletion with heterozygous deltabeta thalassaemia: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Azma, Raja Zahratul; Othman, Ainoon; Azman, Norazlina; Alauddin, Hafiza; Ithnin, Azlin; Yusof, Nurasyikin; Razak, Noor Farisah; Sardi, Nor Hidayati; Hussin, Noor Hamidah

    2012-06-01

    Haemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS) mutation and single gene deletions are common underlying genetic abnormalities for alpha thalassaemias. Co-inheritance of deletional and non-deletional alpha (alpha) thalassaemias may result in various thalassaemia syndromes. Concomitant co-inheritance with beta (beta) and delta (delta) gene abnormalities would result in improved clinical phenotype. We report here a 33-year-old male patient who was admitted with dengue haemorrhagic fever, with a background history of Grave's disease, incidentally noted to have mild hypochromic microcytic red cell indices. Physical examination revealed no thalassaemic features or hepatosplenomegaly. His full blood picture showed hypochromic microcytic red cells with normal haemoglobin (Hb) level. Quantitation of Hb using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) revealed raised Hb F, normal Hb A2 and Hb A levels. There was also small peak of Hb CS noted in CE. H inclusions was negative. Kleihauer test was positive with heterocellular distribution of Hb F among the red cells. DNA analysis for alpha globin gene mutations showed a single -alpha(-3.7) deletion and Hb CS mutation. These findings were suggestive of compound heterozygosity of Hb CS and a single -alpha(-3.7) deletion with a concomitant heterozygous deltabeta thalassaemia. Co-inheritance of Hb CS and a single -alpha(-3.7) deletion is expected to result at the very least in a clinical phenotype similar to that of two alpha genes deletion. However we demonstrate here a phenotypic modification of alpha thalassemia presumptively as a result of co-inheritance with deltabeta chain abnormality as suggested by the high Hb F level. PMID:22870600

  7. Screening and genetic counseling for beta-thalassemia trait in a population unselected for interest: comparison of three counseling methods.

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, P T; Lipkin, M; Fisher, L

    1984-01-01

    We have assessed the effects of screening and genetic counseling for beta-thalassemia trait on knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in a prospective, controlled study of randomly selected adult members of a health maintenance organization. We report here that knowledge of manifestations and of inheritance of thalassemia, previously reported to be high immediately after counseling, were well maintained at 2 and 10 months following counseling. There was no detectable impairment of self-concept. Marital adjustment improved, and sexual activity increased significantly. Mood, assessed immediately before and after counseling, showed no undesirable changes. A patient-structured counseling method, designed to minimize negative psychological effects via discussion of feelings, was not superior to conventional and programmed methods, described in our previous reports, in terms of learning or attitude change. PMID:6731441

  8. The use of real-time PCR technique in the detection of novel protein 4.2 gene mutations that coexist with thalassaemia alpha in a single patient.

    PubMed

    Maciag, Monika; Adamowicz-Salach, Anna; Siwicka, Alicja; Spychalska, Justyna; Burzynska, Beata

    2009-10-01

    Alpha-thalassaemia is a very rare disease in Northern Europe in contrast to hereditary spherocytosis that is associated with red blood cell membrane defects. We report here alpha-thalassaemia case who was also found to bear the erythrocyte membrane protein 4.2 gene mutations. mRNA relative quantification of red cell membrane protein genes in a Polish patient with alpha-thalassaemia trait indicated EPB42 as the gene that could also be involved in anaemia pathogenesis. Sequencing revealed the presence of two novel mutations in the protein 4.2 gene: a G1701A genetic change that predicts an alanine to threonine at position 567 of the protein (A567T) and a T-->A substitution that is located at position +6 of the donor splice site of intron 2 (IVS2nt+6T>A). This is the sixth variant of the erythrocyte membrane protein 4.2 gene mutations identified outside the Japanese population. PMID:19508687

  9. Oxidative stress in β-thalassaemia and sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Voskou, S; Aslan, M; Fanis, P; Phylactides, M; Kleanthous, M

    2015-12-01

    Sickle cell disease and β-thalassaemia are inherited haemoglobinopathies resulting in structural and quantitative changes in the β-globin chain. These changes lead to instability of the generated haemoglobin or to globin chain imbalance, which in turn impact the oxidative environment both intracellularly and extracellularly. The ensuing oxidative stress and the inability of the body to adequately overcome it are, to a large extent, responsible for the pathophysiology of these diseases. This article provides an overview of the main players and control mechanisms involved in the establishment of oxidative stress in these haemoglobinopathies. PMID:26285072

  10. Oxidative stress in β-thalassaemia and sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Voskou, S.; Aslan, M.; Fanis, P.; Phylactides, M.; Kleanthous, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease and β-thalassaemia are inherited haemoglobinopathies resulting in structural and quantitative changes in the β-globin chain. These changes lead to instability of the generated haemoglobin or to globin chain imbalance, which in turn impact the oxidative environment both intracellularly and extracellularly. The ensuing oxidative stress and the inability of the body to adequately overcome it are, to a large extent, responsible for the pathophysiology of these diseases. This article provides an overview of the main players and control mechanisms involved in the establishment of oxidative stress in these haemoglobinopathies. PMID:26285072

  11. Beta event-related desynchronization as an index of individual differences in processing human facial expression: further investigations of autistic traits in typically developing adults

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Nicholas R.; Simpson, Andrew; Till, Amy; Simmons, Kelly; Puzzo, Ignazio

    2013-01-01

    The human mirror neuron system (hMNS) has been associated with various forms of social cognition and affective processing including vicarious experience. It has also been proposed that a faulty hMNS may underlie some of the deficits seen in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the present study we set out to investigate whether emotional facial expressions could modulate a putative EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) and if so, would this differ according to the individual level of autistic traits [high versus low Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score]. Participants were presented with 3 s films of actors opening and closing their hands (classic hMNS mu-suppression protocol) while simultaneously wearing happy, angry, or neutral expressions. Mu-suppression was measured in the alpha and low beta bands. The low AQ group displayed greater low beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) to both angry and neutral expressions. The high AQ group displayed greater low beta ERD to angry than to happy expressions. There was also significantly more low beta ERD to happy faces for the low than for the high AQ group. In conclusion, an interesting interaction between AQ group and emotional expression revealed that hMNS activation can be modulated by emotional facial expressions and that this is differentiated according to individual differences in the level of autistic traits. The EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) seems to be a sensitive measure of the variability in facial processing in typically developing individuals with high and low self-reported traits of autism. PMID:23630489

  12. Screening of thalassaemia carriers in intermediate school of Latium: results of four years' work.

    PubMed Central

    Silvestroni, E; Bianco, I; Graziani, B; Carboni, C; Valente, M; Lerone, M; D'Arca, S U

    1980-01-01

    From 1975 to 1979 the Rome Microcythaemia Centre carried out four health education campaigns and thalassaemia screenings among students of the intermediate schools throughout Latium, under the auspices and with the financial support of the Health Authorities of the Latium region. This project is aimed at avoiding reproduction by pairs of thalassaemia carriers and the birth of homozygous children. During the four campaigns 138 501 students were examined, that is, 70 to 76% of those enrolled. Of these 3343 were found to be thalassaemic. Thus the overall prevalence of thalassaemia in Latium is 2.41%, with minor fluctuations from one province to another and, above all, a slight, though definite, trend towards higher values in the southern part of Latium bordering on Campania. The screening was welcomed by the population and the thalassaemic families, there were no detectable negative side-effects, and it resulted in an increased awareness of the problem of the thalassaemias. PMID:7401125

  13. Screening of thalassaemia carriers in intermediate school of Latium: results of four years' work.

    PubMed

    Silvestroni, E; Bianco, I; Graziani, B; Carboni, C; Valente, M; Lerone, M; D'Arca, S U

    1980-06-01

    From 1975 to 1979 the Rome Microcythaemia Centre carried out four health education campaigns and thalassaemia screenings among students of the intermediate schools throughout Latium, under the auspices and with the financial support of the Health Authorities of the Latium region. This project is aimed at avoiding reproduction by pairs of thalassaemia carriers and the birth of homozygous children. During the four campaigns 138 501 students were examined, that is, 70 to 76% of those enrolled. Of these 3343 were found to be thalassaemic. Thus the overall prevalence of thalassaemia in Latium is 2.41%, with minor fluctuations from one province to another and, above all, a slight, though definite, trend towards higher values in the southern part of Latium bordering on Campania. The screening was welcomed by the population and the thalassaemic families, there were no detectable negative side-effects, and it resulted in an increased awareness of the problem of the thalassaemias. PMID:7401125

  14. Thalassaemia: a study on the perception of patients and family members.

    PubMed

    Wahab, I Abdul; Naznin, M; Nora, M Z; Suzanah, A R; Zulaiho, M; Faszrul, A R Aidl; Kamaruzaman, W S

    2011-10-01

    Marked improvement in the management of thalassaemia has not been matched by progress in psychosocial rehabilitation as thalassaemia continues to pose challenges to patients and their family members. Few studies have been carried out in Malaysia to look at such issues. This study is therefore to explore the concerns, beliefs and feelings about thalassaemia. It was conducted in the year 2009 over 7 months on "focus groups", in patients aged 8-22 years and parents attending Paediatric Clinic of Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital, Kuantan, Pahang. Results showed that concerns and adverse impact were related to lower grades in education, poor self-image, less chance of employment, marriage, financial burden and social integration. Compliance to subcutaneous iron chelator was poor. There were various concerns related to blood transfusion therapy. It is evident that thalassaemia greatly affects the psychosocial dimensions and a more structured long term psychosocial support is needed to improve quality of life of patients. PMID:22299552

  15. Alpha thalassaemia in Yemeni children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    el-Hazmi, M A; Warsy, A S

    1999-12-01

    Alpha thalassaemia frequently occurs in several of the Middle Eastern populations. This study was conducted on 26 sickle cell disease (SCD) patients from Yemen and 19 normal children (Hb AA) living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Blood samples were extracted by venepuncture, and haematological and biochemical parameters were estimated. DNA was extracted from the buffy coat and analysed for alpha-gene arrangement using Bam HI and Bgl II. The frequency of alpha-gene deletion in the total Yemeni group (26 SCD + 19 Hb AA) was 0.311 for one alpha-gene deletion (-alpha/alpha alpha) and 0.13 for two alpha-gene deletions (-alpha/-alpha). When separated on the basis of the Hb phenotype the alpha-gene deletion frequency was significantly higher (-alpha/alpha alpha = 0.346 and -alpha/-alpha = 0.231) in the SCD patients compared to the normal Hb AA group (-alpha/alpha alpha = 0.263 and -alpha/-alpha = 0). In the Hb AA group one child had triple alpha-gene arrangement (alpha alpha alpha/alpha alpha) giving an overall frequency of triple alpha-gene as 0.022. Haematological parameters showed variations in the SCD patients with and without alpha-gene deletion. This paper shows for the first time that alpha-gene deletion occurs in the Yemenis and the frequency is higher in patients with SCD. Further population-based studies are required to determine the exact frequency of the different types of alpha-thalassaemias in the overall Yemeni population. PMID:10667010

  16. Oxidative stress and inflammation in iron-overloaded patients with β-thalassaemia or sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Patrick B.; Fung, Ellen B.; Killilea, David W.; Jiang, Qing; Hudes, Mark; Madden, Jacqueline; Porter, John; Evans, Patricia; Vichinsky, Elliott; Harmatz, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Summary Blood transfusion therapy is life-saving for patients with β-thalassaemia and sickle cell disease (SCD), but often results in severe iron overload. This pilot study examined whether the biomarkers of tissue injury or inflammation differ in these two diseases. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly increased 1.8-fold in thalassaemia relative to control patients. In contrast, MDA in SCD was not significantly different from controls. In multivariate analysis, the strongest predictors of elevated MDA were liver iron concentration (P < 0.001) and specific diagnosis (P = 0.019). A significant 2-fold elevation of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) was observed in thalassaemia relative to SCD. NTBI was not a significant predictor of high MDA in multivariate analysis. SCD patients showed a significant 2.2-fold elevation of the inflammatory marker interleukin (IL)-6 relative to controls, and a 3.6- and 1.7-fold increase in IL-5 and IL-10 relative to thalassaemia. Although α-tocopherol was significantly decreased by at least 32% in both thalassaemia and SCD, indicating ongoing oxidant stress and antioxidant consumption, γ-tocopherol, a nitric oxide-selective antioxidant, was increased 36% in SCD relative to thalassaemia. These results demonstrate that thalassaemia patients have increased MDA and circulating NTBI relative to SCD patients and lower levels of some cytokines and γ-tocopherol. This supports the hypothesis that the biology of SCD may show increased inflammation and increased levels of protective antioxidants compared with thalassaemia. PMID:17010049

  17. Choosing offspring: prenatal genetic testing for thalassaemia and the production of a 'saviour sibling' in China.

    PubMed

    Sui, Suli; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2010-02-01

    This paper focuses on the pre-natal genetic testing and reproductive decision-making around thalassaemia in China. Findings are based on fieldwork conducted in hospitals and research institutions, interviews with families with thalassaemia-affected children, interviews with geneticists and genetic researchers and a literature review conducted between September and November 2007. The paper aims to provide insight into the ways in which those who carry thalassaemia decide to have a test for the condition and the choices available to prospective parents. The paper also analyses factors affecting reproductive choices and the decision to produce a 'saviour sibling', including financial implications, state family planning policy, images and information conveyed through the media and propaganda, advice and counselling from doctors, psychological pressure from the community and social discrimination. The paper concludes with a discussion on the issues involved in the creation of saviour siblings, some of which are particular to China. PMID:19499399

  18. Mutation screening for thalassaemia in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiyun; Zhang, Rong; Xiang, Guangxin; Li, Yang; Hou, Xuhong; Jiang, Fusong; Jiang, Feng; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to detect α- and β-thalassaemia mutations in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Design A total of 1613 Jino adults were continuously recruited from February 2012 to April 2012. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to determine haematological variables. Haemoglobin analysis was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography. Participants with hypochromic microcytic anaemia or positive haemoglobin analysis profiles were confirmed by α- and β-globin genetic testing, including DNA microarray analysis, direct sequencing methods and multiplex gap-PCR assays. Setting Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital. Results We found 363 suspected cases by primary screening of haematological variables and haemoglobin analysis. After further genetic testing, four types of α- and β-thalassaemia mutation were detected in 203 out of 363 individuals. Both α0- and α+-thalassaemia mutations, --SEA and -α3.7, were identified. β-Thalassaemia mutations included CD17 (HBB:c.52A>T) and CD26 (HbE or HBB:c.79G>A). In addition, 13 HbE carriers had coexisting α0- or α+-thalassaemia deletions. Clinical haematological variables indicated that, in this study, carriers of all thalassaemic genotypes had more severe hypochromic microcytic anaemia than non-thalassaemic individuals. Conclusions Our results provide information on the Jino ethnic minority that may be useful for further genetic counselling, prenatal screening and clinical diagnosis of thalassaemia in this region. PMID:26715484

  19. Comparative genomics approaches within Beta vulgaris to reveal loci relevant to root development and secondary metabolite storage traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development and patterning of Beta vulgaris root tissues is key to obtaining a good crop. This study aims to undertake a comparative systems biology approach for the study of root development, physiology, and storage characteristics within two B. vulgaris crop types, sugar beet and red beet. Generat...

  20. Thalassaemia in children: from quality of care to quality of life.

    PubMed

    Amid, Ali; Saliba, Antoine N; Taher, Ali T; Klaassen, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a remarkable improvement in the survival of patients with thalassaemia in developed countries. Availability of safe blood transfusions, effective and accessible iron chelating medications, the introduction of new and non-invasive methods of tissue iron assessment and other advances in multidisciplinary care of thalassaemia patients have all contributed to better outcomes. This, however, may not be true for patients who are born in countries where the resources are limited. Unfortunately, transfusion-transmitted infections are still major concerns in these countries where paradoxically thalassaemia is most common. Moreover, oral iron chelators and MRI for monitoring of iron status may not be widely accessible or affordable, which may result in poor compliance and suboptimal iron chelation. All of these limitations will lead to reduced survival and increased thalassaemia-related complications and subsequently will affect the patient's quality of life. In countries with limited resources, together with improvement of clinical care, strategies to control the disease burden, such as public education, screening programmes and appropriate counselling, should be put in place. Much can be done to improve the situation by developing partnerships between developed countries and those with limited resources. Future research should also particularly focus on patient's quality of life as an important outcome of care. PMID:26289062

  1. Molecular characteristic of alpha thalassaemia among patients diagnosed in UKM Medical Centre.

    PubMed

    Azma, Raja Zahratul; Ainoon, Othman; Hafiza, Alauddin; Azlin, Ithnin; Noor Farisah, Abudul Razak; Nor Hidayati, Sardi; Noor Hamidah, Hussin

    2014-04-01

    Alpha (?) thalassaemia is the most common inherited disorder in Malaysia. The clinical severity is dependant on the number of ? genes involved. Full blood count (FBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) analysis using either gel electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) are unable to detect definitively alpha thalassaemia carriers. Definitive diagnosis of ?-thalassaemias requires molecular analysis and methods of detecting both common deletional and non-deletional molecular abnormailities are easily performed in any laboratory involved in molecular diagnostics. We carried out a retrospective analysis of 1623 cases referred to our laboratory in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) for the diagnosis of ?-thalassaemia during the period October 2001 to December 2012. We examined the frequency of different types of alpha gene abnormalities and their haematologic features. Molecular diagnosis was made using a combination of multiplex polymerase reaction (PCR) and real time PCR to detect deletional and non-deletional alpha genes relevant to southeast Asian population. Genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of ?-thalassaemias in 736 cases. Majority of the cases were Chinese (53.1%) followed by Malays (44.2%), and Indians (2.7%). The most common gene abnormality was ??/--(SEA) (64.0%) followed by ??/-?(3.7) (19.8%), -?(3.7) /--(SEA) (6.9%), ??/??CS (3.0%), --(SEA)/--(SEA) (1.2%), -?(3.7)/-?(3.7) (1.1%), ??/-?(4.2) (0.7%), -?(4.2)/--(SEA (0.7%), -?(3.7)/-?(4.2) (0.5%), ??(CS)/-- SEA) (0.4%), ??(CS)/??(Cd59) (0.4%), ??(CS)/??(CS) (0.4%), -?(3.7)/??(Cd59) (0.3%), ??/??(Cd59) (0.1%), ??(Cd59)/ ??(IVS I-1) (0.1%), -?(3.7)/??(CS) (0.1%) and --(SEA) /??(Cd59) (0.1%). This data indicates that the molecular abnormalities of ?-thalassaemia in the Malaysian population is heterogenous. Although ?-gene deletion is the most common cause, non-deletional ?-gene abnormalities are not uncommon and at least 3 different mutations exist. Establishment of rapid and easy molecular techniques is important for definitive diagnosis of alpha thalassaemia, an important prerequisite for genetic counselling to prevent its deleterious complications. PMID:24763232

  2. Co-Incidence or Co-Existence? Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in HbE-alpha Thalassaemia: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Rithika; Rajendran, Aruna; Scott, Julius Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobin E (HbE) is a Haemoglobin variant that commonly occurs in many places in Asia. As ? thalassaemia and ? thalassaemia also occur in the same regions, the co-inheritance of these conditions leads to various phenotypic forms. HbE ? thalassaemia is less common and of a milder phenotype than HbE ? thalassaemia. Though malignancies are one of the complications in thalassaemia, occurrence of leukaemia is a rare event. Here we present a case of a two-year-old male child co-presenting with pre B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with MLL rearrangement and HbE alpha thalassaemia. The child is on remission 12 months post-therapy with standard ALL high risk protocol with no minimal residual disease (MRD). Haematological and oncological conditions coexisting at presentation is a challenge to therapy. This case is described for its rarity. Informed consent has been obtained from the parents. PMID:26672845

  3. Co-Incidence or Co-Existence? Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in HbE-alpha Thalassaemia: A Case Report with Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Rithika; Suman, Febe Renjitha; Rajendran, Aruna; Scott, Julius Xavier

    2015-11-01

    Haemoglobin E (HbE) is a Haemoglobin variant that commonly occurs in many places in Asia. As ? thalassaemia and ? thalassaemia also occur in the same regions, the co-inheritance of these conditions leads to various phenotypic forms. HbE ? thalassaemia is less common and of a milder phenotype than HbE ? thalassaemia. Though malignancies are one of the complications in thalassaemia, occurrence of leukaemia is a rare event. Here we present a case of a two-year-old male child co-presenting with pre B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with MLL rearrangement and HbE alpha thalassaemia. The child is on remission 12 months post-therapy with standard ALL high risk protocol with no minimal residual disease (MRD). Haematological and oncological conditions coexisting at presentation is a challenge to therapy. This case is described for its rarity. Informed consent has been obtained from the parents. PMID:26672845

  4. Erythrocyte Catalase Activity in More Frequent Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia: Beta-Thalassemia Trait and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Lazarte, Sandra Stella; Mónaco, María Eugenia; Jimenez, Cecilia Laura; Ledesma Achem, Miryam Emilse; Terán, Magdalena María; Issé, Blanca Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Most common microcytic hypochromic anemias are iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and β-thalassemia trait (BTT), in which oxidative stress (OxS) has an essential role. Catalase causes detoxification of H2O2 in cells, and it is an indispensable antioxidant enzyme. The study was designed to measure erythrocyte catalase activity (ECAT) in patients with IDA (10) or BTT (21), to relate it with thalassemia mutation type (β0 or β+) and to compare it with normal subjects (67). Ninety-eight individuals were analyzed since September 2013 to June 2014 in Tucumán, Argentina. Total blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis at alkaline pH, HbA2, catalase, and iron status were performed. β-thalassemic mutations were determined by real-time PCR. Normal range for ECAT was 70,0–130,0 MU/L. ECAT was increased in 14% (3/21) of BTT subjects and decreased in 40% (4/10) of those with IDA. No significant difference (p = 0,245) was shown between normal and BTT groups, while between IDA and normal groups the difference was proved to be significant (p = 0,000). In β0 and β+ groups, no significant difference (p = 0,359) was observed. An altered ECAT was detected in IDA and BTT. These results will help to clarify how the catalase activity works in these anemia types. PMID:26527217

  5. Erythrocyte Catalase Activity in More Frequent Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia: Beta-Thalassemia Trait and Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Lazarte, Sandra Stella; Mónaco, María Eugenia; Jimenez, Cecilia Laura; Ledesma Achem, Miryam Emilse; Terán, Magdalena María; Issé, Blanca Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Most common microcytic hypochromic anemias are iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and β-thalassemia trait (BTT), in which oxidative stress (OxS) has an essential role. Catalase causes detoxification of H2O2 in cells, and it is an indispensable antioxidant enzyme. The study was designed to measure erythrocyte catalase activity (ECAT) in patients with IDA (10) or BTT (21), to relate it with thalassemia mutation type (β (0) or β (+)) and to compare it with normal subjects (67). Ninety-eight individuals were analyzed since September 2013 to June 2014 in Tucumán, Argentina. Total blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis at alkaline pH, HbA2, catalase, and iron status were performed. β-thalassemic mutations were determined by real-time PCR. Normal range for ECAT was 70,0-130,0 MU/L. ECAT was increased in 14% (3/21) of BTT subjects and decreased in 40% (4/10) of those with IDA. No significant difference (p = 0,245) was shown between normal and BTT groups, while between IDA and normal groups the difference was proved to be significant (p = 0,000). In β (0) and β (+) groups, no significant difference (p = 0,359) was observed. An altered ECAT was detected in IDA and BTT. These results will help to clarify how the catalase activity works in these anemia types. PMID:26527217

  6. First premarital screening of thalassaemia carriers in intermediate schools in Latium.

    PubMed Central

    Silvestroni, E; Bianco, I; Graziani, B; Carboni, C; D'Arca, S U

    1978-01-01

    In the 1975 to 1976 school year, under the auspices of the Health Authorities of the Latium Region, the Rome Microcythaemia Centre carried out for the first time a partial screening survey of thalassaemia carriers among the students of the compulsory intermediate school in Latium. This work was the beginning of a new preventive school health service aimed at the prophylaxis of Cooley's disease. In 23 places investigated in Latium, 17724 students were examined, 13354 of whom were in Rome and 4370 elsewhere. The mean percentage of co-operation was 70% and the mean percentage of thalassaemia 2.42%. Thalassaemic students were invited to attend the centre for a check-up along with their families: about half had already come in by the end of June 1976. All students examined, whether normal or thalassaemic, have received written results of the tests. The screening survey aroused notable interest and obtained wide approval both at school and at home. The news of being thalassaemia carriers, even if not welcome, was never the cause of family tragedy. PMID:671484

  7. First premarital screening of thalassaemia carriers in intermediate schools in Latium.

    PubMed

    Silvestroni, E; Bianco, I; Graziani, B; Carboni, C; D'Arca, S U

    1978-06-01

    In the 1975 to 1976 school year, under the auspices of the Health Authorities of the Latium Region, the Rome Microcythaemia Centre carried out for the first time a partial screening survey of thalassaemia carriers among the students of the compulsory intermediate school in Latium. This work was the beginning of a new preventive school health service aimed at the prophylaxis of Cooley's disease. In 23 places investigated in Latium, 17724 students were examined, 13354 of whom were in Rome and 4370 elsewhere. The mean percentage of co-operation was 70% and the mean percentage of thalassaemia 2.42%. Thalassaemic students were invited to attend the centre for a check-up along with their families: about half had already come in by the end of June 1976. All students examined, whether normal or thalassaemic, have received written results of the tests. The screening survey aroused notable interest and obtained wide approval both at school and at home. The news of being thalassaemia carriers, even if not welcome, was never the cause of family tragedy. PMID:671484

  8. A novel gap-PCR with high resolution melting analysis for the detection of α-thalassaemia Southeast Asian and Filipino β0-thalassaemia deletion

    PubMed Central

    Leng Kho, Siew; Heng Chua, Kek; George, Elizabeth; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne

    2015-01-01

    Homozygosity for the α-thalassaemia Southeast Asian (α-SEA) and Filipino β0-thalassaemia (β-FIL) deletions can cause serious complications leading to foetal death or life-long blood transfusions. A rapid and accurate molecular detection assay is essential in populations where the deletions are common. In this study, gap-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed to detect both the large deletions. Melting curves at 86.9 ± 0.1 °C were generated by normal individuals without the α-SEA deletion, 84.7 ± 0.1 °C by homozygous α-SEA deletion individuals and two melting curves at 84.7 ± 0.1 °C and 86.9 ± 0.1 °C by α-SEA deletion carriers. Normal individuals without the β-FIL deletion produce amplicons with a melting temperature (Tm) at 74.6 ± 0.1 °C, homozygous β-FIL individuals produce amplicons with Tm at 73.6 ± 0.1 °C and heterozygous β-FIL individuals generate two amplicons with Tm at 73.6 ± 0.1 °C and 74.6 ± 0.1 °C. Evaluation using blinded tests on 220 DNA samples showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. The developed assays are sensitive and specific for rapid molecular and prenatal diagnosis for the α-SEA and β-FIL deletions. PMID:26365497

  9. A novel gap-PCR with high resolution melting analysis for the detection of α-thalassaemia Southeast Asian and Filipino β°-thalassaemia deletion.

    PubMed

    Kho, Siew Leng; Chua, Kek Heng; George, Elizabeth; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne

    2015-01-01

    Homozygosity for the α-thalassaemia Southeast Asian (α-SEA) and Filipino β°-thalassaemia (β-FIL) deletions can cause serious complications leading to foetal death or life-long blood transfusions. A rapid and accurate molecular detection assay is essential in populations where the deletions are common. In this study, gap-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed to detect both the large deletions. Melting curves at 86.9 ± 0.1 °C were generated by normal individuals without the α-SEA deletion, 84.7 ± 0.1 °C by homozygous α-SEA deletion individuals and two melting curves at 84.7 ± 0.1 °C and 86.9 ± 0.1 °C by α-SEA deletion carriers. Normal individuals without the β-FIL deletion produce amplicons with a melting temperature (Tm) at 74.6 ± 0.1 °C, homozygous β-FIL individuals produce amplicons with Tm at 73.6 ± 0.1 °C and heterozygous β-FIL individuals generate two amplicons with Tm at 73.6 ± 0.1 °C and 74.6 ± 0.1 °C. Evaluation using blinded tests on 220 DNA samples showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. The developed assays are sensitive and specific for rapid molecular and prenatal diagnosis for the α-SEA and β-FIL deletions. PMID:26365497

  10. Population genetics of haemoglobin variants, thalassaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, with particular reference to the malaria hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Siniscalco, M.; Bernini, L.; Filippi, G.; Latte, B.; Khan, P. Meera; Piomelli, S.; Rattazzi, M.

    1966-01-01

    The authors report data on the genetic distribution of thalassaemia and of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the populations of certain Sardinian villages, many of which are not only of great antiquity but have maintained isolation for very long periods and therefore possess the following three requirements for suitability for investigation of the possible interrelationships among malaria, thalassaemia and G-6-PD deficiency: a reasonable degree of ethnic homogeneity, availability of reliable demographic data, and availability of malaria-free populations of adequate size and of ethnic background and genetic isolation similar to those of the malarial populations. Investigations including more than 6000 observations in 52 villages demonstrated a positive correlation between the incidences of thalassaemia and G-6-PD deficiency. It is suggested that the genotype that carries thalassaemia and/or the enzyme deficiency may have a high adaptive value in a malarial environment. It is concluded that there is a need further to investigate human genetic structure and the biological fitness of the principal genotype combinations in both existing environments and those that will result from continued cultural evolution. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:5296398

  11. Differential gene expression analysis in early and late erythroid progenitor cells in β-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Forster, Luke; McCooke, John; Bellgard, Matthew; Joske, David; Finlayson, Jill; Ghassemifar, Reza

    2015-07-01

    β- thalassaemia is a disorder of globin gene synthesis resulting in reduced or absent production of the β-globin chain in red blood cells. In this study, haematopoietic stem cells were isolated from the peripheral blood of six transfusion dependent β-thalassaemia patients and six healthy controls. Following 7 and 14 d in culture, early- and late- erythroblasts were isolated and purified. No morphological difference in maturation was observed following 7 d in culture, while a delayed maturation was observed in the patient group after 14 d. Following RNA isolation and linear amplification, gene expression analyses were performed using microarray technology. The generated data were analysed by two methods: the BRB-ArrayTools platform and the Bioconductor platform using bead level data. Following 7 d culture, there was no difference in gene expression between the control and patient groups. Following 14 d culture, 384 differentially expressed genes were identified by either analysis. A subset of 90 genes was selected and the results were confirmed by Quantitative-Real-Time-polymerase chain reaction. Pathways shown to be significantly altered in the patient group include apoptosis, MAPKinase and the nuclear factor-κB pathway. PMID:25892530

  12. Antibodies reacting with Simian Virus 40 mimotopes in serum samples from patients with thalassaemia major

    PubMed Central

    Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Mazzoni, Elisa; Felletti, Marcella; Turlà, Giuliana; Malaventura, Cristina; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Cianciulli, Paolo; Forni, Gian Luca; Corallini, Alfredo; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Background Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a small DNA tumour virus. Footprints of the virus have been detected in different humam lymphoproliferative disorders and in blood specimens of blood from healthy blood donors. This study was carried out to verify whether SV40 antibodies can be detected in serum samples from multiply transfused patients with thalassaemia major. Materials and methods An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed, using SV40 specific synthetic peptides mimicking the antigens of the viral capsid proteins 1-2-3, to test for the presence of antibodies to SV40 in serum samples taken from patients affected by transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major (n=190) and healthy blood donors (n=251). Results The prevalence of antibodies against SV40 was higher in patients than in controls (24% vs 17%). The prevalence increased and was significantly higher in the older age group of patients affected by thalassemia major than in controls (38% vs 20%, p<0.04). Discussion The higher prevalence of serum antibodies against simian virus 40 in older, multiply transfused patients with thalassamia major than in controls suggests that this virus, or a closely related yet unknown human polyomavirus, could have been transmitted in the past by transfusion with whole blood. At the same time, our data indicate no significant differences in prevalence of SV40 antibodies in patients and controls of younger age thus suggesting that current transfusion methods with leucodepletion and filtered red cells are safe. PMID:24887224

  13. Skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue cephalometric measurements of Malay transfusion-dependent thalassaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Toman, Heba Ahmed; Nasir, Ariffin; Hassan, Rosline; Hassan, Rozita

    2011-12-01

    Thalassaemia is a public health problem in Malaysia. It is known to cause skeletal deformity. The purpose of this study was to compare the skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue features of Malay transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (TDT) patients with a Malay control group. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 30 Malay (14 males and 16 females aged 6.4-21.8 years) TDT patients and 60 normal Malays matched for chronological age and gender were analysed and compared using an independent t-test. The TDT group showed a similar sagittal relationship to the control group but with a significantly increased (P < 0.01) mandibular plane inclination. They also showed a significantly shorter (P ≤ 0.001) mandibular body, ramus length, and posterior face height and consequently a smaller ratio of posterior to anterior face height (P < 0.01). The upper and lower lips were significantly procumbent (P < 0.001) in the TDT group together with a significantly smaller nasolabial angle (P < 0.05). Dentoalveolar measurements showed less proclined maxillary teeth in the TDT group compared with the controls (P < 0.05). The cephalometric features of Malay TDT patients were characterized by a mild Class II skeletal pattern, prominent vertical growth direction of the mandible, and protruded upper and lower lips. PMID:21282284

  14. Attitudes towards prenatal diagnosis and abortion in a multi-ethnic country: a survey among parents of children with thalassaemia major in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ngim, Chin Fang; Lai, Nai Ming; Ibrahim, Hishamshah; Ratnasingam, Vanassa

    2013-04-01

    Thalassaemia is a public health problem in multi-ethnic Malaysia which mainly affects the Malays, Kadazan-Dusuns and Chinese. This study, the first in Malaysia, aims to evaluate the acceptability of prenatal diagnosis and abortion among Malaysian parents who have a child or children with thalassaemia major and the socio-demographic factors affecting their decision-making. A pre-structured questionnaire was distributed to parents of children with thalassaemia major. Response rate for completed surveys was 99.1 %. Out of 116 respondents, the majority (83/71.6 %) were agreeable for prenatal diagnosis, but only 33 (28.4 %) agreed to both prenatal diagnosis followed by termination of affected foetuses. Of parents who declined abortion, 77.6 % cited religious restriction as the main reason, and their religious background was a significant factor (p = 0.001), with 73.4 % of Muslim participants against termination compared to 25 % of Christians and 13.3 % of Buddhists. Gender, age, highest education level and number of children affected with thalassaemia were non-significant predictors in decision-making regarding abortion. The acceptance rate for termination of foetuses with thalassaemia major in Malaysia is low especially among the Muslims due to religious non-permissibility. Therefore, scholarly deliberations among the Malaysian Muslim religious authorities that result in a supportive stance in this issue may contribute to a more successful prevention programme. PMID:23296641

  15. Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Expectation Questionnaire for Thalassaemia Major Patients.

    PubMed

    Koutelekos, Ioannis G; Kyritsi, Helen; Makis, Alexandros; Vassalos, Constantine M; Ktenas, Eftychios; Polikandrioti, Maria; Tzoumaka-Bakoula, Chryssa; Chaliasos, Nikolaos

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays, thalassaemia major (TM) patients are surviving into mature young adulthood; however, no published instrument exists to measure the expectations' dimensionality among older TM patients in their thirties. This study seeks to validate a novel multidimensional expectation questionnaire suitable for TM patients (MEQ-TMP) reaching their fourth decade of life. In order to establish the psychometric properties of the instrument, data analysis was carried out. The principal component analysis revealed four components ('Supportive social network'; 'Raising one's own family'; 'Career advancement'; 'Ability of daily activities'). Their cumulative contribution rate was 66.32%. Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.87. Each subscale had an alpha value above 0.70; three subscales were in the 0.80 range. MEQ-TMP reliability was proved to be good. The known-group method served as a strategy in examining the operationalisation of the questionnaire's constructs. The present MEQ-TMP, developed for the aged group of TM patients, would be a useful tool for clinical personnel providing care to TM patients in understanding their outlook on life as they are growing up, to have better psychosocial adjustment to illness chronicity, live life as normally as possible, and fulfill their ambitions; thus enhancing their life satisfaction and quality of life. PMID:26383219

  16. Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Expectation Questionnaire for Thalassaemia Major Patients

    PubMed Central

    Koutelekos, Ioannis G.; Kyritsi, Helen; Makis, Alexandros; Vassalos, Constantine M; Ktenas, Eftychios; Polikandrioti, Maria; Tzoumaka-Bakoula, Chryssa; Chaliasos, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, thalassaemia major (TM) patients are surviving into mature young adulthood; however, no published instrument exists to measure the expectations’ dimensionality among older TM patients in their thirties. This study seeks to validate a novel multidimensional expectation questionnaire suitable for TM patients (MEQ-TMP) reaching their fourth decade of life. In order to establish the psychometric properties of the instrument, data analysis was carried out. The principal component analysis revealed four components (‘Supportive social network’; ‘Raising one’s own family’; ‘Career advancement’; ‘Ability of daily activities’). Their cumulative contribution rate was 66.32%. Cronbach’s alpha for the total scale was 0.87. Each subscale had an alpha value above 0.70; three subscales were in the 0.80 range. MEQ-TMP reliability was proved to be good. The known-group method served as a strategy in examining the operationalisation of the questionnaire’s constructs. The present MEQ-TMP, developed for the aged group of TM patients, would be a useful tool for clinical personnel providing care to TM patients in understanding their outlook on life as they are growing up, to have better psychosocial adjustment to illness chronicity, live life as normally as possible, and fulfill their ambitions; thus enhancing their life satisfaction and quality of life. PMID:26383219

  17. Evaluation of Serum Leptin Levels and Growth in Patients with β-Thalassaemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Al-Naama, Lamia Mustafa; Hassan, Meaad Kadum; Abdul Karim, Muhannad Maki

    2016-01-01

    Background. Iron deposition in the body can damage the endocrine glands of patients with β-thalassaemia major (β-TM). Leptin plays a key role in the regulation of appetite, body fat mass, and endocrine function. Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum leptin and growth and pubertal development in patients with β-TM, as well as whether serum leptin can predict growth retardation and delayed puberty in these patients. Methods. Fifty β-TM patients (aged 8–20 years) and 75 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Anthropometric data and sexual maturity ratings were assessed. Serum leptin was measured by ELISA. Results. Serum leptin levels were significantly lower in patients with β-TM than in healthy individuals (P < 0.001). Leptin levels were also significantly reduced in female patients with short stature (P < 0.002) and in patients who displayed delayed puberty (P = 0.032) compared to those with normal stature who had reached puberty. The sensitivity of leptin for predicting short stature and delayed puberty among patients was 84.6% and 92.3%, respectively. Conclusion. Low serum leptin is sensitive to predict short stature and significant in β-TM females only. This link could thus be used as a guide for further therapeutic or hormonal modulation. PMID:27088012

  18. Structure and expression of a cloned beta o thalassaemic globin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Moschonas, N; de Boer, E; Grosveld, F G; Dahl, H H; Wright, S; Shewmaker, C K; Flavell, R A

    1981-01-01

    We have cloned the single beta-globin gene from an Italian patient who is a double heterozygote for beta o/delta beta o thalassaemia. RNA isolated from nucleated red cells from this patient can be translated in vitro to give detectable levels of A gamma- G gamma and alpha-globin, but no beta-globin. S1-mapping transcription studies show that beta-globin mRNA is present at about 1-3% of the level of alpha- and gamma-globin mRNA. In addition, the expression of this gene has been studied by reversed genetics. SV40-plasmid-beta o-globin gene recombinants have been transfected into Hela cells and analysed for beta-globin mRNA. In contrast to the results obtained with mRNA isolated directly from the blood of this patient, in the transfected Hela cells the same level of beta-globin mRNA is seen for the beta o thalassaemic globin gene and for a normal beta-globin gene. To elucidate the nature of the lesion, the entire DNA sequence of the beta-globin gene of this patient has been determined. The sequence shows that this gene contains a termination codon at position 39 (CAG - greater than UAG). Otherwise, there is a remarkable conservation of the entire DNA sequence. Images PMID:6272205

  19. Transition of Thalassaemia and Friedreich ataxia from fatal to chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kolnagou, Annita; Kontoghiorghe, Christina N; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2014-01-01

    Thalassaemia major (TM) and Friedreich’s ataxia (FA) are autosomal recessive inherited diseases related to the proteins haemoglobin and frataxin respectively. In both diseases abnormalities in iron metabolism is the main cause of iron toxicity leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Major efforts are directed towards the prevention of these diseases and also in their treatment using iron chelation therapy. Both TM and FA are endemic in Cyprus, where the frequency per total population of asymptomatic heterozygote carriers and patients is the highest worldwide. Cyprus has been a pioneering nation in preventing and nearly eliminating the birth of TM and FA patients by introducing an organized health structure, including prenatal and antenatal diagnosis. Effective iron chelation therapy, improved diagnostic methods and transfusion techniques as well as supportive therapy from other clinical specializations have improved the survival and quality of life of TM patients. Despite the tiresome clinical management regimes many TM patients are successful in their professional lives, have families with children and some are now living well into their fifties. The introduction of deferiprone led to the elimination of cardiac failure induced by iron overload toxicity, which was the major cause of mortality in TM. Effective combinations of deferiprone with deferoxamine in TM patients caused the fall of body iron to normal physiological ranges. In FA different mechanisms of iron metabolism and toxicity apply to that of TM, which can be targeted with specific iron chelation protocols. Preliminary findings from the introduction of deferiprone in FA patients have increased the hopes for improved and effective therapy in this untreatable condition. New and personalised treatments are proposed in TM and FA. Overall, advances in treatments and in particular of chelation therapy using deferiprone are transforming TM and FA from fatal to chronic conditions. The paradigm of Cyprus in the prevention and treatment of TM can be used for application worldwide. PMID:25541601

  20. Detection of β-globin Gene Mutations Among β-thalassaemia Carriers and Patients in Malaysia: Application of Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System–Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Syahzuwan; Ahmad, Rahimah; Zakaria, Zubaidah; Zulkafli, Zefarina; Abdullah, Wan Zaidah

    2013-01-01

    Background: β-thalassaemia is one of the most common single-gene disorders worldwide. Each ethnic population has its own common mutations, accounting for the majority of cases, with a small number of mutations for the rarer alleles. Due to the heterogeneity of β-thalassaemia and the multi-ethnicity of Malaysians, molecular diagnostics may be expensive and time consuming. Methods: A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach involving a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (MARMS) and one amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), consisting of 20 β-globin gene mutations, were designed and employed to investigate β-thalassaemia patients and carriers. Results: Out of 169 carriers tested with the MARMS, Cd 41/42 (–TTCT), Cd 26 (A–G) HbE, IVS 1–1 (G–T), and IVS 1–5 (G–C) were the most common mutations, accounting for 78.1%. Among the Malays, Cd 26 (A–G) HbE, Cd 41/42 (–TTCT), IVS 1–1 (G–T), and IVS 1–5 (G–C) were the most common mutations, accounting for 81.4%, whereas Cd 41/42 (–TTCT) and IVS 2–654 (C–T) were most common among the Chinese (79.1%). Conclusion: We propose the use of this cheap, easy to interpret, and simple system for the molecular diagnostics of β-thalassaemia among Malaysians at the Institute for Medical Research (IMR). PMID:23613656

  1. Graves' disease mimicking beta-thalassemia trait.

    PubMed Central

    Akasheh, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A case of Graves' disease associated with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, microcytic hypochromic anaemia, and a raised haemoglobin A2 is presented. The haematological indices returned to normal after conventional treatment with anti-thyroid medication. PMID:8183779

  2. Graves' disease mimicking beta-thalassemia trait.

    PubMed

    Akasheh, M S

    1994-04-01

    A case of Graves' disease associated with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, microcytic hypochromic anaemia, and a raised haemoglobin A2 is presented. The haematological indices returned to normal after conventional treatment with anti-thyroid medication. PMID:8183779

  3. A case of selective mutism in an 8-year-old girl with thalassaemia major after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Plener, P L; Gatz, S A; Schuetz, C; Ludolph, A G; Kölch, M

    2012-01-01

    Selective mutism is rare with a prevalence below 1% in the general population, but a higher prevalence in populations at risk (children with speech retardation, migration). Evidence for treatment strategies is hardly available. This case report provides information on the treatment of selective mutism in an 8-year-old girl with preexisting thalassaemia major. As medications she received penicillin prophylaxis (500000 IE/d) and deferasirox (Exjade; 20-25mg/kg/d), an iron chelator. The preexisting somatic disease and treatment complicated the treatment, as there are no data about pharmacological combination therapy. Psychotherapy in day treatment, supported by the use of the SSRI fluoxetine (10 mg), led to a decrease in the selective mutism score from 33 to 12 points, GAF improved by 21 points. Mean levels of fluoxetine plus norfluoxetine were 287.8 ng/ml without significant level fluctuations. PMID:21989599

  4. Novel ATRX gene damaging missense mutation c.6740A>C segregates with profound to severe intellectual deficiency without alpha thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Bouazzi, Habib; Thakur, Seema; Trujillo, Carlos; Alwasiyah, Mohammad Khalid; Munnich, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: ATRX is a recessive X-linked intellectual deficiency (X-LID) gene causing predominately alpha-thalassaemia with a wide and clinically heterogeneous spectrum of intellectual deficiency syndromes. Although alpha-thalassaemia is commonly present, some patients do not express this sign despite the ATRX gene being altered. Most pathological mutations have been localized in two different major domains, the helicase and the plant homeo-domain (PHD)-like domain. In this study we examined a family of three males having an X-linked mental deficiency and developmental delay, and tried to establish a genetic diagnosis while discussing and comparing the phenotype of our patients to those reported in the literature. Methods: Three related males with intellectual deficiency underwent clinical investigations. We performed a karyotype analysis, CGH-array, linkage study, and X-exome sequencing in the index case to identify the genetic origin of this disorder. The X-inactivation study was carried out in the mother and Sanger sequencing was achieved in all family members to confirm the mutation. Results: A novel ATRX gene missense mutation (p.His2247Pro) was identified in a family of two uncles and their nephew manifesting intellectual deficiency and specific facial features without alpha-thalassaemia. The mutation was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. It segregated with the pathological phenotype. The mother and her two daughters were found to be heterozygous. Interpretation & conclusions: The novel mutation c.6740A>C was identified within the ATRX gene helicase domain and confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the three affected males as well as in the mother and her two daughters. This mutation was predicted to be damaging and deleterious. The novel mutation segregated with the phenotype without alpha-thalassaemia and with non-skewed X chromosome. PMID:26997013

  5. A BETA-1,3-GALACTOSYLTRANSFERASE AND BRAINIAC/BRE5 HOMOLOG EXPRESSED IN THE MIDGUT DID NOT CONTRIBUTE TO A CRY1AB TOXIN RESISTANCE TRAIT IN OSTRINIA NUBILALIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postranslational glycosylation of midgut epithelial peptide and lipid receptors may be required prior to activated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxin binding. A 931 nt mRNA encoding a putative 297 residue Beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase (Beta3GalT5) was isolated from larval O. nubilalis midgut ti...

  6. The Least-Squares Estimation of Latent Trait Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi

    This paper presents a new method for estimating a given latent trait variable by the least-squares approach. The beta weights are obtained recursively with the help of Fourier series and expressed as functions of item parameters of response curves. The values of the latent trait variable estimated by this method and by maximum likelihood method

  7. The Least-Squares Estimation of Latent Trait Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi

    This paper presents a new method for estimating a given latent trait variable by the least-squares approach. The beta weights are obtained recursively with the help of Fourier series and expressed as functions of item parameters of response curves. The values of the latent trait variable estimated by this method and by maximum likelihood method…

  8. Emotional impact in ?-thalassaemia major children following cognitive-behavioural family therapy and quality of life of caregiving mothers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cognitive-Behavioural Family Therapy (CBFT) can be an effective psychological approach for children with ?-thalassaemia major, increasing compliance to treatment, lessening the emotional burden of disease, and improving the quality of life of caregivers. Design and methods Twenty-eight ?-thalassaemic major children that followed CBFT for one year were compared with twenty-eight age-matched healthy children, focusing particularly on behavioural, mood, and temperamental characteristics as well as compliance with chelation, assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), and Emotionality, Activity, Sociability and Shyness Scale (EAS). We also monitored the quality of life of caregiving mothers using the World Health Organization Quality Of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Data were analysed with non-parametric standard descriptive statistics. Results 90% of ?-Thalassaemic children showed good compliance with chelation therapy; however they had significantly increased somatic complains, physical symptoms and separation panic. Moreover, temperamental assessment revealed high emotionality and poor sociability in treated thalassaemic children and in their mothers. Physical and psychological domains concerning individual's overall perception of quality of life resulted impaired in mothers of ?-thalassaemic children. Conclusion CBFT can be a valid tool to increase the compliance with chelation therapy in ?-thalassaemic children; however, treated children continue to show an important emotional burden; moreover, CBFT therapy seems not to have any positive impact on the quality of life of caregiving mothers, who may therefore need additional psychological support. PMID:19236719

  9. A FACS Based Case Study on Two HbE-β Thalassaemia Members of a Family, Having Similar Mutational Background

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Tridip; Halder, Suchismita; Chakravarty, Amit; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chakrabarti, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    In this report we have tried to explain the reasons behind the difference in the pattern of transfusion requirement between two members of a family with similar β-globin mutation. The father and younger son both are HbE-β, but the father never had transfusion, whereas the younger son takes transfusion monthly. Mother and the elder son are HbEE without any history of transfusion. β-globin mutations of all family members were determined by ARMS-PCR. These were reconfirmed by direct sequencing of β-globin gene. Father and younger son were found to be Cod 26 (G-A)/IVS 1-5 (G-C), whereas mother and elder son were found to be Cod 26 (G-A)/Cod 26 (G-A). XmnI sequencing also revealed that all members of the family were CC. Then, flow cytometry study of red blood cells (RBCs) was performed to measure the oxidative stress of the RBCs. This study was also done on the light and dense fractions of the RBC population of the father and younger son. It was seen that the younger son suffers severe oxidative stress, which can be explained by his higher transfusion requirement. From our work, we have established the importance of taking oxidative stress of RBCs into consideration to explain the clinical manifestation and progression of haemoglobin related diseases like thalassaemia. PMID:27195173

  10. Deferasirox: a review of its use for chronic iron overload in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Matt; Plosker, Greg L

    2014-06-01

    Deferasirox (Exjade(®)) is a once-daily orally administered iron chelator which has been approved for use in the treatment of transfusional-dependent chronic iron overload since 2005. Based primarily on the findings of the THALASSA (Assessment of Exjade(®) in Non-Transfusion-Dependent THALASSemiA) trial, the approval for deferasirox has recently been expanded to include the management of chronic iron overload in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) syndromes. Despite the lack of regular blood transfusions, NTDT patients can still develop clinically relevant iron overload, primarily due to increased gastrointestinal absorption secondary to ineffective erythropoiesis, and may require chelation therapy. The THALASSA trial, the first placebo-controlled clinical trial of an iron chelator in NTDT patients, demonstrated that deferasirox was effective in reducing liver iron and serum ferritin levels in this population. Deferasirox has an acceptable tolerability profile, with the most common adverse events reported in the THALASSA trial being related to mild to moderate gastrointestinal disorders. Although further long-term studies will be required to clearly demonstrate the clinical benefit of chelation therapy in NTDT patients, deferasirox presents a useful tool in the management of iron overload in this population. PMID:24919862

  11. Identification and key management of non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia patients: not a rare but potentially under-recognised condition.

    PubMed

    Viprakasit, Vip; Tyan, Paul; Rodmai, Sarayuth; Taher, Ali T

    2014-01-01

    Patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) have a genetic defect or combination of defects that affect haemoglobin synthesis, but which is not severe enough to require regular blood transfusions. The carrier frequency of NTDT is high (up to 80% in some parts of the world) but the prevalence of symptomatic patients varies with geography and is estimated to be from 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 100. NTDT has a variable presentation that may include mild to severe anaemia, enlarged spleen and/or liver, skeletal deformities, growth retardation, elevated serum ferritin and iron overload. The contributing factors to disease progression are ineffective erythropoiesis and increased haemolysis, which lead to chronic anaemia. The body's attempts to correct the anaemia result in constantly activated erythropoiesis, leading to marrow expansion and extramedullary haematopoiesis. Diagnosis of NTDT is largely clinical but can be confirmed by genetic sequencing. NTDT must be differentiated from other anaemias including sideroblastic anaemia, paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and iron-deficiency anaemia. Management of NTDT is based on managing symptoms, and includes blood transfusions, hydroxyurea treatment, iron chelation and sometimes splenectomy. Prognosis for well managed patients is good, with most patients living a normal life. Since NTDT is mainly prevalent in sub-tropical regions, patients who present in other parts of the world, in particular the Northern hemisphere, might not been correctly recognised and it can be considered a 'rare' condition. It is particularly important to identify and diagnose patients early, thereby preventing complications. PMID:25265971

  12. A FACS Based Case Study on Two HbE-β Thalassaemia Members of a Family, Having Similar Mutational Background.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tridip; Halder, Suchismita; Chakravarty, Amit; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chakrabarti, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    In this report we have tried to explain the reasons behind the difference in the pattern of transfusion requirement between two members of a family with similar β-globin mutation. The father and younger son both are HbE-β, but the father never had transfusion, whereas the younger son takes transfusion monthly. Mother and the elder son are HbEE without any history of transfusion. β-globin mutations of all family members were determined by ARMS-PCR. These were reconfirmed by direct sequencing of β-globin gene. Father and younger son were found to be Cod 26 (G-A)/IVS 1-5 (G-C), whereas mother and elder son were found to be Cod 26 (G-A)/Cod 26 (G-A). XmnI sequencing also revealed that all members of the family were CC. Then, flow cytometry study of red blood cells (RBCs) was performed to measure the oxidative stress of the RBCs. This study was also done on the light and dense fractions of the RBC population of the father and younger son. It was seen that the younger son suffers severe oxidative stress, which can be explained by his higher transfusion requirement. From our work, we have established the importance of taking oxidative stress of RBCs into consideration to explain the clinical manifestation and progression of haemoglobin related diseases like thalassaemia. PMID:27195173

  13. Beta experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

  14. The Trait in Latent Trait Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael V.

    Significant to a latent trait or item response theory analysis of a mental test is the determination of exactly what is being quantified. The following are practical problems to be considered in the formulation of a good theory: (1) deciding whether two tests measure the same trait or traits; (2) analyzing the relative contributions of a pair of…

  15. Optimising iron chelation therapy with deferasirox for non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia patients: 1-year results from the THETIS study.

    PubMed

    Taher, Ali T; Cappellini, M Domenica; Aydinok, Yesim; Porter, John B; Karakas, Zeynep; Viprakasit, Vip; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Kattamis, Antonis; Wang, Candace; Zhu, Zewen; Joaquin, Victor; Uwamahoro, Marie José; Lai, Yong-Rong

    2016-03-01

    Efficacy and safety of iron chelation therapy with deferasirox in iron-overloaded non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) patients were established in the THALASSA study. THETIS, an open-label, single-arm, multicentre, Phase IV study, added to this evidence by investigating earlier dose escalation by baseline liver iron concentration (LIC) (week 4: escalation according to baseline LIC; week 24: adjustment according to LIC response, maximum 30mg/kg/day). The primary efficacy endpoint was absolute change in LIC from baseline to week 52. 134 iron-overloaded non-transfusion-dependent anaemia patients were enrolled and received deferasirox starting at 10mg/kg/day. Mean actual dose±SD over 1year was 14.70±5.48mg/kg/day. At week 52, mean LIC±SD decreased significantly from 15.13±10.72mg Fe/g dw at baseline to 8.46±6.25mg Fe/g dw (absolute change from baseline, -6.68±7.02mg Fe/g dw [95% CI: -7.91, -5.45]; P<0.0001). Most common drug-related adverse events were gastrointestinal: abdominal discomfort, diarrhoea and nausea (n=6 each). There was one death (pneumonia, not considered drug related). With significant and clinically relevant reductions in iron burden alongside a safety profile similar to that in THALASSA, these data support earlier escalation with higher deferasirox doses in iron-overloaded non-transfusion-dependent anaemia patients. PMID:26852651

  16. Uncertainty quantified trait predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazayeli, Farideh; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Schrodt, Franziska; Reich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Functional traits of organisms are key to understanding and predicting biodiversity and ecological change, which motivates continuous collection of traits and their integration into global databases. Such composite trait matrices are inherently sparse, severely limiting their usefulness for further analyses. On the other hand, traits are characterized by the phylogenetic trait signal, trait-trait correlations and environmental constraints, all of which provide information that could be used to statistically fill gaps. We propose the application of probabilistic models which, for the first time, utilize all three characteristics to fill gaps in trait databases and predict trait values at larger spatial scales. For this purpose we introduce BHPMF, a hierarchical Bayesian extension of Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF). PMF is a machine learning technique which exploits the correlation structure of sparse matrices to impute missing entries. BHPMF additionally utilizes the taxonomic hierarchy for trait prediction. Implemented in the context of a Gibbs Sampler MCMC approach BHPMF provides uncertainty estimates for each trait prediction. We present comprehensive experimental results on the problem of plant trait prediction using the largest database of plant traits, where BHPMF shows strong empirical performance in uncertainty quantified trait prediction, outperforming the state-of-the-art based on point estimates. Further, we show that BHPMF is more accurate when it is confident, whereas the error is high when the uncertainty is high.

  17. Red blood cell alloimmunization in sickle cell disease and in thalassaemia: current status, future perspectives and potential role of molecular typing.

    PubMed

    Matteocci, A; Pierelli, L

    2014-04-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are a milestone in the treatment for sickle cell anaemia (SSA) and for thalassaemia. RBC alloimmunization remains a major challenge of chronic transfusion therapy, and it can lead to adverse life-threatening events. The alloimmunization risk could depend on multiple factors such as the number of transfusions and, most of all, the genetic background. Different ethnic groups are predisposed to immunization because of a significant degree of RBC antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient. There is no universal agreement and standards for the most appropriate selection of RBC units in chronically transfused subjects. Current practice only deals with compatibility of ABO, Rh and K antigens. Molecular RBC antigenic matching extended to other blood group systems is an innovative strategy to ensure a better quality and effectiveness of transfusion therapy. PMID:24117723

  18. Mechanisms of plasma non-transferrin bound iron generation: insights from comparing transfused diamond blackfan anaemia with sickle cell and thalassaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Porter, John B; Walter, Patrick B; Neumayr, Lynne D; Evans, Patricia; Bansal, Sukhvinder; Garbowski, Maciej; Weyhmiller, Marcela G; Harmatz, Paul R; Wood, John C; Miller, Jeffery L; Byrnes, Colleen; Weiss, Guenter; Seifert, Markus; Grosse, Regine; Grabowski, Dagmar; Schmidt, Angelica; Fischer, Roland; Nielsen, Peter; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2014-12-01

    In transfusional iron overload, extra-hepatic iron distribution differs, depending on the underlying condition. Relative mechanisms of plasma non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) generation may account for these differences. Markers of iron metabolism (plasma NTBI, labile iron, hepcidin, transferrin, monocyte SLC40A1 [ferroportin]), erythropoiesis (growth differentiation factor 15, soluble transferrin receptor) and tissue hypoxia (erythropoietin) were compared in patients with Thalassaemia Major (TM), Sickle Cell Disease and Diamond-Blackfan Anaemia (DBA), with matched transfusion histories. The most striking differences between these conditions were relationships of NTBI to erythropoietic markers, leading us to propose three mechanisms of NTBI generation: iron overload (all), ineffective erythropoiesis (predominantly TM) and low transferrin-iron utilization (DBA). PMID:25209728

  19. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  20. Generalized Latent Trait Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

  1. Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille; Kraft, Nathan J B; Sandel, Brody; mov, Irena; Donoghue, John C; Svenning, Jens-Christian; McGill, Brian J; Boyle, Brad; Buzzard, Vanessa; Dolins, Steven; Jrgensen, Peter M; Marcuse-Kubitza, Aaron; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K; Piel, William H; Regetz, James; Schildhauer, Mark; Spencer, Nick; Thiers, Barbara; Wiser, Susan K; Enquist, Brian J

    2014-09-23

    The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha (within local assemblages), beta (among assemblages), and gamma (regional pool) scales. We test these predictions by quantifying hypervolumes constructed from functional traits representing major axes of plant strategy variation (specific leaf area, plant height, and seed mass) in tree assemblages spanning the temperate and tropical New World. Alpha-scale trait volume decreases with absolute latitude and is often lower than sampling expectation, consistent with environmental filtering theory. Beta-scale overlap decays with geographic distance fastest in the temperate zone, again consistent with environmental filtering theory. In contrast, gamma-scale trait space shows a hump-shaped relationship with absolute latitude, consistent with no theory. Furthermore, the overall temperate trait hypervolume was larger than the overall tropical hypervolume, indicating that the temperate zone permits a wider range of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory. PMID:25225365

  2. Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Sandel, Brody; mov, Irena; Donoghue, John C.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; McGill, Brian J.; Boyle, Brad; Buzzard, Vanessa; Dolins, Steven; Jrgensen, Peter M.; Marcuse-Kubitza, Aaron; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K.; Piel, William H.; Regetz, James; Schildhauer, Mark; Spencer, Nick; Thiers, Barbara; Wiser, Susan K.; Enquist, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha (within local assemblages), beta (among assemblages), and gamma (regional pool) scales. We test these predictions by quantifying hypervolumes constructed from functional traits representing major axes of plant strategy variation (specific leaf area, plant height, and seed mass) in tree assemblages spanning the temperate and tropical New World. Alpha-scale trait volume decreases with absolute latitude and is often lower than sampling expectation, consistent with environmental filtering theory. Beta-scale overlap decays with geographic distance fastest in the temperate zone, again consistent with environmental filtering theory. In contrast, gamma-scale trait space shows a hump-shaped relationship with absolute latitude, consistent with no theory. Furthermore, the overall temperate trait hypervolume was larger than the overall tropical hypervolume, indicating that the temperate zone permits a wider range of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory. PMID:25225365

  3. Phylogenies and traits provide distinct insights about the historical and contemporary assembly of aquatic insect communities.

    PubMed

    Saito, Victor S; Cianciaruso, Marcus Vinicius; Siqueira, Tadeu; Fonseca-Gessner, Alaide A; Pavoine, Sandrine

    2016-05-01

    The assumption that traits and phylogenies can be used as proxies of species niche has faced criticisms. Evidence suggested that phylogenic relatedness is a weak proxy of trait similarity. Moreover, different processes can select different traits, giving opposing signals in null model analyses. To circumvent these criticisms, we separated traits of stream insects based on the concept of α and β niches, which should give clues about assembling pressures expected to act independently of each other. We investigated the congruence between the phylogenetic structure and trait structure of communities using all available traits and all possible combinations of traits (4095 combinations). To account for hierarchical assembling processes, we analyzed patterns on two spatial scales with three pools of genera. Beta niche traits selected a priori - i.e., traits related to environmental variation (e.g., respiration type) - were consistently clustered on the smaller scale, suggesting environmental filtering, while α niche traits - i.e., traits related to resource use (e.g., trophic position) - did not display the expected overdispersion, suggesting a weak role of competition. Using all traits together provided random patterns and the analysis of all possible combinations of traits provided scenarios ranging from strong clustering to overdispersion. Communities were phylogenetically overdispersed, a pattern previously interpreted as phylogenetic limiting similarity. However, our results likely reflect the co-occurrence of ancient clades due to the stability of stream habitats along the evolutionary scale. We advise ecologists to avoid using combinations of all available traits but rather carefully traits based on the objective under consideration. Both trait and phylogenetic approaches should be kept in the ecologist toolbox, but phylogenetic distances should not be used as proxies of traits differences. Although the phylogenetic structure revealed processes operating at the evolutionary scale, only specific traits explained local processes operating in our communities. PMID:27217945

  4. Predicting microbial traits with phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Goberna, Marta; Verdú, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Phylogeny reflects genetic and phenotypic traits in Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic conservatism of microbial traits has prompted the application of phylogeny-based algorithms to predict unknown trait values of extant taxa based on the traits of their evolutionary relatives to estimate, for instance, rRNA gene copy numbers, gene contents or tolerance to abiotic conditions. Unlike the 'macrobial' world, microbial ecologists face scenarios potentially compromising the accuracy of trait reconstruction methods, as, for example, extremely large phylogenies and limited information on the traits of interest. We review 990 bacterial and archaeal traits from the literature and support that phylogenetic trait conservatism is widespread through the tree of life, while revealing that it is generally weak for ecologically relevant phenotypic traits and high for genetically complex traits. We then perform a simulation exercise to assess the accuracy of phylogeny-based trait predictions in common scenarios faced by microbial ecologists. Our simulations show that ca. 60% of the variation in phylogeny-based trait predictions depends on the magnitude of the trait conservatism, the number of species in the tree, the proportion of species with unknown trait values and the mean distance in the tree to the nearest neighbour with a known trait value. Results are similar for both binary and continuous traits. We discuss these results under the light of the reviewed traits and provide recommendations for the use of phylogeny-based trait predictions for microbial ecologists. PMID:26371406

  5. Genomewide association study for beta-glucan content in North American elite oat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome wide-association studies (GWAS) can be a useful approach to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling complex traits in crop plants. Oat (Avena sativa L.) beta-glucan is a soluble dietary fiber and has been shown to have positive health benefits. We report a GWAS involving 446 elite oa...

  6. Cereal beta-glucans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal beta-glucans occur predominantly in oats and barley, but can be found in other cereals. Beta-glucan structure is a mixture of single beta-1,3-linkages and consecutive beta-1,4-linkages, and cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units typically make up 90-95% of entire molecule. Lichenase can hydr...

  7. Premarital Screening of Beta Thalassemia Minor in north-east of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hashemizadeh, H; Noori, R

    2013-01-01

    Background Beta thalassemia is a preventable disease. Iran has about 20,000Patients who are homozygote for β-thalassaemia and 3,750,000 carriers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of beta thalassemia minor among men who underwent premarital screening in Quchana city in Khorasan Razavi region of Iran Materials and Methods This research is a descriptive cross-sectional study. From 2010 to 2011, all participants (1000) under marriage coming to health center of Quchan underwent routine mandatory tests. Participants were considered to have beta-thalassemia minor on the condition that hey had a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) <80fl and a mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) <27 pg and a hemoglobin A2 level >3.5%. Venous blood was taken into an EDTA tube and the complete blood count and red blood cell indices were measured with a Coulter automated cell counter. Electrophoresis was performed on cellulose acetate. Results Mean and SD of hemoglobin, MCV and MCH were 16±2.9, 91±4 and 28.4±2, respectively. Hemoglobin A2 Higher than 3.5 percent was reported as 3.5%.The prevalence of beta-thassemia minor with high hemoglobin A2 and microcytic hypochromic anemia was 3.5% (P-value). Conclusion In countries with high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies, a premarital screening program is helpful for identification and prevention of high-risk marriages. Detecting carrier couples with premarital screening program is an effective way of controlling thalassemia major. PMID:24575266

  8. Origins of Metastatic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Vanharanta, Sakari; Massagu, Joan

    2014-01-01

    How cancer cells acquire the competence to colonize distant organs remains a central question in cancer biology. Tumors can release large numbers of cancer cells into the circulation, but only a small proportion of these cells survive on infiltrating distant organs and even fewer form clinically meaningful metastases. During the past decade, many predictive gene signatures and specific mediators of metastasis have been identified, yet how cancer cells acquire these traits has remained obscure. Recent experimental work and high-resolution sequencing of human tissues have started to reveal the molecular and tumor evolutionary principles that underlie the emergence of metastatic traits. PMID:24135279

  9. Bayesian Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping for Multiple Traits

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Samprit; Yandell, Brian S.; Yi, Nengjun

    2008-01-01

    Most quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping experiments typically collect phenotypic data on multiple correlated complex traits. However, there is a lack of a comprehensive genomewide mapping strategy for correlated traits in the literature. We develop Bayesian multiple-QTL mapping methods for correlated continuous traits using two multivariate models: one that assumes the same genetic model for all traits, the traditional multivariate model, and the other known as the seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model that allows different genetic models for different traits. We develop computationally efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms for performing joint analysis. We conduct extensive simulation studies to assess the performance of the proposed methods and to compare with the conventional single-trait model. Our methods have been implemented in the freely available package R/qtlbim (http://www.qtlbim.org), which greatly facilitates the general usage of the Bayesian methodology for unraveling the genetic architecture of complex traits. PMID:18689903

  10. Evolving Trait Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1983-01-01

    Redefines intelligence as a useful, comprehensive, and flexible construct that allows its modifiability as a function of age and culture. Reviews theories on two-factor, multiple-factor, facet, and hierarchical models of trait formation based on research in developmental, cross-cultural, learning, and cognitive psychology. (Author/AOS)

  11. Are autistic traits autistic?

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Elise B; Mendrek, Adrianna; Mottron, Laurent

    2009-02-01

    According to the extreme male brain theory of autism (Baron-Cohen, 2002), autistic traits would be extreme manifestations of typical male behaviours. The Auyeung et al. (2009) paper establishes a link between autistic traits and higher fetal testosterone (fT) levels in typically developing children. We argue that the construct behind this relationship needs further investigation. First, the link between fT levels and sexually dimorphic traits, that are for example, associated with empathizing and systemizing, is controversial. Likewise, describing autistic behaviours as being extreme male-like is debatable. The cerebral hemisphere laterality pattern of individuals with autism also seems to differ from the pattern typically observed in males. Moreover, the parallel that should exist, according to the fT theory, between individuals with autism and individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), because of their high fT levels, is unclear. The theory implying fT levels in autism fails to account for a big part of autism, and the link between fT and normal 'autistic traits' hardly demonstrates the causal link between fT and autism. PMID:18718106

  12. beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( beta - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 85 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Asses

  13. The interactive effect of change in perceived stress and trait anxiety on vagal recovery from cognitive challenge.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Olga V; McKinley, Paula S; Burg, Matthew M; Schwartz, Joseph E; Ryff, Carol D; Weinstein, Maxine; Seeman, Teresa E; Sloan, Richard P

    2011-12-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that the change in state negative affect (measured as perceived stress) after cognitive challenge moderates the relationship of trait anxiety and anger to vagal recovery from that challenge. Cardiac vagal control (assessed using heart rate variability) and respiratory rate were measured in a sample of 905 participants from the Midlife in the United States Study. Cognitive challenges consisted of computerized mental arithmetic and Stroop color-word matching tasks. Multiple regression analyses controlling for the effects of the demographic, lifestyle, and medical factors influencing cardiac vagal control showed a significant moderating effect of change in perceived stress on the relationship of trait anxiety to vagal recovery from cognitive challenges (Beta=.253, p=.013). After adjustment for respiratory rate, this effect became marginally significant (Beta=.177, p=.037). In contrast, for the relationship of trait anger to vagal recovery, this effect was not significant either before (Beta=.141, p=.257) or after (Beta=.186, p=.072) adjusting for respiratory rate. Secondary analyses revealed that among the individuals with higher levels of trait anxiety, greater reductions in perceived stress were associated with greater increases in cardiac vagal control after the challenge. In contrast, among the individuals with lower levels of trait anxiety, changes in perceived stress had no impact on vagal recovery. Therefore, change in perceived stress moderates the relationship of trait anxiety, but not trait anger, to vagal recovery from cognitive challenge. PMID:21945037

  14. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally. PMID:25866439

  15. TGF-beta signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Savage-Dunn, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    TGF-beta superfamily ligands play fundamental roles in the development and physiology of diverse animal species. Genetic and genomic analyses in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans have contributed to the understanding of TGF-beta-related signal transduction mechanisms. In this chapter, I describe the currently characterized TGF-beta-related signals and signal transduction cassettes in C. elegans. Homology searches of the genome identify five TGF-beta-related genes, for which functions have been identified for three. Two of the TGF-beta-related genes, daf-7 and dbl-1, function through conventional signaling pathways. These signaling pathways are comprised of ser/thr kinase receptors, Smads, and transcription co-factors. A third TGF-beta-related gene, unc-129, functions in axonal guidance using novel signaling mechanisms. Thus, TGF-beta-related signaling in C. elegans proceeds via both conserved and novel paradigms that can inform studies in other animal systems. PMID:18050404

  16. APOE and A-betaPP Gene Variation in Cortical and Cerebrovascular Amyloid-beta Pathology and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Population-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peuralinna, Terhi; Tanskanen, Maarit; Mäkelä, Mira; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Paetau, Anders; Kalimo, Hannu; Sulkava, Raimo; Hardy, John; Lai, Shiao-Lin; Arepalli, Sampath; Hernandez, Dena; Traynor, Bryan J.; Singleton, Andrew; Tienari, Pentti J.; Myllykangas, Liisa

    2012-01-01

    Cortical and cerebrovascular amyloid-beta (A-beta) deposition is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but also occurs in elderly people not affected by dementia. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 is a major genetic modulator of A-beta deposition and AD risk. Variants of the amyloid-beta protein precursor (A-betaPP) gene have been reported to contribute to AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). We analyzed the role of APOE and A-beta PP variants in cortical and cerebrovascular A-beta deposition, and neuropathologically verified AD (based on modified NIA-RI criteria) in a population-based autopsy sample of Finns aged ≥85 years (Vantaa85 + Study; n = 282). Our updated analysis of APOE showed strong associations of the epsilon4 allele with cortical (p = 4.91×10−17) and cerebrovascular (p = 9.87×10−11) A-beta deposition as well as with NIA-RI AD (p = 1.62×10−8). We also analyzed 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the A-betaPP locus. In single SNP or haplotype analyses there were no statistically significant A-betaPP locus associations with cortical or cerebrovascular A-beta deposition or with NIA-RI AD. We sequenced the promoter of the A-betaPP gene in 40 subjects with very high A-beta deposition, but none of these subjects had any of the previously reported or novel AD-associated mutations. These results suggest that cortical and cerebrovascular A-beta depositions are useful quantitative traits for genetic studies, as highlighted by the strong associations with the APOE epsilon4 variant. Promoter mutations or common allelic variation in the A-betaPP gene do not have a major contribution to cortical or cerebrovascular A-beta deposition, or very late-onset AD in this Finnish population based study. PMID:21654062

  17. Interval mapping of quantitative trait loci employing correlated trait complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Korol, A.B.; Ronin, Y,I.; Kirzhner, V.M.

    1995-07-01

    An approach to increase the resolution power of interval mapping of quantitative trait (QT) loci is proposed, based on analysis of correlated trait complexes. For a given set of QTs, the broad sense heritablity attributed to a QT locus (QTL) (say, A/a) is an increasing function of the number of traits. Thus, for some traits x and y are correlated within the groups AA, Aa and aa due to nongenetic factors and segregation of genes from other chromosomes. A simple relationship connects H{sup 2} (both in single trait and two-trait analysis) with the expected LOD value, ELOD = -1/2Nlog(1-H{sup 2}). Thus, situations could exist that from the inequality H{sup 2}{sub xy}(A/a) {ge} H{sup 2}{sub x} (A/a) a higher resolution is provided by the two-trait analysis, in spite of the increased number of parameters. Employing LOD-score procedure to simulated backcross data, we showed that the resolution power of the QTL mapping model can be elevated if correlation between QTs is taken into account. The method allows us to test numerous biologically important hypotheses concerning manifold effects of genomic segments on the defined trait complex (means, variances and correlations). 33 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. FERTILITY TRAIT ECONOMICS AND CORRELATIONS WITH OTHER TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correlations of fertility traits (heifer fertility, interval from calving to first insemination, cow nonreturn rate, and calving interval) with yield traits (milk, fat, and protein), longevity, and somatic cell score (SCS) were compared for 11 countries. Correlations were consistent and small but al...

  19. Evaluation of genetic diversity and root traits of sea beet accessions of the Adriatic Sea coast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty nine sea beet [Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang.] accessions of the Adriatic coast were screened genetically and for their adaptive morpho-functional root traits in order to identify new sources of abiotic resistances for sugar beet breeding programs. Genetic diversity was evaluat...

  20. Quantitative trait loci associated with the tocochromanol (vitamin E) pathway in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the Genome-Wide Association Studies approach was used to detect Quantitative Trait Loci associated with tocochromanol concentrations using a panel of 1,466 barley accessions. All major tocochromanol types- alpha-, beta-, delta-, gamma-tocopherol and tocotrienol- were assayed. We found...

  1. High Beta Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.

    1998-11-14

    Perhaps the ideal tokamak would have high {beta} ({beta} {approx}> 1) and classical confinement. Such a tokamak has not been found, and we do not know if one does exist. We have searched for such a possibility, so far without success. In 1990, we obtained analytic equilibrium solutions for large aspect ratio tokamaks at {beta} {approx} {Omicron}(1) [1]. These solutions and the extension at high {beta} poloidal to finite aspect ratio [2] provided a basis for the study of high {beta} tokamaks. We have shown that these configurations can be stable to short scale MHD modes [3], and that they have reduced neoclassical transport [4]. Microinstabilities (such as the {del}T{sub i} mode) seem to be stabilized at high {beta} [5] - this is due to the large local shear [3] and the magnetic well. We have some concerns about modes associated with the compressional branch which may appear at high {beta}. Bill Dorland and Mike Kotschenreuther have studied this issue and our concerns may be unfounded. It is certainly tantalizing, especially given the lowered neoclassical transport values, that these configurations could have no microinstabilities and, one could assume, no anomalous transport. Unfortunately, while this work is encouraging, the key question for high {beta} tokamaks is the stability to large scale kink modes. The MHD {beta} limit (Troyon limit) for kink modes at large aspect ratio is problematically low. There is ample evidence from computations that the limit exists. However, it is not known if stable equilibria exist at much higher {beta}--none have been found. We have explored this question in the asymptotic high {beta} poloidal limit. Unfortunately, we are unable to find stable equilibrium and also unable to show that they don't exist. The results of these calculations will be published when a more definitive answer is found.

  2. Interaction between two quantitative trait loci affects fetal haemoglobin expression.

    PubMed

    Garner, C; Menzel, S; Martin, C; Silver, N; Best, S; Spector, T D; Thein, S L

    2005-11-01

    The biological mechanisms controlling complex quantitative traits are likely to be affected by interactions between genetic factors, sometimes referred to as epistasis. The identification of interacting loci through genetic analyse faces many challenges, and few examples of replicated findings of interaction exist for humans and model system organisms. The replication of an interaction, or the non-independence, of two quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the developmental switch from the expression of fetal to adult haemoglobin is reported here. Fetal haemoglobin expression in adults is a highly heritable, yet complex, phenotype. Using a sample of 874 dizygotic twin pairs of European descent, we found linkage to a QTL on chromosome 8 to be conditional on the twin pairs' genotypes at a polymorphism in the beta-globin complex; an interaction originally identified in a large Asian Indian kindred. The beta-globin polymorphism has been previously shown to be associated with fetal haemoglobin levels in adults. This study reports the first known replication of a genetic interaction between QTLs influencing a complex human trait. PMID:16266409

  3. Nine unknown rearrangements in 16p13.3 and 11p15.4 causing α- and ß-thalassaemia characterised by high resolution multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification

    PubMed Central

    Harteveld, C; Voskamp, A; Phylipsen, M; Akkermans, N; den Dunnen, J T; White, S; Giordano, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Approximately 80% of the α- and 10% of the ß-thalassaemias are caused by genomic deletions involving the α- and ß-globin gene clusters on chromosomes 16p13.3 and 11p15.5, respectively. Gap-PCR, Southern blot analysis, and fluorescent in situ hybridisation are commonly used to identify these deletions; however, many deletions go undetected using conventional techniques. Methods: Patient samples for which no abnormalities had been found using conventional DNA techniques were analysed by a three colour multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay. Two sets of 35 and 50 probes, covering a region of 700 kb of the α- and 500 kb of the ß-globin gene cluster, respectively, were designed to detect rearrangements in the α- and ß-globin gene clusters. Results: In 19 out of 38 patient samples, we found 11 different α-thalassaemia deletions, six of which were not previously described. Two novel deletions leaving the α-globin gene cluster intact were found to cause a complete downregulation of the downstream α-genes. Similarly, 31 out of 51 patient samples were found to carry 10 different deletions involving the ß-globin gene cluster, three of which were not previously described. One involves the deletion of the locus control region leaving the ß-globin gene cluster intact. Conclusions: These deletions, which are not easily detected by conventional techniques, may have clinical implications during pregnancy ranging from mild to life threatening microcytic haemolytic anaemia in neonates. The approach as described here is a rapid and sensitive method for high resolution analysis of the globin gene clusters and for any region of the genome. PMID:15894596

  4. Effect of L-type calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) on myocardial iron deposition in patients with thalassaemia with moderate-to-severe myocardial iron deposition: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Shakoor, Amarah; Zahoor, Maaman; Sadaf, Alina; Alvi, Najveen; Fadoo, Zehra; Rizvi, Arjumand; Quadri, Farheen; Tipoo, Fateh Ali; Khurshid, Mohammad; Sajjad, Zaffar; Colan, Steven; Hasan, Babar S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sideroblastic cardiomyopathy secondary to repeated blood transfusions is a feared complication in thalassaemia. Control of myocardial iron is thus becoming the cornerstone of thalassaemia management. Recent evidence suggests a role for L-type Ca2+ channels in mediating iron uptake by the heart. Blocking the cellular iron uptake through these channels may add to the benefit of therapy to standard chelation in reducing myocardial iron. We aim to determine the efficacy of amlodipine (a calcium channel blocker) as an adjunct to standard aggressive chelation in retarding myocardial iron deposition in thalassaemics with or without cardiomyopathy. Outcomes The primary outcome is to compare the efficacy of amlodipine+chelation (intervention) versus standard chelation (control) in retarding myocardial iron deposition. Secondary outcomes include the effect of amlodipine therapy on systolic and diastolic function, strain and strain rate and liver iron content. Methods and analysis This is a single-centre, parallel-group, prospective randomised control trial. Twenty patients will be randomised in a 1:1 allocation ratio into the intervention and control arms. In addition to conventional echocardiography, MRI T2* values for assessment of cardiac and liver iron load will be obtained at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Cardiac T2* will be reported as the geometric mean and per cent coefficient of variation, and an increase in cardiac T2* values from baseline will be used as an end point to compare the efficacy of therapy. A p Value of <0.05 will be considered significant. Study setting Department of Pediatric and Child Health, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Ethics Review Committee and Clinical Trials Unit at The Aga Khan University with respect to scientific content and compliance with applicable research and human subjects regulations. Findings will be reported through scientific publications and research conferences and project summary papers for participants. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.Gov. Registration no: NCT02065492. PMID:25492271

  5. MOON for neutrino-less {beta}{beta} decays and {beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Ejiri, H.

    2009-11-09

    The MOON project aims at spectroscopic 0v{beta}{beta} studies with the v-mass sensitivity of 100-30 meV by measuring two beta rays from {sup 100}Mo and/or {sup 82}Se. The detector is a compact super-module of multi-layer PL scintillator plates. R and D works made by the pro to-type MOON-1 and the small PL plate show the possible energy resolution of around {sigma}{approx}2.2%, as required for the mass sensitivity. Nuclear matrix elements M{sup 2v} for 2v{beta}{beta} are shown to be given by the sum {sigma}{sub L}M{sub k} of the 2v{beta}{beta} matrix elements M{sub k} through intermediate quasi-particle states in the Fermi-surface, where Mi is obtained experimentally by using the GT(J{sup {pi}} = 1{sup +}) matrix elements of M{sub i}(k) and M{sub f}(k) for the successive single-{beta} transitions through the k-th intermediate state.

  6. Beta-Carotene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-carotene is a pigment that occurs naturally in many photosynthetic plants and organisms and one of the most abundant carotenoids found in human blood. The richest dietary sources of beta-carotene are yellow, orange, and leafy green fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes...

  7. BETA GAUGE OPERATION MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual provides description and operating instructions for a redesigned Beta Gauge for measuring particles from vehicle exhaust. The improvements and a new control system including a control unit which is radically different from the prior unit, are described. Complete Beta ...

  8. Anxiety: States, Traits--Situations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the utility of situational assessments of trait anxiety in predicting state anxiety reactions. Results indicated that the STAI-A-Trait and the S-R GTA Evaluation measures correlated significantly higher with each other than either did with the S-R GTA Physical Danger measure. Both stresses produced significant increases in state…

  9. Trait Modification in Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of beneficial traits such as virulence, reproductive potential, and environmental tolerance are key factors in determining an organisms ability to produce high levels of efficacy in biological control. Beneficial traits in entomopathogenic nematodes have been enhanced through molecular me...

  10. Disorders of haemoglobin in China.

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Y T; Huang, S Z

    1987-01-01

    A large scale survey of haemoglobinopathies and thalassaemia has been carried out in China, involving 900,000 people in 28 provinces. It has resulted in the finding of many new variants and some interesting cases of thalassaemia, and in a study on the chemical structure of abnormal haemoglobins and DNA analysis of thalassaemia. We report here data on haemoglobin disorders in the Chinese, mainly the characterisation of the geographical distribution of haemoglobin variants, the analysis of globin genes of alpha, beta, gamma, or delta beta thalassaemia, and the progress in prenatal diagnosis of alpha and beta thalassaemia conducted in the authors' laboratory. PMID:3500312

  11. Exaggerated trait growth in insects.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Laura; Gotoh, Hiroki; Brent, Colin S; Dworkin, Ian; Emlen, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size the surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles (Lucanidae), the claspers of praying mantids (Mantidae), the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera), and the giant heads of soldier ants (Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera). Developmentally, disproportionate growth can arise through trait-specific modifications to the activity of at least four pathways: the sex determination pathway, the appendage patterning pathway, the insulin/IGF signaling pathway, and the juvenile hormone/ecdysteroid pathway. Although most exaggerated traits have not been studied mechanistically, it is already apparent that distinct developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of the different types of exaggerated traits. We suggest this reflects the nature of selection in each instance, revealing an exciting link between mechanism, form, and function. We use this information to make explicit predictions for the types of regulatory pathways likely to underlie each type of exaggerated trait. PMID:25341090

  12. Bayesian Shrinkage Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci for Dynamic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Runqing; Xu, Shizhong

    2007-01-01

    Many quantitative traits are measured repeatedly during the life of an organism. Such traits are called dynamic traits. The pattern of the changes of a dynamic trait is called the growth trajectory. Studying the growth trajectory may enhance our understanding of the genetic architecture of the growth trajectory. Recently, we developed an interval-mapping procedure to map QTL for dynamic traits under the maximum-likelihood framework. We fit the growth trajectory by Legendre polynomials. The method intended to map one QTL at a time and the entire QTL analysis involved scanning the entire genome by fitting multiple single-QTL models. In this study, we propose a Bayesian shrinkage analysis for estimating and mapping multiple QTL in a single model. The method is a combination between the shrinkage mapping for individual quantitative traits and the Legendre polynomial analysis for dynamic traits. The multiple-QTL model is implemented in two ways: (1) a fixed-interval approach where a QTL is placed in each marker interval and (2) a moving-interval approach where the position of a QTL can be searched in a range that covers many marker intervals. Simulation study shows that the Bayesian shrinkage method generates much better signals for QTL than the interval-mapping approach. We propose several alternative methods to present the results of the Bayesian shrinkage analysis. In particular, we found that the Wald test-statistic profile can serve as a mechanism to test the significance of a putative QTL. PMID:17435239

  13. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  14. Cognitive and affective mechanisms linking trait mindfulness to craving among individuals in addiction recovery.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia; Kelley, Karen; Tronnier, Christine; Hanley, Adam

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to identify affective, cognitive, and conative mediators of the relation between trait mindfulness and craving in data culled from an urban sample of 165 persons (in abstinence verified by urinalysis) entering into residential treatment for substance use disorders between 2010 and 2012. Multivariate path analysis adjusting for age, gender, education level, employment status, and substance use frequency indicated that the association between the total trait mindfulness score on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and alcohol/drug craving was statistically mediated by negative affect (measured by the PANAS, beta = -.13) and cognitive reappraisal (measured by the CERQ, beta = -.08), but not by readiness to change (measured by the URICA, beta = -.001). Implications for mindfulness-oriented treatment of persons with substance use disorders are discussed. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:24611848

  15. Masked deficit of vitamin B12 in the patient with heterozygous beta-thalassemia and spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Bilic, Ernest; Bilic, Ervina; Zagar, Marija; Juric, Stjepan

    2004-12-01

    The spinal cord, brain, optic nerves and peripheral nerves may be affected by vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency. Deficiency of vitamin B12 also causes megaloblastic anaemia, meaning that the red blood cells are usually larger than normal. In this paper we report a 16-year old girl who was referred to us for the evaluation of mild paraparesis and paresthesias marked by tingling "pins and needles" feelings and general weakness. The patient, her parents and sisters were on a strict vegan diet, which made us believe that vitamin B12 deficiency may be the possible cause of the neurologic clinical manifestations. The serum level of vitamin B12 was low, but there was no macrocytosis in the routine blood examination. The electrophoresis of haemoglobin was pathologic, there was 3.7% of HbA2 and 11.6% of HbF (heterozygous form of beta-thalassaemia). When megaloblastic anaemia occurs in combination with a condition that gives rise to microcytic anaemia, many megaloblastic features may be masked. Instead of being macrocytic, the anaemia could be normocytic or even microcytic. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a diagnosis that must not be overlooked. This case report turns the light on the fact that increased MCV is a hallmark in vitamin B12 deficiency, but it is not an obligatory sign. PMID:15742609

  16. Beta-carotene

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain in people who drink alcohol. Preventing abdominal aortic aneurysm, or the enlargement of a large vessel running ... years does not reduce the occurrence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in male smokers. Cancer. Beta-carotene does not ...

  17. High beta multipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, S C

    1982-05-01

    Multipoles are being employed as devices to study fusion issues and plasma phenomena at high values of beta (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) in a controlled manner. Due to their large volume, low magnetic field (low synchrotron radiation) region, they are also under consideration as potential steady state advanced fuel (low neutron yield) reactors. Present experiments are investigating neoclassical (bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter) currents and plasma stability at extremely high beta.

  18. Forming impressions from incongruent traits.

    PubMed

    Casselden, P A; Hampson, S E

    1990-08-01

    The factors that affect the ease with which impressions are formed from incongruent trait pairs are investigated. In Experiments 1 and 2, trait pairs that were both descriptively and evaluatively congruent, as well as ones that were only evaluatively congruent, were found to be more imaginable and to be perceived as more frequently co-occurring than incongruent trait pairs. In Experiment 3, response latency provided a converging measure of ease of imaginability. Experiment 4 examined written descriptions of targets described by these trait pairs, and found more attempts to integrate the congruent than the incongruent pairs. These findings are discussed in terms of the relation between laypersons' impressions of personality and formal personality assessment. PMID:2213498

  19. Authoritarian Personality Traits Among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of an investigation into the social attitudes of the total population (800) of one English university using Adorno's F scale to measure authoritarian personality traits. (Author)

  20. Comparison of genomic, marker-assisted, and pedigree-BLUP selection methods to increase beta-glucan concentration in elite oat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-glucan, a soluble fiber found in oat grain, is good for human health, and selection for higher levels of this compound is regarded as an important breeding objective. Recent advances in oat DNA markers present an opportunity to investigate new selection methods for polygenic traits such as beta...

  1. Multiple trait analysis of genetic mapping for quantitative trait loci

    SciTech Connect

    Changjian Jiang |; Zhao-Bang Zeng,

    1995-07-01

    We present in this paper models and statistical methods for performing multiple trait analysis on mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the composite interval mapping method. By taking into account the correlated structure of multiple traits, this joint analysis has several advantages, compared with separate analyses, for mapping QTL, including the expected improvement on the statistical power of the test for QTL and on the precision of parameter estimation. Also this joint analysis provides formal procedures to test a number of biologically interesting hypotheses concerning the nature of genetic correlations between different traits. Among the testing procedures considered are those for joint mapping, pleiotropy, QTL by environment interaction, and pleiotropy vs. close linkage. The test of pleiotropy (one pleiotropic QTL at a genome position) vs. close linkage (multiple nearby nonpleiotropic QTL) can have important implications for our understanding of the nature of genetic correlations between different traits in certain regions of a genome and also for practical applications in animal and plant breeding because one of the major goals in breeding is to break unfavorable linkage. Results of extensive simulation studies are presented to illustrate various properties of the analyses. 14 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Quantitative trait loci for biofortification traits in maize grain.

    PubMed

    Simić, Domagoj; Mladenović Drinić, Snezana; Zdunić, Zvonimir; Jambrović, Antun; Ledencan, Tatjana; Brkić, Josip; Brkić, Andrija; Brkić, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Detecting genes that influence biofortification traits in cereal grain could help increase the concentrations of bioavailable mineral elements in crops to solve the global mineral malnutrition problem. The aims of this study were to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in maize grain in a mapping population, as well as QTLs for bioavailable Fe, Zn, and Mg, by precalculating their respective ratios with P. Elemental analysis of grain samples was done by coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry in 294 F(4) lines of a biparental population taken from field trials of over 3 years. The population was mapped using sets of 121 polymorphic markers. QTL analysis revealed 32 significant QTLs detected for 7 traits, of which some were colocalized. The Additive-dominant model revealed highly significant additive effects, suggesting that biofortification traits in maize are generally controlled by numerous small-effect QTLs. Three QTLs for Fe/P, Zn/P, and Mg/P were colocalized on chromosome 3, coinciding with simple sequence repeats marker bnlg1456, which resides in close proximity to previously identified phytase genes (ZM phys1 and phys2). Thus, we recommend the ratios as bioavailability traits in biofortification research. PMID:22071312

  3. Boosted Beta Regression

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Matthias; Wickler, Florian; Maloney, Kelly O.; Mitchell, Richard; Fenske, Nora; Mayr, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1). Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures. PMID:23626706

  4. Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

  5. IO SUBSYSTEM 1 BETA

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-08-21

    "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" uses standard object-oriented principles to minimize dependencies between the underlying input or output database format and the client code (i.e., Sierra) using the io subsystem. The interface and priciples are simolar to the Facade pattern described in the "Design Patterns" book by Gamma, et.al. The software uses data authentication algorithms to ensure data input/output is consistent with model being defined. "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" is a database independent input/outputmore » library for finite element analysis, preprocessing, post processing, and translation programs.« less

  6. IO SUBSYSTEM 1 BETA

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, Greg

    2002-08-21

    "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" uses standard object-oriented principles to minimize dependencies between the underlying input or output database format and the client code (i.e., Sierra) using the io subsystem. The interface and priciples are simolar to the Facade pattern described in the "Design Patterns" book by Gamma, et.al. The software uses data authentication algorithms to ensure data input/output is consistent with model being defined. "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" is a database independent input/output library for finite element analysis, preprocessing, post processing, and translation programs.

  7. Relation between the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} and 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Petr; Simkovic, Fedor

    2011-12-16

    A formal relation between the GT part of the nuclear matrix elements M{sub GT}{sup 0{nu}} of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the closure matrix elements M{sub cl}{sup 2{nu}} of 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is established. This relation is based on the integral representation of these quantities in terms of their dependence on the distance r between the two nucleons undergoing transformation. We also discuss the difficulties in determining the correct values of the closure 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay matrix elements.

  8. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings. PMID:24576635

  9. Comparison of Doppler echocardiographic and tissue Doppler velocity data in beta-thalassaemia major with high and normal NT-proBNP levels of children in the south-east region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    ner, Taliha; Oymak, Ye?im; elik, Hseyin Tu?rul

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been reported that N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is early biomarker of iron- induced cardiomyopathy in ?-thalassemia major (?-TM). In this study, we aimed to assess the Doppler echocardiographic, tissue Doppler velocity datas and clinical characteristics in ?-TM patients with high and normal NT-proBNP levels who have normal systolic function. Material and method Fifty-eight ?-TM patients who were on regular transfusion in every 3-4 weeks for more than one year and 20 healthy children were included into the study. According to NT-proBNP levels, ?-TM patients are divided in two groups. Group I: the patients with high NT-proBNP levels; Group II: the patients with normal NT-proBNP levels. Results The mean serum NT-proBNP levels were significantly increased in patients with ?-TM compared to control group (P<0.05). The serum ferritin levels were ranged between 676-9,476 ng/mL (mean: 3,7162,003 ng/mL) in ?-TM. No correlation was found between ferritin and NT-pro BNP in patients with ?-TM. The mean age and body surface area (BSA) were significantly low in group with high NT-proBNP compared to group with normal NT-proBNP (P<0.01). The mean heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were elevated, but not significantly in group with high NT-proBNP. Also, the mean ferritin and hemoglobin levels were decreased in this group compared to group with normal NT-proBNP, but statistically not significant. The left ventricular end diastole (LVED) diameters and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) values were found significantly decreased in group with high NT-proBNP compared to other group respectively (P<0.001, P<0,05). Right ventricular early diastolic tricuspid inflow velocity/early diastolic tissue Doppler indices (TDI) tricuspid annular velocity (RV E/E?) were found increased in group with high NT-proBNP levels and difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). In addition, NT-pro BNP was found correlated with RV E/E? (r: 0.320). Conclusions According to our result, elevated NT-proBNP level was correlated with RVE/E?, but it was not associated with ferritin level. The serum NT-proBNP level may be increased as a response to increased myocardial workload and decreased hemoglobin level in patients who have an increased need for transfusion. PMID:26835348

  10. Genetics of reproductive traits: Antagonisms with production traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science, because artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. The addition of genetic techn...

  11. TraitBank: An Open Digital Repository for Organism Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TraitBank currently serves over 11 million measurements and facts for more than 1.7 million taxa. These data are mobilized from major biodiversity information systems (e.g., International Union for Conservation of Nature, Ocean Biogeographic Information System, Paleobiology Database), literature sup...

  12. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  13. beta-Chloronaphthalene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Chloronaphthalene ; CASRN 91 - 58 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  14. beta-Propiolactone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Propiolactone ; CASRN 57 - 57 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  15. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  16. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications ...

  17. Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: B2M; B 2 M; β2-Microglobulin; Thymotaxin Formal name: Beta 2 ...

  18. Phylogenetic conservatism of functional traits in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Martiny, Adam C; Treseder, Kathleen; Pusch, Gordon

    2013-04-01

    A central question in biology is how biodiversity influences ecosystem functioning. Underlying this is the relationship between organismal phylogeny and the presence of specific functional traits. The relationship is complicated by gene loss and convergent evolution, resulting in the polyphyletic distribution of many traits. In microorganisms, lateral gene transfer can further distort the linkage between phylogeny and the presence of specific functional traits. To identify the phylogenetic conservation of specific traits in microorganisms, we developed a new phylogenetic metric-consenTRAIT-to estimate the clade depth where organisms share a trait. We then analyzed the distribution of 89 functional traits across a broad range of Bacteria and Archaea using genotypic and phenotypic data. A total of 93% of the traits were significantly non-randomly distributed, which suggested that vertical inheritance was generally important for the phylogenetic dispersion of functional traits in microorganisms. Further, traits in microbes were associated with a continuum of trait depths (τD), ranging from a few deep to many shallow clades (average τD: 0.101-0.0011 rRNA sequence dissimilarity). Next, we demonstrated that the dispersion and the depth of clades that contain a trait is correlated with the trait's complexity. Specifically, complex traits encoded by many genes like photosynthesis and methanogenesis were found in a few deep clusters, whereas the ability to use simple carbon substrates was highly phylogenetically dispersed. On the basis of these results, we propose a framework for predicting the phylogenetic conservatism of functional traits depending on the complexity of the trait. This framework enables predicting how variation in microbial composition may affect microbially-mediated ecosystem processes as well as linking phylogenetic and trait-based patterns of biogeography. PMID:23235290

  19. Antagonistic coevolution between quantitative and Mendelian traits.

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Masato; Ellner, Stephen P

    2016-03-30

    Coevolution is relentlessly creating and maintaining biodiversity and therefore has been a central topic in evolutionary biology. Previous theoretical studies have mostly considered coevolution between genetically symmetric traits (i.e. coevolution between two continuous quantitative traits or two discrete Mendelian traits). However, recent empirical evidence indicates that coevolution can occur between genetically asymmetric traits (e.g. between quantitative and Mendelian traits). We examine consequences of antagonistic coevolution mediated by a quantitative predator trait and a Mendelian prey trait, such that predation is more intense with decreased phenotypic distance between their traits (phenotype matching). This antagonistic coevolution produces a complex pattern of bifurcations with bistability (initial state dependence) in a two-dimensional model for trait coevolution. Furthermore, with eco-evolutionary dynamics (so that the trait evolution affects predator-prey population dynamics), we find that coevolution can cause rich dynamics including anti-phase cycles, in-phase cycles, chaotic dynamics and deterministic predator extinction. Predator extinction is more likely to occur when the prey trait exhibits complete dominance rather than semidominance and when the predator trait evolves very rapidly. Our study illustrates how recognizing the genetic architectures of interacting ecological traits can be essential for understanding the population and evolutionary dynamics of coevolving species. PMID:27009218

  20. Ecological interactions drive evolutionary loss of traits.

    PubMed

    Ellers, Jacintha; Kiers, E Toby; Currie, Cameron R; McDonald, Bradon R; Visser, Bertanne

    2012-10-01

    Loss of traits can dramatically alter the fate of species. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that the prevalence of trait loss is grossly underestimated. New findings demonstrate that traits can be lost without affecting the external phenotype, provided the lost function is compensated for by species interactions. This is important because trait loss can tighten the ecological relationship between partners, affecting the maintenance of species interactions. Here, we develop a new perspective on so-called `compensated trait loss' and how this type of trait loss may affect the evolutionary dynamics between interacting organisms. We argue that: (1) the frequency of compensated trait loss is currently underestimated because it can go unnoticed as long as ecological interactions are maintained; (2) by analysing known cases of trait loss, specific factors promoting compensated trait loss can be identified and (3) genomic sequencing is a key way forwards in detecting compensated trait loss. We present a comprehensive literature survey showing that compensated trait loss is taxonomically widespread, can involve essential traits, and often occurs as replicated evolutionary events. Despite its hidden nature, compensated trait loss is important in directing evolutionary dynamics of ecological relationships and has the potential to change facultative ecological interactions into obligatory ones. PMID:22747703

  1. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  2. Exaggerated trait growth in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size other, surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles, the claspers of praying mantises, the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers, and the giant heads of soldie...

  3. Evolution of selenium utilization traits

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Héctor; Zhang, Yan; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Salinas, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Background The essential trace element selenium is used in a wide variety of biological processes. Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid, is co-translationally incorporated into a restricted set of proteins. It is encoded by an UGA codon with the help of tRNASec (SelC), Sec-specific elongation factor (SelB) and a cis-acting mRNA structure (SECIS element). In addition, Sec synthase (SelA) and selenophosphate synthetase (SelD) are involved in the biosynthesis of Sec on the tRNASec. Selenium is also found in the form of 2-selenouridine, a modified base present in the wobble position of certain tRNAs, whose synthesis is catalyzed by YbbB using selenophosphate as a precursor. Results We analyzed completely sequenced genomes for occurrence of the selA, B, C, D and ybbB genes. We found that selB and selC are gene signatures for the Sec-decoding trait. However, selD is also present in organisms that do not utilize Sec, and shows association with either selA, B, C and/or ybbB. Thus, selD defines the overall selenium utilization. A global species map of Sec-decoding and 2-selenouridine synthesis traits is provided based on the presence/absence pattern of selenium-utilization genes. The phylogenies of these genes were inferred and compared to organismal phylogenies, which identified horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events involving both traits. Conclusion These results provide evidence for the ancient origin of these traits, their independent maintenance, and a highly dynamic evolutionary process that can be explained as the result of speciation, differential gene loss and HGT. The latter demonstrated that the loss of these traits is not irreversible as previously thought. PMID:16086848

  4. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject’s ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak. PMID:25978647

  5. SNS Medium Beta Cryomodule Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Isidoro Campisi; Edward Daly; G. Davis; Jean Delayen; Christiana Grenoble; John Hogan; Lawrence King; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Mircea Stirbet; Haipeng Wang; Mark Wiseman

    2003-09-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) is producing 24 Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cold linac. This includes one medium-beta (0.61) prototype, 11 medium-beta production, and 12 high-beta (0.81) production cryomodules. Each of the medium-beta cryomodules is scheduled to undergo complete operational performance testing at Jefferson Laboratory before shipment to ORNL. To date, the prototype and three production models of the medium beta cryomodule have been tested. The performance results of the tested cryomodules will be discussed.

  6. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS ANALYSIS AND METABOLIC PATHWAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of molecular markers for crop plants has enabled research on the genetic basis of quantitative traits. However, despite more than a decade of these studies, called quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, the molecular basis for variation in most agronomic traits is still largely unk...

  7. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also augmented with additional traits that are relevant to detecting climate change-related ef...

  8. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting haematological traits in swine via genome scanning

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Haematological traits, which consist of mainly three components: leukocyte traits, erythrocyte traits and platelet traits, play extremely important role in animal immune function and disease resistance. But knowledge of the genetic background controlling variability of these traits is very limited, especially in swine. Results In the present study, 18 haematological traits (7 leukocyte traits, 7 erythrocyte traits and 4 platelet traits) were measured in a pig resource population consisting of 368 purebred piglets of three breeds (Landrace, Large White and Songliao Black Pig), after inoculation with the swine fever vaccine when the pigs were 21 days old. A whole-genome scan of QTL for these traits was performed using 206 microsatellite markers covering all 18 autosomes and the X chromosome. Using variance component analysis based on a linear mixed model and the false discovery rate (FDR) test, 35 QTL with FDR < 0.10 were identified: 3 for the leukocyte traits, 28 for the erythrocyte traits, and 4 for the platelet traits. Of the 35 QTL, 25 were significant at FDR < 0.05 level, including 9 significant at FDR < 0.01 level. Conclusions Very few QTL were previously identified for hematological traits of pigs and never in purebred populations. Most of the QTL detected here, in particular the QTL for the platelet traits, have not been reported before. Our results lay important foundation for identifying the causal genes underlying the hematological trait variations in pigs. PMID:20584270

  9. DETECTION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING MILK PRODUCTION, HEALTH, AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report putative quantitative trait loci affecting female fertility and milk production traits using the merged data from groups that conducted independent genome scans in Dairy Bull DNA Repository grandsire families to identify quantitative trait loci affecting economically important traits. Six ...

  10. Beta-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta globin gene on chromosome 11, leading to reduced (beta+) or absent (beta0) synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin (Hb). Transmission is autosomal recessive; however, dominant mutations have also been reported. Diagnosis of thalassemia is based on hematologic and molecular genetic testing. Differential diagnosis is usually straightforward but may include genetic sideroblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and other conditions with high levels of HbF (such as juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and aplastic anemia). Genetic counseling is recommended and prenatal diagnosis may be offered. Treatment of thalassemia major includes regular RBC transfusions, iron chelation and management of secondary complications of iron overload. In some circumstances, spleen removal may be required. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only definitive cure currently available. Individuals with thalassemia intermedia may require splenectomy, folic acid supplementation, treatment of extramedullary erythropoietic masses and leg ulcers, prevention and therapy of thromboembolic events. Prognosis for individuals with beta-thalassemia has improved substantially in the last 20 years following recent medical advances in transfusion, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation therapy. However, cardiac disease remains the main cause of death in patients with iron overload. PMID:20492708

  11. Measurement of $\\beta_s$ at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, Louise; /Oxford U.

    2011-02-01

    The latest results for the measurement of the CP violating phase {beta}{sub s} in B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi}{phi} decays, from 5.2 fb{sup -1} integrated luminosity of CDF data are presented. For the first time, this measurement includes the contribution of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi}K{sup +}K{sup -} or B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi}f{sub 0} events to the signal sample, where the f{sub 0} and non-resonant K{sup +}K{sup -} are S-wave states. Additional improvements to the analysis include more than doubling the signal sample, improved selection and particle ID, and fully calibrated flavour tagging for the full dataset. Additionally, the world's most precise single measurements of the B{sub s}{sup 0} lifetime, {tau}{sub s}, and width difference, {Delta}{Gamma}{sub s} are given.

  12. Thermophilic Beta-Glycosidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grogan, Dennis W.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes identification of thermophilic Beta-glycosidase enzyme from isolate of Sulfolobus solfataricus, sulfur-metabolizing archaebacteria growing aerobically and heterotrophically to relatively high cell yields. Enzyme useful in enzymatic conversion of cellulose to D-glucose and important in recycling of biomass. Used for removal of lactose from milk products. Offers promise as model substance for elucidation of basic principles of structural stabilization of proteins.

  13. POST-HARVEST STORAGE TRAITS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After harvest, most of the sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) crop is stored in exposed piles for up to 200 days awaiting processing. During this time respiration, rot, accumulation of impurities, and physical deterioration decrease extractable sucrose. Differences in storage respiration rates have been...

  14. Group-level traits emerge.

    PubMed

    Smaldino, Paul E

    2014-06-01

    Most commentators supported the thesis of the target article, though there were also those who were less fully persuaded. I will begin with a response to the most critical commentaries. First, I will justify an evolutionary perspective that includes group organization and nongenetic inheritance. Next, I will discuss the concept of emergence. Following that, I will transition to an exploration of ideas and concerns brought up by some of the more supportive commentators. This will include a discussion of different types of groups; the psychology of group-level traits; the uses and limitations of an institutional perspective; the link between transmission, adaptation, and selection; current and future methodologies; and the variety of fields that may benefit from a group-level traits perspective. PMID:25101360

  15. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-05-04

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points ({beta}*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of {beta}* value and {beta}-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for {beta}-waist location control.

  16. A different molecular pattern of beta-thalassemia mutations in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Aderson S; Silva, l Wilson A Júnior; Leão, Silvana A C; Bandeira, Flavia C G M; Petrou, Mary; Modell, Bernadette; Zago, Marco A

    2003-11-01

    The main hereditary hemoglobin (Hb) disorders of clinical significance in Brazil are sickle cell disease and beta-thalassemia (thal). The sickle gene was introduced by the slave trade, whereas beta-thal was introduced later, due to a massive immigration (mostly by Italians) between 1870 and 1953, mainly to the southeast region of Brazil. Molecular studies performed in the southeast of the country showed a marked prevalence of the nonsense mutation at codon 39 (C --> T) (47-54%), leading to severe forms of beta0-thal. However, the northeast region of the country has a different demographic history, characterized by the absence of the massive Italian immigration. Owing to this and since the majority of cases of beta-thal in Pernambuco, a state located in the northeast of the country, have mild or intermediate clinical and laboratory features, we would predict a different spectrum of beta-thal mutations in this region. We examined 60 unrelated patients (86 beta-thal chromosomes) under regular clinical follow-up in Pernambuco: 6 were regularly transfused beta-thal major subjects, 20 had beta-thal intermedia, 20 had Hb S/beta-thal and 14 were beta-thal trait individuals. The following mutations were found: IVS-I-6 (T --> C) 62.8%, IVS-I-1 (G -->A) 15.1%, IVS-I-5 (G --> C) 9.3%, IVS-I-110 (G --> A) 8.2%, codon 39 (C --> T) 3.5%, and codon 30 (AGG --> AGC) 1.1%. These data show different patterns of beta-thal mutations in two regions of Brazil, demonstrating a thus far unrevealed heterogeneity of the disease in the country. PMID:14649311

  17. Solergy (Beta Version 1)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-03-30

    SOLERGY simulates the operation and power output of a user-defined solar central receiver power plant for a time period of up to one year. SOLERGY utilizes recorded or simulated weather data and plant component performance models to calculate the power flowing through each part of the solar plant. A plant control subroutine monitors these powers and determines when to operate the various plant subsystems. The original version of the code was released in May 1987,more » within SAND86-8060 and was widely distributed. The Beta Version 1 to be released in 2009, includes some relatively small modifications to the original code.« less

  18. Biological and ecological traits of Trichoptera: the influence of phylogeny on life history and behavioral traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, P. K.; Resh, V. H.

    2005-05-01

    Biological and ecological traits of fauna have the potential to indicate changes in community structure that relate to function as an alternative to using traditional taxonomic descriptors. However, traits may be inherited, and consequently, not all species traits are independent of phylogeny. When used in analyses of community structure, results based on traits may be difficult to interpret; suites of traits may respond together even if only one trait is responding to changes in the habitat. To determine the relationship between traits and phylogeny, we examined life history and behavioral traits for the extant 45 families of Trichoptera. Traits such as larval size, respiratory strategies, case or net materials, locomotion, food and functional feeding group, voltanism, diapause, habitat, and reproduction were collected from published life histories. Traits were then coded and mapped onto the phylogeny of Trichoptera to determine the correlations between traits, as well as correlations directly influenced by the phylogeny. Traits such as functional feeding group, reproductive strategies, and building materials were correlated with phylogeny, while traits such as locomotion and habitat type were less influenced by phylogeny. Consideration of macroinvertebrate phylogenies when selecting biological and ecological traits may be essential for accurate interpretation of community function.

  19. New technologies for integrating genomic, environmental and trait data.

    PubMed

    Church, George M

    2011-10-15

    Rare diseases, which (by definition) occur at a frequency less than 1/2000 per allele - are individually rare, yet common collectively (10% affected and 50% carrier rates). There are 1800 genes which have tests considered highly predictive and actionable. Human genes with known variants causing insomnia, narcolepsy, and circadian variation include Prion Protein Fatal Familial Insomnia (PRNP), hypocretin (HCRT), DQ beta 1 (DQB1), and period circadian protein homolog (PER2). We have developed human genome sequencing technology that lowered costs a million-fold over the past 6 yr. This has increasingly enabled the use of the causative alleles above, which are far more valuable than merely correlated or common variants. To expand this further we have established community resources for open access collection, integration and interpretation of diverse personal genomic, environmental and trait data evidence.personalgenomes.org). PMID:22003332

  20. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  1. Scintillator based beta batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  2. Beta-trimethylsilyl cyclopropylcarbenes.

    PubMed

    Creary, X; Butchko, M A

    2001-02-23

    Thermal decomposition of the in situ generated lithium salt of the tosylhydrazone derivative of cyclopropyl trimethylsilylmethyl ketone gave 1-cyclopropyl-1-trimethylsilylethylene, a product of exclusive silyl migration. Thermal decomposition of the sodium salts of tosylhydrazone derivatives of 1-trimethylsilylcyclopropyl alkyl ketones also gave methylenecyclopropane products derived from trimethylsilyl migration. These reactions were interpreted in terms of rapid trimethylsilyl migration to carbene-like centers that compete effectively with ring expansion processes of cyclopropylcarbenes. Computational studies (B3LYP/6-31G) suggest that cyclopropyl stabilization of carbenes is more effective than beta-trimethylsilyl stabilization. However, beta-trimethylsilyl stabilized conformations are easily attained, and these conformations can lead to silyl migrations. There are two minimum energy conformations of methyl-1-trimethylsilylcyclopropylcarbene, 27, and the rotational barrier to interconversion of these conformations (5.4 kcal/mol) is substantially lower than in the parent cyclopropylcarbene (15 kcal/mol). The onset of a stabilizing interaction in the transition state between the carbene vacant orbital with the adjacent Si-C sigma-orbital is proposed. Computational studies also show a very small (2.0 kcal/mol) barrier for trimethylsilyl migration in trimethylsilylmethyl cyclopropylcarbene, 11. PMID:11312937

  3. Trait anxiety and trait anger measured by ecological momentary assessment and their correspondence with traditional trait questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Donald; Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Chaplin, William F.; Burg, Matthew M.; Stone, Arthur A.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessments (EMA) of anxiety and anger/hostility were obtained every 25–30 minutes over two 24-hour periods, separated by a median of 6 months, from 165 employees at a university in the Northeast. We used a multilevel trait-state-error structural equation model to estimate: (1) the proportion of variance in EMA anxiety and anger/hostility attributable to stable trait-like individual differences; (2) the correspondence between these trait-like components of EMA anxiety and anger/hostility and traditional questionnaire measures of each construct; and (3) the test-retest correlation between two 24-hour averages obtained several months apart. After adjustment for measurement error, more than half the total variance in EMA reports of anxiety and anger/hostility is attributable to stable trait-like individual differences; however, the trait-like component of each construct is only modestly correlated with questionnaire measures of that construct. The 6-month “test-retest” correlations of latent variables representing the true 24-hour EMA average anxiety and average anger are quite high (r ≥ 0.83). This study represents the longest follow-up period over which EMA-based estimates of traits have been examined. The results suggest that although the trait component (individual differences) of EMA momentary ratings of anxiety and anger is larger than the state component, traditional self-report questionnaires of trait anxiety and anger correspond only weakly with EMA-defined traits. PMID:24198441

  4. The stay-green trait.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Howard; Ougham, Helen

    2014-07-01

    Stay-green (sometimes staygreen) refers to the heritable delayed foliar senescence character in model and crop plant species. In a cosmetic stay-green, a lesion interferes with an early step in chlorophyll catabolism. The possible contribution of synthesis to chlorophyll turnover in cosmetic stay-greens is considered. In functional stay-greens, the transition from the carbon capture period to the nitrogen mobilization (senescence) phase of canopy development is delayed, and/or the senescence syndrome proceeds slowly. Yield and composition in high-carbon (C) crops such as cereals, and in high-nitrogen (N) species such as legumes, reflect the source-sink relationship with canopy C capture and N remobilization. Quantitative trait loci studies show that functional stay-green is a valuable trait for improving crop stress tolerance, and is associated with the domestication syndrome in cereals. Stay-green variants reveal how autumnal senescence and dormancy are coordinated in trees. The stay-green phenotype can be the result of alterations in hormone metabolism and signalling, particularly affecting networks involving cytokinins and ethylene. Members of the WRKY and NAC families, and an ever-expanding cast of additional senescence-associated transcription factors, are identifiable by mutations that result in stay-green. Empirical selection for functional stay-green has contributed to increasing crop yields, particularly where it is part of a strategy that also targets other traits such as sink capacity and environmental sensitivity and is associated with appropriate crop management methodology. The onset and progress of senescence are phenological metrics that show climate change sensitivity, indicating that understanding stay-green can contribute to the design of appropriate crop types for future environments. PMID:24600017

  5. Multi-trait mimicry and the relative salience of individual traits.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Baharan; Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella; Leimar, Olof

    2015-11-01

    Mimicry occurs when one species gains protection from predators by resembling an unprofitable model species. The degree of mimic-model similarity is variable in nature and is closely related to the number of traits that the mimic shares with its model. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that the relative salience of traits, as perceived by a predator, is an important determinant of the degree of mimic-model similarity required for successful mimicry. We manipulated the relative salience of the traits of a two-trait artificial model prey, and subsequently tested the survival of mimics of the different traits. The unrewarded model prey had two colour traits, black and blue, and the rewarded prey had two combinations of green, brown and grey shades. Blue tits were used as predators. We found that the birds perceived the black and blue traits to be similarly salient in one treatment, and mimic-model similarity in both traits was then required for high mimic success. In a second treatment, the blue trait was the most salient trait, and mimic-model similarity in this trait alone achieved high success. Our results thus support the idea that similar salience of model traits can explain the occurrence of multi-trait mimicry. PMID:26511051

  6. Valence Effects in Reasoning About Evaluative Traits

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.

    2010-01-01

    Reasoning about evaluative traits was investigated among a group of 7- and 8-year-olds (N = 34), a group of 11- to 13-year olds (N = 25), and a group of adults (N = 23) to determine whether their inferences would be sensitive to the valence of social and academic traits. Four aspects of trait-relevant beliefs were examined: (1) malleability, (2) stability over time, (3) origin in terms of nature versus nurture, and (4) an inference criterion that concerns how readily traits are inferred. Although there was evidence of an age-related decrease in the tendency to emphasize positive information, participants of all ages responded that positive traits are less malleable and more stable over time than negative traits, that the positive influences of biological and environmental factors are likely to override the negative influences, and that competence can be more readily inferred from positive outcomes than from negative outcomes. PMID:20953297

  7. Cortical Gyrification Patterns Associated with Trait Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Miskovich, Tara A.; Pedersen, Walker S.; Belleau, Emily L.; Shollenbarger, Skyler; Lisdahl, Krista M.; Larson, Christine L.

    2016-01-01

    Dispositional anxiety is a stable personality trait that is a key risk factor for internalizing disorders, and understanding the neural correlates of trait anxiety may help us better understand the development of these disorders. Abnormal cortical folding is thought to reflect differences in cortical connectivity occurring during brain development. Therefore, assessing gyrification may advance understanding of cortical development and organization associated with trait anxiety. Previous literature has revealed structural abnormalities in trait anxiety and related disorders, but no study to our knowledge has examined gyrification in trait anxiety. We utilized a relatively novel measure, the local gyrification index (LGI), to explore differences in gyrification as a function of trait anxiety. We obtained structural MRI scans using a 3T magnetic resonance scanner on 113 young adults. Results indicated a negative correlation between trait anxiety and LGI in the left superior parietal cortex, specifically the precuneus, reflecting less cortical complexity among those high on trait anxiety. Our findings suggest that aberrations in cortical gyrification in a key region of the default mode network is a correlate of trait anxiety and may reflect disrupted local parietal connectivity. PMID:26872350

  8. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  9. Just a beta....

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, K. S.; Bailey, D. W.; Dorman, K. F.; Moos, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    Traditional implementation of clinical information systems follows a predictable project management process. The selection, development, implementation, and evaluation of the system and the project management aspects of those phases require considerable time and effort. The purpose of this paper is to describe the beta site implementation of a knowledge-based clinical information system in a specialty area of a southeastern hospital that followed a less than traditional approach to implementation. Highlighted are brief descriptions of the hospital's traditional process, the nontraditional process, and key findings from the experience. Preliminary analysis suggests that selection of an implementation process is contextual. Selection of elements from each of these methods may provide a more useful process. The non-traditional process approached the elements of communication, areas of responsibility, training, follow-up and leadership differently. These elements are common to both processes and provide a focal point for future research. PMID:10566425

  10. Beta systems error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric backscatter coefficient, beta, measured with an airborne CO Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system operating in a continuous wave, focussed model is discussed. The Single Particle Mode (SPM) algorithm, was developed from concept through analysis of an extensive amount of data obtained with the system on board a NASA aircraft. The SPM algorithm is intended to be employed in situations where one particle at a time appears in the sensitive volume of the LDV. In addition to giving the backscatter coefficient, the SPM algorithm also produces as intermediate results the aerosol density and the aerosol backscatter cross section distribution. A second method, which measures only the atmospheric backscatter coefficient, is called the Volume Mode (VM) and was simultaneously employed. The results of these two methods differed by slightly less than an order of magnitude. The measurement uncertainties or other errors in the results of the two methods are examined.

  11. Mechanisms underlying local functional and phylogenetic beta diversity in two temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xugao; Wiegand, Thorsten; Swenson, Nathan G; Wolf, Amy T; Howe, Robert W; Hao, Zhanqing; Lin, Fei; Ye, Ji; Yuan, Zuoqiang

    2015-04-01

    Although trait information has been widely used to explore underlying mechanisms of forest community structure, most studies have focused on local patterns of phylogenetic or functional alpha diversity. Investigations of functional beta diversity, on the other hand, have not been conducted at local scales in a spatially explicit way. In this study, we provide a powerful methodology based on recent advances in spatial point pattern analysis using fully mapped data of large and small trees in two large temperate forest plots. This approach allowed us to assess the relative importance of different ecological processes and mechanisms for explaining patterns of local phylogenetic and functional beta diversity. For both forests and size classes, we found a clear hierarchy of scales: habitat filtering accounted for patterns of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity at larger distances (150-250 m), dispersal limitation accounted for the observed decline in beta diversity at distances below 150 m, and species interactions explained small departures from functional and phylogenetic beta diversity at the immediate plant-neighborhood scale (below 20 m). Thus, both habitat filtering and dispersal limitation influenced the observed patterns in phylogenetic and functional beta diversity at local scales. This result contrasts with a previous study from the same forests, where dispersal limitation alone approximated the observed species beta diversity for distances up to 250 m. In addition, species interactions were relatively unimportant for predicting phylogenetic and functional beta diversity. Our analysis suggests that phylogenetic and functional beta diversity can provide insights into the mechanisms of local community assembly that are missed by studies focusing exclusively on species beta diversity. PMID:26230026

  12. Screening and genetic diagnosis of haemoglobin disorders.

    PubMed

    Old, J M

    2003-03-01

    The inherited haemoglobinopathies are large group of disorders that include the thalassaemias and sickle cell disease. Carrier detection methods must be able to detect alpha-, beta- and deltabeta-thalassaemias, HPFH disorders and haemoglobin variants. Carrier diagnosis involves the accurate measurement of MCH, MCV, Hb A(2) and Hb F values in combination with an understanding of the haematological characteristics of the different types of thalassaemia genes and their interactions. The majority of the common thalassaemia mutations and abnormal haemoglobins can be identified by PCR-based techniques. The main applications of molecular analysis for carrier diagnosis are: the analysis of alpha-thalassaemia mutations by gap-PCR to discriminate between heterozygous alpha-thalassaemia and homozygous alpha-thalassaemia; the identification of beta-thalassaemia mutations for patients requiring prenatal diagnosis and for the prediction of the severity of the clinical phenotype of homozygous beta-thalassaemia; to discriminate between deltabeta-thalassaemia and HPFH deletions by gap-PCR. PMID:12490210

  13. Genetics Home Reference: beta-ureidopropionase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... building blocks of DNA and its chemical cousin RNA. The beta-ureidopropionase enzyme is involved in the ... beta-ureidopropionase enzyme activity. Loss of this enzyme function reduces the production of beta-aminoisobutyric acid and ...

  14. ACCOUNTING FOR HETEROGENEOUS VARIANCES IN MULTI-TRAIT EVALUATION OF JERSEY TYPE TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The multi-trait genetic evaluation system for type traits was modified to estimate adjustments for heterogeneous variance (HV) simultaneously with estimated breeding values (EBV) for final score and 14 linear traits. Each within herd-year parity variance was regressed toward a predicted variance whi...

  15. Quantitative Trait Loci and Epistasis for Oat Winter Hardiness Component Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter hardiness is a complex trait and poor winter hardiness limits commercial production of winter oat. The objective of this study was to identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for the winter hardiness component traits: winter field survival, crown freeze tolerance, heading date, plant height an...

  16. Quantitative Trait Loci and Epistasis for Oat Winter Hardiness Component Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter hardiness is a complex trait and poor winter hardiness limits commercial production of winter oat (Avena species). The objective of this study was to identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for five winter hardiness component traits in a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross ...

  17. EEG activation differences in the pre-motor cortex and supplementary motor area between normal individuals with high and low traits of autism.

    PubMed

    Puzzo, Ignazio; Cooper, Nicholas R; Vetter, Petra; Russo, Riccardo

    2010-06-25

    The human mirror neuron system (hMNS) is believed to provide a basic mechanism for social cognition. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) in alpha (8-12Hz) and low beta band (12-20Hz) over sensori-motor cortex has been suggested to index mirror neurons' activity. We tested whether autistic traits revealed by high and low scores on the Autistic Quotient (AQ) in the normal population are linked to variations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) over motor, pre-motor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) during action observation. Results revealed that in the low AQ group, the pre-motor cortex and SMA were more active during hand action than static hand observation whereas in the high AQ group the same areas were active both during static and hand action observation. In fact participants with high traits of autism showed greater low beta ERD while observing the static hand than those with low traits and this low beta ERD was not significantly different when they watched hand actions. Over primary motor cortex, the classical alpha and low beta ERD during hand actions relative to static hand observation was found across all participants. These findings suggest that the observation-execution matching system works differently according to the degree of autism traits in the normal population and that this is differentiated in terms of the EEG according to scalp site and bandwidth. PMID:20435023

  18. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    PubMed Central

    Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Grewell, Brenda J.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Funk, Jennifer L.; James, Jeremy J.; Molinari, Nicole; Parker, Ingrid M.; Richards, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Global environmental change will affect non-native plant invasions, with profound potential impacts on native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, particularly those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness) and impacts, as well as the integration of these traits across multiple ecological scales, and as a basis for restoration and management. Scope We review the concepts and terminology surrounding functional traits and how functional traits influence processes at the individual level. We explore how phenotypic plasticity may lead to rapid evolution of novel traits facilitating invasiveness in changing environments and then ‘scale up’ to evaluate the relative importance of demographic traits and their links to invasion rates. We then suggest a functional trait framework for assessing per capita effects and, ultimately, impacts of invasive plants on plant communities and ecosystems. Lastly, we focus on the role of functional trait-based approaches in invasive species management and restoration in the context of rapid, global environmental change. Conclusions To understand how the abundance and impacts of invasive plants will respond to rapid environmental changes it is essential to link trait-based responses of invaders to changes in community and ecosystem properties. To do so requires a comprehensive effort that considers dynamic environmental controls and a targeted approach to understand key functional traits driving both invader abundance and impacts. If we are to predict future invasions, manage those at hand and use restoration technology to mitigate invasive species impacts, future research must focus on functional traits that promote invasiveness and invader impacts under changing conditions, and integrate major factors driving invasions from individual to ecosystem levels. PMID:22589328

  19. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants’ regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES. PMID:26484692

  20. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Underlying Function-Valued Traits Using Functional Principal Component Analysis and Multi-Trait Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Il-Youp; Moore, Candace R.; Spalding, Edgar P.; Broman, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    We previously proposed a simple regression-based method to map quantitative trait loci underlying function-valued phenotypes. In order to better handle the case of noisy phenotype measurements and accommodate the correlation structure among time points, we propose an alternative approach that maintains much of the simplicity and speed of the regression-based method. We overcome noisy measurements by replacing the observed data with a smooth approximation. We then apply functional principal component analysis, replacing the smoothed phenotype data with a small number of principal components. Quantitative trait locus mapping is applied to these dimension-reduced data, either with a multi-trait method or by considering the traits individually and then taking the average or maximum LOD score across traits. We apply these approaches to root gravitropism data on Arabidopsis recombinant inbred lines and further investigate their performance in computer simulations. Our methods have been implemented in the R package, funqtl. PMID:26530421

  1. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Underlying Function-Valued Traits Using Functional Principal Component Analysis and Multi-Trait Mapping.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Il-Youp; Moore, Candace R; Spalding, Edgar P; Broman, Karl W

    2015-01-01

    We previously proposed a simple regression-based method to map quantitative trait loci underlying function-valued phenotypes. In order to better handle the case of noisy phenotype measurements and accommodate the correlation structure among time points, we propose an alternative approach that maintains much of the simplicity and speed of the regression-based method. We overcome noisy measurements by replacing the observed data with a smooth approximation. We then apply functional principal component analysis, replacing the smoothed phenotype data with a small number of principal components. Quantitative trait locus mapping is applied to these dimension-reduced data, either with a multi-trait method or by considering the traits individually and then taking the average or maximum LOD score across traits. We apply these approaches to root gravitropism data on Arabidopsis recombinant inbred lines and further investigate their performance in computer simulations. Our methods have been implemented in the R package, funqtl. PMID:26530421

  2. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI≥6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  3. Two betas or not two betas: regulation of asymmetric division by beta-catenin.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, Kota; Sawa, Hitoshi

    2007-10-01

    In various organisms, cells divide asymmetrically to produce distinct daughter cells. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, asymmetric division is controlled by the asymmetric activity of a Wnt signaling pathway (the Wnt/beta-catenin asymmetry pathway). In this process, two specialized beta-catenin homologs have crucial roles in the transmission of Wnt signals to the asymmetric activity of a T-cell factor (TCF)-type transcription factor, POP-1, in the daughter cells. One beta-catenin homolog regulates the distinct nuclear level of POP-1, and the other functions as a coactivator of POP-1. Both beta-catenins localize asymmetrically in the daughter nuclei using different mechanisms. The recent discovery of reiterative nuclear asymmetries of a highly conserved beta-catenin in an annelid suggests that similar molecular mechanisms might regulate asymmetric cell divisions in other organisms. PMID:17919911

  4. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  5. Relation between the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} and 2{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Simkovic, Fedor; Hodak, Rastislav; Faessler, Amand; Vogel, Petr

    2011-01-15

    We show that the dominant Gamow-Teller part, M{sub GT}{sup 0}{nu} of the nuclear matrix element governing the neutrinoless {beta}{beta} decay is related to the matrix element M{sub cl}{sup 2}{nu} governing the allowed two-neutrino {beta}{beta} decay. That relation is revealed when these matrix elements are expressed as functions of the relative distance r between the pair of neutrons that are transformed into a pair of protons in the {beta}{beta} decay. Analyzing this relation allows us to understand the contrasting behavior of these matrix elements when A and Z is changed; while M{sub GT}{sup 0}{nu} changes slowly and smoothly, M{sup 2}{nu} has pronounced shell effects. We also discuss the possibility of phenomenological determination of the M{sub cl}{sup 2}{nu} and from them of the M{sub GT}{sup 0}{nu}values from the experimental study of the {beta}{sup {+-}} strength functions.

  6. Nonlinear subcritical magnetohydrodynamic beta limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, R. E.

    2010-07-01

    Published gyrokinetic simulations have had difficulty operating beyond about half the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) critical beta limit with stationary and low transport levels in some well-established reference cases. Here it is demonstrated that this limitation is unlikely due to numerical instability, but rather appears to be a nonlinear subcritical MHD beta limit [R. E. Waltz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1098 (1985)] induced by the locally enhanced pressure gradients from the diamagnetic component of the nonlinearly driven (zero frequency) zonal flows. Strong evidence that the zonal flow corrugated pressure gradient profiles can act as a MHD-like beta limit unstable secondary equilibrium is provided. It is shown that the addition of sufficient E ×B shear or operation closer to drift wave instability threshold, thereby reducing the high-n drift wave turbulence nonlinear pumping of the zonal flows, can allow the normal high-n ideal MHD beta limit to be reached with low transport levels. Example gyrokinetic simulations of experimental discharges are provided: one near the high-n beta limit reasonably matches the low transport levels needed when the high experimental level of E ×B shear is applied; a second experimental example at moderately high beta appears to be limited by the subcritical beta.

  7. Beneficial trait stability in entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of beneficial traits such as virulence, reproductive potential, and environmental tolerance are key factors in determining an organism’s ability to produce high levels of efficacy in biological control. Deterioration or loss of beneficial traits during laboratory or industrial culture prod...

  8. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    traits_cover.jpg" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="2" alt="Cover of the Freshwater Biological Traits Database Final Report"> This final report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biolo...

  9. Biological and ecological traits of marine species

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Simon; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Vandepitte, Leen; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Lear, Dan; Tyler-Walters, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species), namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them. PMID:26312188

  10. Genetic Dissection of Bioenergy Traits in Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a very attractive biomass crop for ethanol production because of its low water and fertilizer requirements, tolerance to heat and drought, high biomass yield, and great genetic diversity. Two traits are of particular interest: The sweet sorghum trait, which results in the accumulation of ...

  11. Trait-Based Perspectives of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaccaro, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    The trait-based perspective of leadership has a long but checkered history. Trait approaches dominated the initial decades of scientific leadership research. Later, they were disdained for their inability to offer clear distinctions between leaders and nonleaders and for their failure to account for situational variance in leadership behavior.…

  12. A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait…

  13. Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits in Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic architecture refers to the numbers and genome locations of genes affecting a trait, the magnitude of their effects, and the relative contributions of additive, dominant, and epistatic gene effects. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping techniques are commonly used to investigate genetic ar...

  14. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    traits_cover.jpg" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="2" alt="Cover of the Freshwater Biological Traits Database Final Report"> This final report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biolo...

  15. A Simple Analysis of an Inherited Trait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aagaard, Stanley; Keller, Elhannan

    1977-01-01

    Described is a classroom activity for analyzing an inherited human trait, the ability to tast phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). Formulas for analyzing gene frequency are given for classroom and neighborhood samples. Additional tables include statistics on the ability to taste PTC and other easily sampled human traits. (MA)

  16. Motivational Traits of Elite Young Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Craig; Meyers, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Among the most overlooked aspects in the development of elite young soccer players is that of specific psychological traits. Of those traits, motivation has important implications for programs whose objectives are identification and cultivation of young, skilled performers. The growth in popularity of soccer by youth and the successes experienced…

  17. Sickle Cell Trait, Exercise, and Altitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1986-01-01

    Sickle cell trait is generally benign and does not shorten life, but it may confer some small risk with extremes of exercise or altitude. Research concerning these risks is presented, and it is concluded sickle cell trait is no barrier to outstanding athletic performance. (Author/MT)

  18. [Genetic correlations between quality traits and other economic traits in japonica rice].

    PubMed

    L, Wen-Yan; Zhang, Jian; Shao, Guo-Jun; Zhou, Hong-Fei; Cao, Ping

    2005-07-01

    Genetic correlations among brown rice rate, chalkiness grain rate, chalkiness area and AC, and correlations between these quality traits and plant height and panicle trait were analyzed using parental seeds of 3 x 3 NC II reciprocal mating and some F2 generation seeds by the genetic model given by Zhu Jun for the selection of japonica breeding progeny. The results showed that milled rice weight and brown rice rate are highly significant correlation with maternal additive effect. The genetic covariance between genetic effect components of quality traits and agronomy traits was not significant but that between quality and other plant traits was complicated. PMID:16120586

  19. Evolution of species trait through resource competition.

    PubMed

    Mirrahimi, Sepideh; Perthame, Benoît; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro

    2012-06-01

    To understand the evolution of diverse species, theoretical studies using a Lotka-Volterra type direct competition model had shown that concentrated distributions of species in continuous trait space often occurs. However, a more mechanistic approach is preferred because the competitive interaction of species usually occurs not directly but through competition for resource. We consider a chemostat-type model where species consume resource that are constantly supplied. Continuous traits in both consumer species and resource are incorporated. Consumers utilize resource whose trait values are similar with their own. We show that, even when resource-supply has a continuous distribution in trait space, a positive continuous distribution of consumer trait is impossible. Self-organized generation of distinct species occurs. We also prove global convergence to the evolutionarily stable distribution. PMID:21695530

  20. Complex trait architecture: the pleiotropic model revisited

    PubMed Central

    North, T.-L.; Beaumont, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently much debate about how much the genetic heritability of complex traits is due to very rare alleles. This issue is important because it determines sampling strategies for genetic association studies. Several recent theoretical papers based on a pleiotropic model for trait evolution suggest that it is possible that a large proportion of the genetic variance could be explained by rare alleles. This model assumes that mutations with a large effect on fitness also tend to have large positive or negative effects on phenotypic traits. We show that conclusions based on standard diffusion results are generally applicable to simulations of whole genomes with overlapping generations in a finite population, although the variance contribution of rare alleles is somewhat smaller than theoretical predictions. We show that under many scenarios the pleiotropic model predicts trait distributions that are unrealistically leptokurtic. We argue that this imposes a limit on the relationship between fitness and trait effects. PMID:25792462

  1. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Clancy, Brian Gorre

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  2. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana (Davis, CA); Lamsa, Michael (Davis, CA); Gorre-Clancy, Brian (Elk Grove, CA)

    2009-12-29

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  3. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2014-10-07

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  4. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2015-07-14

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  5. Speed-Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Using Microarrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining the genetic architecture of complex traits is important for human health, agriculture, and understanding adaptive evolution, but is challenging because high resolution quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping requires evaluation of thousands of recombinant individuals for the trait and clo...

  6. Venus - Beta Regio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This portion of a Magellan radar image strip shows a small region on Venus 20 kilometers (12.4 miles) wide and 75 km (50 miles) long on the east flank of a major volcanic upland called Beta Regio. The image is centered at 23 degrees north latitude and 286.7 degrees east longitude. The ridge and valley network in the middle part of the image is formed by intersecting faults which have broken the Venusian crust into a complex, deformed type of surface called tessera, the Latin word for tile. The parallel mountains and valleys resemble the Basin and Range Province in the western United States. The irregular dark patch near the top of the image is a smooth surface, probably formed by lava flows in a region about 10 km (6 miles) across. Similar dark surfaces within the valleys indicate lava flows that are younger than the tessera giving an indication of the geologic time relationships of the events that formed the present surface. The image has a resolution of 120 meters (400 feet).

  7. Plasma levels of beta-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol during early and late alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Esel, E; Sofuoglu, S; Aslan, S S; Kula, M; Yabanoglu, I; Turan, M T

    2001-01-01

    Endogenous opioid peptides are thought to participate in the phenomena of alcohol tolerance and withdrawal. Since in the pituitary gland, beta-endorphin (beta-EP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are produced from the same precursor molecule, pro-opiomelanocortin, it may be expected that alterations in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels should parallel changes in plasma beta-EP levels during alcohol withdrawal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the alterations of beta-EP, ACTH and cortisol secretion patterns in alcohol-dependent patients with heavy intake in the early withdrawal period and, if any, whether these changes remained stable on long-term withdrawal. Twenty-two hospitalized male patients (mean age +/- SD: 43.45 +/- 9.22 years, mean daily amount of alcohol +/- SD: 421.59 +/- 116.57 g) who were diagnosed to have alcohol withdrawal and 20 age-matched healthy men (mean age +/- SD: 38.35 +/- 7.63 years) were included in the study. Morning and night levels of plasma beta-EP, ACTH and cortisol were measured in the patients during the early (first week) and late (fourth week) withdrawal periods following alcohol cessation, and only once in the control subjects. It was found that both morning beta-EP and morning ACTH levels were reduced during both early and late withdrawals, whereas cortisol levels were increased in early withdrawal and normalized towards the late withdrawal period. The finding that beta-EP deficiency continued despite withdrawal symptoms subsiding in patients suggests that their beta-EP deficiency is independent of the withdrawal syndrome and that reduced beta-EP activity may be a trait contributing to alcohol craving. PMID:11704624

  8. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... peginterferon beta-1a injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  9. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  10. Hydrocracking process using zeolite beta

    SciTech Connect

    Angevine, P.J.; Mitchell, K.M.; Oleck, S.M.; Shih, S.S.

    1986-09-16

    A process is described for the hydrocracking and dewaxing of a petroleum fraction comprising waxy components boiling above 345/sup 0/C., which comprises passing the fraction over a hydrocracking catalyst comprising zeolite beta and a matrix material in the presence of hydrogen and under hydrocracking conditions, the proportion of zeolite beta in the hydrocracking catalyst increasing in the direction in which the fraction is passed.

  11. Medium Beta Superconducting Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Delayen

    2001-09-01

    While, originally, the development of superconducting structures was cleanly divided between low-beta resonators for heavy ions and beta=1 resonators for electrons, recent interest in protons accelerators (high and low current, pulsed and cw) has necessitated the development of structures that bridge the gap between the two. These activities have resulted both in new geometries and in the adaptation of well-known geometries optimized to this intermediate velocity range. Their characteristics and properties are reviewed.

  12. Beta function and anomalous dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-orders beta-function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the 2-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows us to determine the anomalous dimension of the fermion masses at the infrared fixed point, and the resulting values compare well with the lattice determinations.

  13. Mechanical differences of sickle cell trait (SCT) and normal red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Cachia, Mark A; Ge, Ji; Xu, Zhensong; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2015-08-01

    Sickle cell trait (SCT) is a condition in which an individual inherits one sickle hemoglobin gene (HbS) and one normal beta hemoglobin gene (HbA). It has been hypothesized that under extreme physical stress, the compromised mechanical properties of the red blood cells (RBCs) may be the underlying mechanism of clinical complications of sickle cell trait individuals. However, whether sickle cell trait (SCT) should be treated as physiologically normal remains controversial. In this work, the mechanical properties (i.e., shear modulus and viscosity) of individual RBCs were quantified using a microsystem capable of precisely controlling the oxygen level of RBCs' microenvironment. Individual RBCs were deformed under shear stress. After the release of shear stress, the dynamic cell recovery process was captured and analyzed to extract the mechanical properties of single RBCs. The results demonstrate that RBCs from sickle cell trait individuals are inherently stiffer and more viscous than normal RBCs from healthy donors, but oxygen level variations do not alter their mechanical properties or morphology. PMID:26066022

  14. A non-human primate system for large-scale genetic studies of complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Jasinska, Anna J.; Lin, Michelle K.; Service, Susan; Choi, Oi-Wa; DeYoung, Joseph; Grujic, Olivera; Kong, Sit-Yee; Jung, Yoon; Jorgensen, Mathew J.; Fairbanks, Lynn A.; Turner, Trudy; Cantor, Rita M.; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K.; Weinstock, George; Jentsch, J. David; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2012-01-01

    Non-human primates provide genetic model systems biologically intermediate between humans and other mammalian model organisms. Populations of Caribbean vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) are genetically homogeneous and large enough to permit well-powered genetic mapping studies of quantitative traits relevant to human health, including expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). Previous transcriptome-wide investigation in an extended vervet pedigree identified 29 heritable transcripts for which levels of expression in peripheral blood correlate strongly with expression levels in the brain. Quantitative trait linkage analysis using 261 microsatellite markers identified significant (n = 8) and suggestive (n = 4) linkages for 12 of these transcripts, including both cis- and trans-eQTL. Seven transcripts, located on different chromosomes, showed maximum linkage to markers in a single region of vervet chromosome 9; this observation suggests the possibility of a master trans-regulator locus in this region. For one cis-eQTL (at B3GALTL, beta-1,3-glucosyltransferase), we conducted follow-up single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and fine-scale association analysis in a sample of unrelated Caribbean vervets, localizing this eQTL to a region of <200 kb. These results suggest the value of pedigree and population samples of the Caribbean vervet for linkage and association mapping studies of quantitative traits. The imminent whole genome sequencing of many of these vervet samples will enhance the power of such investigations by providing a comprehensive catalog of genetic variation. PMID:22556363

  15. Selection and evolution of causally covarying traits.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Michael B

    2014-06-01

    When traits cause variation in fitness, the distribution of phenotype, weighted by fitness, necessarily changes. The degree to which traits cause fitness variation is therefore of central importance to evolutionary biology. Multivariate selection gradients are the main quantity used to describe components of trait-fitness covariation, but they quantify the direct effects of traits on (relative) fitness, which are not necessarily the total effects of traits on fitness. Despite considerable use in evolutionary ecology, path analytic characterizations of the total effects of traits on fitness have not been formally incorporated into quantitative genetic theory. By formally defining "extended" selection gradients, which are the total effects of traits on fitness, as opposed to the existing definition of selection gradients, a more intuitive scheme for characterizing selection is obtained. Extended selection gradients are distinct quantities, differing from the standard definition of selection gradients not only in the statistical means by which they may be assessed and the assumptions required for their estimation from observational data, but also in their fundamental biological meaning. Like direct selection gradients, extended selection gradients can be combined with genetic inference of multivariate phenotypic variation to provide quantitative prediction of microevolutionary trajectories. PMID:24611949

  16. Forgivingness, vengeful rumination, and affective traits.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jack W; Worthington, Everett L; O'Connor, Lynn E; Parrott, Les; Wade, Nathaniel G

    2005-02-01

    Trait forgivingness is the disposition to forgive interpersonal transgressions over time and across situations. We define forgiveness as the replacement of negative unforgiving emotions with positive, other-oriented emotions. Rumination has been suggested as a mediator between forgivingness and emotional outcomes; however, we suggest that different content of rumination leads to different outcomes after transgressions. In four studies of 179, 233, 80, and 66 undergraduate students, trait forgivingness was negatively correlated with trait anger, hostility, neuroticism, fear, and vengeful rumination and was positively correlated with agreeableness, extraversion, and trait empathy. The disposition to ruminate vengefully mediated the relationship between trait forgivingness and (1) anger-related traits and (2) both revenge motivations and state anger following a specific recent transgression, but it did not mediate between forgivingness and (1) fearfulness and (2) avoidance motivations following a specific transgression. Self-hate statements, a proxy for depressive rumination, mediated the relationship between forgivingness and both depression and fearfulness but not the relationship between forgivingness and trait anger. Future research should distinguish the contents of mental rumination following interpersonal transgressions. PMID:15660677

  17. Hereditary haemoglobin disorders in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zago, M A; Costa, F F

    1985-01-01

    The data on the incidence and variability of hereditary haemoglobin (Hb) disorders in Brazil are reviewed. The most common abnormalities are HbS, HbC and beta-thalassaemias. Both homozygotes and compound heterozygotes for these genes (i.e., HbS/HbC disease, S/beta-thalassaemia, C/beta-thalassaemia) are common, owing to the free miscegenation of populations of Mediterranean and African ancestry. The diversity of beta-thalassaemias is similar to that observed in other regions. beta(0)-Thalassaemia is more frequent than the beta(+) variant among affected individuals. Most patients are descendants of Italian immigrants but occasional cases have other racial origins. Patients with thalassaemia major are mostly beta (0) homozygotes, while thalassaemia intermedia is more heterogeneous, including a variety of genotypes. alpha-Thalassaemias are not common although cases of HbH disease have been reported. Isolated examples of several Hb variants have been described, and two abnormal Hb were first found in Brazil: Hb Porto Alegre and Hb Niteroi. PMID:3898485

  18. Enhanced efficiency of quantitative trait loci mapping analysis based on multivariate complexes of quantitative traits.

    PubMed Central

    Korol, A B; Ronin, Y I; Itskovich, A M; Peng, J; Nevo, E

    2001-01-01

    An approach to increase the efficiency of mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) was proposed earlier by the authors on the basis of bivariate analysis of correlated traits. The power of QTL detection using the log-likelihood ratio (LOD scores) grows proportionally to the broad sense heritability. We found that this relationship holds also for correlated traits, so that an increased bivariate heritability implicates a higher LOD score, higher detection power, and better mapping resolution. However, the increased number of parameters to be estimated complicates the application of this approach when a large number of traits are considered simultaneously. Here we present a multivariate generalization of our previous two-trait QTL analysis. The proposed multivariate analogue of QTL contribution to the broad-sense heritability based on interval-specific calculation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the residual covariance matrix allows prediction of the expected QTL detection power and mapping resolution for any subset of the initial multivariate trait complex. Permutation technique allows chromosome-wise testing of significance for the whole trait complex and the significance of the contribution of individual traits owing to: (a) their correlation with other traits, (b) dependence on the chromosome in question, and (c) both a and b. An example of application of the proposed method on a real data set of 11 traits from an experiment performed on an F(2)/F(3) mapping population of tetraploid wheat (Triticum durum x T. dicoccoides) is provided. PMID:11290731

  19. Genetic parameters of ascites-related traits in broilers: correlations with feed efficiency and carcase traits.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Vereijken, A L J; Bovenhuis, H

    2005-02-01

    (1) Pulmonary hypertension syndrome followed by ascites is a metabolic disorder in broilers that occurs more often in fast-growing birds and at cool temperatures. (2) Knowledge of the genetic relationships among ascites-related traits and performance traits like carcase traits or feed efficiency traits is required to design breeding programmes that aim to improve the degree of resistance to ascites syndrome as well as production traits. The objective of this study was to estimate these genetic correlations. (3) Three different experiments were set up to measure ascites-related traits (4202 birds), feed efficiency traits (2166 birds) and carcase traits (2036 birds). The birds in different experiments originated from the same group of parents, which enabled the estimation of genetic correlations among different traits. (4) The genetic correlation of body weight (BW) measured under normal conditions and in the carcase experiment with the ascites indicator trait of right ventricle to total ventricle ratio (RV:TV) measured under cold conditions was 0.30. The estimated genetic correlation indicated that single-trait selecting for BW leads to an increase in occurrence of the ascites syndrome but that there are realistic opportunities of multi-trait selection of birds for improved BW and resistance to ascites. (5) Weak but positive genetic relationships were found between feed efficiency and ascites-related traits suggesting that more efficient birds tend to be slightly more susceptible to ascites. (6) The relatively low genetic correlation between BW measured in the carcase or in the feed efficiency experiments and BW measured in the ascites experiment (0.49) showed considerable genotype by environment interaction. (7) These results indicate that birds with high genetic potential for growth rate under normal temperature conditions have lower growth rate under cold-stress conditions due to ascites. PMID:15835251

  20. Neutrinoless double beta decay and neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Duerr, Michael

    2012-07-27

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) is a promising test for lepton number violating physics beyond the standard model (SM) of particle physics. There is a deep connection between this decay and the phenomenon of neutrino masses. In particular, we will discuss the relation between 0{nu}{beta}{beta} and Majorana neutrino masses provided by the so-called Schechter-Valle theorem in a quantitative way. Furthermore, we will present an experimental cross check to discriminate 0{nu}{beta}{beta} from unknown nuclear background using only one isotope, i.e., within one experiment.

  1. From Beta Cell Replacement to Beta Cell Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is affecting more than 25.8 million people in the United States, causing huge burden on the health care system and economy. Insulin injection, which is the predominant treatment for diabetes, is incapable of replenishing the lost insulin-producing beta cell in patients. Restoring beta cell mass through replacement therapy such as islet transplantation or beta cell regeneration through in vitro and in vivo strategies has attracted particular attentions in the field due to its potential to cure diabetes. In the aspect of islet transplantation, gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and more biocompatible immunosuppressive drugs have been tested in various preclinical animal models to improve the longevity and function of human islets against the posttransplantation challenges. In the islet regeneration aspect, insulin-producing cells have been generated through in vitro transdifferentiation of stem cells and other types of cells and demonstrated to be capable of glycemic control. Moreover, several biomarkers including cell-surface receptors, soluble factors, and transcriptional factors have been identified or rediscovered in mediating the process of beta cell proliferation in rodents. This review summarizes the current progress and hurdles in the preclinical efforts in resurrecting beta cells. It may provide some useful insights into the future drug discovery for antidiabetic purposes. PMID:25355714

  2. Communication Traits: A Cross-Generalization Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Matthew M.; Anderson, Carolyn M.

    1996-01-01

    Considers age and sex differences on aggressive and responsive communication traits. States that participants reported their verbal aggressiveness, argumentativeness, communication apprehension, cognitive flexibility, and other characteristics. Finds significant interactions for argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness. Concludes that studying

  3. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah R.; Fu, Yu; Depue, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i) a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness), and (ii) attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically. PMID:25009524

  4. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global environmental change affects exotic plant invasions, which profoundly impact native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, including those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness), and impacts, as well as the integration of these...

  5. Trait values, not trait plasticity, best explain invasive species' performance in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Matzek, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The question of why some introduced species become invasive and others do not is the central puzzle of invasion biology. Two of the principal explanations for this phenomenon concern functional traits: invasive species may have higher values of competitively advantageous traits than non-invasive species, or they may have greater phenotypic plasticity in traits that permits them to survive the colonization period and spread to a broad range of environments. Although there is a large body of evidence for superiority in particular traits among invasive plants, when compared to phylogenetically related non-invasive plants, it is less clear if invasive plants are more phenotypically plastic, and whether this plasticity confers a fitness advantage. In this study, I used a model group of 10 closely related Pinus species whose invader or non-invader status has been reliably characterized to test the relative contribution of high trait values and high trait plasticity to relative growth rate, a performance measure standing in as a proxy for fitness. When grown at higher nitrogen supply, invaders had a plastic RGR response, increasing their RGR to a much greater extent than non-invaders. However, invasive species did not exhibit significantly more phenotypic plasticity than non-invasive species for any of 17 functional traits, and trait plasticity indices were generally weakly correlated with RGR. Conversely, invasive species had higher values than non-invaders for 13 of the 17 traits, including higher leaf area ratio, photosynthetic capacity, photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency, and nutrient uptake rates, and these traits were also strongly correlated with performance. I conclude that, in responding to higher N supply, superior trait values coupled with a moderate degree of trait variation explain invasive species' superior performance better than plasticity per se. PMID:23119098

  6. EEG theta/beta ratio as a potential biomarker for attentional control and resilience against deleterious effects of stress on attention.

    PubMed

    Putman, Peter; Verkuil, Bart; Arias-Garcia, Elsa; Pantazi, Ioanna; van Schie, Charlotte

    2014-06-01

    Anxious stress compromises cognitive executive performance. This occurs, for instance, in cognitive performance anxiety (CPA), in which anxiety about one's cognitive performance causes that performance to actually deteriorate (e.g., test anxiety). This is thought to result from a prefrontal cortically (PFC) mediated failure of top-down attentional control over stress-induced automatic processing of threat-related information. In addition, stress-induced increased catecholamine influx into the PFC may directly compromise attentional function. Previous research has suggested that the ratio between resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) low- and high-frequency power (the theta/beta ratio) is related to trait attentional control, which might moderate these effects of stress on attentional function. The goals of the present study were to test the novel prediction that theta/beta ratio moderates the deleterious effects of CPA-like anxious stress on state attentional control and to replicate a previous finding that the theta/beta ratio is related to self-reported trait attentional control. After recording of baseline frontal EEG signals, 77 participants performed a stress induction or a control procedure. Trait attentional control was assessed with the Attentional Control Scale, whereas stress-induced changes in attentional control and anxiety were measured with self-report visual analogue scales. The hypothesized moderating influence of theta/beta ratio on the effects of stress on state attentional control was confirmed. Theta/beta ratio explained 28% of the variance in stress-induced deterioration of self-reported attentional control. The negative relationship between theta/beta ratio and trait attentional control was replicated (r = -.33). The theta/beta ratio reflects, likely prefrontally mediated, attentional control, and should be a useful biomarker for the study of CPA and other anxiety-cognition interactions. PMID:24379166

  7. Integrating microbial traits into ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Diverse bacterial and fungal communities control the decomposition of complex organic material, thereby driving important ecosystem functions such as CO2 production and nutrient regeneration. Predicting these functions is challenging because microbial communities and the chemical substrates they metabolize are complex. To address this challenge, I developed a theoretical model of microbial decomposition based on microbial traits involved in substrate degradation, uptake, and growth. The model represents a large number of microbial taxa, each of which possesses a set of trait values drawn at random from empirically-based distributions. The model also includes a large number of chemical substrates that can be degraded by microbial extracellular enzymes and taken up by membrane transporters. Microbes with different trait values for enzyme production and uptake capacity compete for chemical substrates and vary in abundance during model runs. I used the model to predict rates of plant litter decomposition and determine which traits were associated with high microbial abundance under different environmental conditions. The model predicted that optimal traits depend on the level of enzyme production in the whole community, which determines resource availability and decomposition rates. There is also evidence for facilitation and competition among microbial taxa that co-occur on decomposing litter, suggesting that microbial interactions may play a role in determining ecosystem function. These interactions vary with community investment in extracellular enzyme production and the magnitude of tradeoffs affecting biochemical traits such as enzyme kinetic parameters. The model accounted for 69% of the variation in decomposition rates and up to 26% of the variation in enzyme activities in an empirical dataset with 15 types of Hawaiian plant litter. By explicitly representing microbial diversity, trait-based models can predict ecosystem processes based on functional trait distributions in a community. Traits influencing microbial enzyme production are some of the key controls on litter decomposition rates, but other traits may control different ecosystem processes and microbial responses to environmental change. Identifying these traits and their inter-relationships is an essential step for improving ecosystem models.

  8. Mapping quantitative trait Loci underlying fitness-related traits in a free-living sheep population.

    PubMed

    Beraldi, Dario; McRae, Allan F; Gratten, Jacob; Slate, Jon; Visscher, Peter M; Pemberton, Josephine M

    2007-06-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying fitness-related traits in a free-living pedigree of 588 Soay sheep in which a genetic map using 251 markers with an average spacing of 15 cM had been established previously. Traits examined included birth date and weight, considered both as maternal and offspring traits, foreleg length, hindleg length, and body weight measured on animals in August and jaw length and metacarpal length measured on cleaned skeletal material. In some cases the data were split to consider different age classes separately, yielding a total of 15 traits studied. Genetic and environmental components of phenotypic variance were estimated for each trait and, for those traits showing nonzero heritability (N= 12), a QTL search was conducted by comparing a polygenic model with a model including a putative QTL. Support for a QTL at genome-wide significance was found on chromosome 11 for jaw length; suggestive QTL were found on chromosomes 2 and 5 (for birth date as a trait of the lamb), 8 (birth weight as a trait of the lamb), and 15 (adult hindleg length). We discuss the prospects for refining estimates of QTL position and effect size in the study population, and for QTL searches in free-living pedigrees in general. PMID:17542849

  9. Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lidan; Wu, Rongling

    2015-06-01

    Despite increasing emphasis on the genetic study of quantitative traits, we are still far from being able to chart a clear picture of their genetic architecture, given an inherent complexity involved in trait formation. A competing theory for studying such complex traits has emerged by viewing their phenotypic formation as a "system" in which a high-dimensional group of interconnected components act and interact across different levels of biological organization from molecules through cells to whole organisms. This system is initiated by a machinery of DNA sequences that regulate a cascade of biochemical pathways to synthesize endophenotypes and further assemble these endophenotypes toward the end-point phenotype in virtue of various developmental changes. This review focuses on a conceptual framework for genetic mapping of complex traits by which to delineate the underlying components, interactions and mechanisms that govern the system according to biological principles and understand how these components function synergistically under the control of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to comprise a unified whole. This framework is built by a system of differential equations that quantifies how alterations of different components lead to the global change of trait development and function, and provides a quantitative and testable platform for assessing the multiscale interplay between QTLs and development. The method will enable geneticists to shed light on the genetic complexity of any biological system and predict, alter or engineer its physiological and pathological states.

  10. Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lidan; Wu, Rongling

    2015-06-01

    Despite increasing emphasis on the genetic study of quantitative traits, we are still far from being able to chart a clear picture of their genetic architecture, given an inherent complexity involved in trait formation. A competing theory for studying such complex traits has emerged by viewing their phenotypic formation as a "system" in which a high-dimensional group of interconnected components act and interact across different levels of biological organization from molecules through cells to whole organisms. This system is initiated by a machinery of DNA sequences that regulate a cascade of biochemical pathways to synthesize endophenotypes and further assemble these endophenotypes toward the end-point phenotype in virtue of various developmental changes. This review focuses on a conceptual framework for genetic mapping of complex traits by which to delineate the underlying components, interactions and mechanisms that govern the system according to biological principles and understand how these components function synergistically under the control of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to comprise a unified whole. This framework is built by a system of differential equations that quantifies how alterations of different components lead to the global change of trait development and function, and provides a quantitative and testable platform for assessing the multiscale interplay between QTLs and development. The method will enable geneticists to shed light on the genetic complexity of any biological system and predict, alter or engineer its physiological and pathological states. PMID:25772476

  11. Trait-specific dependence in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Bruce J; Simpson, Jeffry A; Campbell, Lorne

    2002-10-01

    Informed by three theoretical frameworks--trait psychology, evolutionary psychology, and interdependence theory--we report four investigations designed to develop and test the reliability and validity of a new construct and accompanying multiscale inventory, the Trait-Specific Dependence Inventory (TSDI). The TSDI assesses comparisons between present and alternative romantic partners on major dimensions of mate value. In Study 1, principal components analyses revealed that the provisional pool of theory-generated TSDI items were represented by six factors: Agreeable/Committed, Resource Accruing Potential, Physical Prowess, Emotional Stability, Surgency, and Physical Attractiveness. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis replicated these results on a different sample and tested how well different structural models fit the data. Study 3 provided evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of the six TSDI scales by correlating each one with a matched personality trait scale that did not explicitly incorporate comparisons between partners. Study 4 provided further validation evidence, revealing that the six TSDI scales successfully predicted three relationship outcome measures--love, time investment, and anger/upset--above and beyond matched sets of traditional personality trait measures. These results suggest that the TSDI is a reliable, valid, and unique construct that represents a new trait-specific method of assessing dependence in romantic relationships. The construct of trait-specific dependence is introduced and linked with other theories of mate value. PMID:12322855

  12. Multiple-trait QTL mapping using a structural equation model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many agronomic experiments on mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) result in data on a number of traits that have well established causal relationships such as wheat yield components. Common multiple-trait QTL mapping methods, taking into account the correlation among the multiple traits, have been...

  13. Multi-trait, multi-breed conception rate evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heifer and cow conception rates (HCR and CCR) were evaluated with multi-trait, multi-breed models including crossbred cows instead of the previous single-trait, single-breed models. Fertility traits benefit from multi-trait processing because of high genetic correlations and many missing observation...

  14. Using IRT Trait Estimates versus Summated Scores in Predicting Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Ting; Stone, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that item response theory trait estimates should be used in analyses rather than number right (NR) or summated scale (SS) scores. Thissen and Orlando postulated that IRT scaling tends to produce trait estimates that are linearly related to the underlying trait being measured. Therefore, IRT trait estimates can be more useful…

  15. Influence of beta-agonists (ractopamine HCI and zilpaterol HCI) on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of two beta-agonists [ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx**R) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (Zilmax**R)], recently approved for use in feedlot cattle to improve performance traits and carcass leanness, were examined on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle. Fecal samples (...

  16. 50 years forward: beta cells.

    PubMed

    Halban, Philippe A

    2015-08-01

    Our understanding of beta cell development and function has increased substantially these past 50 years but much remains to be learned before this knowledge can be put to clinical use. A comprehensive business plan will be necessary to develop a detailed molecular and functional blueprint of the beta cell in health and disease based on an integrated approach involving all necessary research disciplines. This blueprint will provide a platform for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of both major forms of diabetes, foremost among them beta cell replacement therapy. This is one of a series of commentaries under the banner '50 years forward', giving personal opinions on future perspectives in diabetes, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Diabetologia (1965-2015). PMID:25957776

  17. A semiconductor beta ray spectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bom, Victor Robert

    The design and operation of a semiconductor beta-ray spectrometer for use in experimental investigations of atomic-nucleus disintegration are described. A general introduction is given, and detailed information is presented in chapters based on previously published papers: Bom (1983), Bom and Coops (1985), and Bom et al. (1986 and 1987). Consideration is given to the hyperpure-Ge particle detector; the data-analysis procedures; the corrections applied to the measured positron continua; and the determination of beta-decay energies for In-(103-108), Cd-(103-105), and Ag-(103-106). The beta energy spectra obtained in the latter experiments are shown to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions, with the exception of those for In-104. Diagrams, graphs, sample spectra, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  18. Invasive Plants and Enemy Release: Evolution of Trait Means and Trait Correlations in Ulex europaeus

    PubMed Central

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Tarayre, Michle; Herv, Maxime; Gigord, Luc; Atlan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability) hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species. PMID:22022588

  19. Beta Adrenergic Receptors in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sivamani, Raja K.; Lam, Susanne T.; Isseroff, R. Rivkah

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis Beta2 adrenergic receptors were identified in keratinocytes more than 30 years ago, but their function in the epidermis continues to be elucidated. Abnormalities in their expression, signaling pathway, or in the generation of endogenous catecholamine agonists by keratinocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cutaneous diseases such as atopic dermatitis, vitiligo and psoriasis. New studies also indicate that the beta2AR also modulates keratinocyte migration, and thus can function to regulate wound re-epithelialization. This review focuses on the function of these receptors in keratinocytes and their contribution to cutaneous physiology and disease. PMID:17903623

  20. Interplanetary Lyman-beta emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paresce, F.

    1973-01-01

    Derivation of the intensity of the diffuse hydrogen Lyman-beta glow at 1025 A which is due to resonance scattering of the solar H I 1025 A line by interstellar and interplanetary hydrogen. Two sources of neutral hydrogen are considered: the local interstellar medium interacting with the solar system, and the dust deionization of the H(+) component of the solar wind. It is shown that if the dust geometrical factor is less than or equal to five quintillionths per cm, observations of backscattered Lyman-beta radiation will provide a unique determination of the density and temperature of the local interstellar medium.

  1. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Impink, Jr., Albert J.; Goldstein, Norman P.

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  2. Willingness To Collaborate as a New Communication Trait: Scale Development and a Predictive Model of Related Communication Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carolyn M.; And Others

    A study created and examined a new communication trait--the willingness to collaborate. The Willingness to Collaborate Trait Scale was created. Scale reliability was demonstrated through analysis of internal consistency of the 13-item scale. A communication trait model predictive of trait willingness to collaborate was tested using 401

  3. Circulating integrins: alpha 5 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 4 and Mac-1, but not alpha 3 beta 1, alpha 4 beta 1 or LFA-1.

    PubMed Central

    Bretscher, M S

    1992-01-01

    The alpha 5 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 4 and Mac-1 integrins all participate in the endocytotic cycle. By contrast, alpha 3 beta 1, alpha 4 beta 1 and LFA-1 do so much more slowly, or not at all, in the cell lines examined. This indicates that the alpha-chains appear to determine whether an integrin cycles or not, and that alpha 5 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 4 and Mac-1 can be brought to the leading edge of a moving cell by endocytosis and recycling. Images PMID:1531629

  4. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling adaptive traits in coastal Douglas fir. III. Quantitative trait loci-by-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Jermstad, Kathleen D; Bassoni, Daniel L; Jech, Keith S; Ritchie, Gary A; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Neale, David B

    2003-11-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped in the woody perennial Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) for complex traits controlling the timing of growth initiation and growth cessation. QTL were estimated under controlled environmental conditions to identify QTL interactions with photoperiod, moisture stress, winter chilling, and spring temperatures. A three-generation mapping population of 460 cloned progeny was used for genetic mapping and phenotypic evaluations. An all-marker interval mapping method was used for scanning the genome for the presence of QTL and single-factor ANOVA was used for estimating QTL-by-environment interactions. A modest number of QTL were detected per trait, with individual QTL explaining up to 9.5% of the phenotypic variation. Two QTL-by-treatment interactions were found for growth initiation, whereas several QTL-by-treatment interactions were detected among growth cessation traits. This is the first report of QTL interactions with specific environmental signals in forest trees and will assist in the identification of candidate genes controlling these important adaptive traits in perennial plants. PMID:14668397

  5. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling adaptive traits in coastal Douglas fir. III. Quantitative trait loci-by-environment interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Jermstad, Kathleen D; Bassoni, Daniel L; Jech, Keith S; Ritchie, Gary A; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Neale, David B

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped in the woody perennial Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) for complex traits controlling the timing of growth initiation and growth cessation. QTL were estimated under controlled environmental conditions to identify QTL interactions with photoperiod, moisture stress, winter chilling, and spring temperatures. A three-generation mapping population of 460 cloned progeny was used for genetic mapping and phenotypic evaluations. An all-marker interval mapping method was used for scanning the genome for the presence of QTL and single-factor ANOVA was used for estimating QTL-by-environment interactions. A modest number of QTL were detected per trait, with individual QTL explaining up to 9.5% of the phenotypic variation. Two QTL-by-treatment interactions were found for growth initiation, whereas several QTL-by-treatment interactions were detected among growth cessation traits. This is the first report of QTL interactions with specific environmental signals in forest trees and will assist in the identification of candidate genes controlling these important adaptive traits in perennial plants. PMID:14668397

  6. Production of poly-(beta-hydroxybutyric-co-beta-hydroxyvaleric) acids.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, B A; Lomaliza, K; Chavarie, C; Dubé, B; Bataille, P; Ramsay, J A

    1990-01-01

    Alcaligenes latus, Alcaligenes eutrophus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas pseudoflava, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Micrococcus halodenitrificans were found to accumulate poly-(beta-hydroxybutyric-co-beta-hydroxyvaleric) acid [P(HB-co-HV)] copolymer when supplied with glucose (or sucrose in the case of A. latus) and propionic acid under nitrogen-limited conditions. A fed-batch culture of A. eutrophus produced 24 g of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) liter-1 under ammonium limitation conditions. When the glucose feed was replaced with glucose and propionic acid during the polymer accumulation phase, 17 g of P(HB-co-HV) liter-1 was produced. The P(HB-co-HV) contained 5.0 mol% beta-hydroxyvaleric acid (HV). Varying the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio at a dilution rate of 0.15 h-1 in a chemostat culture of A. eutrophus resulted in a maximum value of 33% (wt/wt) PHB in the biomass. In comparison, A. latus accumulated about 40% (wt/wt) PHB in chemostat culture under nitrogen-limited conditions at the same dilution rate. When propionic acid was added to the first stage of a two-stage chemostat, A. latus produced 43% (wt/wt) P(HB-co-HV) containing 18.5 mol% HV. In the second stage, the P(HB-co-HV) increased to 58% (wt/wt) with an HV content of 11 mol% without further addition of carbon substrate. The HV composition in P(HB-co-HV) was controlled by regulating the concentration of propionic acid in the feed. Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates containing a higher percentage of HV were produced when pentanoic acid replaced propionic acid. PMID:2117877

  7. Towards a reference plant trait ontology for modeling knowledge of plant traits and phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant tr...

  8. Are traits useful? Explaining trait manifestations as tools in the pursuit of goals.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Kira O; Fleeson, William

    2016-02-01

    Traits and motivation mainly have been treated separately for almost a century. The purpose of these studies is to test the proposal that traits and motivation are intricately linked. Specifically, that 1 explanation for traits, at least in terms of their descriptiveness of what people actually do, is the goals people pursue. Study 1 used experience-sampling methodology to show that almost half the variance in extraversion and conscientiousness manifestation was explained by goal pursuit differences. Both why people enacted more of extraversion and/or conscientiousness than others, and why people enacted extraversion and/or conscientiousness at any given moment were explained by the goals people were pursuing at those moments. Study 2 used experimental methodology to show that extraversion and conscientiousness enactment was in fact caused by the goal pursuit. Study 3 employed observer ratings to show that the goal-dependent enactments of traits were observer-verified actual behaviors. In all 3 studies, different goals affected different traits discriminatively. Thus, these findings provided strong evidence for 1 explanation of traits, that they are useful for accomplishing goals. These findings provided 1 answer to long-standing questions about the conceptual relations between traits and motivation. And these findings clarified the meaning and nature of extraversion and conscientiousness by revealing part of what these traits are for. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26280839

  9. Traits as Dimensions or Categories? Developmental Change in the Understanding of Trait Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Celia M.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that young children have relatively well-developed trait concepts. However, this literature overlooks potential age-related differences in children's appreciation of the fundamentally dimensional nature of traits. In Study 1, we presented 4-, 5-, and 7-year-old children and adults with sets of characters and asked…

  10. Identifying quantitative end-use quality traits through marker-trait associations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality traits (grain, milling and baking) are generally expensive and difficult to measure. We are in the process of estimating phenotypic trait values for a wide range of Pacific Northwest wheat genotypes, including soft white spring, winter and club, hard red winter and spring, and hard ...

  11. "Autistic" Traits in Non-Autistic Japanese Populations: Relationships with Personality Traits and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunihira, Yura; Senju, Atsushi; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Akio; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    We explored the relationships between "autistic" traits as measured by the AQ (Autism-Spectrum Quotient; Baron-Cohen et al., J. Autism Develop. Disord. (2001b) 31 5) and various personality traits or cognitive ability, which usually coincide with autistic symptoms, for general populations. Results showed the AQ was associated with tendencies…

  12. A Multidimensional Measure of Trait Anxiety: The S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endler, Norman S.; Okada, Marilyn

    1975-01-01

    The S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness was administered to samples of normal youth, normal adult, neurotic, and psychotic subjects. The practical and theoretical uses of the inventory are discussed, and it is specifically indicated how the inventory could be used to extend the Speilberger state-trait anxiety theory. (Author)

  13. Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing End-use Quality Traits of Hard Red Spring Wheat Breeding Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat end-product quality is determined by a complex group of traits including dough visco-elastic characteristics and bread-making properties. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and analysis were conducted for endosperm texture and polymeric proteins, dough mixing strength and bread-making prop...

  14. Comparison of single-trait to multi-trait national evaluations for yield, health, and fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flexible software was designed to replace the current animal model programs used for national genetic evaluations. Model improvements included 1) multi-trait processing, 2) multiple fixed class and regression variables, 3) differing models for different traits, 4) random regressions, and 5) foreign ...

  15. The Vertebrate Trait Ontology: a controlled vocabulary for the annotation of trait data across species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ontologies to standardize biological data and facilitate comparisons among datasets has steadily grown as the complexity and amount of available data have increased. Despite the numerous ontologies available, one area currently lacking a robust ontology is the description of vertebrate traits. A trait is defined as any measurable or observable characteristic pertaining to an organism or any of its substructures. While there are several ontologies to describe entities and processes in phenotypes, diseases, and clinical measurements, one has not been developed for vertebrate traits; the Vertebrate Trait Ontology (VT) was created to fill this void. Description Significant inconsistencies in trait nomenclature exist in the literature, and additional difficulties arise when trait data are compared across species. The VT is a unified trait vocabulary created to aid in the transfer of data within and between species and to facilitate investigation of the genetic basis of traits. Trait information provides a valuable link between the measurements that are used to assess the trait, the phenotypes related to the traits, and the diseases associated with one or more phenotypes. Because multiple clinical and morphological measurements are often used to assess a single trait, and a single measurement can be used to assess multiple physiological processes, providing investigators with standardized annotations for trait data will allow them to investigate connections among these data types. Conclusions The annotation of genomic data with ontology terms provides unique opportunities for data mining and analysis. Links between data in disparate databases can be identified and explored, a strategy that is particularly useful for cross-species comparisons or in situations involving inconsistent terminology. The VT provides a common basis for the description of traits in multiple vertebrate species. It is being used in the Rat Genome Database and Animal QTL Database for annotation of QTL data for rat, cattle, chicken, swine, sheep, and rainbow trout, and in the Mouse Phenome Database to annotate strain characterization data. In these databases, data are also cross-referenced to applicable terms from other ontologies, providing additional avenues for data mining and analysis. The ontology is available at http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/50138. PMID:23937709

  16. Sub-threshold autism traits: The role of trait emotional intelligence and cognitive flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Gökçen, Elif; Petrides, Konstantinos V; Hudry, Kristelle; Frederickson, Norah; Smillie, Luke D

    2014-01-01

    Theory and research suggests that features of autism are not restricted to individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and that autism-like traits vary throughout the general population at lower severities. The present research first investigated the relationship of autism traits with trait emotional intelligence and empathy in a sample of 163 adults aged between 18 and 51 years (44% male). It then examined performance on a set of tasks assessing social cognition and cognitive flexibility in 69 participants with either high or low scores on ASD traits. Results confirm that there is pronounced variation within the general population relating to ASD traits, which reflect similar (though less severe) social-cognitive and emotional features to those observed in ASDs. PMID:24754807

  17. Local-scale Partitioning of Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversity in a Tropical Tree Assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Swenson, Nathan G.; Zhang, Guocheng; Ci, Xiuqin; Cao, Min; Sha, Liqing; Li, Jie; Ferry Slik, J. W.; Lin, Luxiang

    2015-01-01

    The relative degree to which stochastic and deterministic processes underpin community assembly is a central problem in ecology. Quantifying local-scale phylogenetic and functional beta diversity may shed new light on this problem. We used species distribution, soil, trait and phylogenetic data to quantify whether environmental distance, geographic distance or their combination are the strongest predictors of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity on local scales in a 20-ha tropical seasonal rainforest dynamics plot in southwest China. The patterns of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity were generally consistent. The phylogenetic and functional dissimilarity between subplots (10 × 10 m, 20 × 20 m, 50 × 50 m and 100 × 100 m) was often higher than that expected by chance. The turnover of lineages and species function within habitats was generally slower than that across habitats. Partitioning the variation in phylogenetic and functional beta diversity showed that environmental distance was generally a better predictor of beta diversity than geographic distance thereby lending relatively more support for deterministic environmental filtering over stochastic processes. Overall, our results highlight that deterministic processes play a stronger role than stochastic processes in structuring community composition in this diverse assemblage of tropical trees. PMID:26235237

  18. Local-scale Partitioning of Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversity in a Tropical Tree Assemblage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Swenson, Nathan G; Zhang, Guocheng; Ci, Xiuqin; Cao, Min; Sha, Liqing; Li, Jie; Ferry Slik, J W; Lin, Luxiang

    2015-01-01

    The relative degree to which stochastic and deterministic processes underpin community assembly is a central problem in ecology. Quantifying local-scale phylogenetic and functional beta diversity may shed new light on this problem. We used species distribution, soil, trait and phylogenetic data to quantify whether environmental distance, geographic distance or their combination are the strongest predictors of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity on local scales in a 20-ha tropical seasonal rainforest dynamics plot in southwest China. The patterns of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity were generally consistent. The phylogenetic and functional dissimilarity between subplots (10 × 10 m, 20 × 20 m, 50 × 50 m and 100 × 100 m) was often higher than that expected by chance. The turnover of lineages and species function within habitats was generally slower than that across habitats. Partitioning the variation in phylogenetic and functional beta diversity showed that environmental distance was generally a better predictor of beta diversity than geographic distance thereby lending relatively more support for deterministic environmental filtering over stochastic processes. Overall, our results highlight that deterministic processes play a stronger role than stochastic processes in structuring community composition in this diverse assemblage of tropical trees. PMID:26235237

  19. Caliber Schools. Caliber: Beta Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Caliber: Beta Academy is reimagining education as we know it, with the belief that the innovations in its model will allow 100% of its students to graduate ready to attend and succeed in a competitive four-year college and beyond. The academic model of the school features personalized learning plans, blended learning for English and math,…

  20. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... thalassemia mutations. Hemoglobin. 2014;38(4):272-6. doi: 10.3109/03630269.2014.912661. Epub 2014 May 14. National Human Genome Research Institute Rund D, Rachmilewitz E. Beta-thalassemia. N ... doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a011700. Review. Wonke B. Clinical ...

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Beta-beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Neutrino physics is traversing an exciting period after the important discovery that neutrinos are massive particles, which has implications from high-energy physics to cosmology. A new method for the production of intense and pure neutrino beams has been proposed recently: the 'beta-beam'. It exploits boosted radioactive ions decaying through beta-decay. This novel concept has been the starting point for a possible new future facility. Its main goal is to address the crucial issue of the existence of CP violation in the lepton sector. Here we review the status and the recent developments of beta-beams. We discuss the original, the medium and high-energy scenarios as well as mono-chromatic neutrino beams produced through ion electron-capture. The issue of the degeneracies is mentioned. An overview of low energy beta-beams is also presented. These beams can be used to perform experiments of interest for nuclear structure, for the study of fundamental interactions and for nuclear astrophysics.

  2. Multiple quantitative trait analysis using bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Scutari, Marco; Howell, Phil; Balding, David J; Mackay, Ian

    2014-09-01

    Models for genome-wide prediction and association studies usually target a single phenotypic trait. However, in animal and plant genetics it is common to record information on multiple phenotypes for each individual that will be genotyped. Modeling traits individually disregards the fact that they are most likely associated due to pleiotropy and shared biological basis, thus providing only a partial, confounded view of genetic effects and phenotypic interactions. In this article we use data from a Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) winter wheat population to explore Bayesian networks as a convenient and interpretable framework for the simultaneous modeling of multiple quantitative traits. We show that they are equivalent to multivariate genetic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and that they are competitive with single-trait elastic net and single-trait GBLUP in predictive performance. Finally, we discuss their relationship with other additive-effects models and their advantages in inference and interpretation. MAGIC populations provide an ideal setting for this kind of investigation because the very low population structure and large sample size result in predictive models with good power and limited confounding due to relatedness. PMID:25236454

  3. Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.; Nandakumar, Karthik

    2004-08-01

    Biometrics is rapidly gaining acceptance as the technology that can meet the ever increasing need for security in critical applications. Biometric systems automatically recognize individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics. Hence, the fundamental requirement of any biometric recognition system is a human trait having several desirable properties like universality, distinctiveness, permanence, collectability, acceptability, and resistance to circumvention. However, a human characteristic that possesses all these properties has not yet been identified. As a result, none of the existing biometric systems provide perfect recognition and there is a scope for improving the performance of these systems. Although characteristics like gender, ethnicity, age, height, weight and eye color are not unique and reliable, they provide some information about the user. We refer to these characteristics as "soft" biometric traits and argue that these traits can complement the identity information provided by the primary biometric identifiers like fingerprint and face. This paper presents the motivation for utilizing soft biometric information and analyzes how the soft biometric traits can be automatically extracted and incorporated in the decision making process of the primary biometric system. Preliminary experiments were conducted on a fingerprint database of 160 users by synthetically generating soft biometric traits like gender, ethnicity, and height based on known statistics. The results show that the use of additional soft biometric user information significantly improves (approximately 6%) the recognition performance of the fingerprint biometric system.

  4. Trait mindfulness and autobiographical memory specificity.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Rosalind

    2015-02-01

    Training in mindfulness skills has been shown to increase autobiographical memory specificity. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is also an association between individual differences in trait mindfulness and memory specificity using a non-clinical student sample (N = 70). Also examined were the relationships between other memory characteristics and trait mindfulness, self-reported depression and rumination. Participants wrote about 12 autobiographical memories, which were recalled in response to emotion word cues in a minimal instruction version of the Autobiographical Memory Test, rated each memory for seven characteristics, and completed the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, and the Ruminative Responses Scale. Higher rumination scores were associated with more reliving and more intense emotion during recall. Depression scores were not associated with any memory variables. Higher trait mindfulness was associated with lower memory specificity and with more intense and more positive emotion during recall. Thus, trait mindfulness is associated with memory specificity, but the association is opposite to that found in mindfulness training studies. It is suggested that this difference may be due to an influence of trait mindfulness on memory encoding as well as retrieval processes and an influence on the mode of self-awareness that leads to a greater focus on momentary rather than narrative self-reference. PMID:25120213

  5. Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy

    PubMed Central

    Horan, William P.; Blanchard, Jack J.; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

  6. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions, and individual differences in regulating emotions. PMID:24427152

  7. Mapping Splicing Quantitative Trait Loci in RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Cheng; Hu, Yu; Liu, Yichuan; Li, Mingyao

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND One of the major mechanisms of generating mRNA diversity is alternative splicing, a regulated process that allows for the flexibility of producing functionally different proteins from the same genomic sequences. This process is often altered in cancer cells to produce aberrant proteins that drive the progression of cancer. A better understanding of the misregulation of alternative splicing will shed light on the development of novel targets for pharmacological interventions of cancer. METHODS In this study, we evaluated three statistical methods, random effects meta-regression, beta regression, and generalized linear mixed effects model, for the analysis of splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL) using RNA-Seq data. All the three methods use exon-inclusion levels estimated by the PennSeq algorithm, a statistical method that utilizes paired-end reads and accounts for non-uniform sequencing coverage. RESULTS Using both simulated and real RNA-Seq datasets, we compared these three methods with GLiMMPS, a recently developed method for sQTL analysis. Our results indicate that the most reliable and powerful method was the random effects meta-regression approach, which identified sQTLs at low false discovery rates but higher power when compared to GLiMMPS. CONCLUSIONS We have evaluated three statistical methods for the analysis of sQTLs in RNA-Seq. Results from our study will be instructive for researchers in selecting the appropriate statistical methods for sQTL analysis. PMID:25452687

  8. Mapping Splicing Quantitative Trait Loci in RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Cheng; Hu, Yu; Liu, Yichuan; Li, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND One of the major mechanisms of generating mRNA diversity is alternative splicing, a regulated process that allows for the flexibility of producing functionally different proteins from the same genomic sequences. This process is often altered in cancer cells to produce aberrant proteins that drive the progression of cancer. A better understanding of the misregulation of alternative splicing will shed light on the development of novel targets for pharmacological interventions of cancer. METHODS In this study, we evaluated three statistical methods, random effects meta-regression, beta regression, and generalized linear mixed effects model, for the analysis of splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL) using RNA-Seq data. All the three methods use exon-inclusion levels estimated by the PennSeq algorithm, a statistical method that utilizes paired-end reads and accounts for non-uniform sequencing coverage. RESULTS Using both simulated and real RNA-Seq datasets, we compared these three methods with GLiMMPS, a recently developed method for sQTL analysis. Our results indicate that the most reliable and powerful method was the random effects meta-regression approach, which identified sQTLs at low false discovery rates but higher power when compared to GLiMMPS. CONCLUSIONS We have evaluated three statistical methods for the analysis of sQTLs in RNA-Seq. Results from our study will be instructive for researchers in selecting the appropriate statistical methods for sQTL analysis. PMID:25733796

  9. Metabolic engineering of soybean affords improved phytosterol seed traits.

    PubMed

    Neelakandan, Anjanasree K; Chamala, Swetha; Valliyodan, Babu; Nes, William David; Nguyen, Henry T

    2012-01-01

    Different combinations of three rate-limiting enzymes in phytosterol biosynthesis, the Arabidopsis thaliana hydroxyl methylglutaryl CoA1 (HMGR1) catalytic subunit linked to either constitutive or seed-specific β-conglycinin promoter, and the Glycine max sterol methyltransferase1 (SMT1) and sterol methyltransferase2-2 (SMT2-2) genes, under the control of seed-specific Glycinin-1 and Beta-phaseolin promoters, respectively, were engineered in soybean plants. Mature seeds of transgenic plants displayed modest increases in total sterol content, which points towards a tight control of phytosterol biosynthesis. However, in contrast to wild-type seeds that accumulated about 35% of the total sterol in the form of intermediates, in the engineered seeds driven by a seed-specific promoter, metabolic flux was directed to Δ(5) -24-alkyl sterol formation (99% of total sterol). The engineered effect of end-product sterol (sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) over-production in soybean seeds resulted in an approximately 30% increase in overall sitosterol synthesis, a desirable trait for oilseeds and human health. In contradistinction, increased accumulation of cycloartenol and 24(28)-methylencylartanol (55% of the total sterol) was detected in plants harbouring the constitutive t-HMGR1 gene, consistent with the previous studies. Our results support the possibility that metabolic flux of the phytosterol family pathway is differentially regulated in leaves and seeds. PMID:21554529

  10. Evaluating simulated functional trait patterns and quantifying modelled trait diversity effects on simulated ecosystem fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlick, R.; Schimel, D.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) typically employ only a small set of Plant Functional Types (PFTs) to represent the vast diversity of observed vegetation forms and functioning. There is growing evidence, however, that this abstraction may not adequately represent the observed variation in plant functional traits, which is thought to play an important role for many ecosystem functions and for ecosystem resilience to environmental change. The geographic distribution of PFTs in these models is also often based on empirical relationships between present-day climate and vegetation patterns. Projections of future climate change, however, point toward the possibility of novel regional climates, which could lead to no-analog vegetation compositions incompatible with the PFT paradigm. Here, we present results from the Jena Diversity-DGVM (JeDi-DGVM), a novel traits-based vegetation model, which simulates a large number of hypothetical plant growth strategies constrained by functional tradeoffs, thereby allowing for a more flexible temporal and spatial representation of the terrestrial biosphere. First, we compare simulated present-day geographical patterns of functional traits with empirical trait observations (in-situ and from airborne imaging spectroscopy). The observed trait patterns are then used to improve the tradeoff parameterizations of JeDi-DGVM. Finally, focusing primarily on the simulated leaf traits, we run the model with various amounts of trait diversity. We quantify the effects of these modeled biodiversity manipulations on simulated ecosystem fluxes and stocks for both present-day conditions and transient climate change scenarios. The simulation results reveal that the coarse treatment of plant functional traits by current PFT-based vegetation models may contribute substantial uncertainty regarding carbon-climate feedbacks. Further development of trait-based models and further investment in global in-situ and spectroscopic plant trait observations are needed.

  11. Quantitative trait analysis in sequencing studies under trait-dependent sampling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dan-Yu; Zeng, Donglin; Tang, Zheng-Zheng

    2013-07-23

    It is not economically feasible to sequence all study subjects in a large cohort. A cost-effective strategy is to sequence only the subjects with the extreme values of a quantitative trait. In the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project, subjects with the highest or lowest values of body mass index, LDL, or blood pressure were selected for whole-exome sequencing. Failure to account for such trait-dependent sampling can cause severe inflation of type I error and substantial loss of power in quantitative trait analysis, especially when combining results from multiple studies with different selection criteria. We present valid and efficient statistical methods for association analysis of sequencing data under trait-dependent sampling. We pay special attention to gene-based analysis of rare variants. Our methods can be used to perform quantitative trait analysis not only for the trait that is used to select subjects for sequencing but for any other traits that are measured. For a particular trait of interest, our approach properly combines the association results from all studies with measurements of that trait. This meta-analysis is substantially more powerful than the analysis of any single study. By contrast, meta-analysis of standard linear regression results (ignoring trait-dependent sampling) can be less powerful than the analysis of a single study. The advantages of the proposed methods are demonstrated through simulation studies and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project data. The methods are applicable to other types of genetic association studies and nongenetic studies. PMID:23847208

  12. Variation in species diversity and functional traits of sponge communities near human populations in Bocas del Toro, Panama.

    PubMed

    Easson, Cole G; Matterson, Kenan O; Freeman, Christopher J; Archer, Stephanie K; Thacker, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have renewed interest in sponge ecology by emphasizing the functional importance of sponges in a broad array of ecosystem services. Many critically important habitats occupied by sponges face chronic stressors that might lead to alterations in their diversity, relatedness, and functional attributes. We addressed whether proximity to human activity might be a significant factor in structuring sponge community composition, as well as potential functional roles, by monitoring sponge diversity and abundance at two structurally similar sites that vary in distance to areas of high coastal development in Bocas Del Toro, Panama. We surveyed sponge communities at each site using belt transects and differences between two sites were compared using the following variables: (1) sponge species richness, Shannon diversity, and inverse Simpson's diversity; (2) phylogenetic diversity; (3) taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity; (4) trait diversity and dissimilarity; and (5) phylogenetic and trait patterns in community structure. We observed significantly higher sponge diversity at Punta Caracol, the site most distant from human development (∼5 km). Although phylogenetic diversity was lower at Saigon Bay, the site adjacent to a large village including many houses, businesses, and an airport, the sites did not exhibit significantly different patterns of phylogenetic relatedness in species composition. However, each site had a distinct taxonomic and phylogenetic composition (beta diversity). In addition, the sponge community at Saigon included a higher relative abundance of sponges with high microbial abundance and high chlorophyll a concentration, whereas the community at Punta Caracol had a more even distribution of these traits, yielding a significant difference in functional trait diversity between sites. These results suggest that lower diversity and potentially altered community function might be associated with proximity to human populations. This study highlights the importance of evaluating functional traits and phylogenetic diversity in addition to common diversity metrics when assessing potential environmental impacts on benthic communities. PMID:26587347

  13. Variation in species diversity and functional traits of sponge communities near human populations in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    PubMed Central

    Matterson, Kenan O.; Freeman, Christopher J.; Archer, Stephanie K.; Thacker, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have renewed interest in sponge ecology by emphasizing the functional importance of sponges in a broad array of ecosystem services. Many critically important habitats occupied by sponges face chronic stressors that might lead to alterations in their diversity, relatedness, and functional attributes. We addressed whether proximity to human activity might be a significant factor in structuring sponge community composition, as well as potential functional roles, by monitoring sponge diversity and abundance at two structurally similar sites that vary in distance to areas of high coastal development in Bocas Del Toro, Panama. We surveyed sponge communities at each site using belt transects and differences between two sites were compared using the following variables: (1) sponge species richness, Shannon diversity, and inverse Simpson’s diversity; (2) phylogenetic diversity; (3) taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity; (4) trait diversity and dissimilarity; and (5) phylogenetic and trait patterns in community structure. We observed significantly higher sponge diversity at Punta Caracol, the site most distant from human development (∼5 km). Although phylogenetic diversity was lower at Saigon Bay, the site adjacent to a large village including many houses, businesses, and an airport, the sites did not exhibit significantly different patterns of phylogenetic relatedness in species composition. However, each site had a distinct taxonomic and phylogenetic composition (beta diversity). In addition, the sponge community at Saigon included a higher relative abundance of sponges with high microbial abundance and high chlorophyll a concentration, whereas the community at Punta Caracol had a more even distribution of these traits, yielding a significant difference in functional trait diversity between sites. These results suggest that lower diversity and potentially altered community function might be associated with proximity to human populations. This study highlights the importance of evaluating functional traits and phylogenetic diversity in addition to common diversity metrics when assessing potential environmental impacts on benthic communities. PMID:26587347

  14. Characterization of beta-adrenoceptor mediated smooth muscle relaxation and the detection of mRNA for beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptors in rat ileum.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S J; Papaioannou, M; Evans, B A; Summers, R J

    1999-06-01

    1. Functional and molecular approaches were used to characterize the beta-AR subtypes mediating relaxation of rat ileal smooth muscle. 2. In functional studies, (-)-isoprenaline relaxation was unchanged by CGP20712A (beta1-AR antagonist) or ICI118551 (beta2-AR antagonist) but shifted by propranolol (pKB=6.69). (+/-)-Cyanopindolol, CGP12177 and ICID7114 did not cause relaxation but antagonized (-)-isoprenaline relaxation. 3. BRL37344 (beta3-AR agonist) caused biphasic relaxation. The high affinity component was shifted with low affinity by propranolol, (+/-)-cyanopindolol, tertatolol and alprenolol. CL316243 (beta3-AR agonist) relaxation was unaffected by CGP20712A or ICI118551 but blocked by SR58894A (beta3-AR antagonist; pA2 = 7.80). Enhanced relaxation after exposure to forskolin and pertussis toxin showed that beta3-AR relaxation can be altered by manipulation of components of the adenylate cyclase signalling pathway. 4. The beta-AR agonist RO363 relaxed the ileum (pEC50=6.18) and was blocked by CGP20712A. Relaxation by the beta2-AR agonist zinterol (pEC50=5.71) was blocked by SR58894A but not by ICI118551. 5. In rat ileum, beta1-, beta2- and beta3-AR mRNA was detected. Comparison of tissues showed that beta3-AR mRNA expression was greatest in WAT>colon=ileum >cerebral cortex>soleus; beta1-AR mRNA was most abundant in cerebral cortex > WAT > ileum = colon > soleus; beta2-AR mRNA was expressed in soleus > WAT > ileum = colon > cerebral cortex. 6. These results show that beta3-ARs are the predominant beta-AR subtype mediating rat ileal relaxation while beta1-ARs may produce a small relaxation. The beta2-AR agonist zinterol produces relaxation through beta3-ARs and there was no evidence for the involvement of beta2-ARs in relaxation despite the detection of beta2-AR mRNA. PMID:10433503

  15. Neoclassical transport in high [beta] tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high [beta] large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high [beta] large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low [beta] values by a factor ([var epsilon]/q[sup 2][beta])[sup [1/2

  16. Enhanced visual detection in trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Berggren, Nick; Blonievsky, Thomas; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2015-08-01

    There is much evidence suggesting that trait anxiety is associated with impairments in the cognitive control of attention. Recent findings, though, have suggested that anxiety may also influence perception, conversely enhancing early information processing. The present study investigated this claim within a visual detection task. Participants searched for a target letter among a number of nontarget letters, varied to modulate the demands or load on perception, while also reporting whether an additional stimulus appeared on trials. Self-reported trait anxiety levels did not affect performance in the letter search task under any level of load. However, visual detection for the additional stimulus, as measured by d' sensitivity, was positively correlated with levels of anxiety regardless of the perceptual difficulty of the search task. These results suggest that trait vulnerability to anxiety is associated with improved visual detection, providing direct evidence that anxiety may modulate sensory processing. PMID:26214571

  17. Systems genetics approaches to understand complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Civelek, Mete; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2014-01-01

    Systems genetics is an approach to understand the flow of biological information that underlies complex traits. It uses a range of experimental and statistical methods to quantitate and integrate intermediate phenotypes, such as transcript, protein or metabolite levels, in populations that vary for traits of interest. Systems genetics studies have provided the first global view of the molecular architecture of complex traits and are useful for the identification of genes, pathways and networks that underlie common human diseases. Given the urgent need to understand how the thousands of loci that have been identified in genome-wide association studies contribute to disease susceptibility, systems genetics is likely to become an increasingly important approach to understanding both biology and disease. PMID:24296534

  18. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  20. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  1. Diverse genetic mechanisms operate to generate atypical betaS haplotypes in the population of Guadeloupe.

    PubMed

    Romana, M; Kéclard, L; Froger, A; Lavocat, E; Saint-Martin, C; Berchel, C; Mérault, G

    2000-05-01

    In a survey of the chromosomal background associated with the sickle cell gene in Guadeloupe, a French Caribbean island, we identified 37 unrelated patients with sickle cell disease (27 SS, nine SC, and one S-beta-thalassemia) of 477 unrelated sickle cell patients where the beta3 gene was linked to 20 different atypical haplotypes. These atypical chromosomes account for about 5% of the overall betaS chromosomes in this population. To investigate the origin of these atypical betaS haplotypes, we performed extensive typing of betaS and betaA chromosomes. Twenty-two different 5' subhaplotypes were identified among the betaS chromosomes. Fifteen of 20 different atypical haplotypes are likely to be the product of recombination by a single crossover around the 5' to the beta-globin gene, or between a major betaS haplotype and one of the betaS haplotypes present in the population. The remaining cases require genetic mechanisms (gene conversions, additional substitutions in a given haplotype) other than crossovers to generate these atypical haplotypes. PMID:10870878

  2. Sequence of PSE-2 beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Huovinen, P; Huovinen, S; Jacoby, G A

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of PSE-2 beta-lactamase, an enzyme that readily hydrolyzes both carbenicillin and oxacillin, has been determined. The deduced sequence of 266 amino acids contained 93 residues identical to those of OXA-2 beta-lactamase and the Ser-Thr-Phe-Lys tetrad also found in the active site of TEM-1 beta-lactamase. PMID:3126705

  3. Beta measurements at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, L.A.; Swinth, K.L.; Haggard, D.L.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a two-step process to characterize the current beta measurement practices at DOE facilities. PNL issued a survey questionnaire on beta measurement practices to DOE facilities and reported the results. PNL measured beta doses and spectra at seven selected DOE facilities and compared selected measurement techniques in the facility environment. This report documents the results of the radiation field measurements and the comparison of measurement techniques at the seven facilities. Data collected included beta dose and spectral measurements at seven DOE facilities that had high beta-to-gamma ratios (using a silicon surface barrier spectrometer, a plastic scintillator spectrometer, and a multielement beta dosimeter). Other dosimeters and survey meters representative of those used at DOE facilities or under development were also used for comparison. Field spectra were obtained under two distinct conditions. Silicon- and scintillation-based spectrometer systems were used under laboratory conditions where high beta-to-gamma dose ratios made the beta spectra easier to observe and analyze. In the second case, beta spectrometers were taken into actual production and maintenance areas of DOE facilities. Analyses of beta and gamma spectra showed that /sup 234/Th- /sup 234m/Pa, /sup 231/Th, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y were the major nuclides contributing to beta doses at the facilities visited. Beta doses from other fission products and /sup 60/Co were also measured, but the potential for exposure was less significant. 21 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Genome Informed Trait-Based Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoz, U.; Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Tang, J.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E.; Riley, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Trait-based approaches are powerful tools for representing microbial communities across both spatial and temporal scales within ecosystem models. Trait-based models (TBMs) represent the diversity of microbial taxa as stochastic assemblages with a distribution of traits constrained by trade-offs between these traits. Such representation with its built-in stochasticity allows the elucidation of the interactions between the microbes and their environment by reducing the complexity of microbial community diversity into a limited number of functional ';guilds' and letting them emerge across spatio-temporal scales. From the biogeochemical/ecosystem modeling perspective, the emergent properties of the microbial community could be directly translated into predictions of biogeochemical reaction rates and microbial biomass. The accuracy of TBMs depends on the identification of key traits of the microbial community members and on the parameterization of these traits. Current approaches to inform TBM parameterization are empirical (i.e., based on literature surveys). Advances in omic technologies (such as genomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics) pave the way to better-initialize models that can be constrained in a generic or site-specific fashion. Here we describe the coupling of metagenomic data to the development of a TBM representing the dynamics of metabolic guilds from an organic carbon stimulated groundwater microbial community. Illumina paired-end metagenomic data were collected from the community as it transitioned successively through electron-accepting conditions (nitrate-, sulfate-, and Fe(III)-reducing), and used to inform estimates of growth rates and the distribution of metabolic pathways (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic oxidation, fermentation) across a spatially resolved TBM. We use this model to evaluate the emergence of different metabolisms and predict rates of biogeochemical processes over time. We compare our results to observational outputs.

  5. Trait procrastination among dental students in India and its influence on academic performance.

    PubMed

    Madhan, Balasubramanian; Kumar, Cholleti Sudheer; Naik, Eslavath Seena; Panda, Sujit; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Barik, Ashish Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Trait procrastination is believed to be highly prevalent among college students and detrimental to their educational performance. As the scenario among dental students is virtually unknown, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of trait procrastination among dental students and to analyze its influence on their academic performance. A total of 174 fourth-year dental students from three dental colleges in India voluntarily completed the Lay's Procrastination Scale-student version (LPS). The mean percentage marks scored in the subsequent final university examinations were used as a measure of academic performance. The descriptive statistics were computed to evaluate the prevalence of significant procrastination (LPS score ≥60). Mann-Whitney U test and multiple linear regressions were used to assess the influence of age and gender on procrastination severity, and the latter was again used to analyze the association between procrastination severity and academic performance. The results indicated that 27 percent (n=47) of the students exhibited a significant extent of trait procrastination; neither age nor gender affected its severity (p<0.05). Procrastination had a significant and negative impact on the academic performance of the student (beta=-0.150, p=0.039). These findings highlight the need for active measures to reduce the causes and consequences of procrastination in dental education. PMID:23066141

  6. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. PMID:25466078

  7. Epigenetics meets metabolomics: an epigenome-wide association study with blood serum metabolic traits

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Zeilinger, Sonja; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Brugger, Markus; Peters, Annette; Meisinger, Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Hengstenberg, Christian; Pagel, Philipp; Huber, Fritz; Mohney, Robert P.; Grallert, Harald; Illig, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Waldenberger, Melanie; Gieger, Christian; Suhre, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported strong influences of genetic variants on metabolic phenotypes, some of them with clinical relevance. Here, we hypothesize that DNA methylation may have an important and potentially independent effect on human metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we conducted what is to the best of our knowledge the first epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) between DNA methylation and metabolic traits (metabotypes) in human blood. We assess 649 blood metabolic traits from 1814 participants of the Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg (KORA) population study for association with methylation of 457 004 CpG sites, determined on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip platform. Using the EWAS approach, we identified two types of methylome–metabotype associations. One type is driven by an underlying genetic effect; the other type is independent of genetic variation and potentially driven by common environmental and life-style-dependent factors. We report eight CpG loci at genome-wide significance that have a genetic variant as confounder (P = 3.9 × 10−20 to 2.0 × 10−108, r2 = 0.036 to 0.221). Seven loci display CpG site-specific associations to metabotypes, but do not exhibit any underlying genetic signals (P = 9.2 × 10−14 to 2.7 × 10−27, r2 = 0.008 to 0.107). We further identify several groups of CpG loci that associate with a same metabotype, such as 4-vinylphenol sulfate and 4-androsten-3-beta,17-beta-diol disulfate. In these cases, the association between CpG-methylation and metabotype is likely the result of a common external environmental factor, including smoking. Our study shows that analysis of EWAS with large numbers of metabolic traits in large population cohorts are, in principle, feasible. Taken together, our data suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in regulating human metabolism. PMID:24014485

  8. Pleiotropy in complex traits: challenges and strategies

    PubMed Central

    Solovieff, Nadia; Cotsapas, Chris; Lee, Phil H.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified many variants that each affects multiple traits, particularly across autoimmune diseases, cancers and neuropsychiatric disorders, suggesting that pleiotropic effects on human complex traits may be widespread. However, systematic detection of such effects is challenging and requires new methodologies and frameworks for interpreting cross-phenotype results. In this Review, we discuss the evidence for pleiotropy in contemporary genetic mapping studies, new and established analytical approaches to identifying pleiotropic effects, sources of spurious cross-phenotype effects and study design considerations. We also outline the molecular and clinical implications of such findings and discuss future directions of research. PMID:23752797

  9. The Myth of Sickle Cell Trait

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Lonnie R.

    1974-01-01

    Recently emphasis in the problem of sickle hemoglobinopathy has been on mass screening of the black population. Concern about the alleged danger in having sickle cell trait itself is offered as part of the justification. This danger is disputed and a position developed for the benign status of sickle cell trait and the potentially serious social harm to blacks so identified. Programs are suggested to foster improved medical care availability and early detection for those with sickle cell anemia. It is suggested that mandatory patient programs be avoided, and that research receive greater emphasis. PMID:4840172

  10. Bayesian Mapping of Genomewide Interacting Quantitative Trait Loci for Ordinal Traits

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Nengjun; Banerjee, Samprit; Pomp, Daniel; Yandell, Brian S.

    2007-01-01

    Development of statistical methods and software for mapping interacting QTL has been the focus of much recent research. We previously developed a Bayesian model selection framework, based on the composite model space approach, for mapping multiple epistatic QTL affecting continuous traits. In this study we extend the composite model space approach to complex ordinal traits in experimental crosses. We jointly model main and epistatic effects of QTL and environmental factors on the basis of the ordinal probit model (also called threshold model) that assumes a latent continuous trait underlies the generation of the ordinal phenotypes through a set of unknown thresholds. A data augmentation approach is developed to jointly generate the latent data and the thresholds. The proposed ordinal probit model, combined with the composite model space framework for continuous traits, offers a convenient way for genomewide interacting QTL analysis of ordinal traits. We illustrate the proposed method by detecting new QTL and epistatic effects for an ordinal trait, dead fetuses, in a F2 intercross of mice. Utility and flexibility of the method are also demonstrated using a simulated data set. Our method has been implemented in the freely available package R/qtlbim, which greatly facilitates the general usage of the Bayesian methodology for genomewide interacting QTL analysis for continuous, binary, and ordinal traits in experimental crosses. PMID:17507680

  11. Personality and substance dependence symptoms: modeling substance-specific traits.

    PubMed

    Grekin, Emily R; Sher, Kenneth J; Wood, Phillip K

    2006-12-01

    Personality traits related to neuroticism and disinhibition have been consistently associated with substance use disorders (SUDs). It is unclear, however, whether different personality traits predict distinct forms of substance dependence. Additionally, it is unclear whether personality traits continue to predict alcohol, drug, and tobacco dependence after controlling for comorbid antisociality and other SUDs. The current study addresses these questions by characterizing relations between personality traits and substance dependence symptoms in a longitudinal sample of 3,720 college students. Results revealed that antisociality and certain core personality traits predicted multiple types of substance pathology. In addition, several personality traits were differentially associated with alcohol, drug, and tobacco symptomatology. PMID:17176176

  12. A transforming growth factor. beta. (TGF-. beta. ) receptor from human placenta exhibits greater affinity for TGF-. beta. 2 than for TGF-. beta. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, E.J.; O'Connor-McCourt, M.D. )

    1991-04-30

    Affinity-labeling techniques have been used to identify three types of high-affinity receptors for transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta}) on the surface of many cells in culture. Here the authors demonstrate that membrane preparations from tissue sources may also be used as an alternative system for studying the binding properties of TGF-{beta} receptors. Using a chemical cross-linking technique with {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}1 and {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}2 and bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS{sup 3}), they have identified and characterized two high-affinity binding components in membrane preparations derived from human term placenta. The larger species, which migrates as a diffuse band of molecular mass 250-350 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels, is characteristic of the TGF-{beta} receptor type III, a proteoglycan containing glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of chondroitin and heparan sulfate. The smaller species of molecular mass 140 kDa was identified as the core glycoprotein of this type III receptor by using the techniques of enzymatic deglycosylation and peptide mapping. Competition experiments, using {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}1 or {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}2 and varying amounts of competing unlabeled TGF-{beta}1 or TGF-{beta}2, revealed that both the placental type III proteoglycan and its core glycoprotein belong to a novel class of type III receptors that exhibit a greater affinity for TGF-{beta}2 than for TGF-{beta}1. This preferential binding of TGF-{beta}2 to placental type III receptors suggests differential roles for TGF-{beta}2 and TGF-{beta} 1 in placental function.

  13. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Cahyadi, Muhammad; Park, Hee-Bok; Seo, Dong-Won; Jin, Shil; Choi, Nuri; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Kang, Bo-Seok; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC). F1 samples (n = 595) were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM) of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3) for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001) and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003). Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007) and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027) were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds. PMID:26732327

  14. Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits

    SciTech Connect

    Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. ); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. )

    1993-11-01

    Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken.

    PubMed

    Cahyadi, Muhammad; Park, Hee-Bok; Seo, Dong-Won; Jin, Shil; Choi, Nuri; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Kang, Bo-Seok; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC). F1 samples (n = 595) were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM) of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3) for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001) and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003). Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007) and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027) were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds. PMID:26732327

  16. Engineered topographic determinants with alpha beta, beta alpha beta, and beta alpha beta alpha topologies show high affinity binding to native protein antigen (lactate dehydrogenase-C4).

    PubMed

    Kobs-Conrad, S; Lee, H; DiGeorge, A M; Kaumaya, P T

    1993-12-01

    The use of peptides has attracted much interest in the development of synthetic vaccines. Although our current understanding of peptide antigens as immunogens has been greatly advanced recently, there still remain many obstacles. The B cell response elicited by a peptide antigen is governed by a number of poorly understood events such as epitope structure, T cell dependency and major histocompatibility complex restriction, adjuvancy, route of immunization, and immunogen stability. In this paper, we extend our previous studies on the problem of the topographical nature of antigenic sites on native protein antigens, in terms of how much molecular mimicry must be maintained in an antigenic determinant for the induction of high affinity antibodies specific for native protein. We show here that an antigenic epitope from the model contraceptive vaccine candidate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4) can be rationally engineered into a highly structured conformation that mimics the corresponding site in the native three-dimensional protein. Our strategy is based on the selection of an antigenic segment which exhibits certain secondary structural properties and by design principles is fixed in three dimensions by appropriate grafting onto a supersecondary structural motif such as alpha beta, beta alpha beta, or beta alpha beta alpha. The biophysical data are consistent with the proposed secondary structures, and antibodies raised to the various construct show high affinity for the native protein. These studies lend further credence to the conformational nature of peptide epitopes and provide a basis for the rational design of peptide vaccines. PMID:8244959

  17. Bioavailability of beta-carotene (betaC) from purple carrots is the same as typical orange carrots while high-betaC carrots increase betaC stores in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Biofortifying existing sources of beta-carotene (betaC) and increasing dietary betaC could help combat the issue. Two studies were performed to investigate the relative betaC bioavailability of a betaC supplement to purple, high-betaC o...

  18. Quantitative autoradiography of. beta. /sub 1/- and. beta. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Rainbow, T.C.; Parsons, B.; Wolfe, B.B.

    1984-03-01

    The authors used quantitative autoradiography to localize in rat brain ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. These receptors were labeled in vitro with /sup 125/I-labeled pindolol, an antagonist of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors that binds nonselectively to both ..beta../sub 1/ and ..beta../sub 2/ subtypes. The selective inhibition of /sup 125/I-labeled pindolol binding with specific antagonists of ..beta../sub 1/ and ..beta../sub 2/ receptors allowed the visualization of ..beta..-adrenergic receptor subtypes. High levels of ..beta../sub 1/ receptors were observed in the cingulate cortex, layers I and II of the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, the Islands of Calleja, and the gelatinosus, mediodorsal, and ventral nuclei of the thalamus. High levels of ..beta../sub 2/ receptors were found in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, over pia mater, and in the central, paraventricular, and caudal lateral posterior thalamic nuclei. Approximately equal levels of ..beta../sub 1/ and ..beta../sub 2/ receptors occurred in the substantia nigra, the olfactory tubercle, layer IV of the cerebral cortex, the medial preoptic nucleus, and all nuclei of the medulla. The pronounced differences in the ratio of ..beta../sub 1/ to ..beta../sub 2/ receptors among brain regions suggests that the subtypes of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors may play different roles in neuronal function. 38 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  19. Ofloxacin/beta-cyclodextrin complexation.

    PubMed

    Koester, L S; Guterres, S S; Le Roch, M; Eifler-Lima, V L; Zuanazzi, J A; Bassani, V L

    2001-07-01

    Ofloxacin (OFX) is a fluorquinolone characterized by photochemical instability. With the goal to improve its photostability in aqueous solutions, the complexation of ofloxacin with beta-cyclodextrin was investigated. The complexes showed a water solubility enhancement of approximately 2.6 times; nevertheless, the photodegradation of ofloxacin was not reduced. The complexes obtained were characterized by thermal and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, which revealed an interaction between ofloxacin and beta-cyclodextrin. The last analysis indicated that only partial inclusion of the N-methylpiperazinyl moiety occurred, which can explain the fact that photostabilization was not improved. This partial inclusion phenomenon could be explained also by computer-aided molecular modeling. PMID:11548860

  20. Molecular basis for amyloid-[beta] polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Laganowsky, Arthur; Landau, Meytal; Zhao, Minglei; Soriaga, Angela B.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Flot, David; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberga, David

    2011-10-19

    Amyloid-beta (A{beta}) aggregates are the main constituent of senile plaques, the histological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. A{beta} molecules form {beta}-sheet containing structures that assemble into a variety of polymorphic oligomers, protofibers, and fibers that exhibit a range of lifetimes and cellular toxicities. This polymorphic nature of A{beta} has frustrated its biophysical characterization, its structural determination, and our understanding of its pathological mechanism. To elucidate A{beta} polymorphism in atomic detail, we determined eight new microcrystal structures of fiber-forming segments of A{beta}. These structures, all of short, self-complementing pairs of {beta}-sheets termed steric zippers, reveal a variety of modes of self-association of A{beta}. Combining these atomic structures with previous NMR studies allows us to propose several fiber models, offering molecular models for some of the repertoire of polydisperse structures accessible to A{beta}. These structures and molecular models contribute fundamental information for understanding A{beta} polymorphic nature and pathogenesis.

  1. Beta-catenin expression in human cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, T.; Shiozaki, H.; Shibamoto, S.; Oka, H.; Kimura, Y.; Tamura, S.; Inoue, M.; Monden, T.; Ito, F.; Monden, M.

    1996-01-01

    Cell-cell adhesion in tissue is mainly regulated by homotypic interaction of cadherin molecules, which are anchored to the cytoskeleton via cytoplasmic proteins, including alpha- and beta-catenin. Although we previously demonstrated that alpha-catenin is crucial for cadherin function in vivo, little is known about the role of beta-catenin. We examined the expression of beta-catenin in human carcinoma samples along with normal tissue (esophagus, stomach, and colon) by immunostaining using our antibody for beta-catenin. Normal epithelium strongly expressed beta-catenin. However, beta-catenin expression was frequently reduced in primary tumors of the esophagus (10 of 15, 67%), stomach (9 of 19, 47%), and colon (11 of 22, 50%). From an immunoprecipitation study, we found that beta-catenin forms a complex with E-cadherin not only in the normal epithelium but also in cancerous tissues. In coexpression patterns of E-cadherin and beta-catenin, 43 (77%) of the 56 tumors showed a similar expression of both molecules, whereas the other 13 tumors (23%) showed positive staining for E-cadherin and reduced expression of beta-catenin. These findings suggest that beta-catenin forms a complex with E-cadherin in vivo and down-regulation of beta-catenin expression is associated with malignant transformation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8546224

  2. [Biotechnological production of acetylated thymosin beta4].

    PubMed

    Be?rakhova, K A; Stepanenko, V N; Miroshnikov, A I; Esipov, R S

    2011-01-01

    Thymosin beta4 (43 aa) is a highly conserved acidic peptide which regulates actin polymerization in mammalian cells by sequestering globular actin. Thymosin beta4 is undergoing clinical trials as a drug for the treatment of venous stasis ulcers, corneal wounds and injuries, as well as acute myocardial infarction. Currently, thymosin beta4 is produced with solid-phase chemical synthesis. Biotechnological synthesis of this peptide presents difficulties because N-terminal amino acid residue of thymosin beta4 is acetylated. In this study we propose a method for producing the recombinant precursor of thymosin beta4 and its subsequent targeted chemical acetylation. Desacetylthymosin beta4 was synthesized as a part of a hybrid protein with thioredoxin and a specific TEV (tobacco etch virus) protease cleavage site. The following scheme was developed for the purification of desacetylthymosin beta4: (i) the biosynthesis of a soluble hybrid protein (HP) in Escherichia coli; (ii) isolation of the HP by ion exchange chromatography; (iii) cleavage of the HP with TEVprotease; (iv) purification of desacetylthymosin beta4 by ultra-filtration. N-terminal acetylation of desacetylthymosin beta4 was performed with acetic anhydride under acidic conditions (pH 3). The reaction yield was 55%. Thymosin beta4 was then purified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The proposed synthetic approach to recombinant thymosin beta4 is suitable for scale-up and can provide for the medical use of highly purified preparation with a yield of 20 mg from 1 L of culture. PMID:21721255

  3. Use of the robust sib-pair method to screen for single-locus, multiple-locus, and pleiotropic effects: application to traits related to hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A F; Elston, R C; Tran, L D; Siervogel, R M

    1991-01-01

    Robust sib-pair linkage analysis can be used as a screening tool in the search for the potential involvement of single-loci, multiple-loci, and pleiotropic effects of single loci underlying phenotypic variation. Four large families were each ascertained through one adult white male with essential hypertension. The robust sib-pair method was used to screen these families for evidence of linkage between 39 quantitative traits related to hypertension and 25 genetic marker loci. All traits were analyzed on the untransformed, square-root and log-transformed scales. Among other findings, there is a suggestion of linkage between the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase locus on chromosome 1p36 and mean fifth-phase diastolic blood pressure. There may also be linkage between the following markers and traits: the adenylate kinase-1 marker and/or the Lewis blood group marker and the traits height, weight, and biacromial breadth; the glyoxylase I marker and the traits upper-arm circumference and suprailiac skinfold thickness; the ABO blood group and adenylate kinase-1 markers on chromosome 9q34 and the third component of complement marker on chromosome 19p13 and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase; and the P1 blood group and the traits weight and 1-h postload serum glucose level. PMID:2018038

  4. Advances in Phenotyping of Functional Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plants, functional traits are morphological, biochemical, physiological, structural, phenological, or behavioral characteristics that are expressed in phenotypes of individual plants,that are relevant to the plant’s role in the ecosystem or its agronomic performance. By themselves, functional tra...

  5. Component Latent Trait Models for Test Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan Whitely

    Latent trait models are presented that can be used for test design in the context of a theory about the variables that underlie task performance. Examples of methods for decomposing and testing hypotheses about the theoretical variables in task performance are given. The methods can be used to determine the processing components that are involved…

  6. Phylogenetics Exercise Using Inherited Human Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuimala, Jarno

    2006-01-01

    A bioinformatics laboratory exercise based on inherited human morphological traits is presented. It teaches how morphological characters can be used to study the evolutionary history of humans using parsimony. The exercise can easily be used in a pen-and-paper laboratory, but if computers are available, a more versatile analysis can be carried

  7. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research. The paper…

  8. Biodiversity: Predictive traits to the rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisan, Antoine

    2014-03-01

    Climate change poses new challenges to the conservation of species, which at present requires data-hungry models to meaningfully anticipate future threats. Now a study suggests that species traits may offer a simpler way to help predict future extinction risks.

  9. Estimating Trait Heritability in Highly Fecund Species

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sarah W.; Scarpino, Samuel V.; Pongwarin, Thanapat; Scott, James; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers are interested in estimating the heritability of traits for nonmodel organisms. However, estimating the heritability of these traits presents both experimental and statistical challenges, which typically arise from logistical difficulties associated with rearing large numbers of families independently in the field, a lack of known pedigree, the need to account for group or batch effects, etc. Here we develop both an empirical and computational methodology for estimating the narrow-sense heritability of traits for highly fecund species. Our experimental approach controls for undesirable culturing effects while minimizing culture numbers, increasing feasibility in the field. Our statistical approach accounts for known issues with model-selection by using a permutation test to calculate significance values and includes both fitting and power calculation methods. We further demonstrate that even with moderately high sample-sizes, the p-values derived from asymptotic properties of the likelihood ratio test are overly conservative, thus reducing statistical power. We illustrate our methodology by estimating the narrow-sense heritability for larval settlement, a key life-history trait, in the reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata. The experimental, statistical, and computational methods, along with all of the data from this study, are available in the R package multiDimBio. PMID:26438295

  10. Phylogenetics Exercise Using Inherited Human Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuimala, Jarno

    2006-01-01

    A bioinformatics laboratory exercise based on inherited human morphological traits is presented. It teaches how morphological characters can be used to study the evolutionary history of humans using parsimony. The exercise can easily be used in a pen-and-paper laboratory, but if computers are available, a more versatile analysis can be carried…

  11. Dependency Traits Among Parents of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Forest S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Studies question whether there is a significant association between parents' dependency traits and drug habits in their offspring. Reported here is a survey of 1,091 young males. The reported occurrence of parents' alcohol consumption, smoking, use of stimulants and sedatives, and overeating were compared among abusers and non-users of hashish,…

  12. New trait data at MaizeGDB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB has several ways to archive trait data used for QTL and GWAS analyses. The simplest is simple posting of files provided by researchers along with links to the publication. More recently we have begun to integrate these data for diversity recombinant germplasm, and association panels. The go...

  13. Biotechnological interventions to improve plant developmental traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental traits are coordinated at various levels in a plant and involve organ to organ communications via long distance signaling processes that integrate transcription, hormonal action and environmental cues. Thus, plant architecture, root-soil-microbe interactions, flowering, fruit (and seed...

  14. Trait Ratings for Automated Essay Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Koch, Chantal Mees; Page, Ellis B.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Harrington, Susanmarie

    This study used Project Essay Grade (PEG) to evaluate essays both holistically and with the rating of traits (content, organization, style, mechanics, and creativity) for Web-based student essays that serve as placement tests at a large Midwestern university. In addition, the use of a TopicScore, or measure of topic content for each assignment,…

  15. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  16. The Computerized Inventory of Developmental Writing Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Niki

    The Computerized Inventory of Developmental Writing Traits (CIDWT) is meant to provide a valid reliable measure of program improvement, particularly for teachers implementing a process writing approach in their classrooms. While standardized tests, portfolio, and holistic scoring all have something to offer, the CIDWT is an inexpensive direct…

  17. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR INFECTIOUS BOVINE KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an economically important disease in cattle. The objective of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in offspring from a Brahman x Hereford sire. The sire was mated to H...

  18. Sickle Cell Trait and Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Yvonne; Ayrer, James

    1974-01-01

    In a preliminary study, no significant interaction effects were found between scholastic achievement and sickle cell trait in black children currently in eight and ninth grades, as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills over a consecutive period of four years, 1968 through 1971, grades four through seven. (EH)

  19. Flexible Emotional Responsiveness in Trait Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, Christian E.; Thompson, Renee J.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    Field studies and laboratory experiments have documented that a key component of resilience is emotional flexibility – the ability to respond flexibly to changing emotional circumstances. In the present study we tested the hypotheses that resilient people exhibit emotional flexibility: a) in response to frequently changing emotional stimuli; and b) across multiple modalities of emotional responding. As participants viewed a series of emotional pictures, we assessed their self-reported affect, facial muscle activity, and startle reflexes. Higher trait resilience predicted more divergent affective and facial responses (corrugator and zygomatic) to positive versus negative pictures. Thus, compared with their low resilient counterparts, resilient people appear to be able to more flexibly match their emotional responses to the frequently changing emotional stimuli. Moreover, whereas high trait resilient participants exhibited divergent startle responses to positive versus negative pictures regardless of the valence of the preceding trial, low trait resilient participants did not exhibit divergent startle responses when the preceding picture was negative. High trait resilient individuals, therefore, appear to be better able than are their low-resilient counterparts to either switch or maintain their emotional responses depending on whether the emotional context changes. The present findings broaden our understanding of the mechanisms underlying resilience by demonstrating that resilient people are able to flexibly change their affective and physiological responses to match the demands of frequently changing environmental circumstances. PMID:21707168

  20. FERTILITY IS NOW A SELECTION TRAIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk production has nearly doubled over the past 40 years, while days open has increased by about 40 days. Although cow fertility has been selected for indirectly via genetic evaluations for productive life, direct selection has been hampered by low heritability of fertility traits (about 4%) and la...

  1. Mammalian. beta. /sub 1/- and. beta. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptors: immunological and structural comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Moxham, C.P.; George, S.T.; Graziano, M.P.; Brandwein, H.J.; Malbon, C.C.

    1986-11-05

    ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors, pharmacologically distinct proteins, have been reported to be structurally dissimilar. In the present study three techniques were employed to compare the nature of mammalian ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. Antibodies against each of the receptor subtypes were raised separately. Polyclonal antisera against ..beta../sub 1/-receptors of rat fat cells were raised in mice, and antisera against ..beta../sub 2/-receptors of guinea pig lung were raised in rabbits. Receptors purified from rat fat cells (..beta../sub 1/-), S49 mouse lymphoma cells (..beta../sub 2/-), and rat liver (..beta../sub 2/-) were probed with these antisera. Each anti-receptor antisera demonstrated the ability to immunoprecipitate purified receptors of both ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-subtypes. The mobility of ..beta..-receptors subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was probed using antireceptor antibodies and nitrocellulose blots of the gels. Fat cell ..beta../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors display M/sub r/ = 67,000 under reducing conditions and M/sub r/ = 54,000 under nonreducing conditions, as previously reported. Both ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-receptors displayed this same shift in electrophoretic mobility observed in the presence as compared to the absence of disulfide bridge-reducing agents, as detected both by autoradiography of the radiolabeled receptors and by immunoblotting of native receptors. Finally, isoelectric focusing of purified radioiodinated ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors revealed identical isoelectric points. These data are the first to provide analyses of immunological, structural, and biochemical features of ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-subtypes in tandem and underscore the structural similarities that exist between these pharmacologically distinct receptors.

  2. Respective degree of expression of beta 1-, beta 2- and beta 3-adrenoceptors in human brown and white adipose tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Deng, C.; Paoloni-Giacobino, A.; Kuehne, F.; Boss, O.; Revelli, J. P.; Moinat, M.; Cawthorne, M. A.; Muzzin, P.; Giacobino, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    1. The possible existence of a beta 3-adrenoceptor in human brown and white adipose tissues was investigated by mRNA expression and binding studies. 2. The relative amounts of beta 1-, beta 2- and beta 3-adrenoceptor mRNA, as determined by total RNA Northern blot analysis in newborn brown adipose tissue, were 28, 63 and 9% respectively of the total beta-adrenoceptor mRNA. 3. The beta 1/beta 2-adrenoceptors of human brown adipose tissue plasma membranes were characterized using [3H]-CGP 12177 as a ligand. Their Kd and Bmax values were 1.9 nM and 156 fmol mg-1 of membrane proteins, respectively. The beta 3-adrenoceptor was characterized by use of the new specific radioligand [3H]-SB 206606. The binding of this ligand was stereospecifically displaced by the active R,R- or the inactive S,S-enantiomer of BRL 37344 up to a concentration of about 10 microM. The Kd and Bmax values of the brown adipose tissue membrane beta 3-adrenoceptors were 87 nM and 167 fmol mg-1 of proteins, respectively. A low affinity [3H]-CGP 12177 binding site population was also detected in these membranes. 4. In human omental white adipose tissue, no beta 3-adrenoceptor mRNA could be detected in total RNA Northern blots and the beta 1-and beta 2-adrenoceptor mRNAs represented 9 and 91%, respectively of the total beta-adrenoceptor mRNA, and no specific binding of [3H]-SB 206606 could be measured. Images Figure 1 PMID:8799564

  3. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for canopy wilting trait in soybean (Glycine max L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought stress adversely affects [Glycine max (L.) Merr] soybean at most developmental stages, which collectively results in yield reduction. Little information is available on relative contribution and chromosomal locations of quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning drought tolerance in soybean...

  4. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  5. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  6. Comparison of single-trait to multi-trait national evaluations for yield, health, and fertility.

    PubMed

    VanRaden, P M; Tooker, M E; Wright, J R; Sun, C; Hutchison, J L

    2014-12-01

    Flexible software was designed to replace the current animal model programs used for national genetic evaluations. Model improvements included (1) multi-trait processing, (2) multiple fixed class and regression variables, (3) differing models for different traits, (4) random regressions, and (5) foreign data included using pseudo-records. Computational improvements included (6) parallel processing, (7) renumbering class variables to equation numbers within the program so that estimated effects are output with original identification numbers, and (8) reliability computed within the same program. When applied to 3 fertility traits of 27,971,895 cows and heifers, the new model used daughter pregnancy rate as a correlated trait to improve heifer and cow conception rate evaluations for older animals and in herd-years where records are missing, and also added information from crossbreds. When applied to 7 traits and 76,846,327 lactation records of 30,064,300 cows, gains in accuracy were small for yield and somatic cell score, moderate for daughter pregnancy rate, and larger for productive life for recent bulls compared with single-trait evaluations. For very old bulls, multi-trait gains were also large for protein because lactation records were available only for milk and fat. Multi-trait productive life was computed with exact rather than approximate methods; however, correlated information from conformation was excluded, reducing advantages of the new model over the previous software. Estimates of breed differences, inbreeding depression, and heterosis were similar to previous estimates; new estimates were obtained for conception rates. Predictions were compared by truncating 4 yr of data, and genetic trend validation was applied to all breed-trait combinations. The estimates of trend account for increases in inbreeding across time. Incorporation of foreign data gave correlations above 0.98 for new with previous evaluations of foreign Holstein bulls, but lower for other breeds. The 7-trait model required 35 GB of memory and 3 d to converge using 7 processors. The new software was implemented for fertility traits in 2013 and is scheduled for implementation with yield, somatic cell score, and productive life in 2014. Further revision of the models and software may be needed in the near future to account for genomic preselection. PMID:25282421

  7. TGF-{beta} modulates {beta}-Catenin stability and signaling in mesenchymal proliferations

    SciTech Connect

    Amini Nik, Saeid; Ebrahim, Rasoul Pour; Dam, Kim van; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Tejpar, Sabine . E-mail: sabine.tejpar@med.kuleuven.be

    2007-08-01

    Here for the first time we showed, despite the oncogenic mutations in {beta}-Catenin, that TGF-{beta} is a modulator of {beta}-Catenin levels in tumoral fibroblasts as well as non-tumoral fibroblasts. The results show that the TGF-{beta} pathway is active in desmoids cells and in in situ tumors. A dose dependent increase in {beta}-Catenin protein levels was observed after TGF-{beta} treatment in combination with an increased repression of GSK-3{beta} both in normal and tumoral fibroblasts. TGF-{beta} stimulation also led to an altered - up to 5 fold - transcriptional activity of {beta}-Catenin responsive promoters, such as IGFBP6 as well as increase of TOPflash activity. TGF-{beta} stimulation increased cell proliferation and BrdU incorporation 2.5 times. Taken together, we propose that TGF-{beta} is a modulator of {beta}-Catenin levels in tumoral fibroblasts and non-tumoral fibroblasts, despite the oncogenic mutations already present in this gene in tumoral fibroblasts of desmoid tumors. This modulation of {beta}-Catenin levels by TGF-{beta} may be involved in determining the tumoral phenotype of the cells.

  8. Fates beyond traits: ecological consequences of human-induced trait change

    PubMed Central

    Palkovacs, Eric P; Kinnison, Michael T; Correa, Cristian; Dalton, Christopher M; Hendry, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Human-induced trait change has been documented in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. These trait changes are driven by phenotypic plasticity and contemporary evolution. While efforts to manage human-induced trait change are beginning to receive some attention, managing its ecological consequences has received virtually none. Recent work suggests that contemporary trait change can have important effects on the dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Therefore, trait changes caused by human activity may be shaping ecological dynamics on a global scale. We present evidence for important ecological effects associated with human-induced trait change in a variety of study systems. These effects can occur over large spatial scales and impact system-wide processes such as trophic cascades. Importantly, the magnitude of these effects can be on par with those of traditional ecological drivers such as species presence. However, phenotypic change is not always an agent of ecological change; it can also buffer ecosystems against change. Determining the conditions under which phenotypic change may promote vs prevent ecological change should be a top research priority. PMID:25568040

  9. Estimates of genetic correlations among growth traits including competition effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic parameters of direct and competition effects for traits measured at the end of a growth test utilizing multi-trait analyses. A total of 9,720 boars were tested with 15 boars per pen from about 71 to 161 d of age and weight from 31 to 120 kg. Traits analyzed wi...

  10. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geneticists and breeders are poised to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, they need a better understanding of root functional traits and how these traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditio...

  11. Towards deploying genomic selection for improving complex traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) is an effective approach for improving qualitative traits and has been successfully used to develop improved lines for rust resistance and high oleate trait in peanut. Further efforts are underway to pyramid genomic regions for multiple qualitative traits (rust re...

  12. Trait Ambiguity and Controllability in Evaluations of Self and Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Jack L.; Jacobson, Alan S.

    Research has found that most people tend to rate themselves as above average on desirable skills or qualities and below average on undesirable qualities. Two factors have been found to influence this self-serving bias: (1) controllability or the perceived control one has over developing a trait; and (2) trait ambiguity in which a positive trait

  13. Short-Term Stability of Psychopathic Traits in Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Zina; Klaver, Jessica R.; Hart, Stephen D.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Douglas, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable debate about the assessment of psychopathic traits in adolescence due in part to questions regarding the stability of traits. We investigated the 6-month stability of psychopathic traits in a sample of 83 male adolescent offenders using an augmented protocol for the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and the self-report…

  14. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS ANALYSIS AS A GENE DISCOVERY TOOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait locus analysis has been a mainstay approach for obtaining a genetic description of complex agronomic traits for plants. What is sometimes overlooked is the role QTL analysis can play in identifying genes that underlay complex traits. In this chapter, I will describe the basic st...

  15. Molecular characterization of cardiac. beta. -adrenergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    A rat cardiac cDNA clone and a rat genomic clone encoding the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor were isolated and characterized by restriction mapping and automated DNA sequence analysis. The rat cardiac {beta}{sub 2}-receptor consists of 418 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 46,890 Da. In order to characterize the rat cardiac {beta}{sub 2}-receptor in more detail, B-82 cells, a murine fibroblast cell line lacking intrinsic {beta}-adrenergic receptors, were transfected with the gene encoding the rat {beta}{sub 2}-receptor, using a vector that allows stable, steroid-inducible expression of mammalian genes. Membranes prepared from transfected cells exhibited specific binding of the {beta}-receptor antagonist ({sup 125}I)iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) that was saturable and of high affinity. Displacement of ICYP binding to rat cardiac receptors by {beta}-adrenergic ligands was stereoselective and exhibited a rank order of potency for agonists expected for a {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor subtype. Expressed {beta}{sub 2}-receptors photoaffinity labeled with ({sup 125}I)iodocyanopindolol diazirine (ICYP-D) displayed as SDS-PAGE apparent molecular mass of 68,000 suggesting that the receptor is glycosylated 30% by weight. B-82 cells transfected with the rat {beta}{sub 2}-receptor gene exhibited a dose-dependent increase in intracellular levels of cyclic AMP in response to stimulation by isoproterenol.

  16. pathogenesis of the henny feathering trait in the Sebright bantam chicken. Increased conversion of androgen to estrogen in skin.

    PubMed Central

    George, F W; Wilson, J D

    1980-01-01

    In female chickens of all breeds development of female feathering pattern is mediated by estrogens, whereas normal males and castrated chickens of both sexes develop male feathering. Male chickens carrying the henny feathering trait (such as the Sebright bantam and golden Campine) develop a female feathering pattern but otherwise virilize normally. To examine the possibility that the henny feathering trait is the result of increased conversion of androgen to estrogen in skin, estrogen formation from [1,2,6,7-3H]testosterone was measured in tissue slices from control breeds and chickens with the henny feathering trait. Rates of estrogen formation were undetectable or low in all control tissues other than ovary, whereas rates were high in skin and skin appendages and detectable in many tissues from Sebright and Campine birds. The increased rate of estrogen formation in skin was demonstrable in Sebright chicks and in all areas of skin biopsied in the mature bird. Furthermore, plasma levels of 17 beta-estradiol were higher in Sebright and Campine than in control male cocks. Thus, increased formation of estrogen from androgen in the peripheral tissues probably explains the henny feathering trait. Images PMID:7400309

  17. Atypical beta-adrenoceptors mediating relaxation in the human colon: functional evidence for beta3-rather than beta4-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    de Ponti, F; Modini, C; Gibelli, G; Crema, F; Frigo, G

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present functional study was to assess the role of beta3-adrenoceptors in the light of recent findings suggesting the existence of a putative fourth beta-adrenoceptor in adipose and heart tissue. The effect of the non-conventional beta3-adrenoceptor partial agonist CGP12177A is resistant to the effect of the beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist SR59230A. Under isotonic conditions in circular muscle strips of human distal colon, the concentration-effect relationship of CGP12177A and SR59104A (beta3-adrenoceptor agonists), alone and in the presence of CGP20712A (beta1-adrenoceptor antagonist) ICI118551 (beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist) and SR59230A, all 0.1 microm was studied. CGP12177A concentration-dependently relaxed circular muscle strips (pEC50=6.16+/-0.05). This effect was left unchanged by beta1-/beta2-adrenoceptor blockade, but antagonised by SR59230A (pA2=8.12+/-0.02). SR59104A concentration-dependently relaxed circular muscle strips (pEC50=5.43+/-0.01), an effect that was not significantly affected by pretreatment with CGP20712A and ICI118551, but competitively antagonised by SR59230A (p KB=7.89). Isoprenaline-induced relaxations were antagonised by propranolol with a low pA2value (7.76+/-0.16). These results provide further evidence for the presence of functional beta3-adrenoceptors in the human colon, but do not support a role for an atypical beta-adrenoceptor distinct from the beta3-subtype. PMID:10328991

  18. Beta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter covers the use of wild beets in sugar beet improvement, including the basic botany of the species, its distribution; geographical locations of genetic diversity; morphology; cytology and karyotype; genome size; taxonomic position; agricultural status (model plant/weeds/invasive species/...

  19. Transcriptional modulation by n-butyric acid of beta 1-, beta 2-, and beta 3-adrenergic receptor balance in 3T3-F442A adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Krief, S; Fève, B; Baude, B; Zilberfarb, V; Strosberg, A D; Pairault, J; Emorine, L J

    1994-03-01

    3T3-F442A adipocytes, which express major beta 3-adrenergic receptors (beta 3-AR) (90%) and minor beta 1-AR (< 10%) and beta 2-AR (< 1%) populations, were used to investigate regulation by n-butyric acid of beta-AR subtype expression. Following butyrate treatment, EC50 values of beta 1- and beta 2-selective agonists, dobutamine and fenoterol, were decreased, whereas that of the beta 3-selective agonist BRL37344 was increased. Direct binding and competition of (-)-[125I]iodocyanopindolol binding by selective beta 1- and beta 2-AR antagonists, CGP20712A and ICI118551, and by the beta 3-AR agonist, BRL37344, revealed that both beta 1- and beta 2-AR were increased in butyrate-treated adipocytes, whereas beta 3-AR almost totally disappeared. In control adipocytes, beta 1-, beta 2-, and beta 3-AR transcripts (quantitated by a polymerase chain reaction assay) represented 6.5, 0.5, and 93% of total beta-AR mRNA, respectively. In butyrate-exposed cells, proportions of beta-AR proteins and mRNAs were, respectively, 87 and 94% for beta 1 and 9 and 1% for beta 2-AR. beta 3-ARs were barely detectable in binding assays and accounted for 4.5% of beta-AR transcripts. Variations of beta-AR protein and mRNA levels were accompanied by parallel changes in the transcription rates of the corresponding genes. The differential regulation of the three beta-ARs by n-butyric acid, a dietary factor produced from colonic fermentation, may have significant nutritional and energetic consequences. PMID:8120022

  20. Cloning quantitative trait loci by insertional mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Soller, M; Beckmann, J S

    1987-07-01

    This study explores the theoretical potential of "insertional mutagenesis" (i.e., mutagenesis as a result of integration of novel DNA sequences into the germ line), as a means of cloning quantitative trait loci (QTL). The approach presented is based on a direct search for mutagenic effects of a quantitative nature, and makes no assumptions as to the nature of the loci affecting quantitative trait value. Since there are a very large number of potential insertion sites in the genome but only a limited number of target sites that can affect any particular trait, large numbers of inserts will have to be generated and screened. The effects of allelic variants at any single QTL on phenotype value are expected to be small relative to sampling variation. Thus two of three stages of replicate testing will be required for each insert in order to bring overall Type I error down to negligible proportions and yet maintain good statistical power for inserts with true effects on the quantitative traits under consideration. The overall effort involved will depend on the spectrum of mutagenic effects produced by insertional mutagenesis. This spectrum is presently unknown, but using reasonable estimates, about 10,000 inserts would have to be tested, at reasonable replicate numbers (n ? 30) and Type I error (?=0.01) in the first testing stage, to provide a high likelihood of detecting at least one insert with a true effect on a given quantitative trait of interest. Total offspring numbers required per true quantitative mutagenic effect detected decrease strongly with increased number of traits scored and increased number of inserts per initial transformed parent. In fact, it would appear that successful implementation of experiments of this sort will require the introduction of multiple independent inserts in the original parent individuals, by means of repeated transformation, or use of transposable elements as inserts. When biologically feasible, selfing would appear to be the method of choice for insert replication, and in all cases the experiments must be carried out in inbred lines to reduce error variation due to genetic segregation, and avoid confounding mutational effects of the insert with effects due to linkage with nearby segregating QTL. The special qualifications of Arabidopsis thaliana for studies of this sort are emphasized, and problems raised by somaclonal variation are discussed. PMID:24241675

  1. Relationship between hydrophobicity and beta-blocking potencies, affinities or dissociation of beta-blockers from beta-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Hosohata, Y; Hosohata, K; Hattori, K; Suzuki, J; Nagatomo, T

    1999-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the relationship between the hydrophobicity of drugs and (1) inhibitory strength (pA2) on chronotropic or inotropic actions, (2) displacemental potencies of 3H-CGP12177 or 125I-iodocyanopindolol binding to beta-adrenoceptors (beta-ARs) (pKi) or (3) dissociating potencies of these drugs from beta-ARs of atria strips pretreated with drugs. The beta-blockers used in the present study were bopindolol, active metabolite of bopindolol (18-502), atenolol, propranolol, pindolol, nadolol, alprenolol, oxprenolol, metoprolol, labetalol and acebutolol. The value of the partition coefficient of propranolol was the highest, and that of the beta1-selective blocker atenolol was the lowest. Although low correlation coefficients between hydrophobicity and inhibitory beta-blocking potencies determined by pharmacological experiments or displacemental potencies by the radioligand binding assay using 3H-CGP12177 and 125I-iodocyanopindolol were observed, significant relationships between hydrophobicities of these drugs and dissociating potencies from beta-ARs were observed. These results suggest that the hydrophobicity of drugs may be important for the slow dissociation from beta-ARs, but not for the beta-blocking action. PMID:11485050

  2. TRY – a global database of plant traits

    PubMed Central

    Kattge, J; Díaz, S; Lavorel, S; Prentice, I C; Leadley, P; Bönisch, G; Garnier, E; Westoby, M; Reich, P B; Wright, I J; Cornelissen, J H C; Violle, C; Harrison, S P; Van Bodegom, P M; Reichstein, M; Enquist, B J; Soudzilovskaia, N A; Ackerly, D D; Anand, M; Atkin, O; Bahn, M; Baker, T R; Baldocchi, D; Bekker, R; Blanco, C C; Blonder, B; Bond, W J; Bradstock, R; Bunker, D E; Casanoves, F; Cavender-Bares, J; Chambers, J Q; Chapin, F S; Chave, J; Coomes, D; Cornwell, W K; Craine, J M; Dobrin, B H; Duarte, L; Durka, W; Elser, J; Esser, G; Estiarte, M; Fagan, W F; Fang, J; Fernández-Méndez, F; Fidelis, A; Finegan, B; Flores, O; Ford, H; Frank, D; Freschet, G T; Fyllas, N M; Gallagher, R V; Green, W A; Gutierrez, A G; Hickler, T; Higgins, S I; Hodgson, J G; Jalili, A; Jansen, S; Joly, C A; Kerkhoff, A J; Kirkup, D; Kitajima, K; Kleyer, M; Klotz, S; Knops, J M H; Kramer, K; Kühn, I; Kurokawa, H; Laughlin, D; Lee, T D; Leishman, M; Lens, F; Lenz, T; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Llusià, J; Louault, F; Ma, S; Mahecha, M D; Manning, P; Massad, T; Medlyn, B E; Messier, J; Moles, A T; Müller, S C; Nadrowski, K; Naeem, S; Niinemets, Ü; Nöllert, S; Nüske, A; Ogaya, R; Oleksyn, J; Onipchenko, V G; Onoda, Y; Ordoñez, J; Overbeck, G; Ozinga, W A; Patiño, S; Paula, S; Pausas, J G; Peñuelas, J; Phillips, O L; Pillar, V; Poorter, H; Poorter, L; Poschlod, P; Prinzing, A; Proulx, R; Rammig, A; Reinsch, S; Reu, B; Sack, L; Salgado-Negret, B; Sardans, J; Shiodera, S; Shipley, B; Siefert, A; Sosinski, E; Soussana, J-F; Swaine, E; Swenson, N; Thompson, K; Thornton, P; Waldram, M; Weiher, E; White, M; White, S; Wright, S J; Yguel, B; Zaehle, S; Zanne, A E; Wirth, C

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.

  3. Try-A Global Database of Plant Traits

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world s 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.

  4. Beta adrenergic receptor blockade of feline myocardium. Cardiac mechanics, energetics, and beta adrenoceptor regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, G; Kent, R L; McGonigle, P; Watanabe, A M

    1986-01-01

    Myocardial oxygen consumption is regulated by interrelated mechanical and inotropic conditions; there is a parallel increase in the aerobic metabolism and inotropic state during beta-adrenergic stimulation under fixed mechanical conditions. In contrast, there is some evidence that beta-blockade may reduce oxygen consumption through effects independent of its influence on mechanical conditions and contractile state, and that prolonged beta-blockade may sensitize the myocardium to beta-adrenergic stimulation. To clarify these two points, the present study examined the relationship of myocardial energetics to mechanics and inotropism during acute beta-blockade and after the withdrawal of long-term beta-blockade, whereupon the basis for any effect observed was sought by characterizing the number, affinity, and affinity states of the beta-receptors as well as the coupling of activated beta-receptors to cyclic AMP generation. Studies of right ventricular papillary muscles from control and chronically beta-blocked cats demonstrated contractile and energetic properties as well as dose-response behavior and inotropic specificity suggestive of an increase in myocardial sensitivity to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in the latter group. Assays of cardiac beta-adrenoceptors from further groups of control and pretreated cats, both in cardiac tissue and in isolated cardiac muscle cells, failed to define a difference between the two groups either in terms of receptor number and affinity or in terms of the proportion of receptors in the high-affinity state. However, coupling of the activated beta-adrenoceptors to cyclic AMP generation was enhanced in cardiac muscle cells from chronically beta-blocked cats. These data demonstrate that beta-adrenoceptor blockade (a) produces parallel effects on inotropic state and oxygen consumption without an independent effect on either and (b) increases myocardial sensitivity to beta-adrenergic stimulation after beta-blockade withdrawal, not by "up-regulation" of the cardiac beta-adrenoceptors, but instead by more effective coupling of these receptors when activated to cyclic AMP generation. PMID:2868025

  5. beta-Galactosidase enzyme fragment complementation for the measurement of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Verkaar, Folkert; Blankesteijn, W Matthijs; Smits, Jos F M; Zaman, Guido J R

    2010-04-01

    Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is an important regulator of cell polarity, proliferation, and stem cell maintenance during development and adulthood. Wnt proteins induce the nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, which regulates the expression of Wnt-responsive genes through association with TCF/LEF transcription factors. Aberrant Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been implicated in a plethora of pathologies and, most notably, underlies initiation and expansion of several cancers. Here, we apply enzyme fragment complementation to measure the nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin. beta-Catenin was tagged with a peptide fragment of beta-galactosidase and transfected into cells expressing a corresponding deletion mutant of the enzyme exclusively in the nucleus. Stimulation of the cells with recombinant Wnt-3a restored beta-galactosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner with nanomolar potency. Using the assay, we confirmed that Wnt-5a represses beta-catenin-driven reporter gene activity downstream of nuclear entry of beta-catenin. In addition, we tested a library of >2000 synthetic chemical compounds for their ability to induce beta-catenin nuclear accumulation. The immunosuppressive protein kinase C inhibitor sotrastaurin (AEB-071) was identified as an activator of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling at micromolar concentrations. It was confirmed that the compound stabilizes endogenous beta-catenin protein and can induce TCF/LEF-dependent gene transcription. Subsequent biochemical profiling of >200 kinases revealed both isoforms of glycogen synthase kinase 3, as previously unappreciated targets of sotrastaurin. We show that the beta-catenin nuclear accumulation assay contributes to our knowledge of molecular interactions within the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and can be used to find new therapeutics targeting Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.-Verkaar, F., Blankesteijn, W. M., Smits, J. F. M., Zaman, G. J. R. beta-Galactosidase enzyme fragment complementation for the measurement of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. PMID:19940259

  6. Neutrino Factories and Beta Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-06-21

    In this paper we briefly review the concepts of Neutrino Factories and Beta Beam facilities, and indicate the main challenges in terms of beam performance and technological developments. We also describe the worldwide organizations that have embarked on defining and carrying out the necessary R&D on component design, beam simulations of facility performance, and benchmarking of key subsystems via actual beam tests. Currently approved subsystem tests include the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and the Mercury Intense Target (MERIT) experiment, to be carried out at CERN. These experiments are briefly described, and their schedules are indicated.

  7. Experiment M408: Beta spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marbach, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The beta spectrometer functioned as planned throughout the Gemini 10 mission. The cool temperatures that were recorded from the instrument during the mission were indicative that the evaporative cooler, coupled with apparently lower-than-expected spacecraft-adapter temperatures, maintained ideal operating conditions. The data facilitate a good analysis of the electron directional distribution. The omnidirectional flux that was calculated is apparently consistent with previous measurements. Representative electron spectra, measured during the Gemini 12 mission, established the apparent decay of the artificially injected electrons (from the Starfish high altitude nuclear test) to such low levels that natural trapped electrons were becoming detectable.

  8. Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Bill; De Bello, Francesco; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Laliberté, Etienne; Laughlin, Daniel C; Reich, Peter B

    2016-04-01

    The promise of "trait-based" plant ecology is one of generalized prediction across organizational and spatial scales, independent of taxonomy. This promise is a major reason for the increased popularity of this approach. Here, we argue that some important foundational assumptions of trait-based ecology have not received sufficient empirical evaluation. We identify three such assumptions and, where possible, suggest methods of improvement: (i) traits are functional to the degree that they determine individual fitness, (ii) intraspecific variation in functional traits can be largely ignored, and (iii) functional traits show general predictive relationships to measurable environmental gradients. PMID:26796410

  9. The key ingredients of personality traits: situations, behaviors, and explanations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Read, Stephen J; Denson, Thomas F; Xu, Yiyuan; Zhang, Jin; Pedersen, William C

    2014-01-01

    The trait and social cognitive perspectives are considered disparate approaches to understanding personality. We suggest an integrative view in which three elements derived from the social cognitive perspective (i.e., situations, behaviors, and explanations [SBEs]) form the basis of personality traits. Study 1 demonstrated strong associations between traits and SBEs across the Big Five dimensions. Studies 2 through 7 tested the discriminative validity, internal structure, and unique contributions of the individual components of SBEs. Studies 8 and 9 demonstrated that the strong associations between traits and SBEs generalize to different cultures. The present work suggests that SBEs may be a universal folk psychological mechanism underlying personality traits. PMID:24072753

  10. Genetic parameters and mapping quantitative trait loci associated with tibia traits in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ragognetti, B N N; Stafuzza, N B; Silva, T B R; Chud, T C S; Grupioni, N V; Cruz, V A R; Peixoto, J O; Nones, K; Ledur, M C; Munari, D P

    2015-01-01

    Selection among broilers for performance traits is resulting in locomotion problems and bone disorders, once skeletal structure is not strong enough to support body weight in broilers with high growth rates. In this study, genetic parameters were estimated for body weight at 42 days of age (BW42), and tibia traits (length, width, and weight) in a population of broiler chickens. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for tibia traits to expand our knowledge of the genetic architecture of the broiler population. Genetic correlations ranged from 0.56 ± 0.18 (between tibia length and BW42) to 0.89 ± 0.06 (between tibia width and weight), suggesting that these traits are either controlled by pleiotropic genes or by genes that are in linkage disequilibrium. For QTL mapping, the genome was scanned with 127 microsatellites, representing a coverage of 2630 cM. Eight QTL were mapped on Gallus gallus chromosomes (GGA): GGA1, GGA4, GGA6, GGA13, and GGA24. The QTL regions for tibia length and weight were mapped on GGA1, between LEI0079 and MCW145 markers. The gene DACH1 is located in this region; this gene acts to form the apical ectodermal ridge, responsible for limb development. Body weight at 42 days of age was included in the model as a covariate for selection effect of bone traits. Two QTL were found for tibia weight on GGA2 and GGA4, and one for tibia width on GGA3. Information originating from these QTL will assist in the search for candidate genes for these bone traits in future studies. PMID:26782399

  11. Ethnic Association of Cusp of Carabelli Trait and Shoveling Trait in an Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Manju, M; Praveen, R; Umesh, W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Variations in the structure of teeth have always been of great interest to the dentist from the scientific as well as practical point of view. Additionally, ever since decades inter trait relationships have been a useful means to categorize populations to which an individual belongs. Aim To determine the association between Cusp of Carabelli and Shoveling Trait in a selected Indian population native of Bangalore city, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1885 children aged between 7-10 years. Casts of the study subjects were made to study the presence of Cusp of Carabelli of right maxillary permanent molar and shoveling trait of right maxillary permanent central incisor using the Dahlberg’s classification and Hrdliucka’s classification respectively. Linear regression was used to assess the association of cusp of carabelli trait with the tooth dimensions and logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of the carabelli trait with gender and presence/absence of shoveling. Results A 40.5% of subjects had Cusp of Carabelli on first molar and 68.2% had shoveling on upper central incisor. The study revealed positive association between the two traits studied in the population. A significant difference was also found with presence of Cusp of Carabelli and the buccolingual tooth dimension of the maxillary molar (p<0.05). Conclusion There is an association between the Cusp of Carabelli and the shoveling trait in the present study population, and this will be valuable in the determination of ethnic origin of an individual. PMID:27135008

  12. Method for preparing Pb-. beta. ''-alumina ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Hellstrom, E.E.

    1984-08-30

    A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic from Na-..beta..''-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

  13. The neurobiology of psychopathic traits in youths

    PubMed Central

    Blair, R. James J.

    2015-01-01

    Conduct disorder is a childhood behaviour disorder that is characterized by persistent aggressive or antisocial behaviour that disrupts the child’s environment and impairs his or her functioning. A proportion of children with conduct disorder have psychopathic traits. Psychopathic traits consist of a callous–unemotional component and an impulsive–antisocial component, which are associated with two core impairments. The first is a reduced empathic response to the distress of other individuals, which primarily reflects reduced amygdala responsiveness to distress cues; the second is deficits in decision making and in reinforcement learning, which reflects dysfunction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatum. Genetic and prenatal factors contribute to the abnormal development of these neural systems, and social–environmental variables that affect motivation influence the probability that antisocial behaviour will be subsequently displayed. PMID:24105343

  14. Personality traits of British hospice volunteers.

    PubMed

    Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen; Claxton-Oldfield, Jane; Paulovic, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    In total, 120 British female hospice volunteers completed the NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) of Costa Jr and McCrae. The NEO-FFI measures the so-called big 5 personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Compared to both American NEO-FFI norms for adult females and emerging British NEO-FFI norms for adult females, the hospice volunteers scored significantly lower, on average, in neuroticism and significantly higher, on average, in agreeableness and conscientiousness. No significant differences were found on any of the 5 traits between the British female hospice volunteers' scores and the NEO-FFI scores previously collected from a sample of Canadian female hospice palliative care volunteers. Implications for the recruitment of British hospice volunteers are discussed. PMID:23081997

  15. Plant functional traits and the multidimensional nature of species coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Godoy, Oscar; Levine, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes maintaining species diversity is a central problem in ecology, with implications for the conservation and management of ecosystems. Although biologists often assume that trait differences between competitors promote diversity, empirical evidence connecting functional traits to the niche differences that stabilize species coexistence is rare. Obtaining such evidence is critical because traits also underlie the average fitness differences driving competitive exclusion, and this complicates efforts to infer community dynamics from phenotypic patterns. We coupled field-parameterized mathematical models of competition between 102 pairs of annual plants with detailed sampling of leaf, seed, root, and whole-plant functional traits to relate phenotypic differences to stabilizing niche and average fitness differences. Single functional traits were often well correlated with average fitness differences between species, indicating that competitive dominance was associated with late phenology, deep rooting, and several other traits. In contrast, single functional traits were poorly correlated with the stabilizing niche differences that promote coexistence. Niche differences could only be described by combinations of traits, corresponding to differentiation between species in multiple ecological dimensions. In addition, several traits were associated with both fitness differences and stabilizing niche differences. These complex relationships between phenotypic differences and the dynamics of competing species argue against the simple use of single functional traits to infer community assembly processes but lay the groundwork for a theoretically justified trait-based community ecology. PMID:25561561

  16. Influencing agent group behavior by adjusting cultural trait values.

    PubMed

    Tuli, Gaurav; Hexmoor, Henry

    2010-10-01

    Social reasoning and norms among individuals that share cultural traits are largely fashioned by those traits. We have explored predominant sociological and cultural traits. We offer a methodology for parametrically adjusting relevant traits. This exploratory study heralds a capability to deliberately tune cultural group traits in order to produce a desired group behavior. To validate our methodology, we implemented a prototypical-agent-based simulated test bed for demonstrating an exemplar from intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance scenario. A group of simulated agents traverses a hostile territory while a user adjusts their cultural group trait settings. Group and individual utilities are dynamically observed against parametric values for the selected traits. Uncertainty avoidance index and individualism are the cultural traits we examined in depth. Upon the user's training of the correspondence between cultural values and system utilities, users deliberately produce the desired system utilities by issuing changes to trait. Specific cultural traits are without meaning outside of their context. Efficacy and timely application of traits in a given context do yield desirable results. This paper heralds a path for the control of large systems via parametric cultural adjustments. PMID:20064759

  17. Do community-weighted mean functional traits reflect optimal strategies?

    PubMed

    Muscarella, Robert; Uriarte, María

    2016-03-30

    The notion that relationships between community-weighted mean (CWM) traits (i.e. plot-level trait values weighted by species abundances) and environmental conditions reflect selection towards locally optimal phenotypes is challenged by the large amount of interspecific trait variation typically found within ecological communities. Reconciling these contrasting patterns is a key to advancing predictive theories of functional community ecology. We combined data on geographical distributions and three traits (wood density, leaf mass per area and maximum height) of 173 tree species in Puerto Rico. We tested the hypothesis that species are more likely to occur where their trait values are more similar to the local CWM trait values (the'CWM-optimality' hypothesis) by comparing species occurrence patterns (as a proxy for fitness) with the functional composition of forest plots across a precipitation gradient. While 70% of the species supported CWM-optimality for at least one trait, nearly 25% significantly opposed it for at least one trait, thereby contributing to local functional diversity. The majority (85%) of species that opposed CWM-optimality did so only for one trait and few species opposed CWM-optimality in multivariate trait space. Our study suggests that constraints to local functional variation act more strongly on multivariate phenotypes than on univariate traits. PMID:27030412

  18. Pitfalls of predicting complex traits from SNPs.

    PubMed

    Wray, Naomi R; Yang, Jian; Hayes, Ben J; Price, Alkes L; Goddard, Michael E; Visscher, Peter M

    2013-07-01

    The success of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) has led to increasing interest in making predictions of complex trait phenotypes, including disease, from genotype data. Rigorous assessment of the value of predictors is crucial before implementation. Here we discuss some of the limitations and pitfalls of prediction analysis and show how naive implementations can lead to severe bias and misinterpretation of results. PMID:23774735

  19. Nurse manager personal traits and leadership characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H E; Woods, C Q; Boyle, D K; Bott, M J; Taunton, R L

    1995-01-01

    A portion of an Organizational Dynamics Paradigm provided the framework for examining urban hospital nurse managers' personality and staff nurses' perceptions of their leadership. Nurse managers' personality traits were comparable to American women in general. On motivation to manage they scored lower than business and health services managers and higher than female public school administrators. Staff nurses rated managers favorably on leadership style, power, and influence. Personality was linked modestly to motivation to manage and selected aspects of leadership. PMID:7630522

  20. Multi-ethnic studies in complex traits.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jingyuan; Festen, Eleonora A M; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2011-10-15

    The successes of genome-wide association (GWA) studies have mainly come from studies performed in populations of European descent. Since complex traits are characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity, the findings so far may provide an incomplete picture of the genetic architecture of complex traits. However, the recent GWA studies performed on East Asian populations now allow us to globally assess the heterogeneity of association signals between populations of European ancestry and East Asians, and the possible obstacles for multi-ethnic GWA studies. We focused on four different traits that represent a broad range of complex phenotypes, which have been studied in both Europeans and East Asians: type 2 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, ulcerative colitis and height. For each trait, we observed that most of the risk loci identified in East Asians were shared with Europeans. However, we also observed that a significant part of the association signals at these shared loci seems to be independent between populations. This suggests that disease aetiology is common between populations, but that risk variants are often population specific. These variants could be truly population specific and result from natural selection, genetic drift and recent mutations, or they could be spurious, caused by the limitations of the method of analysis employed in the GWA studies. We therefore propose a three-stage framework for multi-ethnic GWA analyses, starting with the commonly used single-nucleotide polymorphism-based analysis, and followed by a gene-based approach and a pathway-based analysis, which will take into account the heterogeneity of association between populations at different levels. PMID:21890495

  1. Neuroendocrine correlates of temperamental traits in humans.

    PubMed

    Gerra, G; Zaimovic, A; Timpano, M; Zambelli, U; Delsignore, R; Brambilla, F

    2000-07-01

    Studies investigating temperament traits in humans and their biological correlates have found high levels of novelty seeking (NS) linked with dopaminergic system changes, and particularly a deficit of dopamine transporter. Harm avoidance and reward dependence, on the other hand, appeared to be associated, respectively with serotonin and noradrenaline changes. In the present study, we have investigated the dopaminergic (DA), serotonergic (5-HT), and noradrenergic (NE) functions in healthy volunteers by challenging the monoamine systems with the DA agonist bromocriptine, the 5-HT agonist D-fenfluramine, and the NE agonist clonidine, respectively. Parallel to this investigation, we examined the temperament traits of our subjects by measuring NS, harm avoidance (HA) and reward dependence (RD) using the 'Three-dimensional Personality Questionnaire' (TPQ). The aims of the study were to see whether or not the monoamine functions were correlated with temperament traits. Bromocriptine challenge induced a significant GH increase and a significant suppression of PRL. D-fenfluramine test significantly increased PRL and cortisol plasma levels and Clonidine test induced a significant rise in GH values. NS scores showed a significant direct correlation with brom-stimulated GH values (r=0.426, P<0.05) and a significant inverse correlation with brom-inhibited PRL values (r=-0.498, P<0.01). HA scores correlated significantly with D-fen-stimulated PRL and CORT AUCs, (PRL: r=0.424, P<0.05; CORT: r=0. 595, P<0.005). RD scores correlated positively with clon-stimulated GH values (r=0.55; F=8.6; P<0.01) and negatively with brom-inhibited-PRL AUCs (r=-0.439, P<0.05). Our data support Cloninger theory concerning the biological correlates of temperamental traits, and evidence the link between the neuroendocrine responses to dynamic challenges and stable temperament features. PMID:10818282

  2. Beta cell device using icosahedral boride compounds

    DOEpatents

    Aselage, Terrence L. (62 Avenida Del Sol, Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Emin, David (1502 Harvard Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106-3712)

    2002-01-01

    A beta cell for converting beta-particle energies into electrical energy having a semiconductor junction that incorporates an icosahedral boride compound selected from B.sub.12 As.sub.2, B.sub.12 P.sub.2, elemental boron having an .alpha.-rhombohedral structure, elemental boron having a .beta.-rhombohedral structure, and boron carbides of the chemical formula B.sub.12-x C.sub.3-x, where 0.15beta radiation source, and means for transmitting electrical energy to an outside load. The icosahedral boride compound self-heals, resisting degradation from radiation damage.

  3. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-09-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  4. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-01-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  5. Janus model of the Na,K-ATPase beta-subunit transmembrane domain: distinct faces mediate alpha/beta assembly and beta-beta homo-oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Barwe, Sonali P; Kim, Sanguk; Rajasekaran, Sigrid A; Bowie, James U; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K

    2007-01-19

    Na,K-ATPase is a hetero-oligomer of alpha and beta-subunits. The Na,K-ATPase beta-subunit (Na,K-beta) is involved in both the regulation of ion transport activity, and in cell-cell adhesion. By structure prediction and evolutionary analysis, we identified two distinct faces on the Na,K-beta transmembrane domain (TMD) that could mediate protein-protein interactions: a glycine zipper motif and a conserved heptad repeat. Here, we show that the heptad repeat face is involved in the hetero-oligomeric interaction of Na,K-beta with Na,K-alpha, and the glycine zipper face is involved in the homo-oligomerization of Na,K-beta. Point mutations in the heptad repeat motif reduced Na,K-beta binding to Na,K-alpha, and Na,K-ATPase activity. Na,K-beta TMD homo-oligomerized in biological membranes, and mutation of the glycine zipper motif affected oligomerization and cell-cell adhesion. These results provide a structural basis for understanding how Na,K-beta links ion transport and cell-cell adhesion. PMID:17078968

  6. Trait anxiety among undergraduates according to the Implicit Association Test.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Yang, Zhibing; Miao, Danmin; Lu, Huijie; Zhu, Xia

    2012-08-01

    Trait anxiety, which includes stress and anxiety, affects mental health. However, early studies using the Implicit Association Test-Anxiety (IAT-Anxiety) did not consider the participants' trait anxiety. In the present study, the hypothesis that trait anxiety would influence the results of the IAT-Anxiety was tested. A total of 148 healthy undergraduates were assessed with the Profile of Mood State (POMS) test and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to test explicit anxiety; they were then assessed for implicit anxiety with the IAT-Anxiety. High trait anxiety was positively correlated with negative mood; low trait anxiety tended to be associated with greater vigor and higher self-esteem. Significant main effects were found for both critical block and group among participants who received the IAT-Anxiety. Future studies of the IAT-Anxiety should consider trait anxiety as a within-subject factor for group matching to enhance the persuasiveness of the results. PMID:23045843

  7. Modelling the ecological niche from functional traits.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Michael; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David; Helmuth, Brian

    2010-11-12

    The niche concept is central to ecology but is often depicted descriptively through observing associations between organisms and habitats. Here, we argue for the importance of mechanistically modelling niches based on functional traits of organisms and explore the possibilities for achieving this through the integration of three theoretical frameworks: biophysical ecology (BE), the geometric framework for nutrition (GF) and dynamic energy budget (DEB) models. These three frameworks are fundamentally based on the conservation laws of thermodynamics, describing energy and mass balance at the level of the individual and capturing the prodigious predictive power of the concepts of 'homeostasis' and 'evolutionary fitness'. BE and the GF provide mechanistic multi-dimensional depictions of climatic and nutritional niches, respectively, providing a foundation for linking organismal traits (morphology, physiology, behaviour) with habitat characteristics. In turn, they provide driving inputs and cost functions for mass/energy allocation within the individual as determined by DEB models. We show how integration of the three frameworks permits calculation of activity constraints, vital rates (survival, development, growth, reproduction) and ultimately population growth rates and species distributions. When integrated with contemporary niche theory, functional trait niche models hold great promise for tackling major questions in ecology and evolutionary biology. PMID:20921046

  8. Personality traits and obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, G; Herpertz, S; Loeber, S

    2015-01-01

    Based on a bio-social-ecological systems model of the development and maintenance of obesity, there has been in the last few years a growing research interest in the association of obesity and personality traits. The aim of the present review was a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the existing literature taking into account the methodological quality of studies to enhance our understanding of personality traits associated with body weight, the development of overweight and obesity as well as the effectiveness of weight loss interventions including bariatric surgery. Personality traits play an important role both as risk as well as protective factors in the development of overweight and obesity. While thus in particular 'neuroticism', 'impulsivity' and 'sensitivity to reward' appear as risk factors, 'conscientiousness' and 'self-control' have been shown to have a protective function in relation to weight gain. Conscientiousness is a measure of regulation of internal urges and self-discipline, and may thus provide a potential source of control over impulsive reward-oriented behaviour. The results of the present review suggest that, within the context of therapeutic weight reduction measures, it is meaningful to identify subgroups of patients for whom specific treatment options need to be developed, such as measures for strengthening self-control skills. PMID:25470329

  9. Morphoscopic Trait Expression in "Hispanic" Populations.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Joseph T; Pilloud, Marin A; Black, Cullen J; Anderson, Bruce E

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluates population variation of eight cranial morphoscopic traits using samples of known southwest Hispanics (n=72), Guatemalans (n=106), American Blacks (n=146), and American Whites (n=218). We applied the support vector machine (SVM) method to build a prediction model based on a subsample (20%) of the data; the remainder of the data was used as a test sample. The SVM approach effectively differentiated between the four groups with correct classification rates between 72% (Guatemalan group) and 94% (American Black group). However, when the Guatemalan and southwest Hispanic samples were pooled, the same model correctly classified all groups with a higher degree of accuracy (American Black=96%; American White=77%; and the pooled Hispanic sample=91%). This study also identified significant differences between the two Hispanic groups in six of the eight traits using univariate statistical tests. These results speak to the unique population histories of these samples and the current use of the term "Hispanic" within forensic anthropology. Finally, we argue that the SVM can be used as a classification model for ancestry estimation in a forensic context and as a diagnostic tool may broaden the application of morphoscopic trait data for the assessment of ancestry. PMID:26272587

  10. Explaining additional genetic variation in complex traits.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew R; Wray, Naomi R; Visscher, Peter M

    2014-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of complex traits, discovering >6000 variants associated with >500 quantitative traits and common complex diseases in humans. The associations identified so far represent only a fraction of those that influence phenotype, because there are likely to be many variants across the entire frequency spectrum, each of which influences multiple traits, with only a small average contribution to the phenotypic variance. This presents a considerable challenge to further dissection of the remaining unexplained genetic variance within populations, which limits our ability to predict disease risk, identify new drug targets, improve and maintain food sources, and understand natural diversity. This challenge will be met within the current framework through larger sample size, better phenotyping, including recording of nongenetic risk factors, focused study designs, and an integration of multiple sources of phenotypic and genetic information. The current evidence supports the application of quantitative genetic approaches, and we argue that one should retain simpler theories until simplicity can be traded for greater explanatory power. PMID:24629526

  11. Prolonged diapause: a trait increasing invasion speed?

    PubMed

    Mahdjoub, Tewfik; Menu, Frédéric

    2008-03-21

    Invasive species are considered to be the second cause of biodiversity erosion, and one challenge is to determine the life history traits that cause an increased invasion capacity. Prolonged diapause is a major trait in evolution and insect population dynamics, but its effects on invasion speed remain unknown. From a recently developed mathematical approach (integro-difference equations) applied to the insect dormancy, we show that despite a dispersal cost, bet-hedging diapause strategies with low (0.1-0.2) prolonged diapause frequency (emergence after 1 or 2 years) can have a higher invasion speed than a simple diapause strategy (emergence after 1 year) when the environmental stochasticity is sufficiently high. In such conditions, prolonged diapause is a trait supporting invasion capacity by increasing population stochastic growth rate. This conclusion, which applies to a large range of demographic parameters, is in opposition to the usual view that prolonged dormancy is an alternative strategy to dispersal. However, prolonged diapause does not support invasion if the level of environmental stochasticity is low. Therefore, conclusion about its influence on invasion ability needs a good knowledge of environmental stochasticity in the introduction area of considered species. PMID:18206912

  12. Modelling the ecological niche from functional traits

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Michael; Simpson, Stephen J.; Raubenheimer, David; Helmuth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The niche concept is central to ecology but is often depicted descriptively through observing associations between organisms and habitats. Here, we argue for the importance of mechanistically modelling niches based on functional traits of organisms and explore the possibilities for achieving this through the integration of three theoretical frameworks: biophysical ecology (BE), the geometric framework for nutrition (GF) and dynamic energy budget (DEB) models. These three frameworks are fundamentally based on the conservation laws of thermodynamics, describing energy and mass balance at the level of the individual and capturing the prodigious predictive power of the concepts of ‘homeostasis’ and ‘evolutionary fitness’. BE and the GF provide mechanistic multi-dimensional depictions of climatic and nutritional niches, respectively, providing a foundation for linking organismal traits (morphology, physiology, behaviour) with habitat characteristics. In turn, they provide driving inputs and cost functions for mass/energy allocation within the individual as determined by DEB models. We show how integration of the three frameworks permits calculation of activity constraints, vital rates (survival, development, growth, reproduction) and ultimately population growth rates and species distributions. When integrated with contemporary niche theory, functional trait niche models hold great promise for tackling major questions in ecology and evolutionary biology. PMID:20921046

  13. The Effects of Sertraline on Psychopathic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Boadie W.; DeFife, Jared A.; Marx, Lauren; Garlow, Steven J.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether antidepressants alter expression of psychopathic personality traits in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Data were collected from a double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week trial evaluating the efficacy of sertraline (50-200 mg/d) combined with either tri-iodothyronine (T3) or matching placebo in adult outpatients with MDD. Administration of sertraline was open-label; T3/placebo was double-blind. At the baseline and week 8 visits, patients completed the short form of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), a well-validated self-report measure assessing two major factors of psychopathy: Fearless Dominance (PPI-1) and Self-centered Impulsivity (PPI-2). Change in PPI scores were assessed using paired t-tests for all subjects who completed a baseline and post-randomization PPI. Results Ninety patients (84 completers and 6 who terminated the trial early) were eligible for the analysis. Both PPI factors changed significantly from baseline to endpoint, but in opposing directions. The mean score on PPI-1 increased significantly during treatment; this change was weakly correlated with change in depression scores. In contrast, the mean score on PPI-2 decreased significantly, but these changes were not correlated with changes in depression scores. Conclusion Independent of their effects on depression, antidepressants increase adaptive traits traditionally observed in psychopathic individuals, such as social charm and interpersonal and physical boldness. Antidepressants reduce other, more maladaptive, traits associated with psychopathy, including dysregulated impulsivity and externalization. PMID:21909028

  14. Transgenic trait deployment using designed nucleases.

    PubMed

    Petolino, Joseph F; Kumar, Sandeep

    2016-02-01

    The demand for crops requiring increasingly complex combinations of transgenes poses unique challenges for transgenic trait deployment. Future value-adding traits such as those associated with crop performance are expected to involve multiple transgenes. Random integration of transgenes not only results in unpredictable expression and potential unwanted side effects but stacking multiple, randomly integrated, independently segregating transgenes creates breeding challenges during introgression and product development. Designed nucleases enable the creation of targeted DNA double-strand breaks at specified genomic locations whereby repair can result in targeted transgene integration leading to precise alterations in DNA sequences for plant genome editing, including the targeting of a transgene to a genomic locus that supports high-level and stable transgene expression without interfering with resident gene function. In addition, targeted DNA integration via designed nucleases allows for the addition of transgenes into previously integrated transgenic loci to create stacked products. The currently reported frequencies of independently generated transgenic events obtained with site-specific transgene integration without the aid of selection for targeting are very low. A modular, positive selection-based gene targeting strategy has been developed involving cassette exchange of selectable marker genes which allows for targeted events to be preferentially selected, over multiple cycles of sequential transformation. This, combined with the demonstration of intragenomic recombination following crossing of transgenic events that contain stably integrated donor and target DNA constructs with nuclease-expressing plants, points towards the future of trait stacking that is less dependent on high-efficiency transformation. PMID:26332789

  15. Explaining additional genetic variation in complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of complex traits, discovering >6000 variants associated with >500 quantitative traits and common complex diseases in humans. The associations identified so far represent only a fraction of those which influence phenotype, as there are likely to be very many variants across the entire frequency spectrum, each of which influences multiple traits, with only a small average contribution to the phenotypic variance. This presents a considerable challenge to further dissection of the remaining unexplained genetic variance within populations, which limits our ability to predict disease risk, identify new drug targets, improve and maintain food sources, and understand natural diversity. This challenge will be met within the current framework through larger sample size, better phenotyping including recording of non-genetic risk factors, focused study designs, and an integration of multiple sources of phenotypic and genetic information. The current evidence supports the application of quantitative genetic approaches, and we argue that one should retain simpler theories until simplicity can be traded for greater explanatory power. PMID:24629526

  16. High Resolution QTL Map Of Net Merit Component Traits And Calving Traits From Genome-Wide Association Analysis In Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A QTL map of 725 SNPs affecting 13 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait) was constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 13 traits were net merit (NM$), its 8 component traits and 4 calving traits. The top 100 ef...

  17. Multi-trait BLUP model indicates sorghum hybrids with genetic potential for agronomic and nutritional traits.

    PubMed

    Almeida Filho, J E; Tardin, F D; Guimarães, J F R; Resende, M D V; Silva, F F; Simeone, M L; Menezes, C B; Queiroz, V A V

    2016-01-01

    The breeding of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, aimed at improving its nutritional quality, is of great interest, since it can be used as a highly nutritive alternative food source and can possibly be cultivated in regions with low rainfall. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential and genetic diversity of grain-sorghum hybrids for traits of agronomic and nutritional interest. To this end, the traits grain yield and flowering, and concentrations of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, and zinc in the grain were evaluated in 25 grain-sorghum hybrids, comprising 18 experimental hybrids of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo and seven commercial hybrids. The genetic potential was analyzed by a multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) model, and cluster analysis was accomplished by squared Mahalanobis distance using the predicted genotypic values. Hybrids 0306037 and 0306034 stood out in the agronomic evaluation. The hybrids with agronomic prominence, however, did not stand out for the traits related to the nutritional quality of the grain. Three clusters were formed from the dendrogram obtained with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method. From the results of the genotypic BLUP and the analysis of the dendrogram, hybrids 0577337, 0441347, 0307651, and 0306037 were identified as having the potential to establish a population that can aggregate alleles for all the evaluated traits of interest. PMID:26985915

  18. Neutrinoless double beta decay and nuclear matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Simkovic, Fedor

    2011-11-23

    The fundamental importance of searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay) is widely recognized. Observation of the decay would tell us that the total lepton number is not conserved and that, consequently, neutrinos are massive Majorana fermions. The 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay is discussed in context of neutrino oscillation data. The perspectives of the experimental 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay searches are analyzed. The importance of reliable determination of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay nuclear matrix elements is pointed out.

  19. Pin1 promotes production of Alzheimer's amyloid {beta} from {beta}-cleaved amyloid precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Hirotada; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Uchida, Chiyoko; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Uchida, Takafumi . E-mail: uchidat@cir.tohoku.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Here we show that prolyl isomerase Pin1 is involved in the A{beta} production central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Enzyme immunoassay of brains of the Pin1-deficient mice revealed that production of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 was lower than that of the wild-type mice, indicating that Pin1 promotes A{beta} production in the brain. GST-Pin1 pull-down and immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Pin1 binds phosphorylated Thr668-Pro of C99. In the Pin1 {sup -/-} MEF transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the levels of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 compared to that without Pin1 co-transfection. In COS7 cells transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the generation of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42, and reduced the expression level of C99, facilitating the C99 turnover. Thus, Pin1 interacts with C99 and promotes its {gamma}-cleavage, generating A{beta}40 and A{beta}42. Further, GSK3 inhibitor lithium blocked Pin1 binding to C99 by decreasing Thr668 phosphorylation and attenuated A{beta} generation, explaining the inhibitory effect of lithium on A{beta} generation.

  20. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.

    2015-01-03

    The precision of double-beta ββ-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ββ-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  1. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Angermeier, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. We have compiled a database of > 100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 nonnative) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database, named Fish Traits, contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology; (2) body size, reproductive ecology, and life history; (3) habitat preferences; and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status was also compiled. The database enhances many opportunities for conducting research on fish species traits and constitutes the first step toward establishing a central repository for a continually expanding set of traits of North American fishes.

  2. FishTraits: A Database of Ecological and Life-history Traits of Freshwater Fishes of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2011-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. We have compiled a database of > 100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 nonnative) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database, named Fish Traits, contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology; (2) body size, reproductive ecology, and life history; (3) habitat preferences; and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status was also compiled. The database enhances many opportunities for conducting research on fish species traits and constitutes the first step toward establishing a central repository for a continually expanding set of traits of North American fishes.

  3. Genetic dissection of fruiting body-related traits using quantitative trait loci mapping in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wen-Bing; Li, Lei; Zhou, Yan; Bian, Yin-Bing; Kwan, Hoi-Shan; Cheung, Man-Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2016-06-01

    To provide a better understanding of the genetic architecture of fruiting body formation of Lentinula edodes, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping was employed to uncover the loci underlying seven fruiting body-related traits (FBRTs). An improved L. edodes genetic linkage map, comprising 572 markers on 12 linkage groups with a total map length of 983.7 cM, was constructed by integrating 82 genomic sequence-based insertion-deletion (InDel) markers into a previously published map. We then detected a total of 62 QTLs for seven target traits across two segregating testcross populations, with individual QTLs contributing 5.5 %-30.2 % of the phenotypic variation. Fifty-three out of the 62 QTLs were clustered in six QTL hotspots, suggesting the existence of main genomic regions regulating the morphological characteristics of fruiting bodies in L. edodes. A stable QTL hotspot on MLG2, containing QTLs for all investigated traits, was identified in both testcross populations. QTLs for related traits were frequently co-located on the linkage groups, demonstrating the genetic basis for phenotypic correlation of traits. Meta-QTL (mQTL) analysis was performed and identified 16 mQTLs with refined positions and narrow confidence intervals (CIs). Nine genes, including those encoding MAP kinase, blue-light photoreceptor, riboflavin-aldehyde-forming enzyme and cyclopropane-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase, and cytochrome P450s, were likely to be candidate genes controlling the shape of fruiting bodies. The study has improved our understanding of the genetic architecture of fruiting body formation in L. edodes. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide QTL detection of FBRTs in L. edodes. The improved genetic map, InDel markers and QTL hotspot regions revealed here will assist considerably in the conduct of future genetic and breeding studies of L. edodes. PMID:26875873

  4. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) “835” and “B2,” including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69–12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82–16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  5. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) "835" and "B2," including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69-12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82-16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  6. Association mapping for morphological and physiological traits in Populus simonii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To optimize marker-assisted selection programs, knowledge of the genetic architecture of phenotypic traits is very important for breeders. Generally, most phenotypes, e.g. morphological and physiological traits, are quantitatively inherited, and thus detection of the genes underlying variation for these traits is difficult. Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium has recently become a powerful approach to map genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) in plants. Results In this study, association analysis using 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was performed to detect the marker loci linked to 13 morphological traits and 10 physiological traits in a wild P. simonii population that consisted of 528 individuals sampled from 16 sites along the Yellow River in China. Based on a model controlling for both population structure (Q) and relative kinship (K), three SSR markers (GCPM_616-1 in 31.2 Mb on LG I, GCPM_4055-2 in 5.7 Mb on LG XV, and GCPM_3142 of unknown location) were identified for seven traits. GCPM_616-1 was associated with five morphological traits (R2 = 5.14-10.09%), whereas GCPM_3142 (15.03%) and GCPM_4055-2 (13.26%) were associated with one morphological trait and one physiological trait, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that this wild population is suitable for association mapping and the identified markers will be suitable for marker-assisted selection breeding or detection of target genes or QTL in the near future. PMID:25079290

  7. Chronic Trauma Effects on Personality Traits in Police Officers.

    PubMed

    Leigh Wills, Jennifer; Schuldberg, David

    2016-04-01

    The impact of cumulative occupational exposure to traumatic events (TEs), posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and work environment stress on personality traits over time was examined in 38 police officers from an urban agency. California Psychological Inventory (CPI) personality trait scores from prehire evaluations were compared with follow-up CPI scores to test whether exposure to traumatic events was correlated with changes in traits from baseline to 5-10 years later. Measures of occupational TEs, PTS symptoms, and police work environment stress were administered. Mean trait scores declined on all CPI traits analyzed in the study. Trait change was evaluated using the Reliable Change Index; change in participants' scores unlikely to occur by chance ranged from 11% to 63% in the traits examined. All participants reported substantial TE exposure. PTS symptoms were correlated with steeper decline in 4 of 5 traits, with effect sizes ranging from r =  -.47 to r = -.67. Scores on measures of job-related TEs were negatively correlated with only one CPI trait (empathy) at T2 (r = -.31), and were unrelated to slope of trait change. Work environment stress was significantly related to gender, with female officers reporting higher levels of operational (r = .45) and organizational (r = .54) stress. PMID:26954662

  8. Testing Trait Depression as a Potential Clinical Domain in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chiappelli, Joshua; Kochunov, Peter; DeRiso, Katherine; Thangavelu, Kavita; Sampath, Hemalatha; Muellerklein, Florian; Nugent, Katie L.; Postolache, Teodor T.; Carpenter, William T.; Hong, L. Elliot

    2014-01-01

    The DSM-5 includes depression as a dimension of psychosis. We tested whether persistent experience of depression, called ‘trait depression’, is a clinical feature separate from psychosis and several well-known, trait-like deficits of schizophrenia. 126 individuals with schizophrenia and 151 control participants completed the Maryland Trait and State Depression questionnaire, with a subset completing measures of cognition and functional capacity, and diffusion tensor imaging (n=73 patients and 102 controls for imaging analysis). Subjectively experienced, longitudinal trait depression is significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia compared with controls. Higher trait depression scores were associated with more severe psychosis. Surprisingly, individuals with higher trait depression manifested less cognitive and global functioning deficits. In addition, trait depression scores were positively associated with fractional anisotropy of white matter. Trait depression appears to be a highly relevant clinical domain in the care of patients with schizophrenia that also has distinct relationships with some other known traits of the disease. Trait depression may be an important contributor to the clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia. PMID:25171855

  9. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

  10. Beta maritima: the Origin of Beets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Along the undisturbed shores, especially of the Mediterranean Sea and the European North Atlantic Ocean, is a widespread plant called Beta maritima (Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima) by the botanists, or more commonly sea beet. Nothing for the inexperienced observer's eye distinguishes it from surr...

  11. The COBRA Double Beta Decay Search Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D. Y.

    2006-11-17

    The COBRA experiment aims to use a large quantity of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The current status of the experiment is discussed, and new limits on several double beta modes are presented. Future plans for a large scale experiment are also described.

  12. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  13. Resistance to beta-lactams--the permutations.

    PubMed

    Amyes, S G B

    2003-12-01

    The beta-lactam family of antimicrobials, in particular penicillins and cephalosporins, is the mainstay of treatment for community-acquired infections. However, the emergence of resistant isolates to these agents has raised concerns regarding the continued efficacy of existing therapies. Resistance to beta-lactams is most commonly expressed by the microbial production of beta-lactamases that hydrolyze the beta-lactam ring. Three further resistance mechanisms include conformational changes in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs); permeability changes in the outer membrane; and active efflux of the antimicrobial. In addition to the pre-requisite efficacy and tolerability profiles, new beta-lactams should address these four resistance mechanisms. Overcoming resistance may be a serendipitous event or arrived at by design. A unique synthetic beta-lactam class, which demonstrates promise in terms of its activity against the range of bacteria responsible for community-acquired infections and its inherent stability to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases, is the penems. This discrete class of hybrid molecules combines properties from the penicillin (penam) and cephalosporin (cephem) beta-lactam classes. Faropenem is an example of a penem with a broad spectrum of activity designed to address these resistance issues. PMID:14998075

  14. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    PubMed Central

    Comas, Louise H.; Becker, Steven R.; Cruz, Von Mark V.; Byrne, Patrick F.; Dierig, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less “leaky” and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding. PMID:24204374

  15. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A; Cervantes, I; Burgos, A; Morante, R; Gutiérrez, J P

    2015-12-01

    One of the main deficiencies affecting animal breeding programs in Peruvian alpacas is the low reproductive performance leading to low number of animals available to select from, decreasing strongly the selection intensity. Some reproductive traits could be improved by artificial selection, but very few information about genetic parameters exists for these traits in this specie. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for six reproductive traits in alpacas both in Suri (SU) and Huacaya (HU) ecotypes, as well as their genetic relationship with fiber and morphological traits. Dataset belonging to Pacomarca experimental farm collected between 2000 and 2014 was used. Number of records for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), copulation time (CT), pregnancy diagnosis (PD), gestation length (GL), and calving interval (CI) were, respectively, 1704, 854, 19,770, 5874, 4290 and 934. Pedigree consisted of 7742 animals. Regarding reproductive traits, model of analysis included additive and residual random effects for all traits, and also permanent environmental effect for CT, PD, GL and CI traits, with color and year of recording as fixed effects for all the reproductive traits and also age at mating and sex of calf for GL trait. Estimated heritabilities, respectively for HU and SU were 0.19 and 0.09 for AFS, 0.45 and 0.59 for AFC, 0.04 and 0.05 for CT, 0.07 and 0.05 for PD, 0.12 and 0.20 for GL, and 0.14 and 0.09 for CI. Genetic correlations between them ranged from -0.96 to 0.70. No important genetic correlations were found between reproductive traits and fiber or morphological traits in HU. However, some moderate favorable genetic correlations were found between reproductive and either fiber and morphological traits in SU. According to estimated genetic correlations, some reproductive traits might be included as additional selection criteria in HU. PMID:26490188

  16. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought.

    PubMed

    Comas, Louise H; Becker, Steven R; Cruz, Von Mark V; Byrne, Patrick F; Dierig, David A

    2013-01-01

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less "leaky" and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding. PMID:24204374

  17. Bayesian Multiple Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping for Complex Traits Using Markers of the Entire Genome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hanwen; Eversley, Chevonne D.; Threadgill, David W.; Zou, Fei

    2007-01-01

    A Bayesian methodology has been developed for multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of complex binary traits that follow liability threshold models. Unlike most QTL mapping methods where only one or a few markers are used at a time, the proposed method utilizes all markers across the genome simultaneously. The outperformance of our Bayesian method over the traditional single-marker analysis and interval mapping has been illustrated via simulations and real data analysis to identify candidate loci associated with colorectal cancer. PMID:17483433

  18. Expression pattern and localization of beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase in different tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Wyss, A; Wirtz, G M; Woggon, W D; Brugger, R; Wyss, M; Friedlein, A; Riss, G; Bachmann, H; Hunziker, W

    2001-01-01

    Beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase cleaves beta,beta-carotene into two molecules of retinal, and is the key enzyme in the metabolism of beta,beta-carotene to vitamin A. The enzyme has been known for more than 40 years, yet all attempts to purify the protein to homogeneity have failed. Recently, the successful cloning and sequencing of an enzyme with beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase activity from chicken, as well as from Drosophila, has been reported. Here, we describe in detail our attempt to enrich the chicken beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase to such an extent as to allow determination of partial amino acid sequences, which were then used to design degenerate oligonucleotides. Screening of a chicken duodenal expression library yielded a full-length clone containing a coding sequence of 1578 bp. Functional expression in Escherichia coli and in eukaryotic cell lines confirmed that we had cloned the first vertebrate dioxygenase that cleaves beta,beta-carotene at the central 15,15'-double bond. By performing a sequence homology search, the cDNA sequence of the mouse homologue was found as an expressed sequence tag (EST) in the gene bank. At the amino-acid level, the degree of homology between the chicken and mouse sequences is 81%. Thus beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase can be considered as being an enzyme that is evolutionarily rather well conserved. We established the expression pattern of beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase in chicken and mouse tissues with a combination of Northern blots and in situ hybridization. The mRNA for beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase was localized primarily in duodenal villi, as well as in liver and in tubular structures of lung and kidney. These new findings demonstrate that beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase is also expressed in epithelial structures, where it serves to provide the tissue-specific vitamin A supply. PMID:11237856

  19. The chromosphere of Beta Cassiopeiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teays, Terry J.; Schmidt, Edward G.; Pasinetti Fracassini, Laura E.; Fracassini, Massimo

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution, long-wavelength IUE observations and ground-based photometry of the Delta Scuti star Beta Cas is reported. The ground-based observations were used together with previous results of Antonello et al. (1986) to ensure that the IUE observations were correctly phased relative to the photometric variation. Fluxes for the emission core of the Mg II k 2796-A line were obtained from the UV spectra over several cycles in 1986 and 1987. It is found that there is an increase in the emission during part of the cycle, but it occurs near minimum light in contrast to another Delta Scuti star, Rho Pup, and the classical Cepheids (where it occurs near maximum light). The mean level of chromospheric activity is comparable to other early F dwarfs.

  20. NEXT: double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sànchez, F.; NEXT Collaboration

    2009-03-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillation has reactivated the search of the elusive neutrino-less double beta decays ( ββ0 ν). The goal of the next generation of experiments is to cover values of effective neutrino mas down to 20meV, the so-called inverse hierarchy region. Several experiments are looking for this disintegration using different techniques. The challenges of these experiments are an excellent energy resolution and large background rejection factor. The Xenon is naturally enriched with ββ0 ν candidate emitter, 136Xe, and shows excellent energy resolution when used as a calorimeter. In gaseous phase, the electrons can be tracked reducing considerable external backgrounds. The NEXT collaboration is designing a pressurized gaseous enriched Xenon detector of about 100 kg to be operated at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in Huesca (Spain).

  1. The chromosphere of Beta Cassiopeiae

    SciTech Connect

    Teays, T.J.; Schmidt, E.G.; Pasinetti Fracassini, L.E.; Fracassini, M.; Milano Universita, Milan )

    1989-08-01

    High-resolution, long-wavelength IUE observations and ground-based photometry of the Delta Scuti star Beta Cas is reported. The ground-based observations were used together with previous results of Antonello et al. (1986) to ensure that the IUE observations were correctly phased relative to the photometric variation. Fluxes for the emission core of the Mg II k 2796-A line were obtained from the UV spectra over several cycles in 1986 and 1987. It is found that there is an increase in the emission during part of the cycle, but it occurs near minimum light in contrast to another Delta Scuti star, Rho Pup, and the classical Cepheids (where it occurs near maximum light). The mean level of chromospheric activity is comparable to other early F dwarfs. 16 refs.

  2. PBX: the Princeton beta experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, K.; Chance, M.; Dewar, R.

    1983-09-01

    A rearrangement of the divertor coils in PDX will enable a test in 1984 of the MHD stability properties of deeply indented bean-shaped plasmas. The goal is a beta of 10%. Indentation is expected to counter the deterioration of MHD stability against pressure driven modes that is occasioned by the larger aspect ratios typical of anticipated reactor oriented devices. Indeed, as shown by M. Chance et al., indentation may offer direct access to the second region of stability for ballooning modes, and numerical analyses with PEST show the internal kink to be stabilized completely with even relatively modest indentation. The internal kink is implicated in the loss of beam ions in PDX. In this report the theoretical basis for the forthcoming experiment, and the design considerations underlying the modification from PDX to PBX, are described in detail. Additional theoretical material, including an analysis of particle orbits in an indented tokamak plasma, is appended.

  3. Predicting neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, M.; Ma, Ernest; Del Moral, A. Villanova; Valle, J. W. F.

    2005-11-01

    We give predictions for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in a simple variant of the A4 family symmetry model. We show that there is a lower bound for the ββ0ν amplitude even in the case of normal hierarchical neutrino masses, corresponding to an effective mass parameter |mee|≥0.17ΔmATM2. This result holds both for the CP conserving and CP violating cases. In the latter case we show explicitly that the lower bound on |mee| is sensitive to the value of the Majorana phase. We conclude therefore that in our scheme, ββ0ν may be accessible to the next generation of high sensitivity experiments.

  4. Beta Cell Dysfunction and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cerf, Marlon E.

    2013-01-01

    Beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are inherently complex with their interrelation for triggering the pathogenesis of diabetes also somewhat undefined. Both pathogenic states induce hyperglycemia and therefore increase insulin demand. Beta cell dysfunction results from inadequate glucose sensing to stimulate insulin secretion therefore elevated glucose concentrations prevail. Persistently elevated glucose concentrations above the physiological range result in the manifestation of hyperglycemia. With systemic insulin resistance, insulin signaling within glucose recipient tissues is defective therefore hyperglycemia perseveres. Beta cell dysfunction supersedes insulin resistance in inducing diabetes. Both pathological states influence each other and presumably synergistically exacerbate diabetes. Preserving beta cell function and insulin signaling in beta cells and insulin signaling in the glucose recipient tissues will maintain glucose homeostasis. PMID:23542897

  5. Gamma-ray blind beta particle probe

    DOEpatents

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2001-01-01

    An intra-operative beta particle probe is provided by placing a suitable photomultiplier tube (PMT), micro channel plate (MCP) or other electron multiplier device within a vacuum housing equipped with: 1) an appropriate beta particle permeable window; and 2) electron detection circuitry. Beta particles emitted in the immediate vicinity of the probe window will be received by the electron multiplier device and amplified to produce a detectable signal. Such a device is useful as a gamma insensitive, intra-operative, beta particle probe in surgeries where the patient has been injected with a beta emitting radiopharmaceutical. The method of use of such a device is also described, as is a position sensitive such device.

  6. Simultaneous beta/gamma digital spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.

    A state-of-the-art radiation detection system for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta-particles and gamma-rays has been developed. The system utilizes a triple-layer phoswich detector and a customized Digital Pulse Processor (DPP) built in our laboratory. The DPP board was designed to digitally capture the analog signal pulses and, following several digital preprocessing steps, transfer valid pulses to the host computer for further digital processing. A MATLAB algorithm was developed to digitally discriminate beta and gamma events and reconstruct separate beta and gamma-ray energy spectra with minimum crosstalk. The spectrometer proved to be an effective tool for recording separate beta and gamma-ray spectra from mixed radiation fields. The system as a beta-gamma spectrometer will have broad-ranging applications in nuclear non-proliferation, radioactive waste management, worker safety, systems reliability, dose assessment, and risk analysis.

  7. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Gifford G.; Kato, Takeo R.; Schonegg, Edward

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  8. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, G.G.; Kato, T.R.; Schonegg, E.

    1985-04-11

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed. 5 tabs.

  9. Effect of finite. beta. on stellarator transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.

    1984-04-01

    A theory of the modification of stellarator transport due to the presence of finite plasma pressure is developed, and applied to a range of stellarator configurations. For many configurations of interest, plasma transport can change by more than an order of magnitude in the progression from zero pressure to the equilibrium ..beta.. limit of the device. Thus, a stellarator with transport-optimized vacuum fields can have poor confinement at the desired operating ..beta... Without an external compensating field, increasing ..beta.. tends to degrade confinement, unless the initial field structure is very carefully chosen. The theory permits one to correctly determine this vacuum structure, in terms of the desired structure of the field at a prescribed operating ..beta... With a compensating external field, the deleterious effect of finite ..beta.. on transport can be partially eliminated.

  10. Impaired growth of pancreatic exocrine cells in transgenic mice expressing human activin {beta}E subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Osamu . E-mail: ohashim@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp; Ushiro, Yuuki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa

    2006-03-10

    Activins, TGF-{beta} superfamily members, have multiple functions in a variety of cells and tissues. Recently, additional activin {beta} subunit genes, {beta}C and {beta}E, have been identified. To explore the role of activin E, we created transgenic mice overexpressing human activin {beta}E subunit. There were pronounced differences in the pancreata of the transgenic animals as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pancreatic weight, expressed relative to total body weight, was significantly reduced. Histologically, adipose replacement of acini in the exocrine pancreas was observed. There was a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the acinar cells, indicating reduced proliferation in the exocrine pancreas of the transgenic mice. However, quantitative pancreatic morphometry showed that the total number and mass of the islets of the transgenic mice were comparable with those of the nontransgenic control mice. Our findings suggest a role for activin E in regulating the proliferation of pancreatic exocrine cells.

  11. Beta-dosimetry studies at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes three beta-dosimetry studies made recently at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first study was to determine the beta-gamma exposure rates at the Los Alamos Godiva IV Critical Assembly. The beta spectra from the assembly were evaluated using absorption curves and the beta-gamma dose-rate ratios were determined at various distances from the assembly. A comparison was made of the doses determined using two types of TLD personnel dosimeters and a film badge. The readings of an Eberline RO-7 instrument and the dose rates determined by TLDs were compared. Shielding provided by various metals, gloves, and clothing were measured. The second study was to determine the beta energy response of the Eberline RO-7 instrument based on measurements made with the PTB beta sources. This study required additional calibration points for the PTB sources which were made using extrapolation chamber measurements. The third study resulted in two techniques to determine the beta energy (E/sub max/) from the readings of this-window portable survey instruments. Both techniques are based on the readings obtained using aluminium filters. One technique is for field application, requires one filter, and provides a quick estimate of the beta energy in three energy groups: < 0.5 MeV, 0.5 MeV to 1.5 MeV and > 1.5 MeV. The second technique is more complex requiring measurements with two or three filters, but gives the beta energy and the approximate shape of the beta spectrum. 9 references, 6 figures.

  12. Quantitative trait loci for energy balance traits in an advanced intercross line derived from mice divergently selected for heat loss

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Merlyn K.; Thorn, Stephanie R.; Valdar, William; Pomp, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in human populations, currently a serious health concern, is considered to be the consequence of an energy imbalance in which more energy in calories is consumed than is expended. We used interval mapping techniques to investigate the genetic basis of a number of energy balance traits in an F11 advanced intercross population of mice created from an original intercross of lines selected for increased and decreased heat loss. We uncovered a total of 137 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits at 41 unique sites on 18 of the 20 chromosomes in the mouse genome, with X-linked QTLs being most prevalent. Two QTLs were found for the selection target of heat loss, one on distal chromosome 1 and another on proximal chromosome 2. The number of QTLs affecting the various traits generally was consistent with previous estimates of heritabilities in the same population, with the most found for two bone mineral traits and the least for feed intake and several body composition traits. QTLs were generally additive in their effects, and some, especially those affecting the body weight traits, were sex-specific. Pleiotropy was extensive within trait groups (body weights, adiposity and organ weight traits, bone traits) and especially between body composition traits adjusted and not adjusted for body weight at sacrifice. Nine QTLs were found for one or more of the adiposity traits, five of which appeared to be unique. The confidence intervals among all QTLs averaged 13.3 Mb, much smaller than usually observed in an F2 cross, and in some cases this allowed us to make reasonable inferences about candidate genes underlying these QTLs. This study combined QTL mapping with genetic parameter analysis in a large segregating population, and has advanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits related to obesity. PMID:24918027

  13. Quantitative trait loci for energy balance traits in an advanced intercross line derived from mice divergently selected for heat loss.

    PubMed

    Leamy, Larry J; Elo, Kari; Nielsen, Merlyn K; Thorn, Stephanie R; Valdar, William; Pomp, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in human populations, currently a serious health concern, is considered to be the consequence of an energy imbalance in which more energy in calories is consumed than is expended. We used interval mapping techniques to investigate the genetic basis of a number of energy balance traits in an F11 advanced intercross population of mice created from an original intercross of lines selected for increased and decreased heat loss. We uncovered a total of 137 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits at 41 unique sites on 18 of the 20 chromosomes in the mouse genome, with X-linked QTLs being most prevalent. Two QTLs were found for the selection target of heat loss, one on distal chromosome 1 and another on proximal chromosome 2. The number of QTLs affecting the various traits generally was consistent with previous estimates of heritabilities in the same population, with the most found for two bone mineral traits and the least for feed intake and several body composition traits. QTLs were generally additive in their effects, and some, especially those affecting the body weight traits, were sex-specific. Pleiotropy was extensive within trait groups (body weights, adiposity and organ weight traits, bone traits) and especially between body composition traits adjusted and not adjusted for body weight at sacrifice. Nine QTLs were found for one or more of the adiposity traits, five of which appeared to be unique. The confidence intervals among all QTLs averaged 13.3 Mb, much smaller than usually observed in an F2 cross, and in some cases this allowed us to make reasonable inferences about candidate genes underlying these QTLs. This study combined QTL mapping with genetic parameter analysis in a large segregating population, and has advanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits related to obesity. PMID:24918027

  14. Regulatory polymorphisms underlying complex disease traits.

    PubMed

    Knight, Julian C

    2005-02-01

    There is growing evidence that genetic variation plays an important role in the determination of individual susceptibility to complex disease traits. In contrast to coding sequence polymorphisms, where the consequences of non-synonymous variation may be resolved at the level of the protein phenotype, defining specific functional regulatory polymorphisms has proved problematic. This has arisen for a number of reasons, including difficulties with fine mapping due to linkage disequilibrium, together with a paucity of experimental tools to resolve the effects of non-coding sequence variation on gene expression. Recent studies have shown that variation in gene expression is heritable and can be mapped as a quantitative trait. Allele-specific effects on gene expression appear relatively common, typically of modest magnitude and context specific. The role of regulatory polymorphisms in determining susceptibility to a number of complex disease traits is discussed, including variation at the VNTR of INS, encoding insulin, in type 1 diabetes and polymorphism of CTLA4, encoding cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen, in autoimmune disease. Examples where regulatory polymorphisms have been found to play a role in mongenic traits such as factor VII deficiency are discussed, and contrasted with those polymorphisms associated with ischaemic heart disease at the same gene locus. Molecular mechanisms operating in an allele-specific manner at the level of transcription are illustrated, with examples including the role of Duffy binding protein in malaria. The difficulty of resolving specific functional regulatory variants arising from linkage disequilibrium is demonstrated using a number of examples including polymorphism of CCR5, encoding CC chemokine receptor 5, and HIV-1 infection. The importance of understanding haplotypic structure to the design and interpretation of functional assays of putative regulatory variation is highlighted, together with discussion of the strategic use of experimental tools to resolve regulatory polymorphisms at a transcriptional level. A number of examples are discussed including work on the TNF locus which demonstrate biological and experimental context specificity. Regulatory variation may also operate at other levels of control of gene expression and the modulation of splicing at PTPRC, encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type C, and of translational efficiency at F12, encoding factor XII, are discussed. PMID:15592805

  15. Expression quantitative trait loci: present and future

    PubMed Central

    Nica, Alexandra C.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.

    2013-01-01

    The last few years have seen the development of large efforts for the analysis of genome function, especially in the context of genome variation. One of the most prominent directions has been the extensive set of studies on expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), namely, the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Such studies have offered promise not just for the characterization of functional sequence variation but also for the understanding of basic processes of gene regulation and interpretation of genome-wide association studies. In this review, we discuss some of the key directions of eQTL research and its implications. PMID:23650636

  16. First impressions: gait cues drive reliable trait judgements.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, John C; Vuong, Quoc C; Atkinson, Anthony P

    2012-09-01

    Personality trait attribution can underpin important social decisions and yet requires little effort; even a brief exposure to a photograph can generate lasting impressions. Body movement is a channel readily available to observers and allows judgements to be made when facial and body appearances are less visible; e.g., from great distances. Across three studies, we assessed the reliability of trait judgements of point-light walkers and identified motion-related visual cues driving observers' judgements. The findings confirm that observers make reliable, albeit inaccurate, trait judgements, and these were linked to a small number of motion components derived from a Principal Component Analysis of the motion data. Parametric manipulation of the motion components linearly affected trait ratings, providing strong evidence that the visual cues captured by these components drive observers' trait judgements. Subsequent analyses suggest that reliability of trait ratings was driven by impressions of emotion, attractiveness and masculinity. PMID:22717166

  17. Neighborhood income and the expression of callous-unemotional traits.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Anna Justine; Ryan, Rebecca M; Marsh, Abigail A

    2015-09-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, including an uncaring nature and reduced empathy, represent a strongly heritable pattern of socio-emotional responding linked with elevated risk for severe, persistent delinquent behavior. Although evidence suggests that CU traits vary continuously across the population, research linking CU traits and delinquency is often conducted with incarcerated or clinical samples, obscuring potential heterogeneity in this relationship across the full range of high-CU individuals. Using a nationally representative sample, this study examines the role of neighborhood income in moderating the association between CU traits and delinquency in terms of both level and type of offending. Findings corroborate the link between CU traits and delinquency and suggest that the link between high-CU traits and violent delinquency may be unique to youth living in low-income neighborhoods. PMID:25534926

  18. Personality traits and personal values: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Parks-Leduc, Laura; Feldman, Gilad; Bardi, Anat

    2015-02-01

    Personality traits and personal values are important psychological characteristics, serving as important predictors of many outcomes. Yet, they are frequently studied separately, leaving the field with a limited understanding of their relationships. We review existing perspectives regarding the nature of the relationships between traits and values and provide a conceptual underpinning for understanding the strength of these relationships. Using 60 studies, we present a meta-analysis of the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits and the Schwartz values, and demonstrate consistent and theoretically meaningful relationships. However, these relationships were not generally large, demonstrating that traits and values are distinct constructs. We find support for our premise that more cognitively based traits are more strongly related to values and more emotionally based traits are less strongly related to values. Findings also suggest that controlling for personal scale-use tendencies in values is advisable. PMID:24963077

  19. Plant Thermoregulation: Energetics, Trait-Environment Interactions, and Carbon Economics.

    PubMed

    Michaletz, Sean T; Weiser, Michael D; Zhou, Jizhong; Kaspari, Michael; Helliker, Brent R; Enquist, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    Building a more predictive trait-based ecology requires mechanistic theory based on first principles. We present a general theoretical approach to link traits and climate. We use plant leaves to show how energy budgets (i) provide a foundation for understanding thermoregulation, (ii) explain mechanisms driving trait variation across environmental gradients, and (iii) guide selection on functional traits via carbon economics. Although plants are often considered to be poikilotherms, the data suggest that they are instead limited homeotherms. Leaf functional traits that promote limited homeothermy are adaptive because homeothermy maximizes instantaneous and lifetime carbon gain. This theory provides a process-based foundation for trait-climate analyses and shows that future studies should consider plant (not only air) temperatures. PMID:26476814

  20. [Identification of a focus of beta-thalassemia in Tamiahua, Veracruz].

    PubMed

    Reyes Cruz, G; Hernández Acasiete, M; Ruiz Reyes, G

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence of beta thalassemia (B-thal) in Mexico is largely unknown, and it is thought that the disease is confined to populations with Mediterranean ancestors. Various reports suggest that in certain parts of the coast in the Gulf of Mexico the prevalence of both B-thal and hemoglobin S disease/trait is high. We studied prospectively a town with 11,000 inhabitants named Tamiahua, located along the Gulf Coast, in the State of Veracruz, and very close to the State of Tamaulipas. A group of 200 inhabitants was initially studied: the prevalence of B-thal was 15% and 6% of them had sickle cell trait. The prevalence of B-thal is the highest reported in the country. In a second part of the study, two family trees with members heterozygous for B-thal and/or Hb S trait were constructed. The ethnic characteristics of the studied population makes unlikely that the gene was derived from white Europeans but not from black Africans. Inasmuch as the indians living in that part of the country belong to the macro-maya glotochronological group, where a relatively high prevalence of B-thal has also been identified, we feel that it is possible that B-thal was present in our country before the Spaniards arrived to Mexico. PMID:2270364

  1. Relationships between phyllosphere bacterial communities and plant functional traits in a neotropical forest

    PubMed Central

    Kembel, Steven W.; O’Connor, Timothy K.; Arnold, Holly K.; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Wright, S. Joseph; Green, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    The phyllosphere—the aerial surfaces of plants, including leaves—is a ubiquitous global habitat that harbors diverse bacterial communities. Phyllosphere bacterial communities have the potential to influence plant biogeography and ecosystem function through their influence on the fitness and function of their hosts, but the host attributes that drive community assembly in the phyllosphere are poorly understood. In this study we used high-throughput sequencing to quantify bacterial community structure on the leaves of 57 tree species in a neotropical forest in Panama. We tested for relationships between bacterial communities on tree leaves and the functional traits, taxonomy, and phylogeny of their plant hosts. Bacterial communities on tropical tree leaves were diverse; leaves from individual trees were host to more than 400 bacterial taxa. Bacterial communities in the phyllosphere were dominated by a core microbiome of taxa including Actinobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. Host attributes including plant taxonomic identity, phylogeny, growth and mortality rates, wood density, leaf mass per area, and leaf nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations were correlated with bacterial community structure on leaves. The relative abundances of several bacterial taxa were correlated with suites of host plant traits related to major axes of plant trait variation, including the leaf economics spectrum and the wood density–growth/mortality tradeoff. These correlations between phyllosphere bacterial diversity and host growth, mortality, and function suggest that incorporating information on plant–microbe associations will improve our ability to understand plant functional biogeography and the drivers of variation in plant and ecosystem function. PMID:25225376

  2. Integrating Taxonomic, Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversities: Interactive Effects with the Biome and Land Use across Taxa.

    PubMed

    Corbelli, Julian Martin; Zurita, Gustavo Andres; Filloy, Julieta; Galvis, Juan Pablo; Vespa, Natalia Isabel; Bellocq, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of species, functional traits and phylogenetic relationships at both the regional and local scales provide complementary approaches to study patterns of biodiversity and help to untangle the mechanisms driving community assembly. Few studies have simultaneously considered the taxonomic (TBD), functional (FBD) and phylogenetic (PBD) facets of beta diversity. Here we analyze the associations between TBD, FBD, and PBD with the biome (representing different regional species pools) and land use, and investigate whether TBD, FBD and PBD were correlated. In the study design we considered two widely used indicator taxa (birds and ants) from two contrasting biomes (subtropical forest and grassland) and land uses (tree plantations and cropfields) in the southern Neotropics. Non-metric multidimensional scaling showed that taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic distances were associated to biome and land use; study sites grouped into four groups on the bi-dimensional space (cropfields in forest and grassland, and tree plantations in forest and grassland), and that was consistent across beta diversity facets and taxa. Mantel and PERMANOVA tests showed that TBD, FBD and PBD were positively correlated for both bird and ant assemblages; in general, partial correlations were also significant. Some of the functional traits considered here were conserved along phylogeny. Our results will contribute to the development of sound land use planning and beta diversity conservation. PMID:25978319

  3. Integrating Taxonomic, Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversities: Interactive Effects with the Biome and Land Use across Taxa

    PubMed Central

    Corbelli, Julian Martin; Zurita, Gustavo Andres; Filloy, Julieta; Galvis, Juan Pablo; Vespa, Natalia Isabel; Bellocq, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of species, functional traits and phylogenetic relationships at both the regional and local scales provide complementary approaches to study patterns of biodiversity and help to untangle the mechanisms driving community assembly. Few studies have simultaneously considered the taxonomic (TBD), functional (FBD) and phylogenetic (PBD) facets of beta diversity. Here we analyze the associations between TBD, FBD, and PBD with the biome (representing different regional species pools) and land use, and investigate whether TBD, FBD and PBD were correlated. In the study design we considered two widely used indicator taxa (birds and ants) from two contrasting biomes (subtropical forest and grassland) and land uses (tree plantations and cropfields) in the southern Neotropics. Non-metric multidimensional scaling showed that taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic distances were associated to biome and land use; study sites grouped into four groups on the bi-dimensional space (cropfields in forest and grassland, and tree plantations in forest and grassland), and that was consistent across beta diversity facets and taxa. Mantel and PERMANOVA tests showed that TBD, FBD and PBD were positively correlated for both bird and ant assemblages; in general, partial correlations were also significant. Some of the functional traits considered here were conserved along phylogeny. Our results will contribute to the development of sound land use planning and beta diversity conservation. PMID:25978319

  4. Partitioning the impact of environment and spatial structure on alpha and beta components of taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity in European ants.

    PubMed

    Arnan, Xavier; Cerd, Xim; Retana, Javier

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the relative contribution of environmental and spatial variables to the alpha and beta components of taxonomic (TD), phylogenetic (PD), and functional (FD) diversity in ant communities found along different climate and anthropogenic disturbance gradients across western and central Europe, in order to assess the mechanisms structuring ant biodiversity. To this aim we calculated alpha and beta TD, PD, and FD for 349 ant communities, which included a total of 155 ant species; we examined 10 functional traits and phylogenetic relatedness. Variation partitioning was used to examine how much variation in ant diversity was explained by environmental and spatial variables. Autocorrelation in diversity measures and each trait's phylogenetic signal were also analyzed. We found strong autocorrelation in diversity measures. Both environmental and spatial variables significantly contributed to variation in TD, PD, and FD at both alpha and beta scales; spatial structure had the larger influence. The different facets of diversity showed similar patterns along environmental gradients. Environment explained a much larger percentage of variation in FD than in TD or PD. All traits demonstrated strong phylogenetic signals. Our results indicate that environmental filtering and dispersal limitations structure all types of diversity in ant communities. Strong dispersal limitations appear to have led to clustering of TD, PD, and FD in western and central Europe, probably because different historical and evolutionary processes generated different pools of species. Remarkably, these three facets of diversity showed parallel patterns along environmental gradients. Trait-mediated species sorting and niche conservatism appear to structure ant diversity, as evidenced by the fact that more variation was explained for FD and that all traits had strong phylogenetic signals. Since environmental variables explained much more variation in FD than in PD, functional diversity should be a better indicator of community assembly processes than phylogenetic diversity. PMID:26468433

  5. Trait emotional intelligence influences on academic achievement and school behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mavroveli, Stella; Sánchez-Ruiz, María José

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) refers to individuals' emotion-related self-perceptions (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The children's trait EI sampling domain provides comprehensive coverage of their affective personality. Preliminary evidence shows that the construct has important implications for children's psychological and behavioural adjustment. AIMS. This study investigates the associations between trait EI and school outcomes, such as performance in reading, writing, and maths, peer-rated behaviour and social competence, and self-reported bullying behaviours in a sample of primary school children. It also examines whether trait EI scores differentiate between children with and without special educational needs (SEN). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 565 children (274 boys and 286 girls) between the ages of 7 and 12 (M((age)) = 9.12 years, SD= 1.27 years) attending three English state primary schools. METHOD. Pupils completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF), the Guess Who peer assessment, the Peer-Victimization Scale, and the Bullying Behaviour Scale. Additional data on achievement and SEN were collected from the school archives. RESULTS. As predicted by trait EI theory, associations between trait EI and academic achievement were modest and limited to Year 3 children. Higher trait EI scores were related to more nominations from peers for prosocial behaviours and fewer nominations for antisocial behaviour as well as lower scores on self-reported bulling behaviours. Furthermore, SEN students scored lower on trait EI compared to students without SEN. CONCLUSIONS. Trait EI holds important and multifaceted implications for the socialization of primary schoolchildren. PMID:21199490

  6. Identifying copepod functional groups from species functional traits

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Fabio; Gasparini, Stéphane; Ayata, Sakina-Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    We gathered information on the functional traits of the most representative copepod species in the Mediterranean Sea. Our database includes 191 species described by 7 traits encompassing diverse ecological functions: minimal and maximal body length, trophic group, feeding type, spawning strategy, diel vertical migration and vertical habitat. Cluster analysis in the functional trait space revealed that Mediterranean copepods can be separated into groups with distinct ecological roles. PMID:26811565

  7. The nature and identification of quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This white paper by eighty members of the Complex Trait Consortium presents a community’s view on the approaches and statistical analyses that are needed for the identification of genetic loci that determine quantitative traits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) can be identified in several ways, but is there a definitive test of whether a candidate locus actually corresponds to a specific QTL? PMID:14634638

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING PARASITE INDICATOR TRAITS IN A DOUBLE BACKCROSS POPULATION OF SHEEP.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural genetic variability of the ruminant immune system provides a feasible means to control gastro-intestinal (GI) parasite infection. To initiate explanation of important allelic differences, a genome-wide analysis for quantitative trait loci (QTL) was initiated in a double backcross populat...

  9. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTL) ANALYSIS OF CANNING QUALITY TRAITS IN KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canning quality of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), of which the degree of splitting (SPLT) and overall appearance (APP) if canned beans are major components, is a complex trait that exhibits quantitative. The objectives of this study were to identify major genes that affect APP and SPLT in kidney...

  10. Bivariate and Multivariate Associations between Trait Listening Goals and Trait Communicator Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Shaughan A.; Keteyian, Robert V.; Bodie, Graham D.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides validity evidence for a measure of listening goals by showing theoretically consistent relationships with an existing communication preference questionnaire. Participants (N = 257) were administered trait measures for listening goals and communicator preferences. The four listening goals--relational, task-oriented,

  11. In-silico mapping of quantitative trait loci for lactation-associated traits in inbred mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant variation exists for fecundity and maternal nurturing ability in inbred mice. Classical gene mapping approaches in mice have identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) that account for some this variation. Current studies in our laboratory are aimed at identifying QTL genes that un...

  12. Mapping quantitative trait loci for bean traits and ovule number in Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed

    Clement, D; Risterucci, A M; Motamayor, J C; N'Goran, J; Lanaud, C

    2003-02-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for bean traits and the number of ovules per ovary was carried out in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) using three test-cross progenies derived from crosses between a lower Amazon Forastero male parent (Catongo) and three female parents: one upper Amazon Forastero (IMC78) and two Trinitario (DR1 and S52). RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), microsatellite, and AFLP (amplified fragment lengthpolymorphism) markers were used for mapping. Between one and six QTL for bean traits (length, weight, and shape index) and one and four QTL for the number of ovules per ovary were detected using composite interval mapping (CIM). Individual QTL explained between 5 and 24% of the phenotypic variation. QTL clusters were identified on several chromosomes, but particularly on chromosome 4. QTL related to bean traits were detected in the same region in both Trinitario parents and in a close region in the upper Amazon Forastero parent. In reference to a previous diversity study where alleles specific to Criollo and Forastero genotypes were identified, it was possible to speculate on the putative origin (Criollo or Forastero) of favorable QTL alleles segregating in both Trinitario studied. PMID:12669802

  13. Bivariate and Multivariate Associations between Trait Listening Goals and Trait Communicator Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Shaughan A.; Keteyian, Robert V.; Bodie, Graham D.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides validity evidence for a measure of listening goals by showing theoretically consistent relationships with an existing communication preference questionnaire. Participants (N = 257) were administered trait measures for listening goals and communicator preferences. The four listening goals--relational, task-oriented,…

  14. LINKING ROOT TRAITS TO SHOOT TRAITS AND LIFE HISTORY IN 25 TEMPERATE FOREST SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in plant carbon budgets and carbon cycling, there is little information available on fine root characteristics of woody species. Comparative approaches were used to examine the roots of 25 diverse species collected from mature forests. Nine root traits were examined that...

  15. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater predisposition to embryo loss. Despite the overall antagonistic relationship between reproductive performance and both milk and carcass traits, not all detailed aspects of reproduction performance exhibited an antagonistic relationship. PMID:26709166

  16. Genetic analysis of calving traits by the multi-trait individual animal model.

    PubMed

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2016-01-01

    Five alternative models were applied for analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Models 1 and 2 were included only to estimate the parameters required for model 4, and models 3 and 5 are included only as comparisons to the model 4 estimates. Variance components were estimated by multi-trait REML, including cows with valid calving records for both parities. For the effects of sire of calf on first and second parities, variance components were estimated including only calvings with the same sire of calf for both parities. All heritabilities for the cow effect were quite low, but higher for dystocia than for stillbirth and higher in first parity. The sire-of-calf heritabilities were higher than the cow effect heritabilities, except for stillbirth in parity 2. Unlike the effect of cow correlations, all sire of calf correlations were >0.6, and the correlations for the same trait in parities 1 and 2 were >0.9. Thus, a multi-trait analysis should yield a significant gain in accuracy with respect to the sire of calf effects for bulls not mated to virgin heifers. A multi-trait individual animal model algorithm was developed for joint analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Relationships matrices were included both for the effects of cow and sire of calf. In addition, random herd-year-season and fixed sex of calf effects were included in the model. Records were preadjusted for calving month and age. A total of 899,223 Israeli Holstein cows with first calvings since 1985 were included in the complete analysis. Approximate reliabilities were computed for both sire of cow and sire of calf effects. Correlations between these reliabilities and reliabilities obtained by direct inversion of the coefficient matrix for a sire of cow-sire of calf model were all close to 0.99. Phenotypic trends for cows born from 1983 through 2007 were economically unfavorable for dystocia and favorable for stillbirth in both parities. Genetic trends were economically unfavorable for both dystocia and stillbirth in first parity. First-parity sire of calf trends were unfavorable for dystocia, but favorable for stillbirth. All environmental trends were nearly zero. Regressions of evaluations of the complete analysis on a model including only calvings before 2011 were all >0.8. All evaluations met the Interbull Method 3 criterion for unbiasedness. Model 4, which computed genetic evaluations for all animals for all 4 traits accounting for all known relationships and correlations among the traits, is recommended for routine genetic evaluation of calving traits. PMID:26547643

  17. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: II. Process efficiency in event pyramiding and trait fixation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ting; Sun, Xiaochun; Mumm, Rita H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple trait integration (MTI) is a multi-step process of converting an elite variety/hybrid for value-added traits (e.g. transgenic events) through backcross breeding. From a breeding standpoint, MTI involves four steps: single event introgression, event pyramiding, trait fixation, and version testing. This study explores the feasibility of marker-aided backcross conversion of a target maize hybrid for 15 transgenic events in the light of the overall goal of MTI of recovering equivalent performance in the finished hybrid conversion along with reliable expression of the value-added traits. Using the results to optimize single event introgression (Peng et al. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: I. Minimizing linkage drag in single event introgression. Mol Breed, 2013) which produced single event conversions of recurrent parents (RPs) with ≤8 cM of residual non-recurrent parent (NRP) germplasm with ~1 cM of NRP germplasm in the 20 cM regions flanking the event, this study focused on optimizing process efficiency in the second and third steps in MTI: event pyramiding and trait fixation. Using computer simulation and probability theory, we aimed to (1) fit an optimal breeding strategy for pyramiding of eight events into the female RP and seven in the male RP, and (2) identify optimal breeding strategies for trait fixation to create a 'finished' conversion of each RP homozygous for all events. In addition, next-generation seed needs were taken into account for a practical approach to process efficiency. Building on work by Ishii and Yonezawa (Optimization of the marker-based procedures for pyramiding genes from multiple donor lines: I. Schedule of crossing between the donor lines. Crop Sci 47:537-546, 2007a), a symmetric crossing schedule for event pyramiding was devised for stacking eight (seven) events in a given RP. Options for trait fixation breeding strategies considered selfing and doubled haploid approaches to achieve homozygosity as well as seed chipping and tissue sampling approaches to facilitate genotyping. With selfing approaches, two generations of selfing rather than one for trait fixation (i.e. 'F2 enrichment' as per Bonnett et al. in Strategies for efficient implementation of molecular markers in wheat breeding. Mol Breed 15:75-85, 2005) were utilized to eliminate bottlenecking due to extremely low frequencies of desired genotypes in the population. The efficiency indicators such as total number of plants grown across generations, total number of marker data points, total number of generations, number of seeds sampled by seed chipping, number of plants requiring tissue sampling, and number of pollinations (i.e. selfing and crossing) were considered in comparisons of breeding strategies. A breeding strategy involving seed chipping and a two-generation selfing approach (SC + SELF) was determined to be the most efficient breeding strategy in terms of time to market and resource requirements. Doubled haploidy may have limited utility in trait fixation for MTI under the defined breeding scenario. This outcome paves the way for optimizing the last step in the MTI process, version testing, which involves hybridization of female and male RP conversions to create versions of the converted hybrid for performance evaluation and possible commercial release. PMID:24482601

  18. Genotypic Variation for Drought Tolerance in Beta vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    OBER, E. S.; LUTERBACHER, M. C.

    2002-01-01

    Insufficient soil moisture during summer months is now the major cause of sugar beet yield losses in the UK. However, selection for increased drought tolerance has not been a breeding priority until recently. Genetic variation for drought tolerance is an essential prerequisite for the development of more stress‐tolerant varieties, but commercial sugar beet varieties seem to have similar yield responses to drought. The objective of this study was to assess the degree of genotypic variation for drought tolerance within a wide range of sugar beet germplasm and genebank accessions within Beta. Thirty sugar beet genotypes were screened under field drought conditions, and putative drought tolerant and sensitive lines (in terms of yield reduction in polythene‐covered vs. irrigated plots) were identified. Significant genotype × water treatment interactions were found for dry matter yield and relative leaf expansion rate. Genotypic differences for drought susceptibility index were also significant. Differential sensitivity of seedling shoot growth to water deficit was examined by comparing 350 genebank accessions in a simple growth chamber screen. Methods of data management were devised to highlight lines for entry into subsequent field tests. The results of the field and seedling screens indicate that there is variation for tolerance to water deficits within sugar beet and related types, and that there are lines that show greater drought tolerance than selected commercial varieties. Divergent lines showing contrasting behaviour should aid in the identification of key morpho‐physiological traits that confer drought tolerance. PMID:12102517

  19. Genotypic variation for drought tolerance in Beta vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ober, E S; Luterbacher, M C

    2002-06-01

    Insufficient soil moisture during summer months is now the major cause of sugar beet yield losses in the UK. However, selection for increased drought tolerance has not been a breeding priority until recently. Genetic variation for drought tolerance is an essential prerequisite for the development of more stress-tolerant varieties, but commercial sugar beet varieties seem to have similar yield responses to drought. The objective of this study was to assess the degree of genotypic variation for drought tolerance within a wide range of sugar beet germplasm and genebank accessions within Beta. Thirty sugar beet genotypes were screened under field drought conditions, and putative drought tolerant and sensitive lines (in terms of yield reduction in polythene-covered vs. irrigated plots) were identified. Significant genotype x water treatment interactions were found for dry matter yield and relative leaf expansion rate. Genotypic differences for drought susceptibility index were also significant. Differential sensitivity of seedling shoot growth to water deficit was examined by comparing 350 genebank accessions in a simple growth chamber screen. Methods of data management were devised to highlight lines for entry into subsequent field tests. The results of the field and seedling screens indicate that there is variation for tolerance to water deficits within sugar beet and related types, and that there are lines that show greater drought tolerance than selected commercial varieties. Divergent lines showing contrasting behaviour should aid in the identification of key morpho-physiological traits that confer drought tolerance. PMID:12102517

  20. Why intraspecific trait variation matters in community ecology

    PubMed Central

    Bolnick, Daniel I.; Amarasekare, Priyanga; Araújo, Márcio S.; Bürger, Reinhard; Levine, Jonathan M.; Novak, Mark; Rudolf, Volker H.W.; Schreiber, Sebastian J.; Urban, Mark C.; Vasseur, David

    2011-01-01

    Natural populations consist of phenotypically diverse individuals that exhibit variation in their demographic parameters and intra- and interspecific interactions. Recent experimental work suggests that such variation can have significant ecological effects. However, ecological models typically disregard this variation and focus instead on trait means and total population density. Under what situations is this simplification appropriate? Why might intraspecific variation alter ecological dynamics? In this review, we synthesize recent theory, identifying six general mechanisms by which trait variation changes the outcome of ecological interactions. These include several direct effects of trait variation per se, and indirect effects arising from genetic variation’s role in trait evolution. PMID:21367482

  1. The genetics of quantitative traits: challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Trudy F C; Stone, Eric A; Ayroles, Julien F

    2009-08-01

    A major challenge in current biology is to understand the genetic basis of variation for quantitative traits. We review the principles of quantitative trait locus mapping and summarize insights about the genetic architecture of quantitative traits that have been obtained over the past decades. We are currently in the midst of a genomic revolution, which enables us to incorporate genetic variation in transcript abundance and other intermediate molecular phenotypes into a quantitative trait locus mapping framework. This systems genetics approach enables us to understand the biology inside the 'black box' that lies between genotype and phenotype in terms of causal networks of interacting genes. PMID:19584810

  2. Evaluating Callous-Unemotional Traits as a Personality Construct.

    PubMed

    Frick, Paul J; Ray, James V

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the importance of callous-unemotional (CU) traits as a personality construct in isolation from other facets of psychopathy. Specifically, we review research suggesting that these traits are useful for designating a subgroup of youth with serious conduct problems who differ from other antisocial youth on important biological, emotional, cognitive, and social characteristics. In addition, the temperamental features related to CU traits are risk factors for impairments in conscience development in young children. Thus, these traits could advance theoretical models explaining the development of severe antisocial behavior and psychopathy. CU traits also have important clinical utility because they designate a particularly severe and impaired subgroup of antisocial youth, leading to their inclusion in the DSM-5. As a result of this inclusion in diagnostic classification, there has been an increased focus on how to best assess CU traits, and we discuss several key issues in their assessment, highlighting several limitations in existing measures. Finally, the increased use of CU traits, separately from other facets of psychopathy, makes it important to determine how these traits relate to other personality constructs. Thus, we examine how measures of CU traits relate to the broader construct of psychopathy and to other basic personality dimensions. PMID:25039236

  3. Plasticity and evolution in correlated suites of traits.

    PubMed

    Fischer, E K; Ghalambor, C K; Hoke, K L

    2016-05-01

    When organisms are faced with new or changing environments, a central challenge is the coordination of adaptive shifts in many different phenotypic traits. Relationships among traits may facilitate or constrain evolutionary responses to selection, depending on whether the direction of selection is aligned or opposed to the pattern of trait correlations. Attempts to predict evolutionary potential in correlated traits generally assume that correlations are stable across time and space; however, increasing evidence suggests that this may not be the case, and flexibility in trait correlations could bias evolutionary trajectories. We examined genetic and environmental influences on variation and covariation in a suite of behavioural traits to understand if and how flexibility in trait correlations influences adaptation to novel environments. We tested the role of genetic and environmental influences on behavioural trait correlations by comparing Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) historically adapted to high- and low-predation environments that were reared under native and non-native environmental conditions. Both high- and low-predation fish exhibited increased behavioural variance when reared under non-native vs. native environmental conditions, and rearing in the non-native environment shifted the major axis of variation among behaviours. Our findings emphasize that trait correlations observed in one population or environment may not predict correlations in another and that environmentally induced plasticity in correlations may bias evolutionary divergence in novel environments. PMID:26849747

  4. Efficient set tests for the genetic analysis of correlated traits.

    PubMed

    Casale, Francesco Paolo; Rakitsch, Barbara; Lippert, Christoph; Stegle, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    Set tests are a powerful approach for genome-wide association testing between groups of genetic variants and quantitative traits. We describe mtSet (http://github.com/PMBio/limix), a mixed-model approach that enables joint analysis across multiple correlated traits while accounting for population structure and relatedness. mtSet effectively combines the benefits of set tests with multi-trait modeling and is computationally efficient, enabling genetic analysis of large cohorts (up to 500,000 individuals) and multiple traits. PMID:26076425

  5. Genetic Analysis of Craniofacial Traits in the Medaka

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tetsuaki; Shimada, Atsuko; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Mitani, Hiroshi; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Tamiya, Gen; Shinya, Minori

    2007-01-01

    Family and twin studies suggest that a substantial genetic component underlies individual differences in craniofacial morphology. In the current study, we quantified 444 craniofacial traits in 100 individuals from two inbred medaka (Oryzias latipes) strains, HNI and Hd-rR. Relative distances between defined landmarks were measured in digital images of the medaka head region. A total of 379 traits differed significantly between the two strains, indicating that many craniofacial traits are controlled by genetic factors. Of these, 89 traits were analyzed via interval mapping of 184 F2 progeny from an intercross between HNI and Hd-rR. We identified quantitative trait loci for 66 craniofacial traits. The highest logarithm of the odds score was 6.2 for linkage group (LG) 9 and 11. Trait L33, which corresponds to the ratio of head length to head height at eye level, mapped to LG9; trait V15, which corresponds to the ratio of snout length to head width measured behind the eyes, mapped to LG11. Our initial results confirm the potential of the medaka as a model system for the genetic analysis of complex traits such as craniofacial morphology. PMID:18073435

  6. Joint association analysis of bivariate quantitative and qualitative traits.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mengdie; Diao, Guoqing

    2011-01-01

    Univariate genome-wide association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits has been investigated extensively in the literature. In the presence of correlated phenotypes, it is more intuitive to analyze all phenotypes simultaneously. We describe an efficient likelihood-based approach for the joint association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in unrelated individuals. We assume a probit model for the qualitative trait, under which an unobserved latent variable and a prespecified threshold determine the value of the qualitative trait. To jointly model the quantitative and qualitative traits, we assume that the quantitative trait and the latent variable follow a bivariate normal distribution. The latent variable is allowed to be correlated with the quantitative phenotype. Simultaneous modeling of the quantitative and qualitative traits allows us to make more precise inference on the pleiotropic genetic effects. We derive likelihood ratio tests for the testing of genetic effects. An application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data is provided. The new method yields reasonable power and meaningful results for the joint association analysis of the quantitative trait Q1 and the qualitative trait disease status at SNPs with not too small MAF. PMID:22373162

  7. Latent TGF-[beta] structure and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Minlong; Zhu, Jianghai; Wang, Rui; Chen, Xing; Mi, Lizhi; Walz, Thomas; Springer, Timothy A.

    2011-09-16

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} is stored in the extracellular matrix as a latent complex with its prodomain. Activation of TGF-{beta}1 requires the binding of {alpha}v integrin to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-{beta} binding proteins. Crystals of dimeric porcine proTGF-{beta}1 reveal a ring-shaped complex, a novel fold for the prodomain, and show how the prodomain shields the growth factor from recognition by receptors and alters its conformation. Complex formation between {alpha}v{beta}6 integrin and the prodomain is insufficient for TGF-{beta}1 release. Force-dependent activation requires unfastening of a 'straitjacket' that encircles each growth-factor monomer at a position that can be locked by a disulphide bond. Sequences of all 33 TGF-{beta} family members indicate a similar prodomain fold. The structure provides insights into the regulation of a family of growth and differentiation factors of fundamental importance in morphogenesis and homeostasis.

  8. beta-Endorphin enhances lymphocyte proliferative responses.

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, S C; Schwartz, J M; Milner, R J; Bloom, F E; Feldman, J D

    1982-01-01

    The opioid peptides alpha- and beta-endorphin and [D-Ala2, Met5]enkephalin were investigated for their effect on the proliferation of resting and activated rat splenic lymphocytes in vitro. beta-Endorphin enhanced the proliferative response of spleen cells to the T cell mitogens concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin. The effect of beta-endorphin was dose dependent and occurred at peptide concentrations similar to those found in rat plasma. alpha-Endorphin and [D-Ala2, Met5]enkephalin did not affect the proliferative responses to any mitogen tested. Furthermore, the potentiating effect of beta-endorphin was not reversed by treatment with 10 microM naloxone. None of the peptides had any effect on resting, unstimulated spleen cells or on the response to a mixture of lipopolysaccharide and dextran sulfate, which is specifically mitogenic for B lymphocytes. The pharmacological properties of the beta-endorphin potentiation indicate that the effect may be mediated by a nonopiate but beta-endorphin-specific mechanism. These results suggest a possible role for peripheral beta-endorphin and may provide a link between stress and disease susceptibility. PMID:6287475

  9. Mapping quantitative trait loci for yield-related traits in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    PubMed

    Dargahi, Hamidreza; Tanya, Patcharin; Somta, Prakit; Abe, Jun; Srinives, Peerasak

    2014-12-01

    Development of soybean cultivars with high seed yield is a major focus in soybean breeding programs. This study was conducted to identify genetic loci associated with seed yield-related traits in soybean and also to clarify consistency of the detected QTLs with QTLs found by previous researchers. A population of 135 F2:3 lines was developed from a cross between a vegetable soybean line (MJ0004-6) and a landrace cultivar from Myanmar (R18500). They were evaluated in the experimental field of Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand in a randomized complete block design with two replications each in 2011 and 2012 growing seasons. The two parents exhibited contrasting characteristics for most of the traits that were mapped. Analysis of variance showed that the main effects of genotype and environment (year) were significant for all studied traits. Genotype by environment interaction was also highly significant for all the traits. The population was genotyped by 149 polymorphic SSR markers and the genetic map consisted of 129 SSR loci which converged into 38 linkage groups covering 1156 cM of soybean genome. There were 10 QTLs significantly associated with seed yield-related traits across two seasons with single QTLs explaining between 5.0% to 21.9% of the phenotypic variation. Three of these QTLs were detected in both years for days to flowering, days to maturity and 100 seed weight. Most of the detected QTLs in our research were consistent with earlier QTLs reported by previous researchers. However, four novel QTLs including SF1, SF2 and SF3 on linkage groups L and N for seed filling period and PN1 on linkage group D1b for pod number were identified in the present study. PMID:25914582

  10. Mapping quantitative trait loci for yield-related traits in soybean (Glycine max L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dargahi, Hamidreza; Tanya, Patcharin; Somta, Prakit; Abe, Jun; Srinives, Peerasak

    2014-01-01

    Development of soybean cultivars with high seed yield is a major focus in soybean breeding programs. This study was conducted to identify genetic loci associated with seed yield-related traits in soybean and also to clarify consistency of the detected QTLs with QTLs found by previous researchers. A population of 135 F2:3 lines was developed from a cross between a vegetable soybean line (MJ0004-6) and a landrace cultivar from Myanmar (R18500). They were evaluated in the experimental field of Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand in a randomized complete block design with two replications each in 2011 and 2012 growing seasons. The two parents exhibited contrasting characteristics for most of the traits that were mapped. Analysis of variance showed that the main effects of genotype and environment (year) were significant for all studied traits. Genotype by environment interaction was also highly significant for all the traits. The population was genotyped by 149 polymorphic SSR markers and the genetic map consisted of 129 SSR loci which converged into 38 linkage groups covering 1156 cM of soybean genome. There were 10 QTLs significantly associated with seed yield-related traits across two seasons with single QTLs explaining between 5.0% to 21.9% of the phenotypic variation. Three of these QTLs were detected in both years for days to flowering, days to maturity and 100 seed weight. Most of the detected QTLs in our research were consistent with earlier QTLs reported by previous researchers. However, four novel QTLs including SF1, SF2 and SF3 on linkage groups L and N for seed filling period and PN1 on linkage group D1b for pod number were identified in the present study. PMID:25914582

  11. Quantitative trait loci for murine growth

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverud, J.M.; Swinderen, B. van; Cothran, K.; Perel, C.

    1996-04-01

    Body size is an archetypal quantitative trait with variation due to the segregation of many gene loci, each of relatively minor effect, and the environment. We examine the effects of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on age-specific body weights and growth in the F{sub 2} intercross of the LG/J and SM/J strains of inbred mice. Weekly weights (1-10 wk) and 75 microsatellite genotypes were obtained for 535 mice. Interval mapping was used to locate and measure the genotypic effects of QTLs on body weight and growth. QTL effects were detected on 16 of the 19 autosomes with several chromosomes carrying more than one QTL. The number of QTLs for age-specific weights varied from seven at 1 week to 17 at 10 wk. The QTLs were each of relatively minor, subequal effect. QTLs affecting early and late growth were generally distinct, mapping to different chromosomal locations indicating separate genetic and physiological systems for early and later murine growth. 50 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Establishing the Attention-Distractibility Trait.

    PubMed

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2016-02-01

    Failures to focus attention will affect any task engagement (e.g., at work, in the classroom, when driving). At the clinical end, distractibility is a diagnostic criterion of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we examined whether the inability to maintain attentional focus varies in the overall population in the form of an attention-distractibility trait. To test this idea, we administered an ADHD diagnostic tool to a sample of healthy participants and assessed the relationship between ADHD symptoms and task distraction. ADHD symptom summary scores were significantly positively associated with distractor interference in letter-search and name-classification tasks (as measured by reaction time), as long as the distractors were irrelevant (cartoon images) rather than relevant (i.e., compatible or incompatible with target names). Higher perceptual load during a task eliminated distraction irrespective of ADHD score. These findings suggest the existence of an attention-distractibility trait that confers vulnerability to irrelevant distraction, which can be remedied by increasing the level of perceptual load during the task. PMID:26667659

  13. Tattoo and personality traits in Croatian veterans.

    PubMed

    Pozgain, Ivan; Barkić, Jelena; Filaković, Pavo; Koić, Oliver

    2004-04-30

    To examine whether tattooed patients, treated for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caused by war at the Ward for Psycho-trauma of the Clinical Hospital Osijek, differ from non-tattooed patients by certain personality traits. The study was conducted on one hundred Croatian veterans who were divided into two groups with respect to the presence/ absence of tattoo. To assess the symptoms of PTSD, the Clinical Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-2) was used for all subjects. To assess personality traits the following psychology tests were applied: Purdue non-verbal IQ test, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-1), and Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ/A and EPQ/IVE). With respect to the examined pre-traumatic variables and PTSD symptoms, the two groups manifested no differences. The non-tattooed group achieved higher scores on the IQ test (IQ=100) than the tattooed group (IQ=95). EPQ test showed results either above or below the norms on all scales that were applied. The tattooed group demonstrated significantly higher levels of impulsiveness, adventurism, empathy and neuroticism than the non-tattooed one (p < 0.05). In the group of 100 Croatian veterans treated for PTSD, 33 had tattoos and 67 did not. The results indicated more impulsiveness, adventurism / risk behavior, empathy and neuroticism in the tattooed group than in the non-tattooed group, while there was no significant difference in the intensity of the PTSD symptoms. PMID:15119003

  14. Modeling the genealogy of a cultural trait.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Elliot; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    The mathematical study of genealogies has yielded important insights in population biology, such as the ability to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of a sample of genetic sequences or of a group of individuals. Here we introduce a model of cultural genealogies that is a step toward answering similar questions for cultural traits. In our model individuals can inherit from a variable, potentially large number of ancestors, rather than from a fixed, small number of ancestors (one or two) as is typical of genetic evolution. We first show that, given a sample of individuals, a cultural common ancestor does not necessarily exist. We then introduce a related concept: the most recent unique ancestor (MRUA), i.e., the most recent single individual who is the earliest cultural ancestor of the sample. We show that, under neutral evolution, the time to the MRUA can be staggeringly larger than the time to MRCA in a single ancestor model, except when the average number of learning opportunities per individuals is small. Our results point out that the properties of cultural genealogies may be very different from those of genetic genealogies, with potential implications for reconstructing the histories of cultural traits. PMID:25575942

  15. Advances in Quantitative Trait Analysis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Liti, Gianni; Louis, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying complex traits is one of the next frontiers in biology. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become an important model for elucidating the mechanisms that govern natural genetic and phenotypic variation. This success is partially due to its intrinsic biological features, such as the short sexual generation time, high meiotic recombination rate, and small genome size. Precise reverse genetics technologies allow the high throughput manipulation of genetic information with exquisite precision, offering the unique opportunity to experimentally measure the phenotypic effect of genetic variants. Population genomic and phenomic studies have revealed widespread variation between diverged populations, characteristic of man-made environments, as well as geographic clusters of wild strains along with naturally occurring recombinant strains (mosaics). Here, we review these recent studies and provide a perspective on how these previously unappreciated levels of variation can help to bridge our understanding of the genotype-phenotype gap, keeping budding yeast at the forefront of genetic studies. Not only are quantitative trait loci (QTL) being mapped with high resolution down to the nucleotide, for the first time QTLs of modest effect and complex interactions between these QTLs and between QTLs and the environment are being determined experimentally at unprecedented levels using next generation techniques of deep sequencing selected pools of individuals as well as multi-generational crosses. PMID:22916041

  16. Mapping Environment-Specific Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Zhao, Fuping; Xu, Shizhong

    2010-01-01

    Environment-specific quantitative trait loci (QTL) refer to QTL that express differently in different environments, a phenomenon called QTL-by-environment (Q × E) interaction. Q × E interaction is a difficult problem extended from traditional QTL mapping. The mixture model maximum-likelihood method is commonly adopted for interval mapping of QTL, but the method is not optimal in handling QTL interacting with environments. We partitioned QTL effects into main and interaction effects. The main effects are represented by the means of QTL effects in all environments and the interaction effects are represented by the variances of the QTL effects across environments. We used the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) implemented Bayesian method to estimate both the main and the interaction effects. The residual error covariance matrix was modeled using the factor analytic covariance structure. A simulation study showed that the factor analytic structure is robust and can handle other structures as special cases. The method was also applied to Q × E interaction mapping for the yield trait of barley. Eight markers showed significant main effects and 18 markers showed significant Q × E interaction. The 18 interacting markers were distributed across all seven chromosomes of the entire genome. Only 1 marker had both the main and the Q × E interaction effects. Each of the other markers had either a main effect or a Q × E interaction effect but not both. PMID:20805558

  17. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ying; Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 ; Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min; Sun, Gui-yuan; Liu, Rui-tian

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  18. Nuclear beta-catenin in mesenchymal tumors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tony L; Gown, Allen M; Barry, Todd S; Cheang, Maggie C U; Chan, Andy K W; Turbin, Dmitry A; Hsu, Forrest D; West, Robert B; Nielsen, Torsten O

    2005-01-01

    Beta-catenin is a crucial part of the Wnt and E-cadherin signalling pathways, which are involved in tumorigenesis. Dysregulation of these pathways allow beta-catenin to accumulate and translocate to the nucleus, where it may activate oncogenes. Such nuclear accumulation can be detected by immunohistochemistry, which may be useful in diagnosis. Although the role of beta-catenin has been established in various types of carcinomas, relatively little is known about its status in mesenchymal tumors. A number of studies suggest that beta-catenin dysregulation is important in desmoid-type fibromatosis, as well as in synovial sarcoma. We wished to determine whether nuclear beta-catenin expression is specific to and sensitive for particular bone and soft-tissue tumors, including sporadic desmoid-type fibromatosis. We studied the nuclear expression of beta-catenin using tissue microarrays in a comprehensive range of bone and soft-tissue tumor types. A total of 549 cases were included in our panel. Nuclear immunohistochemical staining was determined to be either high level (>25% of cells), low level (0-25%) or none. High-level nuclear beta-catenin staining was seen in a very limited subset of tumor types, including desmoid-type fibromatosis (71% of cases), solitary fibrous tumor (40%), endometrial stromal sarcoma (40%) and synovial sarcoma (28%). Although occasional cases of fibrosarcoma, clear cell sarcoma and carcinosarcoma had high-level staining, no high-level nuclear beta-catenin expression was seen in any of 381 fibrohistocytic, muscular, adipocytic, chondroid or osseous tumor cases representing 42 diagnostic categories. All primary immunostain tissue microarray images are made publicly accessible in a searchable database. High-level nuclear beta-catenin staining serves as a useful diagnostic tool, as it is specific to a small subset of mesenchymal tumors. PMID:15375433

  19. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.

    2009-07-24

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  20. Shock waves in a beta Doradus model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    The accumulation of observational evidence and interpretation supports the conclusion that beta Doradus has running shock waves in its atmosphere. It is the work by Hutchinson with its predictions for the phases of the shock waves that prompted this author to construct a numerical hydrodynamical model for the atmosphere of beta Doradus. A short description of the procedure of the calculation follows. The results for the beta Doradus model contain a comparison with the observations. It is of particular interest to verify that the atmosphere contains multiple shock waves as suggested by Hutchinson for the ultraviolet observations.

  1. Fabrication of thin layer beta alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennenhouse, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Beta alumina tubes having walls 700 microns, 300 microns, and 140 microns were processed by extrusion and sintering utilizing Ford proprietary binder and fabrication systems. Tubes prepared by this method have properties similar to tubes prepared by isostatic pressing and sintering, i.e. density greater than 98% of theoretical and a helium leak rate less than 3 x 10 to the -9th power cc/sq cm/sec. Ford ultrasonic bonding techniques were used for bonding beta alumina end caps to open ended beta -alumina tubes prior to sintering. After sintering, the bond was hermetic, and the integrity of the bonded area was comparable to the body of the tube.

  2. Diclofenac increases beta-endorphin plasma concentrations.

    PubMed

    Martini, A; Bondiolotti, G P; Sacerdote, P; Pierro, L; Picotti, G B; Panerai, A E; Restelli, L; Zancaner, F; Monza, G

    1984-01-01

    Plasma and ventricular cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) Beta-endorphin concentrations were evaluated after chromatographic separation in patients carrying a ventricular shunt before and after the administration of diclofenac or placebo. In the same subjects the ventricular CSF concentrations of the serotonin and the catecholamine metabolites 5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA) and MOPEG were also evaluated. Plasma, but not ventricular, Beta-endorphin concentrations increased significantly after diclofenac, while placebo was ineffective. No significant changes in ventricular 5-HIAA, HVA or MOPEG levels were observed. These data suggest a role for Beta-endorphin in the analgesic effect of diclofenac. PMID:6202572

  3. Venus gravity - Analysis of Beta Regio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, P. B.; Sjogren, W. L.; Mottinger, N. A.; Bills, B. G.; Abbott, E.

    1982-01-01

    Radio tracking data acquired over Beta Regio were analyzed to obtain a surface mass distribution from which a detailed vertical gravity field was derived. In addition, a corresponding vertical gravity field was evaluated solely from the topography of the Beta region. A comparison of these two maps confirms the strong correlation between gravity and topography which was previously seen in line-of-sight gravity maps. It also demonstrates that the observed gravity is a significant fraction of that predicted from the topography alone. The effective depth of complete isostatic compensation for the Beta region is estimated to be 330 km, which is somewhat deeper than that found for other areas of Venus.

  4. Syntheses of stable isotope-labeled 6 beta-hydroxycortisol, 6 beta-hydroxycortisone, and 6 beta-hydroxytestosterone.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Takashi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Matsuzawa, Mitsuhiro; Shibasaki, Hiromi; Kasuya, Yasuji

    2003-09-01

    A method is described for the preparation of two types of multi-labeled 6 beta-hydroxycortisol containing either five deuterium atoms at C-19 methyl and C-1 methylene or four 13C atoms at C-1, C-2, C-4, and C-19 in addition to the five deuterium atoms for use as analytical internal standards for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). BMD derivatives of [1,1,19,19,19-2H(5)]cortisone and [1,2,4,19-13C(4),1,1,19,19,19-2H(5)]cortisone (cortisone-2H(5)-BMD and cortisone-13C(4),2H(5)-BMD) were first synthesized via indan synthon method starting from optical active 11-oxoindanylpropionic acid and labeled isopropenyl anion ([1,1,3,3,3-2H(5)]- or [1,3-13C(2),1,1,3,3,3-2H(5)]isopropenyl anion). The labeled isopropenyl anion was prepared from commercially available [1,1,1,3,3,3-2H(6)]- or [1,3-13C(2),1,1,1,3,3,3-2H(6)]acetone. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiated autoxidation at C-6 position of 3-ethyl-3,5-dienol ether derivatives of the labeled cortisone-BMDs gave 6 beta-hydroxy-[1,1,19,19,19-2H(5)]cortisone-BMD and 6 beta-hydroxy-[1,2,4,19-13C(4),1,1,19,19,19-2H(5)]cortisone-BMD, respectively, as a mixture of 6 beta- and 6 alpha-epimers in a ratio of 4:1. Separation of 6 beta- and 6 alpha-epimers by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and subsequent hydrolysis of the BMD group at C-17 gave pure labeled 6 beta-hydroxycortisone. After protecting the keto group at C-3 of the labeled 6 beta-hydroxycortisone-BMD as semicarbazone, reduction of 11-keto group with NaBH(4) and subsequent removal of the C-3 and C-17 protecting groups gave 6beta-hydroxy-[1,1,19,19,19-2H(5)]cortisol (6 beta-hydroxycortisol-2H(5)) and 6 beta-hydroxy-[1,2,4,19-13C(4),1,1,19,19,19-2H(5)]cortisol (6 beta-hydroxycortisol-13C(4),2H(5)), respectively, as a mixture of 6 beta- and 6 alpha-epimers (6 beta:6 alpha=4.4:1). The isotopic compositions of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol-2H(5) and 6 beta-hydroxycortisol-13C(4),2H(5) were 90.9 and 92.1 at.%, respectively. Furthermore, 6 beta-hydroxy-[1 alpha,16,16,17 alpha-2H(4)]testosterone was synthesized by the UV irradiated autoxidation at C-6 position of 3-ethyl-3,5-dienol ether derivative of deuterium-labeled testosterone ([1 alpha,16,16,17 alpha-2H(4)]testosterone) obtained by using catalytic deuteration and hydrogen-deuterium exchange reactions. PMID:12957675

  5. The Coral Trait Database, a curated database of trait information for coral species from the global oceans

    PubMed Central

    Madin, Joshua S.; Anderson, Kristen D.; Andreasen, Magnus Heide; Bridge, Tom C.L.; Cairns, Stephen D.; Connolly, Sean R.; Darling, Emily S.; Diaz, Marcela; Falster, Daniel S.; Franklin, Erik C.; Gates, Ruth D.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Huang, Danwei; Keith, Sally A.; Kosnik, Matthew A.; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Lough, Janice M.; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Luiz, Osmar; Martinelli, Julieta; Mizerek, Toni; Pandolfi, John M.; Pochon, Xavier; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Putnam, Hollie M.; Roberts, T. Edward; Stat, Michael; Wallace, Carden C.; Widman, Elizabeth; Baird, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Trait-based approaches advance ecological and evolutionary research because traits provide a strong link to an organism’s function and fitness. Trait-based research might lead to a deeper understanding of the functions of, and services provided by, ecosystems, thereby improving management, which is vital in the current era of rapid environmental change. Coral reef scientists have long collected trait data for corals; however, these are difficult to access and often under-utilized in addressing large-scale questions. We present the Coral Trait Database initiative that aims to bring together physiological, morphological, ecological, phylogenetic and biogeographic trait information into a single repository. The database houses species- and individual-level data from published field and experimental studies alongside contextual data that provide important framing for analyses. In this data descriptor, we release data for 56 traits for 1547 species, and present a collaborative platform on which other trait data are being actively federated. Our overall goal is for the Coral Trait Database to become an open-source, community-led data clearinghouse that accelerates coral reef research. PMID:27023900

  6. The Coral Trait Database, a curated database of trait information for coral species from the global oceans.

    PubMed

    Madin, Joshua S; Anderson, Kristen D; Andreasen, Magnus Heide; Bridge, Tom C L; Cairns, Stephen D; Connolly, Sean R; Darling, Emily S; Diaz, Marcela; Falster, Daniel S; Franklin, Erik C; Gates, Ruth D; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Huang, Danwei; Keith, Sally A; Kosnik, Matthew A; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Lough, Janice M; Lovelock, Catherine E; Luiz, Osmar; Martinelli, Julieta; Mizerek, Toni; Pandolfi, John M; Pochon, Xavier; Pratchett, Morgan S; Putnam, Hollie M; Roberts, T Edward; Stat, Michael; Wallace, Carden C; Widman, Elizabeth; Baird, Andrew H

    2016-01-01

    Trait-based approaches advance ecological and evolutionary research because traits provide a strong link to an organism's function and fitness. Trait-based research might lead to a deeper understanding of the functions of, and services provided by, ecosystems, thereby improving management, which is vital in the current era of rapid environmental change. Coral reef scientists have long collected trait data for corals; however, these are difficult to access and often under-utilized in addressing large-scale questions. We present the Coral Trait Database initiative that aims to bring together physiological, morphological, ecological, phylogenetic and biogeographic trait information into a single repository. The database houses species- and individual-level data from published field and experimental studies alongside contextual data that provide important framing for analyses. In this data descriptor, we release data for 56 traits for 1547 species, and present a collaborative platform on which other trait data are being actively federated. Our overall goal is for the Coral Trait Database to become an open-source, community-led data clearinghouse that accelerates coral reef research. PMID:27023900

  7. Context differences in delta beta coupling are associated with neuroendocrine reactivity in infants.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Phelps, Randi A; Davidson, Richard J; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2016-04-01

    Although evidence suggests that delta-beta coupling may provide a useful index of trait level cortico-subcortical cross talk in baseline contexts, there has been little work done to clarify the role of delta-beta coupling across contexts and in association with other physiological markers of emotion processing. We examined whether individual differences in coupling were visible across both positive and negative emotion-eliciting episodes during infancy (age 6 months). We also tested the convergence between measures of delta-beta coupling and neuroendocrine reactivity, which is also believed to index emotion processing. Patterns of coupling across emotion-eliciting episodes differed based on infants' levels of cortisol reactivity. Low cortisol-reactive infants largely did not show differences in coupling across emotion contexts while high cortisol-reactive infants showed greater coupling in non-fear contexts during baseline and fear episodes. Moreover, high cortisol-reactive infants showed greater coupling than low-reactive infants in non-positive episodes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 406-418, 2016. PMID:26566605

  8. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Senard, Jean-Michel; Rouet, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH) deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS). Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance. PMID:16722595

  9. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    SciTech Connect

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K.

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly, there is little correlation between the affinity contributed by R1 side chains and their occurrence in {beta}-lactam inhibitors or {beta}-lactam substrates of serine {beta}-lactamases. Nevertheless, presented in acylglycineboronic acids, these side chains can lead to inhibitors with high affinities and specificities. The structures of their complexes with AmpC give a molecular context to their affinities and may guide the design of anti-resistance compounds in this series.

  10. Regression-based multi-trait QTL mapping using a structural equation model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait locus mapping often results in data on a number of traits that have well established causal relationships. Many multi-trait quantitative trait locus mapping methods that account for the correlation among the multiple traits have been developed to improve the statistical power and ...

  11. High Resolution QTL Maps Of 31 Traits in Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...

  12. Genetic parameters for fitness and neonatal behavior traits in sheep.

    PubMed

    Matheson, S M; Bünger, L; Dwyer, C M

    2012-11-01

    Poor neonatal survival constrains productivity and good welfare. The heritability of survival in sheep is very low, suggesting that genetic progress will be slow. Previously we have shown that a difficult birth and low neonatal lamb vigor are important predictors of future survival. In this study we investigated the heritability of these traits, and their relationship to production traits, as an alternative indirect route to improve lamb survival. Neonatal lamb data from 11,092 animals were collected over 2 years from 290 commercial sheep flocks, using previously developed methods to rapidly assess three traits (birth assistance, lamb vigor, sucking ability) on farm. Heritabilities for neonatal traits were moderate: birth assistance (mean ± standard error; 0.26 ± 0.03), lamb vigor (0.40 ± 0.04) and sucking ability (0.32 ± 0.03). Genetic correlations between neonatal traits were moderate to high, and positive. Heritabilities for production traits were also moderate: 8-week weight (0.27 ± 0.06), 20-week weight (0.39 ± 0.07), ultrasound muscle depth (0.37 ± 0.06). Genetic and phenotypic correlations between the neonatal traits and production traits were not significantly different from zero. However, lambs that were scored as of poor vigor at birth were less likely to be recorded at 8 or 20 weeks, indicating that they may have died. The data demonstrate that the neonatal survival traits of birth assistance, lamb vigor and sucking assistance are moderately heritable when treated as a lamb trait, indicating that selection to target these lamb traits would successfully, and efficiently, improve survival without influencing productivity. PMID:23053733

  13. IL-13 improves beta-cell survival and protects against IL-1beta-induced beta-cell death

    PubMed Central

    Rütti, Sabine; Howald, Cédric; Arous, Caroline; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Halban, Philippe A.; Bouzakri, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives IL-13 is a cytokine classically produced by anti-inflammatory T-helper-2 lymphocytes; it is decreased in the circulation of type 2 diabetic patients and impacts positively on liver and skeletal muscle. Although IL-13 can exert positive effects on beta-cell lines, its impact and mode of action on primary beta-cell function and survival remain largely unexplored. Methods Beta-cells were cultured for 48 h in the presence of IL-13 alone or in combination with IL-1β or cytokine cocktail (IL-1β, IFNγ, TNFα). Results IL-13 protected human and rat beta-cells against cytokine induced death. However, IL-13 was unable to protect from IL-1β impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion and did not influence NFκB nuclear relocalization induced by IL-1β. IL-13 induced phosphorylation of Akt, increased IRS2 protein expression and counteracted the IL-1β induced regulation of several beta-cell stress response genes. Conclusions The prosurvival effects of IL-13 thus appear to be mediated through IRS2/Akt signaling with NFκB independent regulation of gene expression. In addition to previously documented beneficial effects on insulin target tissues, these data suggest that IL-13 may be useful for treatment of type 2 diabetes by preserving beta-cell mass or slowing its rate of decline. PMID:26909320

  14. 6-beta-bromopenicillanic acid, a potent beta-lactamase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, R F; Loosemore, M J

    1978-01-01

    6-beta-Bromopenicillanic acid, which arises from the epimerization of 6-alpha-bromopenicillanic acid in aqueous solution or from hydrogenation of 6,6-dibromopenicillanic acid, is a powerful, irreversible, active-site-directed inhibitor of several typical beta-lactamases (penicillinase; penicillin amido-beta-lactamhydrolase, EC 3.5.2.6); 6-alpha-bromopenicillanic acid, being completely inhibited at less than micromolar concentrations through what is probably a 1:1 interaction. The B. licheniformis exoenzyme is similarly susceptible, while the Staphylococcus aureus enzyme and the Escherichia coli (R factor) enzyme are less so; the B. cereus beta-lactamase II is not inhibited. Very high concentrations (greater than or equal to 0.1 M) of benzylpenicillin, a good substrate, are required to significantly reduce the rate of inhibition of B. cereus beta-lactamase I by 6-beta-bromopenicillanic acid. PMID:212736

  15. Pressure phase lines and enthalpies for the. cap alpha. -. beta. and. beta. -liquid transitions in beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Abey, A.

    1984-10-31

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. and ..beta..-liquid transition temperatures in Be was measured in a gas pressure system. Differential thermal analysis was used in the pressure range from 0.1 MPa to 0.7 GPa. For the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. transition, dT/dP = 43 +- 7 K/GPa; for the ..beta..-liquid transition, dT/dP = 35 +- 7 K/GPa. Although it is possible that large systematic errors may arise from experimental procedures, our results are seriously at odds with those of other investigators. Transition enthalpies for the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. and ..beta..-liquid transitions were 1.9 +- 0.2 and 2.2 +- 0.2 kcal/g.m., respectively, at a pressure of 0.1 MPa.

  16. Beta scaling of transport in microturbulence simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.

    2005-07-15

    A systematic study of the beta ({beta}) scaling and spatial structure of thermal and particle transport in gyrokinetic turbulence simulations is presented. Here, {beta} is the ratio of the plasma kinetic pressure to the magnetic pressure. Results show that the nonlinear self-consistent temperature profiles exhibit a (statistically) time-stationary flattening in the vicinity of rational surfaces with a concomitant drop in the electrostatic components of the thermal diffusivity. Simultaneously, the increased magnetic fluctuation amplitude at these surfaces enhances the steady-state electromagnetic (flutter) component of the electron thermal diffusivity. The electromagnetic components of the ion transport coefficients remain close to zero, as expected on theoretical grounds. Only a weak dependence of ion energy transport on {beta} is observed, consistent with recent tokamak experiments [C. C. Petty et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2514 (2004)].

  17. Carotenoids: more than just beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Gellenbeck, K W

    1998-12-01

    Fruits and vegetables of the human diet contain many of the over 600 carotenoid pigments that have been identified in plants. Led by work with beta-carotene, researchers have constantly been learning more about the metabolism of these compounds in the human body. Research work is now expanding beyond beta-carotene in an effort to understand what happens to all the pigments found in the human diet. This discussion briefly looks at research results on the carotenoids found in human serum as well as the effects of supplementation. Recent confusing results from large intervention trials with beta-carotene and lung cancer incidence are emphasized in relation to supplementation doses and beta-carotene source (synthetic vs. natural). The summation of results emphasizes the importance of the broad spectrum of carotenoids in the diet and relates to supplementation products currently being designed for the marketplace. PMID:24393683

  18. Interferon beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... symptoms are almost always present and worsen over time) MS. Interferon beta-1a is in a class ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: beta-mannosidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sugar molecules (oligosaccharides) attached to certain proteins (glycoproteins). Beta-mannosidase is involved in the last step ... Inherited Metabolic Diseases ISMRD: The International Advocate for Glycoprotein Storage Diseases The MPS Society (UK) Genetic Testing ...

  20. Proteopedia: Rossmann Fold: A Beta-Alpha-Beta Fold at Dinucleotide Binding Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanukoglu, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The Rossmann fold is one of the most common and widely distributed super-secondary structures. It is composed of a series of alternating beta strand (ß) and alpha helical (a) segments wherein the ß-strands are hydrogen bonded forming a ß-sheet. The initial beta-alpha-beta (ßaß) fold is the most conserved segment of Rossmann folds. As this segment…