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Sample records for beta-emitting therapeutic radionuclides

  1. Relationships between tumor size and curablity for uniformly targeted therapy with beta-emitting radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    O`Donoghue, J.A.; Bardies, M.; Wheldon, T.E. |

    1995-10-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is a new form of radiotherapy that differs in some important respects from external beam irradiation. One of the most important differences is due to the finite range of ionizing beta particles emitted as a result of radionuclide disintegration. The effects of particle range have important implications for the curability of tumors. We used a mathematical model to examine tumor curability and its relationship to tumor size for 22 beta-emitting radionuclides that may have therapeutic potential. The model assumed a uniform distribution of radionuclide throughout. For targeted radionuclide therapy, the relationship between tumor curability and tumor size is different from that for conventional external beam radiotherapy. With targeted radionuclides, there is an optimal tumor size for cure. Tumors smaller than the optimal size are less vulnerable to irradiation from radionuclides because a substantial proportion of the disintegration energy escapes and is deposited outside the tumor volume. We found an optimal tumor size for radiocurability by each of the 22 radionuclides considered. Optimal cure diameters range from less than 1 mm for short-range emitters such as {sup 199}Au and {sup 33}P to several centimeters for long-range emitters such as {sup 90}Y and {sup 188}Re. The energy emitted per disintegration may be used to predict optimal cure size for uniform distributions of radionuclide. 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Richards, Powell

    1985-01-01

    Lymphocytes labelled with .beta.-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  3. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1983-05-03

    Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  4. Experimental studies of the early effects of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides for nuclear accident risk assessment: Phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Newton, G.J.; Snipes, M.B.; Damon, E.G.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.; Gray, D.H.

    1987-11-01

    This report summarizes a series of experiments concerning the effect of linear energy transfer and temporal radiation dose pattern to the lung from inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides. The results were used to test the validity of a hazard-function mathematical model for predicting death from radiation pneumonitis. Both morbidity and mortality within 18 months after exposure were examined in rats exposed to beta-emitting radionuclides, giving brief or protracted irradiation of the lung or having weak or strong beta emissions. Protraction of the radiation dose to the lung from a half-time in the lung of less than three days to a half-time with a long-term component of about 150 days has a sparing effect. The median lethal dose for the protracted irradiation is about 1.7 times the median lethal dose for the brief irradiation. Low energy beta emissions from /sup 147/Pm have a similar effectiveness in producing lethal injury as high energy beta emissions from /sup 90/Sr. Changes in three parameters of morbidity were measured: body weight, hematology and pulmonary function; only changes in pulmonary function correlated well with pulmonary radiation injury. The doses of radiation required to produce impaired function, however, were not significantly different from those that produced death. The hazard-function model for predicting death from radiation pneumonitis, which was developed from previously obtained data for inhalation exposures of dogs to beta-emitting radionuclides, adequately predicted the median lethal doses for rats receiving one of several different beta dose rate patterns to the lung, thus strengthening the validity of the mathematical model. 23 refs., 41 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Cross-fire doses from beta-emitting radionuclides in targeted radiotherapy. A theoretical study based on experimentally measured tumor characteristics.

    PubMed

    Enger, S A; Hartman, T; Carlsson, J; Lundqvist, H

    2008-04-01

    A mathematical model based upon histological findings of cell cluster distributions in primary breast cancers and lymph node metastases was developed. The model is unique because it accounts for tumor cell cluster formations within both primary tumors and metastases. The importance of inter-cell cluster cross-fire radiation dose for beta-emitting radionuclides of different energies was studied. The cell clusters were simulated as spheres with 15, 25 and 50 microm radii having a homogeneous radioactivity distribution. The self-dose as well as the dose distribution around the spheres was calculated for seven radionuclides, (90)Y, (188)Re, (32)P, (186)Re, (159)Gd, (131)I and (177)Lu using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code. Generally, the self-dose was decreasing with increasing energy of the emitted beta particles. An exception was (188)Re which, compared to (32)P, had higher beta energy as well as higher self-dose. This was due to the higher emission of conversion and Auger electrons in the (188)Re-decay. When the cell clusters had a mean distance that was shorter than the maximum range of beta-particles, then the inter-cluster cross-fire radiation contributed significantly to the absorbed dose. Thus, high-energy beta-particles may, in spite of a low self-dose to single clusters, still be favorable to use due to the contribution of inter-cluster cross-fire radiation. PMID:18364546

  6. Monte Carlo characterization of biocompatible beta-emitting 90Y glass seed incorporated with the radionuclide 153Sm as a SPECT marker for brachytherapy applications.

    PubMed

    Hadadi, Asghar; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Sardari, Dariush; Khanchi, Alireza; Shirazi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    A glass seed consisting of the β--emitting radionuclide 90Y incorporated with radionuclide 153Sm as SPECT marker is proposed for potential application in brachytherapy in order to reduce the undesirable dose to healthy adjacent organs. The aim of this work is to determine the dosimetric characteristics, as suggested in the AAPM TG-60/TG-149 reports, for this seed using Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo codes MCNP5, EGSnrc, and FLUKA were used to calculate the absorbed dose distribution around the seed. Dosimetric parameters, such as reference absorbed dose rate, radial dose function, and one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) anisotropy functions, were obtained. The computational results from these three codes are in agreement within 5.4% difference on average. The absorbed dose rate at the reference point was estimated to be 5.01 cGy h-1 μCi-1 and self absorption of YAS glass seed amounted to 30.51%. The results showed that, with thermal neutron bombardment of 5 hours in a typical flux, sufficient activity for applications in brachytherapy may be achieved. With a 5 mCi initial activity, the total dose of a YAS glass seed was estimated to be 1.38 Gy at 1.0 cm from the seed center. Comparing with gamma emitting seeds, the 90Y seed could reduce undesirable doses to adjacent organs, because of the rapid dose falloff of beta ray. Because of the high R90 value of 5.5 mm, fewer number of 90Y seeds will be required for an interstitial brachytherapy treatment using permanent implant, in comparison with other beta-emitting seeds. The results would be helpful in the development of the radioactive implants using 90Y glass seeds for the brachytherapy treatment. PMID:24036862

  7. Comparison of the effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} and {beta}- emitting radionuclides on the incidence of lung carcinomas in laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1991-12-31

    The health effects of inhaling radioactive particles when the lung is the primary organ irradiated were studied in rats and Beagle dogs. The animals were exposed to aerosols of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} or fission-product radionuclides in insoluble forms and observed for their life span. Lung carcinomas were the primary late-occuring effect. The incidence rate for lung carcinomas was modeled using a proportional hazard rate model. Linear functions predominated below 5 Gy to the lung. The life-time risk for lung carcinomas per 10{sup 4} Gy for beta emitters was 60 for rats and 65 for dogs, and for {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} it was 1500 for rats and 2300 for dogs.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of age-dependent radiation dose from alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides to critical trabecular bone and bone marrow targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dant, James T.; Richardson, Richard B.; Nie, Linda H.

    2013-05-01

    Alpha (α) particles and low-energy beta (β) particles present minimal risk for external exposure. While these particles can induce leukemia and bone cancer due to internal exposure, they can also be beneficial for targeted radiation therapies. In this paper, a trabecular bone model is presented to investigate the radiation dose from bone- and marrow-seeking α and β emitters to different critical compartments (targets) of trabecular bone for different age groups. Two main issues are addressed with Monte Carlo simulations. The first is the absorption fractions (AFs) from bone and marrow to critical targets within the bone for different age groups. The other issue is the application of 223Ra for the radiotherapy treatment of bone metastases. Both a static model and a simulated bone remodeling process are established for trabecular bone. The results show significantly lower AFs from radionuclide sources in the bone volume to the peripheral marrow and the haematopoietic marrow for adults than for newborns and children. The AFs from sources on the bone surface and in the bone marrow to peripheral marrow and haematopoietic marrow also varies for adults and children depending on the energy of the particles. Regarding the use of 223Ra as a radionuclide for the radiotherapy of bone metastases, the simulations show a significantly higher dose from 223Ra and its progeny in forming bone to the target compartment of bone metastases than that from two other more commonly used β-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, 153Sm and 89Sr. There is also a slightly lower dose from 223Ra in forming bone to haematopoietic marrow than that from 153Sm and 89Sr. These results indicate a higher therapy efficiency and lower marrow toxicity from 223Ra and its progeny. In conclusion, age-related changes in bone dimension and cellularity seem to significantly affect the internal dose from α and β emitters in the bone and marrow to critical targets, and 223Ra may be a more efficient

  9. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

  10. Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

  11. Metallic radionuclides in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals†

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Metallic radionuclides are the mainstay of both diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Therapeutic nuclear medicine is less advanced but has tremendous potential if the radionuclide is accurately targeted. Great interest exists in the field of inorganic chemistry for developing target specific radiopharmaceuticals based on radiometals for non-invasive disease detection and cancer radiotherapy. This perspective will focus on the nuclear properties of a few important radiometals and their recent applications to developing radiopharmaceuticals for imaging and therapy. Other topics for discussion will include imaging techniques, radiotherapy, analytical techniques, and radiation safety. The ultimate goal of this perspective is to introduce inorganic chemists to the field of nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceutical development, where many applications of fundamental inorganic chemistry can be found. PMID:21541393

  12. Metallic radionuclides in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sibaprasad; Dixit, Manish

    2011-06-21

    Metallic radionuclides are the mainstay of both diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Therapeutic nuclear medicine is less advanced but has tremendous potential if the radionuclide is accurately targeted. Great interest exists in the field of inorganic chemistry for developing target specific radiopharmaceuticals based on radiometals for non-invasive disease detection and cancer radiotherapy. This perspective will focus on the nuclear properties of a few important radiometals and their recent applications to developing radiopharmaceuticals for imaging and therapy. Other topics for discussion will include imaging techniques, radiotherapy, analytical techniques, and radiation safety. The ultimate goal of this perspective is to introduce inorganic chemists to the field of nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceutical development, where many applications of fundamental inorganic chemistry can be found. PMID:21541393

  13. Power output and efficiency of beta-emitting microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheneler, David; Ward, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Current standard methods to calculate the dose of radiation emitted during medical applications by beta-minus emitting microspheres rely on an over-simplistic formalism. This formalism is a function of the average activity of the radioisotope used and the physiological dimensions of the patient only. It neglects the variation in energy of the emitted beta particle due to self-attenuation, or self-absorption, effects related to the finite size of the sphere. Here it is assumed the sphere is comprised of a pure radioisotope with beta particles being emitted isotropically throughout the material. The full initial possible kinetic energy distribution of a beta particle is taken into account as well as the energy losses due to scattering by other atoms in the microsphere and bremsstrahlung radiation. By combining Longmire's theory of the mean forward range of charged particles and the Rayleigh distribution to take into account the statistical nature of scattering and energy straggling, the linear attenuation, or self-absorption, coefficient for beta-emitting radioisotopes has been deduced. By analogy with gamma radiation transport in spheres, this result was used to calculate the rate of energy emitted by a beta-emitting microsphere and its efficiency. Comparisons to standard point dose kernel formulations generated using Monte Carlo data show the efficacy of the proposed method. Yttrium-90 is used as a specific example throughout, as a medically significant radioisotope, frequently used in radiation therapy for treating cancer.

  14. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2005-09-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest.

  15. Cyclotron produced {sup 67}Ga, a potential radionuclide for diagnostic and therapeutic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin Kassim, Hasan Abu; Haba, Hiromitsu

    2015-04-29

    Production cross-sections of the {sup nat}Zn(d,x){sup 67}Ga reactions have been measured from a 24-MeV deuteron energy down to the threshold by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. An overall good agreement is found with some of the earlier measurements, whereas a partial agreement is obtained with the theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2013 library. Physical thick target yield for the {sup 67}Ga radionuclide was deduced using the measured cross-sections, and found in agreement with the directly measured yield available in the literature. This study reveals that a low deuteron energy (<11 MeV) cyclotron and an enriched {sup 66}Zn target could be used to obtain {sup 67}Ga in no carrier added form.

  16. Cyclotron produced 198gAu, a potential radionuclide for diagnostic and therapeutic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Haba, Hiromitsu; Kassim, Hasan Abu

    2016-02-01

    Production cross-sections of the natPt(d,x)198Au reactions have been measured from a 24-MeV deuteron energy down to the threshold by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. Only a partial agreement is obtained with the existing literature data and the theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2013 library. Physical thick target yield for the 198Au radionuclide was deduced using the measured cross-sections, and found a general agreement with the directly measured yield available in the literature. This study reveals that a low deuteron energy (<15 MeV) cyclotron and an enriched 198Pt (100%) target could be used to obtain 198Au in no carrier added form.

  17. Production of {sup 177}Lu, a potential radionuclide for diagnostic and therapeutic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Haba, Hiromitsu

    2015-04-24

    {sup 177g}Lu (T{sub 1/2}=6.647d; E{sub β{sup −max}}=498.3KeV, I{sub β{sup −total}}=100%; E{sub γ} = 112.9498 keV, I{sub γ} = 6.17%; E{sub γ} = 208.3662 keV, I {sub γ} = 10.36%) is widely used in many clinical procedures due to its excellent decay characteristics. Production cross-sections of the {sup nat}Yb(d,x){sup 177g}Lu reactions have been measured from a 24-MeV deuteron energy down to the threshold by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. An overall good agreement is found with some of the earlier measurements, whereas a partial agreement is obtained with the theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2013 library. Physical thick target yield for the {sup 177g}Lu radionuclide was deduced using the measured cross-sections. The deduced yield curves indicate that a low energy (<11 MeV) cyclotron and a highly enriched {sup 176}Yb target could be used to obtain {sup 177g}Lu with negligible impurity from {sup 177m}Lu.

  18. Direct intratumoral infusion of liposome encapsulated rhenium radionuclides for cancer therapy: Effects of nonuniform intratumoral dose distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Hrycushko, Brian A.; Li Shihong; Goins, Beth; Otto, Randal A.; Bao, Ande

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Focused radiation therapy by direct intratumoral infusion of lipid nanoparticle (liposome)-carried beta-emitting radionuclides has shown promising results in animal model studies; however, little is known about the impact the intratumoral liposomal radionuclide distribution may have on tumor control. The primary objective of this work was to investigate the effects the intratumoral absorbed dose distributions from this cancer therapy modality have on tumor control and treatment planning by combining dosimetric and radiobiological modeling with in vivo imaging data. Methods: {sup 99m}Tc-encapsulated liposomes were intratumorally infused with a single injection location to human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in nude rats. High resolution in vivo planar imaging was performed at various time points for quantifying intratumoral retention following infusion. The intratumoral liposomal radioactivity distribution was obtained from 1 mm resolution pinhole collimator SPECT imaging coregistered with CT imaging of excised tumors at 20 h postinfusion. Coregistered images were used for intratumoral dosimetric and radiobiological modeling at a voxel level following extrapolation to the therapeutic analogs, {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re liposomes. Effective uniform dose (EUD) and tumor control probability (TCP) were used to assess therapy effectiveness and possible methods of improving upon tumor control with this radiation therapy modality. Results: Dosimetric analysis showed that average tumor absorbed doses of 8.6 Gy/MBq (318.2 Gy/mCi) and 5.7 Gy/MBq (209.1 Gy/mCi) could be delivered with this protocol of radiation delivery for {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re liposomes, respectively, and 37-92 MBq (1-2.5 mCi)/g tumor administered activity; however, large intratumoral absorbed dose heterogeneity, as seen in dose-volume histograms, resulted in insignificant values of EUD and TCP for achieving tumor control. It is indicated that the use of liposomes encapsulating

  19. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2003-06-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

  20. Experimental cross sections for charged particle production of the therapeutic radionuclide 111Ag and its PET imaging analogue 104m,gAg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanne, A.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F.; Bolbos, R.

    2004-04-01

    Proton and deuteron particle induced nuclear reactions for generation of selected Ag radionuclides used in therapeutic or diagnostic nuclear medicine were investigated with the stacked foil activation technique on natural palladium targets up to Ep=43 MeV and Ed=22 MeV, respectively. Excitation functions are reported for the first time for the reactions natPd(d, xn) 111Ag, natPd(d, xn) 110mAg, natPd(d, xn) 104m,gAg, natPd(p, xn) 104m,gAg. Optimal production pathways with minimal contamination, cross sections, thick target yields and activation functions have been deduced and compared with available experimental data.

  1. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  2. Hot beta particles in the lung: Results from dogs exposed to fission product radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1995-12-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident resulted in the release of uranium dioxide fuel and fission product radionuclides into the environment with the fallout of respirable, highly radioactive particles that have been termed {open_quotes}hot beta particles.{close_quotes} There is concern that these hot beta particles (containing an average of 150-20,000 Bq/particle), when inhaled and deposited in the lung, may present an extraordinary hazard for the induction of lung cancer. We reviewed data from a group of studies in dogs exposed to different quantities of beta-emitting radionuclides with varied physical half-lives to determine if those that inhaled hot beta particles were at unusual risk for lung cancer. This analysis indicates that the average dose to the lung is adequate to predict biologic effects of lung cancer for inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides in the range of 5-50 Gy to the lung and with particle activities in the range of 0.10-50 Bq/particle.

  3. Radionuclide trap

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  4. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  5. Monte Carlo investigation of single cell beta dosimetry for intraperitoneal radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Syme, A M; Kirkby, C; Riauka, T A; Fallone, B G; McQuarrie, S A

    2004-05-21

    Single event spectra for five beta-emitting radionuclides (Lu-177, Cu-67, Re-186, Re-188, Y-90) were calculated for single cells from two source geometries. The first was a surface-bound isotropically emitting point source and the second was a bath of free radioactivity in which the cell was submerged. Together these represent a targeted intraperitoneal radionuclide therapy. Monoenergetic single event spectra were calculated over an energy range of 11 keV to 2500 keV using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system. Radionuclide single event spectra were constructed by weighting monoenergetic single event spectra according to radionuclide spectra appropriate for each source geometry. In the case of surface-bound radioactivity, these were radionuclide beta decay spectra. For the free radioactivity, a continuous slowing down approximation spectrum was used that was calculated based on the radionuclide decay spectra. The frequency mean specific energy per event increased as the energy of the beta emitter decreased. This is because, at these energies, the stopping power of the electrons decreases with increasing energy. The free radioactivity produced a higher frequency mean specific energy per event than the corresponding surface-bound value. This was primarily due to the longer mean path length through the target for this geometry. This information differentiates the radionuclides in terms of the physical process of energy deposition and could be of use in the radionuclide selection procedure for this type of therapy. PMID:15214535

  6. Which radionuclide, carrier molecule and clinical indication for alpha-immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Guerard, F; Barbet, J; Chatal, J F; Kraeber-Bodere, F; Cherel, M; Haddad, F

    2015-06-01

    Beta-emitting radionuclides are not able to kill isolated tumor cells disseminated in the body, even if a high density of radiolabeled molecules can be targeted at the surface of these cells because the vast majority of emitted electrons deliver their energy outside the targeted cells. Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides may overcome this limitation. It is thus of primary importance to test and validate the radionuclide of choice, the most appropriate carrier molecule and the most promising clinical indication. Four α-particle emitting radionuclides have been or are clinically tested in phase I studies namely 213Bi, 225Ac, 212Pb and 211At. Clinical safety has been documented and encouraging efficacy has been shown for some of them (213Bi and 211At). 211At has been the most studied and could be the most promising radionuclide but 225Ac and 212Pb are also of potential great interest. Any carrier molecule that has been labeled with β-emitting radionuclides could be labeled with alpha particle-emitting radionuclide using, for some of them, the same chelating agents. However, the physical half-life of the radionuclide should match the biological half-life of the radioconjugate or its catabolites. Finally everybody agrees, based on the quite short range of alpha particles, on the fact that the clinical indications for alpha-immunotherapy should be limited to the situation of disseminated minimal residual diseases made of small clusters of malignant cells or isolated tumor cells. PMID:25752501

  7. Monte Carlo investigation of single cell beta dosimetry for intraperitoneal radionuclide therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syme, A. M.; Kirkby, C.; Riauka, T. A.; Fallone, B. G.; McQuarrie, S. A.

    2004-05-01

    Single event spectra for five beta-emitting radionuclides (Lu-177, Cu-67, Re-186, Re-188, Y-90) were calculated for single cells from two source geometries. The first was a surface-bound isotropically emitting point source and the second was a bath of free radioactivity in which the cell was submerged. Together these represent a targeted intraperitoneal radionuclide therapy. Monoenergetic single event spectra were calculated over an energy range of 11 keV to 2500 keV using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system. Radionuclide single event spectra were constructed by weighting monoenergetic single event spectra according to radionuclide spectra appropriate for each source geometry. In the case of surface-bound radioactivity, these were radionuclide beta decay spectra. For the free radioactivity, a continuous slowing down approximation spectrum was used that was calculated based on the radionuclide decay spectra. The frequency mean specific energy per event increased as the energy of the beta emitter decreased. This is because, at these energies, the stopping power of the electrons decreases with increasing energy. The free radioactivity produced a higher frequency mean specific energy per event than the corresponding surface-bound value. This was primarily due to the longer mean path length through the target for this geometry. This information differentiates the radionuclides in terms of the physical process of energy deposition and could be of use in the radionuclide selection procedure for this type of therapy.

  8. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.

    1980-06-01

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included.

  9. Radionuclide therapy for palliation of pain due to osteoblastic metastases.

    PubMed

    Hellman, R S; Krasnow, A Z

    1998-01-01

    Beta-emitting, bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, administered systemically, represent a good alternative or adjuvant to external beam radiotherapy for palliation of painful osteoblastic bone metastases. The most frequently used radiopharmaceutical for this purpose is strontium 89, followed by samarium 153 ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate, and infrequently phosphorus 32 orthophosphate. Prior to consideration for radionuclide therapy, recent bone scans should be evaluated in order to determine if the patient has painful osteoblastic lesions likely to respond to therapy. Approximately 70% of patients with prostate and breast cancer will have a reduction in pain in response to radionuclide therapy, beginning within 2 to 4 weeks and lasting between 2 and 6 months. Patients who are expected to live 3 or more months are more likely to benefit than patients with shorter duration life expectancy. Hematosuppression is the chief side effect of radionuclide therapy, with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia more likely to be clinically significant than anemia. Relative contraindications for treatment include osteolytic lesions, pending spinal cord compression or pathologic fracture, preexisting severe myelosuppression, urinary incontinence, inability to follow radiation safety precautions, and severe renal insufficiency. PMID:15859838

  10. Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees

    SciTech Connect

    Doepel, L.K.

    1985-02-08

    A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

  11. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems ... damage. The amount of radiation used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  12. Evaluation of 188Re-labeled PEGylated nanoliposome as a radionuclide therapeutic agent in an orthotopic glioma-bearing rat model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Feng-Yun J; Lee, Te-Wei; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Hsu, Wei-Hsin; Chang, Chien-Wen; Lo, Jem-Mau

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the 188Re-labeled PEGylated nanoliposome (188Re-liposome) was prepared and evaluated as a therapeutic agent for glioma. Materials and methods The reporter cell line, F98luc was prepared via Lentivector expression kit system and used to set up the orthotopic glioma-bearing rat model for non-invasive bioluminescent imaging. The maximum tolerated dose applicable in Fischer344 rats was explored via body weight monitoring of the rats after single intravenous injection of 188Re-liposome with varying dosages before the treatment study. The OLINDA/EXM 1.1 software was utilized for estimating the radiation dosimetry. To assess the therapeutic efficacy, tumor-bearing rats were intravenously administered 188Re-liposome or normal saline followed by monitoring of the tumor growth and animal survival time. In addition, the histopathological examinations of tumors were conducted on the 188Re-liposome-treated rats. Results By using bioluminescent imaging, the well-established reporter cell line (F98luc) showed a high relationship between cell number and its bioluminescent intensity (R2=0.99) in vitro; furthermore, it could also provide clear tumor imaging for monitoring tumor growth in vivo. The maximum tolerated dose of 188Re-liposome in Fischer344 rats was estimated to be 333 MBq. According to the dosimetry results, higher equivalent doses were observed in spleen and kidneys while very less were in normal brain, red marrow, and thyroid. For therapeutic efficacy study, the progression of tumor growth in terms of tumor volume and/or tumor weight was significantly slower for the 188Re-liposome-treated group than the control group (P<0.05). As a result, the lifespan of glioma-bearing rats treated with 188Re-liposome was prolonged 10.67% compared to the control group. Conclusion The radiotherapeutic evaluation by dosimetry and survival studies have demonstrated that passive targeting 188Re-liposome via systemic administration can significantly prolong the

  13. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator system is a manually operated...

  15. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems with the flow of spinal fluid. ... a lumbar puncture include pain at the injection site, bleeding, and ... used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  16. Selection and manipulation of immunoglobulins for radionuclide delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Steplewski, Z.; Curtis, P.; Hainfeld, J.; Mausner, L.; Mease, R.; Srivastava, S.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes a collection of monoclonal antibodies that are candidates for use in radioimmunotherapy towards neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, or of astrocytomas. In addition a large series of candidate radionuclides to conjugate to antibodies for therapeutic uses are discussed with respect to potential therapeutic utility and to means of radionuclide production.

  17. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section 892.5750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation...

  18. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  19. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  20. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  1. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  2. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  3. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  4. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  5. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  6. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  7. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    oxygen retention of the tissue and the significantly greater retention amounting in hypoxic tissue. This hypothesis was confirmed in a series of animal studies. Cu-64 can be used both as an imaging radionuclide and a therapeutic radionuclide. The therapeutic efficacy of Cu-64 ATSM was proven in hamsters bearing the CW39 human colorectal tumors. The administration of Cu-64 ATSM significantly increased the survival time of tumor-bearing animals with no acute toxicity. This copper agent therefore shows promise for radiotherapy. The flow tracer Cu-64 PTSM also demonstrates therapeutic potential by inhibiting cancer cells implanted in animal models. Again, this inhibition occurred at doses which showed no sign of toxicity to the animals. Cu-ATSM was translated to humans, under other support a series of tumors were investigated; these included head and neck cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer and renal cancer. Another radionuclide that was investigated was titanium 45. This radionuclide was successfully produced by radiation of a scandium foil with 15 MeV protons. The titanium 45 was processed and separated from residual scandium by high exchange chomotrophy. Titanium titanocene has been utilized as a therapeutic agent; this compound was prepared and studied in vitro and in vivo. Another project was the preparation of cyclodextrin dimers as a new pre-targeting approach for tumor uptake. Beta-cyclodextradin and two other dimers were synthesized. These dimers were studied for the in vivo application. Work continued on the application of the radionuclide already discussed. Technetium 94m, a positron emitting radionuclide of the widely used 99m Tc nuclide was also prepared. This allows the quantification of the uptake of technetium radiopharmaceuticals. In collaboration with Professor David Piwnica-Worms, technetium 94m, sestamibi was studied in animal models and in a limited number of human subjects.

  8. Radionuclide bone imaging and densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclides and the Normal Bone Scan; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Malignant Disease; Pediatric Applications of Radionuclide Bone Imaging; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Arthritis and Metabolic and Miscellaneous Disorders; and Soft Tissue Activity on the Radionuclide Bone Scan.

  9. A limiting factor for the progress of radionuclide-based cancer diagnostics and therapy--availability of suitable radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Tolmachev, Vladimir; Carlsson, Jörgen; Lundqvist, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Advances in diagnostics and targeted radionuclide therapy of haematological and neuroendocrine tumours have raised hope for improved radionuclide therapy of other forms of disseminated tumours. New molecular target structures are characterized and this stimulates the efforts to develop new radiolabelled targeting agents. There is also improved understanding of factors of importance for choice of appropriate radionuclides. The choice is determined by physical, chemical, biological, and economic factors, such as a character of emitted radiation, physical half-life, labelling chemistry, chemical stability of the label, intracellular retention time, and fate of radiocatabolites and availability of the radionuclide. There is actually limited availability of suitable radionuclides and this is a limiting factor for further progress in the field and this is the focus in this article. The probably most promising therapeutic radionuclide, 211At, requires regional production and distribution centres with dedicated cyclotrons. Such centres are, with a few exceptions in the world, lacking today. They can be designed to also produce beta- and Augeremitters of therapeutic interest. Furthermore, emerging satellite PET scanners will in the near future demand long-lived positron emitters for diagnostics with macromolecular radiopharmaceuticals, and these can also be produced at such centres. To secure continued development and to meet the foreseen requirements for radionuclide availability from the medical community it is necessary to establish specialized cyclotron centres for radionuclide production. PMID:15244250

  10. Peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yubin; Quinn, Thomas P

    2008-09-01

    Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R) and melanin are two attractive melanoma-specific targets for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma. Radiolabeled peptides targeting MC1-R/melanin can selectively and specifically target cytotoxic radiation generated from therapeutic radionuclides to melanoma cells for cell killing, while sparing the normal tissues and organs. This review highlights the recent advances of peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma targeting MC1-R and melanin. The promising therapeutic efficacies of 188Re-(Arg(11))CCMSH (188Re-[Cys(3,4,10), D-Phe(7),Arg(11)]-alpha-MSH(3-13)), 177Lu- and 212Pb-labeled DOTA-Re(Arg(11))CCMSH (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-[ReO-(Cys(3,4,10), D-Phe(7), Arg(11))]-alpha-MSH(3-13)) and 188Re-HYNIC-4B4 (188Re-hydrazinonicotinamide-Tyr-Glu-Arg-Lys-Phe-Trp-His-Gly-Arg-His) in preclinical melanoma-bearing models demonstrate an optimistic outlook for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma. Peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma will likely contribute in an adjuvant setting, once the primary tumor has been surgically removed, to treat metastatic deposits and for treatment of end-stage disease. The lack of effective treatments for metastatic melanoma and end-stage disease underscores the necessity to develop and implement new treatment strategies, such as peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy. PMID:18387816

  11. Radionuclides in haematology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, S.M.; Bayly, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Some prerequisites to the use of radionuclides in haematology; Instrumentation and counting techniques; In vitro techniques; Cell labelling; Protein labelling; Autoradiography; Imaging and quantitative scanning; Whole body counting; Absorption and excretion studies; Blood volume studies; Plasma clearance studies; and Radionuclide blood cell survival studies.

  12. Image-guided interventional therapy for cancer with radiotherapeutic nanoparticles✩

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, William T.; Bao, Ande; Brenner, Andrew J.; Goins, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the major limitations of current cancer therapy is the inability to deliver tumoricidal agents throughout the entire tumor mass using traditional intravenous administration. Nanoparticles carrying beta-emitting therapeutic radionuclides that are delivered using advanced image-guidance have significant potential to improve solid tumor therapy. The use of image-guidance in combination with nanoparticle carriers can improve the delivery of localized radiation to tumors. Nanoparticles labeled with certain beta-emitting radionuclides are intrinsically theranostic agents that can provide information regarding distribution and regional dosimetry within the tumor and the body. Image-guided thermal therapy results in increased uptake of intravenous nanoparticles within tumors, improving therapy. In addition, nanoparticles are ideal carriers for direct intratumoral infusion of beta-emitting radionuclides by convection enhanced delivery, permitting the delivery of localized therapeutic radiation without the requirement of the radionuclide exiting from the nanoparticle. With this approach, very high doses of radiation can be delivered to solid tumors while sparing normal organs. Recent technological developments in image-guidance, convection enhanced delivery and newly developed nanoparticles carrying beta-emitting radionuclides will be reviewed. Examples will be shown describing how this new approach has promise for the treatment of brain, head and neck, and other types of solid tumors. PMID:25016083

  13. Fluorescence lifetime measurement via a radionuclide-scintillation light source and analog cross correlation.

    PubMed

    Burden, D L; Hobbs, S E; Hieftje, G M

    1997-05-15

    beta-Emitting 90Sr is used with a plastic scintillator to produce excitation-light pulses for fluorescence lifetime analysis. This light source is less expensive, more compact, and much more reliable than traditionally employed excitation sources such as lasers or pulsed flash lamps. The pulse train from this light source varies randomly in amplitude and time. Cross-correlation signal analysis is ideal for such a source because, unlike other time domain techniques, cross correlation takes complete advantage of its random nature. Here we report on the construction of an instrument and the methods employed to make fluorescence lifetime measurements via the new source and an analog correlation processor. Although the light intensity of the scintillator-based excitation source is comparatively low, an adequate signal level can be generated. The fluorescence lifetimes of three fluorophores are measured with a 1-mCi radionuclide to demonstrate a lifetime range from less than 1.5 to 28 ns. Long-lifetime measurements require an extra calibration step in order to compensate for delay cable energy loss. The light collection efficiency of the current instrument was found to be undesirably low; improvements in the instrument optics are suggested that will increase the collection efficiency and enhance the detection capability. PMID:9164162

  14. Functional Imaging for Prostate Cancer: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Seo, Youngho

    2012-01-01

    Functional radionuclide imaging modalities, now commonly combined with anatomical imaging modalities CT or MRI (SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI) are promising tools for the management of prostate cancer particularly for therapeutic implications. Sensitive detection capability of prostate cancer using these imaging modalities is one issue; however, the treatment of prostate cancer using the information that can be obtained from functional radionuclide imaging techniques is another challenging area. There are not many SPECT or PET radiotracers that can cover the full spectrum of the management of prostate cancer from initial detection, to staging, prognosis predictor, and all the way to treatment response assessment. However, when used appropriately, the information from functional radionuclide imaging improves, and sometimes significantly changes, the whole course of the cancer management. The limitations of using SPECT and PET radiotracers with regards to therapeutic implications are not so much different from their limitations solely for the task of detecting prostate cancer; however, the specific imaging target and how this target is reliably imaged by SPECT and PET can potentially make significant impact in the treatment of prostate cancer. Finally, while the localized prostate cancer is considered manageable, there is still significant need for improvement in noninvasive imaging of metastatic prostate cancer, in treatment guidance, and in response assessment from functional imaging including radionuclide-based techniques. In this review article, we present the rationale of using functional radionuclide imaging and the therapeutic implications for each of radionuclide imaging agent that have been studied in human subjects. PMID:22840598

  15. Radionuclides in US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  16. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  17. Radionuclide Behavior in Containments.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-02-14

    MATADOR analyzes the transport and deposition of radionuclides as vapor or aerosol through Light Water Reactor (LWR) containments during severe accidents and calculates environmental release fractions of radionuclides as a function of time. It is intended for use in system risk studies. The principal output is information on the timing and magnitude of radionuclide releases to the environment as a result of severely degraded core accidents. MATADOR considers the transport of radionuclides through the containmentmore » and their removal by natural deposition and the operation of engineered safety systems such as sprays. Input data on the source term from the primary system, the containment geometry, and thermal-hydraulic conditions are required.« less

  18. Image guidance, treatment planning and evaluation of cancer interstitial focal therapy using liposomal radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Steve William

    Focally ablative therapy of cancer has gained significant interest recently. Improvements in diagnostic techniques have created possibilities for treatment which were once clinically unfeasible. Imaging must be capable of allowing accurate diagnosis, staging and planning upon initiation of therapy. Recent improvements in MRI and molecular imaging techniques have made it possible to accurately localize lesions and in so doing, improve the accuracy of proposed focal treatments. Using multimodality imaging it is now possible to target, plan and evaluate interstitial focal treatment using liposome encapsulated beta emitting radionuclides in a variety of cancer types. Since most absorbed dose is deposited early and heterogeneously in beta-radionuclide therapy, investigation of the resultant molecular and cellular events during this time is important for evaluating treatment efficacy. Additionally, investigating a multifocal entity such as prostate cancer is helpful for determining whether MRI is capable of discriminating the proper lesion for therapy. Correlation of MRI findings with histopathology can further improve the accuracy of interstitial focal radionuclide therapy by providing non-invasive surrogates for tissue compartment sizes. In the application of such therapies, compartmental sizes are known to heavily influence the distribution of injected agents. This has clear dosimetric implications with the potential to significantly alter the efficacy of treatment. The hypothesis of this project was that multimodality imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), autoradiography (AR), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be used to target, plan, and evaluate interstitial focal therapy with non-sealed source, liposome-encapsulated 186Re beta emitting radionuclides. The specific aims of this project were to 1) Identify suitable targets for interstitial focal therapy. This was done by retrospectively analyzing MRI data to characterize the tumor

  19. Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Harp, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

  20. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H

    2005-07-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  1. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  2. Radionuclide synovectomy – essentials for rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70–80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice. PMID:27504020

  3. Radionuclide studies in impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Hilson, A.J.; Lewis, C.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Impotence may be of physiological origin with causes including vascular or neurological pathology. Alternatively, it may be of psychogenic origin. Clinicians can distinguish between psychological and organic impotence by observing nocturnal penile tumescence. Non-radionuclide investigations for organic impotence include penile plethysmography or pulse Doppler analysis for arterial supply, cavernosometry for venous drainage, and biothesiometry or evoked potentials for neurological pathology. Radionuclide studies are primarily based on the use of technetium 99m-pertechnetate, 99mTc-red blood cells, or xenon 133 to study the blood flow, with or without pharmacological intervention, commonly papaverine. 26 references.

  4. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote...

  5. Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

  6. Annual report on long-term dose-response studies of inhaled or injected radionuclides, October 1, 1988--September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A. . Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Miller, S.C.; Coons, T.A. . Radiobiology Div.)

    1990-08-01

    Since 1967, it has been customary for the staff of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) to publish an annual report presenting highlights of the past year's research accomplishments. In each annual report up to the present year, a substantial amount of information was presented on the status of the life-span studies of dogs that inhaled different alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides. This information was presented as topical research reports, status reports on each study and appendices containing dose and response data for individual dogs in each study. Collectively, these reports provide a valuable history of each study and the general observations that have been made to date. When plans were made for the 1988--1989 ITRI Annual Report, it was decided to publish all information on these life-span studies in a separate periodic report. This report, which is the first to deal with these lifespan studies separately, is designed to have stand-alone informational content regarding current data and also to provide references to past annual reports. It is anticipated that this report will be published annually and maintain the flow of study-related information that has been a hallmark of previous ITRI Annual Reports. This report presents detailed information on both the ITRI and University of Utah radionuclide toxicity studies of dogs. The incorporation of annual information on the Utah-initiated studies reflects the current ITRI/Utah relationship established by DOE/OHER for completion of these studies. 53 figs., 47 tabs.

  7. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Gallbladder radionuclide scan is a test that uses radioactive material to check gallbladder function. It is also used to look for bile duct blockage or leak. How the Test is Performed The health care provider will inject ...

  8. Annual report on long-term dose-response studies of inhaled or injected radionuclides, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Miller, S.C.; Bradley, P.L. . Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.)

    1991-03-01

    This report, is divided into two main sections dealing with the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) and Utah studies. These sections are organized along similar lines, addressing basic research approaches, study designs, recent accomplishments and the current status of study-completion activities. Study-specific features are presented for the 19 major studies being conducted with either inhaled beta- or alpha-emitting radionuclides. A broad range of dose- and effect-modifying factors are being examined including the effects of total dose, dose rate, LET, solubility, nonuniformity of dose, species, age, sex, health status, and exposure mode. The ITRI section of this report concludes with a group of brief reports of recent accomplishments. These accomplishments fall into five general categories: dosimetry, dose-response results for beta-emitting radionuclides, dose-response results for alpha-emitting radionuclides, molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis, and immunologic studies of exposed and aging dogs. The other major section this annual report describes the current status and recent progress of the life-span studies from the University of Utah. The main difference between the Utah studies and the ITRI studies is the exposure route. All of the Utah studies involved exposure by intravenous injection whereas all the ITRI exposures, except for {sup 137}CsCl, were given by single or repeated inhalation exposures. The research efforts currently devoted to the Utah studies fall into three main areas: continuation of the care and study of dogs still alive in these studies, detailed dosimetric studies, at the organ and local levels, of injected radionuclides and the factors that influence dose patterns, and completion of final reviews of biological materials and data, compilations and analyses of data, and preparation of final study reports for publication in the open, scientific literature.

  9. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  10. MACROMOLECULAR THERAPEUTICS

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2014-01-01

    This review covers water-soluble polymer-drug conjugates and macromolecules that possess biological activity without attached low molecular weight drugs. The main design principles of traditional and backbone degradable polymer-drug conjugates as well as the development of a new paradigm in nanomedicines – (low molecular weight) drug-free macromolecular therapeutics are discussed. To address the biological features of cancer, macromolecular therapeutics directed to stem/progenitor cells and the tumor microenvironment are deliberated. Finally, the future perspectives of the field are briefly debated. PMID:24747162

  11. Pigeon therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Harlin, R W

    2000-01-01

    This article examines therapeutics for pigeons, discussing their physiology and reproduction, housing, and nutrition. The author also looks at ways to prevent infection, while discussing treatments for various viral diseases, such as paramyxovirus and pigeon herpesvirus, bacterial infections, such as paratyphoid, and parasitic diseases. Drug dosages are listed for antibiotics, antifungals, antiparasitics, and vaccines. PMID:11228828

  12. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stephen; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip; Smith, Bryan; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'être of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multistep work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self-assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  13. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stephen C.; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip D.; Smith, Bryan R.; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'etre of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multi-step work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  14. Feedlot therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Apley, M D; Fajt, V R

    1998-07-01

    This article discusses therapeutic approaches to conditions commonly encountered in feedlots. Challenges discussed include bovine respiratory complex, tracheal edema, atypical interstitial pneumonia, footrot, toe abscesses, mycoplasma arthritis, cardiovascular disease, lactic acidosis, bloat, coccidiosis, central nervous system diseases, abscesses and cellulitis, pregnancy management and abortion, and ocular disease. PMID:9704416

  15. Osteoid osteoma: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C.A.; Hattner, R.S.; Vogler, J.B. III

    1984-06-01

    The double-density sign, seen on radionuclide bone scans, is described for diagnosing osteoid osteomas and for localizing the nidus. Its use in differentiating the nidus of an osteoid osteoma from osteomyelitis is also described. The utility of computed tomography in localization of the nidus is also illustrated. The double-density sign was helpful in diagnosing seven cases of surgically confirmed osteoid osteoma.

  16. Radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Webber, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging of the skeleton, now well established as the most important diagnostic procedure in detecting bone metastases, is also a reliable method for the evaluation of the progression or regression of metastatic bone disease. The article concentrates on the technetium-99m agents and the value of these agents in the widespread application of low-dose radioisotope scanning in such bone diseases as metastasis, osteomyelitis, trauma, osteonecrosis, and other abnormal skeletal conditions.

  17. Progress in immunoconjugate cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Payne, Gillian

    2003-03-01

    Advances in immunoconjugate technology have revitalized the "magic bullet" concept of immunotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. The growing availability of "human" antibodies, the increased epitope repertoire due to genomics and proteomics efforts, and advances in the means of identification and production of tumor-specific antibodies have greatly increased the potential for cancer therapeutic opportunities. Furthermore, the realization that effector molecule potency must be sufficiently high to be effective at concentrations that might realistically be delivered to the tumor site on an antibody carrier has greatly spurred the fields of medicinal chemistry and radionuclide chelate chemistry to produce such molecules. PMID:12676579

  18. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-03-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a site-directed targeted therapeutic strategy that specifically uses radiolabeled peptides as biological targeting vectors designed to deliver cytotoxic levels of radiation dose to cancer cells, which overexpress specific receptors. Interest in PRRT has steadily grown because of the advantages of targeting cellular receptors in vivo with high sensitivity as well as specificity and treatment at the molecular level. Recent advances in molecular biology have not only stimulated advances in PRRT in a sustainable manner but have also pushed the field significantly forward to several unexplored possibilities. Recent decades have witnessed unprecedented endeavors for developing radiolabeled receptor-binding somatostatin analogs for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors, which have played an important role in the evolution of PRRT and paved the way for the development of other receptor-targeting peptides. Several peptides targeting a variety of receptors have been identified, demonstrating their potential to catalyze breakthroughs in PRRT. In this review, the authors discuss several of these peptides and their analogs with regard to their applications and potential in radionuclide therapy. The advancement in the availability of combinatorial peptide libraries for peptide designing and screening provides the capability of regulating immunogenicity and chemical manipulability. Moreover, the availability of a wide range of bifunctional chelating agents opens up the scope of convenient radiolabeling. For these reasons, it would be possible to envision a future where the scope of PRRT can be tailored for patient-specific application. While PRRT lies at the interface between many disciplines, this technology is inextricably linked to the availability of the therapeutic radionuclides of required quality and activity levels and hence their production is also reviewed. PMID:25710506

  19. Development of gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid system for simultaneous imaging of I-131 radionuclide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Kato, Katsuhiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Although iodine 131 (I-131) is used for radionuclide therapy, high resolution images are difficult to obtain with conventional gamma cameras because of the high energy of I-131 gamma photons (364 keV). Cerenkov-light imaging is a possible method for beta emitting radionuclides, and I-131 (606 MeV maximum beta energy) is a candidate to obtain high resolution images. We developed a high energy gamma camera system for I-131 radionuclide and combined it with a Cerenkov-light imaging system to form a gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system to compare the simultaneously measured images of these two modalities. The high energy gamma imaging detector used 0.85-mm×0.85-mm×10-mm thick GAGG scintillator pixels arranged in a 44×44 matrix with a 0.1-mm thick reflector and optical coupled to a Hamamatsu 2 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT: H12700 MOD). The gamma imaging detector was encased in a 2 cm thick tungsten shield, and a pinhole collimator was mounted on its top to form a gamma camera system. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was made of a high sensitivity cooled CCD camera. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was combined with the gamma camera using optical mirrors to image the same area of the subject. With this configuration, we simultaneously imaged the gamma photons and the Cerenkov-light from I-131 in the subjects. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the gamma camera system for I-131 were respectively ~3 mm FWHM and ~10 cps/MBq for the high sensitivity collimator at 10 cm from the collimator surface. The spatial resolution of the Cerenkov-light imaging system was 0.64 mm FWHM at 10 cm from the system surface. Thyroid phantom and rat images were successfully obtained with the developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, allowing direct comparison of these two modalities. Our developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system will be useful to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these two

  20. Therapeutic perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Carmelo E.; Pennisi, Pietra; Tinè, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are linked by biological association. This encourages the search for therapeutic strategies having both cardiovascular and skeletal beneficial effects. Among drugs that may concordantly enhance bone density and reduce the progression of atherosclerosis we can include bisphosphonates (BP), statins, β -blockers, and possibly anti-RANKL antibodies. Available data come from experimental animals and human studies. All these treatments however lack controlled clinical studies designed to demonstrate dual-action effects. PMID:22460845

  1. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  2. Differences among Monte Carlo codes in the calculations of voxel S values for radionuclide targeted therapy and analysis of their impact on absorbed dose evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Pacilio, M.; Lanconelli, N.; Lo Meo, S.; Betti, M.; Montani, L.; Torres Aroche, L. A.; Coca Perez, M. A.

    2009-05-15

    (in our case, for {sup 131}I). For {sup 90}Y and {sup 188}Re, the differences among the various codes have a negligible impact (within few percents) on convolution calculations of the absorbed dose; thus either one of the MC programs is suitable to produce voxel S values for radionuclide targeted therapy dosimetry. However, if a low-energy beta-emitting radionuclide is considered, these differences can affect also dose depositions at small source-target voxel distances, leading to more conspicuous variations (about 9% for {sup 131}I) when calculating the absorbed dose in the volume of interest.

  3. Mass Spectrometric Radionuclide Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, John F.; Eiden, Greg C.; Lehn, Scott A.

    2006-02-01

    Measurement of ionized atoms by mass spectrometry is an alternative to radiation detection for measuring radioactive isotopes. These systems are large and complex; they require trained operators and extensive maintenance. They began as research systems but have been developed commercially for measuring amounts of radioactive isotopes and their atom ratios to other isotopes. Several types of mass spectrometer systems are in use. This chapter covers the basics of mass spectrometry and surveys the application of these instruments for radionuclide detection and discusses the circumstances under which use of mass spectrometers is advantageous, the type of mass spectrometer used for each purpose, and the conditions of sample preparation, introduction and analysis.

  4. Radionuclides in nephrology

    SciTech Connect

    Lausanne, A.B.D.

    1987-01-01

    In 47 expert contributions, this volume provides a summary of the latest research on radionuclides in nephro-urology together with current and new clinical applications especially in renovascular hypertension, kidney transplantation, and metabolic and urological diseases. In addition, attention is given to aspects of basic renal physiology and function and possible applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy in nephro-urology. New testing procedures which promise to improve diagnosis, and new radiopharmaceuticals are described. The reports are divided into eight sections, the first of which features studies on the renin-angiotensin system, cisplatin, atrial natriuretic factor and determining plasma oxalate. Four papers describe a number of new radiopharmaceuticals which have the potential to replace hippuran. In the third section, radionuclide methods for the measurement of renal function parameters are discussed. The book then focuses on the potential role of captopril in the improved diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy are demonstrated in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, kidney assessment after lithotripsy, kidney evaluation prior to transplantation, and in monitoring renal ischemia during hypotension.

  5. Therapeutic alliance.

    PubMed

    Fox, Valerie

    2002-01-01

    I have been very fortunate in my journey of mental illness. I respond well to medication, but I don't think that is the complete answer to living successfully with serious, persistent mental illness. I believe a person's environment is also of utmost importance, enabling the person suffering with mental illness to continually grow in life. I found early in my struggle with mental illness a psychiatrist with whom I have always had a very good rapport. Until recently I didn't know that what I have with this psychiatrist is professionally known as a therapeutic alliance. Over the years, when I need someone to talk over anything that is troubling to me, I seek my psychiatrist. A therapeutic alliance is non-judgmental; it is nourishing; and finally it is a relationship of complete trust. Perhaps persons reading this article who have never experienced this alliance will seek it. I believe it can make an insecure person secure; a frightened person less frightened; and allow a person to continue the journey of mental health with a sense of belief in oneself. PMID:12433224

  6. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  7. Somatostatin Receptor Based Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Somatostatin (SST) receptors (SSTRs) belong to the typical 7-transmembrane domain family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Five distinct subtypes (termed SSTR1-5) have been identified, with SSTR2 showing the highest affinity for natural SST and synthetic SST analogs. Most neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have high expression levels of SSTRs, which opens the possibility for tumor imaging and therapy with radiolabeled SST analogs. A number of tracers have been developed for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of NETs with impressive results, which facilitates the applications of human SSTR subtype 2 (hSSTr2) reporter gene based imaging and therapy in SSTR negative or weakly positive tumors to provide a novel approach for the management of tumors. The hSSTr2 gene can act as not only a reporter gene for in vivo imaging, but also a therapeutic gene for local radionuclide therapy. Even a second therapeutic gene can be transfected into the same tumor cells together with hSSTr2 reporter gene to obtain a synergistic therapeutic effect. However, additional preclinical and especially translational and clinical researches are needed to confirm the value of hSSTr2 reporter gene based imaging and therapy in tumors. PMID:25879040

  8. [Application of radioisotopes for theranostics, a combination of diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Saji, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Radioisotopes emit radiation with various characteristics. These characteristics have been used for various applications of radioisotopes in clinical fields. For example, diagnostic nuclear medicine is a technique that uses gamma-emitted radionuclides with high permeability into the body and can visualize changes in physiological and biochemical processes throughout the distributed and interrelated systems of living tissues and organs. Therapeutic nuclear medicine is a technique that uses beta-emitted radionuclides with high radiation damage to the cell and can be used for internal radiation therapy. Therefore, a strategy in which the same ligand is labeled with beta-emitted or gamma-emitted radioisotopes, i.e., a theranostics approach, is useful because an extensive availability of diagnostics and therapeutics is possible. In this presentation, some examples of a theranostics approach for radiolabeled compounds will be reported, including the results of our recent research. PMID:25832834

  9. Patient selection for personalized peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using Ga-68 somatostatin receptor PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Harshad R; Baum, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are malignant solid tumors originating from neuroendocrine cells dispersed throughout the body. Differentiated neuroendocrine tumors overexpress somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), which enable the diagnosis using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues. Internalization and retention within the tumor cell are important for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using the same peptide. The use of the same DOTA-peptide for SSTR PET/CT using (68)Ga and for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using therapeutic radionuclides like (177)Lu and (90)Y offers a unique theranostic advantage. PMID:25029937

  10. Radionuclide Therapies in Prostate Cancer: Integrating Radium-223 in the Treatment of Patients With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Sten

    2016-02-01

    Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) frequently metastasizes to the bone, often resulting in painful skeletal events, reduced quality of life, and reduced survival. The beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals strontium-89 and samarium-153 alleviated pain in mCRPC patients with widespread skeletal metastases and have been associated with myelotoxicity. Radium-223, a first-in-class alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical, prolonged overall survival, delayed symptomatic skeletal events, and improved quality of life, versus placebo, in patients with CRPC and symptomatic bone metastases and no visceral metastases. Radium-223 provided survival benefit to patients with CRPC and symptomatic bone metastases, regardless of prior docetaxel use. Importantly, prostate-specific antigen level and pain palliation were not a measure of radium-223 treatment response and should not alter the decision to administer all six radium-223 injections, the recommended regimen for survival benefit. Radium-223 was generally well tolerated, leading to ongoing clinical trials in combination with other therapeutics. Thus, radium-223 is a valuable addition to the mCRPC treatment armamentarium. PMID:26779616

  11. Treatment planning for molecular targeted radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Siantar, Christine Hartmann; Vetter, Kai; DeNardo, Gerald L; DeNardo, Sally J

    2002-06-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide therapy promises to expand the usefulness of radiation to successfully treat widespread cancer. The unique properties of radioactive tags make it possible to plan treatments by predicting the radiation absorbed dose to both tumors and normal organs, using a pre-treatment test dose of radiopharmaceutical. This requires a combination of quantitative, high-resolution, radiation-detection hardware and computerized dose-estimation software, and would ideally include biological dose-response data in order to translate radiation absorbed dose into biological effects. Data derived from conventional (external beam) radiation therapy suggests that accurate assessment of the radiation absorbed dose in dose-limiting normal organs could substantially improve the observed clinical response for current agents used in a myeloablative regimen, enabling higher levels of tumor control at lower tumor-to-normal tissue therapeutic indices. Treatment planning based on current radiation detection and simulations technology is sufficient to impact on clinical response. The incorporation of new imaging methods, combined with patient-specific radiation transport simulations, promises to provide unprecedented levels of resolution and quantitative accuracy, which are likely to increase the impact of treatment planning in targeted radionuclide therapy. PMID:12136519

  12. Water-Chemistry Evolution and Modeling of Radionuclide Sorption and Cation Exchange during Inundation of Frenchman Flat Playa

    SciTech Connect

    Hershey, Ronald; Cablk, Mary; LeFebre, Karen; Fenstermaker, Lynn; Decker, David

    2013-08-01

    valuable information about chemical processes occurring during inundation as the water disappeared. Important observations from water-chemistry analyses included: 1) total dissolved solids (TDS) and chloride ion (Cl-) concentrations were very low (TDS: < 200 mg/L and Cl-: < 3.0 mg/L, respectively) for all water samples regardless of time or areal extent; 2) all dissolved constituents were at concentrations well below what might be expected for evaporating shallow surface waters on a playa, even when 98 to 99 percent of the water had disappeared; 3) the amount of evaporation for the last water samples collected at the end of inundation, estimated with the stable isotopic ratios δ2H or δ18O, was approximately 60 percent; and 4) water samples analyzed by gamma spectroscopy did not show any man-made radioactivity; however, the short scanning time (24 hours) and relative chemical diluteness of the water samples (TDS ranged between 39 and 190 mg/L) may have contributed to none being detected. Additionally, any low-energy beta emitting radionuclides would not have been detected by gamma spectroscopy. From these observations, it was apparent that a significant portion of water on the playa did not evaporate, but rather infiltrated into the subsurface (approximately 40 percent). Consistent with this water chemistry-based conclusion is particle-size analysis of two archived Frenchman Flat playa soils samples, which showed low clay content in the near surface soil that also suggested infiltration. Infiltration of water from the playa during inundation into the subsurface does not necessarily imply that groundwater recharge is occurring, but it does provide a mechanism for moving residual radionuclides downward into the subsurface of Frenchman Flat playa. Water-mineral geochemical reactions were modeled so that changes in the water chemistry could be identified and the extent of reactions quantified. Geochemical modeling showed that evaporation; equilibrium with atmospheric carbon

  13. Prospects for the methods of radionuclide production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamian, S. A.; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2015-03-01

    In the present report, methods of radionuclide production for the nuclear-medicine purposes are described. In a budget approach, the application of low-energy accelerators is especially advantageous. Intense flux of bremsstrahlung at electron accelerators or high-current cyclotron beams of alpha particles must supply a great yield for many isotopes. The choice of a target material and of the projectile energy provides enough variation for concrete species formation. The innovating procedures are here proposed for optimizing of methods, for instance, application of the noble-gas target for production and transport of activities. The known and new variants of the "generator" scheme are discussed. Many isotopes are listed as promising in the context of the therapeutic and theragnostic applications. Among them are isotopes/isomers emitting soft radiation for the selective and careful body treatment, also the positron emitters for PET, and the halogen and alkali-metal species convenient for chemical separation.

  14. Prospects for the methods of radionuclide production

    SciTech Connect

    Karamian, S. A. Dmitriev, S. N.

    2015-03-30

    In the present report, methods of radionuclide production for the nuclear-medicine purposes are described. In a budget approach, the application of low-energy accelerators is especially advantageous. Intense flux of bremsstrahlung at electron accelerators or high-current cyclotron beams of alpha particles must supply a great yield for many isotopes. The choice of a target material and of the projectile energy provides enough variation for concrete species formation. The innovating procedures are here proposed for optimizing of methods, for instance, application of the noble-gas target for production and transport of activities. The known and new variants of the “generator” scheme are discussed. Many isotopes are listed as promising in the context of the therapeutic and theragnostic applications. Among them are isotopes/isomers emitting soft radiation for the selective and careful body treatment, also the positron emitters for PET, and the halogen and alkali-metal species convenient for chemical separation.

  15. Comparisons of activity measurements with radionuclide calibrators.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, P; Hernández, A T; Serra, R; Martínez, E; Varela, C

    2003-01-01

    The correct administration to a patient of the prescribed activity of a radiopharmaceutical is an important factor to ensure the confidence in the diagnosis or the therapeutic efficiency, while at the same time keeping the unnecessary human exposure as low as possible. Comparisons of activity measurements for 131I, 201Tl and 99mTc with radionuclide calibrators were organized the first time in Cuba during 2002 with the aim of obtaining information about the quality of administration of radiopharmaceuticals. Ten Cuban nuclear medicine departments and the laboratories involved in the production of these kinds of compounds participated in the comparison runs. The results presented in this paper facilitated the identification of several problems and initiated corrective actions. In addition, they indicate the necessity of establishing Quality Systems in nuclear medicine in Cuba. PMID:14622940

  16. Radionuclide imaging and treatment of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu Juan; Li, XianFeng; Ren, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, the diagnostic methods and therapeutic tools for thyroid cancer (TC) have been greatly improved. In addition to the classical method of ingestion of radioactive iodine-131 (I131) and subsequent I123 and I124 positron emission tomography (PET) in therapy and examination, I124 PET-based 3-dimensional imaging, Ga68-labeled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI(3)-octreotide (DOTANOC) PET/computed tomography (CT), Tc99m tetrofosmin, pre-targeted radioimmunotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy have all been used clinically. These novel methods are useful in diagnosis and therapy of TC, but also have unavoidable adverse effects. In this review, we will discuss the development of nuclear medicine in TC examination and treatment. PMID:27100499

  17. Introduction to Radiobiology of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Jean-Pierre; Lozza, Catherine; Deshayes, Emmanuel; Boudousq, Vincent; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, new radionuclide-based targeted therapies have emerged as efficient tools for cancer treatment. Targeted radionuclide therapies (TRTs) are based on a multidisciplinary approach that involves the cooperation of specialists in several research fields. Among them, radiobiologists investigate the biological effects of ionizing radiation, specifically the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the radiation response. Most of the knowledge about radiation effects concerns external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and radiobiology has then strongly contributed to the development of this therapeutic approach. Similarly, radiobiology and dosimetry are also assumed to be ways for improving TRT, in particular in the therapy of solid tumors, which are radioresistant. However, extrapolation of EBRT radiobiology to TRT is not straightforward. Indeed, the specific physical characteristics of TRT (heterogeneous and mixed irradiation, protracted exposure, and low absorbed dose rate) differ from those of conventional EBRT (homogeneous irradiation, short exposure, and high absorbed dose rate), and consequently the response of irradiated tissues might be different. Therefore, specific TRT radiobiology needs to be explored. Determining dose–effect correlation is also a prerequisite for rigorous preclinical radiobiology studies because dosimetry provides the necessary referential to all TRT situations. It is required too for developing patient-tailored TRT in the clinic in order to estimate the best dose for tumor control, while protecting the healthy tissues, thereby improving therapeutic efficacy. Finally, it will allow to determine the relative contribution of targeted effects (assumed to be dose-related) and non-targeted effects (assumed to be non-dose-related) of ionizing radiation. However, conversely to EBRT where it is routinely used, dosimetry is still challenging in TRT. Therefore, it constitutes with radiobiology, one of the main challenges of

  18. Radiochemical Separations:. Useful Methods for the Preparation of No-Carrier Solutions of Different Radionuclides for Metabolic Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zona, C.; Groppi, F.; Persico, E.; Canella, L.; Bonardi, M. L.; Chinol, M.; Abbas, K.; Holzwarth, U.; Gibson, N.

    2008-06-01

    In Nuclear Medicine, radionuclides are used in the detection and the treatment for cancers and others diseases. We must obtain, for therapeutic purposes, solutions of radionuclides in the required chemical form, with an high specific activity (AS). To reach our goal we must, first, obtain no-carrier-added (NCA) solutions. In this work we present different methods for the production of NCA radionuclides, based on either wet-chemistry, or thermc- and radio-chromatography. We set up four different methods: two for the preparation of the alpha emitter 211At, and two for the beta emitters 186gRe and 90Y. These radionuclides had been chosen because of their chemical and nuclear properties as their half-life, type, abundance and energy of emissions, that make them among the most promising radionuclides to label compounds for the metabolic radionuclide therapy.

  19. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  20. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  1. Video instrumentation for radionuclide angiocardiography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriss, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Two types of videoscintiscopes for performing radioisotopic angiocardiography with a scintillation camera are described, and use of these instruments in performing clinical studies is illustrated. Radionuclide angiocardiography is a simple, quick and accurate procedure recommended as a screening test for patients with a variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions. When performed in conjunction with coronary arterial catheterization, dynamic radionuclide angiography may provide useful information about regional myocardial perfusion. Quantitative capabilities greatly enhance the potential of this diagnostic tool.

  2. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  3. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  4. Natural chelating agents for radionuclide decorporation

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1985-06-11

    This invention relates to the production of metal-binding compounds useful for the therapy of heavy metal poisoning, for biological mining and for decorporation of radionuclides. The present invention deals with an orderly and effective method of producing new therapeutically effective chelating agents. This method uses challenge biosynthesis for the production of chelating agents that are specific for a particular metal. In this approach, the desired chelating agents are prepared from microorganisms challenged by the metal that the chelating agent is designed to detoxify. This challenge induces the formation of specific or highly selective chelating agents. The present invention involves the use of the challenge biosynthetic method to produce new complexing/chelating agents that are therapeutically useful to detoxify uranium, plutonium, thorium and other toxic metals. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa family of organisms is the referred family of microorganisms to be used in the present invention to produce the new chelating agent because this family is known to elaborate strains resistant to toxic metals.

  5. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  6. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Radionuclide injury to the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

  8. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Share this page: Was this page ... Monitored Drugs | Common Questions | Related Pages What is therapeutic drug monitoring? Therapeutic drug monitoring is the measurement ...

  9. Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Nicholas R.; Lister, Tedd E.; Tranter, Troy J.

    2011-03-08

    Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

  10. Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

  11. Radionuclide migration studies on tonalite

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelttae, P.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Hakanen, M.; Hautojaervi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Migration of water, chloride, sodium, and calcium in tonalite was studied, using dynamic column and static through-diffusion methods. Autoradiography of rocks impregnated with {sup 14}C-methylmethacrylate was introduced in order to determine the spatial porosity distribution, as well as to identify and visualize the migration pathways of non-sorbing radionuclides in tonalite matrix as the mm-cm scale. The migration routes of sorbing radionuclides and the sorptive minerals in tonalite were determined by autoradiographic methods, using {sup 45}Ca as a tracer. Transport of radionuclides was interpreted, using models for hydrodynamic dispersion with diffusion into the rock matrix. In tonalite, porous minerals were distributed homogeneously in matrix and, therefore, retardation capacity of the rock matrix was found to be high.

  12. Recent progress in the application of extraction chromatography to radionuclide separations for nuclear medicine.

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry

    2004-01-01

    Numerous methods have been described for the separation and purification of radionuclides for application in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, among them ion exchange, solvent extraction, and various forms of chromatography. Although extraction chromatography has previously been shown to provide a means of performing a number of separations of potential use in radionuclide generator systems, the application of the technique to generator development has thus far been limited. Recent work directed at improved methods for the determination of radionuclides in biological and environmental samples has led to the development of a series of novel extraction chromatographic resins exhibiting enhanced metal ion retention from strongly acidic media and excellent selectivity, among them materials suitable for the isolation of {sup 212}Bi, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 213}Bi. These resins, along with extraction chromatographic materials employing functionalized supports to improve their physical stability or metal ion retention properties, are shown to offer promise in the development of improved radionuclide generators.

  13. Radionuclide Imaging of Cardiovascular Infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Fozia Zahir; James, Jackie; Memmott, Matthew J; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2016-02-01

    Owing to expanding clinical indications, cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are being increasingly used. Despite improved surgical techniques and the use of prophylactic antimicrobial therapy, the rate of CIED-related infection is also increasing. Infection is a potentially serious complication, with clinical manifestations ranging from surgical site infection and local symptoms in the region of the generator pocket to fulminant endocarditis. The utility of radionuclide imaging as a stand-alone noninvasive diagnostic imaging test in patients with suspected endocarditis has been less frequently examined. This article summarizes the recent advances in radionuclide imaging for evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular infections. PMID:26590786

  14. Physiological considerations in radionuclide imaging of the penis during impotence therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, T.K.; Fink, S.; Burger, R.H.; Netto, I.C.; Palmer, J.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The increased use of intracorporeal drugs in the treatment of impotence has advanced our understanding of erectile physiology. Radionuclide imaging of the penis (nuclear penogram) has provided clinicians with a noninvasive, objective measure of blood flow and blood pool changes during erection and with assistance in the quantitative documentation of therapeutic effect. 39 references.

  15. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of unsaturated-zone transport is based on laboratory and field-scale experiments. Fractures provide advective transport pathways. Sorption and matrix diffusion may contribute to retardation of radionuclides. Conversely, sorption onto mobile colloids may enhance radionuclide transport.

  16. [Radioimmunotargeting: diagnosis and therapeutic use].

    PubMed

    Vuillez, J P

    2000-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies labeled with a radionuclide make feasible the in vivo radioimmunotargeting of tumor cells. This targeting could be performed for diagnosis, using gamma emitters, or for therapeutic purpose when antibodies are labeled with beta- and in the future alpha-emitters. Diagnosis applications (tumor detection and caracterization), i.e. immunoscintigraphy, have been widely investigated during 20 last years. This technic appeared quite interesting, complementary of morphological imaging, and clinically useful, but difficult on a practical point of view because of several pharmacological and immunological limitations. For these reasons, despite several consequent improvements (especially two-steps or pre-targeting methods), immunoscintigraphy is currently not widely used; furthermore, other scintigraphic methods, mainly positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, are efficient and easier to perform. On the other hand, knowledge of the biodistribution of radiolabeled antibodies allows the development of their therapeutic use, i.e. radioimmunotherapy, which represents a new method of cancer treatment. Radioimmunotherapy has several particular radiobiological and dosimetric aspects, which remain widely under investigation. Understanding of these aspects, together with a better delineation of the indications, allow to be really optimist concerning this new way of cancer treatment, as shown by clinical results that have been obtained in non Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radiolabeled immunoconjugates appears as a growing field in nuclear medicine, which sustains numerous preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:11125290

  17. Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy DeVol

    2006-06-30

    Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitoed in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media.

  18. RADIONUCLIDE RISK COEFFICIENT UNCERTAINTY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has published excess cancer risk coefficients for the US population in Federal Guidance Report 13 (FGR 13). FGR 13 gives separate risk coefficients for food ingestion, water ingestion, inhalation, and external exposure for each of over 800 radionuclides. Some information on...

  19. RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    We propose a research program directed toward developing novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. In order to meet the requirements for isotope specific detection at ultra-low re...

  20. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  1. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  2. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  3. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  4. TECHNOLOGIES FOR RADON AND RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a summary of the technologies that are currently being used to remove radionuclides from drinking water. The radionuclides that are featured are the radionuclides currently regulated by EPA; radium, radon and uranium. Tehnologies effective for removal of eac...

  5. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Perkins, Richard W.; Rieck, Henry G.; Wogman, Ned A.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  6. Transfer standard for beta decay radionuclides in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Klaus; Beinlich, Uwe; Fritz, Eberhard

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the activity of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals prior to the administration to patients is normally achieved via the use of radionuclide calibrators. An accurate measurement of the activity of pure beta-emitters is complex. Calibration problems can be solved by combining a primary calibration with a 90Y reference solution and a 90Sr/90Y transfer standard with a solid source, simulating geometric effects caused by high energetic beta radiation. The recent development of a 90Sr/90Y transfer standard for this purpose is reported. PMID:14987695

  7. Sequential radionuclide bone imaging in avascular pediatric hip conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Minikel, J.; Sty, J.; Simons, G.

    1983-05-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging was performed on six patients with various hip conditions. Initial bone images revealed diminished uptake of isotope /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Following therapeutic intervention, repeat bone scans revealed normal uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Subsequent radiographs revealed that avascular necrosis had not occurred. There are two types of avascularity: the potentially reversible, and the irreversible. Attempts should be made toward early recognition of the potentially reversible avascular insult. With early recognition, surgical reconstruction prior to osteophyte death may result in revascularization. If this can be accomplished, avascular necrosis can be avoided.

  8. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  9. Calibration of radionuclide calibrators in Canadian hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Santry, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The major user of radioactive isotopes in Canada is the medical profession. Because of this a program has been initiated at the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) to assist the nuclear medicine community to determine more accurately, the rather large amounts of radioactive materials administered to patients either for therapeutic or medical diagnostics. Since radiation exposure to the human body has deleterious effects, it is important for the patient that the correct amount of radioactive material is administered to minimize the induction of a fatal cancer at a later time. Hospitals in many other countries have a legal requirement to have their instruments routinely calibrated and have previously entered into intercomparisons with other hospitals or their national standards laboratories. In Canada, hospitals and clinics can participate on a voluntary basis to have the proper operation of measuring devices (radionuclide calibrators in particular) examined through intercomparisons. The program looks primarily at laboratory performance. This includes not only the instrument's performance but the performance of the individual doing the procedure and the technical procedure or method employed. In an effort to provide personal assistance to those having problems, it is essential that the comparisons should be pertinent to the daily work of the laboratory and that the most capable technologist not be selected to carry out the assay.

  10. Radionuclide therapy of adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Chen, Clara C

    2012-10-01

    Adrenal tumors arising from chromaffin cells will often accumulate radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and thus are amenable to therapy with I-131 MIBG. More recently, therapy studies have targeted the somatostatin receptors using Lu-177 or Y-90 radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. Because pheochromocytoma (PHEO)/paraganglioma (PGL) and neuroblastoma (NB), which often arise from the adrenals, express these receptors, clinical trials have been performed with these reagents. We will review the experience using radionuclide therapy for targeting PHEO/PGL and NBs. PMID:22718415

  11. Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1983-08-25

    This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

  12. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. Therapeutic drug levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003430.htm Therapeutic drug levels To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Therapeutic drug levels are lab tests to look for the presence ...

  14. Computed Cerenkov luminescence yields for radionuclides used in biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Gill, Ruby K; Mitchell, Gregory S; Cherry, Simon R

    2015-06-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging is an emerging biomedical imaging modality that takes advantage of the optical Cerenkov photons emitted following the decay of radionuclides in dielectric media such as tissue. Cerenkov radiation potentially allows many biomedically-relevant radionuclides, including all positron-emitting radionuclides, to be imaged in vivo using sensitive CCD cameras. Cerenkov luminescence may also provide a means to deliver light deep inside tissue over a sustained period of time using targeted radiotracers. This light could be used for photoactivation, including photorelease of therapeutics, photodynamic therapy and photochemical internalization. Essential to assessing the feasibility of these concepts, and the design of instrumentation designed for detecting Cerenkov radiation, is an understanding of the light yield of different radionuclides in tissue. This is complicated by the dependence of the light yield on refractive index and the volume of the sample being interrogated. Using Monte Carlo simulations, in conjunction with step-wise use of the Frank-Tamm equation, we studied forty-seven different radionuclides and show that Cerenkov light yields in tissue can be as high as a few tens of photons per nuclear decay for a wavelength range of 400-800 nm. The dependency on refractive index and source volume is explored, and an expression for the scaling factor necessary to compute the Cerenkov yield in any arbitrary spectral band is given. This data will be of broad utility in guiding the application of Cerenkov radiation emitted from biomedical radionuclides. PMID:25973972

  15. Computed Cerenkov luminescence yields for radionuclides used in biology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Ruby K.; Mitchell, Gregory S.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2015-06-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging is an emerging biomedical imaging modality that takes advantage of the optical Cerenkov photons emitted following the decay of radionuclides in dielectric media such as tissue. Cerenkov radiation potentially allows many biomedically-relevant radionuclides, including all positron-emitting radionuclides, to be imaged in vivo using sensitive CCD cameras. Cerenkov luminescence may also provide a means to deliver light deep inside tissue over a sustained period of time using targeted radiotracers. This light could be used for photoactivation, including photorelease of therapeutics, photodynamic therapy and photochemical internalization. Essential to assessing the feasibility of these concepts, and the design of instrumentation designed for detecting Cerenkov radiation, is an understanding of the light yield of different radionuclides in tissue. This is complicated by the dependence of the light yield on refractive index and the volume of the sample being interrogated. Using Monte Carlo simulations, in conjunction with step-wise use of the Frank-Tamm equation, we studied forty-seven different radionuclides and show that Cerenkov light yields in tissue can be as high as a few tens of photons per nuclear decay for a wavelength range of 400-800 nm. The dependency on refractive index and source volume is explored, and an expression for the scaling factor necessary to compute the Cerenkov yield in any arbitrary spectral band is given. This data will be of broad utility in guiding the application of Cerenkov radiation emitted from biomedical radionuclides.

  16. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.

  17. Relevance of radiobiological concepts in radionuclide therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Chandan; Shetake, Neena; Desai, Sejal; Kumar, Amit; Samuel, Grace; Pandey, Badri N

    2016-04-01

    Purpose Radionuclide therapy (RNT) is a rapidly growing area of clinical nuclear medicine, wherein radionuclides are employed to deliver cytotoxic dose of radiation to the diseased cells/tissues. During RNT, radionuclides are either directly administered or delivered through biomolecules targeting the diseased site. RNT has been clinically used for diverse range of diseases including cancer, which is the focus of the review. Conclusions The major emphasis in RNT has so far been given towards developing peptides/antibodies and other molecules to conjugate a variety of therapeutic radioisotopes for improved targeting/delivery of radiation dose to the tumor cells. Despite that, many of the RNT approaches have not achieved their desired therapeutic success probably due to poor knowledge about complex and dynamic (i) fate of radiolabeled molecules; (ii) radiation dose delivered; (iii) cellular heterogeneity in tumor mass; and (iv) cellular radiobiological response. Based on understanding gathered during recent years, it may be stated that besides the absorbed dose, the net radiobiological response of tumor/normal cells also determines the clinical response of radiotherapeutic modalities including RNT. The radiosensitivity of tumor/normal cells is governed by radiobiological phenomenon such as radiation-induced bystander effect, genomic instability, adaptive response and low dose hyper-radiosensitivity. These concepts have been well investigated in the context of external beam radiotherapy, but their clinical implications during RNT have received meagre attention. In this direction, a few studies performed using in vitro and in vivo models envisage the possibilities of exploiting the radiobiological knowledge for improved therapeutic outcome of RNT. Abbreviations ALL Acute Lymphoid Leukaemia AML Acute Myeloid Leukaemia CEA Carcinoembryonic Antigen CD Cluster of Differentiation CLL Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia CNS Central Nervous System CPP Cell Penetrating Peptide, DC

  18. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy: Practical Applications and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zukotynski, Katherine; Jadvar, Hossein; Capala, Jacek; Fahey, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a proliferation in the development of targeted radionuclide cancer therapy. It is now possible to use baseline clinical and imaging assessments to determine the most effective therapy and to tailor this therapy during the course of treatment based on radiation dosimetry and tumor response. Although this personalized approach to medicine has the advantage of maximizing therapeutic effect while limiting toxicity, it can be challenging to implement and expensive. Further, in order to use targeted radionuclide therapy effectively, there is a need for multidisciplinary awareness, education, and collaboration across the scientific, industrial, and medical communities. Even more important, there is a growing understanding that combining radiopharmaceuticals with conventional treatment such as chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy may limit patient morbidity while improving survival. Developments in radiopharmaceuticals as biomarkers capable of predicting therapeutic response and targeting disease are playing a central role in medical research. Adoption of a practical approach to manufacturing and delivering radiopharmaceuticals, assessing patient eligibility, optimizing post-therapy follow-up, and addressing reimbursement issues will be essential for their success. PMID:27226737

  19. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  20. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

  1. Intra-Arterial Radionuclide Therapies for Liver Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Murat Fani; Salanci, Bilge Volkan; Uğur, Ömer

    2016-07-01

    Intra-arterial radionuclide therapies serve essentially as internal radiation treatment options for both primary and metastatic liver tumors, which imply delivering implantable radioactive microspheres into branches of hepatic arteries that feed liver tumors to provide a high dose of targeted radiation to tumor tissue, while sparing the healthy liver tissue from hazardous effects of radiation. The principle of this therapeutic option depends on the unique preferential arterial supply of malignant liver tumors in contrast with mostly portal venous supply of normal hepatocytes as well as excess amount of arterial neovascularization in the tumor bed. Therefore, intra-arterial radionuclide therapy can provide very high radiation exposure to tumor tissue, which is impossible to reach with external radiation therapy due to serious side effects and moreover, radiation can be targeted to tumor tissue selectively with less side effects. Yttrium-90 (Y-90), a high-energetic beta emitter is the most preferred radionuclide, which is used to label microspheres. Two types of Y-90 microspheres are commercially available that are made of resin and glass. Many studies in the literature have demonstrated that Y-90 microsphere therapy is an efficient and safe locoregional therapeutic option for unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases from colorectal cancer and breast cancer as well as neuroendocrine tumors. Furthermore, limited number of studies has reported its use in some relatively uncommon metastatic liver tumors from melanoma, pancreatic, renal, and lung cancer. Besides Y-90 microspheres, Iodine-131 lipiodol, Rhenium-188 lipiodol, Rhenium-188 microspheres, Holmium-166 chitosan, and Holmium-166 microspheres have been introduced as alternative radiopharmaceuticals for intra-arterial therapy for liver tumors. PMID:27237442

  2. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gudkov, Sergey V.; Shilyagina, Natalya Yu.; Vodeneev, Vladimir A.; Zvyagin, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed. PMID:26729091

  3. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  4. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

  5. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  6. Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  7. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

    1990-11-13

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

  8. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

  9. Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wai, Chien M.; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2000-01-01

    The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

  10. Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

  11. Injectable intratumoral depot of thermally responsive polypeptide-radionuclide conjugates delays tumor progression in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenge; MacKay, J. Andrew; Dreher, Matthew R.; Chen, Mingnan; McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Simnick, Andrew J.; Callahan, Daniel J.; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a biodegradable drug delivery system for local cancer radiotherapy consisting of a thermally sensitive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) conjugated to a therapeutic radionuclide. Two ELPs (49 kD) were synthesized using genetic engineering to test the hypothesis that injectable biopolymeric depots can retain radionuclides locally and reduce the growth of tumors. A thermally sensitive polypeptide, ELP1, was designed to spontaneously undergo a soluble-insoluble phase transition (forming viscous microparticles) between room temperature and body temperature upon intratumoral injection, while ELP2 was designed to remain soluble upon injection and to serve as a negative control for the effect of aggregate assembly. After intratumoral administration of radionuclide conjugates of ELPs into implanted tumor xenografts in nude mice, their retention within the tumor, spatio-temporal distribution, and therapeutic effect were quantified. The residence time of the radionuclide-ELP1 in the tumor was significantly longer than the thermally insensitive ELP2 conjugate. In addition, the thermal transition of ELP1 significantly protected the conjugated radionuclide from dehalogenation, whereas the conjugated radionuclide on ELP2 was quickly eliminated from the tumor and cleaved from the biopolymer. These attributes of the thermally sensitive ELP1 depot improved the antitumor efficacy of iodine-131 compared to the soluble ELP2 control. This novel injectable and biodegradable depot has the potential to control advanced-stage cancers by reducing the bulk of inoperable tumors, enabling surgical removal of de-bulked tumors, and preserving healthy tissues. PMID:20117157

  12. 119Sb--a potent Auger emitter for targeted radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Thisgaard, H; Jensen, M

    2008-09-01

    Auger electron emitting radionuclides in cancer therapy offer the opportunity to deliver a high radiation dose to the tumor cells with high radiotoxicity while minimizing toxicity to normal tissue. We have in this study identified the Auger emitter 119Sb as a potent nuclide for targeted radionuclide therapy based on theoretical dosimetry calculations at a subcellular scale. From these calculations we have determined the cellular S-values for this therapeutic isotope. Moreover, we have demonstrated the possibility of producing this isotope and also the SPECT-analogue 117Sb for patient-specific dosimetry, by measuring the proton irradiation yields for both isotopes using a low-energy cyclotron. The excellent SPECT imaging properties of the 117Sb radionuclide have been shown by scanning a Jaszczak SPECT Phantom. PMID:18841834

  13. {sup 119}Sb--A potent Auger emitter for targeted radionuclide therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thisgaard, H.; Jensen, M.

    2008-09-15

    Auger electron emitting radionuclides in cancer therapy offer the opportunity to deliver a high radiation dose to the tumor cells with high radiotoxicity while minimizing toxicity to normal tissue. We have in this study identified the Auger emitter {sup 119}Sb as a potent nuclide for targeted radionuclide therapy based on theoretical dosimetry calculations at a subcellular scale. From these calculations we have determined the cellular S-values for this therapeutic isotope. Moreover, we have demonstrated the possibility of producing this isotope and also the SPECT-analogue {sup 117}Sb for patient-specific dosimetry, by measuring the proton irradiation yields for both isotopes using a low-energy cyclotron. The excellent SPECT imaging properties of the {sup 117}Sb radionuclide have been shown by scanning a Jaszczak SPECT Phantom.

  14. Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

    1981-10-01

    A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

  15. a Generalized Program for Internal Radionuclide Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy Karl

    The development of monoclonal antibodies specific for tumor surface antigens promises a highly specific carrier medium for delivering a tumorcidal radiation dose. Dosimetry calculations of monoclonal antibodies are made difficult, however, precisely because the focus of radioactivity is targeted for a nonstandard volume in a nonstandard geometry. This precludes straightforward application of the formalism developed for internal radionuclide dosimetry by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee. A software program was written to account for the perturbations introduced by the inclusion of a tumor mass as an additional source of, and target for, radiation. The program allows the interactive development of a mathematical model to account for observed biodistribution data. The model describes the time dependence of radioactivity in each organ system that retains radiolabeled antibody, including tumor. Integration of these "time-activity" curves yield cumulative activity for each organ system identified as a 'source' of radioactivity. A Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport is then executed for each source organ to obtain the fraction of radiation energy absorbed by various 'target' organs. When combined with the cumulative activity, this absorbed fraction allows an estimate of dose to be made for each target organ. The program has been validated against ten analytic models designed to span a range of common input data types. Additionally, a performance benchmark has been defined to assess the practicality of implementing the program on different computing hardware platforms. Sources of error in the computation are elaborated on, and future directions and improvements discussed. The software presents an integrated modeling/dosimetry environment particularly suited for performing Monoclonal Antibody dosimetry. It offers a viable methodology for performing prospective treatment planning, based on extrapolation of tracer kinetic data to therapeutic levels.

  16. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  17. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-03-27

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less.

  18. Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids

    DOEpatents

    Patch, Keith D.; Morgan, Dean T.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

  19. Therapeutic Recreation Practicum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneegas, Kay

    This manual provides information on the practicum program offered by Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) for students in its therapeutic recreation program. Sections I and II outline the rationale and goals for providing practical, on-the-job work experiences for therapeutic recreation students. Section III specifies MVCC's responsibilities…

  20. Chicanoizing the Therapeutic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, William S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Focusing on the drug addiction problem and its antecedent conditions in a Chicano population, the article examines several therapeutic interventions suggested by these conditions and indicates how they might be incorporated into a drug addiction Therapeutic Community treatment program designed to meet the needs of Chicano drug addicts. (Author/NQ)

  1. Cytokines and therapeutic oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, G; Bidlingmaier, M; Eigler, A; Hacker, U; Endres, S

    1997-12-01

    Therapeutic oligonucleotides - short strands of synthetic nucleic acids - encompass antisense and aptamer oligonucleotides. Antisense oligonucleotides are designed to bind to target RNA by complementary base pairing and to inhibit translation of the target protein. Antisense oligonucleotides enable specific inhibition of cytokine synthesis. In contrast, aptamer oligonucleotides are able to bind directly to specific proteins. This binding depends on the sequence of the oligonucleotide. Aptamer oligonucleotides with CpG motifs can exert strong immunostimulatory effects. Both kinds of therapeutic oligonucleotides - antisense and aptamer oligonucleotides - provide promising tools to modulate immunological functions. Recently, therapeutic oligonucleotides have moved towards clinical application. An antisense oligonucleotide directed against the proinflammatory intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is currently being tested in clinical trials for therapy of inflammatory disease. Immunostimulatory aptamer oligonucleotides are in preclinical development for immunotherapy. In the present review we summarize the application of therapeutic oligonucleotides to modulate immunological functions. We include technological aspects as well as current therapeutic concepts and clinical studies. PMID:9740353

  2. Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

  3. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

  4. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  5. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Norain, Abdullah; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-05-01

    An estimated 60,000 individuals in the United States and 132,000 worldwide are yearly diagnosed with melanoma. Until recently, treatment options for patients with stages III-IV metastatic disease were limited and offered marginal, if any, improvement in overall survival. The situation changed with the introduction of B-RAF inhibitors and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immunotherapies into the clinical practice. With only some patients responding well to the immune therapies and with very serious side effects and high costs of immunotherapy, there is still room for other approaches for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma could be divided into the domains of radioimmunotherapy (RIT), radiolabeled peptides, and radiolabeled small molecules. RIT of melanoma is currently experiencing a renaissance with the clinical trials of alpha-emitter (213)Bi-labeled and beta-emitter (188)Rhenium-labeled monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic melanoma producing encouraging results. The investigation of the mechanism of efficacy of melanoma RIT points at killing of melanoma stem cells by RIT and involvement of immune system such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The domain of radiolabeled peptides for targeted melanoma therapy has been preclinical so far, with work concentrated on radiolabeled peptide analogues of melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor and on melanin-binding peptides. The field of radiolabeled small molecule produced radioiodinated benzamides that cross the cellular membrane and bind to the intracellular melanin. The recent clinical trial demonstrated measurable antitumor effects and no acute or midterm toxicities. We are hopeful that the targeted radionuclide therapy of metastatic melanoma would become a clinical reality as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with the immunotherapies such as anti-PD1 programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies

  6. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  7. Reporting therapeutic discourse in a therapeutic community.

    PubMed

    Chapman, G E

    1988-03-01

    Research in nurses' communications has concentrated on nurse to patient interactions. Those few studies which focus on nurse to nurse communications seem to be generated by a pragmatic and normative concern with effective information sharing. In this paper, which describes one aspect of a larger case study of a hospital-based therapeutic community, the description and analysis of nurses' reports flows not from a normative model of professional practice, but rather an exploration of how professional practice is articulated as discourse in nurses' written accounts. Foucault's ideas about therapeutic discourse inform the theoretical framework of the research. Ethnomethodological concerns with the importance of documentary analysis provide the methodological rationale for examining nurses' 24-hour report documents, as official discourse, reflecting therapeutic practice in this setting. A content analysis of nurses' reports, collected over a period of 4 months, demonstrated the importance of domesticity and ordinary everyday activities in nurses' accounts of hospital life. Disruption to the 'life as usual' domesticity in the community seemed to be associated with admission to and discharge from the hospital when interpersonal and interactional changes between patients occur. It is suggested that nurses in general hospital wards and more orthodox psychiatric settings might usefully consider the impact of admissions and discharges on the group of patients they manage, and make this a discursive focus of their work. PMID:3372900

  8. Enhancing the effect of radionuclide tumor targeting, using lysosomotropic weak bases

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, Asa Liljegren . E-mail: Asa.Liljegren@bms.uu.se; Steffen, Ann-Charlott

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate if treatment with lysosomotropic weak bases could increase the intracellular retention of radiohalogens and thereby increase the therapeutic effect of radionuclide tumor targeting. Methods and Materials: Four different lysosomotropic bases, chloroquine, ammonium chloride, amantadine, and thioridazine, were investigated for their ability to increase radiohalogen retention in vitro. The two most promising substances, chloroquine and ammonium chloride, were studied in several cell lines (A431, U343MGaCl2:6, SKOV-3, and SKBR-3) in combination with radiolabeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) or the HER2 binding affibody (Z{sub HER2:4}){sub 2}. Results: The uptake and retention of radionuclides was found to be substantially increased by simultaneous treatment with the lysosomotropic bases. The effect was, however, more pronounced in the epidermal growth factor:epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF:EGFR) system than in the (Z{sub HER2:4}){sub 2}:HER2 system. The therapeutic effect of ammonium chloride treatment combined with {sup 211}At-EGF was also studied. The effect obtained after combined treatment was found to be much better than after {sup 211}At-EGF treatment alone. Conclusions: The encouraging results from the present study indicate that the use of lysosomotropic weak bases is a promising approach for increasing the therapeutic effect of radionuclide targeting with radiohalogens.

  9. The medical management of unintentional radionuclide intakes.

    PubMed

    Breitenstein, B D

    2003-01-01

    As a general medical problem, radionuclide intakes that may cause significant health effects are uncommon events. In preparing to manage a radionuclide accident, planning is the key. The medical aspects of such an accident are only one part of the management, and a professional team approach is required. Specific priorities and sequencing are necessary in medically managing a radionuclide intake. As soon as is reasonably practical, promptly remove the victim(s) from further radionuclide, radiation field, or chemical exposure. Life and limb-saving medical aid takes precedence over ionising radiation concerns in nearly all cases. Next are the prevention and/or minimisation of internal intake of radionuclides and evaluation and control of external radionuclide contamination, followed by institution of treatment to minimise the retained radionuclide. Communication with the accident victim, and his or her family, and public affairs/media issues are important. Finally, follow-up treatment for internal intakes that may cause delayed health effects is given. PMID:14527016

  10. Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

  11. Biomimetic Particles as Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jordan J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in the development of novel nanoparticle and microparticle-based therapeutics. An emerging paradigm is the incorporation of biomimetic features into these synthetic therapeutic constructs to enable them to better interface with biological systems. Through the control of size, shape, and material consistency, particle cores have been generated that better mimic natural cells and viruses. In addition, there have been significant advances in biomimetic surface functionalization of particles through the integration of bio-inspired artificial cell membranes and naturally derived cell membranes. Biomimetic technologies enable therapeutic particles to have increased potency to benefit human health. PMID:26277289

  12. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  13. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  14. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  15. Radionuclide Imaging of Neurohormonal System of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinyu; Werner, Rudolf A.; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Maya, Yoshifumi; Decker, Michael; Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is one of the growing causes of death especially in developed countries due to longer life expectancy. Although many pharmacological and instrumental therapeutic approaches have been introduced for prevention and treatment of heart failure, there are still limitations and challenges. Nuclear cardiology has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades, in particular the application of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which allow non-invasive functional assessment of cardiac condition including neurohormonal systems involved in heart failure; its application has dramatically improved the capacity for fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. In this article, we review the current status of applying radionuclide technology in non-invasive imaging of neurohormonal system in the heart, especially focusing on the tracers that are currently available. A short discussion about disadvantages and perspectives is also included. PMID:25825596

  16. Engineering antibody therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Mark L; Gilliland, Gary L

    2016-06-01

    The successful introduction of antibody-based protein therapeutics into the arsenal of treatments for patients has within a few decades fostered intense innovation in the production and engineering of antibodies. Reviewed here are the methods currently used to produce antibodies along with how our knowledge of the structural and functional characterization of immunoglobulins has resulted in the engineering of antibodies to produce protein therapeutics with unique properties, both biological and biophysical, that are leading to novel therapeutic approaches. Antibody engineering includes the introduction of the antibody combining site (variable regions) into a host of architectures including bi and multi-specific formats that further impact the therapeutic properties leading to further advantages and successes in patient treatment. PMID:27525816

  17. Prospects in Folate Receptor-Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Cristina; Schibli, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is based on systemic application of particle-emitting radiopharmaceuticals which are directed toward a specific tumor-associated target. Accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in targeted cancer cells results in high doses of absorbed radiation energy whereas toxicity to non-targeted healthy tissue is limited. This strategy has found widespread application in the palliative treatment of neuroendocrine tumors using somatostatin-based radiopeptides. The folate receptor (FR) has been identified as a target associated with a variety of frequent tumor types (e.g., ovarian, lung, brain, renal, and colorectal cancer). In healthy organs and tissue FR-expression is restricted to only a few sites such as for instance the kidneys. This demonstrates why FR-targeting is an attractive strategy for the development of new therapy concepts. Due to its high FR-binding affinity (KD < 10−9 M) the vitamin folic acid has emerged as an almost ideal targeting agent. Therefore, a variety of folic acid radioconjugates for nuclear imaging have been developed. However, in spite of the large number of cancer patients who could benefit of a folate-based radionuclide therapy, a therapeutic concept with folate radioconjugates has not yet been envisaged for clinical application. The reason is the generally high accumulation of folate radioconjugates in the kidneys where emission of particle-radiation may result in damage to the renal tissue. Therefore, the design of more sophisticated folate radioconjugates providing improved tissue distribution profiles are needed. This review article summarizes recent developments with regard to a therapeutic application of folate radioconjugates. A new construct of a folate radioconjugate and an application protocol which makes use of a pharmacological interaction allowed the first preclinical therapy experiments with radiofolates. These results raise hope for future application of such new concepts also in the clinic

  18. Are therapeutic communities therapeutic for women?

    PubMed Central

    Eliason, Michele J

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the growing phenomena of therapeutic community (TC) treatment approaches for women in correctional settings. Although rapidly increasing in number across the country, there is very little empirical research to support the effectiveness of TC treatment for women. Therefore, the literature on the efficacy and effectiveness of TC treatment for women is reviewed in relation to the literature on women's treatment issues. The literature review highlights the gaps where TC treatment ignores or exacerbates issues that are common to addicted women, or uses methods that may be contradictory to women's recovery. PMID:16722560

  19. Dosimetry and Case Studies for Selected Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive review and analysis of biokinetic and dosimetric information for those radionuclides most likely to be involved in accidental exposures to workers or members of the public or used in radiological terrorism.

  20. System and method for assaying a radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

    2014-12-23

    A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

  1. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

  2. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.; Shkolnik, A.; Yogev, R.; Firlit, C.; Traisman, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis.

  3. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  4. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  5. (Radiological assessments of radionuclide releases)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1990-12-28

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, data have been obtained throughout the Northern Hemisphere on the concentrations of radionuclides in air, vegetation, soil, water, and foodstuffs that could be important means of human exposure. At the IAEA's invitation, the traveler reviewed recently published data and handbook summaries. The traveler evaluated the need for revising the default values recommended in Chapter 5, Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Chain Transport,'' of IAEA Safety Series No. 57. All attempts at revision were made to keep the mathematical complexity of the models to a minimum without substantial underestimation of dose to critical population subgroups. The traveler also served as chairman of the Multiple Pathways Working Group of the Coordinated Research Program on VAMP. This group has been established to test predictions of models assessing multiple exposure pathways potentially leading to human exposure to {sup 137}Cs. Testing is carried out for major components of assessment models that predict deposition, environmental transport, food chain bioaccumulation, and subsequent uptake and retention in the human body and dose due to exposure to external gamma radiation.

  6. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma.

    PubMed

    Lull, R J; Tatum, J L; Sugerman, H J; Hartshorne, M F; Boll, D A; Kaplan, K A

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs. PMID:6226097

  7. Soil contamination with radionuclides and potential remediation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y G; Shaw, G

    2000-07-01

    Soils contaminated with radionuclides, particularly 137Cs and 90Sr, pose a long-term radiation hazard to human health through exposure via the foodchain and other pathways. Remediation of radionuclide-contaminated soils has become increasingly important. Removal of the contaminated surface soil (often up to 40 cm) or immobilization of radionuclides in soils by applying mineral and chemical amendments are physically difficult and not likely cost-effective in practicality. Reducing plant uptake of radionuclides, especially 137CS and 90Sr by competitive cations contained in chemical fertilizers has the general advantage in large scale, low-level contamination incidents on arable land, and has been widely practiced in central and Western Europe after the Chernobyl accident. Phytoextraction of radionuclides by specific plant species from contaminated sites has rapidly stimulated interest among industrialists as well as academics, and is considered to be a promising bio-remediation method. This paper examines the existing remediation approaches and discusses phytoextraction of radionuclides from contaminated soils in detail. PMID:10819188

  8. Therapeutic Antioxidant Medical Gas

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Atsunori; Sugimoto, Ryujiro; Billiar, Timothy R; McCurry, Kenneth R

    2009-01-01

    Medical gases are pharmaceutical gaseous molecules which offer solutions to medical needs and include traditional gases, such as oxygen and nitrous oxide, as well as gases with recently discovered roles as biological messenger molecules, such as carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulphide. Medical gas therapy is a relatively unexplored field of medicine; however, a recent increasing in the number of publications on medical gas therapies clearly indicate that there are significant opportunities for use of gases as therapeutic tools for a variety of disease conditions. In this article, we review the recent advances in research on medical gases with antioxidant properties and discuss their clinical applications and therapeutic properties. PMID:19177183

  9. Therapeutics for cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Shineman, Diana W.; Salthouse, Timothy A.; Launer, Lenore J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Bartzokis, George; Kleiman, Robin; Luine, Victoria; Buccafusco, Jerry J.; Small, Gary W.; Aisen, Paul S.; Lowe, David A.; Fillit, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the scientific talks presented at the conference “Therapeutics for Cognitive Aging,” hosted by the New York Academy of Sciences and the Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation on May 15, 2009. Attended by scientists from industry and academia, as well as by a number of lay people—approximately 200 in all—the conference specifically tackled the many aspects of developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive impairment. Discussion also focused on how to define cognitive aging and whether it should be considered a treatable, tractable disease. PMID:20392284

  10. Advances in Therapeutic Cholangioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Renata Nobre; de Moura, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, cholangioscopy is an established modality in diagnostic and treatment of pancreaticobiliary diseases. The more widespread use and the recent development of new technologies and accessories had renewed the interest of endoscopic visualization of the biliary tract, increasing the range of indications and therapeutic procedures, such as diagnostic of indeterminate biliary strictures, lithotripsy of difficult bile duct stones, ablative techniques for intraductal malignancies, removal of foreign bodies and gallbladder drainage. These endoscopic interventions will probably be the last frontier in the near future. This paper presents the new advances in therapeutic cholangioscopy, focusing on the current clinical applications and on research areas. PMID:27403156

  11. DELIVERY OF THERAPEUTIC PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Pisal, Dipak S.; Kosloski, Matthew P.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2009-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of protein therapeutics are limited by three interrelated pharmaceutical issues, in vitro and in vivo instability, immunogenicity and shorter half-lives. Novel drug modifications for overcoming these issues are under investigation and include covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), polysialic acid, or glycolic acid, as well as developing new formulations containing nanoparticulate or colloidal systems (e.g. liposomes, polymeric microspheres, polymeric nanoparticles). Such strategies have the potential to develop as next generation protein therapeutics. This review includes a general discussion on these delivery approaches. PMID:20049941

  12. Antibody Therapeutics in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Wold, Erik D; Smider, Vaughn V; Felding, Brunhilde H

    2016-01-01

    One of the newer classes of targeted cancer therapeutics is monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics are a successful and rapidly expanding drug class due to their high specificity, activity, favourable pharmacokinetics, and standardized manufacturing processes. Antibodies are capable of recruiting the immune system to attack cancer cells through complement-dependent cytotoxicity or antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In an ideal scenario the initial tumor cell destruction induced by administration of a therapeutic antibody can result in uptake of tumor associated antigens by antigen-presenting cells, establishing a prolonged memory effect. Mechanisms of direct tumor cell killing by antibodies include antibody recognition of cell surface bound enzymes to neutralize enzyme activity and signaling, or induction of receptor agonist or antagonist activity. Both approaches result in cellular apoptosis. In another and very direct approach, antibodies are used to deliver drugs to target cells and cause cell death. Such antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) direct cytotoxic compounds to tumor cells, after selective binding to cell surface antigens, internalization, and intracellular drug release. Efficacy and safety of ADCs for cancer therapy has recently been greatly advanced based on innovative approaches for site-specific drug conjugation to the antibody structure. This technology enabled rational optimization of function and pharmacokinetics of the resulting conjugates, and is now beginning to yield therapeutics with defined, uniform molecular characteristics, and unprecedented promise to advance cancer treatment. PMID:27081677

  13. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  14. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  15. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

  16. Fast analysis of radionuclide decay chain migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. S.; Liang, C. P.; Liu, C. W.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    A novel tool for rapidly predicting the long-term plume behavior of an arbitrary length radionuclide decay chain is presented in this study. This fast tool is achieved based on generalized analytical solutions in compact format derived for a set of two-dimensional advection-dispersion equations coupled with sequential first-order decay reactions in groundwater system. The performance of the developed tool is evaluated by a numerical model using a Laplace transform finite difference scheme. The results of performance evaluation indicate that the developed model is robust and accurate. The developed model is then used to fast understand the transport behavior of a four-member radionuclide decay chain. Results show that the plume extents and concentration levels of any target radionuclide are very sensitive to longitudinal, transverse dispersion, decay rate constant and retardation factor. The developed model are useful tools for rapidly assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  17. Radionuclide Mobility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Smith, D; Rose, T; Glascoe, L; Steefel, C; Zavarin, M

    2003-11-13

    Underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are characterized by abundant fission product and actinide source terms. Included are {sup 99}Tc and other soluble radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in groundwater and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors. NTS provides the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an analog of the release of these radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository in the absence of engineered barriers. The investigation described in this report synthesizes a substantial body of data collected on the identity and distribution of soluble radionuclides at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters, for durations up to 40 years, and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This body of data is complemented by laboratory transport studies and a synthesis of recent modeling investigations from the NTS, with an emphasis on the ongoing Yucca Mountain Program (YMP) efforts. Overall, understanding the controls of radionuclide mobility associated with these nuclear tests will provide insight into the repository's future performance as well as bounds and calibrations for the numerical predictions of long-term radionuclide releases and migration.

  18. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  19. Therapeutic application of dysprosium-165-FHMA in the treatment of rheumatoid knee effusions

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.J.; Zalutsky, M.; Venkatesan, P.; Sledge, C.B.

    1986-03-01

    Radiation synovectomy utilizing a variety of radionuclides has proven to be an effective technique in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The recent introduction of the short-lived radionuclide, Dysprosium-165 (/sup 165/Dy), as a replacement for the longer-lived radiocolloids has reduced nontarget dosimetry caused by leakage of the agent from the articular cavity. A review of the methods and status of radiation synovectomy, and the application of /sup 165/Dy-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates (FHMA) as an alternative therapeutic agent is described.

  20. Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2012-04-25

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

  1. State of radionuclides in natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kulmatov, R.A.; Rakhmatov, U.; Kist, A.A.; Volkov, A.A.

    1987-03-01

    This work is devoted to a study of the kinetics of attainment of equilibrium between various forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and to an evaluation of the part played by isotope exchange in this process. The radionuclide mercury-203 was added without a carrier to natural waters of the Syr-Dar'ya and Amu-Dar'ya Rivers and the Aral Sea in the cationic form (3). In order to determine the time of attainment of equilibrium between the forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and the stable nuclide analogs, they used the methods of sorption on L-36 glass, AV-17 anion-exchanger, KU-2 cation-exchanger, extraction with chloroform plus isobutyl alcohol, and filtration.

  2. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Brabander, Tessa; Teunissen, Jaap J M; Van Eijck, Casper H J; Franssen, Gaston J H; Feelders, Richard A; de Herder, Wouter W; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, the number of neuroendocrine tumours that are detected is increasing. A relative new and promising therapy for patients with metastasised or inoperable disease is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). This therapy involves an infusion of somatostatin analogues linked to radionuclides like Yttrium-90 or Lutetium-177. Objective response rates are reported in 15-35%. Response rates may vary between type of tumour and radionuclide. Besides the objective response rate, overall survival and progression free survival increase significantly. Also, the quality of life improves as well. Serious side-affects are rare. PRRT is usually well tolerated, also in patients with extensive metastasised disease. Recent studies combined PRRT with other types of therapies. Unfortunately no randomised trials comparing these strategies are available. In the future, more research is needed to evaluate the best therapy combinations or sequence of therapies. PMID:26971847

  3. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  4. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

  5. Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Mark; Herrington, Pres; Miley, Harry; Ellis, J. Edward; McKinnon, David; St. Pierre, Devon

    1999-08-03

    Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by electronic mail using formats defined in IMS 1.0, Formats and Protocols for Messages. An open message authentication standard exists, called S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), which has been proposed for use with all IMS radionuclide station message communications. This standard specifies adding a digital signature and public key certificate as a MIME attachment to the e-mail message. It is advantageous because it allows authentication to be added to all IMS 1.0 messages in a standard format and is commercially supported in e-mail software. For command and control, the RASA system uses a networked Graphical User Interface (GUI) based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) communications, which requires special authentication procedures. The authors have modified the RASA system to meet CTBTO authentication guidelines, using a FORTEZZA card for authentication functions. They demonstrated signing radionuclide data messages at the RASA, then sending, receiving, and verifying the messages at a data center. They demonstrated authenticating command messages and responses from the data center GUI to the RASA. Also, the particular authentication system command to change the private/public key pair and retrieve the new public key was demonstrated. This work shows that data surety meeting IMS guidelines may be immediately applied to IMS radionuclide systems.

  6. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

  7. Radionuclide scanning in children with rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weinblatt, M.E.; Miller, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy was performed in 46 children with rhabdomyosarcoma. Of the 63 radiologically confirmed sites of bone disease, 76% were detected by /sup 99m/Tc-labeled phosphate uptake. All 15 sites of hepatic involvement and eight of the nine cranial sites of disease exhibited isotope accumulation. Gallium 67 scans showed 57% of the 43 proven sites of disease, including four previously unsuspected areas. Twelve false-positive sites were obtained with gallium. Radionuclide scanning is a valuable aid in the diagnostic evaluation and management of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

  8. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

  9. Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2010-01-04

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

  10. On the lognormality of radionuclide deposition.

    PubMed

    Grubich, Andry

    2015-05-01

    The influence of the variation of soil density and the uncertainty of activity measurements on the statistical distribution of radionuclide concentrations on a site is considered. It is demonstrated that the influence of these factors adequately explains the observed deviation of radionuclide empirical probability distribution functions (empirical PDFs) from lognormal. In all probability lognormality of activity density distributions is the consequence of the atmospheric fallout process, as observed for deposition from Chernobyl and Fukushima. The results obtained are in no way specific to radioactive contaminants, and are consequently applicable for depositions of non-radioactive pollutants as well. PMID:25725453

  11. [Radionuclide therapy for cancer--what's new?].

    PubMed

    Hanna, Mäenpää; Mikko, Tenhunen

    2012-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is radiation therapy, the effect of which is based on radiation damage in cancer cells. The most common radionuclide therapy for cancer is radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. Two new forms of treatment have recently been initiated in Finland: 177lutetium octreotate therapy for neuroendocrine tumors, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma as well as radioembolization (selective internal radiation therapy, SIRT) with 90yttrium-coated resin beads against liver metastases. Still in experimental use, 223radium chloride is a drug prolonging survival in prostate cancer that has metastasized to bone. The treatments require special knowledge and collaboration between several units. PMID:23210283

  12. Platelet-delivered therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lyde, R; Sabatino, D; Sullivan, S K; Poncz, M

    2015-06-01

    We have proposed that modified platelets could potentially be used to correct intrinsic platelet defects as well as for targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules to sights of vascular injury. Ectopic expression of proteins within α-granules prior to platelet activation has been achieved for several proteins, including urokinase, factor (F) VIII, and partially for FIX. Potential uses of platelet-directed therapeutics will be discussed, focusing on targeted delivery of urokinase as a thromboprophylactic agent and FVIII for the treatment of hemophilia A patients with intractable inhibitors. This presentation will discuss new strategies that may be useful in the care of patients with vascular injury as well as remaining challenges and limitations of these approaches. PMID:26149015

  13. Therapeutic antibodies against cancer

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Mark J.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-01-01

    Antibody-based therapeutics against cancer are highly successful in clinic and currently enjoy unprecedented recognition of their potential; 13 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved for clinical use in the European Union and in the United States (one, mylotarg, was withdrawn from market in 2010). Three of the mAbs (bevacizumab, rituximab, trastuzumab) are in the top six selling protein therapeutics with sales in 2010 of more than $5 bln each. Hundreds of mAbs including bispecific mAbs and multispecific fusion proteins, mAbs conjugated with small molecule drugs and mAbs with optimized pharmacokinetics are in clinical trials. However, challenges remain and it appears that deeper understanding of mechanisms is needed to overcome major problems including resistance to therapy, access to targets, complexity of biological systems and individual variations. PMID:22520975

  14. Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2015-12-10

    One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers. PMID:26264836

  15. Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V.; Wartenberg, Katja E.

    2014-01-01

    The earliest recorded application of therapeutic hypothermia in medicine spans about 5000 years; however, its use has become widespread since 2002, following the demonstration of both safety and efficacy of regimens requiring only a mild (32°C-35°C) degree of cooling after cardiac arrest. We review the mechanisms by which hypothermia confers neuroprotection as well as its physiological effects by body system and its associated risks. With regard to clinical applications, we present evidence on the role of hypothermia in traumatic brain injury, intracranial pressure elevation, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, spinal cord injury, hepatic encephalopathy, and neonatal peripartum encephalopathy. Based on the current knowledge and areas undergoing or in need of further exploration, we feel that therapeutic hypothermia holds promise in the treatment of patients with various forms of neurologic injury; however, additional quality studies are needed before its true role is fully known. PMID:24982721

  16. Strategies for therapeutic hypometabothermia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shimin; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2013-01-01

    Although therapeutic hypothermia and metabolic suppression have shown robust neuroprotection in experimental brain ischemia, systemic complications have limited their use in treating acute stroke patients. The core temperature and basic metabolic rate are tightly regulated and maintained in a very stable level in mammals. Simply lowering body temperature or metabolic rate is actually a brutal therapy that may cause more systemic as well as regional problems other than providing protection. These problems are commonly seen in hypothermia and barbiturate coma. The main innovative concept of this review is to propose thermogenically optimal and synergistic reduction of core temperature and metabolic rate in therapeutic hypometabothermia using novel and clinically practical approaches. When metabolism and body temperature are reduced in a systematically synergistic manner, the outcome will be maximal protection and safe recovery, which happen in natural process, such as in hibernation, daily torpor and estivation. PMID:24179563

  17. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with somatostatin analogues in neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Nicolas, Guillaume; Forrer, Flavio

    2012-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare tumors with variable malignant behavior. The majority of NETs express increased levels of somatostatin (SST) receptors, particularly SST2 receptors. Radiolabeled peptides specific for the SST2 receptors may be used for diagnosis of NETs and for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). [(111)In-DTPA(0)]-octreotide has been the first peptide used for PRRT. This radiolabeled peptide, emitting Auger electrons, often induced symptomatic relief, but objective morphological responses were rarely documented. After the introduction of the chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) other peptides, primarily [DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate (DOTATATE) and [DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide (DOTATOC) were labeled with (90)Y or (177)Lu and used for therapy applications. The rate of objective response obtained with these radiolabeled peptides ranges between 6% and 46%, owing to differences in inclusion criteria adopted in different studies, length and type of therapy, and criteria of evaluation of the response. The present data in the literature do not allow defining the most suitable peptide and radionuclide for the treatment of NETs. Instead emerging evidence indicates that a combination of nuclides with different physical characteristics might be more effective than the use of a single nuclide. Kidney and bone marrow toxicity are the limiting factors for PRRT. Mild toxicity is often encountered while severe toxicity is rarer. Toxicity could be reduced and therapeutic efficacy enhanced by patient-specific dosimetry. Future directions include different issues of PRRT, such as defining the most suitable treatment scheme, evaluation of new peptides with different affinity profiles to other SST receptor subtypes, and reduction of toxicity. PMID:22292758

  18. Polycyclic peptide therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Baeriswyl, Vanessa; Heinis, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Owing to their excellent binding properties, high stability, and low off-target toxicity, polycyclic peptides are an attractive molecule format for the development of therapeutics. Currently, only a handful of polycyclic peptides are used in the clinic; examples include the antibiotic vancomycin, the anticancer drugs actinomycin D and romidepsin, and the analgesic agent ziconotide. All clinically used polycyclic peptide drugs are derived from natural sources, such as soil bacteria in the case of vancomycin, actinomycin D and romidepsin, or the venom of a fish-hunting coil snail in the case of ziconotide. Unfortunately, nature provides peptide macrocyclic ligands for only a small fraction of therapeutic targets. For the generation of ligands of targets of choice, researchers have inserted artificial binding sites into natural polycyclic peptide scaffolds, such as cystine knot proteins, using rational design or directed evolution approaches. More recently, large combinatorial libraries of genetically encoded bicyclic peptides have been generated de novo and screened by phage display. In this Minireview, the properties of existing polycyclic peptide drugs are discussed and related to their interesting molecular architectures. Furthermore, technologies that allow the development of unnatural polycyclic peptide ligands are discussed. Recent application of these technologies has generated promising results, suggesting that polycyclic peptide therapeutics could potentially be developed for a broad range of diseases. PMID:23355488

  19. Assessment of Radionuclides in the Savannah River Site Environment Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.

    1999-01-26

    This document summarizes the impact of radionuclide releases from Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities from 1954 through 1996. The radionuclides reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS.

  20. Distribution of radionuclides in Dardanelle Reservoir sediments.

    PubMed

    Forgy, J R; Epperson, C E; Swindle, D L

    1984-02-01

    Natural and reactor-discharged gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Dardanelle Reservoir surface sediments taken near the Arkansas Nuclear One Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths and particle sizes, at 33 locations, in a field survey conducted in early September 1980. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: natural radioactivity (40K as well as uranium and thorium decay products) 661-1210 Bq/kg; and reactor discharged radioactivity (137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co,, 58Co, 54Mn), no detectable activity to 237 Bq/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with decreasing sediment particle size. The average external whole-body and skin doses from all measurable reactor-discharged radionuclides were calculated according to the mathematical formula for determining external dose from sediment given by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Inside the discharge embayment near the reactor discharge canal, the doses were 1.7 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and 2.0 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the skin. Outside this area, the doses were 0.15 X 10(-3) and 0.18 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and skin, respectively. PMID:6693264

  1. REMOVAL OF RADIONUCLIDES BY ELECTROKINETIC SOIL PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrokinetics promises to be an innovative treatment process for in-situ treatment of soils and groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Electrokinetics refers to the movement of ionic liquids and charged particles relative to one another under the action ...

  2. PROGRESS REPORT. RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors a...

  3. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  4. Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Layered materials play an important role in nuclear waste management and environmental cleanup. Better understanding of radionuclide interactions with those materials is critical for engineering high-performance materials for various applications. This presentation will provide an overview on radionuclide interactions with two general categories of layered materials - cationic clays and anionic clays - from a perspective of nanopore confinement. Nanopores are widely present in layered materials, either as the interlayers or as inter-particle space. Nanopore confinement can significantly modify chemical reactions in those materials. This effect may cause the preferential enrichment of radionuclides in nanopores and therefore directly impact the mobility of the radionuclides. This effect also implies that conventional sorption measurements using disaggregated samples may not represent chemical conditions in actual systems. The control of material structures on ion exchange, surface complexation, and diffusion in layered materials will be systematically examined, and the related modeling approaches will be discussed. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories, which is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  5. Bismuth-213 and actinium-225 -- generator performance and evolving therapeutic applications of two generator-derived alpha-emitting radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Apostolidis, Christos

    2012-07-01

    The alpha emitters (225)Ac and (213)Bi are promising therapeutic radionuclides for application in targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. Both alpha emitters are available with high specific activity from established radionuclide generators. Their favourable chemical and physical properties have led to the conduction of a large number of preclinical studies and several clinical trials, demonstrating the feasibility, safety and therapeutic efficacy of targeted alpha therapy with (225)Ac and (213)Bi. This review describes methods for the production of (225)Ac and (213)Bi and gives an overview of (225)Ac/(213)Bi radionuclide generator systems. Selected preclinical studies are highlighted and the current clinical experience with (225)Ac and (213)Bi is summarized. PMID:22642390

  6. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  7. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  8. Radionuclide therapy in neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gulenchyn, K Y; Yao, X; Asa, S L; Singh, S; Law, C

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in patients with different types of advanced neuroendocrine tumour (NETs). A literature search was carried out in MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1998 to November 2010. The Cochrane Library (to Issue 10, 2010) and the Standards and Guidelines Evidence Inventory of Cancer Guidelines, including over 1100 English-language cancer guidelines from January 2003 to June 2010, were also checked. No existing systematic reviews or clinical practice guidelines based on a systematic review or randomised controlled trials focusing on this topic were found. Twenty-four fully published articles were abstracted and summarised: 16 articles focused on five peptide receptor radionuclide therapy ((111)In-DTPAOC, (90)Y-DOTALAN, (90)Y-DOTATOC, (90)Y-DOTATATE, and (177)Lu-DOTATATE) and eight focused on (131)I-MIBG treatment. Limited evidence from a historical comparison of studies in one centre supported that (177)Lu-DOTATATE might be associated with greater clinical outcomes compared with (90)Y-DOTATOC or (111)In-DTPAOC. The severe toxicities for (177)Lu-DOTATATE included hepatic insufficiency in 0.6%, myelodysplastic syndrome in 0.8% and renal insufficiency in 0.4% of patients in this study. Insufficient evidence suggested efficacy of (131)I-MIBG in adult NET patients, but the overall tumour response rate from (131)I-MIBG was 27-75% for malignant neuroblastoma, paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma. Haematological toxicities were the main severe side-effects after (131)I-MIBG and 4% of patients developed secondary malignancies in one study. To date, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy seems to be an acceptable option and is relatively safe in adult advanced NET patients with receptor uptake positive on scintigraphy, but patients' renal function must be monitored. (131)I-MIBG may be effective for malignant neuroblastoma, paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma, but its side-effects need to be

  9. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  10. Targeted radionuclide therapy--an overview.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F Russ; Pillai, M R A

    2013-09-01

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) based on the concept of delivering cytotoxic levels of radiation to disease sites is one of the rapidly growing fields of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, RNT targets diseases at the cellular level rather than on a gross anatomical level. This concept is a blend of a tracer moiety that mediates a site specific accumulation followed by induction of cytotoxicity with the short-range biological effectiveness of particulate radiations. Knowledge of the biochemical reactions taking place at cellular levels has stimulated the development of sophisticated molecular carriers, catalyzing a shift towards using more specific targeting radiolabelled agents. There is also improved understanding of factors of importance for choice of appropriate radionuclides based on availability, the types of emissions, linear energy transfer (LET), and physical half-life. This article discusses the applications of radionuclide therapy for treatment of cancer as well as other diseases. The primary objective of this review is to provide an overview on the role of radionuclide therapy in the treatment of different diseases such as polycythaemia, thyroid malignancies, metastatic bone pain, radiation synovectomy, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and others. In addition, recent developments on the systematic approach in designing treatment regimens as well as recent progress, challenges and future perspectives are discussed. An examination of the progress of radionuclide therapy indicates that although a rapid stride has been made for treating hematological tumors, the development for treating solid tumors has, so far, been limited. However, the emergence of novel tumor-specific targeting agents coupled with successful characterization of new target structures would be expected to pave the way for future treatment for such tumors. PMID:24059327

  11. Psychodynamic Perspective on Therapeutic Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Nancy A.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of boundaries in therapeutic work most often focuses on boundary maintenance, risk management factors, and boundary violations. The psychodynamic meaning and clinical management of boundaries in therapeutic relationships remains a neglected area of discourse. Clinical vignettes will illustrate a psychodynamic, developmental-relational perspective using boundary dilemmas to deepen and advance the therapeutic process. This article contributes to the dialogue about the process of making meaning and constructing therapeutically useful and creative boundaries that further the psychotherapeutic process. PMID:10523432

  12. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere observed at Tsukuba: characteristics of the radionuclides derived from Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Doi, Taeko; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi; Toyoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Hirose, Katsumi

    2013-08-01

    During a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a huge quantity of radionuclides was released into the atmosphere and ocean. We measured anthropogenic radionuclides in surface air at Tsukuba, about 170 km from the FDNPP. On March 15, 2011, we detected the radioactivity released from the Fukushima accident in air samples at Tsukuba. The major radionuclides that we observed were radioiodine ((131)I, (132)I, (133)I) and radiocesium ((134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs). This radioiodine consisted of gaseous and particulate forms; the percentage of particulate (131)I in the total (131)I ranged from 0 to 86%. The percentage of the particulate (131)I to the total (131)I increased on the arrival of the plumes from major emissions of the FDNPP. After activities of the radionuclides attained the maximum on March 15, 2011, the FDNPP-derived radionuclides decreased rapidly in surface air. The activity median aerodynamic diameter of (131)I-bearing particles was 0.7 μm, while those of (134)Cs- and (137)Cs-bearing particles were larger than 1 μm. Large variations of ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (132)Te/(137)Cs, and (99)Mo ((99m)Tc)/(137)Cs (all involving different elements) suggest that the behaviors of these radionuclides in the atmosphere, including the processes of their emission, differed each other. PMID:23542231

  13. Frankincense--therapeutic properties.

    PubMed

    Al-Yasiry, Ali Ridha Mustafa; Kiczorowska, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    Recently, increasing interest in natural dietary and therapeutic preparations used as dietary supplements has been observed. One of them is frankincense. This traditional medicine of the East is believed to have anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antiseptic, and even anxiolytic and anti-neurotic effects. The present study aims to verify the reported therapeutic properties of Boswellia resin and describe its chemical composition based on available scientific studies. The main component of frankincense is oil (60%). It contains mono- (13%) and diterpenes (40%) as well as ethyl acetate (21.4%), octyl acetate (13.4%) and methylanisole (7.6%). The highest biological activity among terpenes is characteristic of 11-keto-ß-acetyl-beta-boswellic acid, acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid and acetyl-α-boswellic acid. Contemporary studies have shown that resin indeed has an analgesic, tranquilising and anti-bacterial effects. From the point of view of therapeutic properties, extracts from Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carterii are reported to be particularly useful. They reduce inflammatory conditions in the course of rheumatism by inhibiting leukocyte elastase and degrading glycosaminoglycans. Boswellia preparations inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and prevent the release of leukotrienes, thus having an anti-inflammatory effect in ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, bronchitis and sinusitis. Inhalation and consumption of Boswellia olibanum reduces the risk of asthma. In addition, boswellic acids have an antiproliferative effect on tumours. They inhibit proliferation of tumour cells of the leukaemia and glioblastoma subset. They have an anti-tumour effect since they inhibit topoisomerase I and II-alpha and stimulate programmed cell death (apoptosis). PMID:27117114

  14. Cystic Fibrosis Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Bonnie W.

    2013-01-01

    A great deal of excitement and hope has followed the successful trials and US Food and Drug Administration approval of the drug ivacaftor (Kalydeco), the first therapy available that targets the underlying defect that causes cystic fibrosis (CF). Although this drug has currently demonstrated a clinical benefit for a small minority of the CF population, the developmental pathway established by ivacaftor paves the way for other CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators that may benefit many more patients. In addition to investigating CFTR modulators, researchers are actively developing numerous other innovative CF therapies. In this review, we use the catalog of treatments currently under evaluation with the support of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, known as the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Pipeline, as a platform to discuss the variety of candidate treatments for CF lung disease that promise to improve CF care. Many of these approaches target the individual components of the relentless cycle of airway obstruction, inflammation, and infection characteristic of lung disease in CF, whereas others are aimed directly at the gene defect, or the resulting dysfunctional protein, that instigates this cycle. We discuss how new findings from the laboratory have informed not only the development of novel therapeutics, but also the rationales for their use and the outcomes used to measure their effects. By reviewing the breadth of candidate treatments currently in development, as well as the recent progress in CF therapies reflected by the evolution of the therapeutics pipeline over the past few years, we hope to build upon the optimism and anticipation generated by the recent success of Kalydeco. PMID:23276843

  15. Telomerase and cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Harley, Calvin B

    2008-03-01

    Telomerase is an attractive cancer target as it appears to be required in essentially all tumours for immortalization of a subset of cells, including cancer stem cells. Moreover, differences in telomerase expression, telomere length and cell kinetics between normal and tumour tissues suggest that targeting telomerase would be relatively safe. Clinical trials are ongoing with a potent and specific telomerase inhibitor, GRN163L, and with several versions of telomerase therapeutic vaccines. The prospect of adding telomerase-based therapies to the growing list of new anticancer products is promising, but what are the advantages and limitations of different approaches, and which patients are the most likely to respond? PMID:18256617

  16. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  17. Revitalizing Psychiatric Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Steven E

    2014-01-01

    Despite high prevalence and enormous unmet medical need, the pharmaceutical industry has recently de-emphasized neuropsychiatric disorders as ‘too difficult' a challenge to warrant major investment. Here I describe major obstacles to drug discovery and development including a lack of new molecular targets, shortcomings of current animal models, and the lack of biomarkers for clinical trials. My major focus, however, is on new technologies and scientific approaches to neuropsychiatric disorders that give promise for revitalizing therapeutics and may thus answer industry's concerns. PMID:24317307

  18. [Is therapeutic deadlock inevitable?].

    PubMed

    Vignat, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Many long-term treatments appear to be an expression of therapeutic deadlock. The situation leads to a questioning of the concept of chronicity and the identification of the determining factors of situations which are apparently blocked, marked by the search for solutions taking a back seat to the taking of action. The interaction between patients' mental apparatus and the care apparatus lies at the heart of the question, interpreted from an institutional, collective and individual perspective, supported by the clinical and psychopathological approach, and the return to the prioritisation of the thought. PMID:27389427

  19. The Therapeutic Roller Coaster

    PubMed Central

    CHU, JAMES A.

    1992-01-01

    Survivors of severe childhood abuse often encounter profound difficulties. In addition to posttraumatic and dissociative symptomatology, abuse survivors frequently have characterologic problems, particularly regarding self-care and maintaining relationships. Backgrounds of abuse, abandonment, and betrayal are often recapitulated and reenacted in therapy, making the therapeutic experience arduous and confusing for therapists and patients. Efforts must be directed at building an adequate psychotherapeutic foundation before undertaking exploration and abreaction of past traumatic experiences. This discussion sets out a model for treatment of childhood abuse survivors, describing stages of treatment and suggesting interventions. Common treatment dilemmas or "traps" are discussed, with recommendations for their resolution. PMID:22700116

  20. Therapeutic Endoscopic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Cheriyan, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) technology has evolved dramatically over the past 20 years, from being a supplementary diagnostic aid available only in large medical centers to being a core diagnostic and therapeutic tool that is widely available. Although formal recommendations and practice guidelines have not been developed, there are considerable data supporting the use of EUS for its technical accuracy in diagnosing pancreaticobiliary and gastrointestinal pathology. Endosonography is now routine practice not only for pathologic diagnosis and tumor staging but also for drainage of cystic lesions and celiac plexus neurolysis. In this article, we cover the use of EUS in biliary and pancreatic intervention, ablative therapy, enterostomy, and vascular intervention. PMID:27118942

  1. Should single-phase radionuclide bone imaging be used in suspected osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fihn, S.D.; Larson, E.B.; Nelp, W.B.; Rudd, T.G.; Gerber, F.H.

    1984-10-01

    The records of 69 patients who had 86 delayed, static radionuclide bone images for suspected osteomyelitis were studied to determine the effects of this procedure on diagnosis and treatment. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were lower than reported in several other studies. When osteomyelitis was unlikely, imaging was either negative or falsely positive and rarely affected treatment. In 46 cases where osteomyelitis was more likely, imaging potentially changed therapy in 19 but was unhelpful or misleading in 15. Static-phase images with ''definite'' interpretations, particularly when negative, are specific, but ''equivocal'' studies may lead to diagnostic and therapeutic errors. When ostemyelitis is improbable, imaging rarely changes diagnosis or therapy.

  2. Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) of Medullary and Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer Using Radiolabeled Somatostatin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Salavati, Ali; Puranik, Ameya; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Budiawan, Hendra; Baum, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    As therapeutic options in advanced medullary and non-iodine avid differentiated (nonmedullary) thyroid cancers are limited and associated with significant toxicity, targeting of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) for internal radiation therapy provides a promising option. Theranostics (therapy and diagnosis) using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues has proved to be a milestone in the management of SSTR-expressing tumors. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using (177)Lu-labeled or (90)Y-labeled somatostatin analogues may have a significant role in the management of medullary and nonmedullary thyroid cancers in those patients where PET/CT with (68)Ga-labeled somatostatin analogues demonstrates significant SSTR expression. PMID:27067502

  3. Epigenomes as therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Christopher A; Costa, Fabricio F

    2015-07-01

    Epigenetics is a molecular phenomenon that pertains to heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications in a whole genome, known as the epigenome, play an essential role in the regulation of gene expression in both normal development and disease. Traditional epigenetic changes include DNA methylation and histone modifications. Recent evidence reveals that other players, such as non-coding RNAs, may have an epigenetic regulatory role. Aberrant epigenetic signaling is becoming to be known as a central component of human disease, and the reversible nature of the epigenetic modifications provides an exciting opportunity for the development of clinically relevant therapeutics. Current epigenetic therapies provide a clinical benefit through disrupting DNA methyltransferases or histone deacetylases. However, the emergence of next-generation epigenetic therapies provides an opportunity to more effectively disrupt epigenetic disease states. Novel epigenetic therapies may improve drug targeting and drug delivery, optimize dosing schedules, and improve the efficacy of preexisting treatment modalities (chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy). This review discusses the epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to the disease, available epigenetic therapies, epigenetic therapies currently in development, and the potential future use of epigenetic therapeutics in a clinical setting. PMID:25797698

  4. AMUM LECTURE: Therapeutic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Lawrence A.

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques.

  5. Winnicott's therapeutic consultations revisited.

    PubMed

    Brafman, A H

    1997-08-01

    Winnicott described in his book 'Therapeutic Consultations' (1971) how a diagnostic assessment of a referred child developed into a fruitful therapeutic intervention when he was able to discover the unconscious fantasy that underlay the child's symptoms. Because these were children who were, essentially, developing normally, he used the word 'knot' to depict the obstacle the child had met. Any conflicts the parents might have were not explored in that context. This work present cases in which child and parents are seen together for the diagnostic assessment. The child's feelings about his world and his difficulties are explored through a variety of techniques including drawings. In the same interview, an analytic enquiry into the parents' history and also their views of the child reveals how the child's fantasies and the parents' past experiences interact and create a mutually reinforcing vicious circle. In other words, the 'knot' involves all of them. If the child's unconscious fantasy can be verbalised and if the parents are able to approach the child in a manner that acknowledges the child's real needs, the 'knot' disappears and normal development can be resumed. PMID:9306188

  6. Engineering therapeutic protein disaggregases.

    PubMed

    Shorter, James

    2016-05-15

    Therapeutic agents are urgently required to cure several common and fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Protein disaggregases that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native structure, function, and localization could mitigate neurodegeneration by simultaneously reversing 1) any toxic gain of function of the misfolded form and 2) any loss of function due to misfolding. Potentiated variants of Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase and protein disaggregase from yeast, have been engineered to robustly disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with ALS (e.g., TDP-43 and FUS) and PD (e.g., α-synuclein). However, Hsp104 has no metazoan homologue. Metazoa possess protein disaggregase systems distinct from Hsp104, including Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40, as well as HtrA1, which might be harnessed to reverse deleterious protein misfolding. Nevertheless, vicissitudes of aging, environment, or genetics conspire to negate these disaggregase systems in neurodegenerative disease. Thus, engineering potentiated human protein disaggregases or isolating small-molecule enhancers of their activity could yield transformative therapeutics for ALS, PD, and AD. PMID:27255695

  7. Engineering therapeutic protein disaggregases

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, James

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic agents are urgently required to cure several common and fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Protein disaggregases that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native structure, function, and localization could mitigate neurodegeneration by simultaneously reversing 1) any toxic gain of function of the misfolded form and 2) any loss of function due to misfolding. Potentiated variants of Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase and protein disaggregase from yeast, have been engineered to robustly disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with ALS (e.g., TDP-43 and FUS) and PD (e.g., α-synuclein). However, Hsp104 has no metazoan homologue. Metazoa possess protein disaggregase systems distinct from Hsp104, including Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40, as well as HtrA1, which might be harnessed to reverse deleterious protein misfolding. Nevertheless, vicissitudes of aging, environment, or genetics conspire to negate these disaggregase systems in neurodegenerative disease. Thus, engineering potentiated human protein disaggregases or isolating small-molecule enhancers of their activity could yield transformative therapeutics for ALS, PD, and AD. PMID:27255695

  8. Pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Koo, Seok Hwee; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2006-01-01

    1. Pharmacogenetics refers to the study of genetically controlled variations in drug response. Functional variants caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding drug-metabolising enzymes, transporters, ion channels and drug receptors have been known to be associated with interindividual and interethnic variation in drug response. Genetic variations in these genes play a role in influencing the efficacy and toxicity of medications. 2. Rapid, precise and cost-effective high-throughput technological platforms are essential for performing large-scale mutational analysis of genetic markers involved in the aetiology of variable responses to drug therapy. 3. The application of a pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics in general clinical practice is still far from being achieved today owing to various constraints, such as limited accessibility of technology, inadequate knowledge, ambiguity of the role of variants and ethical concerns. 4. Drug actions are determined by the interplay of several genes encoding different proteins involved in various biochemical pathways. With rapidly emerging SNP discovery technological platforms and widespread knowledge on the role of SNPs in disease susceptibility and variability in drug response, the pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics is anticipated to take off in the not-too-distant future. This will present profound clinical, economic and social implications for health care. PMID:16700889

  9. Person-centered Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Cloninger, C. Robert; Cloninger, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    A clinician’s effectiveness in treatment depends substantially on his or her attitude toward -- and understanding of -- the patient as a person endowed with self-awareness and the will to direct his or her own future. The assessment of personality in the therapeutic encounter is a crucial foundation for forming an effective working alliance with shared goals. Helping a person to reflect on their personality provides a mirror image of their strengths and weaknesses in adapting to life’s many challenges. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) provides an effective way to describe personality thoroughly and to predict both the positive and negative aspects of health. Strengths and weaknesses in TCI personality traits allow strong predictions of individual differences of all aspects of well-being. Diverse therapeutic techniques, such as diet, exercise, mood self-regulation, meditation, or acts of kindness, influence health and personality development in ways that are largely indistinguishable from one another or from effective allopathic treatments. Hence the development of well-being appears to be the result of activating a synergistic set of mechanisms of well-being, which are expressed as fuller functioning, plasticity, and virtue in adapting to life’s challenges PMID:26052429

  10. Mechanisms of Plasma Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, David

    2015-09-01

    In this talk, I address research directed towards biomedical applications of atmospheric pressure plasma such as sterilization, surgery, wound healing and anti-cancer therapy. The field has seen remarkable growth in the last 3-5 years, but the mechanisms responsible for the biomedical effects have remained mysterious. It is known that plasmas readily create reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS (or RONS), in addition to a suite of other radical and non-radical reactive species, are essential actors in an important sub-field of aerobic biology termed ``redox'' (or oxidation-reduction) biology. It is postulated that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) can trigger a therapeutic shielding response in tissue in part by creating a time- and space-localized, burst-like form of oxy-nitrosative stress on near-surface exposed cells through the flux of plasma-generated RONS. RONS-exposed surface layers of cells communicate to the deeper levels of tissue via a form of the ``bystander effect,'' similar to responses to other forms of cell stress. In this proposed model of CAP therapeutics, the plasma stimulates a cellular survival mechanism through which aerobic organisms shield themselves from infection and other challenges.

  11. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  12. Microfabricated therapeutic actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Microfabricated therapeutic actuators are fabricated using a shape memory polymer (SMP), a polyurethane-based material that undergoes a phase transformation at a specified temperature (Tg). At a temperature above temperature Tg material is soft and can be easily reshaped into another configuration. As the temperature is lowered below temperature Tg the new shape is fixed and locked in as long as the material stays below temperature Tg. Upon reheating the material to a temperature above Tg, the material will return to its original shape. By the use of such SMP material, SMP microtubing can be used as a release actuator for the delivery of embolic coils through catheters into aneurysms, for example. The microtubing can be manufactured in various sizes and the phase change temperature Tg is determinate for an intended temperature target and intended use.

  13. Microfabricated therapeutic actuators

    DOEpatents

    Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-06-15

    Microfabricated therapeutic actuators are fabricated using a shape memory polymer (SMP), a polyurethane-based material that undergoes a phase transformation at a specified temperature (Tg). At a temperature above temperature Tg material is soft and can be easily reshaped into another configuration. As the temperature is lowered below temperature Tg the new shape is fixed and locked in as long as the material stays below temperature Tg. Upon reheating the material to a temperature above Tg, the material will return to its original shape. By the use of such SMP material, SMP microtubing can be used as a release actuator for the delivery of embolic coils through catheters into aneurysms, for example. The microtubing can be manufactured in various sizes and the phase change temperature Tg is determinate for an intended temperature target and intended use. 8 figs.

  14. Aptamers in Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers are single strand DNA or RNA molecules, selected by an iterative process known as Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). Due to various advantages of aptamers such as high temperature stability, animal free, cost effective production and its high affinity and selectivity for its target make them attractive alternatives to monoclonal antibody for use in diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Aptamer has been generated against vesicular endothelial growth factor 165 involved in age related macular degeneracy. Macugen was the first FDA approved aptamer based drug that was commercialized. Later other aptamers were also developed against blood clotting proteins, cancer proteins, antibody E, agents involved in diabetes nephropathy, autoantibodies involved in autoimmune disorders, etc. Aptamers have also been developed against viruses and could work with other antiviral agents in treating infections. PMID:27504277

  15. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Breden, Felix; Scott, Jamie K; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Reichert, Janice M; Helguera, Gustavo; Andrabi, Raiees; Mabry, Robert; Bléry, Mathieu; Voss, James E; Laurén, Juha; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Barghorn, Stefan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Crowe, James E; Huston, James S; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Krauland, Eric; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Marasco, Wayne A; Parren, Paul WHI; Xu, Kai Y

    2014-01-01

    The 24th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting brought together a broad range of participants who were updated on the latest advances in antibody research and development. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the gathering is the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, which serves as the scientific sponsor. Preconference workshops on 3D modeling and delineation of clonal lineages were featured, and the conference included sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to researchers, including systems biology; antibody deep sequencing and repertoires; the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on antibody response; directed evolution; knowledge-based design; antibodies in a complex environment; polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity; the interface between antibody therapy and cellular immunity in cancer; antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; polyclonals, oligoclonals and bispecifics; antibody discovery platforms; and antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:24589717

  16. Homocystinuria: Therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tarun; Sharma, Gurumayum Suraj; Singh, Laishram Rajendrakumar

    2016-07-01

    Homocystinuria is a disorder of sulfur metabolism pathway caused by deficiency of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS). It is characterized by increased accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) in the cells and plasma. Increased homocysteine results in various vascular and neurological complications. Present strategies to lower cellular and plasma homocysteine levels include vitamin B6 intake, dietary methionine restriction, betaine supplementation, folate and vitamin B12 administration. However, these strategies are inefficient for treatment of homocystinuria. In recent years, advances have been made towards developing new strategies to treat homocystinuria. These mainly include functional restoration to mutant CBS, enhanced clearance of Hcy from the body, prevention of N-homocysteinylation-induced toxicity and inhibition of homocysteine-induced oxidative stress. In this review, we have exclusively discussed the recent advances that have been achieved towards the treatment of homocystinuria. The review is an attempt to help clinicians in developing effective therapeutic strategies and designing novel drugs against homocystinuria. PMID:27059523

  17. Mitochondrial Energetics and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Douglas C.; Fan, Weiwei; Procaccio, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a wide range of degenerative and metabolic diseases, cancer, and aging. All these clinical manifestations arise from the central role of bioenergetics in cell biology. Although genetic therapies are maturing as the rules of bioenergetic genetics are clarified, metabolic therapies have been ineffectual. This failure results from our limited appreciation of the role of bioenergetics as the interface between the environment and the cell. A systems approach, which, ironically, was first successfully applied over 80 years ago with the introduction of the ketogenic diet, is required. Analysis of the many ways that a shift from carbohydrate glycolytic metabolism to fatty acid and ketone oxidative metabolism may modulate metabolism, signal transduction pathways, and the epigenome gives us an appreciation of the ketogenic diet and the potential for bioenergetic therapeutics. PMID:20078222

  18. Principles of therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Miller, T R

    1992-12-01

    Topical administration of drugs is the treatment of choice for diseases of the anterior segment. Drug levels attained by this means are usually of short duration, however, necessitating frequent therapy or continuous perfusion if prolonged drug levels are required. A drug-delivery device (collagen shield or contact lens) or subconjunctival injections can be used to augment topical therapy if frequent treatment is not possible. Subconjunctival injections are recommended for drugs that have low solubility and, hence, low corneal penetration. Retrobulbar injections are seldom indicated, except for regional anesthesia. Systemic administration is useful for anti-inflammatory therapy but it may be difficult to establish therapeutic levels of antibiotic agents in the eye because of the blood-ocular barrier. In severe cases, intraocular injection may be required. PMID:1458325

  19. [Radionuclide assessment of cardiac involvement in patients with sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Hiroe, M; Nagata, M; Sekiguchi, M; Ohta, Y; Kusakabe, K; Shigeta, A; Horie, T; Fujita, N; Hasumi, M; Toyosaki, T

    1990-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine whether nuclear methods were useful for examining cardiac pathology and for making a decision of corticosteroid therapy in patients with sarcoidosis. Thirty six patients were divided into two groups; GpA consisted of 19 patients with cardiac sarcoidosis and abnormal ECG findings, and GpB of 17 patients with sarcoidosis without ECG abnormalities. Cardiac uptake of 67Ga-citrate in 2 and 99mTc-PYP in one of GpA was observed and steroid therapy resulted in the disappearance of the uptake. 201Tl-CL cardiac tomograms disclosed perfusion defects in 10 of 14 patients (71%) in GpA, including defects with redistribution in 8 of the 10 pts, but only one case in GpB. Radionuclide ventriculography using 99mTc-RBC revealed abnormal response of left ventricular (LV) function to exercise and LV dysfunction in GpA. These data suggest that nuclear study is a useful tool for diagnosing cardiac sarcoidosis, evaluating therapeutic effectiveness and long-term follow-up in patients with sarcoidosis. PMID:2162435

  20. Radionuclide antibody-conjugates, a targeted therapy towards cancer.

    PubMed

    Kitson, Sean L; Cuccurullo, Vincenzo; Moody, Thomas S; Mansi, Luigi

    2013-06-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) is an investigational procedure which utilises monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), peptide conjugates and/or other chemical compounds. These bio-vectors are able to transport a dose of alpha particles to destroy cancer cells. Radionuclide antibody-conjugates (RACs), labelled with beta emitters, have already been used in humans. More recently, TAT has been introduced to treat oncological diseases mainly leukaemia and lymphoma. Encouraging results have also been obtained in solid neoplasms with the administration of anti-tenascin. This chimeric antibody labelled with astatine-211 was delivered in patients with recurrent brain tumours into a surgically created cavity. Conversely, a clinical trial using a standard TAT approach to treat patients with metastatic melanoma, observed the shrinkage of the solid tumour mass. This response in melanoma may lead to an alternative mechanism for TAT, called tumour-antivascular- alpha-therapy (TAVAT), and forms the basis of a novel approach to the treatment of cancer disease states. In this paper, we will concentrate mainly on the application of TAT using antibodies. In particular, an investigation into the major general features connected with the use of alpha emitters in cancer therapy will be discussed. The prospective role of TAT with RACs will also be outlined briefly, especially focussing on the most important therapeutic strategies to date based on antibodies radiolabelled with beta emitters. PMID:23808764

  1. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for GEP-NETs.

    PubMed

    Bergsma, Hendrik; van Vliet, Esther I; Teunissen, Jaap J M; Kam, Boen L R; de Herder, Wouter W; Peeters, Robin P; Krenning, Eric P; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2012-12-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues plays an increasing role in the treatment of patients with inoperable or metastasised gatroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs). (90)Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATATE are the most used radiopeptides for PRRT with comparable tumour response rates (about 15-35%). The side effects of this therapy are few and mild. However, amino acids should be used for kidney protection, especially during infusion of (90)Y-DOTATOC. Options to improve PRRT may include combinations of radioactive labelled somatostatin analogues and the use of radiosensitising drugs combined with PRRT. Other therapeutic applications of PRRT may include intra-arterial administration, neo-adjuvant treatment and additional PRRT cycles in patients with progressive disease, who have benefited from initial therapy. Considering the mild side-effects, PRRT may well become the first-line therapy in patients with metastasised or inoperable GEP-NETs if more widespread use of PRRT can be accomplished. PMID:23582925

  2. Antioxidant therapeutics: Pandora's box.

    PubMed

    Day, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has favored the utilization of dioxygen (O2) in the development of complex multicellular organisms. O2 is actually a toxic mutagenic gas that is highly oxidizing and combustible. It is thought that plants are largely to blame for polluting the earth's atmosphere with O2 owing to the development of photosynthesis by blue-green algae over 2 billion years ago. The rise of the plants and atmospheric O2 levels placed evolutionary stress on organisms to adapt or become extinct. This implies that all the surviving creatures on our planet are mutants that have adapted to the "abnormal biology" of O2. Much of the adaptation to the presence of O2 in biological systems comes from well-coordinated antioxidant and repair systems that focus on converting O2 to its most reduced form, water (H2O), and the repair and replacement of damaged cellular macromolecules. Biological systems have also harnessed O2's reactive properties for energy production, xenobiotic metabolism, and host defense and as a signaling messenger and redox modulator of a number of cell signaling pathways. Many of these systems involve electron transport systems and offer many different mechanisms by which antioxidant therapeutics can alternatively produce an antioxidant effect without directly scavenging oxygen-derived reactive species. It is likely that each agent will have a different set of mechanisms that may change depending on the model of oxidative stress, organ system, or disease state. An important point is that all biological processes of aerobes have coevolved with O2 and this creates a Pandora's box for trying to understand the mechanism(s) of action of antioxidants being developed as therapeutic agents. PMID:23856377

  3. GTI-2040. Lorus Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Orr, R M

    2001-10-01

    Loris Therapeutics (formerly GeneSense Therapeutics) is developing the antisense oligonucleotide GTI-2040, directed against the R2 component of ribonucleotide reductase, for the potential treatment of cancer [348194]. It is in phase I/II trials [353796] and Lorus had anticipated phase II trials would be initiated in July 2001. By August 2001, GTI-2040 was undergoing a phase II trial as a monotherapy for the potential treatment of renal cell carcinoma, and was about to enter a phase II combination study for this indication with capecitabine (Hoffmann-La Roche). At this time, the company was also planning a phase II trial to study the drug's potential in the treatment of colorectal cancer [418739]. GTI-2040 has been tested in nine different tumor models, including tumors derived from colon, liver, lung, breast, kidney and ovary. Depending on the tumor model, significant inhibition of tumor growth, disease stabilization and dramatic tumor regressions was observed [347683]. Lorus filed an IND to commence phase I/II trials with GTI-2040 in the US in November 1999 [347683], and received approval for the trials in December 1999 [349623]. As of January 2000, these trials had commenced at the University of Chicago Cancer Research Center; it was reported in February 2000 that dosing to date had been well tolerated with no apparent safety concerns [357449]. Lorus has entered into a strategic supply alliance with Proligo to provide the higher volumes of drug product required for the planned multiple phase II trials [385976]. In February 1998, Genesense (now Lorus) received patent WO-09805769. Loris also received a patent (subsequently identified as WO-00047733) from the USPTO in January 2000, entitled 'Antitumor antisense sequences directed against components of ribonucleotide reductase' covering the design and use of unique antisense anticancer drugs, including GTI-2040 and GTI-2501 [353538]. PMID:11890366

  4. Air kerma rate constants for radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, H; Groenewald, W

    1988-01-01

    Conversion to SI units requires that the exposure rate constant which was usually quoted in R.h-1.mCi-1.cm2 be replaced by the air kerma rate constant with units m2.Gy.Bq-1.s-1. The conversion factor is derived and air kerma rate constants for 30 radionuclides used in nuclear medicine and brachytherapy are listed. A table for calculation of air kerma rates for other radionuclides is also given. To calculate absorbed dose to tissue, the air kerma rate has to be multiplied by approximately 1.1. A dose equivalent rate constant is thus listed which allows direct calculation of dose equivalent rate to soft tissue without resorting to exposure rate constants tabulated in the special units R.m2.mCi-1.h-1 which should no longer be used. PMID:3208786

  5. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary vasculature resulting in intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cuntaeous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  6. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggrregated albumin (/sup 99m/Tc MAA) labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cutaneous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  7. FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Bruce; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    This special issue of Metrologia on radionuclide metrology is the first of a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurement, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The idea was first proposed at the 2003 series of CCRI Section meetings, with the general aim of showcasing the relevance and importance of metrology in ionizing radiation to a broader metrological audience. After the 2005 meeting of Section II (measurement of radionuclides), the radioactivity aspect of the project began to move forward in earnest. A working group was set up with the brief that the special issue should be of use by experienced metrologists as an overview of the 'state of the art' to compare progress and scientific content with those in other fields of metrology, as a resource for new metrologists joining the field and as a guide for users of radioactivity to explain how traceability to the international measurement system may be achieved. Since mankind first became aware of the existence of radioactivity just over a century ago (due to its discovery by Becquerel and further work by the Curies), much has been learnt and understood in the interim period. The field of radionuclide metrology that developed subsequently is broad-based and encompasses, amongst others, nuclear physics (experimental and theory), chemistry, mathematics, mathematical statistics, uncertainty analysis and advanced computing for data analysis, simulation and modelling. To determine the activity of radionuclides accurately requires elements of all of these subjects. In more recent decades the focus has been on the practical applications of radioactivity in industry and the health field in particular. In addition, low-level environmental radioactivity monitoring has taken on ever greater importance in the nuclear power era. These developments have required new detection instrumentation and techniques on an ongoing basis to ensure

  8. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  9. Methods and systems for detection of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Jr., John T.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2010-05-25

    Disclosed are materials and systems useful in determining the existence of radionuclides in an aqueous sample. The materials provide the dual function of both extraction and scintillation to the systems. The systems can be both portable and simple to use, and as such can beneficially be utilized to determine presence and optionally concentration of radionuclide contamination in an aqueous sample at any desired location and according to a relatively simple process without the necessity of complicated sample handling techniques. The disclosed systems include a one-step process, providing simultaneous extraction and detection capability, and a two-step process, providing a first extraction step that can be carried out in a remote field location, followed by a second detection step that can be carried out in a different location.

  10. Skin dose from radionuclide contamination on clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.C.; Hussein, E.M.A.; Yuen, P.S.

    1997-06-01

    Skin dose due to radio nuclide contamination on clothing is calculated by Monte Carlo simulation of electron and photon radiation transport. Contamination due to a hot particle on some selected clothing geometries of cotton garment is simulated. The effect of backscattering in the surrounding air is taken into account. For each combination of source-clothing geometry, the dose distribution function in the skin, including the dose at tissue depths of 7 mg cm{sup -2} and 1,000 Mg cm{sup -2}, is calculated by simulating monoenergetic photon and electron sources. Skin dose due to contamination by a radionuclide is then determined by proper weighting of & monoenergetic dose distribution functions. The results are compared with the VARSKIN point-kernel code for some radionuclides, indicating that the latter code tends to under-estimate the dose for gamma and high energy beta sources while it overestimates skin dose for low energy beta sources. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Chemical and radiochemical considerations in radiolabeling with α-emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, D Scott

    2011-07-01

    A review of chemical and radiochemical factors that must be considered when radiolabeling targeting agents with radionuclides is presented. The review discusses factors that are important in choice of radionuclide and choice of chelation or bonding reagents to use in the development of an α-emitting radiopharmaceutical. Chemical parameters, such as physical properties and pendant groups for radiolabeling, are reviewed. A major portion of the review outlines the development of chelates and labeling conditions for radiometals, and application of these reagents/conditions to radiometals. Acyclic and macrocyclic chelates containing amine and carboxylic acid coordination groups are highlighted, with examples of bifunctional chelates for biomolecule conjugation. Information is presented on over 60 radiometal-binding chelates. 211At radiolabeling is separated from that of radiometals, and the various reagents used for radiolabeling have been reviewed. Although not all 211At-labeling reagents are reviewed (due to another recent review), nearly 50 reagents studied in the development of pendant groups for labeling with 211At are described. The review also discusses how therapeutic doses of α-emitting radiopharmaceuticals can be affected by the radionuclide used and how radiation damage to the radiopharmaceutical can be minimized. PMID:22201710

  12. Sedimentation rate determination by radionuclides mass balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazala, C.; Reyss, J. L.; Decossas, J. L.; Royer, A.

    2003-04-01

    In the past, uranium mining activity took place in the area around Limoges, France. Even nowadays, this activity results in an increase in the input and availability of radionuclides in aquifer reservoirs, making of this area a suitable site to better understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the surficial environment. Water was sampled monthly over the entire year 2001 in a brook that collects mine water and in a lake fed by this brook. Samples were filtered through 0.45μm filters to remove particles. Activities of 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 228Th and 228Ra were measured on particulate (>0.45μm), dissolved (<0.45μm) and total (unfiltered) fractions by gamma spectrometry in the well of a high efficiency, low background, germanium detector settled in an underground laboratory, protected from cosmic rays by 1700 m of rocks (LSM, CNRS-CEA, French Alps). Activities measured in particulate and dissolved fractions were summed and compared to the one measured in unfiltered water to test the filtration yield. No significant loss or contamination were detected. In the brook water, 70% of 238U, 60% of 226Ra and 80% of 210Pb are associated with particles. Activities associated with particles decrease drastically along with the velocity of current when the stream enters the lake. An annual mass balance of radionuclides carried by particles from the stream to the lake was used to determine the sedimentation rate in the lake. The flux of particles deduced from mass balance calculations based on five isotopes corresponds to the thickness of sediment accumulated since the creation of this artificial lake (that is, 1976). This study emphasises the usefulness of radionuclides as tracers for environmental investigations.

  13. Radionuclide transport in fractured granite interface zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q. H.; Möri, A.

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study migration paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, a micro-scale mapping technique was applied by interfacing laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to detect the small scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides in the interface zones between fractures and the granitic rock matrix. Long-lived 234U, 235U, and 237Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the diffusion accessible rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA-ICP-MS technique. The retarded actinides are mainly located at the fracture walls and in the fine grained fracture filling material as well as within the immediately adjacent wallrock. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. Actinides studied in this work did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as into the granite matrix, most likely due to the lower porosity, the enhanced sorption capacity and the disturbed diffusion paths of the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for 237Np and uranium isotopes over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modelling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results.

  14. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  15. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-12-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references.

  16. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. PMID:24508949

  17. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  18. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  19. Radionuclides in the evaluation of urinary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, S.C.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1982-07-01

    Radionuclide renography and renal scanning techniques are ideally suited to the initial and follow-up evaluation of patients with obstructive uropathy. While other modalities are superior in their ability to provide anatomic information, the radionuclide study yields functional information for each kidney without the necessity to resort to invasive studies. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine study is well suited to the evaluation of obstruction where serial studies often are required because of a lower radiation burden compared to urography. This lower radiation dose is especially important in obstruction because of the recurrent nature of several kinds of obstructive uropathy and because of the high incidence in the pediatric age group. The ability to control urine flow rate during the procedure through dehydration or administration of diuretics is an additional benefit. Increasing availability of computerization of nuclear medicine procedures as well as interest in studies employing physiologic intervention (including the diuresis renogram) have assured an important place for radionuclide studies in the evaluation of patients with urinary obstruction.

  20. Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2008-10-01

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  1. UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-28

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  2. Leaching of accelerator-produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.; Bull, J.; Goss, D.

    1994-05-01

    Leaching of radionuclides produced in soil and rock by high energy proton-induced radiation was studied for the SCC and CEBAF sites. Comparison was made with predictions of a Monte-Carlo code CASIM and previous results for the Fermilab site. The principal long-lived radionuclides were {sup 3}H and {sup 22}Na in agreement with Fermilab results. A few other radionuclides were present at lower concentrations in a subset of the samples. For example, {sup 134}Cs was detected in a few SSC water samples and {sup 7}Be and {sup 54}Mn were present at higher concentrations in a CEBAF sample. Leaching from SSC chalk was dependent on previous weathering and on leaching time. The more soil-like marl and shale were leached more rapidly. Results of this study in conjunction with the SSC ground-water model show that adequate ground-water protection would result for loss of the entire proton beam in the SSC Collider tunnel.

  3. Targeted radionuclide therapies for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; Da Silva, R; Gravekamp, C; Libutti, S K; Abraham, T; Dadachova, E

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic malignancies, the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths, have an aggressive behavior with poor prognosis, resulting in a 5-year survival rate of only 4%. It is typically a silent malignancy until patients develop metastatic disease. Targeted radionuclide therapies of cancer such as radiolabeled peptides, which bind to the receptors overexpressed by cancer cells and radiolabeled antibodies to tumor-specific antigens provide a viable alternative to chemotherapy and external beam radiation of metastatic cancers. Multiple clinical trials of targeted radionuclide therapy of pancreatic cancer have been performed in the last decade and demonstrated safety and potential efficacy of radionuclide therapy for treatment of this formidable disease. Although a lot of progress has been made in treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with radiolabeled (90)Y and (177)Lu somatostatin peptide analogs, pancreatic adenocarcinomas remain a major challenge. Novel approaches such as peptides and antibodies radiolabeled with alpha emitters, pre-targeting, bispecific antibodies and biological therapy based on the radioactive tumorlytic bacteria might offer a potential breakthrough in treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. PMID:26227823

  4. Targeted radionuclide therapies for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shah, M.; Da Silva, R.; Gravekamp, C.; Libutti, S. K.; Abraham, T.; Dadachova, E.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic malignancies, the 4th leading cause of cancer deaths, have an aggressive behavior with poor prognosis, resulting in a five-year survival rate of only 4%. It is typically a silent malignancy until patients develop metastatic disease. Targeted radionuclide therapies of cancer such as radiolabeled peptides which bind to the receptors overexpressed by cancer cells and radiolabeled antibodies to tumor-specific antigens provide a viable alternative to chemotherapy and external beam radiation of metastatic cancers. Multiple clinical trials of targeted radionuclide therapy of pancreatic cancer have been performed in the last decade and demonstrated safety and potential efficacy of radionuclide therapy for treatment of this formidable disease. While a lot progress has been made in treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with radiolabeled with 90Y and 177Lu somatostatin peptide analogues, pancreatic adenocarcinomas remain a major challenge. Novel approaches such as peptides and antibodies radiolabeled with alpha emitters, pre-targeting, bispecific antibodies and biological therapy based on the radioactive tumorlytic bacteria might offer a potential breakthrough in treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. PMID:26227823

  5. Radionuclide transport and retardation in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.N.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; DeVilliers, S.J.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1980-12-31

    Batch measurements provide an understanding of which experimental variables are important. For example, sorption ratios vary little with particle size (and surface area); however, groundwater composition and rock composition are quite important. A general correlation has been identified between mineralogy (major phases) and degree of sorption for strontium, cesium, and barium. Although these are approximate, a more detailed analysis may be possible as more samples are studied and the data base increased. Data from crushed tuff columns indicate that, except in simple cases where sorption coefficients are relatively low, and ion-exchange equilibria not only exist but are the dominant mechanism for removal of radioisotopes from solution, the simple relation between the sorption ratio R/sub d/ (or K/sub d/) and the relative velocity of radionuclides with respect to groundwater velocity may be insufficient to permit accurate modeling of the retardation of radionuclides. Additional work on whole core columns and larger blocks of intact material is required to better understand radionuclide sorption and transport through rock.

  6. Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    1981-04-01

    The study objective of "The Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters" is to synthesize and test radionuclide transport models capable of realistically assessing radionuclide transport in various types of surface water bodies by including the sediment-radionuclide interactions. These interactions include radionuclide adsorption by sediment; desorption from sediment into water; and transport, deposition, and resuspension of sorbed radionuclides controlled by the sediment movements. During FY-1979, the modification of sediment and contaminant (radionuclide) transport model, FETRA, was completed to make it applicable to coastal waters. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral) model that consists of three submodels (for sediment, dissolved-contaminant, and particulate-contaminant transport), coupled to include the sediment-contaminant interactions. In estuaries, flow phenomena and consequent sediment and radionuclide migration are often three-dimensional in nature mainly because of nonuniform channel cross-sections, salinity intrusion, and lateral-flow circulation. Thus, an unsteady, three-dimensional radionuclide transport model for estuaries is also being synthesized by combining and modifying a PNL unsteady hydrothermal model and FETRA. These two radionuclide transport models for coastal waters and estuaries will be applied to actual sites to examine the validity of the codes.

  7. Clinical applications of therapeutic phlebotomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Oh, Ki Young

    2016-01-01

    Phlebotomy is the removal of blood from the body, and therapeutic phlebotomy is the preferred treatment for blood disorders in which the removal of red blood cells or serum iron is the most efficient method for managing the symptoms and complications. Therapeutic phlebotomy is currently indicated for the treatment of hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, porphyria cutanea tarda, sickle cell disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with hyperferritinemia. This review discusses therapeutic phlebotomy and the related disorders and also offers guidelines for establishing a therapeutic phlebotomy program. PMID:27486346

  8. Therapeutic proteins: A to Z.

    PubMed

    Ozgur, Aykut; Tutar, Yusuf

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, therapeutic proteins have become an important growing class of drugs in the pharmaceutics industry. The development of recombinant DNA technology has caused to appreciation of therapeutic value of many proteins and peptides in medicine. Currently, approximately 100 therapeutic proteins obtained approval from Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and they are widely used in the treatment of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, anemia and infections. This paper will summarize the production processes, pharmaceuticals and physicochemical properties and important classes of therapeutic proteins with their potential use in clinical applications. PMID:24261980

  9. Therapeutic cloning: The ethical limits

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Peter A. . E-mail: p.whittaker@lancaster.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    A brief outline of stem cells, stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning is given. The position of therapeutic cloning with regard to other embryonic manipulations - IVF-based reproduction, embryonic stem formation from IVF embryos and reproductive cloning - is indicated. The main ethically challenging stages in therapeutic cloning are considered to be the nuclear transfer process including the source of eggs for this and the destruction of an embryo to provide stem cells for therapeutic use. The extremely polarised nature of the debate regarding the status of an early human embryo is noted, and some potential alternative strategies for preparing immunocompatible pluripotent stem cells are indicated.

  10. [Hypercholesterolemia: a therapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Moráis López, A; Lama More, R A; Dalmau Serra, J

    2009-05-01

    High blood cholesterol levels represent an important cardiovascular risk factor. Hypercholesterolemia is defined as levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol above 95th percentile for age and gender. For the paediatric population, selective screening is recommended in children older than 2 years who are overweight, with a family history of early cardiovascular disease or whose parents have high cholesterol levels. Initial therapeutic approach includes diet therapy, appropriate physical activity and healthy lifestyle changes. Drug treatment should be considered in children from the age of 10 who, after having followed appropriate diet recommendations, still have very high LDL-cholesterol levels or moderately high levels with concomitant risk factors. In case of extremely high LDL-cholesterol levels, drug treatment should be taken into consideration at earlier ages (8 years old). Modest response is usually observed with bile acid-binding resins. Statins can be considered first-choice drugs, once evidence on their efficacy and safety has been shown. PMID:19427823

  11. [Liver metastasis: therapeutic strategy].

    PubMed

    Gennari, L; Doci, R; Bignami, P

    1996-01-01

    The liver is one of the most frequent sites of metastatic growth, in particular from digestive malignancies (DM). The first goal is to reduce the incidence of metastases. Adjuvant systemic chemotherapies have been demonstrated to reduce the recurrence rate and to improve survival in Dukes C colon cancer. Fluorouracil is the pivot of adjuvant treatment modulated by Leucovorin or Levamisol. A short postoperative administration of fluorouracil by intraportal route has been tested, but the results are controversial. Adjuvant treatments for different DM are under investigation. When hepatic metastases are clinically evident, therapeutic decisions depend on several factors: site and nature of primary, extent of hepatic and extrahepatic disease, patient characteristics, efficacy of treatments. A staging system should be adopted to allow a rational approach. In selected cases a locoregional treatment can achieve consistent results. Hepatic Intrarterial Chemotherapy (HIAC) for colorectal metastases achieves objective responses in more than 50% of patients. Survival seems positively affected. When feasible, Ro hepatic resection is the most effective treatment, five-year survival rate being about 30% when metastases are from colorectal cancer. Since the liver is the most frequent site of recurrence after resection, repeat resection have been successfully performed. PMID:9214269

  12. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  13. Leech Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Abdualkader, A. M.; Ghawi, A. M.; Alaama, M.; Awang, M.; Merzouk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hematophagous animals including leeches have been known to possess biologically active compounds in their secretions, especially in their saliva. The blood-sucking annelids, leeches have been used for therapeutic purposes since the beginning of civilization. Ancient Egyptian, Indian, Greek and Arab physicians used leeches for a wide range of diseases starting from the conventional use for bleeding to systemic ailments, such as skin diseases, nervous system abnormalities, urinary and reproductive system problems, inflammation, and dental problems. Recently, extensive researches on leech saliva unveiled the presence of a variety of bioactive peptides and proteins involving antithrombin (hirudin, bufrudin), antiplatelet (calin, saratin), factor Xa inhibitors (lefaxin), antibacterial (theromacin, theromyzin) and others. Consequently, leech has made a comeback as a new remedy for many chronic and life-threatening abnormalities, such as cardiovascular problems, cancer, metastasis, and infectious diseases. In the 20th century, leech therapy has established itself in plastic and microsurgery as a protective tool against venous congestion and served to salvage the replanted digits and flaps. Many clinics for plastic surgery all over the world started to use leeches for cosmetic purposes. Despite the efficacious properties of leech therapy, the safety, and complications of leeching are still controversial. PMID:24019559

  14. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhenlong; Li, Zhong; Jin, Huajun; Qian, Qijun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major leading death causes of diseases. Prevention and treatment of cancer is an important way to decrease the incidence of tumorigenesis and prolong patients' lives. Subversive achievements on cancer immunotherapy have recently been paid much attention after many failures in basic and clinical researches. Based on deep analysis of genomics and proteomics of tumor antigens, a variety of cancer vaccines targeting tumor antigens have been tested in preclinical and human clinical trials. Many therapeutic cancer vaccines alone or combination with other conventional treatments for cancer obtained spectacular efficacy, indicating the tremendously potential application in clinic. With the illustration of underlying mechanisms of cancer immune regulation, valid, controllable, and persistent cancer vaccines will play important roles in cancer treatment, survival extension and relapse and cancer prevention. This chapter mainly summarizes the recent progresses and developments on cancer vaccine research and clinical application, thus exploring the existing obstacles in cancer vaccine research and promoting the efficacy of cancer vaccine. PMID:27240458

  15. Experimental Therapeutics for Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Jinnah, H. A.; Hess, Ellen J.

    2008-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological syndrome characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions leading to twisting movements and unnatural postures. It has many different clinical manifestations, and many different causes. More than 3 million people worldwide suffer from dystonia, yet there are few broadly effective treatments. In the past decade, progress in research has advanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of dystonia to a point where drug discovery efforts are now feasible. There are several strategies that can be used to develop novel therapeutics for dystonia. Existing therapies have only modest efficacy, but may be refined and improved to increase benefits while reducing side effects. Identifying rational targets for drug intervention based on the pathogenesis of dystonia is another strategy. The surge in both basic and clinical research discoveries has provided insights at all levels including etiological, physiological and nosological, to enable such a targeted approach. The empirical approach to drug discovery is complementary to the rational approach whereby compounds are identified using a non-mechanistic strategy. [MD1] With the recent development of multiple animal models of dystonia, it is now possible to develop assays and perform drug screens on vast number of compounds. This multifaceted approach to drug discovery in dystonia will likely provide lead compounds that can then be translated for clinical use. PMID:18394563

  16. Lutetium-177 Labeled Bombesin Peptides for Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tamila Stott; Bandari, Rajendra P; Jiang, Zongrun; Smith, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    The rare-earth radionuclides that decay by beta particle (β-) emission are considered to be ideal in the context of targeted radiotherapy. The rare-earth isotopes exist primarily in the 3+ oxidation state and are considered to be hard metal centers, requiring multidentate, hard donor ligands such as the poly(aminocarboxylates) for in vivo kinetic inertness. 177Lu is a rare-earth radionuclide that is produced in moderate specific activity (740 GBq/mg) by direct neutron capture of enriched 176Lu via the 176Lu(n,γ)177Lu nuclear reaction. 177Lu has a half-life of 6.71 d, decays by beta emission (Ebmax = 0.497 MeV), and emits two imagable photons (113keV, 3% and 208kev, 11%). High specific activity, no-carrier-added 177Lu can also be prepared by an indirect neutron capture nuclear reaction on a 176Yb target. Herein, we report upon bombesin (BBN) peptides radiolabeled with 177Lu. The impetus driving many of the research studies that we have described in this review is that the high-affinity gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR, BBN receptor subtype 2, BB2) has been identified in tissue biopsy samples and immortalized cell lines of many human cancers and is an ideal biomarker for targeting early-stage disease. Early on, the ability of GRPR agonists to be rapidly internalized coupled with a high incidence of GRPR expression on various neoplasias was a driving force for the design and development of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents targeting GRP receptor-positive tumors. Recent reports, however, show compelling evidence that radiopharmaceutical design and development based upon antagonist-type ligand frameworks clearly bears reexamination. Last of all, the ability to target multiple biomarkers simultaneously via a heterodimeric targeting ligand has also provided a new avenue to investigate the dual targeting capacity of bivalent radioligands for improved in vivo molecular imaging and treatment of specific human cancers. In this report, we describe recent advances

  17. Therapeutics in Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Killoran, Annie; Biglan, Kevin M

    2012-02-01

    OPINION STATEMENT: There is no specific treatment for Huntington's disease (HD). Its many symptoms of motor, psychiatric, and cognitive deterioration are managed with symptomatic relief, rehabilitation, and support. The only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HD is an antichoreic agent, tetrabenazine, but this drug is used sparingly because of uneasiness regarding its propensity to cause depression and suicidality in this population, which is already at risk for these complications. Neuroleptics are still first-line treatments for chorea accompanied by comorbid depression and/or behavioral or psychotic symptoms, as is often the case. Psychiatric features, which have a significant impact on a patient's professional and personal life, often become the major focus of management. In addition to neuroleptics, commonly used medications include antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anxiolytics, and psychostimulants. In contrast, few treatment options are available for cognitive impairment in HD; this remains an important and largely unmet therapeutic need. HD patients typically lack insight into their disease manifestations, failing to recognize their need for treatment, and possibly even arguing against it. Multipurpose medications are employed advantageously to simplify the medication regimen, so as to facilitate compliance and not overwhelm the patient. For example, haloperidol can be prescribed for a patient with chorea, agitation, and anorexia, rather than targeting each symptom with a different drug. This approach also limits the potential for adverse effects, which can be difficult to distinguish from the features of the disease itself. With HD's complexity, it is best managed with a multidisciplinary approach that includes a movement disorders specialist, a genetic counselor, a mental health professional, a physical therapist, and a social worker for support and coordination of services. As the disease progresses, there

  18. Therapeutic Devices for Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic devices provide new options for treating drug-resistant epilepsy. These devices act by a variety of mechanisms to modulate neuronal activity. Only vagus nerve stimulation, which continues to develop new technology, is approved for use in the United States. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of anterior thalamus for partial epilepsy recently was approved in Europe and several other countries. Responsive neurostimulation, which delivers stimuli to one or two seizure foci in response to a detected seizure, recently completed a successful multicenter trial. Several other trials of brain stimulation are in planning or underway. Transcutaneous magnetic stimulation (TMS) may provide a noninvasive method to stimulate cortex. Controlled studies of TMS split on efficacy, and may depend on whether a seizure focus is near a possible region for stimulation. Seizure detection devices in the form of “shake” detectors via portable accelerometers can provide notification of an ongoing tonic-clonic seizure, or peace of mind in the absence of notification. Prediction of seizures from various aspects of EEG is in early stages. Prediction appears to be possible in a subpopulation of people with refractory seizures and a clinical trial of an implantable prediction device is underway. Cooling of neocortex or hippocampus reversibly can attenuate epileptiform EEG activity and seizures, but engineering problems remain in its implementation. Optogenetics is a new technique that can control excitability of specific populations of neurons with light. Inhibition of epileptiform activity has been demonstrated in hippocampal slices, but use in humans will require more work. In general, devices provide useful palliation for otherwise uncontrollable seizures, but with a different risk profile than with most drugs. Optimizing the place of devices in therapy for epilepsy will require further development and clinical experience. PMID:22367987

  19. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  20. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  1. Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1982-11-01

    The finite element model LFESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment and Contaminant Transport Model) was synthesized under this study to simulate radionuclide transport in estuaries to obtain accurate radionuclide distributions which are affected by these factors: time variance, three-dimensional flow, temperature, salinity, and sediments. Because sediment transport and radionuclide adsorption/desorption depend strongly on sizes or types of sediments, FLESCOT simulates sediment and a sediment-sorbed radionuclide for the total of three sediment-size fractions (or sediment types) of both cohesive and noncohesive sediments. It also calculates changes of estuarine bed conditions, including bed elevation changes due to sediment erosion/deposition, and three-dimensional distributions of three bed sediment sizes and sediment-sorbed radionuclides within the bed. Although the model was synthesized for radionuclide transport, it is general enough to also handle other contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, or toxic chemicals. The model was checked for its capability for flow, water surface elevation change, salinity, sediment and radionuclide transport under various simple conditions first, confirming the general validity of the model's computational schemes. These tests also revealed that FLESCOT can use large aspect ratios of computational cells, which are necessary in handling long estuarine study areas. After these simple tests, FLESCOT was applied to the Hudson River estuary between Chelsea and the mouth of the river to examine how well the model can predict radionuclide transport through simulating tidally influenced three-dimensional flow, salinity, sediment and radionuclide movements with their interactions.

  2. Movement of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems by physical processes.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, Lynn R; Simon, Steven L; Gordeev, Konstantin I; Likhtarev, Ilya A; Maxwell, Reed M; Shinkarev, Sergei M

    2002-05-01

    Physical processes that effect the movement of radionuclides in the temperate environments post-deposition are considered in this paper. The physical processes considered include the interception of radionuclides by vegetation, resuspension, and vertical migration in soil. United States and Russian results on the interception of radionuclides are reviewed and defined in terms of models that are currently undergoing evaluation and revision. New results on resuspension are evaluated, and a preliminary new model for the time-dependent resuspension factor is proposed. Chernobyl-related results on the movement of radionuclides into the soil column are presented, as is a revised model for this process based upon recent results from Ukraine. PMID:12003017

  3. Radionuclide and radiation protection data handbook 2nd edition (2002).

    PubMed

    Delacroix, D; Guerre, J P; Leblanc, P; Hickman, C

    2002-01-01

    This handbook is a reference source of radionuclide and radiation protection information. Its purpose is to provide users of radionuclides in medicine, research and industry with consolidated and appropriate information and data to handle and transport radioactive substances safely. It is mainly intended for users in low and intermediate activity laboratories. Individual data sheets are provided for a wide range of commonly used radionuclides (144 in total). These radionuclides are classified into five different groups as a function of risk level, represented by colours red, orange, yellow, green and blue, in descending order of risk. PMID:11916063

  4. Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

  5. Radionuclides in Western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, D.T.; Styron, C.E.; Casella, V.R.

    1983-09-23

    The increase in domestic energy production coupled with the switch from oil and natural gas to coal as a boiler-fuel source have prompted various federal agencies to assess the potential environmental and health risks associated with coal-fired power plants. Because it has been suggested that Western coals contain more uranium than Eastern coals, particular concern has been expressed about radioactive emissions from the increasing number of power plants that burn low-sulfur Western coal. As a result, the radionuclides in coal program was established to analyze low-sulfur coal reserves in Western coal fields for radioactivity. Samples from seams of obvious commercial value were taken from 19 operating mines that represented 65% of Western coal production. Although the present study did not delve deeply into underlying causative factors, the following general conclusions were reached. Commercially exploited Western coals do not show any alarming pattern of radionuclide content and probably have lower radioactivity levels than Eastern coals. The materials that were present appeared to be in secular equilibrium in coal, and a detailed dose assessment failed to show a significant hazard associated with the combustion of Western coal. Flue gas desulfurization technology apparently has no significant impact on radionuclide availability, nor does it pose any significant radiologic health risks. This study has also shown that Western coals are not more radioactive than most soils and that most solid combustion products have emanation powers <1%, which greatly reduce dose estimates from this pathway. In summary, the current use of mined, Western coals in fossil-fueled power plants does not present any significant radiological hazard.

  6. Visualizing plumes of heavy metals and radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigiobbe, V.; Liu, T.; Bryant, S. L.; Hesse, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of the transport behaviors in porous media resides on the ability to reproduce fundamental phenomena in a lab setting. Experiments with quasi 2D tanks filled with beads are performed to study physical phenomena induced by chemical and fluid dynamic processes. When an alkaline solution containing heavy metals or radionuclides invades a low pH region, mixing due to longitudinal dispersion induces destabilization of the front forming a fast travelling pulse [1]. When the two fluids travel in parallel, instead, mixing induced by transverse dispersion creates a continuous leakage from the alkaline region into the acidic one forming a fast travelling plume [2] (Figure 1). Impact of these phenomena are on aquifers upon leaking of alkaline fluids, rich in heavy metals and radionuclides, from waste storage sites. Here, we report the results from a study where experiments with a quasi 2D tank are performed to analyze the effect of transverse mixing on strontium (Sr2+) transport. To visualize the leaking plume, a fluorescent dye (Fura-2) is added the acidic solution, which has been widely used in biomedical applications [3]. It is the aim of this work to optimize its application under the conditions relevant to this work. Spectrometric measurements of absorption and fluorescence show sensitivity of the dye to the presence of Sr2+ throughout a broad range of pH and Sr2+ concentration (Figure 2). In the absence of Sr2+, no significant absorption and fluorescence was measured, but as Sr2+ was added the relevant peaks increase significantly and sample dilution of tenfold was required to remain within the measuring threshold. These results show a strong sensitivity of the dye to the cation opening the opportunity to use Fura-2 as a tool to visualize heavy metals and radionuclides plumes. References[1] Prigiobbe et al. (2012) GRL 39, L18401. [2] Prigiobbe and Hesse (2015) in preparation. [3] Xu-Friedman and Regehr (2000) J. Neurosci. 20(12) 4414-4422.

  7. Bacteriophage Procurement for Therapeutic Purposes.

    PubMed

    Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Żaczek, Maciej; Łobocka, Małgorzata; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Górski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages), discovered 100 years ago, are able to infect and destroy only bacterial cells. In the current crisis of antibiotic efficacy, phage therapy is considered as a supplementary or even alternative therapeutic approach. Evolution of multidrug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacterial strains poses a real threat, so it is extremely important to have the possibility to isolate new phages for therapeutic purposes. Our phage laboratory and therapy center has extensive experience with phage isolation, characterization, and therapeutic application. In this article we present current progress in bacteriophages isolation and use for therapeutic purposes, our experience in this field and its practical implications for phage therapy. We attempt to summarize the state of the art: properties of phages, the methods for their isolation, criteria of phage selection for therapeutic purposes and limitations of their use. Perspectives for the use of genetically engineered phages to specifically target bacterial virulence-associated genes are also briefly presented. PMID:27570518

  8. Bacteriophage Procurement for Therapeutic Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Żaczek, Maciej; Łobocka, Małgorzata; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Górski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages), discovered 100 years ago, are able to infect and destroy only bacterial cells. In the current crisis of antibiotic efficacy, phage therapy is considered as a supplementary or even alternative therapeutic approach. Evolution of multidrug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacterial strains poses a real threat, so it is extremely important to have the possibility to isolate new phages for therapeutic purposes. Our phage laboratory and therapy center has extensive experience with phage isolation, characterization, and therapeutic application. In this article we present current progress in bacteriophages isolation and use for therapeutic purposes, our experience in this field and its practical implications for phage therapy. We attempt to summarize the state of the art: properties of phages, the methods for their isolation, criteria of phage selection for therapeutic purposes and limitations of their use. Perspectives for the use of genetically engineered phages to specifically target bacterial virulence-associated genes are also briefly presented. PMID:27570518

  9. Transdermal delivery of therapeutic agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof C. (Inventor); Hayes, Ryan T. (Inventor); Magnuson, James W. (Inventor); Giletto, Anthony (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A device for the transdermal delivery of a therapeutic agent to a biological subject that includes a first electrode comprising a first array of electrically conductive microprojections for providing electrical communication through a skin portion of the subject to a second electrode comprising a second array of electrically conductive microprojections. Additionally, a reservoir for holding the therapeutic agent surrounding the first electrode and a pulse generator for providing an exponential decay pulse between the first and second electrodes may be provided. A method includes the steps of piercing a stratum corneum layer of skin with two arrays of conductive microprojections, encapsulating the therapeutic agent into biocompatible charged carriers, surrounding the conductive microprojections with the therapeutic agent, generating an exponential decay pulse between the two arrays of conductive microprojections to create a non-uniform electrical field and electrokinetically driving the therapeutic agent through the stratum corneum layer of skin.

  10. Therapeutic cloning: promises and issues

    PubMed Central

    Kfoury, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Advances in biotechnology necessitate both an understanding of scientific principles and ethical implications to be clinically applicable in medicine. In this regard, therapeutic cloning offers significant potential in regenerative medicine by circumventing immunorejection, and in the cure of genetic disorders when used in conjunction with gene therapy. Therapeutic cloning in the context of cell replacement therapy holds a huge potential for de novo organogenesis and the permanent treatment of Parkinson’s disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and diabetes mellitus as shown by in vivo studies. Scientific roadblocks impeding advancement in therapeutic cloning are tumorigenicity, epigenetic reprogramming, mitochondrial heteroplasmy, interspecies pathogen transfer, low oocyte availability. Therapeutic cloning is also often tied to ethical considerations concerning the source, destruction and moral status of IVF embryos based on the argument of potential. Legislative and funding issues are also addressed. Future considerations would include a distinction between therapeutic and reproductive cloning in legislative formulations. PMID:18523539

  11. Metrics for antibody therapeutics development.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats can be produced through genetic and biological engineering techniques. These molecules are now filling the preclinical and clinical pipelines of every major pharmaceutical company and many biotechnology firms. Metrics for the development of antibody therapeutics, including averages for the number of candidates entering clinical study and development phase lengths for mAbs approved in the United States, were derived from analysis of a dataset of over 600 therapeutic mAbs that entered clinical study sponsored, at least in part, by commercial firms. The results presented provide an overview of the field and context for the evaluation of on-going and prospective mAb development programs. The expansion of therapeutic antibody use through supplemental marketing approvals and the increase in the study of therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats are discussed. PMID:20930555

  12. Radionuclide evaluation of nonmalignant bone disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.

    1983-02-01

    Recent advances in nuclear imaging have improved the noninvasive evaluation of patients with nonmalignant bone disorders. When bone scanning agents are combined with bone marrow scanning agents and gallium-67 scintigraphy, a more accurate diagnosis can be obtained. By selecting the appropriate imaging sequence, it is often possible to distinguish cellulitis from underlying osteomyelitis. In patients with total hip replacements, it may be possible to separate postsurgical changes from prosthetic loosening or infection. Stress fractures in joggers may be detected by radionuclide bone scintigraphy before radiographs become abnormal. These nuclear imaging procedures can be done in most hospitals.

  13. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed Central

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  14. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  15. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  16. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  17. Code System for Radionuclide Migration Calculations.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1988-02-26

    Version: 00 IONMIG is used to calculate the far-field transport of decaying radionuclides through a porous medium by diffusion and convection. It was specifically developed in support of the U. S. Subseabed Disposal program. For user specified velocity and temperature fields the convection-diffusion equation is solved in a sorbing porous medium. The sorption may be a function of species type, concentration, vertical position and local temperature. The formulation used is applicable to two-dimensional planar ormore » axisymmetric geometries. Zero flux conditions are assumed at all but the upper boundaries.« less

  18. Research remote laser methods for radionuclides monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kascheev, S. V.; Elizarov, Valentin V.; Grishkanich, Alexander S.; Bespalov, V. G.; Vasil'ev, Sergey K.; Zhevlakov, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Laser sensing can serve as a highly effective method of searching and monitoring of radioactive contamination. The first method is essence consists in definition the Sr90 and Сs137 concentration by excitation and registration of fluorescence at wavelength of λ = 0.347÷7.0 μm at laser sounding. The second method experiments were carried out under the Raman-scattering circuit. Preliminary results of investigation show the real possibility to register of leakage of a radionuclide with concentration at level of 108÷109 сm-3 on a safe distance from the infected object.

  19. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

  20. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

  1. Therapeutic postprostatectomy irradiation.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Emad; Forman, Jeffrey D; Tekyi-Mensah, Samuel; Bolton, Susan; Hart, Kim

    2002-06-01

    involvement, pathological stage, surgical margin, and perineural invasion. Upon multivariate analysis, only preradiation therapy PSA (P < 0.001) and the PSA trend during radiation therapy (P < 0.001) were significant factors. The results of therapeutic radiation for patients with elevated postprostatectomy PSA levels are sufficiently poor; other strategies should be explored as alternatives, including early adjuvant postprostatectomy irradiation or the use of combined hormonal and radiation therapy in the salvage situation. PMID:15046710

  2. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  3. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  4. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  5. Radionuclide complexation in xylem exudates of plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; McFadden, D.M.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    The plant xylem is the primary avenue for transport of nutrient and pollutant elements from the roots of aerial portions of the plant. It is proposed that the transport of reactive or hydrolyzable ions is facilitated by the formation of stable/soluble complexes with organic metabolites. The xylem exudates of soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams) were characterized as to their inorganic and organic components, complexation patterns for radionuclides, both in vivo and in vitro, and for class fractions of exudates using thin-layer electrophoresis. The radionuclides Pu-238 and Fe-59 were found primarily as organic acid complexes, while Ni-63 and Cd-109 were associated primarily with components of the amono acid fraction. Technetium-99 was found to be uncomplexed and transported as the pertechnetate ion. It was not possible to duplicate fully complexes formed in vivo by back reaction with whole exudates or class fractions, indicating the possible importance of plant induction processes, reaction kinetics and/or the formation of mixed ligand complexes. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Application of radionuclide ventriculography to cardiac screening

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, J. Jr.; Milner, M.R.; Chandeysson, P.L.; Rodman, D.J.; Okin, P.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1989-05-01

    Screening asymptomatic individuals for latent coronary disease often requires sequential testing because exercise electrocardiography typically produces more false positive than true positive results in a population with a low prevalence of coronary disease. Cardiac scintigraphy is a technique that may be employed as a confirmatory test in lieu of coronary arteriography to further evaluate the significance of a positive exercise electrocardiogram. Radionuclide ventriculography was employed in 98 asymptomatic individuals who were considered to be at moderate risk of heart disease after risk factor analysis and exercise electrocardiography. Seventeen (17%) patients had an abnormal study and underwent cardiac catheterization. Seven had coronary artery disease, two had cardiomyopathy, and eight were normal. Eighty-one (83%) patients had a normal study. Because the sensitivity of radionuclide ventriculography is 63-80%, it was postulated that 2 to 5 individuals with disease were missed. Thus, from a population with an 11-14% prevalence of disease, two subsets were identified. A large subset in which a prevalence of 2-6% could be estimated was separated from a much smaller one in which a prevalence of approximately 50% was demonstrated.

  7. Current status of radionuclide scrotal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.; Chen, D.

    1981-10-01

    Scrotal imaging with technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate consists of a radionuclide angiogram and static scrotal scans. Utilization of this study in patients presenting with an acute scrotum can dramatically reduce the number of surgical explorations for acute epididymitis. It can also aid in other aspects of differential diagnosis in patients presenting with either an acutely enlarged and/or painful scrotum or a scrotal mass. Ambiguities in previous descriptions of perfusion through the spermatic and extraspermatic cord vessels are described and distinguished from scrotal perfusion. The clinical and scintigraphic spectrum of testicular torsion, including spontaneous detorsion, early acute testicular torsion, midphase testicular torsion, and late phase or ''missed testicular torsion,'' is discussed and illustrated. The variety of patterns seen in acute epididymitis, including lateral and medial epididymal location, and focal epididymitis are described, as is the appearance of hydrocele as both a primary and secondary entity. The relationship of scrotal imaging to the overall clinical presentation and evaluation of these patients is emphasized in testicular torsion, torsion of the testicular appendages, epididymitis, abscess, trauma, tumor, spermatocele, and varicocele. The techniques, clinical utility, and relationship to radionuclide imaging of Doppler ultrasound and gray scale ultrasound scanning are reviewed. Doppler ultrasound results in many false negative studies in testicular torsion. Gray scale ultrasound is useful in clarifying the nature of scrotal masses.

  8. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; da Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  9. [Radionuclide therapy of endocrine-related cancer].

    PubMed

    Kratochwil, C; Giesel, F L

    2014-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the established radionuclide therapies for endocrine-related cancer that already have market authorization or are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Radioiodine therapy is still the gold standard for differentiated iodine-avid thyroid cancer. In patients with bone and lung metastases (near) total remission is seen in approximately 50% and the 15-year survival rate for these patients is approximately 90%. In contrast to the USA, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy has market approval in Europe. According to the current literature, in the setting of advanced stage neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, radiological remission can be achieved in >30% and symptom control in almost 80% of the treated patients. Somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapies (e.g. with DOTATATE or DOTATOC) demonstrated promising results in phase 2 trials, reporting progression-free survival in the range of 24-36 months. A first phase 3 pivotal trial for intestinal carcinoids is currently recruiting and another trial for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is planned. Radiopharmaceuticals based on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) or minigastrins are in the early evaluation stage for application in the treatment of insulinomas and medullary thyroid cancer. In general, radiopharmaceutical therapy belongs to the group of so-called theranostics which means that therapy is tailored for individual patients based on molecular imaging diagnostics to stratify target positive or target negative tumor phenotypes. PMID:25269725

  10. Lutetium-177-labeled gastrin releasing peptide receptor binding analogs: a novel approach to radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Panigone, S; Nunn, A D

    2006-12-01

    Optimization of therapy for individual patients remains a goal of clinical practice. Radionuclide imaging can identify those patients who may benefit from subsequent targeted therapy by providing regional information on the distribution of the target. An ideal situation may be when the imaging and the therapeutic compounds are the same agent. Two antibodies ([ [90Y]ibritumomab, [131I]tositumomab) are now approved for the systemic radiotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The main hurdle is to deliver higher absorbed doses to the more refractory solid tumors paying particular regard to the bone marrow toxicity. The low dose is thought to be a result of the large size of antibodies slowing delivery to the target. Peptides having high affinity to receptors expressed on cancer cells are a promising alternative. They are usually rapidly excreted from the body through renal and/or hepatobiliary excretion thus creating a prolonged accumulation of the radioactivity in the kidneys, which represents a recognized issue for systemic radiotherapy. The first radiopeptide developed was a somatostatin analogue, which led to a major breakthrough in the field. Beside the kidney issue, somatostatin use remains limited to few cancers that express receptors in sufficiently large quantities, mainly neuroendocrine tumors. The gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptor is an attractive target for development of new radiopeptides with diagnostic and therapeutic potential. This is based upon the functional expression of GRP receptors in several of the more prevalent cancers including prostate, breast, and small cell lung cancer. This review covers the efforts currently underway to develop new and clinically promising GRP-receptor specific molecules labeled with imageable and therapeutic radionuclides. PMID:17043628

  11. Nucleic acids as therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Salas, Luis M

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) and its precursors are applied to treat several pathologies and infections. TNA-based therapy has different rationales and mechanisms and can be classified into three main groups: 1) Therapeutic nucleotides and nucleosides; 2) Therapeutic oligonucleotides; and 3) Therapeutic polynucleotides. This review will focus in those TNAs that have reached clinical trials with anticancer and antiviral protocols, the two most common applications of TNAs. Although therapeutic nucleotides and nucleosides that interfere with nucleic acid metabolism and DNA polymerization have been successfully used as anticancer and antiviral drugs, they often produce toxic secondary effects related to dosage and continuous use. The use of oligonucleotides such as ribozyme and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs) showed promise as therapeutic moieties but faced several issues such as nuclease sensitivity, off-target effects and efficient delivery. Nevertheless, immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides and AS-ODNs represent the most successful group of therapeutic oligonucleotides in the clinic. A newer group of therapeutic oligonucleotides, the aptamers, is rapidly advancing towards early detection and treatment alternatives the have reached the commercial interest. Despite the very high in vitro efficiency of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) they present issues with intracellular target accessibility, specificity and delivery. DNA vaccines showed great promise, but they resulted in very poor responses in the clinic and further development is uncertain. Despite their many issues, the exquisite specificity and versatility of therapeutic oligonucleotides attracts a great deal of research and resources that will certainly convert them in the TNA of choice for treating cancer and viral diseases in the near future. PMID:18991725

  12. Radionuclide release from research reactor spent fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtius, H.; Kaiser, G.; Müller, E.; Bosbach, D.

    2011-09-01

    Numerous investigations with respect to LWR fuel under non oxidizing repository relevant conditions were performed. The results obtained indicate slow corrosion rates for the UO 2 fuel matrix. Special fuel-types (mostly dispersed fuels, high enriched in 235U, cladded with aluminium) are used in German research reactors, whereas in German nuclear power plants, UO 2-fuel (LWR fuel, enrichment in 235U up to 5%, zircaloy as cladding) is used. Irradiated research reactor fuels contribute less than 1% to the total waste volume. In Germany, the state is responsible for fuel operation and for fuel back-end options. The institute for energy research (IEF-6) at the Research Center Jülich performs investigation with irradiated research reactor spent fuels under repository relevant conditions. In the study, the corrosion of research reactor spent fuel has been investigated in MgCl 2-rich salt brine and the radionuclide release fractions have been determined. Leaching experiments in brine with two different research reactor fuel-types were performed in a hot cell facility in order to determine the corrosion behaviour and the radionuclide release fractions. The corrosion of two dispersed research reactor fuel-types (UAl x-Al and U 3Si 2-Al) was studied in 400 mL MgCl 2-rich salt brine in the presence of Fe 2+ under static and initially anoxic conditions. Within these experimental parameters, both fuel types corroded in the experimental time period of 3.5 years completely, and secondary alteration phases were formed. After complete corrosion of the used research reactor fuel samples, the inventories of Cs and Sr were quantitatively detected in solution. Solution concentrations of Am and Eu were lower than the solubility of Am(OH) 3(s) and Eu(OH) 3(s) solid phases respectively, and may be controlled by sorption processes. Pu concentrations may be controlled by Pu(IV) polymer species, but the presence of Pu(V) and Pu(IV) oxyhydroxides species due to radiolytic effects cannot

  13. Reuse of Material Containing Natural Radionuclides - 12444

    SciTech Connect

    Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.J.

    2012-07-01

    Disposal of and use of wastes containing natural radioactive material (NORM) or technologically enhanced natural radioactive material (TENORM) with excessive natural background as a building material is very important in the supervision body activity. At the present time, the residents of Octyabrsky village are under resettlement. This village is located just near the Priargunsky mining and chemical combine (Ltd. 'PPGHO'), one of the oldest uranium mines in our country. The vacated wooden houses in the village are demolished and partly used as a building material. To address the issue of potential radiation hazard of the wooden beams originating from demolition of houses in Octyabrsky village, the contents of the natural radionuclides (K-40, Th-232, Ra-226, U- 238) are being determined in samples of the wooden beams of houses. The NORM contents in the wooden house samples are higher, on average, than their content in the reference sample of the fresh wood shavings, but the range of values is rather large. According to the classification of waste containing the natural radionuclides, its evaluation is based on the effective specific activity. At the effective specific activity lower 1.5 kBq/kg and gamma dose rate lower 70 μR/h, the material is not considered as waste and can be used in building by 1 - 3 classes depending upon A{sub eff} value. At 1.5 kBq/kg < A{sub eff} ≤ 4 kBq/kg (4 class), the wooden beams might be used for the purpose of the industrial building, if sum of ratios between the radionuclide specific activity and its specific activity of minimum significance is lower than unit. The material classified as the waste containing the natural radionuclides has A{sub eff} higher 1.5 kBq /kg, and its usage for the purpose of house-building and road construction is forbidden. As for the ash classification and its future usage, such usage is unreasonable, because, according to the provided material, more than 50% of ash samples are considered as radioactive

  14. Renal Function Assessment During Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Erbas, Belkis; Tuncel, Murat

    2016-09-01

    Theranostics labeled with Y-90 or Lu-177 are highly efficient therapeutic approaches for the systemic treatment of various cancers including neuroendocrine tumors and prostate cancer. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has been used for many years for metastatic or inoperable neuroendocrine tumors. However, renal and hematopoietic toxicities are the major limitations for this therapeutic approach. Kidneys have been considered as the "critical organ" because of the predominant glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption by the proximal tubules, and interstitial retention of the tracers. Severe nephrotoxity, which has been classified as grade 4-5 based on the "Common Terminology Criteria on Adverse Events," was reported in the range from 0%-14%. There are several risk factors for renal toxicity; patient-related risk factors include older age, preexisting renal disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, previous nephrotoxic chemotherapy, metastatic lesions close to renal parenchyma, and single kidney. There are also treatment-related issues, such as choice of radionuclide, cumulative radiation dose to kidneys, renal radiation dose per cycle, activity administered, number of cycles, and time interval between cycles. In the literature, nephrotoxicity caused by PRRT was documented using different criteria and renal function tests, from serum creatinine level to more accurate and sophisticated methods. Generally, serum creatinine level was used as a measure of kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation based on serum creatinine was preferred by several authors. Most commonly used formulas for estimation of GFR are "Modifications of Diet in Renal Disease" (MDRD) equation and "Cockcroft-Gault" formulas. However, more precise methods than creatinine or creatinine clearance are recommended to assess renal function, such as GFR measurements using Tc-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), Cr-51-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), or

  15. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. A radionuclide dose calibrator is a radiation detection device intended to assay...

  17. Nevada test site radionuclide inventory and distribution: project operations plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kordas, J.F.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1982-06-01

    This document is the operational plan for conducting the Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The basic objective of this program is to inventory the significant radionuclides of NTS origin in NTS surface soil. The expected duration of the program is five years. This plan includes the program objectives, methods, organization, and schedules.

  18. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  19. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  2. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  3. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  6. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern...

  10. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... intended to apply a radionuclide source into the body or to the surface of the body for radiation...

  11. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... intended to apply a radionuclide source into the body or to the surface of the body for radiation...

  12. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... intended to apply a radionuclide source into the body or to the surface of the body for radiation...

  13. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... intended to apply a radionuclide source into the body or to the surface of the body for radiation...

  14. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

    2008-08-07

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  15. Mobility of chelated radionuclides in engineered concrete barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Dicke, C.A.; Smith, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    Concrete is a major component in many low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The use of concrete is widespread because of its physical and structural properties and because it provides geochemical control on metal and radionuclide releases. Organic compounds are often disposed with radionuclides in LLW disposal facilities. Interactions between radionuclides and chelating agents must be evaluated to estimate mobility of radionuclides in concrete vaults. This paper quantifies the effects of two common organic components [citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)] on radionuclide mobility in concrete barriers by using equilibrium geochemical calculations. Equilibrium speciation calculations indicate that some radionuclides are chelated in groundwater (pH 7) but are destabilized in the highly alkaline (pH 13) concrete pore fluids. Radionuclides complexed by by EDTA and citrate are replaced by calcium in the concrete pore fluids. In addition, the citrate nuclide complex reacts to form uncomplexed citrate in concrete pore fluids. The chemical performance of concrete LLW disposal facilities should not be compromised by small amounts of chelating agents disposed with some radionuclides. However, EDTA may form significant nickel and cobalt complexes above the pH important in the long-term service life of concrete barriers.

  16. Variations of cosmogenic radionuclide production rates along the meteorite orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Laubenstein, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Ustinova, G. K.

    2015-08-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in meteorites during their motion in space are natural detectors of the GCR intensity and variations along the meteorite orbits. On the basis of measured and calculated contents of cosmogenic radionuclides in the freshly fallen Chelyabinsk and Košice chondrites some peculiarities of generation of cosmogenic radionuclides of different half-lives in the chondrites of different orbits and dates of fall onto the Earth are demonstrated. Dependence of production rates of the radionuclides on the GCR variations in the heliosphere is analyzed. Using radionuclides with different half-lives it is possible to compare the average GCR intensity over various time periods. The measurement and theoretical analysis of cosmogenic radionuclides in consecutively fallen chondrites provide a unique information on the space-time continuum of the cosmogenic radionuclide production rates and their variations over a long time scale, which could be useful in correlative analyses of processes in the heliosphere. Some applications of cosmogenic radionuclide depth distribution in chondrites for estimation of their pre-atmospheric sizes are illustrated.

  17. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Parekkadan, Biju; Milwid, Jack M.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that are being clinically explored as a new therapeutic for treating a variety of immune-mediated diseases. First heralded as a regenerative therapy for skeletal tissue repair, MSCs have recently been shown to modulate endogenous tissue and immune cells. Preclinical studies of the mechanism of action suggest that the therapeutic effects afforded by MSC transplantation are short-lived and related to dynamic, paracrine interactions between MSCs and host cells. Therefore, representations of MSCs as drug-loaded particles may allow for pharmacokinetic models to predict the therapeutic activity of MSC transplants as a function of drug delivery mode. By integrating principles of MSC biology, therapy, and engineering, the field is armed to usher in the next generation of stem cell therapeutics. PMID:20415588

  18. Radionuclide migration in groundwater. Annual progress report for 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Research has continued at a low-level waste disposal facility to characterize the physicochemical species of radionuclides migrating in groundwater. This facility consists of an unlined basin and connecting trench which receives effluent water containing low levels of a wide variety of fission and activation products and trace amounts of transuranic radionuclides. The effluent water percolates through the soil and a small fraction of it emerges at seepage springs located some 260 meters from the trench. The disposal basin and trench are very efficient in retaining most of the radionuclides, but trace amounts of a number of radionuclides existing in mobile chemical forms migrate in the groundwater from the trench to the springs. This facility provides the opportunity for characterizing the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration in groundwaters, identifying retardation processes, and validating geochemical models. 13 references, 25 figures, 23 tables.

  19. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  20. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  1. Intravenous radionuclide cystography for the detection of vesicorenal reflux

    SciTech Connect

    Pollet, J.E.; Sharp, P.F.; Smith, F.W.; Davidson, A.I.; Miller, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    Intravenous radionuclide cystography using a single intravenous injection of 99mtechnetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, provides information on individual kidney function, coarse anatomy and vesicorenal reflux. This study investigates the effectiveness of intravenous radionuclide cystography in detecting reflux. In 58 children intravenous radionuclide cystography detected 53 ureters with reflux compared to 32 detected by voiding cystography. This difference was investigated further with patients in whom other test suggested reflux. While there was no statistically significant difference for patients having pyelonephritis or hydronephrosis, intravenous radionuclide cystography detected significantly more ureters with reflux in patients with abnormal ureteral orifices or infected urine and, therefore, predisposed to reflux. Intravenous radionuclide cystography is a more comprehensive and sensitive test for vesicorenal reflux than voiding cystography.

  2. A Coincidence Signature Library for Multicoincidence Radionuclide Analysis Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leon E.; Ellis, J E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Miley, Harry S.

    2003-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is currently developing multicoincidence systems to perform trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point, for applications that include emergency response, nuclear forensics, and environmental monitoring. Quantifying radionuclide concentrations with these systems requires a library of accurate emission intensities for each detected signature, for all candidate radionuclides. To meet this need, a Coincidence Lookup Library (CLL) is being developed to calculate the emission intensities of coincident signatures from a user-specified radionuclide, or conversely, to determine the radionuclides that may be responsible for a specific detected coincident signature. The algorithms used to generate absolute emission intensities and various query modes for our developmental CLL are described.

  3. Therapeutic Vaccines for Chronic Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autran, Brigitte; Carcelain, Guislaine; Combadiere, Béhazine; Debre, Patrice

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to prevent severe complications of a chronic infection by reinforcing host defenses when some immune control, albeit insufficient, can already be demonstrated and when a conventional antimicrobial therapy either is not available or has limited efficacy. We focus on the rationale and challenges behind this still controversial strategy and provide examples from three major chronic infectious diseases-human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and human papillomavirus-for which the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines is currently being evaluated.

  4. [Therapeutic touch and anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Satori, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    An innovative practice, therapeutic touch has been used for around ten years in the treatment of eating disorders. Delivered by nurse clinicians having received specific training, this approach is based on nursing diagnoses which identify the major symptoms of this pathology. The support is built around the body and its perceptions. Through the helping relationship, it mobilises the patient's resources to favour a relationship of trust, a letting-go, physical, psychological and emotional relaxation, and improves the therapeutic alliance. PMID:27615696

  5. Radionuclides and the birds at Ravenglass.

    PubMed

    Lowe, V P

    1991-01-01

    Since 1983, concern has been expressed about the apparent decline in numbers of birds in the Ravenglass estuary in west Cumbria, particularly of the black-headed gull colony on the Drigg dunes, and suggestions have been made that this decline might be due to excessive radiation in the birds' food and their general environment. Twelve species of marine invertebrates from Ravenglass, most of them known to be important foods for birds, were analysed, and further samples were taken from sites along the west Cumbrian coast. None of these samples showed excessive contamination with any of the radionuclides analysed. Analysis of a sample of bird carcasses from the areas showed oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) and shelduck (Tadorna tadorna) to have some of the highest concentrations of (137)Cs in their tissues; yet their breeding success and populations were not affected. Black-headed gulls, on the other hand, were found to be feeding mainly inland, and were the least contaminated with radionuclides of all the birds at Ravenglass, yet this species and its breeding success were in decline. Calculations of the total dose equivalent rate to the whole body of the most contaminated black-headed gull amounted to 9.8 x 10(-4) mSvh(-1) (approximately equal to 8.4 x 10(-4) mGy h(-1), whole body absorbed dose rate), and the background exposure dose was of the order of 8.3 x 10(-4) mGy h(-1). As a minimum chronic dose of 1000 mGy day(-1) has been found necessary to retard growth of nestling birds, and 9600 mGy over 20 days of incubation to cause the death of 50% of embryos in black-headed gulls' eggs, the concentrations of radionuclides in the foods, body tissues and general environment were at least three orders of magnitude too low to have had any effect. The more likely cause of the desertion of the gullery was the combination of an uncontrolled fox population, the severest outbreak of myxomatosis amongst the rabbits since 1954 and the driest May-July period on record, all

  6. Accumulation of radionuclides by plants as a monitor system.

    PubMed Central

    Koranda, J J; Robison, W L

    1978-01-01

    The accumulation of radionuclides by plants acting as a monitoring system in the environment may occur by two modes; foliar absorption by the leaves and shoot of the plant, or by root uptake from the soil. Data on plant accumulation of radionuclides may be obtained from studies of fission product radionuclides deposited as worldwide fallout, and from tracer studies of plant physiology. The epidermal features of plant foliage may exert an effect upon particle retention by leaves, and subsequent uptake of radionuclides from the surface. The transport of radionuclides across the cuticle and epidermis of plant leaves is determined in part by the anatomy of the leaf, and by physiological factors. The foliar uptake of fallout radionuclides, 99Sr, 131I, and 137Cs, is described with examples from the scientific literature. The environmental half-life of 131I, for example, is considerably shorter than its physical half-life because of physical and biological factors which may produce a half-life as short as 0.23/day. 99Sr and 137Cs are readily taken up by the leaf, but 137Cs undergoes more translocation into fruit and seeds than 99Sr which tends to remain in the plant part in which it was initially absorbed. Soil-root uptake is conditioned primarily by soil chemical and physical factors which may selectively retain a radionuclide, such as 137Cs. The presence of organic matter, inorganic colloids (clay), and competing elements will strongly affect the uptake of 99Sr and 137Cs by plants from the soil. The role of plants as monitors of radionuclides is twofold: as monitors of recent atmospheric releases of radionuclides; and as indicators of the long-term behavior of aged deposits of radionuclides in the soil. PMID:367767

  7. 49 CFR 173.433 - Requirements for determining basic radionuclide values, and for the listing of radionuclides on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for determining basic radionuclide values, and for the listing of radionuclides on shipping papers and labels. 173.433 Section 173.433 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 49 CFR 173.433 - Requirements for determining basic radionuclide values, and for the listing of radionuclides on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for determining basic radionuclide values, and for the listing of radionuclides on shipping papers and labels. 173.433 Section 173.433 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmuleva, N. I.; Barinov, E. Ya.; Petukhov, V. L.

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - Cs-137 and Sr-90 in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. Cs-137 level was 3.7...9.2 times higher than Sr-90 one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg).

  10. Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy: Potential new areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jeffrey Y.C. . E-mail: jwong@coh.org

    2006-10-01

    Radiation oncology is entering an exciting new era with therapies being delivered in a targeted fashion through an increasing number of novel approaches. External beam radiotherapy now integrates functional and anatomic tumor imaging to guide delivery of conformal radiation to the tumor target. Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT) adds an important new dimension by making available to Radiation oncologist biologically targeted radiation therapy. Impressive clinical results with antibody-targeted radiotherapy, leading to the Food and Drug Administration's approval of two anti-CD20 radiolabeled antibodies, highlight the potential of STaRT. Optimization strategies will further improve the efficacy of STaRT by improving delivery systems, modifying the tumor microenvironment to increase targeted dose, and maximizing dose effect. Ultimately, the greatest potential for STaRT will not be as monotherapy, but as therapy integrated into established multimodality regimens and used as adjuvant or consolidative therapy in patients with minimal or micrometastatic disease.

  11. Testing waste forms containing high radionuclide loadings

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste during NRC-prescribed tests and in a disposal environment. This paper describes the resin solidification task of that program, including the present status and results to date. An unusual aspect of this investigation is the use of commercial grade, ion exchange resins that have been loaded with over five times the radioactivity normally seen in a commercial application. That dramatically increases the total radiation dose to the resins. The objective of the resin solidification task is to determine the adequacy of test procedures specified by NRC for ion exchange resins having high radionuclide loadings.

  12. Cadastral valuation of land contaminated with radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnikov, A. N.; Sapozhnikov, P. M.; Sanzharova, N. I.; Sviridenko, D. G.; Zhigareva, T. L.; Popova, G. I.; Panov, A. V.; Kozlova, I. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The methodology and procedure for cadastral valuation of land in the areas contaminated with radionuclides are presented. The efficiency of rehabilitation measures applied to decrease crop contamination to the levels satisfying sanitary-hygienic norms is discussed. The differentiation of cadastral value of radioactively contaminated agricultural lands for the particular farms and land plots is suggested. An example of cadastral valuation of agricultural land contaminated during the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident is given. It is shown that the use of sandy and loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 37-185 and >185 kBq/m2 for crop growing is unfeasible. The growing of grain crops and potatoes on clay loamy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 555-740 kBq/m2 is unprofitable. The maximum cadastral value of radioactively contaminated lands is typical of leached chernozems.

  13. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

    1998-07-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

  14. GETOUT. Radionuclide Migration from Underground Source

    SciTech Connect

    Cloninger, M.O.; DeMier, W.V.; Liddell, P.J.; Eurkholder, H.C.

    1985-04-01

    GETOUT is a set of four FORTRAN programs and associated subroutines developed as an aid to investigate the migration of radionuclide chains from an underground source. The model to be analyzed is an underground nuclear waste disposal site and a uniform one-dimensional soil column that connects the site with a surface water body. At an arbitrary time after the waste is deposited, the radioactive material is released to an underground aquifer which flows at constant velocity directly through the soil column into the surface water body. The program takes into account the complications introduced by the radioactive decay of first-order chains to produce other species which have different absorption characteristics and, in turn, decay at different rates.

  15. Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    2000-06-01

    Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

  16. Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mertz

    2000-12-21

    The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types.

  17. Chancellor Water Colloids: Characterization and Radionuclide Association

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Fattah, Amr I.

    2012-06-18

    Concluding remarks about this paper are: (1) Gravitational settling, zeta potential, and ultrafiltration data indicate the existence of a colloidal phase of both the alpha and beta emitters in the Chancellor water; (2) The low activity combined with high dispersion homogeneity of the Chancellor water indicate that both alpha and beta emitters are not intrinsic colloids; (3) Radionuclides in the Chancellor water, particularly Pu, coexist as dissolved aqueous and sorbed phases - in other words the radionuclides are partitioned between the aqueous phase and the colloidal phase; (4) The presence of Pu as a dissolved species in the aqueous phase, suggests the possibility of Pu in the (V) oxidation state - this conclusion is supported by the similarity of the k{sub d} value of Pu determined in the current study to that determined for Pu(V) sorbed onto smectite colloids, and the similar electrokinetic behavior of the Chancellor water colloids to smectite colloids; (5) About 50% of the Pu(V) is in the aqueous phase and 50% is sorbed on colloids (mass concentration of colloids in the Chancellor water is 0.12 g/L); (6) The k{sub d} of the Pu and the beta emitters (fission products) between aqueous and colloidal phases in the Chancellor water is {approx}8.0 x 10{sup 3} mL/g using two different activity measurement techniques (LSC and alpha spectroscopy); (7) The gravitational settling and size distributions of the association colloids indicate that the properties (at least the physical ones) of the colloids to which the alpha emitters are associated with seem to be different that the properties of the colloids to which the beta emitters are associated with - the beta emitters are associated with very small particles ({approx}50 - 120 nm), while the alpha emitters are associated with relatively larger particles; and (8) The Chancellor water colloids are extremely stable under the natural pH and ionic strength conditions, indicating high potential for transport in the

  18. Underground radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nimz, G.J. ); Thompson, J.L. )

    1992-06-22

    This document reviews results from a number of studies concerning underground migration of radionuclides from nuclear test cavities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Discussed are all cases known to the Department of Energy's Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program where radionuclides have been detected outside of the immediate vicinity of nuclear test cavities that are identifiable as the-source of the nuclides, as well as cases where radionuclides might have been expected and were intentionally sought but not fixed. There are nine locations where source-identifiable radionuclide migration has been detected, one where migration was purposely induced by pumping, and three where migration might be expected but was not found. In five of the nine cases of non-induced migration, the inferred migration mechanism is prompt fracture injection during detonation. In the other four cases, the inferred migration mechanism is water movement. In only a few of the reviewed cases can the actual migration mechanism be stated with confidence, and the attempt has been made to indicate the level of confidence for each case. References are cited where more information may be obtained. As an aid to future study, this document concludes with a brief discussion of the aspects of radionuclide migration that, as the present review indicates, are not yet understood. A course of action is suggested that would produce a better understanding of the phenomenon of radionuclide migration.

  19. Identification of radionuclides of concern in Hanford Site environmental cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R.W.; Jenquin, U.P.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to consider which radionuclides should be included in conducting environmental surveys relative to site remediation at Hanford. During the operation of the Hanford site, the fission product radionuclides and a large number of activation products including the transuranic radionuclides were formed. The reactor operations and subsequent chemical processing and metallurgical operations resulted in the environmental release of gaseous and liquid effluents containing some radionuclides; however, the majority of the radionuclides were stored in waste tanks or disposed to trenches and cribs. Since some contamination of both soils and subsurface waters occurred, one must decide which radionuclides still remain in sufficient amounts to be of concern at the time when site remediation is to be complete. Many of the radionuclides which have constituted the principal hazard during site operation have half-lives on the order of a year or less; therefore, they will have decayed to insignificant amounts by the year 2030, a possible date for completion of the remediation process.

  20. Dynamics and transformations of radionuclides in soils and ecosystem health

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J. ); Ainsworth, Calvin C. ); Driver, Crystal J. ); Cataldo, Dominic A. )

    1998-12-01

    The chemical behavior of radionuclides can vary widely in soil and sediment environments. Equally important, for a given radionuclide the physico-chemical properties of the solids and aqueous phase can greatly influence a radionuclides behavior. Radionuclides can conceivably occur in soils as soluble-free, inorganic-soluble-complexed, organic-soluble, complexed, adsorbed, precipitated, coprecipitated, or solid structural species. While it is clear that an assessment of a radionuclide?s soil chemistry and potential shifts in speciation will yield a considerable understanding of its behavior in the natural environment, it does not directly translate to bioavailability or its impact on ecosystems health. The soil chemical factors have to be linked to food chain considerations and other ecological parameters that directly tie to an analysis of ecosystem health. In general, the movement of radionuclides from lower to higher trophic levels diminishes with each trophic level in both aqua tic and terrestrial systems. In some cases, transfer is limited because of low absorption/assimilation by successive trophic organisms (Pu, U); for other radionuclides (Tc, H) assimilation may be high but rapid metabolic turnover and low retention greatly reduce tissue concentrations available to predator species. Still others are chemical analogs of essential elements whose concentrations are maintained under strict metabolic control in tissues (Cs) or are stored in tissues seldom consumed by other organisms (Sr storage in exoskeleton, shells, and bone). Therefore, the organisms that receive the greatest ingestion exposures are those in lower trophic positions or are in higher trophic levels but within simple, short food chains. Food source, behavior, and habitat influence the accumulation of radionuclides in animals.

  1. SU-E-T-256: Optimizing the Combination of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Agents Using a Multi-Scale Patient-Specific Monte Carlo Dosimetry Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Besemer, A; Bednarz, B; Titz, B; Grudzinski, J; Weichert, J; Hall, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Combination targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) is appealing because it can potentially exploit different mechanisms of action from multiple radionuclides as well as the variable dose rates due to the different radionuclide half-lives. The work describes the development of a multiobjective optimization algorithm to calculate the optimal ratio of radionuclide injection activities for delivery of combination TRT. Methods: The ‘diapeutic’ (diagnostic and therapeutic) agent, CLR1404, was used as a proof-of-principle compound in this work. Isosteric iodine substitution in CLR1404 creates a molecular imaging agent when labeled with I-124 or a targeted radiotherapeutic agent when labeled with I-125 or I-131. PET/CT images of high grade glioma patients were acquired at 4.5, 24, and 48 hours post injection of 124I-CLR1404. The therapeutic 131I-CLR1404 and 125ICLR1404 absorbed dose (AD) and biological effective dose (BED) were calculated for each patient using a patient-specific Monte Carlo dosimetry platform. The optimal ratio of injection activities for each radionuclide was calculated with a multi-objective optimization algorithm using the weighted sum method. Objective functions such as the tumor dose heterogeneity and the ratio of the normal tissue to tumor doses were minimized and the relative importance weights of each optimization function were varied. Results: For each optimization function, the program outputs a Pareto surface map representing all possible combinations of radionuclide injection activities so that values that minimize the objective function can be visualized. A Pareto surface map of the weighted sum given a set of user-specified importance weights is also displayed. Additionally, the ratio of optimal injection activities as a function of the all possible importance weights is generated so that the user can select the optimal ratio based on the desired weights. Conclusion: Multi-objective optimization of radionuclide injection activities

  2. Cluster analysis of radionuclide concentrations in beach sand.

    PubMed

    de Meijer, R J; James, I R; Jennings, P J; Koeyers, J E

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents a method in which natural radionuclide concentrations of beach sand minerals are traced along a stretch of coast by cluster analysis. This analysis yields two groups of mineral deposit with different origins. The method deviates from standard methods of following dispersal of radionuclides in the environment, which are usually based on the construction of lines of equal concentrations. The paper focuses on the methodology of quantitatively correlating activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in two groups of minerals. The methodology is widely applicable, but is demonstrated for natural radioactivity in beach sands along the coast of South West Australia. PMID:11214891

  3. Consequence ranking of radionuclides in Hanford tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schmittroth, F.A.; De Lorenzo, T.H.

    1995-09-01

    Radionuclides in the Hanford tank waste are ranked relative to their consequences for the Low-Level Tank Waste program. The ranking identifies key radionuclides where further study is merited. In addition to potential consequences for intrude and drinking-water scenarios supporting low-level waste activities, a ranking based on shielding criteria is provided. The radionuclide production inventories are based on a new and independent ORIGEN2 calculation representing the operation of all Hanford single-pass reactors and the N Reactor.

  4. Measurement of nuclear-physical characteristics of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Geidel'man, A.M.; Egorov, Yu.S.; Nedovesov, V.G.; Shchukin, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    This article provides the revised data for the nuclear-physical characteristics (NPC) measurements of seven radionuclides: /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 125m/Te, /sup 119m/Sn, /sup 75/Se, and /sup 120/Tm. These radionuclides are widely used in the preparation of various radionuclide products, standard sources of ionizing radiation, and standard solutions. The emission characteristics data for the nuclides may be used for calibration of semiconductor spectrometers with regard to energy and efficiency.

  5. Use of tree bark to monitor radionuclide pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Brownridge, J.D.

    1985-08-01

    The outer surface bark of many trees is an excellent monitoring source of fallout radionuclides. The accumulation and retention of these pollutants is evident by the presence of /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 144/Ce and /sup 155/Eu in the outer layer of bark from many trees surveyed during this study. The accumulation and retention of these and other radionuclides suggest that tree bark is an ecosystem monitoring resource that should be exploited for these and possible other environmental pollutants. Therefore, the emphasis of this study was a broad survey of the detectability of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in and on tree bark rather than a narrow quantitative study.

  6. Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS 364 Revision.

    PubMed

    Carini, Franca

    2009-09-01

    Information on the transfer of radionuclides to fruits was almost absent in the former TRS 364 "Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments". The revision of the Handbook, carried out under the IAEA Programme on Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS), takes into account the information generated in the years following the Chernobyl accident and the knowledge produced under the IAEA BIOMASS (Biosphere Modelling and Assessment) Programme in the years 1997-2000. This paper describes the most important processes concerning the behaviour of radionuclides in fruits reported in the IAEA TRS 364 Revision and provides recommendations for research and modelling. PMID:19027202

  7. Radiobiological characterization of post-lumpectomy focal brachytherapy with lipid nanoparticle-carried radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrycushko, Brian A.; Gutierrez, Alonso N.; Goins, Beth; Yan, Weiqiang; Phillips, William T.; Otto, Pamela M.; Bao, Ande

    2011-02-01

    Post-operative radiotherapy has commonly been used for early stage breast cancer to treat residual disease. The primary objective of this work was to characterize, through dosimetric and radiobiological modeling, a novel focal brachytherapy technique which uses direct intracavitary infusion of β-emitting radionuclides (186Re/188Re) carried by lipid nanoparticles (liposomes). Absorbed dose calculations were performed for a spherical lumpectomy cavity with a uniformly injected activity distribution using a dose point kernel convolution technique. Radiobiological indices were used to relate predicted therapy outcome and normal tissue complication of this technique with equivalent external beam radiotherapy treatment regimens. Modeled stromal damage was used as a measure of the inhibition of the stimulatory effect on tumor growth driven by the wound healing response. A sample treatment plan delivering 50 Gy at a therapeutic range of 2.0 mm for 186Re-liposomes and 5.0 mm for 188Re-liposomes takes advantage of the dose delivery characteristics of the β-emissions, providing significant EUD (58.2 Gy and 72.5 Gy for 186Re and 188Re, respectively) with a minimal NTCP (0.046%) of the healthy ipsilateral breast. Modeling of kidney BED and ipsilateral breast NTCP showed that large injected activity concentrations of both radionuclides could be safely administered without significant complications.

  8. [Therapeutic potential of optogenetic neuromodulation].

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, Marie; Senova, Yann-Suhan; Palfi, Stéphane; Dugué, Guillaume P

    2015-04-01

    Optogenetic neuromodulation techniques, which have emerged during the last 15 years, have considerably enhanced our ability to probe the functioning of neural circuits by allowing the excitation and inhibition of genetically-defined neuronal populations using light. Having gained tremendous popularity in the field of fundamental neuroscience, these techniques are now opening new therapeutic avenues. Optogenetic neuromodulation is a method of choice for studying the physiopathology of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders in a range of animal models, and could accelerate the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. New therapeutic protocols employing optogenetic neuromodulation may also emerge in the near future, offering promising alternative approaches for disorders which lack appropriate treatments, such as pharmacoresistant epilepsy and inherited retinal degeneration. PMID:25958759

  9. Therapeutic cloning and reproductive liberty.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert

    2009-04-01

    Concern for "reproductive liberty" suggests that decisions about embryos should normally be made by the persons who would be the genetic parents of the child that would be brought into existence if the embryo were brought to term. Therapeutic cloning would involve creating and destroying an embryo, which, if brought to term, would be the offspring of the genetic parents of the person undergoing therapy. I argue that central arguments in debates about parenthood and genetics therefore suggest that therapeutic cloning would be prima facie unethical unless it occurred with the consent of the parents of the person being cloned. Alternatively, if therapeutic cloning is thought to be legitimate, this undermines the case for some uses of reproductive cloning by implying that the genetic relation it establishes between clones and DNA donors does not carry the same moral weight as it does in cases of normal reproduction. PMID:19240247

  10. Oligonucleotide conjugates for therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient pharmacokinetic properties and poor cellular uptake are the main hurdles for successful therapeutic development of oligonucleotide agents. The covalent attachment of various ligands designed to influence the biodistribution and cellular uptake or for targeting specific tissues is an attractive possibility to advance therapeutic applications and to expand development options. In contrast to advanced formulations, which often consist of multiple reagents and are sensitive to a variety of preparation conditions, oligonucleotide conjugates are defined molecules, enabling structure-based analytics and quality control techniques. This review gives an overview of current developments of oligonucleotide conjugates for therapeutic applications. Attached ligands comprise peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, aptamers and small molecules, including cholesterol, tocopherol and folic acid. Important linkage types and conjugation methods are summarized. The distinct ligands directly influence biochemical parameters, uptake machanisms and pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:23883124

  11. PSMA Ligands for Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy of Prostate Cancer: Clinical Status.

    PubMed

    Lütje, Susanne; Heskamp, Sandra; Cornelissen, Alexander S; Poeppel, Thorsten D; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A M W; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra; Bockisch, Andreas; Gotthardt, Martin; Rijpkema, Mark; Boerman, Otto C

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men worldwide, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. At present, imaging of PCa has become increasingly important for staging, restaging, and treatment selection. Until recently, choline-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) represented the state-of-the-art radionuclide imaging technique for these purposes. However, its application is limited to patients with high PSA levels and Gleason scores. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising new target for specific imaging of PCa, because it is upregulated in the majority of PCa. Moreover, PSMA can serve as a target for therapeutic applications. Currently, several small-molecule PSMA ligands with excellent in vivo tumor targeting characteristics are being investigated for their potential in theranostic applications in PCa. Here, a review of the recent developments in PSMA-based diagnostic imaging and therapy in patients with PCa with radiolabeled PSMA ligands is provided. PMID:26681984

  12. PSMA Ligands for Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy of Prostate Cancer: Clinical Status

    PubMed Central

    Lütje, Susanne; Heskamp, Sandra; Cornelissen, Alexander S.; Poeppel, Thorsten D.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A. M. W.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra; Bockisch, Andreas; Gotthardt, Martin; Rijpkema, Mark; Boerman, Otto C.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men worldwide, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. At present, imaging of PCa has become increasingly important for staging, restaging, and treatment selection. Until recently, choline-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) represented the state-of-the-art radionuclide imaging technique for these purposes. However, its application is limited to patients with high PSA levels and Gleason scores. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising new target for specific imaging of PCa, because it is upregulated in the majority of PCa. Moreover, PSMA can serve as a target for therapeutic applications. Currently, several small-molecule PSMA ligands with excellent in vivo tumor targeting characteristics are being investigated for their potential in theranostic applications in PCa. Here, a review of the recent developments in PSMA-based diagnostic imaging and therapy in patients with PCa with radiolabeled PSMA ligands is provided. PMID:26681984

  13. Therapeutic target database update 2014: a resource for targeted therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhu, Feng; Xu, Feng; Chen, Shang Ying; Zhang, Peng; Li, Ying Hong; Yang, Sheng Yong; Wei, Yu Quan; Tao, Lin; Chen, Yu Zong

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe an update of the Therapeutic Target Database (http://bidd.nus.edu.sg/group/ttd/ttd.asp) for better serving the bench-to-clinic communities and for enabling more convenient data access, processing and exchange. Extensive efforts from the research, industry, clinical, regulatory and management communities have been collectively directed at the discovery, investigation, application, monitoring and management of targeted therapeutics. Increasing efforts have been directed at the development of stratified and personalized medicines. These efforts may be facilitated by the knowledge of the efficacy targets and biomarkers of targeted therapeutics. Therefore, we added search tools for using the International Classification of Disease ICD-10-CM and ICD-9-CM codes to retrieve the target, biomarker and drug information (currently enabling the search of almost 900 targets, 1800 biomarkers and 6000 drugs related to 900 disease conditions). We added information of almost 1800 biomarkers for 300 disease conditions and 200 drug scaffolds for 700 drugs. We significantly expanded Therapeutic Target Database data contents to cover >2300 targets (388 successful and 461 clinical trial targets), 20 600 drugs (2003 approved and 3147 clinical trial drugs), 20 000 multitarget agents against almost 400 target-pairs and the activity data of 1400 agents against 300 cell lines. PMID:24265219

  14. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and

  15. Focused interventional cancer radiation therapy using lipid nanoparticle-carried radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrycushko, Brian Andrew

    2011-07-01

    The overall goal in cancer therapy is to achieve complete tumor eradication while causing minimal damage to healthy organs and tissue. Based on the broadly accepted theory of tumor control being a probabilistic event, every fraction of radiation treatment kills a portion of cancer cells and higher radiation dose should result in improved tumor control. Ultimately, radiation oncologists must balance the delivery of high enough radiation to tumors for achieving tumor control while not delivering so much radiation as to cause unacceptable normal tissue risk. This project centers on the locoregional delivery of lipid (liposome) nanoparticle-carried therapeutic radionuclides (186Re/ 188Re) to apply a focal and ablative radiation dose to target regions while greatly decreasing normal tissue toxicity of surrounding tissues. Specific Aim 1 includes the development of dosimetric and radiobiological models to assess small animal / patient specific radionuclide therapy at a voxel level. This will be used for a proof of concept study to characterize a novel technique to treat the post-lumpectomy wall for residual early stage breast cancer while simultaneously treating draining lymph nodes. Specific Aim 2 will look at methods of improving therapeutic ratio by evaluating in vivo characteristics of different liposome formulations and tumor vasculature modification chemicals following direct intratumoral infusion of 99m Tc-liposomes within a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenograft (HNSCC) model in nude rats. Specific Aim 3 will evaluate the therapy potential for direct intratumoral injection of 186Re-liposomes within a human HNSCC xenograft model in nude rats using the dosimetric and radiobiological models of Aim 1 with improved treatment modifications from Aim 2.

  16. Characterization of Tumor-Avid Antibody Fragments Genetically Engineered for Mono-Specific Radionuclide Chelation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, T.P.

    2003-12-31

    The successful clinical application of targeted-radiopharmaceuticals depends on the development of molecules that optimize tumor specific radionuclide deposition and minimize non-specific organ irradiation. To this end, this proposal outlines a research effort to identify and evaluate novel antibodies and antibody fragments that bind breast tumors. The tumor-avid antibodies will be investigated for as imaging and therapeutic agents and to gain a better understanding of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of radiolabeled tumor-avid antibody fragments through the use of site-specifically labeled molecules. Antibodies or antibody fragments, that bind breast carcinoma carbohydrate antigens, will be obtained from hybridoma or bacteriophage library screening. More specifically, antibody fragments that bind the carcinoma-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen will be radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re at a natural amino acid chelation site and will be investigated in vivo for their abilities to target human breast tumors. In addition, site-specific radiolabeled antibody fragments will be biosynthesized using misacylated suppressor tRNAs. Homogeneously radiolabeled populations of antibody fragments will be used to investigate the effects of radionuclide location and chelation chemistries on their biodistribution and metabolism. It is hypothesized that site-specifically radiolabeled antibody fragments will possess enhanced tumor imaging and therapeutic properties due to optimal label location and conjugation chemistries. New insights into the factors that govern antibody metabolism in vivo are also expected from this work. Results from these studies should enhance our ability to design and synthesize radiolabeled antibody fragments that have improved pharmacokinetic properties. The studies in this proposal involve basic research into the development of antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals, with the ultimate goal of application in humans. This type of basic

  17. Monitoring release of disposable radionuclides in the Kara sea: Bioaccumulation of long-lived radionuclides in echinoderms and molluscs

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present proposal is to continue and extend our research on the trophic transfer of important radionuclides in benthic fauna of the Kara Sea. This project is assessing the extent to which select species of seastars, brittle stars, and clams typical of the Kara Sea concentrate and retain a variety of long-lived radionuclides known to be (or suspected to be) present in the disposed wastes in the Russian Arctic. The rates and routes of uptake and depuration of isotopes in the same or in closely related species are being quantified so that endemic benthic organisms can be assessed as potential bioindicators of released radionuclides in Arctic waters.

  18. Developments in Bioremediation of Soils and Sediments Pollutedwith Metals and Radionuclides: 2. Field Research on Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.; Tabak, Henry H.

    2007-03-15

    Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides has had manyfield tests, demonstrations, and full-scale implementations in recentyears. Field research in this area has occurred for many different metalsand radionuclides using a wide array of strategies. These strategies canbe generally characterized in six major categories: biotransformation,bioaccumulation/bisorption, biodegradation of chelators, volatilization,treatment trains, and natural attenuation. For all field applicationsthere are a number of critical biogeochemical issues that most beaddressed for the successful field application. Monitoring andcharacterization parameters that are enabling to bioremediation of metalsand radionuclides are presented here. For each of the strategies a casestudy is presented to demonstrate a field application that uses thisstrategy.

  19. SRNL RADIONUCLIDE FIELD LYSIMETER EXPERIMENT: BASELINE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Bagwell, L.; Powell, B.; Almond, P.; Emerson, H.; Hixon, A.; Jablonski, J.; Buchanan, C.; Waterhouse, T.

    2012-10-17

    The purpose of this document is to compile information regarding experimental design, facility design, construction, radionuclide source preparation, and path forward for the ten year Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radionuclide Field Lysimeter Experiment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This is a collaborative effort by researchers at SRNL and Clemson University. The scientific objectives of this study are to: Study long-term radionuclide transport under conditions more representative of vadose zone conditions than laboratory experiments; Provide more realistic quantification of radionuclide transport and geochemistry in the vadose zone, providing better information pertinent to radioactive waste storage solutions than presently exists; Reduce uncertainty and improve justification for geochemical models such as those used in performance assessments and composite analyses.

  20. Radionuclide limits for vault disposal at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    1992-02-04

    The Savannah River Site is developing a facility called the E-Area Vaults which will serve as the new radioactive waste disposal facility beginning early in 1992. The facility will employ engineered below-grade concrete vaults for disposal and above-grade storage for certain long-lived mobile radionuclides. This report documents the determination of interim upper limits for radionuclide inventories and concentrations which should be allowed in the disposal structures. The work presented here will aid in the development of both waste acceptance criteria and operating limits for the E-Area Vaults. Disposal limits for forty isotopes which comprise the SRS waste streams were determined. The limits are based on total facility and vault inventories for those radionuclides which impact groundwater, and or waste package concentrations for those radionuclides which could affect intruders.

  1. COLLABORATION: INTERFACIAL SOIL CHEMISTRY OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobility of radionuclides (Cs+, Sr2+) in the vadose zone is controlled by sorptive interactions with natural soil particles. Weathering of silicates and intercalation of clay minerals with hydroxy -aluminum and -aluminosilicate species under the intense geochemical conditions in...

  2. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    SciTech Connect

    J.P. Adams; M.L. Carboneau; W.E. Allred

    1999-02-01

    The National Low Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has published a report containing key information about selected radionuclides that are most likely to contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility. The information includes physical and chemical characteristics, production means, waste forms, behavior of the radionuclide in soils, plants, groundwater, and air, and biological effects in animals and humans. The radionuclides included in this study comprise all of the nuclides specifically listed in 10CFR61.55, Tables 1 and 2, 3 H, 14 C, 59 Ni, 60 Co, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 241 Pu, and 242 Cm. Other key radionuclides addressed in the report include 237 Np, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. This paper summarizes key information contained within this report.

  3. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, James Paul; Carboneau, Michael Leonard; Allred, William Edgar

    1999-03-01

    The National Low Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has published a report containing key information about selected radionuclides that are most likely to contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility. The information includes physical and chemical characteristics, production means, waste forms, behavior of the radionuclide in soils, plants, groundwater, and air, and biological effects in animals and humans. The radionuclides included in this study comprise all of the nuclides specifically listed in 10CFR61.55, Tables 1 and 2, 3 H, 14 C, 59 Ni, 60 Co, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 241 Pu, and 242 Cm. Other key radionuclides addressed in the report include 237 Np, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. This paper summarizes key information contained within this report.

  4. Using environmental radionuclides as fingerprints to study streambank erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of sediment source areas in the watershed is a key component for designing management strategies to reduce sediment and chemical loads from the watershed. Potential sediment sources in a watershed can be characterized (fingerprinted) using diagnostic environmental radionuclides, ...

  5. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... radionuclide which may be enclosed in a sealed container made of gold, titanium, stainless steel, or platinum and intended for medical purposes to be placed onto a body surface or into a body cavity or tissue...

  6. Using environmental radionuclides as fingerprints to study streambank erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of sediment source areas in the watershed is a key component for designing management strategies to reduce sediment and chemical loads from watersheds. Potential sediment sources in watersheds can be characterized (fingerprinted) using diagnostic environmental radionuclides, chem...

  7. Personal dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for 1252 radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Otto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides are useful for routine calculations in radiation protection in industry, medicine and research. They give a simple and often sufficient estimate of dose rates during production, handling and storage of radionuclide sources, based solely on the source's activity. The latest compilation of such conversion coefficients dates from 20 y ago, based on nuclear decay data published 30 y ago. The present publication provides radionuclide-specific conversion coefficients to personal dose based on the most recent evaluations of nuclear decay data for 1252 radionuclides and fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for monoenergetic radiations. It contains previously unknown conversion coefficients for >400 nuclides and corrects those conversion coefficients that were based on erroneous decay schemes. For the first time, estimates for the protection quantity Hp(3) are included. PMID:25349458

  8. Biomolecular Mechanisms Controlling Metal and Radionuclide Transformations in Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans

    SciTech Connect

    Beliaev, Alexander S.; Fredrickson, James K.; Loeffler, Frank E.; Sanford, Robert A.

    2006-06-01

    Microbiological reduction and immobilization of U(VI) and Tc(VII) has been proposed as a strategy for remediating radionuclide-contaminated environments. Numerous studies focusing on the reduction kinetics and speciation of these metals have been carried out using contaminated sediment samples, microbial consortia, and pure bacterial cultures. While previous work with model organisms has increased the general understanding of radionuclide transformation processes, fundamental questions regarding radionuclide reduction mechanisms by indigenous microorganisms are poorly understood, especially under the commonly encountered scenario where multiple electron acceptors are present. Therefore, the overall goal of the proposed research is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of radionuclide biotransformation by Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans, a predominant member of indigenous microorganism commonly found in contaminated subsurface environments, and to assess the effects of relevant environmental factors affecting these transformation reactions.

  9. Site Characterization for MNA of Radionuclides in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation is often evaluated as a component of the remedy for ground water contaminated with radionuclides. When properly employed, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may provide an effective knowledge-based remedy where a thorough engineering analysis inform...

  10. Radionuclide Imaging Applications in Cardiomyopathies and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Harinstein, Matthew E; Soman, Prem

    2016-03-01

    Multiple epidemiological factors including population aging and improved survival after acute coronary syndromes have contributed to a heart failure (HF) prevalence in the USA in epidemic proportions. In the absence of transplantation, HF remains a progressive disease with poor prognosis. The structural and functional abnormalities of the myocardium in HF can be assessed by various radionuclide imaging techniques. Radionuclide imaging may be uniquely suited to address several important clinical questions in HF such as identifying etiology and guiding the selection of patients for coronary revascularization. Newer approaches such as autonomic innervation imaging, phase analysis for synchrony assessment, and other molecular imaging techniques continue to expand the applications of radionuclide imaging in HF. In this manuscript, we review established and evolving applications of radionuclide imaging for the diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of HF. PMID:26841785

  11. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Radionuclides In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attentuation) within the subsurface. In gen...

  12. Subsurface Characterization To Support Evaluation Of Radionuclide Transport And Attenuation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

  13. Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B

    2005-09-28

    The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.

  14. Modeling the Dispersal and Deposition of Radionuclides: Lessons from Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ApSimon, H. M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Described are theoretical models that simulate the dispersion of radionuclides on local and global scales following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Discusses the application of these results to nuclear weapons fallout. (CW)

  15. Therapy Talk: Analyzing Therapeutic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic discourse is the talk-in-interaction that represents the social practice between clinician and client. This article invites speech-language pathologists to apply their knowledge of language to analyzing therapy talk and to learn how talking practices shape clinical roles and identities. A range of qualitative research approaches,…

  16. DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM IN THERAPEUTIC SITUATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARROLL, EDWARD J.

    THE CONCEPT OF DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM IS USED TO EXAMINE THE OCCURRENCE OF CHANGE IN A THERAPEUTIC INTERVIEW AND TO PROPOSE A THEORY OF THERAPY. BY ANALYZING THE WORKINGS OF THE PSYCHOSOCIAL SYSTEM THROUGH THE GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY, IT IS POSSIBLE TO SEE HOW CHANGE OCCURS IN AN INDIVIDUAL FAMILY OR COMMUNITY. APPLIED TO A FAMILY INTERVIEW, THE MODEL…

  17. Therapeutic role of dietary fibre.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R.; Fedorak, R.; Frohlich, J.; McLennan, C.; Pavilanis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of dietary fibre and fibre supplements in health and disease is reported, and the components of dietary fibre and its respective mechanical and metabolic effects with emphasis on its therapeutic potential are reviewed. Practical management guidelines are provided to help physicians encourage patients identified as having fibre deficiency to increase dietary fibre intake to the recommended level. PMID:8388284

  18. Scenario Writing: A Therapeutic Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddock, Billy D.

    1989-01-01

    Introduces scenario writing as useful therapeutic technique. Presents case study of woman in midst of divorce and custody fight to illustrate context in which technique was applied. Suggests additional applications. Concludes that good response is more likely for clients who possess good writing skills although other clients may use their own…

  19. Radionuclide-labeled nanostructures for In Vivo imaging of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Kim, Minho; Hartman, Kevin L.; Kang, Keon Wook; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2015-05-01

    Molecular imaging plays an important role in the non-invasive diagnosis and the guiding or monitoring of disease treatment. Different imaging modalities have been developed, and each method possesses unique strengths. While a variety of molecules have been used previously in nuclear imaging, the exceptional properties of nanostructures in recent research enable the deployment of accurate and efficient diagnostic agents using radionuclide-nanostructures. This review focuses on the radionuclide labeling strategies of various nanostructures and their applications for multimodality tumor imaging.

  20. Statistical analyses of plume composition and deposited radionuclide mixture ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Terrence D.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Brito, Roxanne; Hunt, Brian D.; Osborn, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    A proposed method is considered to classify the regions in the close neighborhood of selected measurements according to the ratio of two radionuclides measured from either a radioactive plume or a deposited radionuclide mixture. The subsequent associated locations are then considered in the area of interest with a representative ratio class. This method allows for a more comprehensive and meaningful understanding of the data sampled following a radiological incident.

  1. Bioaccumulation of radionuclides in fertilized Canadian Shield lake basins.

    PubMed

    Bird, G A; Hesslein, R H; Mills, K H; Schwartz, W J; Turner, M A

    1998-07-11

    Radionuclide tracers of heavy metals (59Fe, 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 85Sr, 134Cs and 203Hg) representing potential contamination from nuclear power plants, industry and agriculture were added to separate basins of Lake 226, Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario. The two basins were part of a eutrophication experiment and differed in their trophic status; the north basin (L226N) was eutrophic whereas the south basin (L226S) was mesotrophic. Our objective was to determine the uptake of the radionuclides by biota and the effect of lake trophic status on their bioaccumulation. The trophic status of the lakes did not appear to have a marked effect on the accumulation of radionuclides by the biota. This may have been because of a mid-summer leakage of nutrients between the basins which enhanced primary production in L226S, because there is a time lag between primary production and the availability of the radionuclides to the fishes or because trophic status does not affect the uptake of at least some of these radionuclides. However, there was a tendency for faster uptake of the radionuclides in L226N by fish than L226S, but the differences were not significant. Concentrations in the biota generally decreased in the order: fathead minnow > pearl dace > tadpoles > slimy sculpin > leeches. Concentrations in biota generally decreased in the order. 65Zn > 203Hg > 75Se > 134Cs > 60Co > 85Sr = 59Fe. Cobalt-60 concentrations in tadpoles were greater than in the other biota. Radionuclide concentrations in the tissues of lake whitefish indicated that uptake was predominantly from food. Radionuclide concentrations were usually higher in the posterior gut, liver and kidney than in other tissues, whereas body burdens were generally high in the muscle for 75Se, 134Cs and 203Hg; kidney and gut for 60Co; and bone for 65Zn and 75Se. Mercury-203 burdens were also high in the bone and gut. PMID:9718743

  2. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    SciTech Connect

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified.

  3. Seepage basin radionuclide transport in sediments and vegetation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Jerome, K.M.

    1993-12-31

    Radionuclide concentrations were measured in soil and vegetation growing adjacent to and in the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins as part of the plan for closure of the basin system. The results of the measurements provide some information about the mobility of the radionuclides introduced into the basins. {sup 90}Sr is the most mobile of the radionuclides in soil. Its high mobility and high relative uptake by vegetation cause {sup 90}Sr to be distributed throughout the basin system. {sup 137}Cs is not as mobile in the basin soil, limiting its uptake by vegetation growing on the edge of the seepage basins; however, it is readily taken up by the vegetation growing in the basins. Soil mobility and vegetation uptake is relatively low for all of the transuranic radionuclides. For the most part these radionuclides remain near the surface of the basin soils where they were absorbed from the waste-water. The relative role of soil mobility and vegetation uptake on the distribution of radionuclide at the basins was futher evaluated by comparing the vegetation concentration ratio and the half-depth of penetration of the radionuclides in the basin soil. The results suggest that vegetation processes dominate in determining the concentration of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs in the vegetation. The influences of soil and vegetation are more balanced for {sup 90}Sr. The other radionuclides exhibit both low soil mobility and low vegetation uptake. The lack of soil mobility is seen in the lower concentrations found in vegetation growing on the edge of the basin compared to those growing in the basin.

  4. Compositions and methods for removal of toxic metals and radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuero, Raul G. (Inventor); McKay, David S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for the removal of toxic metals or radionuclides from source materials. Toxic metals may be removed from source materials using a clay, such as attapulgite or highly cationic bentonite, and chitin or chitosan. Toxic metals may also be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan. Radionuclides may be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan.

  5. Uniform surface complexation approaches to radionuclide sorption modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.R.; Pabalan, R.T.; Muller, P.; Bertetti, F.P.

    1995-12-01

    Simplified surface complexation models, based on a uniform set of model parameters have been developed to address complex radionuclide sorption behavior. Existing data have been examined, and interpreted using numerical nonlinear least-squares optimization techniques to determine the necessary binding constants. Simplified modeling approaches have generally proven successful at simulating and predicting radionuclide sorption on (hydr)oxides and aluminosilicates over a wide range of physical and chemical conditions.

  6. Radionuclide surveillance of the allografted pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    George, E.A.; Salimi, Z.; Carney, K.; Castaneda, M.; Garvin, P.J.

    1988-04-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphy to detect posttransplantation complications of the allografted pancreas, we retrospectively reviewed 209 scintigrams obtained with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-SC) and /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate (/sup 99m/Tc-GH). The scintigraphic studies were performed in 37 recipients of simultaneous renal and pancreatic allografts harvested from the same donor. /sup 99m/Tc-SC was used as an indicator of thrombotic vasculitis; pancreatic perfusion and blood-pool parameters were monitored with /sup 99m/Tc-GH. In 11 of the 37 recipients, scintigraphic abnormalities suggested posttransplantation infarction. Recurrent episodes of acute rejection of the pancreatic allograft, which always coincided with acute rejection of the renal allograft, were monitored in 24 recipients. Rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis was suggested in 12 of the 24 recipients and persisted in 10 recipients for several weeks after improvement of renal allograft rejection. Pancreatic atrophy was suggested scintigraphically in 16 of the 24 recipients with recurrent episodes of rejection. Spontaneous pancreatic-duct obstruction and obstructive pancreatitis were associated with a scintigraphic pattern similar to that of rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis. We concluded that the specific radionuclides used in this series are useful for the surveillance and assessment of posttransplantation pancreatic infarction, acute rejection, pancreatitis, and atrophy

  7. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for metastatic paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Pinato, David J; Black, James R M; Ramaswami, Ramya; Tan, Tricia M; Adjogatse, Delali; Sharma, Rohini

    2016-05-01

    There is little evidence to direct the management of malignant paragangliomas (mPGL) beyond initial surgical treatment. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), using somatostatin analogues, is effective in other neuroendocrine tumours, but data on its efficacy in treating mPGL are scarce. We report safety and efficacy outcomes from a case series of five patients with advanced mPGLs treated with (177)Lu-DOTATATE PRRT. The mean age of our cohort was 34 years (range 16-47); 4 patients were male with bone disease being the most prevalent metastatic site. PRRT scheme varied between 1 and 4 cycles, with premature cessation due to suspected pneumonitis in one case and disease progression in another. Three patients with previously documented progressive disease achieved stabilization following treatment; one had partial response and one was treatment refractory. Median progression-free survival was 17 months (range 0-78 months). 177-Lu-DOTATATE is an effective therapy in mPGLs in this molecularly defined patient cohort, warranting further investigation in larger studies including hereditary and sporadic mPGL. PMID:27059363

  8. Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

    1999-04-02

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolite{trademark} NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900{trademark}, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material.

  9. Radionuclide Imaging of Musculoskeletal Infection: A Review.

    PubMed

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    There are numerous imaging tests for diagnosing musculoskeletal infection. Radiographs are routinely performed, because even when not diagnostic, they provide an anatomic overview of the region of interest that could influence subsequent procedure selection and interpretation. MRI is sensitive and provides superb anatomic detail. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. (67)Ga is used primarily for spondylodiskitis. Although in vitro labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide test of choice for complicating osteomyelitis such as diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection, it is not useful for spondylodiskitis. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments have limitations and are not widely available. (111)In-biotin is useful for spondylodiskitis. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of the antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin are promising infection-specific agents. (18)F-FDG is the radiopharmaceutical of choice for spondylodiskitis. Its role in diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection is not established. Preliminary data suggest (68)Ga may be useful in musculoskeletal infection. (124)I-fialuridine initially showed promise as an infection-specific radiopharmaceutical, but subsequent investigations were disappointing. The development of PET/CT and SPECT/CT imaging systems, which combine anatomic and functional imaging, has revolutionized diagnostic imaging. These hybrid systems are redefining the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected or known infection and inflammation by improving diagnostic accuracy and influencing patient management. PMID:27390160

  10. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

  11. New Trends in Radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Guang-Uei; Wang, Yuh-Feng; Su, Hung-Yi; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Ko, Chi-Lun; Yen, Ruoh-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been widely used clinically as one of the major functional imaging modalities for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) for decades. Ample evidence has supported the use of MPI as a useful and important tool in the diagnosis, risk stratification and treatment planning for CAD. Although popular in the United States, MPI has become the most frequently used imaging modality among all nuclear medicine tests in Taiwan. However, it should be acknowledged that MPI SPECT does have its limitations. These include false-positive results due to certain artifacts, false-negative due to balanced ischemia, complexity and adverse reaction arising from current pharmacological stressors, time consuming nature of the imaging procedure, no blood flow quantitation and relatively high radiation exposure. The purpose of this article was to review the recent trends in nuclear cardiology, including the utilization of positron emission tomography (PET) for MPI, new stressor, new SPECT camera with higher resolution and higher sensitivity, dynamic SPECT protocol for blood flow quantitation, new software of phase analysis for evaluation of LV dyssynchrony, and measures utilized for reducing radiation exposure of MPI. PMID:27122946

  12. Radionuclide correlations at TMI-2 for 10 CFR 61 compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Deltete, C.P.; Hofstetter, K.J.

    1989-07-01

    A detailed review and evaluation of all radionuclide analysis results from the TMl-2 waste has helped develop scaling factors for difficult to measure radionuclides. Analytic procedures and results from this research are applicable to waste classification for other sites involving higher-than-normal fuel leakage. Individual utilities and industry organizations, including EPRI, are developing waste classification programs to comply with NRC regulation 10 CFR 61, implemented in December 1983. Much of this effort has focused on the use of scaling factors to correlate the presence of difficult-to-measure radionuclides (Tc-99, C-14, Ni-63, I-129, and transuranics) with nuclides more readily measured in power reactor waste streams (such as Co-60 and Cs-137). Researchers have invariably concluded that the quantifiable results are insufficient to establish defensible scaling factors for some radionuclides, such as I-129 and Tc-99. The TMI-2 cleanup operations have yielded more data, with more observable radionuclide, than previous waste classification efforts. The additional data on 10 CFR 61 radionuclide correlations provided through characterizations of the TMI-2 waste may prove beneficial to a broad sector of the industry. 22 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Simulation of radionuclide transport in U. S. agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, R.D.; Baes, C.F. III

    1982-01-01

    Because of the recent concern about the impact of energy technologies on man and related health effects, there has emerged a need for models to calculate or predict the effects of radionuclides on man. A general overview is presented of a model that calculates the ingrowth of radionuclides into man's food chain. The FORTRAN IV computer program TERRA, Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides in Agriculture, simulates the build-up of radionuclides in soil, four plant food compartments, in meat and milk from beef, and in the livestock food compartments that cause radionuclide build-up in milk and meat from beef. A large data set of spatially oriented parameters has been developed in conjunction with TERRA. This direct-access data set is called SITE, Specific Information on the Terrestrial Environment, and contains 35 parameters for each of 3525 half-degree longitude-latitude cells which define the lower 48 states. TERRA and SITE are used together as a package for determining radionuclide concentrations in man's food anywhere within the conterminous 48 states due to atmospheric releases.

  14. Radionuclides' Content Speciation and Fingerprinting of Nigerian Tin Mining Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olise, F. S.; Oladejo, O. F.; Owoade, O. K.; Almeida, S. M.; Ho, M. D.; Olaniyi, H. B.

    2012-04-01

    Sediment and process-waste samples rich in cassiterite, monazite and zircon, which are of industrial interest, were analysed for the natural series radionuclides, 232Th and 238U and the non-series radionuclide, 40K using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. The natural radionuclides' radioactivity in the samples from the tin-rich areas of Jos, Nigeria was determined using K0-INAA. The obtained results have a high degree of reliability judging from the techniqués accuracy, precision and its non-dependence on secular equilibrium and density correction problems inherent in gamma spectrometry as well as rigorous contamination-prone sample preparation requirements of other methods. Radionuclides speciation and ratios, giving radionuclide fingerprinting of the tin mining tailings is reported. The measured radionuclides activity levels are several orders of magnitude higher than UNSCEAR reference values, revealing the pollution potential of the tin mining and process activities on the surrounding areas, vis-à-vis heavy particulate matter load, leaching into various water channels and direct exposure to gamma rays emitted from the houses and facilities built from the generated wastes. The observed activity levels reflects possible worst scenario situation and the data would not only be of use to the government in its remediation plan for the study area but will also serve as important information for the nuclear science and technology programme about to be embarked upon. Methods of checking exposure have also been suggested.

  15. MEDECOR--a medical decorporation tool to assist first responders, receivers, and medical reach-back personnel in triage, treatment, and risk assessment after internalization of radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Waller, Ed; Wilkinson, Diana

    2010-10-01

    After a radiological dispersal device (RDD) event, it is possible for radionuclides to enter the human body through inhalation, ingestion, and skin and wound absorption. From a health physics perspective, it is important to know the magnitude of the intake to perform dosimetric assessments. From a medical perspective, removal of radionuclides leading to dose aversion (hence risk reduction) is of high importance. The efficacy of medical decorporation strategies is extremely dependent upon the time of treatment delivery after intake. The "golden hour," or more realistically 3-4 h, is optimal when attempting to increase removal of radionuclides from extracellular fluids prior to cellular incorporation. To assist medical first response personnel in making timely decisions regarding appropriate treatment delivery modes, it is desirable to have a software tool that compiles existing radionuclide decorporation therapy data and allows a user to perform simple diagnosis leading to optimized decorporation treatment strategies. In its most simple application, the software is a large database of radionuclide decorporation strategies and treatments. The software can also be used in clinical interactive mode, in which the user inputs the radionuclide, estimated activity, route of intake and time since exposure. The software makes suggestions as to the urgency of treatment (i.e., triage) and the suggested therapy. Current developments include risk assessment which impacts the potential risk of delivered therapy and resource allocation of therapeutic agents. The software, developed for the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND), is titled MEDECOR (MEdical DECORporation). The MEDECOR tool was designed for use on both personal digital assistant and laptop computer environments. The tool was designed using HTML/Jscript, to allow for ease of portability amongst different computing platforms. This paper presents the features of MEDECOR, results of testing at a major NATO

  16. Calculation of Accumulated Radiation Doses to Man from Radionuclides Found in Food Products and from Radionuclides in the Environment.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1981-02-17

    PABLM calculates internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. It can be used to calculate accumulated doses to 23 possible body organs or tissues for any one or a combination of radionuclides. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in themore » environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. A chain decay scheme is used; it includes branching to account for transitions to and from isomeric states. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years.« less

  17. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  18. Therapeutic approaches for celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Plugis, Nicholas M.; Khosla, Chaitan

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease is a common, lifelong autoimmune disorder for which dietary control is the only accepted form of therapy. A strict gluten-free diet is burdensome to patients and can be limited in efficacy, indicating there is an unmet need for novel therapeutic approaches to supplement or supplant dietary therapy. Many molecular events required for disease pathogenesis have been recently characterized and inspire most current and emerging drug-discovery efforts. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) confirm the importance of human leukocyte antigen genes in our pathogenic model and identify a number of new risk loci in this complex disease. Here, we review the status of both emerging and potential therapeutic strategies in the context of disease pathophysiology. We conclude with a discussion of how genes identified during GWAS and follow-up studies that enhance susceptibility may offer insight into developing novel therapies. PMID:26060114

  19. Translating connexin biology into therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Becker, David L; Phillips, Anthony R; Duft, Bradford J; Kim, Yeri; Green, Colin R

    2016-02-01

    It is 45 years since gap junctions were first described. Universities face increasing commercial pressures and declining federal funding, with governments and funding foundations showing greater interest in gaining return on their investments. This review outlines approaches taken to translate gap junction research to clinical application and the challenges faced. The need for commercialisation is discussed and key concepts behind research patenting briefly described. Connexin channel roles in disease and injury are also discussed, as is identification of the connexin hemichannel as a therapeutic target which appears to play a role in both the start and perpetuation of the inflammasome pathway. Furthermore connexin hemichannel opening results in vascular dieback in acute injury and chronic disease. Translation to human indications is illustrated from the perspective of one connexin biotechnology company, CoDa Therapeutics, Inc. PMID:26688335

  20. [Therapeutic use of cannabis derivatives].

    PubMed

    Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The therapeutic use of cannabis has generated a lot of interest in the past years, leading to a better understanding of its mechanisms of action. Countries like the United States and Canada have modified their laws in order to make cannabinoid use legal in the medical context. It's also the case in France now, where a recent decree was issued, authorizing the prescription of medication containing "therapeutic cannabis" (decree no. 2013-473, June 5, 2013). Cannabinoids such as dronabinol, Sativex and nabilone have been tested for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. These agents are most promising to relieve chronic pain associated with cancer, with human immunodeficiency virus infection and with multiple sclerosis. However, longer-term studies are required to determine potential long-term adverse effects and risks of misuse and addiction. PMID:24701869

  1. [Concept of the therapeutic community].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, H

    1983-08-01

    The historic development of therapeutic communities is discussed, and it is shown that the term has been neither conceptualized not operationalized. Their unclear aims are considered to be utopian, and the author stresses that previous studies on such communities have been too superficial. The following problems have not hitherto received attention: 1. micro- and macrosocial relationships, 2. the role of the supervisor (authority problems), 3. norms and valuation systems, 4. discipline and sanctions, 5. the problem of roles, 6. questions of indicants and efficacy. The introduction of therapeutic communities is superfluous as a means of improving the socialist health services: it is sufficient to implement the principles of socialist democracy by means of appropriate training programmes. PMID:6635034

  2. Training assessors in Therapeutic Assessment.

    PubMed

    Haydel, Marianne E; Mercer, Barbara L; Rosenblatt, Erin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of the comprehensive Therapeutic Assessment training model (Finn, 2007) with a child and his mother. The mother observed the child's testing sessions and was actively involved in a family intervention session as a way of translating assessment results into practice. One psychologist administered the psychological tests with the child, and 2 other clinicians worked with the mother throughout the process. We offer ideas about learning and training in the context of our case in Therapeutic Assessment. We investigate the parallel process between the way in which parents learn about their child's perspective and the way in which clinicians learn about the family's perspective. We discuss our discoveries in the context of planning case interventions. We explore the impact of trauma and ways of holding and containing this difficult work within our community and with each other. PMID:21184325

  3. Myc proteins as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, WC; Weiss, WA

    2010-01-01

    Myc proteins (c-myc, Mycn and Mycl) target proliferative and apoptotic pathways vital for progression in cancer. Amplification of the MYCN gene has emerged as one of the clearest indicators of aggressive and chemotherapy-refractory disease in children with neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. Phosphorylation and ubiquitin-mediated modulation of Myc protein influence stability and represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Phosphorylation of Myc proteins is controlled in-part by the receptor tyrosine kinase/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR signaling, with additional contributions from Aurora A kinase. Myc proteins regulate apoptosis in part through interactions with the p53/Mdm2/Arf signaling pathway. Mutation in p53 is commonly observed in patients with relapsed neuroblastoma, contributing to both biology and therapeutic resistance. This review examines Myc function and regulation in neuroblastoma, and discusses emerging therapies that target Mycn. PMID:20101214

  4. Sinigrin and Its Therapeutic Benefits.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Anisha; Dwivedi, Anupma; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2016-01-01

    Sinigrin (allyl-glucosinolate or 2-propenyl-glucosinolate) is a natural aliphatic glucosinolate present in plants of the Brassicaceae family, such as broccoli and brussels sprouts, and the seeds of Brassica nigra (mustard seeds) which contain high amounts of sinigrin. Since ancient times, mustard has been used by mankind for its culinary, as well as medicinal, properties. It has been systematically described and evaluated in the classical Ayurvedic texts. Studies conducted on the pharmacological activities of sinigrin have revealed anti-cancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing properties and biofumigation. This current review will bring concise information about the known therapeutic activities of sinigrin. However, the information on known biological activities is very limited and, hence, further studies still need to be conducted and its molecular mechanisms also need to be explored. This review on the therapeutic benefits of sinigrin can summarize current knowledge about this unique phytocompounds. PMID:27043505

  5. Therapeutic cloning and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Koh, Chester J; Atala, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    A severe shortage of donor organs available for transplantation in the United States leaves patients suffering from diseased and injured organs with few treatment options. Scientists in the field of tissue engineering apply the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and engineering to construct biological substitutes that will restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. Therapeutic cloning, where the nucleus from a donor cell is transferred into an enucleated oocyte in order to extract pluripotent embryonic stem cells, offers a potentially limitless source of cells for tissue engineering applications. The present chapter reviews recent advances that have occurred in therapeutic cloning and tissue engineering and describes applications of these new technologies that may offer novel therapies for patients with end-stage organ failure. PMID:15094294

  6. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics Conference

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Scott, Jamie; Larrick, James W; Plückthun, Andreas; Veldman, Trudi; Adams, Gregory P; Parren, Paul WHI; Chester, Kerry A; Bradbury, Andrew; Reichert, Janice M; Huston, James S

    2013-01-01

    The Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics conference, which serves as the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in Huntington Beach, CA from Sunday December 8 through Thursday December 12, 2013. The scientific program will cover the full spectrum of challenges in antibody research and development, and provide updates on recent progress in areas from basic science through approval of antibody therapeutics. Keynote presentations will be given by Leroy Hood (Institute of System Biology), who will discuss a systems approach for studying disease that is enabled by emerging technology; Douglas Lauffenburger (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), who will discuss systems analysis of cell communication network dynamics for therapeutic biologics design; David Baker (University of Washington), who will describe computer-based design of smart protein therapeutics; and William Schief (The Scripps Research Institute), who will discuss epitope-focused immunogen design.   In this preview of the conference, the workshop and session chairs share their thoughts on what conference participants may learn in sessions on: (1) three-dimensional structure antibody modeling; (2) identifying clonal lineages from next-generation data sets of expressed VH gene sequences; (3) antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; (4) the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on the antibody response; (5) directed evolution; (6) antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; (7) use of knowledge-based design to guide development of complementarity-determining regions and epitopes to engineer or elicit the desired antibody; (8) optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; (9) antibodies in a complex environment; (10) polyclonal, oligoclonal and bispecific antibodies; (11) antibodies to watch in 2014; and (12) polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity.

  7. Targeting telomerase for cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Shay, J W; Keith, W N

    2008-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of advanced malignancies is continuous cell growth and this almost universally correlates with the reactivation of telomerase. Although there is still much we do not understand about the regulation of telomerase, it remains a very attractive and novel target for cancer therapeutics. Several clinical trials have been initiated, and in this review we highlight some of the most promising approaches and conclude by speculating on the role of telomerase in cancer stem cells. PMID:18231105

  8. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  9. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Tharp, Kevin M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  10. Yessotoxin, a Promising Therapeutic Tool

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Botana, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Yessotoxin (YTX) is a polyether compound produced by dinoflagellates and accumulated in filter feeding shellfish. No records about human intoxications induced by this compound have been published, however it is considered a toxin. Modifications in second messenger levels, protein levels, immune cells, cytoskeleton or activation of different cellular death types have been published as consequence of YTX exposure. This review summarizes the main intracellular pathways modulated by YTX and their pharmacological and therapeutic implications. PMID:26828502

  11. Enzyme therapeutics for systemic detoxification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Lu, Yunfeng

    2015-08-01

    Life relies on numerous biochemical processes working synergistically and correctly. Certain substances disrupt these processes, inducing living organism into an abnormal state termed intoxication. Managing intoxication usually requires interventions, which is referred as detoxification. Decades of development on detoxification reveals the potential of enzymes as ideal therapeutics and antidotes, because their high substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency are essential for clearing intoxicating substances without adverse effects. However, intrinsic shortcomings of enzymes including low stability and high immunogenicity are major hurdles, which could be overcome by delivering enzymes with specially designed nanocarriers. Extensive investigations on protein delivery indicate three types of enzyme-nanocarrier architectures that show more promise than others for systemic detoxification, including liposome-wrapped enzymes, polymer-enzyme conjugates, and polymer-encapsulated enzymes. This review highlights recent advances in these nano-architectures and discusses their applications in systemic detoxifications. Therapeutic potential of various enzymes as well as associated challenges in achieving effective delivery of therapeutic enzymes will also be discussed. PMID:25980935

  12. Therapeutic Strategies in Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the therapeutic strategies, from ordinary classical drugs to the modern molecular strategy at experimental level, for Huntington's disease. The disease is characterized by choreic movements, psychiatric disorders, striatal atrophy with selective small neuronal loss, and autosomal dominant inheritance. The genetic abnormality is CAG expansion in huntingtin gene. Mutant huntingtin with abnormally long glutamine stretch aggregates and forms intranuclear inclusions. In this review, I summarize the results of previous trials from the following aspects; 1. symptomatic/palliative therapies including drugs, stereotaxic surgery and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, 2. anti-degenerative therapies including anti-excitotoxicity, reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction and anti-apoptosis, 3. restorative/reparative therapies including neural trophic factors and tissue or stem cell transplantation, and 4. molecular targets in specific and radical therapies including inhibition of truncation of huntingtin, inhibition of aggregate formation, normalization of transcriptional dysregulation, enhancement of autophagic clearance of mutant huntingtin, and specific inhibition of huntingtin expression by sRNAi. Although the strategies mentioned in the latter two categories are mostly at laboratory level at present, we are pleased that one can discuss such "therapeutic strategies", a matter absolutely impossible before the causal gene of Huntington's disease was identified more than 10 years ago. It is also true, however, that some of the "therapeutic strategies" mentioned here would be found difficult to implement and abandoned in the future. PMID:20396523

  13. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, David Sherman

    2012-12-31

    A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic, i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.

  14. Therapeutic Applications of Carbon Monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Knauert, Melissa; Vangala, Sandeep; Haslip, Maria; Lee, Patty J.

    2013-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a regulated enzyme induced in multiple stress states. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of HO catalysis of heme. In many circumstances, CO appears to functionally replace HO-1, and CO is known to have endogenous anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antiproliferative effects. CO is well studied in anoxia-reoxygenation and ischemia-reperfusion models and has advanced to phase II trials for treatment of several clinical entities. In alternative injury models, laboratories have used sepsis, acute lung injury, and systemic inflammatory challenges to assess the ability of CO to rescue cells, organs, and organisms. Hopefully, the research supporting the protective effects of CO in animal models will translate into therapeutic benefits for patients. Preclinical studies of CO are now moving towards more complex damage models that reflect polymicrobial sepsis or two-step injuries, such as sepsis complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, co-treatment and post-treatment with CO are being explored in which the insult occurs before there is an opportunity to intervene therapeutically. The aim of this review is to discuss the potential therapeutic implications of CO with a focus on lung injury and sepsis-related models. PMID:24648866

  15. Conotoxins that confer therapeutic possibilities.

    PubMed

    Essack, Magbubah; Bajic, Vladimir B; Archer, John A C

    2012-06-01

    Cone snails produce a distinctive repertoire of venom peptides that are used both as a defense mechanism and also to facilitate the immobilization and digestion of prey. These peptides target a wide variety of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, which make them an invaluable resource for studying the properties of these ion channels in normal and diseased states, as well as being a collection of compounds of potential pharmacological use in their own right. Examples include the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pharmaceutical drug, Ziconotide (Prialt(®); Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) that is the synthetic equivalent of the naturally occurring ω-conotoxin MVIIA, whilst several other conotoxins are currently being used as standard research tools and screened as potential therapeutic drugs in pre-clinical or clinical trials. These developments highlight the importance of driving conotoxin-related research. A PubMed query from 1 January 2007 to 31 August 2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the collation of 98 recently identified conotoxins with therapeutic potential which are selectively discussed in this review. Protein sequence similarity analysis tentatively assigned uncharacterized conotoxins to predicted functional classes. Furthermore, conotoxin therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative disorders (NDD) was also inferred. PMID:22822370

  16. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS, A.J.

    2006-09-29

    Treatment of waste streams containing radionuclides, the remediation of contaminated materials, soils, and water, and the safe and economical disposal of radionuclides and toxic metals containing wastes is a major concern. Radionuclides may exist in various oxidation states and may be present as oxide, coprecipitates, inorganic, and organic complexes depending on the process and waste stream. Unlike organic contaminants, the metals cannot be destroyed, but must either be converted to a stable form or removed. Microorganisms present in the natural environment play a major role in the mobilization and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metals by direct enzymatic or indirect non-enzymatic actions and could affect the chemical nature of the radionuclides by altering the speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of microbiological transformations of various chemical forms of uranium present in wastes and contaminated soils and water has led to the development of novel bioremediation processes. One process uses anaerobic bacteria to stabilize the radionuclides by reductive precipitation from higher to lower oxidation state with a concurrent reduction in volume due to the dissolution and removal of nontoxic elements from the waste matrix. In an another process, uranium and other toxic metals are removed from contaminated surfaces, soils, and wastes by extracting with the chelating agent citric acid. Uranium is recovered from the citric acid extract after biodegradation followed by photodegradation in a concentrated form as UO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O for recycling or appropriate disposal. These processes use all naturally occurring materials, common soil bacteria, naturally occurring organic compound citric acid and sunlight.

  17. Comparison of short-lived high-LET alpha-emitting radionuclides lead-212 and bismuth-212 to low-LET X-rays on ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rotmensch, J; Atcher, R W; Hines, J; Toohill, M; Herbst, A L

    1989-12-01

    We are investigating the potential use of short-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides for the treatment of ovarian carcinoma. These radionuclides transfer dense high ionizing linear energy (high LET) over a short path length without dependence upon cellular oxygen. The alpha-emitting radionuclides chosen were lead-212 and bismuth-212 which are readily available. The radiosensitivities of two ovarian carcinoma cell lines (OVC-1 and OVC-2) was greater with 212Pb and 212Bi than with X-ray therapy. D0, inversely related to the radiosensitivity, was 155 and 240 rads for OVC-1 and OVC-2, respectively. With 212Pb or 212Bi, the slope of the survival curves was steeper. The D0 was 75 and 70 rads after 212Pb and 85 and 95 rads after 212Bi treatment for OVC-1 and OVC-2, respectively. The relative biological effectiveness with alpha irradiation was two to four times greater than with X rays. Unlike low-LET irradiation (i.e., X rays and gamma emitters) the cells had no ability to accumulate or repair sublethal damage. From these experiments it is concluded that a greater therapeutic advantage may be gained with alpha-emitting radionuclides than X rays. Further development of these nuclides may provide for a new form of therapy. PMID:2599463

  18. ¹¹¹In-DTPA⁰-octreotide (Octreoscan), ¹³¹I-MIBG and other agents for radionuclide therapy of NETs.

    PubMed

    Bomanji, Jamshed B; Papathanasiou, Nikolaos D

    2012-02-01

    This paper is a critical review of the literature on NET radionuclide therapy with (111)In-DTPA(0)-octreotide (Octreoscan) and (131)I-MIBG, focusing on efficacy and toxicity. Some potential future applications and new candidate therapeutic agents are also mentioned. Octreoscan has been a pioneering agent for somatostatin receptor radionuclide therapy. It has achieved symptomatic responses and disease stabilization, but it is now outperformed by the corresponding β-emitter agents (177)Lu-DOTATATE and (90)Y-DOTATOC. (131)I-MIBG is the radionuclide therapy of choice for inoperable or metastatic phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas, which avidly concentrate this tracer via the noradrenaline transporter. Symptomatic, biochemical and tumour morphological response rates of 50-89%, 45-74% and 27-47%, respectively, have been reported. (131)I-MIBG is a second-line radiopharmaceutical for treatment of enterochromaffin carcinoids, mainly offering the benefit of amelioration of hormone-induced symptoms. High specific activity, non-carrier-added (131)I-MIBG and meta-astato((211)At)-benzylguanidine (MABG) are tracers with potential for enhanced therapeutic efficacy, yet their integration into clinical practice awaits further exploration. Amongst other promising agents, radiolabelled exendin analogues show potential for imaging and possibly therapy of insulinomas, while preclinical studies are currently evaluating DOTA peptides targeting the CCK-2/gastrin receptors that are overexpressed by medullary thyroid carcinoma cells. PMID:22388626

  19. Neonatal Encephalopathy: Update on Therapeutic Hypothermia and Other Novel Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    McAdams, Ryan M; Juul, Sandra E

    2016-09-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is standard treatment for newborns at 36 weeks of gestation or greater with intrapartum hypoxia-related NE. Term and late preterm infants with moderate to severe encephalopathy show improved survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months of age after TH. TH can increase survival without increasing major disability, rates of an IQ less than 70, or cerebral palsy. Neonates with severe NE remain at risk of death or severe neurodevelopmental impairment. This review discusses the evidence supporting TH for term or near term neonates with NE. PMID:27524449

  20. REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES IN DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8)

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.; Bannochie, C.

    2011-12-20

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that the waste producer 'shall report the curie inventory of radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115.' As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type all radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and contribute greater than 0.01 percent of the total curie inventory from the time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial list of radionuclides to be reported is based on the design-basis glass identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report. However, it is required that the list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the 'greater than 0.01% of the curie inventory' criterion. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, and U-238; and Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete list of reportable radionuclides must also include these sets of U and Pu isotopes - and the U and Pu isotopic mass distributions must be identified. The DWPF receives HLW sludge slurry from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 40. For Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), the waste in Tank 40 contained a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) material transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. This sludge blend is also referred to as Macrobatch 8. Laboratory analyses of a Tank 40 sludge sample were performed to quantify the concentrations of pertinent radionuclides in the SB7a waste. Subsequently, radiological decay and in

  1. Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, Bradley J.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Schmidtlein, Charles R.; Pentlow, Keith S.; Humm, John L.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

  2. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7,255 ± 285 Bq kg(-1), mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (<1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, (210)Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 m Bq m(-3), while in smoke-free air (210)Po concentration was about 30 μ Bq m(-3). The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from (210)Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of (210)Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. PMID:24295758

  3. Quantitative modeling of Cerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Bradley J; Thorek, Daniel L J; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Pentlow, Keith S; Humm, John L; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

  4. Bioremediation: a genuine technology to remediate radionuclides from the environment

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Dhan; Gabani, Prashant; Chandel, Anuj K; Ronen, Zeev; Singh, Om V

    2013-01-01

    Summary Radionuclides in the environment are a major human and environmental health concern. Like the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 is once again causing damage to the environment: a large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated and dumped into the environment, and if the general population is exposed to it, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Bioremediation has been viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to environmentally destructive physical remediation. Microorganisms carry endogenous genetic, biochemical and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for pollutant remediation in soil and groundwater. Attempts have been made to develop native or genetically engineered (GE) microbes for the remediation of environmental contaminants including radionuclides. Microorganism-mediated bioremediation can affect the solubility, bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides. Therefore, we aim to unveil the microbial-mediated mechanisms for biotransformation of radionuclides under various environmental conditions as developing strategies for waste management of radionuclides. A discussion follows of ‘-omics’-integrated genomics and proteomics technologies, which can be used to trace the genes and proteins of interest in a given microorganism towards a cell-free bioremediation strategy. PMID:23617701

  5. A comparison of the dose from natural radionuclides and artificial radionuclides after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Iwaoka, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the evacuees from Namie Town still cannot reside in the town, and some continue to live in temporary housing units. In this study, the radon activity concentrations were measured at temporary housing facilities, apartments and detached houses in Fukushima Prefecture in order to estimate the annual internal exposure dose of residents. A passive radon–thoron monitor (using a CR-39) and a pulse-type ionization chamber were used to evaluate the radon activity concentration. The average radon activity concentrations at temporary housing units, including a medical clinic, apartments and detached houses, were 5, 7 and 9 Bq m−3, respectively. Assuming the residents lived in these facilities for one year, the average annual effective doses due to indoor radon in each housing type were evaluated as 0.18, 0.22 and 0.29 mSv, respectively. The average effective doses to all residents in Fukushima Prefecture due to natural and artificial sources were estimated using the results of the indoor radon measurements and published data. The average effective dose due to natural sources for the evacuees from Namie Town was estimated to be 1.9 mSv. In comparison, for the first year after the FDNPP accident, the average effective dose for the evacuees due to artificial sources from the accident was 5.0 mSv. Although residents' internal and external exposures due to natural radionuclides cannot be avoided, it might be possible to lower external exposure due to the artificial radionuclides by changing some behaviors of residents. PMID:26838130

  6. A comparison of the dose from natural radionuclides and artificial radionuclides after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Iwaoka, Kazuki

    2016-07-01

    Due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the evacuees from Namie Town still cannot reside in the town, and some continue to live in temporary housing units. In this study, the radon activity concentrations were measured at temporary housing facilities, apartments and detached houses in Fukushima Prefecture in order to estimate the annual internal exposure dose of residents. A passive radon-thoron monitor (using a CR-39) and a pulse-type ionization chamber were used to evaluate the radon activity concentration. The average radon activity concentrations at temporary housing units, including a medical clinic, apartments and detached houses, were 5, 7 and 9 Bq m(-3), respectively. Assuming the residents lived in these facilities for one year, the average annual effective doses due to indoor radon in each housing type were evaluated as 0.18, 0.22 and 0.29 mSv, respectively. The average effective doses to all residents in Fukushima Prefecture due to natural and artificial sources were estimated using the results of the indoor radon measurements and published data. The average effective dose due to natural sources for the evacuees from Namie Town was estimated to be 1.9 mSv. In comparison, for the first year after the FDNPP accident, the average effective dose for the evacuees due to artificial sources from the accident was 5.0 mSv. Although residents' internal and external exposures due to natural radionuclides cannot be avoided, it might be possible to lower external exposure due to the artificial radionuclides by changing some behaviors of residents. PMID:26838130

  7. Novel anticancer therapeutics targeting telomerase.

    PubMed

    Ruden, Maria; Puri, Neelu

    2013-08-01

    Telomeres are protective caps at the ends of human chromosomes. Telomeres shorten with each successive cell division in normal human cells whereas, in tumors, they are continuously elongated by human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Telomerase is overexpressed in 80-95% of cancers and is present in very low levels or is almost undetectable in normal cells. Because telomerase plays a pivotal role in cancer cell growth it may serve as an ideal target for anticancer therapeutics. Inhibition of telomerase may lead to a decrease of telomere length resulting in cell senescence and apoptosis in telomerase positive tumors. Several strategies of telomerase inhibition are reviewed, including small molecule inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides, immunotherapies and gene therapies, targeting the hTERT or the ribonucleoprotein subunit hTER. G-quadruplex stabilizers, tankyrase and HSP90 inhibitors targeting telomere and telomerase assembly, and T-oligo approach are also covered. Based on this review, the most promising current telomerase targeting therapeutics are the antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor GRN163L and immunotherapies that use dendritic cells (GRVAC1), hTERT peptide (GV1001) or cryptic peptides (Vx-001). Most of these agents have entered phase I and II clinical trials in patients with various tumors, and have shown good response rates as evidenced by a reduction in tumor cell growth, increased overall disease survival, disease stabilization in advanced staged tumors and complete/partial responses. Most therapeutics have shown to be more effective when used in combination with standard therapies, resulting in concomitant telomere shortening and tumor mass shrinkage, as well as preventing tumor relapse and resistance to single agent therapy. PMID:22841437

  8. [Therapeutic update in cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Durupt, S; Nove Josserand, R; Durieu, I

    2014-06-01

    We present the recent therapeutic advances in the cystic fibrosis care. It concerns improvements in symptomatic treatment with the development of dry powder inhaled antibiotics that improved quality of life, and innovative treatments namely the modulators of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane protein conductance regulator (CFTR), molecules which act specifically at the level of the defective mechanisms implied in the disease. The life expectancy of cystic fibrosis patients born after 2000, is estimated now to be about 50 years. This improvement of survival was obtained with the organization of the care within the specialized centers for cystic fibrosis (Centre de ressource et de compétences de la mucoviscidose) and remains still based on heavy symptomatic treatments. Dry powder inhaled antibiotics constitute a significant time saving for patients to whom all the care can achieve two hours daily. Since 2012, the modulators of CFTR, molecules allowing a pharmacological approach targeted according to the type of the mutations, allows a more specific approach of the disease. Ivacaftor (Kalydeco(®)) which potentialises the function of the CFTR protein expressed on the cellular surface is now available for patients with the G551D mutation. Lumacaftor is going to be tested in association with ivacaftor in patients with the F508del mutation, that is present in at least 75% of the patients. The ataluren which allows the production of a functional protein CFTR in patients with a no sense mutation is the third representing of this new therapeutic class. We presently have numerous symptomatic treatments for the cystic fibrosis care. The development of CFTR modulators, today available to a restricted number of patients treated with ivacaftor represents a very promising therapeutic avenue. It will represent probably the first step to a personalized treatment according to CFTR genotype. PMID:24309546

  9. Milestones in Parkinson's disease therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rascol, Olivier; Lozano, Andres; Stern, Matthew; Poewe, Werner

    2011-05-01

    In the mid-1980s, the treatment of Parkinson's disease was quite exclusively centered on dopatherapy and was focusing on dopamine systems and motor symptoms. A few dopamine agonists and a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor (selegiline) were used as adjuncts in advanced Parkinson's disease. In the early 2010s, levodopa remains the gold standard. New insights into the organization of the basal ganglia paved the way for deep brain stimulation, especially of the subthalamic nucleus, providing spectacular improvement of drug-refractory levodopa-induced motor complications. Novel dopamine agonists (pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine), catecholmethyltransferase inhibitors (entacapone), and monoamine oxidase B inhibitors (rasagiline) have also been developed to provide more continuous oral delivery of dopaminergic stimulation in order to improve motor outcomes. Using dopamine agonists early, before levodopa, proved to delay the onset of dyskinesia, although this is achieved at the price of potentially disabling daytime somnolence or impulse control disorders. The demonstration of an antidyskinetic effect of the glutamate antagonist amantadine opened the door for novel nondopaminergic approaches of Parkinson's disease therapy. More recently, nonmotor symptoms (depression, dementia, and psychosis) have been the focus of the first randomized controlled trials in this field. Despite therapeutic advances, Parkinson's disease continues to be a relentlessly progressive disorder leading to severe disability. Neuroprotective interventions able to modify the progression of Parkinson's disease have stood out as a failed therapeutic goal over the last 2 decades, despite potentially encouraging results with compounds like rasagiline. Newer molecular targets, new animal models, novel clinical trial designs, and biomarkers to assess disease modification have created hope for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:21626552

  10. Glycan analysis of therapeutic glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are glycoproteins produced by living cell systems. The glycan moieties attached to the proteins can directly affect protein stability, bioactivity, and immunogenicity. Therefore, glycan variants of a glycoprotein product must be adequately analyzed and controlled to ensure product quality. However, the inherent complexity of protein glycosylation poses a daunting analytical challenge. This review provides an update of recent advances in glycan analysis, including the potential utility of lectin-based microarray for high throughput glycan profiling. Emphasis is placed on comparison of the major types of analytics for use in determining unique glycan features such as glycosylation site, glycan structure, and content. PMID:26599345

  11. Therapeutic embolization: enhanced radiolabeled monitoring.

    PubMed

    duCret, R P; Adkins, M C; Hunter, D W; Yedlicka, J W; Engeler, C M; Castaneda-Zuniga, W R; Amplatz, K; Sirr, S A; Boudreau, R J; Kuni, C C

    1990-11-01

    Radiolabeling of Ivalon (polyvinyl alcohol sponge) particles permits localization of injected particles during embolization through the use of a portable gamma camera and provides a means to prevent potentially fatal complications such as pulmonary embolization. A more efficient technique of labeling Ivalon particles with technetium-99m sulfur colloid was developed. An increase in labeling efficiency allowed more accurate determination of the distribution of injected Ivalon particles. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the stability of the Ivalon particles during this new labeling process. Two patients with arteriovenous malformations underwent therapeutic embolization with radiolabeled Ivalon particles; gamma camera imaging of the lesion and chest was performed throughout the procedure. PMID:2217800

  12. Approaches for Therapeutic Temperature Management.

    PubMed

    Olson, DaiWai M; Hoffman, Jo

    2016-01-01

    In concert with an evolution toward an increased awareness of the need to tightly manage temperature, the methods used to monitor and manipulate temperature have evolved from mercury-filled glass thermometers, alcohol baths, and ice packs into a high technology-driven multidisciplinary activity. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of the historical development of temperature management and the primary tenets of each of the 3 phases (induction, maintenance, and rewarming), which are now recognized as crucial steps to ensure the safe practice of therapeutic temperature management. PMID:26714116

  13. The therapeutic monoclonal antibody market

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, Dawn M; Jones, Susan Dana; Levine, Howard L

    2015-01-01

    Since the commercialization of the first therapeutic monoclonal antibody product in 1986, this class of biopharmaceutical products has grown significantly so that, as of November 10, 2014, forty-seven monoclonal antibody products have been approved in the US or Europe for the treatment of a variety of diseases, and many of these products have also been approved for other global markets. At the current approval rate of ∼ four new products per year, ∼70 monoclonal antibody products will be on the market by 2020, and combined world-wide sales will be nearly $125 billion. PMID:25529996

  14. Fibromyalgia syndrome: novel therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Ablin, Jacob N; Häuser, Winfried

    2016-05-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread pain and tenderness, accompanied by disturbed sleep, chronic fatigue and multiple additional functional symptoms. FMS continues to pose an unmet need regarding pharmacological treatment and many patients fail to achieve sufficient relief from existing treatments. As FMS is considered to be a condition in which pain amplification occurs within the CNS, therapeutic interventions, both pharmacological and otherwise, have revolved around attempts to influence pain processing in the CNS. In the current review, we present an update on novel targets in the search for effective treatment of FMS. PMID:27296699

  15. Enactments in Psychoanalysis: Therapeutic Benefits.

    PubMed

    Stern, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic benefits of enactments are addressed. Relevant literature reveals disparate conceptions about the nature and use of enactments. Clarification of the term is discussed. This analyst's theoretical and technical evolution is addressed; it is inextricably related to using enactments. How can it not be? A taxonomy of enactments is presented. The article considers that enactments may be fundamental in the evolution from orthodox to contemporary analytic technique. Assumptions underlying enactments are explored, as are guidelines for using enactments. Finally, the article posits that enactments have widened the scope of analysis and contributed to its vitality. PMID:27200466

  16. Bioengineering Lantibiotics for Therapeutic Success

    PubMed Central

    Field, Des; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Several examples of highly modified antimicrobial peptides have been described. While many such peptides are non-ribosomally synthesized, ribosomally synthesized equivalents are being discovered with increased frequency. Of the latter group, the lantibiotics continue to attract most attention. In the present review, we discuss the implementation of in vivo and in vitro engineering systems to alter, and even enhance, the antimicrobial activity, antibacterial spectrum and physico-chemical properties, including heat stability, solubility, diffusion and protease resistance, of these compounds. Additionally, we discuss the potential applications of these lantibiotics for use as therapeutics. PMID:26640466

  17. Therapeutic Applications of Ionizing Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Santos, María Elena

    The aim of radiation therapy is to deliver a precisely measured dose of radiation to a defined tumour volume with minimal damage to the surrounding healthy tissue, resulting in the eradication of the tumour, a higher quality of life with palliation of symptoms of the disease, and the prolongation of survival at competitive cost. Together with surgery and pharmacology, radiotherapy is presently one of the most important therapeutical weapons against cancer. This chapter provides an overview of the clinical use of radiation, with emphasis on the optimisation of treatment planning and delivery, and a top level summary of state-of-the-art techniques in radiation therapy.

  18. REPORT FOR COMMERCIAL GRADE NICKEL CHARACTERIZATION AND BENCHMARKING

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-20

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, has completed the collection, sample analysis, and review of analytical results to benchmark the concentrations of gross alpha-emitting radionuclides, gross beta-emitting radionuclides, and technetium-99 in commercial grade nickel. This report presents methods, change management, observations, and statistical analysis of materials procured from sellers representing nine countries on four continents. The data suggest there is a low probability of detecting alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in commercial nickel. Technetium-99 was not detected in any samples, thus suggesting it is not present in commercial nickel.

  19. EXETRA Perspectives: Concepts in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L.; Edginton, Christopher R.

    Fifteen papers address issues in therapeutic recreation for disabled persons from the perspectives of practitioners, educators, and students. The following papers are presented. "Therapeutic Recreation Service: The Past and Challenging Present" (H. Sessoms); "Therapeutic Recreatiion in an Era of Limits: A Crisis...A Challenge... An Opportunity"…

  20. Recent research involving the transfer of radionuclides to milk

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The radionuclides in milk, which result from exposure of dairy cows to radioactive fallout, are a major factor in assessment of internal radiation of humans. To evaluate the radionuclide intake of people from fallout-contaminated milk requires information about feed sources and milk distribution. Pasture intake and the shelf-life of milk are important factors in the case of a short-lived radionuclide like /sup 131/I. Large-scale human radiation assessment studies are underway, all of which consider the dairy food chain as a critical component. These include retrospective studies of fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada site in the 1950s and the impact of the Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986.

  1. Radionuclide bone scanning in subtalar coalitions: differential considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, A.B.; Pavlov, H.; Schneider, R.

    1982-03-01

    The radionuclide bone scan is a noninvasive screening procedure which can help in identifying or confirming subtalar coalitions in patients with foot and/or ankle pain of unknown origin in whom routine plain film studies are inconclusive. Five patients (seven symptomatic feet) with clinical and plain film findings suggesting a subtalar coalition are presented. The radionuclide bone scans in four patients (six feet) with documented subtalar coalitions demonstrated augmented uptake in the subtalar joint in all six feet and a secondary area of augmented concentration in the superior aspect of the talus or talonavicular joint in five feet. The radionuclide bone scan was normal in the one patient who was later proved not to have a coalition. The scans of 100 patients with foot pain of other etiologies were reviewed, and in no instance did the scan demonstrate the combination of subtalar and talus or talonavicular uptake observed in the patients with coalitions.

  2. Radionuclide analyses of Saskatchewan caribou, 1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    Lichens, the main winter forage for caribou, adsorb radionuclides from air more efficiently than other plants. Caribou, in turn, are the main dietary staple for northern Saskatchewan residents. Uranium mining in the Wollaston Lake area of northern Saskatchewan has prompted a need to assess environmental impacts on both human and non-human biota in the area. The presence of caribou in the Wollaston Lake area in early 1995 allowed measurement of uranium and its decay products in these animals while on winter range relatively close to uranium mines. This report presents results of analyses of radionuclide levels in a variety of tissues from 18 caribou collected from the area in March 1995. Data are used to describe food chain transfer from rumen contents to caribou, and are compared with previous data on caribou in the Northwest Territories. The radionuclides investigated included uranium, radium-226, polonium-210, lead-210, and gamma emitters.

  3. Clinical Brain Death with False Positive Radionuclide Cerebral Perfusion Scans

    PubMed Central

    Venkatram, Sindhaghatta; Bughio, Sara; Diaz-Fuentes, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    Practice guidelines from the American Academy of Neurology for the determination of brain death in adults define brain death as “the irreversible loss of function of the brain, including the brainstem.” Neurological determination of brain death is primarily based on clinical examination; if clinical criteria are met, a definitive confirmatory test is indicated. The apnea test remains the gold standard for confirmation. In patients with factors that confound the clinical determination or when apnea tests cannot safely be performed, an ancillary test is required to confirm brain death. Confirmatory ancillary tests for brain death include (a) tests of electrical activity (electroencephalography (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials) and (b) radiologic examinations of blood flow (contrast angiography, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), and radionuclide methods). Of these, however, radionuclide studies are used most commonly. Here we present data from two patients with a false positive Radionuclide Cerebral Perfusion Scan (RCPS). PMID:26167307

  4. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  5. Distribution of artificial radionuclides in lacustrine sediments in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengchang; Zheng, Jian; Liao, Haiqing; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2011-07-01

    Establishing accurate historical records of the distribution, inventory and source of artificial radionuclides in the environment is important for environmental monitoring and radiological health protection due to their potential toxicity, and is also useful for identification and risk assessment of possible future environmental inputs of radionuclides from nuclear weapons tests and accidental release from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities or nuclear power reactors. A sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was used to study the recent sedimentation of Pu isotopes in 11 lakes in China. The distribution of (137)Cs was investigated using the conventional radiometric analytical methods. Based on the isotopic compositions of Pu and the activity ratio of (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu, the sources of artificial radionuclides were identified. The potential applications of Pu isotopes for sediment dating and for regional and global environmental change studies were discussed. PMID:21498412

  6. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  7. Geomorphic control of radionuclide diffusion in desert soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelletier, J.D.; Harrington, C.D.; Whitney, J.W.; Cline, M.; DeLong, S.B.; Keating, G.; Ebert, T.K.

    2005-01-01

    Diffusion is a standard model for the vertical migration of radionuclides in soil profiles. Here we show that diffusivity values inferred from fallout 137CS profiles in soils on the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan, Nye County, Nevada, have a strong inverse correlation with the age of the geomorphic surface. This result suggests that radionuclide-bound particles are predominantly transported by infiltration rather than by bulk-mixing processes such as wetting/ drying, freeze/thaw, and bioturbation. Our results provide a preliminary basis for using soil-geomorphic mapping, point-based calibration data, and the diffusion model to predict radionuclide trans desert soils within a pedotransfer-function approach. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Radionuclide migration analysis using a discrete fracture network model

    SciTech Connect

    Ijiri, Y.; Sawada, A.; Webb, E.K.; Watari, S.; Hatanaka, K.; Uchida, M.; Ishiguro, K.; Umeki, H.; Dershowitz, W.S.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes an approach for assessing the geosphere performance of nuclear waste disposal in fractured rock. In this approach, a three-dimensional heterogeneous channel-network model is constructed using a stochastic discrete fracture network (DFN) code. Radionuclide migration in the channel-network model is solved using the Laplace transform Galerkin finite element method, taking into account advection-dispersion in a fracture network, matrix diffusion, sorption in the rock matrix as well as radioactive chain decay. Preliminary radionuclide migration analysis was performed for fifty realizations of a synthetic block-scale DFN model. The total radionuclide release from all packages in the repository was estimated from the statistics of the results of fifty realizations under the hypothesis of ergodicity. The interpretation of the result of the three-dimensional network model by a combination of simpler one-dimensional parallel plate models is also discussed.

  9. Gastrointestinal fractional absorption of radionuclides in adult domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Fesenko, S

    2009-12-01

    Information has been complied on the fractional absorption of a range of radionuclides by adult domestic ruminants. Critical analysis of these data has enabled the derivation of recommended values for fractional absorption which will form part of the new handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in terrestrial and freshwater environments to be published by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Whilst most data considered were for caesium, strontium and iodine, values for 23 other radionuclides are also given. The recommended fractional absorption values are presented here, together with descriptions of the literature used to derive them. The values for domestic ruminants are compared with those derived by the International Commission for Radiological Protection for adult humans. PMID:19477565

  10. Comparative Measures of Radionuclide Containment in the Crystalline Geophere

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetkovic, V.; Painter, S.; Selroos, J.O.

    2002-11-15

    A probabilistic model for assessing the capacity of a fractured crystalline rock volume to contain radionuclides is developed. The rock volume is viewed as a network of discrete fractures through which radionuclides are transported by flowing water. Diffusive mass transfer between the open fractures and the stagnant water in the pore space of the rock matrix allow radionuclides access to mineral grains where physical and chemical processes - collectively known as sorption - can retain radionuclides. A stochastic Lagrangian framework is adopted to compute the probability that a radionuclide particle will be retained by the rock, i.e., the probability that it will decay before being released from the rock volume. A dimensionless quantity referred to as the 'containment index' is related to this probability and proposed as a suitable measure for comparing different rock volumes; such a comparative measure may be needed, for example, in a site selection program for geological radioactive waste disposal. The probabilistic solution of the transport problem is based on the statistics of two Lagrangian variables: {tau}, the travel time of an imaginary tracer moving with the flowing water, and {beta}, a suitably normalized surface area available for retention. Statistics of {tau} and {beta} may be computed numerically using site-specific discrete fracture network simulations. Fracture data from the well-characterized Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory site in southern Sweden are used to illustrate the implementation of the proposed containment index for six radionuclides ({sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 79}Se). It is found that fractures of small aperture imply prolonged travel times and hence long tails in both beta and tau. This, in turn, enhances retention and is favorable from a safety assessment perspective.

  11. Assessment of the impact of radionuclides in coal ash

    SciTech Connect

    Styron, C.E.; Bishop, C.T.; Casella, V.R.; Jenkins, P.H.; Yanko, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    An assessment of the potential environmental and health impacts of radionuclides in the coal fuel cycle is being conducted at Mound. This paper describes our studies evaluating the potential for migration of radionuclides from ash disposal sites. Studies at a power plant burning western US coal dealt with an assessment of potential radiation doses from coal ash ponds and leachate discharges of radionuclides from the ponds. Emanation of radon-222 from the ash is relatively low. The emanation of radon-222 from the ash pond (radium-226 at 4.5 pCi/g) is predicted to be about six times less than from soil (radium-226 at 1 pCi/g). Ash with radium-226 at 25 pCi/g would approximate emanation of radon-222 from soil. At 1000 m from the center of the ash pond area, radon-222 from the ash pond is predicted to be 1000 to 6000 times less than background (0.1 to 0.5 pCi/liter). Pathways exist for transport of radionuclides leached from ash into the aquifer beneath the holding ponds, but concentrations of radionuclides in water leaving the pond are lower than concentrations in groundwater which is upgradient of the ponds. Leachability of the ash is quite low, on the order of 0.002% in one month, and flow of ash sluicing water (3% of the volume of the ponds each day) has actually diluted normal background concentrations of radionuclides in the aquifer between the ponds and the adjacent river.

  12. [Therapeutic management of craniocervical chordoma].

    PubMed

    Herman, P; Guichard, J P; Marianowski, R; Lot, G; Wassef, M; George, B; Tran Ba Huy, P

    1996-01-01

    Chordomas are rare neoplasms of notochordal origin that arise along the vertebral axis. In the cervicofacial area, they show a marked proclivity for the sphenooccipital region. These slow-growing and infiltrating tumors are often discovered because of neglected symptoms related to the ENT field such as nasal obstruction, snoring, dyspnea or dysphagia in the case of anterior development, serous otitis media, cervical pain, or even palsy of the X, XI, or XII cranial nerves when the tumor develops toward the foramen jugulare or the foramen magnum. Prognosis is usually poor because of local malignancy, proximity to critical central nervous system structures, and volume of the tumor. Surgery is the preferred treatment for these extradural tumors, but most authors recommend postoperative irradiation because of surgical spillage or residual tumor. However, conventional irradiation is limited by the sensitivity of surrounding structures, which results in a poor rate of local control. We present 9 cases of histologically proven diagnosis of chordoma treated from 1984 to 1994 at our institution. Prognosis and therapeutic modalities are discussed. Therapeutic improvement might be brought the protontherapie, which ensures a better local control, and therefore may transform the prognosis of the disease. PMID:8763768

  13. [Therapeutic neuromodulation in primary headaches].

    PubMed

    May, A; Jürgens, T P

    2011-06-01

    Neuromodulatory techniques have developed rapidly in the therapeutic management of refractory headaches. Invasive procedures comprise peripheral nerve stimulation (particularly occipital nerve stimulation), vagus nerve stimulation, cervical spinal cord stimulation and hypothalamic deep brain stimulation. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation are noninvasive variants. Based on current neuroimaging, neurophysiological and clinical studies occipital nerve stimulation and hypothalamic deep brain stimulation are recommended for patients with chronic cluster headache. Less convincing evidence can be found for their use in other refractory headaches such as chronic migraine. No clear recommendation can be given for the other neuromodulatory techniques. The emerging concept of intermittent stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion is nonetheless promising. Robust randomized and sham-controlled multicenter studies are needed before these therapeutic approaches are widely implemented. Due to the experimental nature all patients should be treated in clinical studies. It is essential to confirm the correct headache diagnosis and the refractory nature before an invasive approach is considered. Patients should generally be referred to specialized interdisciplinary outpatient departments which closely collaborate with neurosurgeons who are experienced in the implantation of neuromodulatory devices. It is crucial to ensure a competent postoperative follow-up with optimization of stimulation parameters and adjustment of medication. PMID:20972665

  14. Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Todd H.; Zook, Christina E.; Boettcher, Tara L.; Wick, Scott T.; Pancoast, Jennifer S.; Zusman, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) Activated Caspase Oligomerizer (DRACO) that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing viral dsRNA, rapidly killing infected cells without harming uninfected cells. We have created DRACOs and shown that they are nontoxic in 11 mammalian cell types and effective against 15 different viruses, including dengue flavivirus, Amapari and Tacaribe arenaviruses, Guama bunyavirus, and H1N1 influenza. We have also demonstrated that DRACOs can rescue mice challenged with H1N1 influenza. DRACOs have the potential to be effective therapeutics or prophylactics for numerous clinical and priority viruses, due to the broad-spectrum sensitivity of the dsRNA detection domain, the potent activity of the apoptosis induction domain, and the novel direct linkage between the two which viruses have never encountered. PMID:21818340

  15. Therapeutic targets for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Karl-Erik; Abdel-Hamid, Ibrahim A

    2011-09-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual complaint, and may exert a profound negative impact on the man's life and partnership. Using currently available treatment alternatives (e.g., selective serotonin uptake inhibitor, agents acting locally on the penis), PE can be treated in most, but not all patients. However, since long term success rates have been disappointing, and the only approved treatment so far is the short-acting selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor dapoxetine, there is currently an intensive search for new treatment modalities. Selection of the most promising therapeutic targets from a host of current and potential candidates depends heavily on their roles in the pathophysiology of PE. Possible central nervous targets that will be discussed are serotonin transporters, and CNS receptors for 5-HT(IA) and 5-HT(1B), dopamine, oxytocin, opioids, neurokinin-1, and glutamate. Putative peripheral targets include α(1)-adrenoceptors, phosphodiestrase enzymes, Rho kinases, purinergic (P2X) receptors, and penile sensory nerves. It is clear that exploiting the full therapeutic potential of these targets will require additional basic and clinical research. PMID:21816550

  16. Therapeutic equivalents in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Benson, M D

    2001-01-01

    With increasing debate over the rising expenses of health care, a variety of cost-saving measures has been attempted over the years. Use of primary care physicians as "gate keepers," reduction in the length of hospital stays, and pushing women toward vaginal birth after Cesarean section have all been utilized despite on going issues with patient satisfaction and even safety. One remarkable success in stretching health-care dollars that has often been overlooked is the prescription of therapeutic equivalents, or generic drugs. Although available on a limited basis for decades, off-brand manufacture of pharmaceuticals with identical active ingredients as those of the branded drug received a large boost through Congressional legislation in 1984 with the Hatch-Waxman Act. "Fast-track" FDA approval was initiated by Congress to introduce competition into the marketplace for drugs whose patients had expired. While giving close scrutiny to the manufacturing process and requiring the same level of regulatory supervision for factors such as bioavailability and shelf life, the Hatch-Waxman Act removed the burden and expense from generic manufacturers of proving the safety and efficacy all over again of a previously FDA-approved drug. With less than a 20% market share of all prescribed drugs in 1984, the generic drug industry has captured roughly 44% of the market in recent years while accounting for only 8% of expenditures on prescription medication. The prescription of therapeutic equivalents is one method of keeping health care costs down without compromising patient satisfaction or safety. PMID:11374660

  17. Celecoxib Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Katherine; Neofytou, Evgenios A; Beygui, Ramin E; Zare, Richard N

    2015-09-22

    Controllable induction of blood vessel formation (angiogenesis) presents an important therapeutic goal in ischemic diseases and is also beneficial in various normal physiological processes. In this study, we have shown that nanoparticles of celecoxib, a lipophilic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, effectively evoke therapeutic angiogenesis in animal models, in both normal and ischemic organs. Celecoxib is widely considered to inhibit angiogenesis, although a recent study suggests that it can instead promote blood vessel growth in cancer cell lines. The hydrophobic nature of this drug necessitates its administration in nanoparticulate form in order to elicit a perceivable pharmacological response. We developed a facile method for nanoparticle formation by solvent extraction from microemulsions in supercritical carbon dioxide. This method exploits a spontaneous formation of nanometric domains within the microemulsion system and their rapid conversion to nanoparticles by supercritical fluid. The resultant nanoparticles were administered subcutaneously to mice in a biocompatible hydrogel, and caused a 4-fold increase in blood vessel count in normally perfused skin compared with drug-free particles. They were at least as effective in inducing angiogenesis as nanoparticles of deferoxamine, a well-established neovascularization promoter. Next, we evaluated their effect on ischemic tissues in murine model of myocardial infarction. We found that celecoxib nanoparticles were able to induce a significant vascularization of ischemic myocardium and hamper the progression of heart failure, which points toward a new approach for treating ischemia. PMID:26244654

  18. New therapeutic agents for hypertension

    PubMed Central

    REID, JOHN L.

    1996-01-01

    1Over the last 40 years a range of therapeutic strategies has been introduced for the long term treatment of hypertension. 2Although safe effective agents are available a significant number of patients are unable or unwilling to take these drugs as long term treatment. 3Both insufficient efficacy and adverse effects justify the search for new antihypertensive strategies. 4Recent developments include orally active angiotensin (AT1) receptor antagonists (ARA) which appear to offer the benefits of prevention of angiotensin II effects without the adverse effects of bradykinin potentiation, such as cough, which limit the usefulness of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. 5Imidazoline receptor agonists offer the potential of centrally active antihypertensives without the adverse effects of sedation and dry mouth. Further clinical experience is necessary to confirm whether the clinical efficacy and good tolerability are confirmed with long term use. 6Both ARA and imidazoline preferring substances offer the bonus of a desirable haemodynamic profile in patients with heart failure and may open new therapeutic avenues in the management of cardiac failure. PMID:8807142

  19. Therapeutic Robotics: A Technology Push

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Hermano Igo; Hogan, Neville

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a retrospective and chronological review of our efforts to revolutionize the way physical medicine is practiced by developing and deploying therapeutic robots. We present a sample of our clinical results with well over 300 stroke patients, both inpatients and outpatients, proving that movement therapy has a measurable and significant impact on recovery following brain injury. Bolstered by this result, we embarked on a two-pronged approach: 1) to determine what constitutes best therapy practice and 2) to develop additional therapeutic robots. We review our robots developed over the past 15 years and their unique characteristics. All are configured both to deliver reproducible therapy but also to measure outcomes with minimal encumbrance, thus providing critical measurement tools to help unravel the key question posed under the first prong: what constitutes “best practice”? We believe that a “gym” of robots like these will become a central feature of physical medicine and the rehabilitation clinic within the next ten years. PMID:19779587

  20. Radionuclide releases from natural analogues of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, D.B.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Dixon, P.; Aguilar, R.; Rokop, D.; Cramer, J.

    1993-12-31

    Measures of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 239}Pu and U concentrations in rock samples from uranium deposits at Cigar Lake and Koongarra have been used to study processes of radionuclide release from uranium minerals. Rates of release have been immeasurably slow at Cigar Lake. At Koongarra release rates appear to have been faster, producing small deficiencies of {sup 99}Tc, and larger ones of {sup 129}I. The inferred differences in radionuclide release rates are consistent with expected differences in uranium mineral degradation rates produced by the differing hydrogeochemical environments at the two sites.